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1

Software Vulnerability Taxonomy Consolidation  

SciTech Connect

In today's environment, computers and networks are increasing exposed to a number of software vulnerabilities. Information about these vulnerabilities is collected and disseminated via various large publicly available databases such as BugTraq, OSVDB and ICAT. Each of these databases, individually, do not cover all aspects of a vulnerability and lack a standard format among them, making it difficult for end-users to easily compare various vulnerabilities. A central database of vulnerabilities has not been available until today for a number of reasons, such as the non-uniform methods by which current vulnerability database providers receive information, disagreement over which features of a particular vulnerability are important and how best to present them, and the non-utility of the information presented in many databases. The goal of this software vulnerability taxonomy consolidation project is to address the need for a universally accepted vulnerability taxonomy that classifies vulnerabilities in an unambiguous manner. A consolidated vulnerability database (CVDB) was implemented that coalesces and organizes vulnerability data from disparate data sources. Based on the work done in this paper, there is strong evidence that a consolidated taxonomy encompassing and organizing all relevant data can be achieved. However, three primary obstacles remain: lack of referencing a common ''primary key'', un-structured and free-form descriptions of necessary vulnerability data, and lack of data on all aspects of a vulnerability. This work has only considered data that can be unambiguously extracted from various data sources by straightforward parsers. It is felt that even with the use of more advanced, information mining tools, which can wade through the sea of unstructured vulnerability data, this current integration methodology would still provide repeatable, unambiguous, and exhaustive results. Though the goal of coalescing all available data, which would be of use to system administrators, software developers and vulnerability researchers is not yet achieved, this work has resulted in the most exhaustive collection of vulnerability data to date.

Polepeddi, S

2004-12-08

2

Fleshing out vulnerability.  

PubMed

In the literature on medical ethics, it is generally admitted that vulnerable persons or groups deserve special attention, care or protection. One can define vulnerable persons as those having a greater likelihood of being wronged - that is, of being denied adequate satisfaction of certain legitimate claims. The conjunction of these two points entails what we call the Special Protection Thesis. It asserts that persons with a greater likelihood of being denied adequate satisfaction of their legitimate claims deserve special attention, care or protection. Such a thesis remains vague, however, as long as we do not know what legitimate claims are. This article aims at dispelling this vagueness by exploring what claims we have in relation to health care - thus fleshing out a claim-based conception of vulnerability. We argue that the Special Protection Thesis must be enriched as follows: If individual or group X has a greater likelihood of being denied adequate satisfaction of some of their legitimate claims to (i) physical integrity, (ii) autonomy, (iii) freedom, (iv) social provision, (v) impartial quality of government, (vi) social bases of self-respect or (vii) communal belonging, then X deserves special attention, care or protection. With this improved understanding of vulnerability, vulnerability talk in healthcare ethics can escape vagueness and serve as an adequate basis for practice. PMID:24602115

Tavaglione, Nicolas; Martin, Angela K; Mezger, Nathalie; Durieux-Paillard, Sophie; François, Anne; Jackson, Yves; Hurst, Samia A

2015-02-01

3

Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan describes the Department of Energy`s response to the vulnerabilities identified in the Plutonium Working Group Report which are a result of the cessation of nuclear weapons production. The responses contained in this document are only part of an overall, coordinated approach designed to enable the Department to accelerate conversion of all nuclear materials, including plutonium, to forms suitable for safe, interim storage. The overall actions being taken are discussed in detail in the Department`s Implementation Plan in response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-1. This is included as Attachment B.

NONE

1995-03-01

4

The Strength of Vulnerability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many aspects of our work with at-risk children are spiritual by nature. A whole generation of at-risk children are crying out and asking hard questions. Although we certainly will not have all the answers, a shared experience of the very vulnerability of our human condition can turn this into a strength for us and our children. The authors propose…

Gilliam, Bobby; Franklin, John Travis

2004-01-01

5

Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

Schuckit, Marc A.

1987-01-01

6

Multiple vulnerabilities in SNMP  

Microsoft Academic Search

For more than a decade, many network administrators have relied on SNMP, the Simple Network Management Protocol, to monitor and manage network devices. Now in its third release, SNMP has become the de facto standard for network management since its development in 1987. However, a recent report from the computer security watchdog CERT Coordination Center indicates that vulnerabilities in many

G. Jiang

2002-01-01

7

HEPA Filter Vulnerability Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This assessment of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter vulnerability was requested by the USDOE Office of River Protection (ORP) to satisfy a DOE-HQ directive to evaluate the effect of filter degradation on the facility authorization basis assumptions. Within the scope of this assessment are ventilation system HEPA filters that are classified as Safety-Class (SC) or Safety-Significant (SS) components that perform an accident mitigation function. The objective of the assessment is to verify whether HEPA filters that perform a safety function during an accident are likely to perform as intended to limit release of hazardous or radioactive materials, considering factors that could degrade the filters. Filter degradation factors considered include aging, wetting of filters, exposure to high temperature, exposure to corrosive or reactive chemicals, and exposure to radiation. Screening and evaluation criteria were developed by a site-wide group of HVAC engineers and HEPA filter experts from published empirical data. For River Protection Project (RPP) filters, the only degradation factor that exceeded the screening threshold was for filter aging. Subsequent evaluation of the effect of filter aging on the filter strength was conducted, and the results were compared with required performance to meet the conditions assumed in the RPP Authorization Basis (AB). It was found that the reduction in filter strength due to aging does not affect the filter performance requirements as specified in the AB. A portion of the HEPA filter vulnerability assessment is being conducted by the ORP and is not part of the scope of this study. The ORP is conducting an assessment of the existing policies and programs relating to maintenance, testing, and change-out of HEPA filters used for SC/SS service. This document presents the results of a HEPA filter vulnerability assessment conducted for the River protection project as requested by the DOE Office of River Protection.

GUSTAVSON, R.D.

2000-05-11

8

Reducing natural disaster vulnerability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because poor countries are vulnerable to the impact of natural disasters, the U.K. Department for International Development (DFID) launched on 30 March a new policy to better integrate natural disaster risk reduction into development and humanitarian activities. Gareth Thomas, U.K. development minister, said, ``There is nothing we can do to stop hurricanes, tsunamis, and earthquakes from striking. But what we can do is help put simple measures in place, such as better built houses, schools, and hospitals alongside more high-tech early warning systems to reduce the loss of life.''

Zielinski, Sarah

2006-04-01

9

Mushrooming vulnerability to EMP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electromagnetic pulse (EMP) generated by a single thermonuclear bomb detonated above the continental U.S. could set up electrical fields of 50 kV/m over nearly all of North America. Since the progressively microminiaturized integrated circuits of current military and civilian electronics become more vulnerable with decreasing circuit element size, even shield-protected chips can now be destroyed by the substantially shield-dampened EMP pulses. It is noted as a source of special concern that, as nuclear weapons have evolved, the EMP characteristically generated by them has shifted to increasingly shorter wavelengths, requiring significant redesign of EMP shields devised a decade or more ago. The surge arresters currently employed may not react sufficiently rapidly for existing weapons.

Lerner, E. J.

1984-08-01

10

Common Control System Vulnerability  

SciTech Connect

The Control Systems Security Program and other programs within the Idaho National Laboratory have discovered a vulnerability common to control systems in all sectors that allows an attacker to penetrate most control systems, spoof the operator, and gain full control of targeted system elements. This vulnerability has been identified on several systems that have been evaluated at INL, and in each case a 100% success rate of completing the attack paths that lead to full system compromise was observed. Since these systems are employed in multiple critical infrastructure sectors, this vulnerability is deemed common to control systems in all sectors. Modern control systems architectures can be considered analogous to today's information networks, and as such are usually approached by attackers using a common attack methodology to penetrate deeper and deeper into the network. This approach often is composed of several phases, including gaining access to the control network, reconnaissance, profiling of vulnerabilities, launching attacks, escalating privilege, maintaining access, and obscuring or removing information that indicates that an intruder was on the system. With irrefutable proof that an external attack can lead to a compromise of a computing resource on the organization's business local area network (LAN), access to the control network is usually considered the first phase in the attack plan. Once the attacker gains access to the control network through direct connections and/or the business LAN, the second phase of reconnaissance begins with traffic analysis within the control domain. Thus, the communications between the workstations and the field device controllers can be monitored and evaluated, allowing an attacker to capture, analyze, and evaluate the commands sent among the control equipment. Through manipulation of the communication protocols of control systems (a process generally referred to as ''reverse engineering''), an attacker can then map out the control system processes and functions. With the detailed knowledge of how the control data functions, as well as what computers and devices communicate using this data, the attacker can use a well known Man-in-the-Middle attack to perform malicious operations virtually undetected. The control systems assessment teams have used this method to gather enough information about the system to craft an attack that intercepts and changes the information flow between the end devices (controllers) and the human machine interface (HMI and/or workstation). Using this attack, the cyber assessment team has been able to demonstrate complete manipulation of devices in control systems while simultaneously modifying the data flowing back to the operator's console to give false information of the state of the system (known as ''spoofing''). This is a very effective technique for a control system attack because it allows the attacker to manipulate the system and the operator's situational awareness of the perceived system status. The three main elements of this attack technique are: (1) network reconnaissance and data gathering, (2) reverse engineering, and (3) the Man-in-the-Middle attack. The details of this attack technique and the mitigation techniques are discussed.

Trent Nelson

2005-12-01

11

Identifying Frailty Among Vulnerable Populations  

PubMed Central

Frailty is a significant public health issue which is experienced by homeless and other vulnerable adults; to date, a frailty framework has not been proposed to guide researchers who study this hard-to-reach population. The Frailty Framework among Homeless and other Vulnerable Populations (FFHVP) has been developed from empirical research and consultation with frailty experts in an effort to characterize antecedents, i.e. situational, health-related, behavioral, resource, biological, and environmental factors which contribute to physical, psychological and social frailty domains and impact adverse outcomes. As vulnerable populations continue to age, a greater understanding of frailty will enable the development of nursing interventions. PMID:24469090

Salem, Benissa E.; Nyamathi, Adeline; Phillips, Linda R.; Mentes, Janet; Sarkisian, Catherine; Brecht, Lynn

2014-01-01

12

MAPPING CLIMATE CHANGE EXPOSURES, VULNERABILITIES,  

E-print Network

MAPPING CLIMATE CHANGE EXPOSURES, VULNERABILITIES, AND ADAPTATION TO PUBLIC HEALTH RISKS's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012041 Prepared for: California Energy Commission of California. #12; ii ABSTRACT This study reviewed first available frameworks for climate change adaptation

13

Are Vulnerability Disclosure Deadlines Justified?  

SciTech Connect

Vulnerability research organizations Rapid7, Google Security team, and Zero Day Initiative recently imposed grace periods for public disclosure of vulnerabilities. The grace periods ranged from 45 to 182 days, after which disclosure might occur with or without an effective mitigation from the affected software vendor. At this time there is indirect evidence that the shorter grace periods of 45 and 60 days may not be practical. However, there is strong evidence that the recently announced Zero Day Initiative grace period of 182 days yields benefit in speeding up the patch creation process, and may be practical for many software products. Unfortunately, there is also evidence that the 182 day grace period results in more vulnerability announcements without an available patch.

Miles McQueen; Jason L. Wright; Lawrence Wellman

2011-09-01

14

Compounding vulnerability: pregnancy and schizophrenia.  

PubMed

The predominant ethical framework for addressing reproductive decisions in the maternal-fetal relationship is respect for the woman's autonomy. However, when a pregnant schizophrenic woman lacks such autonomy, healthcare providers try to both protect her and respect her preferences. By delineating etic (objective) and emic (subjective) perspectives on vulnerability, I argue that options which balance both perspectives are preferable and that acting on etic perspectives to the exclusion of emic considerations is rarely justified. In negotiating perspectives, we balance the etic commitment to protect the vulnerable patient and her fetus from harm with the emic concern to empower a decisionally incapacitated woman. Equilibrium is best achieved by nurturing interdependent relationships that empower and protect the vulnerable woman. The analysis points to the need for better social support for mentally ill patients. PMID:16500828

Dudzinski, Denise M

2006-01-01

15

Food Chain Security and Vulnerability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our contemporary societies, the food chain could be defined as a macro-technical system, which depends on a wide variety of actors and risks analysis methods. In this contribution, risks related to the food chain are defined in terms of "modern risks" (Beck 1992). The whole national economic sector of food production/distribution is vulnerable to a local accident, which can affect the functioning of food chain, the export programs and even the political system. Such a complex socio-technical environment is undoubtedly vulnerable to intentional act such as terrorism.

Brunet, Sébastien; Delvenne, Pierre; Claisse, Frédéric

16

The Vulnerability of Science and the Science of Vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The events of September 11th shocked the nation and painfully illustrated our vulnerability to international terrorist attacks. Despite some of the most sophisticated models, monitoring systems, and science in the world, officials were unable to anticipate and predict these cascading events. The collective scientific ability to geographically represent environmental threats, map exposures, and map consequences is relatively straightforward when the

Susan L. Cutter

2003-01-01

17

Human Subjects Research with Vulnerable Populationswith Vulnerable Populations  

E-print Network

but a fellow creature in pain." Maimonides (12th Century) "S i i h i i h i f h l ""Science without conscience Research (risks) and benefits #12;Wh i l bl ?Who is vulnerable? · Pregnant women · Racial minoritiesPregnant women · Human fetuses · Neonates Racial minorities · Very sick · Institutionalized · Prisoners

Illinois at Chicago, University of

18

Vulnerabilities of highly gifted children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the unique vulnerabilities of children with extraordinarily advanced intellectual skills, and highlights the differences between highly gifted and moderately gifted children. Problems of uneven development, perfectionism, adult expectations, intense sensitivity, self?definition, alienation, inappropriate environments, and role conflict are explored.

Wendy C. Roedell

1984-01-01

19

Structural Vulnerabilities and Currency Crises  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the role of structural factors - governance and rule of law, corporate sector governance (creditor rights and shareholder rights), corporate financing structure - as well as macroeconomic variables in currency crises. Using a technique known as a binary recursive tree allows for interactions between the various explanatory variables. It is found that structural vulnerabilities play an important

Swati R. Ghosh; Atish R. Ghosh

2003-01-01

20

Structural Vulnerabilities and Currency Crises  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the role of structural factors—governance and rule of law, corporate sector governance (creditor rights and shareholder rights), corporate financing structure—as well as macroeconomic variables in currency crises. Using a technique known as a binary recursive tree allows for interactions between the various explanatory variables. It is found that structural vulnerabilities play an important role in the occurrence

SWATI R. GHOSH; ATISH R. GHOSH

2002-01-01

21

REGIONAL VULNERABILITY: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK  

EPA Science Inventory

Regional vulnerability assessment, or ReVA, is an approach to place-based ecological risk assessment that is currently under development by the Office of Research and Development of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The assessment is done at the scale of EPA region...

22

CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS, VULNERABILITIES, AND  

E-print Network

CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS, VULNERABILITIES, AND ADAPTATION IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012071 Prepared for: California Energy, as well as projections of future changes in climate based on modeling studies using various plausible

23

MID-ATLANTIC REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

ORD's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (REVA) Program is developing and demonstrating approaches to assess current and future environmental vulnerabilities so that risk management activities can be targeted. The sister program to EMA.P (Environmental Monitoring Assessment Progr...

24

Methods for Assessing Vulnerability of Critical  

E-print Network

by delivering capabilities that incorporate social, psychological and economic aspects of societal resilience derived from risk, vulnerability, and resilience assessments and scenario simulations. Vulnerability and resilience are related to risk in that reducing vulnerability will reduce risk and increasing resilience may

McShea, Daniel W.

25

The vulnerable myocardium. Diabetic cardiomyopathy.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in subjects suffering from diabetes mellitus. While coronary artery disease is the leading cause of cardiac complications in diabetics, it is widely recognized that diabetes increases the risk for the development of heart failure independently of coronary heart disease and hypertension. This increased susceptibility of the diabetic heart to develop structural and functional impairment is termed diabetic cardiomyopathy. The number of different mechanisms proposed to contribute to diabetic cardiomyopathy is steadily increasing and underlines the complexity of this cardiac entity. In this review the mechanisms that account for the increased myocardial vulnerability in diabetic cardiomyopathy are discussed. PMID:25408270

Bugger, H; Bode, C

2015-02-10

26

NV: Nessus Vulnerability Visualization for the Web  

SciTech Connect

Network vulnerability is a critical component of network se- curity. Yet vulnerability analysis has received relatively lit- tle attention from the security visualization community. In this paper we describe nv, a web-based Nessus vulnerability visualization. Nv utilizes treemaps and linked histograms to allow system administrators to discover, analyze, and man- age vulnerabilities on their networks. In addition to visual- izing single Nessus scans, nv supports the analysis of sequen- tial scans by showing which vulnerabilities have been fixed, remain open, or are newly discovered. Nv was also designed to operate completely in-browser, to avoid sending sensitive data to outside servers. We discuss the design of nv, as well as provide case studies demonstrating vulnerability analysis workflows which include a multiple-node testbed and data from the 2011 VAST Challenge.

Harrison, Lane [University of North Carolina, Charlotte] [University of North Carolina, Charlotte; Spahn, Riley B [ORNL] [ORNL; Iannacone, Michael D [ORNL] [ORNL; Downing, Evan P [ORNL] [ORNL; Goodall, John R [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01

27

Assessing the Security Vulnerabilities of Correctional Facilities  

SciTech Connect

The National Institute of Justice has tasked their Satellite Facility at Sandia National Laboratories and their Southeast Regional Technology Center in Charleston, South Carolina to devise new procedures and tools for helping correctional facilities to assess their security vulnerabilities. Thus, a team is visiting selected correctional facilities and performing vulnerability assessments. A vulnerability assessment helps to identi~ the easiest paths for inmate escape, for introduction of contraband such as drugs or weapons, for unexpected intrusion fi-om outside of the facility, and for the perpetration of violent acts on other inmates and correctional employees, In addition, the vulnerability assessment helps to quantify the security risks for the facility. From these initial assessments will come better procedures for performing vulnerability assessments in general at other correctional facilities, as well as the development of tools to assist with the performance of such vulnerability assessments.

Morrison, G.S.; Spencer, D.S.

1998-10-27

28

Scenarios for coastal vulnerability assessment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coastal vulnerability assessments tend to focus mainly on climate change and especially on sea-level rise. Assessment of the influence of nonclimatic environmental change or socioeconomic change is less well developed and these drivers are often completely ignored. Given that the most profound coastal changes of the twentieth century due to nonclimate drivers are likely to continue through the twenty-first century, this is a major omission. It may result in not only overstating the importance of climate change but also overlooking significant interactions of climate change and other drivers. To support the development of policies relating to climate change and coastal management, integrated assessments of climatic change in coastal areas are required, including the effects of all the relevant drivers. This chapter explores the development of scenarios (or "plausible futures") of relevant climate and nonclimate drivers that can be used for coastal analysis, with an emphasis on the nonclimate drivers. It shows the importance of analyzing the impacts of climate change and sea-level rise in a broader context of coastal change and all its drivers. This will improve the analysis of impacts, key vulnerabilities, and adaptation needs and, hence, inform climate and coastal policy. Stakeholder engagement is important in the development of scenarios, and the underlying assumptions need to be explicit, transparent, and open to scientific debate concerning their uncertainties/realism and likelihood.

Nicholls, Robert J.; Woodroffe, Colin D.; Burkett, Virginia; Hay, John; Wong, Poh Poh; Nurse, Leonard

2011-01-01

29

Dynamics of immune system vulnerabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adaptive immune system can be viewed as a complex system, which adapts, over time, to reflect the history of infections experienced by the organism. Understanding its operation requires viewing it in terms of tradeoffs under constraints and evolutionary history. It typically displays "robust, yet fragile" behavior, meaning common tasks are robust to small changes but novel threats or changes in environment can have dire consequences. In this dissertation we use mechanistic models to study several biological processes: the immune response, the homeostasis of cells in the lymphatic system, and the process that normally prevents autoreactive cells from entering the lymphatic system. Using these models we then study the effects of these processes interacting. We show that the mechanisms that regulate the numbers of cells in the immune system, in conjunction with the immune response, can act to suppress autoreactive cells from proliferating, thus showing quantitatively how pathogenic infections can suppress autoimmune disease. We also show that over long periods of time this same effect can thin the repertoire of cells that defend against novel threats, leading to an age correlated vulnerability. This vulnerability is shown to be a consequence of system dynamics, not due to degradation of immune system components with age. Finally, modeling a specific tolerance mechanism that normally prevents autoimmune disease, in conjunction with models of the immune response and homeostasis we look at the consequences of the immune system mistakenly incorporating pathogenic molecules into its tolerizing mechanisms. The signature of this dynamic matches closely that of the dengue virus system.

Stromberg, Sean P.

30

ICBM vulnerability: Calculations, predictions, and error bars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) silo vulnerability is reviewed, and the present and probable future (mid-1990s) vulnerability of US silos is analyzed. The analysis emphasizes methodology, sources of information, and uncertainties. US ICBMs might still be survivable today but they will certainly be vulnerable to ICBM attack, and perhaps even to submarine-launched ballistic missile attack, by the mid-1990s.

Art Hobson

1988-01-01

31

Mining Bug Databases for Unidentified Software Vulnerabilities  

SciTech Connect

Identifying software vulnerabilities is becoming more important as critical and sensitive systems increasingly rely on complex software systems. It has been suggested in previous work that some bugs are only identified as vulnerabilities long after the bug has been made public. These vulnerabilities are known as hidden impact vulnerabilities. This paper discusses the feasibility and necessity to mine common publicly available bug databases for vulnerabilities that are yet to be identified. We present bug database analysis of two well known and frequently used software packages, namely Linux kernel and MySQL. It is shown that for both Linux and MySQL, a significant portion of vulnerabilities that were discovered for the time period from January 2006 to April 2011 were hidden impact vulnerabilities. It is also shown that the percentage of hidden impact vulnerabilities has increased in the last two years, for both software packages. We then propose an improved hidden impact vulnerability identification methodology based on text mining bug databases, and conclude by discussing a few potential problems faced by such a classifier.

Dumidu Wijayasekara; Milos Manic; Jason Wright; Miles McQueen

2012-06-01

32

Assessing human vulnerability: Daytime residential distribution as a vulnerability indicator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural hazard risk management is based on detailed information on potential impacts of natural hazards. Especially concerning fast onset hazards such as flash floods, earthquakes but also debris flows and landslides, knowing potential hotspots of impact to both, assets and human lives is essential. This information is important for emergency management and decision making in the response phase of the disaster management cycle. Emergency managers are in need of information regarding not only the number of humans being potentially affected but also the respective vulnerability of the group affected based on characteristics such as age, income, health condition, mobility, etc. regarding a certain hazard. The analysis presented focuses on the distribution of the population, assuming a certain pattern of people in a certain radius of action. The method applied is based on a regular pattern of movement of different groups of people and a pattern of presence in certain units, e.g. schools, businesses or residential buildings. The distribution is calculated on a minimum of available data including the average household size, as well as information on building types. The study area is located in the Southwest of Lower Austria, Austria. The city of Waidhofen/Ybbs can be regarded as a regional center providing basic infrastructure, shops and schools. The high concentration of buildings combining shops and residential units leads to a high damage potential throughout the whole study area. The presented results indicate the population distribution within the study area on an average working day. It is clear that explicitly high numbers of people are located in specific buildings (e.g. schools and hospitals) which also include highly vulnerable groups especially to fast onset hazards. The results provide emergency services with the information that they need in order to intervene directly where large numbers of victims or people that need to be evacuated are located. In this way, emergency services can focus and prioritize their actions in order to save lives and reduce the number of potential victims.

Gokesch, Karin; Promper, Catrin; Papathoma-Köhle, Maria; Glade, Thomas

2014-05-01

33

Proliferation Vulnerability Red Team report  

SciTech Connect

This report is the product of a four-month independent technical assessment of potential proliferation vulnerabilities associated with the plutonium disposition alternatives currently under review by DOE/MD. The scope of this MD-chartered/Sandia-led study was limited to technical considerations that could reduce proliferation resistance during various stages of the disposition processes below the Stored Weapon/Spent Fuel standards. Both overt and covert threats from host nation and unauthorized parties were considered. The results of this study will be integrated with complementary work by others into an overall Nonproliferation and Arms Control Assessment in support of a Secretarial Record of Decision later this year for disposition of surplus U.S. weapons plutonium.

Hinton, J.P.; Barnard, R.W.; Bennett, D.E. [and others

1996-10-01

34

Mapping software faults with web security vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web applications are typically developed with hard time constraints and are often deployed with critical software bugs, making them vulnerable to attacks. The classification and knowledge of the typical software bugs that lead to security vulnerabilities is of utmost importance. This paper presents a field study analyzing 655 security patches of six widely used web applications. Results are compared against

José Fonseca; Marco Vieira

2008-01-01

35

Domestic Political Vulnerability and International Disputes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposition that domestic political vulnerability provides an incentive for leaders to engage in international conflict has been widely accepted because of appealing logic and anecdotal support. Although empirical studies of U.S. behavior during the cold war era have demonstrated some support for a relationship between domestic political vulnerability and aggressive international behavior, the generalizability of these tests should not

Brett Ashley Leeds; David R. Davis

1997-01-01

36

Fragile Networks: Identifying Vulnerabilities and Synergies  

E-print Network

Fragile Networks: Identifying Vulnerabilities and Synergies in an Uncertain Age Anna Nagurney and Acquisitions, Network Integration, and Synergies #12;Part I #12;Why Study Fragile Networks? Networks provide of catastrophic events that have drawn attention to network vulnerability and fragility. Since many networks

Nagurney, Anna

37

Fragile Networks: Identifying Vulnerabilities and Synergies  

E-print Network

Fragile Networks: Identifying Vulnerabilities and Synergies in an Uncertain World Pre and Acquisitions, Network Integration, and Synergies #12;Module I #12;Why Study Fragile Networks? Networks provide of catastrophic events that have drawn attention to network vulnerability and fragility. Since many networks

Nagurney, Anna

38

Fragile Networks: Identifying Vulnerabilities and Synergies  

E-print Network

Fragile Networks: Identifying Vulnerabilities and Synergies in an Uncertain Age Tutorial Anna Integration, and Synergies #12;Part I #12;Why Study Fragile Networks? Networks provide the foundations drawn attention to network vulnerability and fragility. Since many networks that underlie our societies

Nagurney, Anna

39

CIVA: Custom instruction vulnerability analysis framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a methodology for analyzing the vulnerability of custom instructions against the electronic faults, considering different operations and the custom instruction graph topology. Our approach enables designers to optionally constrain the operand types and also the custom functional unit structure to reach an acceptable vulnerability. We have developed a framework to evaluate the desired goal. The presented framework

Ali Azarpeyvand; Mostafa E. Salehi; Seid Mehdi Fakhraie

2012-01-01

40

The Naïve nurse: revisiting vulnerability for nursing  

PubMed Central

Background Nurses in the Western world have given considerable attention to the concept of vulnerability in recent decades. However, nurses have tended to view vulnerability from an individualistic perspective, and have rarely taken into account structural or collective dimensions of the concept. As the need grows for health workers to engage in the global health agenda, nurses must broaden earlier works on vulnerability, noting that conventional conceptualizations and practical applications on the notion of vulnerability warrant extension to include more collective conceptualizations thereby making a more complete understanding of vulnerability in nursing discourse. Discussion The purpose of this paper is to examine nursing contributions to the concept of vulnerability and consider how a broader perspective that includes socio-political dimensions may assist nurses to reach beyond the immediate milieu of the patient into the dominant social, political, and economic structures that produce and sustain vulnerability. Summary By broadening nurse’s conceptualization of vulnerability, nurses can obtain the consciousness needed to move beyond a peripheral role of nursing that has been dominantly situated within institutional settings to contribute in the larger arena of social, economic, political and global affairs. PMID:22520841

2012-01-01

41

Design Vulnerability Assessments for Safeguards Sealing Systems  

SciTech Connect

The International Atomic Energy Agency (the "Agency") engages in a rigorous equipment authorization process prior to deploying Safeguards instrumentation, including Safeguards sealing systems, for world-wide use. A positive result from a vulnerability assessment is one of the many requirements that must be met prior to instrumentation deployment. Given the long time period in the Safeguards instrumentation development cycle, the substantial Member State investments made, and the significant Agency staff time required, a negative result for the vulnerability assessment can result in the loss of time, considerable additional expense, or even the failure to deploy an instrument or sealing system at all. First suggested in 1998 by the General Physics Institute in Moscow, an approach that incorporates a design vulnerability assessment minimizes the risk of deployment failure by teaming a public sector vulnerability assessment team with the instrument or sealing system design team in order to identify, at the earliest possible design stage, inherent vulnerabilities. Involving the vulnerability assessors early and often in the design and development process avoids many of the problems inherent in evaluating security vulnerabilities only after the design is finalized. The disadvantages include increased costs and time to deployment. An improved pressure-sensitive adhesive label seal, called the "VOID-3 seal" was developed for the Agency using this design vulnerability assessment process.

Brockman, Linda; Johnston, Roger; Kravtchenko, Victor; Undem, Halvor A.; Wishard, Bernard

2010-08-11

42

Opportunistic Interruptions: Interactional Vulnerabilities Deriving from Linearization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speaking involves "linearizing" a message into a string of words. This process leaves us vulnerable to being interrupted in such a way that the aborted turn is a misrepresentation of the intended message. Further, because we linearize our messages in standard ways, we are recurrently vulnerable to interruptions at particular turn-construction…

Gibson, David R.

2005-01-01

43

Vulnerability of coastal urban settlements in Jamaica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to examine the issue of vulnerability of coastal urban settlements in Jamaica in the context of rapid urbanization, poverty and institutional incapacity. It also aims to provide a case study that demonstrates the precarious situation faced by the most vulnerable coastal urban communities in Jamaica. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A literature review preceded in-depth but informal interviews

Amani Ishemo

2009-01-01

44

Predicting Vulnerability Risks Using Software Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Software vulnerabilities have been regarded as one of the key reasons for computer security breaches that have resulted in billions of dollars in losses per year (Telang and Wattal 2005). With the growth of the software industry and the Internet, the number of vulnerability attacks and the ease with which an attack can be made have increased. From…

Roumani, Yaman

2012-01-01

45

Infrastructure Vulnerability Assessment Model (I-VAM).  

PubMed

Quantifying vulnerability to critical infrastructure has not been adequately addressed in the literature. Thus, the purpose of this article is to present a model that quantifies vulnerability. Vulnerability is defined as a measure of system susceptibility to threat scenarios. This article asserts that vulnerability is a condition of the system and it can be quantified using the Infrastructure Vulnerability Assessment Model (I-VAM). The model is presented and then applied to a medium-sized clean water system. The model requires subject matter experts (SMEs) to establish value functions and weights, and to assess protection measures of the system. Simulation is used to account for uncertainty in measurement, aggregate expert assessment, and to yield a vulnerability (Omega) density function. Results demonstrate that I-VAM is useful to decisionmakers who prefer quantification to qualitative treatment of vulnerability. I-VAM can be used to quantify vulnerability to other infrastructures, supervisory control and data acquisition systems (SCADA), and distributed control systems (DCS). PMID:17640208

Ezell, Barry Charles

2007-06-01

46

Chemical facility vulnerability assessment project.  

PubMed

Sandia National Laboratories, under the direction of the Office of Science and Technology, National Institute of Justice, conducted the chemical facility vulnerability assessment (CFVA) project. The primary objective of this project was to develop, test and validate a vulnerability assessment methodology (VAM) for determining the security of chemical facilities against terrorist or criminal attacks (VAM-CF). The project also included a report to the Department of Justice for Congress that in addition to describing the VAM-CF also addressed general observations related to security practices, threats and risks at chemical facilities and chemical transport. In the development of the VAM-CF Sandia leveraged the experience gained from the use and development of VAs in other areas and the input from the chemical industry and Federal agencies. The VAM-CF is a systematic, risk-based approach where risk is a function of the severity of consequences of an undesired event, the attack potential, and the likelihood of adversary success in causing the undesired event. For the purpose of the VAM-CF analyses Risk is a function of S, L(A), and L(AS), where S is the severity of consequence of an event, L(A) is the attack potential and L(AS) likelihood of adversary success in causing a catastrophic event. The VAM-CF consists of 13 basic steps. It involves an initial screening step, which helps to identify and prioritize facilities for further analysis. This step is similar to the prioritization approach developed by the American Chemistry Council (ACC). Other steps help to determine the components of the risk equation and ultimately the risk. The VAM-CF process involves identifying the hazardous chemicals and processes at a chemical facility. It helps chemical facilities to focus their attention on the most critical areas. The VAM-CF is not a quantitative analysis but, rather, compares relative security risks. If the risks are deemed too high, recommendations are developed for measures to reduce the risk. This paper will briefly discuss the CFVA project and VAM-CF process. PMID:14602410

Jaeger, Calvin D

2003-11-14

47

Determining Vulnerability Importance in Environmental Impact Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The concept of vulnerability has been used to describe the susceptibility of physical, biotic, and social systems to harm or hazard. In this sense, it is a tool that reduces the uncertainties of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) since it does not depend exclusively on the value assessments of the evaluator, but rather is based on the environmental state indicators of the site where the projects or activities are being carried out. The concept of vulnerability thus reduces the possibility that evaluators will subjectively interpret results, and be influenced by outside interests and pressures during projects. However, up until now, EIA has been hindered by a lack of effective methods. This research study analyzes the concept of vulnerability, defines Vulnerability Importance and proposes its inclusion in qualitative EIA methodology. The method used to quantify Vulnerability Importance is based on a set of environmental factors and indicators that provide a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. The results obtained in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method since there is a direct relation between this value and the environmental state of the departments analyzed. - Research Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The concept of vulnerability could be considered defining Vulnerability Importance included in qualitative EIA methodology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The use of the concept of environmental vulnerability could reduce the subjectivity of qualitative methods of EIA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method to quantify the Vulnerability Importance proposed provides a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method.

Toro, Javier, E-mail: jjtoroca@unal.edu.co [Institute of Environmental Studies, National University of Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Duarte, Oscar, E-mail: ogduartev@unal.edu.co [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, National University of Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Requena, Ignacio, E-mail: requena@decsai.ugr.es [Department of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence, University of Granada (Spain); Zamorano, Montserrat, E-mail: zamorano@ugr.es [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Granada (Spain)

2012-01-15

48

Vulnerability indicators of sea water intrusion.  

PubMed

In this paper, simple indicators of the propensity for sea water intrusion (SWI) to occur (referred to as "SWI vulnerability indicators") are devised. The analysis is based on an existing analytical solution for the steady-state position of a sharp fresh water-salt water interface. Interface characteristics, that is, the wedge toe location and sea water volume, are used in quantifying SWI in both confined and unconfined aquifers. Rates-of-change (partial derivatives of the analytical solution) in the wedge toe or sea water volume are used to quantify the aquifer vulnerability to various stress situations, including (1) sea-level rise; (2) change in recharge (e.g., due to climate change); and (3) change in seaward discharge. A selection of coastal aquifer cases is used to apply the SWI vulnerability indicators, and the proposed methodology produces interpretations of SWI vulnerability that are broadly consistent with more comprehensive investigations. Several inferences regarding SWI vulnerability arise from the analysis, including: (1) sea-level rise impacts are more extensive in aquifers with head-controlled rather than flux-controlled inland boundaries, whereas the opposite is true for recharge change impacts; (2) sea-level rise does not induce SWI in constant-discharge confined aquifers; (3) SWI vulnerability varies depending on the causal factor, and therefore vulnerability composites are needed that differentiate vulnerability to such threats as sea-level rise, climate change, and changes in seaward groundwater discharge. We contend that the approach is an improvement over existing methods for characterizing SWI vulnerability, because the method has theoretical underpinnings and yet calculations are simple, although the coastal aquifer conceptualization is highly idealized. PMID:21434909

Werner, Adrian D; Ward, James D; Morgan, Leanne K; Simmons, Craig T; Robinson, Neville I; Teubner, Michael D

2012-01-01

49

Nuclear material production cycle vulnerability analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses a method for rapidly and systematically identifying vulnerable equipment in a nuclear material or similar production process and ranking that equipment according to its attractiveness to a malevolent attacker. A multistep approach was used in the analysis. First, the entire production cycle was modeled as a flow diagram. This flow diagram was analyzed using graph theoretical methods to identify processes in the production cycle and their locations. Models of processes that were judged to be particularly vulnerable based on the cycle analysis then were developed in greater detail to identify equipment in that process that is vulnerable to intentional damage.

Bott, T.F.

1996-07-01

50

ICBM vulnerability: Calculations, predictions, and error bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theory of intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) silo vulnerability is reviewed, and the present and probable future (mid-1990s) vulnerability of US silos is analyzed. The analysis emphasizes methodology, sources of information, and uncertainties. US ICBMs might still be survivable today but they will certainly be vulnerable to ICBM attack, and perhaps even to submarine-launched ballistic missile attack, by the mid-1990s. These calculations are presented not only for their immediate importance but also to introduce other physicists to some of the quantitative methods that can be used to analyze international security topics.

Hobson, Art

1988-09-01

51

Safeguarding Children and Vulnerable Adults Introduction  

E-print Network

illness, chronic or otherwise, including an addiction to alcohol or drugs; or iii) a reduction in physical and to protect children and vulnerable adults from harm as far as is possible and reasonable. Guidance exists

Aickelin, Uwe

52

Chimpanzees as vulnerable subjects in research.  

PubMed

Using an approach developed in the context of human bioethics, we argue that chimpanzees in research can be regarded as vulnerable subjects. This vulnerability is primarily due to communication barriers and situational factors-confinement and dependency-that make chimpanzees particularly susceptible to risks of harm and exploitation in experimental settings. In human research, individuals who are deemed vulnerable are accorded special protections. Using conceptual and moral resources developed in the context of research with vulnerable humans, we show how chimpanzees warrant additional safeguards against harm and exploitation paralleling those for human subjects. These safeguards should include empowering third parties to act as surrogate decision makers for chimpanzees, ensuring participant "assent," and avoiding recruitment of animal subjects based merely on convenience. PMID:24610230

Johnson, Jane; Barnard, Neal D

2014-04-01

53

Salt vulnerability assessment methodology for urban streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

De-icing agents such as road salts while used for winter road maintenance can cause negative effects on urban stream water quality and drinking water supplies. A new methodology using readily available spatial data to identify Salt Vulnerable Areas (SVAs) for urban streams is used to prioritize implementation of best management practices. The methodology calculates the probable chloride concentration statistics at specified points in the urban stream network and compares the results with known aquatic species exposure tolerance limits to characterize the vulnerability scores. The approach prioritizes implementation of best management practices to areas identified as vulnerable to road salt. The vulnerability assessment is performed on seven sites in four watersheds in the Greater Toronto Area and validated using the Hanlon Creek watershed in Guelph. The mean annual in-stream chloride concentration equation uses readily available spatial data - with province-wide coverage - that can be easily used in any urban watershed.

Betts, A. R.; Gharabaghi, B.; McBean, E. A.

2014-09-01

54

Extinction vulnerability of coral reef fishes.  

PubMed

With rapidly increasing rates of contemporary extinction, predicting extinction vulnerability and identifying how multiple stressors drive non-random species loss have become key challenges in ecology. These assessments are crucial for avoiding the loss of key functional groups that sustain ecosystem processes and services. We developed a novel predictive framework of species extinction vulnerability and applied it to coral reef fishes. Although relatively few coral reef fishes are at risk of global extinction from climate disturbances, a negative convex relationship between fish species locally vulnerable to climate change vs. fisheries exploitation indicates that the entire community is vulnerable on the many reefs where both stressors co-occur. Fishes involved in maintaining key ecosystem functions are more at risk from fishing than climate disturbances. This finding is encouraging as local and regional commitment to fisheries management action can maintain reef ecosystem functions pending progress towards the more complex global problem of stabilizing the climate. PMID:21320260

Graham, Nicholas A J; Chabanet, Pascale; Evans, Richard D; Jennings, Simon; Letourneur, Yves; Aaron Macneil, M; McClanahan, Tim R; Ohman, Marcus C; Polunin, Nicholas V C; Wilson, Shaun K

2011-04-01

55

CLIMATE VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTATION STUDY FOR  

E-print Network

CLIMATE VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTATION STUDY FOR CALIFORNIA Legal Analysis of Barriers's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012019 Prepared for: California Energy Commission to that framework that would facilitate adaptation to climate change. Since such changes may be difficult

56

Structural Vulnerability Assessment of Electric Power Grids  

E-print Network

Cascading failures are the typical reasons of black- outs in power grids. The grid topology plays an important role in determining the dynamics of cascading failures in power grids. Measures for vulnerability analysis are crucial to assure a higher level of robustness of power grids. Metrics from Complex Networks are widely used to investigate the grid vulnerability. Yet, these purely topological metrics fail to capture the real behaviour of power grids. This paper proposes a metric, the effective graph resistance, as a vulnerability measure to de- termine the critical components in a power grid. Differently than the existing purely topological measures, the effective graph resistance accounts for the electrical properties of power grids such as power flow allocation according to Kirchoff laws. To demonstrate the applicability of the effective graph resistance, a quantitative vulnerability assessment of the IEEE 118 buses power system is performed. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the effect...

Koç, Yakup; Kooij, Robert E; Brazier, Frances M T

2013-01-01

57

A typological framework for categorizing infrastructure vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of vulnerability is increasingly important in engineering and the socio-economic planning sciences, particularly\\u000a given the enormous costs associated with addressing it. The ability to identify and mitigate vulnerabilities is extremely\\u000a challenging because it is influenced by a complex and dynamic set of interacting factors that can compromise social, economic\\u000a and infrastructure systems. Where the latter is concerned, the

Tony H. GrubesicTimothy; Timothy C. Matisziw

58

Global Distributions of Vulnerability to Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

Signatories of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have committed themselves to addressing the “specific needs and special circumstances of developing country parties, especially those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change”.1 The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has since concluded with high confidence that “developing countries will be more vulnerable to climate change than developed countries”.2 In their most recent report, however, the IPCC notes that “current knowledge of adaptation and adaptive capacity is insufficient for reliable prediction of adaptations” 3 because “the capacity to adapt varies considerably among regions, countries and socioeconomic groups and will vary over time”.4 Here, we respond to the apparent contradiction in these two statements by exploring how variation in adaptive capacity and climate impacts combine to influence the global distribution of vulnerability. We find that all countries will be vulnerable to climate change, even if their adaptive capacities are enhanced. Developing nations are most vulnerable to modest climate change. Reducing greenhouse-gas emissions would diminish their vulnerabilities significantly. Developed countries would benefit most from mitigation for moderate climate change. Extreme climate change overwhelms the abilities of all countries to adapt. These findings should inform both ongoing negotiations for the next commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol and emerging plans for implementing UNFCCC-sponsored adaptation funds.

Yohe, Gary; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Brenkert, Antoinette L.; Schlesinger, Michael; Meij, Henk; Xiaoshi, Xing

2006-12-01

59

Camana, Peru, and Tsunami Vulnerability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A tsunami washed over the low-lying coastal resort region near Camana, southern Peru, following a strong earthquake on June 23, 2001. The earthquake was one of the most powerful of the last 35 years and had a magnitude of 8.4. After the initial quake, coastal residents witnessed a sudden drawdown of the ocean and knew a tsunami was imminent. They had less than 20 minutes to reach higher ground before the tsunami hit. Waves as high as 8 m came in four destructive surges reaching as far as 1.2 km inland. The dashed line marks the approximate area of tsunami inundation. Thousands of buildings were destroyed, and the combined earthquake and tsunami killed as many as 139 people. This image (ISS004-ESC-6128) was taken by astronauts onboard the International Space Station on 10 January 2002. It shows some of the reasons that the Camana area was so vulnerable to tsunami damage. The area has a 1 km band of coastal plain that is less than 5 m in elevation. Much of the plain can be seen by the bright green fields of irrigated agriculture that contrast with the light-colored desert high ground. Many of the tsunami-related deaths were workers in the onion fields in the coastal plain that were unwilling to leave their jobs before the end of the shift. A number of lives were spared because the tsunami occurred during the resort off-season, during the daylight when people could see the ocean drawdown, and during one of the lowest tides of the year. Information on the Tsunami that hit Camana can be found in a reports on the visit by the International Tsunami Survey Team and the USC Tsunami Research Lab. Earthquake Epicenter, Peru shows another image of the area. Image provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

2002-01-01

60

La república de Caín: La dramaturgia solitaria de Julio Planchart  

E-print Network

no hay alternativas. Planchart observa una quiebra que compromete la totalidad del universo social. Macha la Verdulera está dispuesta y sabe que tiene—debe—negociar la virginidad de su hija, si quiere obtener algo: Macha: Yo vengo, propiamente, a... pensamos perdemos la honradez. La moral de Macha, que debe mucho a su instinto de supervivencia, concuerda con los apetitos expresados por Caín: FALL 1994 75 ¿La niña que decía es recatada? Para mi goce la mujer honrada. A mi lujuria es un sabroso...

Azparren Gimé nez, Leonardo

1994-10-01

61

Vulnerability of schools to floods in Nyando River catchment, Kenya.  

PubMed

This paper assesses the vulnerability of schools to floods in the Nyando River catchment (3,600 km(2)) in western Kenya and identifies measures needed to reduce this vulnerability. It surveys 130 schools in the lower reaches, where flooding is a recurrent phenomenon. Of the primary schools assessed, 40% were vulnerable, 48% were marginally vulnerable and 12% were not vulnerable. Of the secondary schools, 8% were vulnerable, 73% were marginally vulnerable and 19% were not vulnerable. Vulnerability to floods is due to a lack of funds, poor building standards, local topography, soil types and inadequate drainage. The Constituencies Development Fund (CDF), established in 2003, provides financial support to cover school construction and reconstruction costs; CDF Committees are expected to adopt school building standards. In an effort to promote safe and resilient construction and retrofitting to withstand floods, this paper presents vulnerability reduction strategies and recommendations for incorporating minimum standards in the on-going Primary School Infrastructure Programme Design. PMID:20298261

Ochola, Samuel O; Eitel, Bernhard; Olago, Daniel O

2010-07-01

62

A knowledge integration approach to flood vulnerability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding, qualifying and quantifying vulnerability is an essential need for implementing effective and efficient flood risk mitigation strategies; in particular if possible synergies between different mitigation alternatives, such as active and passive measures, should be achieved. In order to combine different risk management options it is necessary to take an interdisciplinary approach to vulnerability reduction, and as a result the affected society may be willing to accept a certain degree of self-responsibility. However, due to differing mono-disciplinary approaches and regional foci undertaken until now, different aspects of vulnerability to natural hazards in general and to floods in particular remain uncovered and as a result the developed management options remain sub-optimal. Taking an even more fundamental viewpoint, the empirical vulnerability functions used in risk assessment specifically fail to capture physical principles of the damage-generating mechanisms to the build environment. The aim of this paper is to partially close this gap by discussing a balanced knowledge integration approach which can be used to resolve the multidisciplinary disorder in flood vulnerability research. Modelling techniques such as mathematical-physical modelling of the flood hazard impact to and response from the building envelope affected, and formative scenario analyses of possible consequences in terms of damage and loss are used in synergy to provide an enhanced understanding of vulnerability and to render the derived knowledge into interdisciplinary mitigation strategies. The outlined formal procedure allows for a convincing knowledge alignment of quantified, but partial, information about vulnerability as a result of the application of physical and engineering notions and valuable, but often underspecified, qualitative argumentation strings emerging from the adopted socio-economic viewpoint.

Mazzorana, Bruno; Fuchs, Sven

2014-05-01

63

A framework for modeling rail transport vulnerability  

SciTech Connect

Railroads represent one of the most efficient methods of long-haul transport for bulk commodities, from coal to agricultural products. Over the past fifty years, the rail network has contracted while tonnage has increased. Service, geographically, has been abandoned along short haul routes and increased along major long haul routes, resulting in a network that is more streamlined. The current rail network may be very vulnerable to disruptions, like the failure of a trestle. This paper proposes a framework to model rail network vulnerability and gives an application of this modeling framework in analyzing rail network vulnerability for the State of Washington. It concludes with a number of policy related issues that need to be addressed in order to identify, plan, and mitigate the risks associated with the sudden loss of a bridge or trestle.

Peterson, Steven K [ORNL; Church, Richard L. [University of California, Santa Barbara

2008-01-01

64

Assessment of Chemical and Radiological Vulnerabilities  

SciTech Connect

Following the May 14, 1997 chemical explosion at Hanford's Plutonium Reclamation Facility, the Department of Energy Richland Operations Office and its prime contractor, Fluor Hanford, Inc., completed an extensive assessment to identify and address chemical and radiological safety vulnerabilities at all facilities under the Project Hanford Management Contract. This was a challenging undertaking because of the immense size of the problem, unique technical issues, and competing priorities. This paper focuses on the assessment process, including the criteria and methodology for data collection, evaluation, and risk-based scoring. It does not provide details on the facility-specific results and corrective actions, but discusses the approach taken to address the identified vulnerabilities.

SETH, S.S.

2000-05-17

65

Nuclear material production cycle vulnerability analysis. Revision.  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses a method for rapidly and systematically identifying vulnerable equipment in a nuclear material or similar production process and ranking that equipment according to its attractiveness to a malevolent attacker. A multi-step approach was used in the analysis. First, the entire production cycle was modeled as a flow diagram. This flow diagram was analyzed using graph theoretical methods to identify processes in the production cycle and their locations. Models of processes that were judged to be particularly vulnerable based on the cycle analysis then were developed in greater detail to identify equipment in that process that is vulnerable to intentional damage. The information generated by this analysis may be used to devise protective features for critical equipment. The method uses directed graphs, fault trees, and evaluation matrices. Expert knowledge of plant engineers and operators is used to determine the critical equipment and evaluate its attractiveness to potential attackers. The vulnerability of equipment can be ranked and sorted according to any criterion desired and presented in a readily grasped format using matrices.

Bott, T.F.

1996-10-01

66

Vulnerability of Tropical Pacific Fisheries and Aquaculture  

E-print Network

3 Vulnerability of Tropical Pacific Fisheries and Aquaculture to Climate Change Edited by Johann D and Aquaculture to Climate Change Edited by Johann D Bell, Johanna E Johnson and Alistair J Hobday #12;ii of Tropical Pacific Fisheries and Aquaculture to Climate Change 1. Fishery management ­ Oceania. 2. Marine

67

REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT: A CONCEPTUAL APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (REVA) project is developing and testing an approach to conducting comparative ecological risk assessments at the regional scale. I't seeks an objective and quantifiable answer to answer the question, "What are the greatest threaten accompa...

68

CYBER/PHYSICAL SECURITY VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT INTEGRATION  

SciTech Connect

This internally funded Laboratory-Directed R&D project by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in conjunction with QinetiQ North America, is intended to identify and properly assess areas of overlap (and interaction) in the vulnerability assessment process between cyber security and physical protection. Existing vulnerability analysis (VA) processes and software tools exist, and these are heavily utilized in the determination of predicted vulnerability within the physical and cyber security domains. These determinations are normally performed independently of one another, and only interact on a superficial level. Both physical and cyber security subject matter experts have come to realize that though the various interactive elements exist, they are not currently quantified in most periodic security assessments. This endeavor aims to evaluate both physical and cyber VA techniques and provide a strategic approach to integrate the interdependent relationships of each into a single VA capability. This effort will also transform the existing suite of software currently utilized in the physical protection world to more accurately quantify the risk associated with a blended attack scenario. Performance databases will be created to support the characterization of the cyber security elements, and roll them into prototype software tools. This new methodology and software capability will enable analysts to better identify and assess the overall risk during a vulnerability analysis.

MacDonald, Douglas G.; Key, Brad; Clements, Samuel L.; Hutton, William J.; Craig, Philip A.; Patrick, Scott W.; Crawford, Cary E.

2011-07-17

69

DEMONSTRATING APPLICATIONS OF REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This task is designed to respond to 2 Congressional earmarks of $1,000,000 to the Canaan Valley Institute (CVI) to work in close coordination with the Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) initiative to develop research and educational tools using integrative technologies to p...

70

Disaster Vulnerability of University Student Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Student populations at Gulf Coast universities and colleges are subjected to multiple forces working together making them an especially vulnerable sub-group to hazards. Research has suggested that college students represent a segment of the population that hazards research has frequently overlooked and maybe not fully appreciated in university emergency planning. Most prior research has focused on university disaster experiences, highlighting

Jamie Lynn Auletta

2012-01-01

71

WATER AND ENERGY SECTOR VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE  

E-print Network

WATER AND ENERGY SECTOR VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE WARMING IN THE SIERRA NEVADA: Simulating is expected to affect the beneficial uses of water in the Sierra Nevada, impacting nearly every resident of California. This paper describes the development and results from an integrated water resource management

72

Our Changing Climate 2012 Vulnerability & Adaptation  

E-print Network

Our Changing Climate 2012 Vulnerability & Adaptation to the Increasing Risks from Climate Change Climate Change Center to lead this effort. The 2009 Adaptation Strategy prepared by the California Natural for taking concrete actions to reduce climate-change impacts. This assessment examines adaptation options

73

VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN  

E-print Network

VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN CALIFORNIA AGRICULTURE A White Paper from the California Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012031 Commissioner), Chuck Dudley (President of the Yolo County Farm Bureau), John MottSmith (Yolo County Climate

74

Measuring and Incorporating Vulnerability into Conservation Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation planning is the process of locating and designing conservation areas to promote the persistence of biodiversity in situ. To do this, conservation areas must be able to mitigate at least some of the proximate threats to biodiversity. Information on threatening processes and the relative vulnerability of areas and natural features to these processes is therefore crucial for effective conservation

Kerrie Wilson; Robert L. Pressey; Adrian Newton; Mark Burgman; Hugh Possingham; Chris Weston

2005-01-01

75

WATER AND ENERGY SECTOR VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE  

E-print Network

WATER AND ENERGY SECTOR VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE WARMING IN THE SIERRA NEVADA: Water Year explores the sensitivity of water indexing methods to climate change scenarios to better understand how water management decisions and allocations will be affected by climate change. Many water management

76

Modelling Community Evacuation Vulnerability Using GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method for systematically identifying neighbourhoods that may face transportation di Yculties during an evacuation. A classi® cation of this nature o Vers a unique approach to assessing community vulnerability in regions subject to fast-moving hazards of uncertain spatial impact (e.g., urban ® restorms and toxic spills on highways). The approach is founded on an integer programming (IP)

Thomas J. Cova; Richard L. Church

1997-01-01

77

Ruptures of Vulnerability: Linda Stein's Knight Series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing on the work of Monique Wittig, this article understands Linda Stein's Knight Series as a lacunary writing communicating both her challenges to come to representation and her creative registration of subjectivity. The argument is grounded in an exploration of the rich interplay of power and vulnerability across the series as against the discourse of escapist fashion. Specifically, Stein's critical

Ann Vollmann Bible

2010-01-01

78

Adolescent children of alcoholics: Vulnerable or Resilient?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Children of alcoholics (COAs) have been described as both vulnerable and resilient. Although identified as at-risk for mental and physical health problems, chemical dependency, and child abuse and neglect, many go on to lead successful lives. Objective: The relationship between COA status and various adolescent risk behaviors, such as drug and alcohol abuse and sexual precocity, was assessed by

MaryLou Mylant; Bette Ide; Elizabeth Cuevas; Maurita Meehan

2002-01-01

79

USMLE Step 1 Examination: Legal Vulnerability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1994 the Federation of State Medical Boards and the National Board of Medical Examiners instituted a three-step U.S. Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE). Step one of the USMLE may be vulnerable to legal challenge on the basis of minority group bias and lack of construct validity. (SLD)

Templeton, Bryce

1996-01-01

80

Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group Report  

SciTech Connect

This report marks the culmination of a 4-month review conducted to identify chemical safety vulnerabilities existing at DOE facilities. This review is an integral part of DOE's efforts to raise its commitment to chemical safety to the same level as that for nuclear safety.

Not Available

1994-09-01

81

Configuration Fuzzing for Software Vulnerability Detection  

PubMed Central

Many software security vulnerabilities only reveal themselves under certain conditions, i.e., particular configurations of the software together with its particular runtime environment. One approach to detecting these vulnerabilities is fuzz testing, which feeds a range of randomly modified inputs to a software application while monitoring it for failures. However, typical fuzz testing makes no guarantees regarding the syntactic and semantic validity of the input, or of how much of the input space will be explored. To address these problems, in this paper we present a new testing methodology called configuration fuzzing. Configuration fuzzing is a technique whereby the configuration of the running application is randomly modified at certain execution points, in order to check for vulnerabilities that only arise in certain conditions. As the application runs in the deployment environment, this testing technique continuously fuzzes the configuration and checks “security invariants” that, if violated, indicate a vulnerability; however, the fuzzing is performed in a duplicated copy of the original process, so that it does not affect the state of the running application. In addition to discussing the approach and describing a prototype framework for implementation, we also present the results of a case study to demonstrate the approach’s efficiency. PMID:21461049

Dai, Huning; Murphy, Christian; Kaiser, Gail

2010-01-01

82

Configuration Fuzzing for Software Vulnerability Detection.  

PubMed

Many software security vulnerabilities only reveal themselves under certain conditions, i.e., particular configurations of the software together with its particular runtime environment. One approach to detecting these vulnerabilities is fuzz testing, which feeds a range of randomly modified inputs to a software application while monitoring it for failures. However, typical fuzz testing makes no guarantees regarding the syntactic and semantic validity of the input, or of how much of the input space will be explored. To address these problems, in this paper we present a new testing methodology called configuration fuzzing. Configuration fuzzing is a technique whereby the configuration of the running application is randomly modified at certain execution points, in order to check for vulnerabilities that only arise in certain conditions. As the application runs in the deployment environment, this testing technique continuously fuzzes the configuration and checks "security invariants" that, if violated, indicate a vulnerability; however, the fuzzing is performed in a duplicated copy of the original process, so that it does not affect the state of the running application. In addition to discussing the approach and describing a prototype framework for implementation, we also present the results of a case study to demonstrate the approach's efficiency. PMID:21461049

Dai, Huning; Murphy, Christian; Kaiser, Gail

2010-02-15

83

Bridging the Digital Divide: Reaching Vulnerable Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The AMIA 2003 Spring Congress entitled ''Bridging the Digital Divide: Informatics and Vulnerable Populations'' convened 178 experts including medical informaticians, health care professionals, government leaders, policy makers, researchers, health care industry leaders, consumer advocates, and others specializing in health care provision to underserved populations. The primary objective of this working congress was to develop a framework for a national agenda

BETTY L. CHANG; S UZANNE BAKKEN; S. SCOTT BROWN; THOMAS K. HOUSTON; GARY L. KREPS; RITA KUKAFKA; CHARLES SAFRAN; P. ZOE STAVRI

2010-01-01

84

Vulnerability Assessment of Cybersecurity for SCADA Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vulnerability assessment is a requirement of NERC's cybersecurity standards for electric power systems. The purpose is to study the impact of a cyber attack on supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. Compliance of the requirement to meet the standard has become increasingly challenging as the system becomes more dispersed in wide areas. Interdependencies between computer communication system and the

Chee-Wooi Ten; Chen-Ching Liu; Govindarasu Manimaran

2008-01-01

85

Original article Vulnerability of young oak seedlings  

E-print Network

Original article Vulnerability of young oak seedlings (Quercus robur L) to embolism: responses with Ophiostoma querci and water stress on pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) were tested with potted saplings. O in the oak decline symptoms as occurring in Europe may therefore be questioned. water stress I embolism / oak

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

86

Who's Vulnerable in Infant Child Care Centers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that infants and toddlers, parents, and child caregivers are vulnerable to a variety of infectious diseases from infant-toddler child care centers. These diseases include infectious diarrhea; rubella; cytomeglovirus; hepatitis A, and haemophilus influenza type B. Suggests ways to prevent the spread of such diseases. (BB)

Kendall, Earline D.; Moukaddem, Virginia E.

1992-01-01

87

Overactive bladder in the vulnerable elderly  

PubMed Central

Overactive bladder (OAB) is a common problem that may occur in individuals of all ages. It has a considerable impact on patient quality of life, and although moderately effective management strategies do exist, this condition often remains undiagnosed and untreated. OAB needs to be viewed as a symptom complex. Its presentation and management are complicated in the vulnerable elderly by the presence of baseline frailty and multiple coexisting chronic conditions. Furthermore, and beyond a simple understanding of symptomatology, providers must address patient goals and motivations as well as the expectations of caretakers. These multiple levels of perception, function, expectations, and treatment efficacy/risks must be tailored to the individual patient. While the vulnerable elderly patient may often have evidence of urinary tract dysfunction, OAB and urge urinary incontinence in this population must be understood as a multifactorial geriatric syndrome and viewed in the context of medical and functional baseline and precipitating risk factors. Expectations and goals must be tailored to the resources of vulnerable elderly patients and their caregivers, and care must be coordinated with other medical care providers. The management of OAB in the vulnerable elderly often poses significant management challenges. Nonetheless, with a thoughtful approach and an aim towards future research specifically for this population, significant reductions in morbidity and mortality long with enhancement in health-related quality of life are possible. PMID:25328867

Wolff, Gillian F; Kuchel, George A; Smith, Phillip P

2014-01-01

88

Empirical Estimates and Observations of 0Day Vulnerabilities  

SciTech Connect

We define a 0Day vulnerability to be any vulnerability, in deployed software, that has been discovered by at least one person but has not yet been publicly announced or patched. These 0Day vulnerabilities are of particular interest when assessing the risk to a system from exploit of vulnerabilities which are not generally known to the public or, most importantly, to the owners of the system. Using the 0Day definition given above, we analyzed the 0Day lifespans of 491 vulnerabilities and conservatively estimated that in the worst year there were on average 2500 0Day vulnerabilities in existence on any given day. Then using a small but intriguing set of 15 0Day vulnerability lifespans representing the time from actual discovery to public disclosure, we made a more aggressive estimate. In this case, we estimated that in the worst year there were, on average, 4500 0Day vulnerabilities in existence on any given day.

Miles A. McQueen; Trevor A. McQueen; Wayne F. Boyer; May R. Chaffin

2009-01-01

89

On the Library and Information Literacy Education of Vulnerable Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper defines and classifies vulnerable groups, elaborates the necessity of information literacy education of vulnerable groups, analyzes the feasibility for the library to carry out the education, and then discusses specific measures taken by the library to fulfill it.

Zhu, Tian-hui

2009-01-01

90

7 CFR 1730.27 - Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA). 1730.27 Section 1730.27 Agriculture...Maintenance Requirements § 1730.27 Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA). (a) Each borrower with an...

2010-01-01

91

6 CFR 27.215 - Security vulnerability assessments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...chemical facility is high-risk, the facility must complete a Security Vulnerability Assessment. A Security Vulnerability...in meeting the applicable Risk-Based Performance Standards; (4) Risk Assessment, including a...

2010-01-01

92

6 CFR 27.400 - Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information...SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Other § 27.400 Chemical-terrorism vulnerability...

2013-01-01

93

6 CFR 27.400 - Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information...SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Other § 27.400 Chemical-terrorism vulnerability...

2014-01-01

94

6 CFR 27.400 - Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information...SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Other § 27.400 Chemical-terrorism vulnerability...

2011-01-01

95

6 CFR 27.400 - Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information...SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Other § 27.400 Chemical-terrorism vulnerability...

2012-01-01

96

Selective functional, regional, and neuronal vulnerability in frontotemporal dementia  

E-print Network

Selective functional, regional, and neuronal vulnerability in frontotemporal dementia William W. Seeley Introduction Selective vulnerability defines neurodegenerative disease. In frontotemporal dementia dementia The degenerative dementias represent a heterogeneous class of progressive, treatment

Allman, John M.

97

Psychological Vulnerability to Completed Suicide: A Review of Empirical Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews empirical literature on psychological vulnerability to completed suicide. Five constructs have been consistently associated with completed suicide: impulsivity/aggression; depression; anxiety; hopelessness; and self-consciousness/social disengagement. Current knowledge of psychological vulnerability could inform social…

Conner, Kenneth R.; Duberstein, Paul R.; Conwell, Yeates; Seidlitz, Larry; Caine, Eric D.

2001-01-01

98

Vulnerability assessment of water supply systems for insufficient fire flows  

E-print Network

supply systems are vulnerable to many forms of terrorist acts, most of the vulnerability analysis studies on these systems have been for chemical and biological threats. Because of the interdependency of water supply infrastructure and emergency fire...

Kanta, Lufthansa Rahman

2009-05-15

99

A New Vulnerability Assessment Approach for Surface Water and Groundwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of a state-wide effort to characterize the vulnerability of Mississippi's surface water and groundwater resources, we are developing a new set of vulnerability assessment tools. Unlike previous vulnerability assessment models (e.g., DRASTIC and WRASTIC), we separately consider three metrics for (1) intrinsic and (2) extrinsic sources of vulnerability and (3) consequences. Intrinsic vulnerability is defined as the vulnerability related to water resource characteristics (e.g., aquifer hydraulic properties, watershed topography, etc.), while extrinsic vulnerability is due to external features (e.g., number of abandoned wells, USTs, etc.). The consequence metric considers toxicity and location-specific human, environmental, and economic consequences. Each of the three metrics is normalized between 0 and 1, and the final vulnerability (risk) assessed as the product of vulnerability, susceptibility, and consequence. Intrinsic vulnerability is determined from the travel/residence time from a point on the land surface to surface water bodies or, in the case of groundwater, potential receptors. Unlike previous vulnerability assessment methods, our intrinsic vulnerability method focuses on assessment of relative travel/residence time and includes effects related to sorption, decay, and attenuation. Extrinsic vulnerability can be approached in two ways. In the first, a general extrinsic vulnerability is determined using a normalized indexing factor based on expert opinion and GIS-based density calculations for extrinsic sources of vulnerability (e.g., transportation corridors, industrial facilities, etc.). In the second, contaminant specific scenarios are considered based on local data. The consequence metric is determined using a toxicity-weighted measure of the potential impact on human, environmental, and economic assets. The vulnerability assessment methodology and GIS-based tools are being applied across the state at the hydrologic basin scale.

Holt, R. M.; Pickens, J.; Jones, T.; Kuszmaul, J. S.; Phillips, P.; Holtz, T.; Gunter, B.

2007-12-01

100

Aircraft vulnerability analysis by modeling and simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared missiles pose a significant threat to civilian and military aviation. ManPADS missiles are especially dangerous in the hands of rogue and undisciplined forces. Yet, not all the launched missiles hit their targets; the miss being either attributable to misuse of the weapon or to missile performance restrictions. This paper analyses some of the factors affecting aircraft vulnerability and demonstrates a structured analysis of the risk and aircraft vulnerability problem. The aircraft-missile engagement is a complex series of events, many of which are only partially understood. Aircraft and missile designers focus on the optimal design and performance of their respective systems, often testing only in a limited set of scenarios. Most missiles react to the contrast intensity, but the variability of the background is rarely considered. Finally, the vulnerability of the aircraft depends jointly on the missile's performance and the doctrine governing the missile's launch. These factors are considered in a holistic investigation. The view direction, altitude, time of day, sun position, latitude/longitude and terrain determine the background against which the aircraft is observed. Especially high gradients in sky radiance occur around the sun and on the horizon. This paper considers uncluttered background scenes (uniform terrain and clear sky) and presents examples of background radiance at all view angles across a sphere around the sensor. A detailed geometrical and spatially distributed radiometric model is used to model the aircraft. This model provides the signature at all possible view angles across the sphere around the aircraft. The signature is determined in absolute terms (no background) and in contrast terms (with background). It is shown that the background significantly affects the contrast signature as observed by the missile sensor. A simplified missile model is constructed by defining the thrust and mass profiles, maximum seeker tracking rate, maximum guidance acceleration and seeker sensitivity. For the purpose of this investigation the aircraft is equipped with conventional pyrotechnic decoy flares and the missile has no counter-countermeasure means (security restrictions on open publication). This complete simulation is used to calculate the missile miss distance, when the missile is launched from different locations around the aircraft. The miss distance data is then graphically presented showing miss distance (aircraft vulnerability) as a function of launch direction and range. The aircraft vulnerability graph accounts for aircraft and missile characteristics, but does not account for missile deployment doctrine. A Bayesian network is constructed to fuse the doctrinal rules with the aircraft vulnerability data. The Bayesian network now provides the capability to evaluate the combined risk of missile launch and aircraft vulnerability. It is shown in this paper that it is indeed possible to predict the aircraft vulnerability to missile attack in a comprehensive modelling and a holistic process. By using the appropriate real-world models, this approach is used to evaluate the effectiveness of specific countermeasure techniques against specific missile threats. The use of a Bayesian network provides the means to fuse simulated performance data with more abstract doctrinal rules to provide a realistic assessment of the aircraft vulnerability.

Willers, Cornelius J.; Willers, Maria S.; de Waal, Alta

2014-10-01

101

Modelling farm vulnerability to flooding: A step toward vulnerability mitigation policies appraisal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent catastrophic flood events such as Elbe in 2002 or Rhône in 2003 have shown limits of flood management policies relying on dykes protection: worsening of flood impacts downstream, increased damage by dykes rupture. Those events, among others, contributes to radical changes on the philosophy of flood prevention, with the promotion of new orientations for mitigating flood exposition. Two new trends may have a significant impact on rural areas: floodplain restoration and vulnerability mitigation. The Rhône River program, which is an contract of objectives signed between French Government and local collectivites, is highly illustrative of these new trends and their impact on agricultural sector. In this program, it appears that areas to be concerned by floodplain restoration are agricultural ones, because their supposed vulnerability to flood is expected to be less important to urban areas. As a consequence, agricultural sector is particularly concerned by planned actions on mitigation of assets vulnerability, an important part of the program (financial support of European Union of 7.5 Million euros). Mitigation of agricultural assets vulnerability reveals particularly interesting for two following reasons. Firstly, it is a way to maintain agricultural activities in floodplains yet existing, without promoting flood protection. Secondly, in case of floodplain restoration, vulnerability mitigation is a way for local authorities to compensate over-flooding impacts. In practice, local authorities may financially support farmers for implementing measures to mitigate their farm vulnerability. On the Rhône River, an important work has already been done to identify farm vulnerability to flooding, and propose measures to mitigate it. More than 3 000 farms exposed to flood risk have been identified representing 88 690 ha of agricultural areas which is estimated to generate damage between 400 and 800 Million euros depending on the season of occurrence for a catastrophic flood. In the case of farm activities, vulnerability mitigation consists in implementing measures which can be: physical (equipment or electric power system elevation), organizational (emergency or recovery plan) or financial (insurance). These measures aim at decreasing the total damage incurred by farmers in case of flooding. For instance, if equipment is elevated, it will not suffer direct damage such as degradation. As a consequence, equipment will be available to continue production or recovery tasks, thus, avoiding indirect damage such as delays, indebtednessâ?¦ The effects of these policies on farms, in particular vulnerability mitigation cannot be appraised using current methodologies mainly because they do not consider farm as a whole and focus on direct damage at the land plot scale (loss of yield). Moreover, since vulnerability mitigation policies are quite recent, few examples of implementation exist and no feedback experience can be processed. Meanwhile, decision makers and financial actors require more justification of the efficiency of public fund by economic appraisal of the projects. On the Rhône River, decision makers asked for an economic evaluation of the program of farm vulnerability mitigation they plan to implement. This implies to identify the effects of the measures to mitigate farm vulnerability, and to classify them by comparing their efficacy (avoided damage) and their cost of implementation. In this presentation, we propose and discuss a conceptual model of vulnerability at the farm scale. The modelling, in Unified Modelling Language, enabled to represent the ties between spatial, organizational and temporal dimensions, which are central to understanding of farm vulnerability and resilience to flooding. Through this modelling, we encompass three goals: To improve the comprehension of farm vulnerability and create a framework that allow discussion with experts of different disciplines as well as with local farmers; To identify data which are needed to implement the model and to collect them, specifically using the focus group

Brémond, P.; Abrami, G.; Blanc, C.; Grelot, F.

2009-04-01

102

Automated Detection of Client-State Manipulation Vulnerabilities Anders Mller  

E-print Network

by detecting weaknesses. Many vulnerabilities are related to web application code that stores references of possible vulnerabilities and countermeasures. Among the most popular guidelines for programming safe webAutomated Detection of Client-State Manipulation Vulnerabilities Anders Møller Department

Møller, Anders

103

A1B: balanced. Human vulnerability to heat  

E-print Network

A1B: balanced. Human vulnerability to heat can be define a function of heat exposure, sensitivity, and coping capacities. A better understanding of human vulnerability to heat can help people to decrease heat impact on human health effectively. Human vulnerability to heat in Phoenix and Chicago: Wen-Ching Chuang

Hall, Sharon J.

104

An Empirical Measure of Computer Security Strength for Vulnerability Remediation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Remediating all vulnerabilities on computer systems in a timely and cost effective manner is difficult given that the window of time between the announcement of a new vulnerability and an automated attack has decreased. Hence, organizations need to prioritize the vulnerability remediation process on their computer systems. The goal of this…

Villegas, Rafael

2010-01-01

105

Reconceptualizing Vulnerability in Personal Narrative Writing with Youths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through a student/teacher classroom conflict, the author explores ways adults produce student writers as vulnerable. Drawing on post-structural concepts of adolescence, identity production, interrogation, and vulnerability, the author details how an English teacher invited students to perform vulnerability in personal narratives about issues like…

Johnson, Elisabeth

2014-01-01

106

Hierarchical statistical modeling of xylem vulnerability to cavitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary • Cavitation of xylem elements diminishes the water transport capacity of plants, and quantifying xylem vulnerability to cavitation is important to understanding plant function. Current approaches to analyzing hydraulic conductivity (K) data to infer vulnerability to cavitation suffer from problems such as the use of potentially unre- alistic vulnerability curves, difficulty interpreting parameters in these curves, a statis- tical

Kiona Ogle; Jarrett J. Barber; Cynthia Willson; Brenda Thompson

2009-01-01

107

Vendor System Vulnerability Testing Test Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) prepared this generic test plan to provide clients (vendors, end users, program sponsors, etc.) with a sense of the scope and depth of vulnerability testing performed at the INL’s Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Test Bed and to serve as an example of such a plan. Although this test plan specifically addresses vulnerability testing of systems applied to the energy sector (electric/power transmission and distribution and oil and gas systems), it is generic enough to be applied to control systems used in other critical infrastructures such as the transportation sector, water/waste water sector, or hazardous chemical production facilities. The SCADA Test Bed is established at the INL as a testing environment to evaluate the security vulnerabilities of SCADA systems, energy management systems (EMS), and distributed control systems. It now supports multiple programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, other government agencies, and private sector clients. This particular test plan applies to testing conducted on a SCADA/EMS provided by a vendor. Before performing detailed vulnerability testing of a SCADA/EMS, an as delivered baseline examination of the system is conducted, to establish a starting point for all-subsequent testing. The series of baseline tests document factory delivered defaults, system configuration, and potential configuration changes to aid in the development of a security plan for in depth vulnerability testing. The baseline test document is provided to the System Provider,a who evaluates the baseline report and provides recommendations to the system configuration to enhance the security profile of the baseline system. Vulnerability testing is then conducted at the SCADA Test Bed, which provides an in-depth security analysis of the Vendor’s system.b a. The term System Provider replaces the name of the company/organization providing the system being evaluated. This can be the system manufacturer, a system user, or a third party organization such as a government agency. b. The term Vendor (or Vendor’s) System replaces the name of the specific SCADA/EMS being tested.

James R. Davidson

2005-01-01

108

Seaside, Oregon, Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment Pilot Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of a pilot study to assess the risk from tsunamis for the Seaside-Gearhart, Oregon region will be presented. To determine the risk from tsunamis, it is first necessary to establish the hazard or probability that a tsunami of a particular magnitude will occur within a certain period of time. Tsunami inundation maps that provide 100-year and 500-year probabilistic tsunami wave height contours for the Seaside-Gearhart, Oregon, region were developed as part of an interagency Tsunami Pilot Study(1). These maps provided the probability of the tsunami hazard. The next step in determining risk is to determine the vulnerability or degree of loss resulting from the occurrence of tsunamis due to exposure and fragility. The tsunami vulnerability assessment methodology used in this study was developed by M. Papathoma and others(2). This model incorporates multiple factors (e.g. parameters related to the natural and built environments and socio-demographics) that contribute to tsunami vulnerability. Data provided with FEMA's HAZUS loss estimation software and Clatsop County, Oregon, tax assessment data were used as input to the model. The results, presented within a geographic information system, reveal the percentage of buildings in need of reinforcement and the population density in different inundation depth zones. These results can be used for tsunami mitigation, local planning, and for determining post-tsunami disaster response by emergency services. (1)Tsunami Pilot Study Working Group, Seaside, Oregon Tsunami Pilot Study--Modernization of FEMA Flood Hazard Maps, Joint NOAA/USGS/FEMA Special Report, U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2006, Final Draft. (2)Papathoma, M., D. Dominey-Howes, D.,Y. Zong, D. Smith, Assessing Tsunami Vulnerability, an example from Herakleio, Crete, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 3, 2003, p. 377-389.

Dunbar, P. K.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Varner, J.

2006-12-01

109

Vulnerable populations: considerations for wound care.  

PubMed

Race/ethnicity, immigration, health insurance, and literacy--along with patient-provider communication and understanding of and adherence to treatment protocols--are societal factors that affect the provision of optimal healthcare. Wound care practitioners should be aware of the need to address these factors in vulnerable groups, including the effects of racial/ethnic care disparities, immigration, low income, uninsured or underinsured status, and literacy/health literacy on health and wound care. The literature shows that care is not always perceived to be or equitably provided across different ethnic and economically diverse populations. Hence, clinicians must strive to listen to and interact non-judgmentally with vulnerable patients. Each patient's physical and psychosocial concerns must be assessed without malice and clinicians must work with community, state, and federal agencies to enhance access to necessary services. Wound care patient teaching materials need to be developed that consider the literacy and language skills of the community served. Once the type of wound and its appropriate treatment are determined, wound care practitioners must consider patient teaching, vulnerability, cultural, and economic constraints of care, along with strategies for prevention of complications and hospitalizations. PMID:19471046

Pieper, Barbara

2009-05-01

110

NASA's Research in Aircraft Vulnerability Mitigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since its inception in 1958, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) role in civil aeronautics has been to develop high-risk, high-payoff technologies to meet critical national aviation challenges. Following the events of Sept. 11, 2001, NASA recognized that it now shared the responsibility for improving homeland security. The NASA Strategic Plan was modified to include requirements to enable a more secure air transportation system by investing in technologies and collaborating with other agencies, industry, and academia. NASA is conducting research to develop and advance innovative and commercially viable technologies that will reduce the vulnerability of aircraft to threats or hostile actions, and identify and inform users of potential vulnerabilities in a timely manner. Presented in this paper are research plans and preliminary status for mitigating the effects of damage due to direct attacks on civil transport aircraft. The NASA approach to mitigation includes: preventing loss of an aircraft due to a hit from man-portable air defense systems; developing fuel system technologies that prevent or minimize in-flight vulnerability to small arms or other projectiles; providing protection from electromagnetic energy attacks by detecting directed energy threats to aircraft and on/off-board systems; and minimizing the damage due to high-energy attacks (explosions and fire) by developing advanced lightweight, damage-resistant composites and structural concepts. An approach to preventing aircraft from being used as weapons of mass destruction will also be discussed.

Allen, Cheryl L.

2005-01-01

111

Growth of Necrotic Cores in Vulnerable Plaque  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plaques are fatty deposits that grow mainly in arteries and develop as a result of a chronic inflammatory response. Plaques are called vulnerable when they are prone to mechanical rupture. Vulnerable Plaques (VPs) are characterized by lipid-rich, necrotic cores that are heavily infiltrated with macrophages. The rupture of VPs releases thrombogenic agents into the bloodstream, usually resulting in myocardial infarctions. We propose a quantitative model to predict the development of a plaque's necrotic core. By solving coupled reaction-diffusion equations for macrophages and dead cells, we explore the joint effects of hypoxic cell death and chemo-attraction to Ox-LDL, a molecule that is strongly linked to atherosclerosis. Our model predicts cores that have approximately the right size and shape. Normal mode analysis and subsequent calculation of the smallest eigenvalues allow us to compute the times required for the system to reach its steady state. This study allows us to make quantitative predictions for how quickly vulnerable plaques develop and how their growth depends on system parameters such as chemotactic coefficients and cell death rates.

Fok, Pak-Wing

2011-03-01

112

Technological solution for vulnerable communities: How does its approach matter?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vulnerability is an emerging term for both scientific communities and practitioners. Vulnerabilities attributed to a particular community are then aggregated to state it as a vulnerable community. Vulnerability-related study is recognized as an interdisciplinary one due to the complex characteristics of vulnerabilities in each contextual situation. In common understandings, technology is recognized as an interdisciplinary solution, making it possible for supporting any activity in eradicating vulnerability. This study aims to observe such possibilities. Literature survey is taken to investigate the interconnection between vulnerability eradication and technology. Brief comparison between several developing countries and particular focus on Indonesia become a medium of further investigation to reveal issues surrounding technology-related efforts for vulnerability eradication in vulnerable communities. The study reveals that developing countries, particularly Indonesia, tend to adopt approaches from Northern hemisphere, including transferring technologies from developed countries without proper propagation. It means that local knowledge and power are largely ignored in the pursuit of local problem solving for vulnerability eradication. These facts become a signpost to emphasize that approach in implementing technological solution for such purpose is the critical mechanism to ensure the success in every contextual situation. Then, looking at the results of this brief study, its emphasis indicates further requirements to shift the paradigm of typical community development to contextual community empowerment in order to ensure the continuity of every technological solution for a consistent eradication of local vulnerabilities, including possible changes of required approach alongside the shift.

Sianipar, C. P. M.; Dowaki, K.; Yudoko, G.

2014-06-01

113

Protecting and respecting the vulnerable: existing regulations or further protections?  

PubMed

Scholars and policymakers continue to struggle over the meaning of the word "vulnerable" in the context of research ethics. One major reason for the stymied discussions regarding vulnerable populations is that there is no clear distinction between accounts of research vulnerabilities that exist for certain populations and discussions of research vulnerabilities that require special regulations in the context of research ethics policies. I suggest an analytic process by which to ascertain whether particular vulnerable populations should be contenders for additional regulatory protections. I apply this process to two vulnerable populations: the cognitively vulnerable and the economically vulnerable. I conclude that a subset of the cognitively vulnerable require extra protections while the economically vulnerable should be protected by implementing existing regulations more appropriately and rigorously. Unless or until the informed consent process is more adequately implemented and the distributive justice requirement of the Belmont Report is emphasized and operationalized, the economically disadvantaged will remain particularly vulnerable to the harm of exploitation in research. PMID:23329228

Solomon, Stephanie R

2013-02-01

114

Protecting and Respecting the Vulnerable: Existing Regulations or Further Protections?  

PubMed Central

Scholars and policymakers continue to struggle over the meaning of the word “vulnerable” in the context of research ethics. One major reason for the stymied discussions regarding vulnerable populations is that there is no clear distinction between accounts of research vulnerabilities that exist for certain populations and discussions of research vulnerabilities that require special regulations in the context of research ethics policies. I suggest an analytic process by which to ascertain whether particular vulnerable populations should be contenders for additional regulatory protections. I apply this process to two vulnerable populations: the cognitively vulnerable and the economically vulnerable. I conclude that a subset of the cognitively vulnerable require extra protections while the economically vulnerable should be protected by implementing existing regulations more appropriately and rigorously. Unless or until the informed consent process is more adequately implemented and the distributive justice requirement of the Belmont Report is emphasized and operationalized, the economically disadvantaged will remain particularly vulnerable to the harm of exploitation in research. PMID:23329228

Solomon, Stephanie R.

2013-01-01

115

Assessing flood vulnerability using a rule-based fuzzy system.  

PubMed

Population growth and urbanization in the last decades have increased the vulnerability of properties and societies in flood-prone areas. Vulnerability analysis is one of the main factors used to determine the necessary measures of flood risk reduction in floodplains. At present, the vulnerability of natural disasters is analyzed by defining the various physical and social indices. This study presents a model based on a fuzzy rule-based system to address various ambiguities and uncertainties from natural variability, and human knowledge and preferences in vulnerability analysis. The proposed method is applied for a small watershed as a case study and the obtained results are compared with one of the index approaches. Both approaches present the same ranking for the sub-basin's vulnerability in the watershed. Finally, using the scores of vulnerability in different sub-basins, a vulnerability map of the watershed is presented. PMID:22907463

Yazdi, J; Neyshabouri, S A A S

2012-01-01

116

Evaluating regional vulnerability to climate change: purposes and methods  

SciTech Connect

As the emphasis in climate change research, international negotiations, and developing-country activities has shifted from mitigation to adaptation, vulnerability has emerged as a bridge between impacts on one side and the need for adaptive changes on the other. Still, the term vulnerability remains abstract, its meaning changing with the scale, focus, and purpose of each assessment. Understanding regional vulnerability has advanced over the past several decades, with studies using a combination of indicators, case studies and analogues, stakeholder-driven processes, and scenario-building methodologies. As regions become increasingly relevant scales of inquiry for bridging the aggregate and local, for every analysis, it is perhaps most appropriate to ask three “what” questions: “What/who is vulnerable?,” “What is vulnerability?,” and “Vulnerable to what?” The answers to these questions will yield different definitions of vulnerability as well as different methods for assessing it.

Malone, Elizabeth L.; Engle, Nathan L.

2011-03-15

117

A socioeconomic profile of vulnerable land to desertification in Italy.  

PubMed

Climate changes, soil vulnerability, loss in biodiversity, and growing human pressure are threatening Mediterranean-type ecosystems which are increasingly considered as a desertification hotspot. In this region, land vulnerability to desertification strongly depends on the interplay between natural and anthropogenic factors. The present study proposes a multivariate exploratory analysis of the relationship between the spatial distribution of land vulnerability to desertification and the socioeconomic contexts found in three geographical divisions of Italy (north, center and south) based on statistical indicators. A total of 111 indicators describing different themes (demography, human settlements, labor market and human capital, rural development, income and wealth) were used to discriminate vulnerable from non-vulnerable areas. The resulting socioeconomic profile of vulnerable areas in northern and southern Italy diverged significantly, the importance of demographic and economic indicators being higher in southern Italy than in northern Italy. On the contrary, human settlement indicators were found more important to discriminate vulnerable and non-vulnerable areas in northern Italy, suggesting a role for peri-urbanization in shaping the future vulnerable areas. An in-depth knowledge of the socioeconomic characteristics of vulnerable land may contribute to scenarios' modeling and the development of more effective policies to combat desertification. PMID:23911920

Salvati, Luca

2014-01-01

118

Systemic vulnerability model for coastal erosion processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many coastal areas constitute an extraordinary environmental worth and economic value resource continuously exposed to an unceasing transformation due to climatic and anthropic factors. The pressure factor overloads carry out an amplification of environmental degradation and economic rent decrease of these territories producing a disruption of normal and anticipated community growth. This paper copes with coastal erosion problem by a systemic vulnerability model application and environmental indicators approach. Through the definition of an original indicator depending on the observed annual rate of coastal erosion and wave climate parameters, such an approach allow scenario generation and it is useful and powerful planning and management tool. The model has been applied on the test case of Ionian Coast of Basilicata Region located in the southern part of Italy, in the middle of Mediterranean basin. The littoral area is constituted of sandy shores of about 50 km length and 5 river deltas take place. Looking at the shoreline in terms of displacements, a shift of a coastal part is a function of grain size characteristics of the shore sands and of the wave climate. Therefore the selected index taking into account the energy stress affecting the shore area, characterizing the territorial system state and finalized to vulnerability estimation, is defined through the maximum annual erosion,tE, and the surface-wave parameters (H,T) corresponding to the wave-generated bottom orbital velocities higher than critical velocity matches with the bottom incipient transport condition. The resulting coefficient ? (? = tE? ? gH2-?T) is obviously dimensionless and represents the part of the available power in the seas, dissipated by erosion processes. If ? increases, the system integrity decreases and the system vulnerability increases. Available data, in terms of topographic/bathymetric information referred to the period 1873-2008, were utilized to derive tE by the use of a GIS-CAD "comb model" developed at the University of Basilicata, in which the full shoreline length was divided in 92 segments corresponding to 500 m for each one. Wave climate data were estimated from wind data by use of a hindcasting method for the observation period 1987-2010. Grain size characteristic of the shore sands were acquired by a in situ measurement campaigns. The ? index gives a synthetic representation of the coastal erosion and progress processes exclusively due to climatic actions and the information derived in terms of vulnerability is distributed on the coastal territory. Results show heterogeneous trends, with relevant difference in vulnerability response among the morphological elements. In particular, the river deltas represent a critical location with significant exposition. By the analyses performed, the southern part of the coast, located near the delta of Sinni river, seems to be more sensible to the vulnerability respect to the other part of the test area.

Greco, M.; Martino, G.; Guariglia, A.

2010-09-01

119

Recoverability and Vulnerability of Desert Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

USGS scientists are taking an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the physical and biological processes that influence the vulnerability of the desert ecosystem to disturbance and its ability to recover. They are studying historical information, conducting experimental studies on physical and biological processes, and mapping and modeling the existing landscape. These data can be synthesized into maps and predictive models that show how ecosystem components respond to imposed stress, providing valuable tools for desert land managers. Such tools will help land managers make decisions that sustain the desert even as economic, recreation, and military uses continue. The site includes links to publications, maps, a glossary and links to other materials on Mojave desert ecosystems.

120

Ruptures of vulnerability: Linda Stein's Knight Series.  

PubMed

Drawing on the work of Monique Wittig, this article understands Linda Stein's Knight Series as a lacunary writing communicating both her challenges to come to representation and her creative registration of subjectivity. The argument is grounded in an exploration of the rich interplay of power and vulnerability across the series as against the discourse of escapist fashion. Specifically, Stein's critical contradictions of inside and outside, conflated temporality, disjunctions between decoration and abstraction, and fluidity of sex and gender are examined. The discussion is elaborated through consideration of the work of Julia Kristeva, Elizabeth Grosz, and Hayao Miyazaki. PMID:20408009

Bible, Ann Vollmann

2010-01-01

121

Power grid vulnerability: A complex network approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Power grids exhibit patterns of reaction to outages similar to complex networks. Blackout sequences follow power laws, as complex systems operating near a critical point. Here, the tolerance of electric power grids to both accidental and malicious outages is analyzed in the framework of complex network theory. In particular, the quantity known as efficiency is modified by introducing a new concept of distance between nodes. As a result, a new parameter called net-ability is proposed to evaluate the performance of power grids. A comparison between efficiency and net-ability is provided by estimating the vulnerability of sample networks, in terms of both the metrics.

Arianos, S.; Bompard, E.; Carbone, A.; Xue, F.

2009-03-01

122

Social vulnerability assessment: a growing practice in Europe?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper builds upon work on social vulnerability from the CapHaz-Net consortium, an ongoing research project funded by the European Commission in its 7th Framework Programme. The project focuses on the social dimensions of natural hazards, as well as on regional practices of risk prevention and management, and aims at improving the resilience of European societies to natural hazards, paying particular attention to social capacity building. The topic of social vulnerability is one of seven themes being addressed in the project. There are various rationales for examining the relevance of social vulnerability to natural hazards. Vulnerability assessment has now been accepted as a requirement for the effective development of emergency management capability, and assessment of social vulnerability has been recognised as being integral to understanding the risk to natural hazards. The aim of our research was to examine social vulnerability, how it might be understood in the context of natural hazards in Europe, and how social vulnerability can be addressed to increase social capacity. The work comprised a review of research on social vulnerability to different natural hazards within Europe and included concepts and definitions of social vulnerability (and related concepts), the purpose of vulnerability assessment and who decides who is vulnerable, different approaches to assessing or measuring social vulnerability (such as the use of 'classical' quantitative vulnerability indicators and qualitative community-based approaches, along with the advantages and disadvantages of both), conceptual frameworks for assessing social vulnerability and three case studies of social vulnerability studies within Europe: flash floods in the Italian Alps, fluvial flooding in Germany and heat waves in Spain. The review reveals variable application of social vulnerability analysis across Europe and there are indications why this might be the case. Reasons could range from the scale of country policy and the particular risk management focus to the smaller scale risk management perceptions of the analysis techniques employed being to resource expensive, difficult to interpret or to operationalise. This paper will provide a context with some empirical examples to perhaps explain the growing popularity of concepts such as resilience and capacity building which lie more comfortably with policy makers and risk managers as concepts which focus on the solution rather than identifying a problem by assessing social vulnerability.

Tapsell, S.; McC arthy, S.

2012-04-01

123

Susceptibility to mountain hazards in Austria - paradigms of vulnerability revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of vulnerability is pillared by multiple disciplinary theories underpinning either a technical or a social origin of the concept and resulting in a range of paradigms for either a qualitative or quantitative assessment of vulnerability. However, efforts to reduce susceptibility to hazards and to create disaster-resilient communities require intersections among these theories, since human activity cannot be seen independently from the environmental setting. Acknowledging different roots of disciplinary paradigms, issues determining structural, economic, institutional and social vulnerability are discussed with respect to mountain hazards in Austria. The underlying idea of taking such an integrative viewpoint was the cognition that human action in mountain environments affects the state of vulnerability, and the state of vulnerability in turn shapes the possibilities of human action. It is argued that structural vulnerability as originator results in considerable economic vulnerability, generated by the institutional settings of dealing with natural hazards and shaped by the overall societal framework. Hence, the vulnerability of a specific location and within a considered point of time is triggered by the hazardous event and the related physical susceptibility of structures, such as buildings located on a torrent fan. Depending on the specific institutional settings, economic vulnerability of individuals or of the society results, above all with respect to imperfect loss compensation mechanisms in the areas under investigation. While this potential for harm can be addressed as social vulnerability, the concept of institutional vulnerability has been developed with respect to the overall political settings of governmental risk management. As a result, the concept of vulnerability, as being used in natural sciences, can be extended by integration of possible reasons why such physical susceptibility of structures exists, and by integration of compensation mechanisms and coping strategies being developed within social sciences. If vulnerability and its counterpart, resilience, is analysed and evaluated by using a comprehensive approach, a better understanding of the vulnerability-influencing parameters could be achieved, taking into account the interdependencies and interactions between the disciplinary foci. Thereby the overall aim of this work is not to develop another integrative approach for vulnerability assessment, different approaches are rather applied by using a vulnerability-of-place criterion, and key issues of vulnerability are reconsidered aiming at a general illustration of the situation in a densely populated mountain region of Europe.

Fuchs, Sven

2010-05-01

124

Social vulnerability indicators as a sustainable planning tool  

SciTech Connect

In the face of global warming and environmental change, the conventional strategy of resource centralization will not be able to cope with a future of increasingly extreme climate events and related disasters. It may even contribute to inter-regional disparities as a result of these events. To promote sustainable development, this study offers a case study of developmental planning in Chiayi, Taiwan and a review of the relevant literature to propose a framework of social vulnerability indicators at the township level. The proposed framework can not only be used to measure the social vulnerability of individual townships in Chiayi, but also be used to capture the spatial developmental of Chiayi. Seventeen social vulnerability indicators provide information in five dimensions. Owing to limited access to relevant data, the values of only 13 indicators were calculated. By simply summarizing indicators without using weightings and by using zero-mean normalization to standardize the indicators, this study calculates social vulnerability scores for each township. To make social vulnerability indicators more useful, this study performs an overlay analysis of social vulnerability and patterns of risk associated with national disasters. The social vulnerability analysis draws on secondary data for 2012 from Taiwan's National Geographic Information System. The second layer of analysis consists of the flood potential ratings of the Taiwan Water Resources Agency as an index of biophysical vulnerability. The third layer consists of township-level administrative boundaries. Analytical results reveal that four out of the 18 townships in Chiayi not only are vulnerable to large-scale flooding during serious flood events, but also have the highest degree of social vulnerability. Administrative boundaries, on which social vulnerability is based, do not correspond precisely to “cross-administrative boundaries,” which are characteristics of the natural environment. This study adopts an exploratory approach that provides Chiayi and other government agencies with a foundation for sustainable strategic planning for environmental change. The final section offers four suggestions concerning the implications of social vulnerability for local development planning. -- Highlights: • This study proposes a framework of social vulnerability indicators at the township level in Chiayi County, Taiwan. • Seventeen social vulnerability indicators are categorized into four dimensions. • This study performs a three-layer overlay analysis of social vulnerability and natural disaster risk patterns. • 4 out of the 18 townships not only have potential for large-scale flooding, but also high degree of social vulnerability. • This study provides a foundation for sustainable strategic planning to deal with environmental change. • Four suggestions are proposed regarding the implications of social vulnerability for local development planning.

Lee, Yung-Jaan, E-mail: yungjaanlee@gmail.com

2014-01-15

125

Rivers and groundwater vulnerability to accidental pollutions: Spatial analysis of vulnerability areas  

SciTech Connect

The determination of the water resource vulnerability is a necessary step for the prevention of accidental pollution. When rivers or aquifers are used for water supply, it is very useful to forecast pollutant flow velocity in order to determine travel time between the potential pollution points and the intake. Usually, water resource vulnerability cartography takes only distance from intakes into account. But other physical factors are involved in pollutant propagation: slope and soil texture. It is necessary to define a method for automatic cartography of vulnerability zones around the intakes. For this aim, the authors map spatial distribution of the travel time on the resource catchment (river, lake, or well). This typical problem of propagation requires a specific spatial analysis: start from the river or the well and extend the zone upstream according to the velocity values. It is an iterative process: for each selected cell, the neighboring cells which contribute to the inflow are first determined. Then, for these cells, the flow velocity values are used to determine a cumulate travel time to the river or to the well. Eventually, a travel time map is obtained which controls a good deal of the vulnerability. With the aim of decision support for designing protective zones around the rivers and the wells, this method is integrated in a GIS. The method is tested on two areas in the Massif Central (France).

Laurent, F.; Graillot, D.; Dechomets, R. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, Sainte-Etienne (France)

1995-12-31

126

Evaluating intensity parameters for debris flow vulnerability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In mountain regions natural hazard processes such as debris flows or hyper-concentrated flows repeatedly lead to high damages. After an event, detailed documentation of the meteorological, hydrological and geomorphological indicators are standardized, and additional data on debris covering run out areas, indicators for processes velocity and transported volumes are gathered. Information on deposition height of debris is an important parameter to estimate the intensity of the process impacting the buildings and infrastructure and hence to establish vulnerability curves. However, the deposition height of mobilized material in settlements and on infrastructure is mostly not directly evaluated because recovery work starts immediately or even during the event leading to a removal of accumulated material. Different approaches exist to reconstruct deposition heights after torrent events, such as mind mapping, comparison of LIDAR-based DEM before and after the event as well as the reconstruction by using photo documentation and the estimation of deposition heights according to standardised elements at buildings and infrastructure. In our study, these different approaches to estimate deposition height and the spatial distribution of the accumulated material are applied and compared against each other by using the case study of the debris flow event in Brienz (Switzerland) which occurred during the serve flood events of August 2005 in the Alps. Within the analysis, different factors including overall costs and time consumption (manpower, equipment), accuracy and preciseness are compared and evaluated to establish optimal maps of the extent and deposition depth after torrent events and to integrate this information in the vulnerability analysis.

Keiler, Margreth

2014-05-01

127

Vulnerability: The Crossroads of Frailty and Delirium  

PubMed Central

Frailty and delirium, though seemingly distinct syndromes, both result in significant negative health outcomes in older patients. Frailty and delirium may be different clinical expressions of a shared vulnerability to stress in older patients and future research will determine whether this vulnerability is age-related, pathological, genetic, or environmental or, most likely, a combination of all of these factors. This paper explores the clinical overlap of frailty and delirium, describes possible pathophysiological mechanisms linking the two, and proposes research opportunities to further our knowledge of the interrelationships between these important geriatric syndromes. Frailty, a diminished ability to compensate to stressors, is generally viewed as a chronic condition, while delirium is an acute change in attention and cognition. However, there is a developing literature on transitions in frailty status around acute events, as well as on delirium as a chronic, persistent condition. If frailty predisposes a patient to delirium and delirium delays recovery from a stressor, then both syndromes may contribute to a downward spiral of declining function, increasing risk, and negative outcomes. Additionally, frailty and delirium may have shared pathophysiology, such as inflammation, atherosclerosis, and chronic nutritional deficiencies, which will require further investigation. The fields of frailty and delirium are rapidly evolving and future research may help to better define the interrelationship of these common and morbid geriatric syndromes. Because of the heterogeneous pathophysiology and presentation associated with frailty and delirium, typical of all geriatric syndromes, multicomponent prevention and treatment strategies are most likely to be effective, and should be developed and tested. PMID:22091571

Quinlan, Nicky; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Inouye, Sharon K.; Gill, Thomas M.; Kamholz, Barbara; Rudolph, James L.

2011-01-01

128

Passenger Deletions Generate Therapeutic Vulnerabilities in Cancer  

PubMed Central

Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes via homozygous deletion is a prototypic event in the cancer genome, yet such deletions often encompass neighboring genes. We hypothesized that homozygous deletions in such passenger genes can expose cancer-specific therapeutic vulnerabilities in the case where the collaterally deleted gene is a member of a functionally redundant family of genes exercising an essential function. The glycolytic gene Enolase 1 (ENO1) in the 1p36 locus is deleted in Glioblastoma (GBM), which is tolerated by expression of ENO2. We demonstrate that shRNA-mediated extinction of ENO2 selectively inhibits growth, survival, and tumorigenic potential of ENO1-deleted GBM cells and that the enolase inhibitor phosphonoacetohydroxamate (PhAH) is selectively toxic to ENO1-deleted GBM cells relative to ENO1-intact GBM cells or normal astrocytes. The principle of collateral vulnerability should be applicable to other passenger deleted genes encoding functionally-redundant essential activities and provide an effective treatment strategy for cancers harboring such genomic events. PMID:22895339

Muller, Florian L.; Colla, Simona; Aquilanti, Elisa; Manzo, Veronica; Genovese, Giannicola; Lee, Jaclyn; Eisenson, Dan; Narurkar, Rujuta; Deng, Pingna; Nezi, Luigi; Lee, Michelle; Hu, Baoli; Hu, Jian; Sahin, Ergun; Ong, Derrick; Fletcher-Sananikone, Eliot; Ho, Dennis; Kwong, Lawrence; Brennan, Cameron; Wang, Y. Alan; Chin, Lynda; DePinho, Ronald A.

2013-01-01

129

Airport vulnerability assessment: an analytical approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Airport Vulnerability Assessment Project (AVAP) is the direct result of congressional funding of recommendation 3.13 of the White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security. This project takes a new approach to the assessment of U.S. commercial airports. AVAP uses automation, analytical methods and tools to evaluate vulnerability and risk, and to analyze cost/benefits in a more quantitative manner. This paper addresses both the process used to conduct this program, as well as a generalized look at the results, which have been achieved for the initial airport assessments. The process description covers the acquisition approach, the project structure, and a review of the various methodologies and tools being used by the sever performing organizations (Abacus Technology, Battelle, CTI, Lockwood Greene, Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, SAIC, and Science & Engineering Associates). The tools described include ASSESS, SAM, RiskWatch, CASRAP, and AVAT. Included in the process is the utilization of an advisory panel made up predominantly of experts from the National Laboratories 9Sandia, Oak Ridge, Argonne and Brookhaven). The results portion addresses the findings and products resulting from the initial airport assessments. High level (unrestricted) summaries of the results are presented, along with initial trends in commonly recommended security improvements (countermeasures). Opportunities for the application of optics technology are identified.

Lazarick, Richard T.

1998-12-01

130

Imaging of the carotid artery vulnerable plaque.  

PubMed

Atherosclerosis involving the carotid arteries has a high prevalence in the population worldwide. This condition is significant because accidents of the carotid artery plaque are associated with the development of cerebrovascular events. For this reason, carotid atherosclerotic disease needs to be diagnosed and those determinants that are associated to an increased risk of stroke need to be identified. The degree of stenosis typically has been considered the parameter of choice to determine the therapeutical approach, but several recently published investigations have demonstrated that the degree of luminal stenosis is only an indirect indicator of the atherosclerotic process and that direct assessment of the plaque structure and composition may be key to predict the development of future cerebrovascular ischemic events. The concept of "vulnerable plaque" was born, referring to those plaque's parameters that concur to the instability of the plaque making it more prone to the rupture and distal embolization. The purpose of this review is to describe the imaging characteristics of "vulnerable carotid plaques." PMID:23912494

Saba, Luca; Anzidei, Michele; Marincola, Beatrice Cavallo; Piga, Mario; Raz, Eytan; Bassareo, Pier Paolo; Napoli, Alessandro; Mannelli, Lorenzo; Catalano, Carlo; Wintermark, Max

2014-06-01

131

Vulnerability analysis methods for road networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Road networks rank among the most important lifelines of modern society. They can be damaged by either random or intentional events. Roads are also often affected by natural hazards, the impacts of which are both direct and indirect. Whereas direct impacts (e.g. roads damaged by a landslide or due to flooding) are localized in close proximity to the natural hazard occurrence, the indirect impacts can entail widespread service disabilities and considerable travel delays. The change in flows in the network may affect the population living far from the places originally impacted by the natural disaster. These effects are primarily possible due to the intrinsic nature of this system. The consequences and extent of the indirect costs also depend on the set of road links which were damaged, because the road links differ in terms of their importance. The more robust (interconnected) the road network is, the less time is usually needed to secure the serviceability of an area hit by a disaster. These kinds of networks also demonstrate a higher degree of resilience. Evaluating road network structures is therefore essential in any type of vulnerability and resilience analysis. There are a range of approaches used for evaluation of the vulnerability of a network and for identification of the weakest road links. Only few of them are, however, capable of simulating the impacts of the simultaneous closure of numerous links, which often occurs during a disaster. The primary problem is that in the case of a disaster, which usually has a large regional extent, the road network may remain disconnected. The majority of the commonly used indices use direct computation of the shortest paths or time between OD (origin - destination) pairs and therefore cannot be applied when the network breaks up into two or more components. Since extensive break-ups often occur in cases of major disasters, it is important to study the network vulnerability in these cases as well, so that appropriate steps can be taken in order to make it more resilient. Performing such an analysis of network break-ups requires consideration of the network as a whole, ideally identifying all the cases generated by simultaneous closure of multiple links and evaluating them using various criteria. The spatial distribution of settlements, important companies and the overall population in the nodes of the network are several factors, apart from the topology of the network which could be taken into account when computing vulnerability indices and identifying the weakest links and/or weakest link combinations. However, even for small networks (i.e., hundreds of nodes and links), the problem of break-up identification becomes extremely difficult to resolve. The naive approaches of the brute force examination consequently fail and more elaborated algorithms have to be applied. We address the problem of evaluating the vulnerability of road networks in our work by simulating the impacts of the simultaneous closure of multiple roads/links. We present an ongoing work on a sophisticated algorithm focused on the identification of network break-ups and evaluating them by various criteria.

Bíl, Michal; Vodák, Rostislav; Kube?ek, Jan; Rebok, Tomáš; Svoboda, Tomáš

2014-05-01

132

Vulnerability of housing buildings in Bucharest, Romania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author participates to the World Housing Encyclopedia project (www.world-housing.net), an internet based database of housing buildings in earthquake prone areas of the world. This is a voluntary project run by the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, Oakland, California and the International Association of Earthquake Engineering, financial means being available only for the website where the information is shared. For broader dissemination in 2004 a summary publication of the reports to date was published. The database can be querried for various parameters and browsed after geographic distribution. Participation is open to any housing experts. Between 2003 and 2006 the author was also member of the editorial board. The author contributed numerous reports about building types in Romania, and each one about building types in Germany and Switzerland. This presentation will be about the contributed reports on building types in Romania. To the Encyclopedia eight reports on building types from Bucharest were contributed, while in further research of the author one more was similarly described regarding the vulnerability and the seismic retrofit. The selection of these types was done considering the historic development of the built substance in Bucharest from 1850 on, time from which a representative amount of housing buildings which can be classified in typologies can be found in Bucharest. While the structural types are not necessarily characteristic for the style, since the style has other time limits, often appearing before the type became common and then remaining being practiced also after another style gained ground, a historic succession can be seen also in this case. The nine types considered can be grouped in seven time categories: - the time 1850-1880, for a vernacular housing type with masonry load bearing walls and timber floors, - the time 1880-1920, for the type of two storey or multi-storey house with masonry walls and timber floors (in which stylistically the "national style" flourished), - the time 1920-1940 for the type with reinforced concrete skeleton for gravitational loads only (in which the "interwar style" or Romanian Modernism flourished), - the time immediately after 1940 (when a strong earthquake struck Bucharest), somehow 1940-1947, when the former structural type was continued, but with some improvements, for which a type with reinforced concrete diagonals was considered, - the time 1947-1977, before the strong earthquake from 1977, when cast-in-situ reinforced concrete structural wall buildings were spread. Two types are considered, one which displayed low earthquake vulnerability and one which displayed high earthquake vulnerability, - the time 1977-1989, after the strong earthquake from 1977 and before the fall on the communist regime, when taking as a reason the strong earthquake the regime started to implement another type of buildings, which structurally often were still reinforced concrete structural wall type, but prefabricated, - the time after 1989, when for more flexibility moment resisting frame was built, and also some of the unfinished moment resisting frame buildings were completed. To have such a complete description of all the building type in a country is not common for the World Housing Encyclopedia, and having them for Romania was due to a particular effort of the author. At the same time the database allows finding similar types in other parts of the world. Broadly speaking, each report included two sections, the first one more extended, on the vulnerability of buildings and the second on the seismic retrofit. The reports contain completed check lists, descriptions of the structural system, photographs and drawings. The accent in this presentation will be on the identification of seismic deficiencies and earthquake resilient features, and the connected typical damages, which all describe the vulnerability.

Bostenaru, M.

2009-04-01

133

Multimodal spectroscopy detects features of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque  

E-print Network

Early detection and treatment of rupture-prone vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is critical to reducing patient mortality associated with cardiovascular disease. The combination of reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman ...

Scepanovic, Obrad R.

134

Assessing Vulnerability to Drought on a pan-European scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past decade, a number of theoretical frameworks have been defined within the Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change communities to assess drought vulnerability at different scales, sectors, socio-political contexts, and geo-climatic conditions. However, there is still little consensus around the criteria, dimensions and factors used in these assessments; and none of them has been applied at a pan-European scale. This is due to a triple complexity. Firstly, drought as a natural hazard is a complex phenomenon due to the difficulty of determining its onset and its multiscale, multifaceted and dynamic nature. Secondly, there is an on-going debate regarding the concept of vulnerability and its constitutive elements, together with an important diversity of theoretical approaches to assess it. Finally, Europe's diversity in bioclimatic conditions, national water use practice and water use policies adds a challenging characteristic for working on pan-European scale. This work addresses the challenge of defining a methodological approach to the assessment of vulnerability factors to drought at a pan-European scale. For this purpose, we first review existing conceptual frameworks as well as of past initiatives for drought vulnerability assessment. The literature review showed that the high complexity of drought vulnerability assessment requires a clear definition of the concept of vulnerability and the associated terms, and that, before undertaking any assessment, it is necessary to clearly define the "vulnerable unit" i.e. replying to the questions 'whose vulnerability is being assessed?' and 'vulnerability to what type of impact?'. In this context, this work proposes the application of a factor-based approach, consisting in the analysis of significant factors that influence vulnerability in the context of specific situations of potential vulnerability. Those situations are framed within the specific drought characteristics of four different geoclimatic macro -regions in Europe (Southern Europe; Central Europe; Eastern Europe; Northern Europe), to allow for comparison among similar vulnerability units within each region. These 'situations' are proposed as a suitable way to delimit vulnerability conditions, as they make explicit under which assumptions are we operating when undertaking the assessment. Vulnerability factors were determined based on literature review and expert-based validation while the vulnerability situations were derived from a database of registered drought impacts by sectors (European Drought Impact Report Inventory, EDII). The resulting picture is both informative and diagnostic: it provides guidance for the identification of areas and sectors where drought impact needs to be mitigated, and allows for the identification of issues (e.g. adaptive capacity features) that should be addressed to achieve that mitigation of drought impact. The approach is being tested for drought vulnerability assessment on a pan-European scale.

Urquijo, Julia; De Stefano, Lucia; González-Tánago, Itziar; Blauhut, Veit; Stahl, Kerstin

2014-05-01

135

Empirical Estimates of 0Day Vulnerabilities in Control Systems  

SciTech Connect

We define a 0Day vulnerability to be any vulnerability, in deployed software, which has been discovered by at least one person but has not yet been publicly announced or patched. These 0Day vulnerabilities are of particular interest when assessing the risk to well managed control systems which have already effectively mitigated the publicly known vulnerabilities. In these well managed systems the risk contribution from 0Days will have proportionally increased. To aid understanding of how great a risk 0Days may pose to control systems, an estimate of how many are in existence is needed. Consequently, using the 0Day definition given above, we developed and applied a method for estimating how many 0Day vulnerabilities are in existence on any given day. The estimate is made by: empirically characterizing the distribution of the lifespans, measured in days, of 0Day vulnerabilities; determining the number of vulnerabilities publicly announced each day; and applying a novel method for estimating the number of 0Day vulnerabilities in existence on any given day using the number of vulnerabilities publicly announced each day and the previously derived distribution of 0Day lifespans. The method was first applied to a general set of software applications by analyzing the 0Day lifespans of 491 software vulnerabilities and using the daily rate of vulnerability announcements in the National Vulnerability Database. This led to a conservative estimate that in the worst year there were, on average, 2500 0Day software related vulnerabilities in existence on any given day. Using a smaller but intriguing set of 15 0Day software vulnerability lifespans representing the actual time from discovery to public disclosure, we then made a more aggressive estimate. In this case, we estimated that in the worst year there were, on average, 4500 0Day software vulnerabilities in existence on any given day. We then proceeded to identify the subset of software applications likely to be used in some control systems, analyzed the associated subset of vulnerabilities, and characterized their lifespans. Using the previously developed method of analysis, we very conservatively estimated 250 control system related 0Day vulnerabilities in existence on any given day. While reasonable, this first order estimate for control systems is probably far more conservative than those made for general software systems since the estimate did not include vulnerabilities unique to control system specific components. These control system specific vulnerabilities were unable to be included in the estimate for a variety of reasons with the most problematic being that the public announcement of unique control system vulnerabilities is very sparse. Consequently, with the intent to improve the above 0Day estimate for control systems, we first identified the additional, unique to control systems, vulnerability estimation constraints and then investigated new mechanisms which may be useful for estimating the number of unique 0Day software vulnerabilities found in control system components. We proceeded to identify a number of new mechanisms and approaches for estimating and incorporating control system specific vulnerabilities into an improved 0Day estimation method. These new mechanisms and approaches appear promising and will be more rigorously evaluated during the course of the next year.

Miles A. McQueen; Wayne F. Boyer; Sean M. McBride; Trevor A. McQueen

2009-01-01

136

An Integrated Approach for Urban Earthquake Vulnerability Analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The earthquake risk for an urban area has increased over the years due to the increasing complexities in urban environments. The main reasons are the location of major cities in hazard prone areas, growth in urbanization and population and rising wealth measures. In recent years physical examples of these factors are observed through the growing costs of major disasters in urban areas which have stimulated a demand for in-depth evaluation of possible strategies to manage the large scale damaging effects of earthquakes. Understanding and formulation of urban earthquake risk requires consideration of a wide range of risk aspects, which can be handled by developing an integrated approach. In such an integrated approach, an interdisciplinary view should be incorporated into the risk assessment. Risk assessment for an urban area requires prediction of vulnerabilities related to elements at risk in the urban area and integration of individual vulnerability assessments. However, due to complex nature of an urban environment, estimating vulnerabilities and integrating them necessities development of integrated approaches in which vulnerabilities of social, economical, structural (building stock and infrastructure), cultural and historical heritage are estimated for a given urban area over a given time period. In this study an integrated urban earthquake vulnerability assessment framework, which considers vulnerability of urban environment in a holistic manner and performs the vulnerability assessment for the smallest administrative unit, namely at neighborhood scale, is proposed. The main motivation behind this approach is the inability to implement existing vulnerability assessment methodologies for countries like Turkey, where the required data are usually missing or inadequate and decision makers seek for prioritization of their limited resources in risk reduction in the administrative districts from which they are responsible. The methodology integrates socio-economical, structural, coastal, ground condition, organizational vulnerabilities, as well as accessibility to critical services within the framework. The proposed framework has the following eight components: Seismic hazard analysis, soil response analysis, tsunami inundation analysis, structural vulnerability analysis, socio-economic vulnerability analysis, accessibility to critical services, GIS-based integrated vulnerability assessment, and visualization of vulnerabilities in 3D virtual city model The integrated model for various vulnerabilities obtained for the urban area is developed in GIS environment by using individual vulnerability assessments for considered elements at risk and serve for establishing the backbone of the spatial decision support system. The stages followed in the model are: Determination of a common mapping unit for each aspect of urban earthquake vulnerability, formation of a geo-database for the vulnerabilities, evaluation of urban vulnerability based on multi attribute utility theory with various weighting algorithms, mapping of the evaluated integrated earthquake risk in geographic information systems (GIS) in the neighborhood scale. The framework is also applicable to larger geographical mapping scales, for example, the building scale. When illustrating the results in building scale, 3-D visualizations with remote sensing data is used so that decision-makers can easily interpret the outputs. The proposed vulnerability assessment framework is flexible and can easily be applied to urban environments at various geographical scales with different mapping units. The obtained total vulnerability maps for the urban area provide a baseline for the development of risk reduction strategies for the decision makers. Moreover, as several aspects of elements at risk for an urban area is considered through vulnerability analyses, effect on changes in vulnerability conditions on the total can easily be determined. The developed approach also enables decision makers to monitor temporal and spatial changes in the urban environment due to implementation of

Düzgün, H. S.; Yücemen, M. S.; Kalaycioglu, H. S.

2009-04-01

137

Intravascular probe for detection of vulnerable plaque  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coronary angiography is unable to define the status of the atheroma, and only measures the luminal dimensions of the blood vessel, without providing information about plaque content. Up to 70% of heart attacks are caused by minimally obstructive vulnerable plaques, which are too small to be detected adequately by angiography. We have developed an intravascular imaging detector to identify vulnerable coronary artery plaques. The detector works by sensing beta or conversion electron radiotracer emissions from plaque-binding radiotracers. The device overcomes the technical constraints of size, sensitivity and conformance to the intravascular environment. The detector at the distal end of the catheter uses six 7mm long by 0.5mm diameter scintillation fibers coupled to 1.5m long plastic fibers. The fibers are offset from each other longitudinally by 6mm and arranged spirally around a guide wire in the catheter. At the proximal end of the catheter the optical fibers are coupled to an interface box with a snap on connector. The interface box contains a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT) to decode the individual fibers. The whole detector assembly fits into an 8-French (2.7 mm in diameter) catheter. The PSPMT image is further decoded with software to give a linear image, the total instantaneous count rate and an audio output whose tone corresponds to the count rate. The device was tested with F-18 and Tl-204 sources. Spectrometric response, spatial resolution, sensitivity and beta to background ratio were measured. System resolution is 6 mm and the sensitivity is >500 cps / micrometers Ci when the source is 1 mm from the detector. The beta to background ratio was 11.2 for F-18 measured on a single fiber. The current device will lead to a system allowing imaging of labeled vulnerable plaque in coronary arteries. This type of signature is expected to enable targeted and cost effective therapies to prevent acute coronary artery diseases such as: unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.

Patt, Bradley E.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; MacDonald, Lawrence R.; Yamaguchi, Yuko; Tull, Carolyn R.; Janecek, Martin; Hoffman, Edward J.; Strauss, H. William; Tsugita, Ross; Ghazarossian, Vartan

2001-12-01

138

Modeling groundwater vulnerability to pollution using Optimized DRASTIC model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prediction accuracy of the conventional DRASTIC model (CDM) algorithm for groundwater vulnerability assessment is severely limited by the inherent subjectivity and uncertainty in the integration of data obtained from various sources. This study attempts to overcome these problems by exploring the potential of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) technique as a decision support model to optimize the CDM algorithm. The AHP technique was utilized to compute the normalized weights for the seven parameters of the CDM to generate an optimized DRASTIC model (ODM) algorithm. The DRASTIC parameters integrated with the ODM algorithm predicted which among the study areas is more likely to become contaminated as a result of activities at or near the land surface potential. Five vulnerability zones, namely: no vulnerable(NV), very low vulnerable (VLV), low vulnerable (LV), moderate vulnerable (MV) and high vulnerable (HV) were identified based on the vulnerability index values estimated with the ODM algorithm. Results show that more than 50% of the area belongs to both moderate and high vulnerable zones on the account of the spatial analysis of the produced ODM-based groundwater vulnerability prediction map (GVPM).The prediction accuracy of the ODM-based - GVPM with the groundwater pH and manganese (Mn) concentrations established correlation factors (CRs) result of 90 % and 86 % compared to the CRs result of 62 % and 50 % obtained for the validation accuracy of the CDM - based GVPM. The comparative results, indicated that the ODM-based produced GVPM is more reliable than the CDM - based produced GVPM in the study area. The study established the efficacy of AHP as a spatial decision support technique in enhancing environmental decision making with particular reference to future groundwater vulnerability assessment.

Mogaji, Kehinde Anthony; San Lim, Hwee; Abdullar, Khiruddin

2014-06-01

139

An integrated approach to vulnerability assessment.  

SciTech Connect

How might the quality of a city's delivered water be compromised through natural or malevolent causes? What are the consequences of a contamination event? What water utility assets are at greatest risk to compromise? Utility managers have been scrambling to find answers to these questions since the events of 9/11. However, even before this date utility mangers were concerned with the potential for system contamination through natural or accidental causes. Unfortunately, an integrated tool for assessing both the threat of attack/failure and the subsequent consequence is lacking. To help with this problem we combine Markov Latent Effects modeling for performing threat assessment calculations with the widely used pipe hydraulics/transport code, EPANET, for consequences analysis. Together information from these models defines the risk posed to the public due to natural or malevolent contamination of a water utility system. Here, this risk assessment framework is introduced and demonstrated within the context of vulnerability assessment for water distribution systems.

Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Jurado, Sariah Ruth (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Silva, Consuelo Juanita

2005-03-01

140

Building vulnerability assessment based on cloud model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims at building a general framework for estimating building vulnerability to blast-fragmentation warhead of a missile. Considering the fuzziness and randomness existing in the damage criterion rules, cloud models are applied to represent the qualitative concepts. On the basis of building geometric description, element criticality analysis, blast wave and fragment movement description, and meeting analysis of fragments and target, kill probabilities of the components are estimated by the shot line method. The damage state of the whole building given the threat is obtained by cloud model based uncertainty reasoning and the proposed similarity measure, enabling both randomness of probability reasoning and the fuzziness of the traditional fuzzy logic to be considered. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can provide useful reference for optimizing warhead design and mission efficiency evaluation.

Sun, Xixia; Cai, Chao

2013-10-01

141

Homelessness and our most vulnerable patients.  

PubMed

The scope of homelessness among children is broad and growing, and its affect on physical and mental health is extensive. It may seem daunting for individual providers to make an impact on the challenges faced by these most vulnerable of patients. However, healthcare providers who care for homeless children can improve more than just their physical health by understanding barriers specific to this population, and addressing them through minor changes in standard practice; education of self, staff, and colleagues; and advocacy. By collaborating with parents and local agencies, clinicians can make tangible progress in improving the health of their homeless patients and can provide parents with the information and support they need to prioritize a child's health needs appropriately. Ultimately, providers should strive to make their practices a true medical home, as it may be the only home a child knows. PMID:19186593

Olszyk, Mark D; Goodell, Melly

2008-01-01

142

Vulnerability Analysis of PAP for RFID Tags  

E-print Network

In this paper, we analyze the security of an RFID authentication protocol proposed by Liu and Bailey [1], called Privacy and Authentication Protocol (PAP), and show its vulnerabilities and faulty assumptions. PAP is a privacy and authentication protocol designed for passive tags. The authors claim that the protocol, being resistant to commonly assumed attacks, requires little computation and provides privacy protection and authentication. Nevertheless, we propose two traceability attacks and an impersonation attack, in which the revealing of secret information (i.e., secret key and static identifier) shared between the tag and the reader is unnecessary. Moreover, we review all basic assumptions on which the design of the protocol resides, and show how many of them are incorrect and are contrary to the common assumptions in RFID systems.

Naser, Mu'awya; Rafie, Mohammd; van der Lubbe, Jan

2010-01-01

143

[Increased capillary vulnerability in diabetic retinopathy].  

PubMed

The retinal capillary network is isolated by Cogan and Kuwabara's method. During prolonged trypsinization the capillaries lose their endothelial cells and pericytes and are transformed into cell-free tubes consisting of basement membranes. This occurs earlier in patients with stage I or II retinopathy than in controls with normal carbohydrate metabolism and patients with stage I hypertension. Therefore, the intercellular junctions and the adhesion between endothelial cells and subendothelial basement lamella are more loosely structured in diabetics than normal subjects, and the cells do not resist the tryptic attack as well. The higher capillary vulnerability demonstrated in these experiments contributes to bleeding and exudation. Whether the local loss of cells in the microcirculation of diabetics occurs primarily in vivo or is only unmasked in vitro manifesting pre-existing cellular damage is discussed. PMID:3374013

Fuchs, U; Tinius, W; Gonschorek, S; vom Scheidt, J

1988-03-01

144

TALC: Using Desktop Graffiti to Fight Software Vulnerability  

E-print Network

TALC: Using Desktop Graffiti to Fight Software Vulnerability Kandha Sankarapandian, Travis Little. Unfortunately, keeping software up-to-date is notoriously difficult for home users. This paper introduces TALC, a system to encourage and help home users patch vulnerable software. TALC increases home users' awareness

Edwards, Keith

145

Environmental health risks and vulnerability in post-conflict regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of environmental factors during and after conflict has often not received adequate attention, and is of particular importance when assessing those groups most vulnerable to changing conditions. Post-war reconstruction and aid policies must take note of which groups are most susceptible to environmental health risks, and how the conflict itself often created new vulnerabilities through deliberate destruction of

Chad M. Briggs; Moneeza Walji; Lucy Anderson

2009-01-01

146

Flooding of Industrial Facilities -Vulnerability Reduction in Practice  

E-print Network

Flooding of Industrial Facilities - Vulnerability Reduction in Practice Agnès Vallée*a , Christophe any improvement. As human activities historically developed in river areas and floodplains, industrial facilities are structurally exposed to flooding. Past events witnessed industrial vulnerability to flooding

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

147

Seismic Vulnerability Assessment and Retrofitting of the Historic Brooklyn Bridge  

E-print Network

1 Seismic Vulnerability Assessment and Retrofitting of the Historic Brooklyn Bridge Yegian, M. K.1 of the seismic vulnerability assessments of the Brooklyn Bridge, and includes a brief summary of the retrofit.g.arzoumanidis@parsons.com ABSTRACT: A comprehensive seismic investigation of the Brooklyn Bridge including its masonry approach spans

Yegian, Mishac

148

Fear the EAR: Discovering and Mitigating Execution After Redirect Vulnerabilities  

E-print Network

Fear the EAR: Discovering and Mitigating Execution After Redirect Vulnerabilities Adam Doupé, Bryce Execution After Redirect, or EAR. A web application de- veloper can introduce an EAR by calling a redirect web frameworks are to EAR vulnerabilities. We then discuss the results from the EAR challenge

California at Santa Barbara, University of

149

Evaluation method of ecological environment vulnerability and its application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Karst area in Chongqing is typical eco-environmental vulnerable area, where farmland is insufficient and degeneration of soil is serious, ability of enduring the natural calamities is vulnerable. Consequently, coordination between development of social economy and eco-environment is inferior, and sustainable developmental ability is feeble. The Karst area of Chongqing in China as a study case , this paper picks

DONGJIE GUAN; BAOSHAN HU; WEIJUN GAO

2007-01-01

150

The asset vulnerability framework: Reassessing urban poverty reduction strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying what the poor have, rather than what they do not have, focuses on their assets. This paper contributes to the extensive vulnerability\\/assets literature, by categorizing the assets of the urban poor in terms of an “asset vulnerability framework.” These include both tangible assets, such as labor and human capital, less familiar productive assets, such as housing, as well as

Caroline O. N. Moser

1998-01-01

151

Developing a methodology for road network vulnerability analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will describe a new project at KTH conce rning road network vulnerability, as well as present some early results. The aim of the proje ct is to develop the methodology of vulner- ability analysis for road networks and to illustrat e how this methodology can be used for gen- erating a basis for the decision-making process con cerning

Erik Jenelius; Lars-Göran Mattsson

152

Development of Social Indicators of Fishing Community Vulnerability and Resilience  

E-print Network

Development of Social Indicators of Fishing Community Vulnerability and Resilience in the U and Resilience in the U.S. Southeast and Northeast Regions Michael Jepson1 and Lisa L. Colburn2 1 Southeast. Development of Social Indicators of Fishing Community Vulnerability and Resilience in the U.S. Southeast

153

Vulnerability, Adaptation and Climate Disasters: A Conceptual Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

* (MDGs) and to secure fairer trade as part of the Doha Development Agenda will also be strengthened in 2005. After the media headlines have faded, what impact will these frameworks have on the lives of the poor and others vulnerable to climate impacts? Will climate vulnerabilities be integrated in all these frameworks with lasting benefits? Will the interests and

Farhana Yamin; Atiq Rahman; Saleemul Huq

2005-01-01

154

A PRELIMINARY MODEL OF THE VULNERABILITY BLACK MARKET  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of vulnerability black markets enhances the opportunities for malicious actors to launch exploits toward computer networks, to commit cyber-crime and to perform other unlawful activities. Asymmetric information, inadequate software testing, lack of incentive to improve quality of the software are presumed to be the most important grounds of the software vulnerability problems. This work is a preliminary model

Jaziar Radianti

155

Identifying Indicators of State Change and Forecasting Future Vulnerability  

E-print Network

Threshold Dynamics in Boreal Ecosystems · Models good at estimating changes in organic layer thickness and permafrost vulnerability. · Don't simulate changes in forest productivity due to changes in vegetation shiftIdentifying Indicators of State Change and Forecasting Future Vulnerability in Alaskan Boreal

Ruess, Roger W.

156

New Method for Vulnerability Assessment of Power System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vulnerability assessment in power systems is to determine a power system`s ability to continue to provide service in case of an unforeseen catastrophic contingency. It combines information on the level of system security as well as information on a wide range of scenarios, events and contingencies. To assess the level of system strength or weakness relative to the occurrence of an undesired event, a quantitative measure based on vulnerability index is often considered. In this study, a new vulnerability assessment method is proposed based on total power system loss which considers power generation loss due to generation outage, power line loss due to line outage, increase in total load and amount of load disconnected. The objective of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of the new proposed method in assessing the vulnerability of power system when subject to various contingencies. The performance of the proposed vulnerability assessment method is compared with other known vulnerability assessment methods based on anticipated loss of load as well as comprehensive system information of individual system components. In this study, vulnerability analysis was carried out on the IEEE 24 bus test system using the Power System Analysis and Toolbox (PSAT) and the vulnerability indices were calculated using the Matlab program. Obtained results, indicate the efficiency of proposed method.

Haidar, Ahmed M. A.; Mohamed, Azah; Hussain, Aini

157

Development and Demography of Perceived Vulnerability in Youngsters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to assess children's perceived vulnerability to health problems, a longitudinal study was designed to observe third and seventh graders at five intervals over a 2-year period. The hypotheses tested concerned relationships between perceived vulnerability to health problems and age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Data were obtained from a…

Gochman, David S.

158

Automatically Building an Information-Security Vulnerability Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our goal was to collect data from the myriad computer vulnerability notices that exist on the World Wide Web and to mine it for interesting information and patterns. Surprisingly, no single database currently brings together all the various kinds of data from the vulnerability sites. Of particular interest to us was author and discoverer information since this provides valuable information

A. D. Arnold; Bret M. Hyla; Neil C. Rowe

2006-01-01

159

Chemical-Terrorism Vulnerability Information Guidance Document January 7, 2011  

E-print Network

Chemical-Terrorism Vulnerability Information Guidance Document January 7, 2011 The following is a transcription of the Department of Homeland Security's (DHS) Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standard (CFATS) section on Chemical-Terrorism Vulnerability Information (CVI) 6 CFR 27.400. The Program Manager's comments

Pawlowski, Wojtek

160

Model-Based Vulnerability Testing of Payment Protocol Implementations  

E-print Network

of online payment systems. These attacks exploit hidden vulnerabilities in payment protocol implementations of the most used payment protocols: PayPal Express. 1. INTRODUCTION The tremendous increase in onlineModel-Based Vulnerability Testing of Payment Protocol Implementations Ghazi Maatoug INRIA Nancy

Mödersheim, Sebastian

161

Automatic Discovery of API-Level Vulnerabilities Vinod Ganapathy  

E-print Network

Automatic Discovery of API-Level Vulnerabilities Vinod Ganapathy , Sanjit A. Seshia , Somesh Jha-MADISON COMPUTER SCIENCES TECHNICAL REPORT: UW-CS-TR-1512, JULY 2004. Abstract A system is vulnerable to an API-level attack if its security can be compromised by invoking an allowed sequence of operations from its API. We

Ganapathy, Vinod

162

Vulnerability Assessment of Cyber Security in Power Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyber system plays an important role in supervising and controlling power system. Besides its contribution of much convenience to power industry, the cyber system brings some potential danger because of its inherent vulnerability. It is significant to assess the vulnerability of cyber system, determine its risk to power industry, find out the weak parts, set appropriate response to the probable

Yu Jiaxi; Mao Anjia; Guo Zhizhong

2006-01-01

163

Towards a Definition of Orphaned and Vulnerable Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HIV epidemic presents challenges including orphans and a large mass of children rendered vulnerable by the epidemic and other societal forces. Focus on orphaned and vulnerable children (OVC) is important, but needs accurate definition. Twelve focus group interviews of service providers, leaders in these communities, OVC and their caretakers were conducted at six project sites across Botswana, South Africa

Donald Skinner; N. Tsheko; S. Mtero-Munyati; M. Segwabe; P. Chibatamoto; S. Mfecane; B. Chandiwana; N. Nkomo; S. Tlou; G. Chitiyo

2006-01-01

164

International Space Station: Meteoroid/Orbital Debris Survivability and Vulnerability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the surviability and vulnerability of the International Space Station (ISS) from the threat posed by meteoroid and orbital debris. The topics include: (1) Space station natural and induced environments (2) Meteoroid and orbital debris threat definition (3) Requirement definition (4) Assessment methods (5) Shield development and (6) Component vulnerability

Graves, Russell

2000-01-01

165

Relational vulnerabilities of incarcerated and reentry mothers: therapeutic implications.  

PubMed

A qualitative study involving a follow-up interview with 10 incarcerated and reentry mothers in rural southwest and central Virginia was conducted to explore the influence that women's close relationships have on their reentry experiences with their families. The Vulnerability Conceptual Model (VCM) was used to sensitize an examination of how incarcerated and reentry mothers negotiate relational vulnerabilities in the context of varying situational vulnerability. Grounded theory analysis revealed three themes that characterized relational vulnerabilities. Given our focus on close relationships and the potential of the VCM to identify opportunities for resilience and vulnerability, we highlighted the influence of ambiguous and ambivalent relationships and unresolved loss and grief due to relationship dissolution or the death of a parent, sibling, child, or intimate partner in the reentry process. The data revealed two types of reentry mothers with divergent trajectories for social reintegration. Implications of these types for therapeutic treatment approaches for reentry women are discussed. PMID:23847275

Few-Demo, April L; Arditti, Joyce A

2014-11-01

166

Analyses Of Two End-User Software Vulnerability Exposure Metrics  

SciTech Connect

The risk due to software vulnerabilities will not be completely resolved in the near future. Instead, putting reliable vulnerability measures into the hands of end-users so that informed decisions can be made regarding the relative security exposure incurred by choosing one software package over another is of importance. To that end, we propose two new security metrics, average active vulnerabilities (AAV) and vulnerability free days (VFD). These metrics capture both the speed with which new vulnerabilities are reported to vendors and the rate at which software vendors fix them. We then examine how the metrics are computed using currently available datasets and demonstrate their estimation in a simulation experiment using four different browsers as a case study. Finally, we discuss how the metrics may be used by the various stakeholders of software and to software usage decisions.

Jason L. Wright; Miles McQueen; Lawrence Wellman

2012-08-01

167

A framework for vulnerability analysis in sustainability science  

PubMed Central

Global environmental change and sustainability science increasingly recognize the need to address the consequences of changes taking place in the structure and function of the biosphere. These changes raise questions such as: Who and what are vulnerable to the multiple environmental changes underway, and where? Research demonstrates that vulnerability is registered not by exposure to hazards (perturbations and stresses) alone but also resides in the sensitivity and resilience of the system experiencing such hazards. This recognition requires revisions and enlargements in the basic design of vulnerability assessments, including the capacity to treat coupled human–environment systems and those linkages within and without the systems that affect their vulnerability. A vulnerability framework for the assessment of coupled human–environment systems is presented. PMID:12792023

Turner, B. L.; Kasperson, Roger E.; Matson, Pamela A.; McCarthy, James J.; Corell, Robert W.; Christensen, Lindsey; Eckley, Noelle; Kasperson, Jeanne X.; Luers, Amy; Martello, Marybeth L.; Polsky, Colin; Pulsipher, Alexander; Schiller, Andrew

2003-01-01

168

Vulnerable subjects? The case of nonhuman animals in experimentation.  

PubMed

The concept of vulnerability is deployed in bioethics to, amongst other things, identify and remedy harms to participants in research, yet although nonhuman animals in experimentation seem intuitively to be vulnerable, this concept and its attendant protections are rarely applied to research animals. I want to argue, however, that this concept is applicable to nonhuman animals and that a new taxonomy of vulnerability developed in the context of human bioethics can be applied to research animals. This taxonomy does useful explanatory work, helping to pinpoint the limitations of the 3Rs/welfare approach currently adopted in the context of animal experimentation. On this account, the 3Rs/welfare approach fails to deliver for nonhuman animals in experimentation because it effectively addresses only one element of their vulnerability (inherent) and paradoxically through the institution of Animal Ethics Committees intended to protect experimental animals in fact generates new vulnerabilities that exacerbate their already precarious situation. PMID:24197931

Johnson, Jane

2013-12-01

169

Resolving Vulnerability Identification Errors using Security Requirements on Business Process Models  

E-print Network

/value - It is shown that vulnerability identification errors occur in practice. With the explicit evaluationResolving Vulnerability Identification Errors using Security Requirements on Business Process are usually identified by information-gathering techniques. However, vulnerability identification errors

Jurjens, Jan

170

Can Fault Prediction Models and Metrics be Used for Vulnerability Prediction? Yonghee Shin and Laurie Williams  

E-print Network

Can Fault Prediction Models and Metrics be Used for Vulnerability Prediction? Yonghee Shin general faults in software - thinking like an attacker. Therefore, security engineers looking security vulnerabilities rather than faults. At the same time, faults and vulnerabilities have

Young, R. Michael

171

75 FR 51806 - Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...EPA-HQ-ORD-2010-0701] Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment: Four...the draft document titled, ``Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment: Four...their vulnerability to future climate change. The report is intended to...

2010-08-23

172

Assessing the vulnerability of buildings to tsunami in Sydney  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Australia is vulnerable to the impacts of tsunamis and exposure along the SE coast of New South Wales is especially high. Significantly, this is the same area reported to have been affected by repeated large magnitude tsunamis during the Holocene. Efforts are under way to complete probabilistic risk assessments for the region but local government planners and emergency risk managers need information now about building vulnerability in order to develop appropriate risk management strategies. We use the newly revised PTVA-3 Model (Dall'Osso et al., 2009) to assess the relative vulnerability of buildings to damage from a "worst case tsunami" defined by our latest understanding of regional risk - something never before undertaken in Australia. We present selected results from an investigation of building vulnerability within the local government area of Manly - an iconic coastal area of Sydney. We show that a significant proportion of buildings (in particular, residential structures) are classified as having "High" and "Very High" Relative Vulnerability Index scores. Furthermore, other important buildings (e.g., schools, nursing homes and transport structures) are also vulnerable to damage. Our results have serious implications for immediate emergency risk management, longer-term land-use zoning and development, and building design and construction standards. Based on the work undertaken here, we recommend further detailed assessment of the vulnerability of coastal buildings in at risk areas, development of appropriate risk management strategies and a detailed program of community engagement to increase overall resilience.

Dall'Osso, F.; Gonella, M.; Gabbianelli, G.; Withycombe, G.; Dominey-Howes, D.

2009-12-01

173

Calcium Is a Major Determinant of Xylem Vulnerability to Cavitation  

PubMed Central

Xylem vulnerability to cavitation is a key parameter in the drought tolerance of trees, but little is known about the control mechanisms involved. Cavitation is thought to occur when an air bubble penetrates through a pit wall, and would hence be influenced by the wall's porosity. We first tested the role of wall-bound calcium in vulnerability to cavitation in Fagus sylvatica. Stems perfused with solutions of oxalic acid, EGTA, or sodium phosphate (NaPO4) were found to be more vulnerable to cavitation. The NaPO4-induced increase in vulnerability to cavitation was linked to calcium removal from the wall. In contrast, xylem hydraulic conductance was unaffected by the chemical treatments, demonstrating that the mechanisms controlling vulnerability to cavitation and hydraulic resistance are uncoupled. The NaPO4 solution was then perfused into stems from 13 tree species possessing highly contrasted vulnerability to cavitation. Calcium was found to be a major determinant of between-species differences in vulnerability to cavitation. This was evidenced in angiosperms as well as conifer species, thus supporting the hypothesis of a common mechanism in drought-induced cavitation. PMID:20547703

Herbette, Stephane; Cochard, Herve

2010-01-01

174

An Extreme-Value Approach to Anomaly Vulnerability Identification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this paper is to present a method for importance analysis in parametric probabilistic modeling where the result of interest is the identification of potential engineering vulnerabilities associated with postulated anomalies in system behavior. In the context of Accident Precursor Analysis (APA), under which this method has been developed, these vulnerabilities, designated as anomaly vulnerabilities, are conditions that produce high risk in the presence of anomalous system behavior. The method defines a parameter-specific Parameter Vulnerability Importance measure (PVI), which identifies anomaly risk-model parameter values that indicate the potential presence of anomaly vulnerabilities, and allows them to be prioritized for further investigation. This entails analyzing each uncertain risk-model parameter over its credible range of values to determine where it produces the maximum risk. A parameter that produces high system risk for a particular range of values suggests that the system is vulnerable to the modeled anomalous conditions, if indeed the true parameter value lies in that range. Thus, PVI analysis provides a means of identifying and prioritizing anomaly-related engineering issues that at the very least warrant improved understanding to reduce uncertainty, such that true vulnerabilities may be identified and proper corrective actions taken.

Everett, Chris; Maggio, Gaspare; Groen, Frank

2010-01-01

175

Predicting vulnerability to sleep deprivation using diffusion model parameters.  

PubMed

We used diffusion modelling to predict vulnerability to decline in psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) performance following a night of total sleep deprivation (SD). A total of 135 healthy young adults (69 women, age = 21.9 ± 1.7 years) participated in several within-subject cross-over design studies that incorporated the PVT. Participants were classified as vulnerable (lower tertile) or non-vulnerable (upper tertile) according to their change in lapse rate [lapse = reaction time (RT) ? 500 ms] between the evening before (ESD) and the morning after SD. RT data were fitted using Ratcliff's diffusion model. Although both groups showed significant change in RT during SD, there was no significant group difference in RT during the ESD session. In contrast, during ESD, the mean diffusion drift of vulnerable subjects was significantly lower than for non-vulnerable subjects. Mean drift and non-decision times were both adversely affected by sleep deprivation. Both mean drift and non-decision time showed significant state × vulnerability interaction. Diffusion modelling appears to have promise in predicting vulnerability to vigilance decline induced by a night of total sleep deprivation. PMID:24861212

Patanaik, Amiya; Zagorodnov, Vitali; Kwoh, Chee Keong; Chee, Michael W L

2014-10-01

176

Rural Nevada and climate change: vulnerability, beliefs, and risk perception.  

PubMed

In this article, we present the results of a study investigating the influence of vulnerability to climate change as a function of physical vulnerability, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity on climate change risk perception. In 2008/2009, we surveyed Nevada ranchers and farmers to assess their climate change-related beliefs, and risk perceptions, political orientations, and socioeconomic characteristics. Ranchers' and farmers' sensitivity to climate change was measured through estimating the proportion of their household income originating from highly scarce water-dependent agriculture to the total income. Adaptive capacity was measured as a combination of the Social Status Index and the Poverty Index. Utilizing water availability and use, and population distribution GIS databases; we assessed water resource vulnerability in Nevada by zip code as an indicator of physical vulnerability to climate change. We performed correlation tests and multiple regression analyses to examine the impact of vulnerability and its three distinct components on risk perception. We find that vulnerability is not a significant determinant of risk perception. Physical vulnerability alone also does not impact risk perception. Both sensitivity and adaptive capacity increase risk perception. While age is not a significant determinant of it, gender plays an important role in shaping risk perception. Yet, general beliefs such as political orientations and climate change-specific beliefs such as believing in the anthropogenic causes of climate change and connecting the locally observed impacts (in this case drought) to climate change are the most prominent determinants of risk perception. PMID:22583075

Safi, Ahmad Saleh; Smith, William James; Liu, Zhnongwei

2012-06-01

177

Volcanic risk assessment: Quantifying physical vulnerability in the built environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents structured and cost-effective methods for assessing the physical vulnerability of at-risk communities to the range of volcanic hazards, developed as part of the MIA-VITA project (2009-2012). An initial assessment of building and infrastructure vulnerability has been carried out for a set of broadly defined building types and infrastructure categories, with the likelihood of damage considered separately for projectile impact, ash fall loading, pyroclastic density current dynamic pressure and earthquake ground shaking intensities. In refining these estimates for two case study areas: Kanlaon volcano in the Philippines and Fogo volcano in Cape Verde, we have developed guidelines and methodologies for carrying out physical vulnerability assessments in the field. These include identifying primary building characteristics, such as construction material and method, as well as subsidiary characteristics, for example the size and prevalence of openings, that may be important in assessing eruption impacts. At-risk buildings around Kanlaon were found to be dominated by timber frame buildings that exhibit a high vulnerability to pyroclastic density currents, but a low vulnerability to failure from seismic shaking. Around Fogo, the predominance of unreinforced masonry buildings with reinforced concrete slab roofs suggests a high vulnerability to volcanic earthquake but a low vulnerability to ash fall loading. Given the importance of agriculture for local livelihoods around Kanlaon and Fogo, we discuss the potential impact of infrastructure vulnerability for local agricultural economies, with implications for volcanic areas worldwide. These methodologies and tools go some way towards offering a standardised approach to carrying out future vulnerability assessments for populated volcanic areas.

Jenkins, S. F.; Spence, R. J. S.; Fonseca, J. F. B. D.; Solidum, R. U.; Wilson, T. M.

2014-04-01

178

Physiological Phenotype and Vulnerability in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

This review will focus on the principles underlying the hypothesis that neuronal physiological phenotype—how a neuron generates and regulates action potentials—makes a significant contribution to its vulnerability in Parkinson's disease (PD) and aging. A cornerstone of this hypothesis is that the maintenance of ionic gradients underlying excitability can pose a significant energetic burden for neurons, particularly those that have sustained residence times at depolarized membrane potentials, broad action potentials, prominent Ca2+ entry, and modest intrinsic Ca2+ buffering capacity. This energetic burden is shouldered in neurons primarily by mitochondria, the sites of cellular respiration. Mitochondrial respiration increases the production of damaging superoxide and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) that have widely been postulated to contribute to cellular aging and PD. Many of the genetic mutations and toxins associated with PD compromise mitochondrial function, providing a mechanistic linkage between known risk factors and cellular physiology that could explain the pattern of pathology in PD. Because much of the mitochondrial burden created by this at-risk phenotype is created by Ca2+ entry through L-type voltage-dependent channels for which there are antagonists approved for human use, a neuroprotective strategy to reduce this burden is feasible. PMID:22762023

Surmeier, D. James; Guzman, Jaime N.; Sanchez, Javier; Schumacker, Paul T.

2012-01-01

179

Vulnerability of streams to legacy nitrate sources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The influence of hydrogeologic setting on the susceptibility of streams to legacy nitrate was examined at seven study sites having a wide range of base flow index (BFI) values. BFI is the ratio of base flow to total streamflow volume. The portion of annual stream nitrate loads from base flow was strongly correlated with BFI. Furthermore, dissolved oxygen concentrations in streambed pore water were significantly higher in high BFI watersheds than in low BFI watersheds suggesting that geochemical conditions favor nitrate transport through the bed when BFI is high. Results from a groundwater-surface water interaction study at a high BFI watershed indicate that decades old nitrate-laden water is discharging to this stream. These findings indicate that high nitrate levels in this stream may be sustained for decades to come regardless of current practices. It is hypothesized that a first approximation of stream vulnerability to legacy nutrients may be made by geospatial analysis of watersheds with high nitrogen inputs and a strong connection to groundwater (e.g., high BFI).

Tesoriero, Anthony J.; Du?, John H.; Saad, David A.; Spahr, Norman E.; Wolock, David M.

2013-01-01

180

Quantum key distribution: vulnerable if imperfectly implemented  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report several vulnerabilities found in Clavis2, the flagship quantum key distribution (QKD) system from ID Quantique. We show the hacking of a calibration sequence run by Clavis2 to synchronize the Alice and Bob devices before performing the secret key exchange. This hack induces a temporal detection efficiency mismatch in Bob that can allow Eve to break the security of the cryptosystem using faked states. We also experimentally investigate the superlinear behaviour in the single-photon detectors (SPDs) used by Bob. Due to this superlinearity, the SPDs feature an actual multi-photon detection probability which is generally higher than the theoretically-modelled value. We show how this increases the risk of detector control attacks on QKD systems (including Clavis2) employing such SPDs. Finally, we review the experimental feasibility of Trojan-horse attacks. In the case of Clavis2, the objective is to read Bob's phase modulator to acquire knowledge of his basis choice as this information suffices for constructing the raw key in the Scarani-Acin-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 (SARG04) protocol. We work in close collaboration with ID Quantique and for all these loopholes, we notified them in advance. Wherever possible, we or ID Quantique proposed countermeasures and they implemented suitable patches and upgrade their systems.

Leuchs, G.

2013-10-01

181

Tracking Nile Delta vulnerability to Holocene change.  

PubMed

Understanding deltaic resilience in the face of Holocene climate change and human impacts is an important challenge for the earth sciences in characterizing the full range of present and future wetland responses to global warming. Here, we report an 8000-year mass balance record from the Nile Delta to reconstruct when and how this sedimentary basin has responded to past hydrological shifts. In a global Holocene context, the long-term decrease in Nile Delta accretion rates is consistent with insolation-driven changes in the 'monsoon pacemaker', attested throughout the mid-latitude tropics. Following the early to mid-Holocene growth of the Nile's deltaic plain, sediment losses and pronounced erosion are first recorded after ~4000 years ago, the corollaries of falling sediment supply and an intensification of anthropogenic impacts from the Pharaonic period onwards. Against the backcloth of the Saharan 'depeopling', reduced river flow underpinned by a weakening of monsoonal precipitation appears to have been particularly conducive to the expansion of human activities on the delta by exposing productive floodplain lands for occupation and irrigation agriculture. The reconstruction suggests that the Nile Delta has a particularly long history of vulnerability to extreme events (e.g. floods and storms) and sea-level rise, although the present sediment-starved system does not have a direct Holocene analogue. This study highlights the importance of the world's deltas as sensitive archives to investigate Holocene geosystem responses to climate change, risks and hazards, and societal interaction. PMID:23922692

Marriner, Nick; Flaux, Clément; Morhange, Christophe; Stanley, Jean-Daniel

2013-01-01

182

Tracking Nile Delta Vulnerability to Holocene Change  

PubMed Central

Understanding deltaic resilience in the face of Holocene climate change and human impacts is an important challenge for the earth sciences in characterizing the full range of present and future wetland responses to global warming. Here, we report an 8000-year mass balance record from the Nile Delta to reconstruct when and how this sedimentary basin has responded to past hydrological shifts. In a global Holocene context, the long-term decrease in Nile Delta accretion rates is consistent with insolation-driven changes in the ‘monsoon pacemaker’, attested throughout the mid-latitude tropics. Following the early to mid-Holocene growth of the Nile’s deltaic plain, sediment losses and pronounced erosion are first recorded after ~4000 years ago, the corollaries of falling sediment supply and an intensification of anthropogenic impacts from the Pharaonic period onwards. Against the backcloth of the Saharan ‘depeopling’, reduced river flow underpinned by a weakening of monsoonal precipitation appears to have been particularly conducive to the expansion of human activities on the delta by exposing productive floodplain lands for occupation and irrigation agriculture. The reconstruction suggests that the Nile Delta has a particularly long history of vulnerability to extreme events (e.g. floods and storms) and sea-level rise, although the present sediment-starved system does not have a direct Holocene analogue. This study highlights the importance of the world’s deltas as sensitive archives to investigate Holocene geosystem responses to climate change, risks and hazards, and societal interaction. PMID:23922692

Marriner, Nick; Flaux, Clément; Morhange, Christophe; Stanley, Jean-Daniel

2013-01-01

183

77 FR 74685 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical-Terrorism Vulnerability Information...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DHS-2012-0057] Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical- Terrorism Vulnerability Information (CVI) AGENCY...commercial or financial information, Chemical-terrorism Vulnerability Information (CVI),...

2012-12-17

184

Vulnerability Assessment for Cascading Failures in Electric Power Systems  

SciTech Connect

Cascading failures present severe threats to power grid security, and thus vulnerability assessment of power grids is of significant importance. Focusing on analytic methods, this paper reviews the state of the art of vulnerability assessment methods in the context of cascading failures in three categories: steady-state modeling based analysis; dynamic modeling analysis; and non-traditional modeling approaches. The impact of emerging technologies including phasor technology, high-performance computing techniques, and visualization techniques on the vulnerability assessment of cascading failures is then addressed, and future research directions are presented.

Baldick, R.; Chowdhury, Badrul; Dobson, Ian; Dong, Zhao Yang; Gou, Bei; Hawkins, David L.; Huang, Zhenyu; Joung, Manho; Kim, Janghoon; Kirschen, Daniel; Lee, Stephen; Li, Fangxing; Li, Juan; Li, Zuyi; Liu, Chen-Ching; Luo, Xiaochuan; Mili, Lamine; Miller, Stephen; Nakayama, Marvin; Papic, Milorad; Podmore, Robin; Rossmaier, John; Schneider, Kevin P.; Sun, Hongbin; Sun, Kai; Wang, David; Wu, Zhigang; Yao, Liangzhong; Zhang, Pei; Zhang, Wenjie; Zhang, Xiaoping

2008-09-10

185

Automated Vulnerability Detection for Compiled Smart Grid Software  

SciTech Connect

While testing performed with proper experimental controls can provide scientifically quantifiable evidence that software does not contain unintentional vulnerabilities (bugs), it is insufficient to show that intentional vulnerabilities exist, and impractical to certify devices for the expected long lifetimes of use. For both of these needs, rigorous analysis of the software itself is essential. Automated software behavior computation applies rigorous static software analysis methods based on function extraction (FX) to compiled software to detect vulnerabilities, intentional or unintentional, and to verify critical functionality. This analysis is based on the compiled firmware, takes into account machine precision, and does not rely on heuristics or approximations early in the analysis.

Prowell, Stacy J [ORNL; Pleszkoch, Mark G [ORNL; Sayre, Kirk D [ORNL; Linger, Richard C [ORNL

2012-01-01

186

Drought vulnerability assessment for prioritising drought warning implementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drought warning provides a potentially efficient approach to mitigation of drought impacts, and should be targeted at areas most vulnerable to being adversely impacted. Assessing drought vulnerability is, however, complex and needs to consider susceptibility to drought impact as well as the capacity to cope with drought. In this paper a Drought Vulnerability Index (DVI) is proposed that considers four primary components that reflect the capacity of society to adapt to drought; the renewable natural capital, the economic capacity, the human and civic resources, and the available infrastructure and technology. The DVI is established as a weighted combination of these four components, each a composite of selected indicators. Constituent indicators are calculated based on national and/or regional census data and statistics, and while the resulting DVI should not be considered an absolute measure of drought vulnerability it does provide for a prioritisation of areas that can be used to target drought warning efforts. Sensitivity analysis of weights applied show the established DVI to be robust. Through the DVI the development of drought forecasting and warning can be targeted at the most vulnerable areas. The proposed DVI is applied at both the continental scale in Africa to assess drought vulnerability of the different nations across Africa, and at the national level in Kenya, allowing for prioritisation of the counties within Kenya to drought vulnerability. Results show the relative vulnerability of countries and counties vulnerable to drought. At the continental scale, Somalia, Burundi, Niger, Ethiopia, Mali and Chad are found to be the countries most vulnerable to drought. At the national level, the relative vulnerability of the counties across Kenya is found, with counties in the North-East of Kenya having the highest values of DVI. At the country level results were compared with drought disaster information from the EM-DAT disaster database, showing a good agreement between recorded drought impact and the established DVI classes. Kenya counties most vulnerable to drought are primarily located in the North-East of the country, showing a reasonable agreement with the spatial distribution of impacts of the 2010/2011 drought, despite the drought itself being more widespread.

Naumann, Gustavo; Faneca Sànchez, Marta; Mwangi, Emmah; Barbosa, Paulo; Iglesias, Ana; Garrote, Luis; Werner, Micha

2014-05-01

187

Development of a frailty framework among vulnerable populations.  

PubMed

Frailty is a public health issue that is experienced by homeless and other vulnerable populations; to date, a frailty framework has not been proposed to guide researchers who study hard-to-reach populations. The Frailty Framework among Vulnerable Populations has been developed from empirical research and consultation with frailty experts in an effort to characterize antecedents, that is, situational, health-related, behavioral, resource, biological, and environmental factors that contribute to physical, psychological, and social frailty domains and impact adverse outcomes. As vulnerable populations continue to age, a greater understanding of frailty will enable the development of nursing interventions. PMID:24469090

Salem, Benissa E; Nyamathi, Adeline; Phillips, Linda R; Mentes, Janet C; Sarkisian, Catherine; Brecht, Mary-Lynn

2014-01-01

188

Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city Bruno Barroca1, Damien Serre2 1Laboratory of Urban Engineering, Environment and Building (L G U E H) - Université de Marne-la-Vallée - Pôle Ville, 5, Bd Descartes - Bâtiment Lavoisier - 77454 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 - France 2City of Paris Engineering School, Construction - Environment Department, 15 rue Fénelon, 75010 Paris, France In France, as in Europe and more generally throughout the world, river floods have been increasing in frequency and severity over the last ten years, and there are more instances of rivers bursting their banks, aggravating the impact of the flooding of areas supposedly protected by flood defenses. Despite efforts made to well maintain the flood defense assets, we often observe flood defense failures leading to finally increase flood risk in protected area during major flood events. Furthermore, flood forecasting models, although they benefit continuous improvements, remain partly inaccurate due to uncertainties populated all along data calculation processes. These circumstances obliged stakeholders and the scientific communities to manage flood risk by integrating new concepts like stakes management, vulnerability assessments and more recently urban resilience development. Definitively, the goal is to reduce flood risk by managing of course flood defenses and improving flood forecasting models, but also stakes and vulnerability of flooded areas to achieve urban resilience face to flood events. Vulnerability to flood is essentially concentrated in urban areas. Assessing vulnerability of a city is very difficult. Indeed, urban area is a complex system composed by a sum of technical sub-systems as complex as the urban area itself. Assessing city vulnerability consists in talking into account each sub system vulnerability and integrating all direct and indirect impacts generally depending from city shape and city spatial organization. At this time, although some research activities have been undertaken, there are no specific methods and tools to assess flood vulnerability at the scale of the city. Indeed, by studying literature we can list some vulnerability indicators and a few Geographic Information System (GIS) tools. But generally indicators and GIS are not developed specifically at the city scale: often a regional scale is used. Analyzing vulnerability at this scale needs more accurate and formalized indicators and GIS tools. The second limit of existing GIS is temporal: even if vulnerability could be assessed and localized through GIS, such tools cannot assist city managers in their decision to efficiency recover after a severe flood event. Due to scale and temporal limits, methods and tools available to assess urban vulnerability need large improvements. Talking into account all these considerations and limits, our research is focusing on: • vulnerability indicators design; • recovery scenarios design; • GIS for city vulnerability assessment and recovery scenarios. Dealing with vulnerability indicators, the goal is to design a set of indicators of city sub systems. Sub systems are seen like assets of high value and complex and interdependent infrastructure networks (i.e. power supplies, communications, water, transport etc.). The infrastructure networks are critical for the continuity of economic activities as well as for the people's basic living needs. Their availability is also required for fast and effective recovery after flood disasters. The severity of flood damage therefore largely depends on the degree that both high value assets and critical urban infrastructure are affected, either directly or indirectly. To face the challenge of designing indicators, a functional model of the city system (and sub systems) has to be built to analyze the system response to flood solicitation. Then, a coherent and an efficient set of vulnerability of indicators could be built up. With such methods city stakeholders will be informed on how and how much their systems are vulnerable. It is a first level of inform

Serre, D.; Barroca, B.

2009-04-01

189

Convicting Exploitable Software Vulnerabilities: An Efficient Input Provenance Based Approach  

E-print Network

of attacks. Existing vulnerability scanning tools are able to produce a set of suspects. However, they often, and notable examples include BOON [18], Splint [19], and Archer [21]. Static analysis is not bound

Xu, Dongyan

190

Embryo stability and vulnerability in an always changing world  

E-print Network

vulnerability was reinforced by the real-life example of thalidomide, a drug first administered to women protection of the embryo. Nevertheless, as illustrated by the thalidomide example, even struc- tures

191

Soft Error Vulnerability of Iterative Linear Algebra Methods  

SciTech Connect

Devices are increasingly vulnerable to soft errors as their feature sizes shrink. Previously, soft error rates were significant primarily in space and high-atmospheric computing. Modern architectures now use features so small at sufficiently low voltages that soft errors are becoming important even at terrestrial altitudes. Due to their large number of components, supercomputers are particularly susceptible to soft errors. Since many large scale parallel scientific applications use iterative linear algebra methods, the soft error vulnerability of these methods constitutes a large fraction of the applications overall vulnerability. Many users consider these methods invulnerable to most soft errors since they converge from an imprecise solution to a precise one. However, we show in this paper that iterative methods are vulnerable to soft errors, exhibiting both silent data corruptions and poor ability to detect errors. Further, we evaluate a variety of soft error detection and tolerance techniques, including checkpointing, linear matrix encodings, and residual tracking techniques.

Bronevetsky, G; de Supinski, B

2008-01-19

192

Assessing the Vulnerability of Older Americans to Climate Change  

EPA Science Inventory

This project is comprised of a series of activities ? listening sessions, literature reviews, and an expert elicitation research agenda-setting workshop ? designed to examine and characterize the vulnerability of older adults to climate change and opportunities for adaptation. ...

193

Rethinking the vulnerability of minority populations in research.  

PubMed

The Belmont Report, produced in 1979 by a United States government commission, includes minority populations among its list of vulnerable research participants. In this article, we consider some previous attempts to understand the vulnerability of minorities in research, and then provide our own account. First we examine the question of the representation of minorities in research. Then we argue that the best understanding of minorities, vulnerability, and research will begin with a broad understanding of the risk of individual members of minority groups to poor health outcomes. We offer a typology of vulnerability to help with this task. Finally, we show how researchers should be guided by this broad analysis in the design and execution of their research. PMID:24134375

Rogers, Wendy; Lange, Margaret Meek

2013-12-01

194

Assessing node risk and vulnerability in epidemics on networks  

E-print Network

Which nodes are most vulnerable to an epidemic spreading through a network, and which carry the highest risk of causing a major outbreak if they are the source of the infection? Here we show how these questions can be answered to good approximation using the cavity method. Several curious properties of node vulnerability and risk are explored: some nodes are more vulnerable than others to weaker infections, yet less vulnerable to stronger ones; a node is always more likely to be caught in an outbreak than it is to start one, except when the disease has a deterministic lifetime; the rank order of node risk depends on the details of the distribution of infectious periods.

Rogers, Tim

2015-01-01

195

Managing Landscapes for Vulnerable, Invasive and Disease Species  

E-print Network

27 Managing Landscapes for Vulnerable, Invasive and Disease Species Erika Zavaleta and Jae Ryan, invasive species and threatened species simultaneously. We summarize recommendations from land- scape- nerable species' protection. Many, but not all, broad strategies for controlling invasive and disease

Zavaleta, Erika

196

Vulnerability and social risk management in India and Mexico  

E-print Network

The development of effective community, regional and national risk-management strategies, especially for systemic risks, such as natural disasters, entails understanding the determinants of social vulnerability in individuals ...

Flores Ballesteros, Luis

2008-01-01

197

Nemesis: Preventing Authentication & Access Control Vulnerabilities in Web Applications  

E-print Network

Nemesis: Preventing Authentication & Access Control Vulnerabilities in Web Applications Michael web applications. Authentication attacks occur when a web application authenticates users unsafely, granting access to web clients that lack the ap- propriate credentials. Access control attacks occur when

Sabatini, David M.

198

Measuring vulnerability to natural hazards: a macro framework.  

PubMed

The measurement of vulnerability--defined here as the asymmetric response of disaster occurrences to hazardous events--signifies a key step towards effective disaster risk reduction and the promotion of a culture of disaster resilience. One of the reasons for not being able to do the same in a wider context is related to conceptual, definitional, and operational issues. This paper presents an operationally feasible framework for conducting this task and measures revealed macro vulnerability as a function of disaster risk and hazard probability. The probabilities of hazard and its perceived disaster risk were obtained from past data and from probability distributions. In this paper, the corresponding analytical framework is constructed using the case study of floods in Assam, India. The proposed indicator will help policymakers to draw on available macro-level data to identify the regions that are vulnerable to disasters, where micro-level disaster vulnerability assessments could be performed in greater detail. PMID:23278301

Joseph, Jacquleen

2013-04-01

199

The Effect of Parental Depression on Cognitive Vulnerability  

E-print Network

This paper reports on research on the effect of parental depression on cognitive vulnerability to depression. Although there is extensive literature to suggest that parental depression confers depressotypic cognitive thinking in children...

Williams, Christina Lynne

2012-12-31

200

Measuring Vulnerability: The Director's Cut Ethan Ligon and Laura Schechter  

E-print Network

Measuring Vulnerability: The Director's Cut Ethan Ligon and Laura Schechter September 4, 2003 households. This is a longer, working-paper version of Ligon and Schechter (2003). Economists have long used

Sadoulet, Elisabeth

201

Vulnerability of critical infrastructures : identifying critical nodes.  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research was the development of tools and techniques for the identification of critical nodes within critical infrastructures. These are nodes that, if disrupted through natural events or terrorist action, would cause the most widespread, immediate damage. This research focuses on one particular element of the national infrastructure: the bulk power system. Through the identification of critical elements and the quantification of the consequences of their failure, site-specific vulnerability analyses can be focused at those locations where additional security measures could be effectively implemented. In particular, with appropriate sizing and placement within the grid, distributed generation in the form of regional power parks may reduce or even prevent the impact of widespread network power outages. Even without additional security measures, increased awareness of sensitive power grid locations can provide a basis for more effective national, state and local emergency planning. A number of methods for identifying critical nodes were investigated: small-world (or network theory), polyhedral dynamics, and an artificial intelligence-based search method - particle swarm optimization. PSO was found to be the only viable approach and was applied to a variety of industry accepted test networks to validate the ability of the approach to identify sets of critical nodes. The approach was coded in a software package called Buzzard and integrated with a traditional power flow code. A number of industry accepted test networks were employed to validate the approach. The techniques (and software) are not unique to power grid network, but could be applied to a variety of complex, interacting infrastructures.

Cox, Roger Gary; Robinson, David Gerald

2004-06-01

202

Socioeconomic development and vulnerability to land degradation in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the surface area affected by land degradation (LD) has significantly increased in southern European regions\\u000a where the socioeconomic development has been proposed as a basic factor underlying the degree of vulnerability to LD. This\\u000a paper investigates the correlation between several socioeconomic indicators and the level of vulnerability to LD in Italy,\\u000a expressed as changes (1990–2000) in a

Luca Salvati; Alberto Mancini; Sofia Bajocco; Roberta Gemmiti; Margherita Carlucci

203

Vulnerability and Vaccination Strategies on realistic complex network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The general understanding of non-equilibrium stochastic processes evolving on complex networks become an important challenge. In the framework of epidemiology, one of the key challenges is the identification and the understanding of the role of critical and vulnerable nodes in the diffusion process. Considering the SIER model evolving on a large realistic complex networks, we present a study of the vulnerability for different viral strength. Our result are used to evaluate the possible vaccination strategies.

Platini, Thierry; Apolloni, Andrea

2012-02-01

204

Reliability of groundwater vulnerability maps obtained through statistical methods.  

PubMed

Statistical methods are widely used in environmental studies to evaluate natural hazards. Within groundwater vulnerability in particular, statistical methods are used to support decisions about environmental planning and management. The production of vulnerability maps obtained by statistical methods can greatly help decision making. One of the key points in all of these studies is the validation of the model outputs, which is performed through the application of various techniques to analyze the quality and reliability of the final results and to evaluate the model having the best performance. In this study, a groundwater vulnerability assessment to nitrate contamination was performed for the shallow aquifer located in the Province of Milan (Italy). The Weights of Evidence modeling technique was used to generate six model outputs, each one with a different number of input predictive factors. Considering that a vulnerability map is meaningful and useful only if it represents the study area through a limited number of classes with different degrees of vulnerability, the spatial agreement of different reclassified maps has been evaluated through the kappa statistics and a series of validation procedures has been proposed and applied to evaluate the reliability of the reclassified maps. Results show that performance is not directly related to the number of input predictor factors and that is possible to identify, among apparently similar maps, those best representing groundwater vulnerability in the study area. Thus, vulnerability maps generated using statistical modeling techniques have to be carefully handled before they are disseminated. Indeed, the results may appear to be excellent and final maps may perform quite well when, in fact, the depicted spatial distribution of vulnerability is greatly different from the actual one. For this reason, it is necessary to carefully evaluate the obtained results using multiple statistical techniques that are capable of providing quantitative insight into the analysis of the results. This evaluation should be done at least to reduce the questionability of the results and so to limit the number of potential choices. PMID:21208723

Sorichetta, Alessandro; Masetti, Marco; Ballabio, Cristiano; Sterlacchini, Simone; Beretta, Giovanni Pietro

2011-04-01

205

NetKuang -- A Multi-Host Configuration Vulnerability Checker  

Microsoft Academic Search

NetKuang is an extension to Baldwin's SU-Kuang.It runs on networks of computers using Unix and canfind vulnerabilities created by poor system configuration.Vulnerabilities are discovered using a backwardsgoal-based search that is breadth-first on individualhosts and parallel when multiple hosts arechecked. An implementation in C++ found real vulnerabilitieson production systems. Tests show reasonablyfast performance on an LAN.1 IntroductionThe security of modern networked

Dan Zerkle; Karl Levitt

1996-01-01

206

The hack attack - Increasing computer system awareness of vulnerability threats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper discusses the issue of electronic vulnerability of computer based systems supporting NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) by unauthorized users. To test the security of the system and increase security awareness, NYMA, Inc. employed computer 'hackers' to attempt to infiltrate the system(s) under controlled conditions. Penetration procedures, methods, and descriptions are detailed in the paper. The procedure increased the security consciousness of GSFC management to the electronic vulnerability of the system(s).

Quann, John; Belford, Peter

1987-01-01

207

A quantitative vulnerability function for fluvial sediment transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

In quantitative risk assessment, risk is expressed as a function of hazard, elements at risk exposed, and vulnerability. Vulnerability\\u000a is defined as the expected degree of loss for an element at risk as a consequence of a certain event, following a natural-scientific\\u000a approach combined with economic methods of loss appraisal. The resulting value ranges from 0 (no damage) to 1

Reinhold Totschnig; Walter Sedlacek; Sven Fuchs

2011-01-01

208

Overwash vulnerability assessment based on long-term washover evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated methodology for evaluation of overwash vulnerability is developed with respect to the historical washover evolution\\u000a of a barrier island system. Three different aspects of overwash are addressed in the vulnerability indices developed: overwashed\\u000a shoreline ratio, maximum overwash intrusion recurrence, and complete barrier overwash. The indices were applied to the barriers\\u000a in the Ria Formosa system in Southern Portugal

Tiago GarciaOscar; Óscar Ferreira; Ana Matias; João Alveirinho Dias

2010-01-01

209

The Vulnerable Plaque: the Real Villain in Acute Coronary Syndromes  

PubMed Central

The term "vulnerable plaque" refers to a vascular lesion that is prone to rupture and may result in life-threatening events which include myocardial infarction. It consists of thin-cap fibroatheroma and a large lipid core which is highly thrombogenic. Acute coronary syndromes often result from rupture of vulnerable plaques which frequently are only moderately stenosed and not visible by conventional angiography. Several invasive and non-invasive strategies have been developed to assess the burden of vulnerable plaques. Intravascular ultrasound provides a two-dimensional cross-sectional image of the arterial wall and can help assess the plaque burden and composition. Optical coherent tomography offers superior resolution over intravascular ultrasound. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging provides non-invasive imaging for visualizing fibrous cap thickness and rupture in plaques. In addition, it may be of value in assessing the effects of treatments, such as lipid-lowering therapy. Technical issues however limit its clinical applicability. The role of multi-slice computed tomography, a well established screening tool for coronary artery disease, remains to be determined. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) may provide physiological functional assessment of plaque vulnerability; however, its role in the management of vulnerable plaque requires further studies. Treatment of the vulnerable patient may involve systemic therapy which currently include statins, ACE inhibitors, beta-blockers, aspirin, and calcium-channel blockers and in the future local therapeutic options such as drug-eluting stents or photodynamic therapy. PMID:21673834

Liang, Michael; Puri, Aniket; Devlin, Gerard

2011-01-01

210

Latin hypercube approach to estimate uncertainty in ground water vulnerability  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A methodology is proposed to quantify prediction uncertainty associated with ground water vulnerability models that were developed through an approach that coupled multivariate logistic regression with a geographic information system (GIS). This method uses Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) to illustrate the propagation of input error and estimate uncertainty associated with the logistic regression predictions of ground water vulnerability. Central to the proposed method is the assumption that prediction uncertainty in ground water vulnerability models is a function of input error propagation from uncertainty in the estimated logistic regression model coefficients (model error) and the values of explanatory variables represented in the GIS (data error). Input probability distributions that represent both model and data error sources of uncertainty were simultaneously sampled using a Latin hypercube approach with logistic regression calculations of probability of elevated nonpoint source contaminants in ground water. The resulting probability distribution represents the prediction intervals and associated uncertainty of the ground water vulnerability predictions. The method is illustrated through a ground water vulnerability assessment of the High Plains regional aquifer. Results of the LHS simulations reveal significant prediction uncertainties that vary spatially across the regional aquifer. Additionally, the proposed method enables a spatial deconstruction of the prediction uncertainty that can lead to improved prediction of ground water vulnerability. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

Gurdak, J.J.; McCray, J.E.; Thyne, G.; Qi, S.L.

2007-01-01

211

Multimodal spectroscopy detects features of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early detection and treatment of rupture-prone vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is critical to reducing patient mortality associated with cardiovascular disease. The combination of reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopy-termed multimodal spectroscopy (MMS)-provides detailed biochemical information about tissue and can detect vulnerable plaque features: thin fibrous cap (TFC), necrotic core (NC), superficial foam cells (SFC), and thrombus. Ex vivo MMS spectra are collected from 12 patients that underwent carotid endarterectomy or femoral bypass surgery. Data are collected by means of a unitary MMS optical fiber probe and a portable clinical instrument. Blinded histopathological analysis is used to assess the vulnerability of each spectrally evaluated artery lesion. Modeling of the ex vivo MMS spectra produce objective parameters that correlate with the presence of vulnerable plaque features: TFC with fluorescence parameters indicative of collagen presence; NC/SFC with a combination of diffuse reflectance ?-carotene/ceroid absorption and the Raman spectral signature of lipids; and thrombus with its Raman signature. Using these parameters, suspected vulnerable plaques can be detected with a sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 72%. These encouraging results warrant the continued development of MMS as a catheter-based clinical diagnostic technique for early detection of vulnerable plaques.

Š?epanovi?, Obrad R.; Fitzmaurice, Maryann; Miller, Arnold; Kong, Chae-Ryon; Volynskaya, Zoya; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Kramer, John R.; Feld, Michael S.

2011-01-01

212

Coastal vulnerability: climate change and natural hazards perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction Studying coastal zones as a territorial concept (Integrated coastal zone management) is an essential issue for managers, as they have to consider many different topics (natural hazards, resources management, tourism, climate change…). The recent approach in terms of "coastal vulnerability" studies (since the 90's) is the main tool used nowadays to help them in evaluating impacts of natural hazards on coastal zones, specially considering climate change. This present communication aims to highlight the difficulties in integrating this concept in risk analysis as it is usually practiced in natural hazards sciences. 1) Coastal vulnerability as a recent issue The concept of coastal vulnerability mainly appears in the International panel on climate change works of 1992 (IPCC. 2001), where it is presented as essential for climate change adaptation. The concept has been defined by a common methodology which proposes the assessment of seven indicators, in regards to a sea level rise of 1m in 2100: people affected, people at risk, capital value at loss, land at loss, wetland at loss, potential adaptation costs, people at risk assuming this adaptation. Many national assessments have been implemented (Nicholls, et al. 1995) and a global assessment was proposed for three indicators (Nicholls, et al. 1999). The DINAS-Coast project reuses this methodology to produce the DIVA-tool for coastal managers (Vafeidis, et al. 2004). Besides, many other methodologies for national or regional coastal vulnerability assessments have been developed (review by (UNFCCC. 2008). The use of aggregated vulnerability indicators (including geomorphology, hydrodynamics, climate change…) is widespread: the USGS coastal vulnerability index is used worldwide and was completed by a social vulnerability index (Boruff, et al. 2005). Those index-based methods propose a vulnerability mapping which visualise indicators of erosion, submersion and/or socio economic sensibility in coastal zones. This concept is a great tool for policy makers to help managing their action and taking into account climate change (McFadden, et al. 2006). However, in those approaches, vulnerability is the output itself (cost of effective impacts, geomorphologic impacts…), but is not integrated it in a risk analysis. Furthermore, those studies emerged from a climatic perspective, which leads to consider climate change as a hazard or pressure whereas risk studies commonly consider hazards such as erosion and flooding, where climate change modifies the drivers of the hazard. 2) The natural hazards and socio economic perspectives In order to reduce impacts of natural hazards, decision makers need a complete risk assessment (probability of losses). Past studies on natural risks (landslide, earthquake...) highlighted the pertinence of defining risk as a combination of : (1)hazard occurrence and intensity, (2) exposition and (3)vulnerability of assets and population to this hazard (e.g. Douglas. 2007, Sarewitz, et al. 2003). Following the Renn and Klinke risk assessment frame, high uncertainties associated with coastal risks considering climatic and anthropic change highlights the importance of working on that concept of "vulnerability" (Klinke and Renn. 2002). Past studies on vulnerability assessment showed a frequently mentioned gap between "impact based" and "human based" points of view. It is nowadays a great issue for natural risk sciences. Many research efforts in FP7 projects such as MOVE and ENSURE focus on integrating the different dimensions of vulnerability (Turner, et al. 2003, Birkmann. 2006). Coastal risk studies highlight another issue of concern. We previously detailed the different use of the term "vulnerability" in the coastal context, quite different of the "natural risk's" use. Interaction of social, economic and physical sciences is considered within two french research projects (Vulsaco, Miseeva), in order to identify the vulnerability of a system to flooding or erosion (i.e. its characteristics th

Romieu, E.; Vinchon, C.

2009-04-01

213

Buffer overflows: attacks and defenses for the vulnerability of the decade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buffer overflows have been the most common form of security vulnerability for the last ten years. Moreover, buffer overflow vulnerabilities dominate the area of remote network penetration vulnerabilities, where an anonymous Internet user seeks to gain partial or total control of a host. If buffer overflow vulnerabilities could be effectively eliminated, a very large portion of the most serious security

C. Cowan; P. Wagle; S. Beattic; S. Beattie; J. Walpole

2000-01-01

214

Buffer Overflows: Attacks and Defenses for the Vulnerability of the Decade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buffer overflows have been the most common form of security vulnerability for the last ten years. More over, buffer overflow vulnerabilities dominate the area of remote network penetra- tion vulnerabilities, where an anonymous Inter- net user seeks to gain partial or total control of a host. If buffer overflow vulnerabilities could be effectively eliminated, a very large portion of the

Crispin Cowan; Perry Wagle; Calton Pu; Steve Beattie; Jonathan Walpole

1999-01-01

215

Debating space security: Capabilities and vulnerabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. position in the debate on space security has been that (1) space-based systems could be developed and used to obtain decisive warfighting superiority over an adversary, and (2) these space-based systems, because they might give such an inordinate advantage over any adversary, will be attacked. The Russians and Chinese, in contrast, claim to be threatened by U.S. aspirations in space but deny that they pose a serious threat to U.S. space-based systems. They view the development of advanced military space systems by the United States as evidence of a growing gap of military capabilities limited only by technological—not political—constraints. They argue that U.S. missile defense systems operating in coordination with advanced satellite sensors would weaken their nuclear retaliatory potential. This dissertation argues that the positions held by both of these parties are more extreme than warranted. An analytical evaluation quickly narrows the touted capabilities and assumed vulnerabilities of space systems to a much smaller set of concerns that can be addressed by collaboration. Chapter 2: Operationally Responsive Space (ORS): Is 24/7 Warfighter Support Feasible? demonstrates the infeasibility of dramatically increasing U.S. warfighting superiority by using satellites. Chapter 3: What Can be Achieved by Attacking Satellites? makes the case that although U.S. armed forces rely extensively on its satellite infrastructure, that does not immediately make them desirable targets. The functions performed by military satellites are diffused among large constellations with redundancies. Also, some of the functions performed by these satellites can be substituted for by other terrestrial and aerial systems. Chapter 4: The Limits of Chinese Anti-Satellite Missiles demonstrates that anti-satellite (ASAT) intercepts are very complex under realistic conditions and that a potential adversary with space capabilities comparable to China's has very limited capability to use ASATs in a real-world battle scenario. Finally, in order to evaluate the chief concern raised by the Russians and Chinese, chapter 5: Satellites, Missile Defense and Space Security simulates a boost-phase missile defense system cued by the advanced Space Tracking and Surveillance (STSS) sensors. It demonstrates that even under best case assumptions, the STSS sensors are not good enough for the boost-phase missile defense system to successfully intercept and destroy an ICBM. Together, these chapters aim to narrow the contentions in the debate on space security thereby fostering the international colloboration and data sharing needed to ensure safe operations in space.

Sankaran, Jaganath

216

A Vulnerability Assessment Approach for Dams of Mississippi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of a state-wide effort to characterize the vulnerability of Mississippi's dams, we are developing a new set of vulnerability assessment tools. Our vulnerability assessment methods will consider earlier attempts to develop risk indexing methods for dams, but will be designed to be applied to Mississippi's entire database of over 3,700 dams. Unlike earlier efforts to dams, which emphasized hazards posed by the dams, our methods will be designed to consider intrinsic and extrinsic vulnerability, and consider consequences as well. Intrinsic sources of vulnerability consider such factors as the potential for unstable slopes, piping, and spillway inadequacy. Extrinsic sources of vulnerability will include features such as the potential for intentional or unintentional human acts. Other factors that will be included will be the potential for neglect of maintenance of the dam and susceptibility to interference from wildlife. Consequences will be assessed by considering the downstream population and economic resources that may be at risk due to an uncontrolled release of the reservoir. The analysis of these vulnerabilities and consequences is being calculated using a GIS-based database of all of Mississippi's dams along with population distribution, terrain, and economic resources across the state. Conventional methods of analysis of a dam breach or other uncontrolled release will still be necessary, but the extent to which downstream features and population are affected can be more readily identified. This approach facilitates assessment and decision making on a large dam inventory to permit resources within the state to be directed efficiently to dams that merit attention.

Kuszmaul, J. S.; Gunter, B.; McGregor, G.; Holt, R. M.; Pickens, J.; Holtz, T.; Jones, T.; Phillips, P.

2007-12-01

217

Prediction of individualized therapeutic vulnerabilities in cancer from genomic profiles  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Somatic homozygous deletions of chromosomal regions in cancer, while not necessarily oncogenic, may lead to therapeutic vulnerabilities specific to cancer cells compared with normal cells. A recently reported example is the loss of one of the two isoenzymes in glioblastoma cancer cells such that the use of a specific inhibitor selectively inhibited growth of the cancer cells, which had become fully dependent on the second isoenzyme. We have now made use of the unprecedented conjunction of large-scale cancer genomics profiling of tumor samples in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and of tumor-derived cell lines in the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia, as well as the availability of integrated pathway information systems, such as Pathway Commons, to systematically search for a comprehensive set of such epistatic vulnerabilities. Results: Based on homozygous deletions affecting metabolic enzymes in 16 TCGA cancer studies and 972 cancer cell lines, we identified 4104 candidate metabolic vulnerabilities present in 1019 tumor samples and 482 cell lines. Up to 44% of these vulnerabilities can be targeted with at least one Food and Drug Administration-approved drug. We suggest focused experiments to test these vulnerabilities and clinical trials based on personalized genomic profiles of those that pass preclinical filters. We conclude that genomic profiling will in the future provide a promising basis for network pharmacology of epistatic vulnerabilities as a promising therapeutic strategy. Availability and implementation: A web-based tool for exploring all vulnerabilities and their details is available at http://cbio.mskcc.org/cancergenomics/statius/ along with supplemental data files. Contact: statius@cbio.mskcc.org Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24665131

Aksoy, Bülent Arman; Demir, Emek; Babur, Özgün; Wang, Weiqing; Jing, Xiaohong; Schultz, Nikolaus; Sander, Chris

2014-01-01

218

Probabilistic seismic vulnerability and risk assessment of stone masonry structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquakes represent major natural hazards that regularly impact the built environment in seismic prone areas worldwide and cause considerable social and economic losses. The high losses incurred following the past destructive earthquakes promoted the need for assessment of the seismic vulnerability and risk of the existing buildings. Many historic buildings in the old urban centers in Eastern Canada such as Old Quebec City are built of stone masonry and represent un-measurable architectural and cultural heritage. These buildings were built to resist gravity loads only and generally offer poor resistance to lateral seismic loads. Seismic vulnerability assessment of stone masonry buildings is therefore the first necessary step in developing seismic retrofitting and pre-disaster mitigation plans. The objective of this study is to develop a set of probability-based analytical tools for efficient seismic vulnerability and uncertainty analysis of stone masonry buildings. A simplified probabilistic analytical methodology for vulnerability modelling of stone masonry building with systematic treatment of uncertainties throughout the modelling process is developed in the first part of this study. Building capacity curves are developed using a simplified mechanical model. A displacement based procedure is used to develop damage state fragility functions in terms of spectral displacement response based on drift thresholds of stone masonry walls. A simplified probabilistic seismic demand analysis is proposed to capture the combined uncertainty in capacity and demand on fragility functions. In the second part, a robust analytical procedure for the development of seismic hazard compatible fragility and vulnerability functions is proposed. The results are given by sets of seismic hazard compatible vulnerability functions in terms of structure-independent intensity measure (e.g. spectral acceleration) that can be used for seismic risk analysis. The procedure is very efficient for conducting rapid vulnerability assessment of stone masonry buildings. With modification of input structural parameters, it can be adapted and applied to any other building class. A sensitivity analysis of the seismic vulnerability modelling is conducted to quantify the uncertainties associated with each of the input parameters. The proposed methodology was validated for a scenario-based seismic risk assessment of existing buildings in Old Quebec City. The procedure for hazard compatible vulnerability modelling was used to develop seismic fragility functions in terms of spectral acceleration representative of the inventoried buildings. A total of 1220 buildings were considered. The assessment was performed for a scenario event of magnitude 6.2 at distance 15km with a probability of exceedance of 2% in 50 years. The study showed that most of the expected damage is concentrated in the old brick and stone masonry buildings.

Abo El Ezz, Ahmad

219

Soft Error Vulnerability of Iterative Linear Algebra Methods  

SciTech Connect

Devices become increasingly vulnerable to soft errors as their feature sizes shrink. Previously, soft errors primarily caused problems for space and high-atmospheric computing applications. Modern architectures now use features so small at sufficiently low voltages that soft errors are becoming significant even at terrestrial altitudes. The soft error vulnerability of iterative linear algebra methods, which many scientific applications use, is a critical aspect of the overall application vulnerability. These methods are often considered invulnerable to many soft errors because they converge from an imprecise solution to a precise one. However, we show that iterative methods can be vulnerable to soft errors, with a high rate of silent data corruptions. We quantify this vulnerability, with algorithms generating up to 8.5% erroneous results when subjected to a single bit-flip. Further, we show that detecting soft errors in an iterative method depends on its detailed convergence properties and requires more complex mechanisms than simply checking the residual. Finally, we explore inexpensive techniques to tolerate soft errors in these methods.

Bronevetsky, G; de Supinski, B

2007-12-15

220

Climate variability and climate change vulnerability and adaptation. Workshop summary  

SciTech Connect

Representatives from fifteen countries met in Prague, Czech Republic, on September 11-15, 1995, to share results from the analysis of vulnerability and adaptation to global climate change. The workshop focused on the issues of global climate change and its impacts on various sectors of a national economy. The U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), which has been signed by more than 150 governments worldwide, calls on signatory parties to develop and communicate measures they are implementing to respond to global climate change. An analysis of a country`s vulnerability to changes in the climate helps it identify suitable adaptation measures. These analyses are designed to determine the extent of the impacts of global climate change on sensitive sectors such as agricultural crops, forests, grasslands and livestock, water resources, and coastal areas. Once it is determined how vulnerable a country may be to climate change, it is possible to identify adaptation measures for ameliorating some or all of the effects.The objectives of the vulnerability and adaptation workshop were to: The objectives of the vulnerability and adaptation workshop were to: Provide an opportunity for countries to describe their study results; Encourage countries to learn from the experience of the more complete assessments and adjust their studies accordingly; Identify issues and analyses that require further investigation; and Summarize results and experiences for governmental and intergovernmental organizations.

Bhatti, N.; Cirillo, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Dixon, R.K. [U.S. Country Studies Program, Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31

221

Assessing groundwater vulnerability to agrichemical contamination in the Midwest US  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Agrichemicals (herbicides and nitrate) are significant sources of diffuse pollution to groundwater. Indirect methods are needed to assess the potential for groundwater contamination by diffuse sources because groundwater monitoring is too costly to adequately define the geographic extent of contamination at a regional or national scale. This paper presents examples of the application of statistical, overlay and index, and process-based modeling methods for groundwater vulnerability assessments to a variety of data from the Midwest U.S. The principles for vulnerability assessment include both intrinsic (pedologic, climatologic, and hydrogeologic factors) and specific (contaminant and other anthropogenic factors) vulnerability of a location. Statistical methods use the frequency of contaminant occurrence, contaminant concentration, or contamination probability as a response variable. Statistical assessments are useful for defining the relations among explanatory and response variables whether they define intrinsic or specific vulnerability. Multivariate statistical analyses are useful for ranking variables critical to estimating water quality responses of interest. Overlay and index methods involve intersecting maps of intrinsic and specific vulnerability properties and indexing the variables by applying appropriate weights. Deterministic models use process-based equations to simulate contaminant transport and are distinguished from the other methods in their potential to predict contaminant transport in both space and time. An example of a one-dimensional leaching model linked to a geographic information system (GIS) to define a regional metamodel for contamination in the Midwest is included.

Burkart, M.R.; Kolpin, D.W.; James, D.E.

1999-01-01

222

Development of a method for assessing flood vulnerability.  

PubMed

Over the past few decades, a growing number of studies have been conducted on the mechanisms responsible for climate change and the elaboration of future climate scenarios. More recently, studies have emerged examining the potential effects of climate change on human societies, including how variations in hydrological regimes impact water resources management. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's third assessment report, climate change will lead to an intensification of the hydrological cycle, resulting in greater variability in precipitation patterns and an increase in the intensity and frequency of severe storms and other extreme events. In other words, climate change will likely increase the risks of flooding in many areas. Structural and non-structural countermeasures are available to reduce flood vulnerability, but implementing new measures can be a lengthy process requiring political and financial support. In order to help guide such policy decisions, a method for assessing flood vulnerability due to climate change is proposed. In this preliminary study, multivariate analysis has been used to develop a Flood Vulnerability Index (FVI), which allows for a comparative analysis of flood vulnerability between different basins. Once fully developed, the FVI will also allow users to identify the main factors responsible for a basin's vulnerability, making it a valuable tool to assist in priority setting within decision-making processes. PMID:15918359

Connor, R F; Hiroki, K

2005-01-01

223

Correlation analysis of different vulnerability metrics on power grids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many scholars have used different metrics to quantify power grid vulnerability in the literature, but how correlated these metrics are is an interesting topic. This paper defines vulnerability as the performance drop of a power grid under a disruptive event, and selects six frequently used performance metrics, including efficiency (E), source-demand considered efficiency (SDE), largest component size (LCS), connectivity level (CL), clustering coefficient (CC), and power supply (PS), to respectively quantify power grid vulnerability V under different node or edge failure probabilities fp and then analyzes the correlation of these six vulnerability metrics. Taking the IEEE 300 power grid as an example, the results show that the flow-based metric V, which is equivalent to the important load shed metric in power engineering, has mild correlation with source-demand considered topology-based metrics V and V, but weak correlation with other topology-based metrics VE, V and V, which do not differentiate source-demand nodes. Similar results are also found in other types of failures, other system operation parameters and other power grids. Hence, one should be careful to use topology-based metrics to quantify the real vulnerability of power grids.

Ouyang, Min; Pan, Zhezhe; Hong, Liu; Zhao, Lijing

2014-02-01

224

Prey behavior, age-dependent vulnerability, and predation rates.  

PubMed

Variation in the temporal pattern of vulnerability can provide important insights into predator-prey relationships and the evolution of antipredator behavior. We illustrate these points with a system that has coyotes (Canis latrans) as a predator and two species of congeneric deer (Odocoileus spp.) as prey. The deer employ different antipredator tactics (aggressive defense vs. flight) that result in contrasting patterns of age-dependent vulnerability in their probability of being captured when encountered by coyotes. We use long-term survival data and a simple mathematical model to show that (1) species differences in age-dependent vulnerability are reflected in seasonal predation rates and (2) seasonal variation in prey vulnerability and predator hunt activity, which can be associated with the availability of alternative prey, interact to shape seasonal and annual predation rates for each prey species. Shifting hunt activity from summer to winter, or vice versa, alleviated annual mortality on one species and focused it on the other. Our results indicate that seasonal variation in prey vulnerability and hunt activity interact to influence the impact that a predator has on any particular type of prey. Furthermore, these results indicate that seasonal variation in predation pressure is an important selection pressure shaping prey defenses. PMID:18840071

Lingle, Susan; Feldman, Alex; Boyce, Mark S; Wilson, W Finbarr

2008-11-01

225

A unified framework for addiction: Vulnerabilities in the decision process  

PubMed Central

The understanding of decision-making systems has come together in recent years to form a unified theory of decision-making in the mammalian brain as arising from multiple, interacting systems (a planning system, a habit system, and a situation-recognition system). This unified decision-making system has multiple potential access points through which it can be driven to make maladaptive choices, particularly choices that entail seeking of certain drugs or behaviors. We identify 10 key vulnerabilities in the system: (1) moving away from homeostasis, (2) changing allostatic set points, (3) euphorigenic “reward-like” signals, (4) overvaluation in the planning system, (5) incorrect search of situation-action-outcome relationships, (6) misclassification of situations, (7) overvaluation in the habit system, (8) a mismatch in the balance of the two decision systems, (9) over-fast discounting processes, and (10) changed learning rates. These vulnerabilities provide a taxonomy of potential problems with decision-making systems. Although each vulnerability can drive an agent to return to the addictive choice, each vulnerability also implies a characteristic symptomology. Different drugs, different behaviors, and different individuals are likely to access different vulnerabilities. This has implications for an individual’s susceptibility to addiction and the transition to addiction, for the potential for relapse, and for the potential for treatment. PMID:18662461

Redish, A. David; Jensen, Steve; Johnson, Adam

2013-01-01

226

Different gestational ages and changing vulnerability of the premature brain.  

PubMed

Abstract In recent decades, there has been a general increase in survival rates of preterm and low birth weight infants, but this overall decrease in perinatal mortality has not been accompanied by a decrease in long-term physical and mental disability. In order to reduce the long-term sequelae of prematurity and to establish preventive measures, it is important to identify risk factors since the main determinant of specific vulnerability to different types of lesions is gestational age. The regional tissue vulnerability at a given gestational age is probably determined by the local metabolic requirements together with specific cell characteristics and their level of maturation. In this article, we discuss the most common neonatal cerebral lesions (cerebellar haemorrhage, germinal matrix intraventricular haemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, arterial ischaemic stroke, cerebral vein sinus thrombosis and hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy) related to the gestational age-dependent vulnerability of the premature brain. PMID:23968292

Sannia, Andrea; Natalizia, Anna R; Parodi, Alessandro; Malova, Mariya; Fumagalli, Monica; Rossi, Andrea; Ramenghi, Luca A

2013-08-23

227

Regional hazard analysis for use in vulnerability and risk assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for supporting an operational regional risk and vulnerability analysis for hydrological hazards is suggested and applied in the Island of Cyprus. The method aggregates the output of a hydrological flow model forced by observed temperatures and precipitations, with observed discharge data. A scheme supported by observed discharge is applied for model calibration. A comparison of different calibration schemes indicated that the same model parameters can be used for the entire country. In addition, it was demonstrated that, for operational purposes, it is sufficient to rely on a few stations. Model parameters were adjusted to account for land use and thus for vulnerability of elements at risk by comparing observed and simulated flow patterns, using all components of the hydrological model. The results can be used for regional risk and vulnerability analysis in order to increase the resilience of the affected population.

Maris, Fotis; Kitikidou, Kyriaki; Paparrizos, Spyridon; Karagiorgos, Konstantinos; Potouridis, Simeon; Fuchs, Sven

2014-05-01

228

An holistic approach to beach erosion vulnerability assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erosion is a major threat for coasts worldwide, beaches in particular, which constitute one of the most valuable coastal landforms. Vulnerability assessments related to beach erosion may contribute to planning measures to counteract erosion by identifying, quantifying and ranking vulnerability. Herein, we present a new index, the Beach Vulnerability Index (BVI), which combines simplicity in calculations, easily obtainable data and low processing capacity. This approach provides results not only for different beaches, but also for different sectors of the same beach and enables the identification of the relative significance of the processes involved. It functions through the numerical approximation of indicators that correspond to the mechanisms related to the processes that control beach evolution, such as sediment availability, wave climate, beach morhodynamics and sea level change. The BVI is also intended to be used as a managerial tool for beach sustainability, including resilience to climate change impact on beach erosion.

Alexandrakis, George; Poulos, Serafim ?.

2014-08-01

229

Analyzing precipitationsheds to understand the vulnerability of rainfall dependent regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that rivers connect upstream and downstream ecosystems within watersheds. Here we describe the concept of precipitationsheds to show how upwind terrestrial evaporation source areas contribute moisture for precipitation in downwind sink regions. We illustrate the importance of upwind land cover in precipitationsheds to sustain precipitation in critically water stressed downwind areas, i.e. dryland agricultural areas. We first identify seven regions where rainfed agriculture is particularly vulnerable to reductions in precipitation, and then map their precipitationsheds. We further develop a framework for qualitatively assessing the vulnerability of precipitation for these seven agricultural regions. We illustrate that the sink regions have varying degrees of vulnerability to changes in upwind evaporation rates depending on the extent of the precipitationshed, source region land use intensity and expected land cover changes in the source region.

Keys, P. W.; van der Ent, R. J.; Gordon, L. J.; Hoff, H.; Nikoli, R.; Savenije, H. H. G.

2011-10-01

230

Properties of ecosystems that are vulnerable during eco-fusion  

PubMed Central

When two ecosystems with separate evolutionary histories come into contact (eco-fusion), reciprocal invasions occur during their fusion. Asymmetries in the migration direction or extinction rate then occur (e.g., during the Great American Biotic Interchange, GABI). Hypotheses have been proposed to describe this process, but the ecosystem properties have not been adequately discussed. To identify the ecosystem properties that create vulnerability to species loss during eco-fusion, we conducted computer simulations of the fusion of ecosystems with independent evolutionary histories. With asymmetrical species extinction rates, the ecosystem with a higher extinction rate had a shorter food chain, a higher ratio of animal species to plant species, and a lower ratio of carnivores to herbivores. Most ecosystems that have undergone isolated evolution are vulnerable. These results may explain the vulnerability of South America's ecosystem during the GABI and that of modern Australia. PMID:25631294

Yoshida, Katsuhiko; Tokita, Kei

2015-01-01

231

Properties of ecosystems that are vulnerable during eco-fusion.  

PubMed

When two ecosystems with separate evolutionary histories come into contact (eco-fusion), reciprocal invasions occur during their fusion. Asymmetries in the migration direction or extinction rate then occur (e.g., during the Great American Biotic Interchange, GABI). Hypotheses have been proposed to describe this process, but the ecosystem properties have not been adequately discussed. To identify the ecosystem properties that create vulnerability to species loss during eco-fusion, we conducted computer simulations of the fusion of ecosystems with independent evolutionary histories. With asymmetrical species extinction rates, the ecosystem with a higher extinction rate had a shorter food chain, a higher ratio of animal species to plant species, and a lower ratio of carnivores to herbivores. Most ecosystems that have undergone isolated evolution are vulnerable. These results may explain the vulnerability of South America's ecosystem during the GABI and that of modern Australia. PMID:25631294

Yoshida, Katsuhiko; Tokita, Kei

2015-01-01

232

DoD energy vulnerabilities: potential problems and observations  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Defense is almost entirely dependent on civilian energy supplies to meet its needs in both peacetime and periods of heightened conflict. There are a number of potential vulnerabilities to the continual and timely supply of energy to both the civilian and military sectors. These include denial of the energy resources themselves, disruption of critical transportation networks, destruction of storage facilities, and interruption of electrical power. This report briefly reviews the present situation for provision of energy from the civilian sector to the military. General vulnerabilities of the existing energy supply system are identified, along with the potential for armed aggression (including terrorist and sabotage activities) against the energy network. Conclusions and some tentative observations are made as to a proper response to the existing vulnerabilities.

Freiwald, D A; Berger, M E; Roach, J F

1982-08-01

233

Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains the Executive summary; Introduction; Summary of vulnerabilities; Management systems weaknesses; Commendable practices; Summary of management response plan; Conclusions; and a Glossary of chemical terms.

Not Available

1994-09-01

234

Mechanical vulnerability explains size-dependent mortality of reef corals.  

PubMed

Understanding life history and demographic variation among species within communities is a central ecological goal. Mortality schedules are especially important in ecosystems where disturbance plays a major role in structuring communities, such as coral reefs. Here, we test whether a trait-based, mechanistic model of mechanical vulnerability in corals can explain mortality schedules. Specifically, we ask whether species that become increasingly vulnerable to hydrodynamic dislodgment as they grow have bathtub-shaped mortality curves, whereas species that remain mechanically stable have decreasing mortality rates with size, as predicted by classical life history theory for reef corals. We find that size-dependent mortality is highly consistent between species with the same growth form and that the shape of size-dependent mortality for each growth form can be explained by mechanical vulnerability. Our findings highlight the feasibility of predicting assemblage-scale mortality patterns on coral reefs with trait-based approaches. PMID:24894390

Madin, Joshua S; Baird, Andrew H; Dornelas, Maria; Connolly, Sean R

2014-08-01

235

Mechanical vulnerability explains size-dependent mortality of reef corals  

PubMed Central

Understanding life history and demographic variation among species within communities is a central ecological goal. Mortality schedules are especially important in ecosystems where disturbance plays a major role in structuring communities, such as coral reefs. Here, we test whether a trait-based, mechanistic model of mechanical vulnerability in corals can explain mortality schedules. Specifically, we ask whether species that become increasingly vulnerable to hydrodynamic dislodgment as they grow have bathtub-shaped mortality curves, whereas species that remain mechanically stable have decreasing mortality rates with size, as predicted by classical life history theory for reef corals. We find that size-dependent mortality is highly consistent between species with the same growth form and that the shape of size-dependent mortality for each growth form can be explained by mechanical vulnerability. Our findings highlight the feasibility of predicting assemblage-scale mortality patterns on coral reefs with trait-based approaches. PMID:24894390

Madin, Joshua S; Baird, Andrew H; Dornelas, Maria; Connolly, Sean R

2014-01-01

236

Physically based groundwater vulnerability assessment using sensitivity analysis methods.  

PubMed

A general physically based method is presented to assess the vulnerability of groundwater to external pressures by numerical simulation of groundwater flow. The concept of groundwater vulnerability assessment considered here is based on the calculation of sensitivity coefficients for a user-defined groundwater state for which we propose several physically based indicators. Two sensitivity analysis methods are presented: the sensitivity equation method and the adjoint operator method. We show how careful selection of a method can significantly minimize the computational effort. An illustration of the general methodology is presented for the Herten aquifer analog (Germany). This application to a simple, yet insightful, case demonstrates the potential use of this general and physically based vulnerability assessment method to complex aquifers. PMID:24236887

Beaujean, Jean; Lemieux, Jean-Michel; Dassargues, Alain; Therrien, René; Brouyère, Serge

2014-01-01

237

Research on vulnerability assessments of the Huanghe (Yellow River) delta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal zone located at the juncture of the sea, river and land, and under the influence of both land and ocean (including atmosphere), especially the sea-level rise and human activities, are vulnerable to environment and ecology. At highest risk are coastal zone of South, Southeast and East Asia with dense populations, low elevations and inadequate adaptive capacity. In China, more than 40% of the population live on the 15% of the land in coastal area and more than 70% cities located around the coastal area. The Chinese coastal region, especially river delta area has been experienced erosion, seawater intrusion and decrease in biodiversity under the combined influence of sea-level rise, tectonic subsidence and flooding. Furthermore, some kinds of human activity, such as land use, building, dam construction, reclamation from the sea and waste dumping strengthen the vulnerability of environment and ecosystem in coastal region. The coastal hazards (e.g. coastal erosion, seawater intrusion, land subsidence) and vulnerability of the Huanghe (Yelllow River) delta area are studied during the past several years. A systematic coastal assessment index is built and an evaluation model is developed using the development platform of Visual studio.Net 2005. The assessment index system includes two parts, inherent (sea level rise rate, elevation, morphology, water and sediment discharge, mean tidal range, mean wave height etc) and specific vulnerability index (population density, GDP, land utilization, protection structures etc). The assessment index are determined the weight using Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method. Based on the research results, we better understand the current status and future change of coastal vulnerability and hazards, discuss the impact of the natural possess and human activities. Furthermore, we provide defending strategies for coastal zone vulnerability and typical coastal hazards.

qiao, shuqing; shi, xuefa

2014-05-01

238

Vulnerability Analysis Considerations for the Transportation of Special Nuclear Material  

SciTech Connect

The vulnerability analysis methodology developed for fixed nuclear material sites has proven to be extremely effective in assessing associated transportation issues. The basic methods and techniques used are directly applicable to conducting a transportation vulnerability analysis. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that the same physical protection elements (detection, delay, and response) are present, although the response force plays a dominant role in preventing the theft or sabotage of material. Transportation systems are continuously exposed to the general public whereas the fixed site location by its very nature restricts general public access.

Nicholson, Lary G.; Purvis, James W.

1999-07-21

239

Ten questions for evolutionary studies of disease vulnerability  

PubMed Central

Many evolutionary applications in medicine rely on well-established methods, such as population genetics, phylogenetic analysis, and observing pathogen evolution. Approaches to evolutionary questions about traits that leave bodies vulnerable to disease are less well developed. Strategies for formulating questions and hypotheses remain unsettled, and methods for testing evolutionary hypotheses are unfamiliar to many in medicine. This article uses recent examples to illustrate successful strategies and some common challenges. Ten questions arise in the course of considering hypotheses about traits that leave bodies vulnerable to disease. Addressing them systematically can help minimize confusion and errors.

Nesse, Randolph M

2011-01-01

240

Vulnerabilities of mutant SWI/SNF complexes in cancer.  

PubMed

Cancer genome sequencing efforts have revealed the novel theme that chromatin modifiers are frequently mutated across a wide spectrum of cancers. Mutations in genes encoding subunits of SWI/SNF (BAF) chromatin remodeling complexes are particularly prevalent, occurring in 20% of all human cancers. As these are typically loss-of-function mutations and not directly therapeutically targetable, central goals have been to elucidate mechanism and identify vulnerabilities created by these mutations. Here, we discuss emerging data that these mutations lead to the formation of aberrant residual SWI/SNF complexes that constitute a specific vulnerability and discuss the potential for exploiting these dependencies in SWI/SNF mutant cancers. PMID:25203320

Helming, Katherine C; Wang, Xiaofeng; Roberts, Charles W M

2014-09-01

241

Vulnerability assessment and risk perception: the case of the Arie? River Middle Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vulnerability assessment is influenced by a number of factors, including risk perception. This paper investigates the vulnerability of people living in the middle basin of the Aries river region, a former mining area, to natural and technologic hazards. The mining industry lead to significant environmental changes, which combined with the social problems caused by its decline (high unemployment rate, low income and old age) raised the level of the vulnerability in the area. This case study is unique, as it includes an evaluation of risk perception and its influence on the social vulnerability and resilience of local communities to disasters. Key words: vulnerability assessment, natural hazards, social vulnerability, risk perception

Ozunu, Al.; Botezan, C.

2012-04-01

242

Research Article Demographic Patterns and Harvest Vulnerability of  

E-print Network

(Odocoileus virginianus) caused by transmissible protease-resistant prions. Since the discovery of CWD of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in high-density white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations words Chronic wasting disease (CWD), disease prevalence, epidemiology, harvest vulnerability, Odocoileus

Mladenoff, David

243

Vulnerability of the Elderly during Natural Hazard Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we analyze vulnerability of the elderly during natural hazard events at the macro level using the geographical distribution of the U.S. elderly population at the county level. The elderly population is defined as persons aged 65 years or older. We use data from the Spatial Hazard Events and Losses Database to identify counties with high frequencies of

Rae Zimmerman; Carlos E. Restrepo; Becca Nagorsky; Alison M. Culpen

2009-01-01

244

Psychological Distress and Mortality: Are Women More Vulnerable?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Does psychological distress increase mortality risk? If it does, are women more vulnerable than men to the effect of distress on mortality? Drawing from cumulative disadvantage theory, these questions are addressed with data from a 20-year follow-up of a national sample of adults ages 25-74. Event history analyses were performed to examine…

Ferraro, Kenneth F.; Nuriddin, Tariqah A.

2006-01-01

245

Stressful Segregation Housing and Psychosocial Vulnerability in Prison Suicide Ideators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychosocially vulnerable prisoners under stressful conditions of confinement are ill prepared to cope and at risk for developing suicide intention. The present study examined the relationships of depression, hopelessness, reasons for living, mental health problem history, suicide attempt lethality history, and stressful segregation housing with…

Bonner, Ronald L.

2006-01-01

246

VIRAL TRANSPORT AND FATE MODELS FOR GROUND WATER VULNERABILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this project is to develop a model to assess the vulnerability of public water systems to pathogens. It is focused on the sources, fate and transport of viruses in aquifer systems in specific hydrologic settings. It's intended to be used by resource managers or r...

247

A Static Analysis Framework For Detecting SQL Injection Vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently SQL Injection Attack (SIA) has become a major threat to Web applications. Via carefully crafted user input, attackers can expose or manipulate the back-end database of a Web application. This paper proposes the construc- tion and outlines the design of a static analysis framework (called SAFELI) for identifying SIA vulnerabilities at com- pile time. SAFELI statically inspects MSIL bytecode

Xiang Fu; Xin Lu; Boris Peltsverger; Shijun Chen; Kai Qian; Lixin Tao

2007-01-01

248

Kids Who Were Preemies More Vulnerable to Flu Complications  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript. Kids Who Were Preemies More Vulnerable to Flu Complications: Study Current guidelines don't identify them ... December 4, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Childhood Immunization Flu Premature Babies WEDNESDAY, Dec. 3, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- ...

249

Dyadic Vulnerability and Risk Profiling for Elder Neglect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Neglect of older adults accounts for 60% to 70% of all elder-mistreatment reports made to adult protective services. The purpose of this article is to report data from research, using a risk-and-vulnerability model, that captures the independent contributions of both the elder and the caregiver as they relate to the outcome of neglect.…

Fulmer, Terry; Paveza, Gregory; VandeWeerd, Carla; Fairchild, Susan; Guadagno, Lisa; Bolton-Blatt, Marguarette; Norman, Robert

2005-01-01

250

Node Vulnerability under Finite Perturbations in Complex Networks  

PubMed Central

A measure to quantify vulnerability under perturbations (attacks, failures, large fluctuations) in ensembles (networks) of coupled dynamical systems is proposed. Rather than addressing the issue of how the network properties change upon removal of elements of the graph (the strategy followed by most of the existing methods for studying the vulnerability of a network based on its topology), here a dynamical definition of vulnerability is introduced, referring to the robustness of a collective dynamical state to perturbing events occurring over a fixed topology. In particular, we study how the collective (synchronized) dynamics of a network of chaotic units is disrupted under the action of a finite size perturbation on one of its nodes. Illustrative examples are provided for three systems of identical chaotic oscillators coupled according to three distinct well-known network topologies. A quantitative comparison between the obtained vulnerability rankings and the classical connectivity/centrality rankings is made that yields conclusive results. Possible applications of the proposed strategy and conclusions are also discussed. PMID:21698232

Gutiérrez, Ricardo; del-Pozo, Francisco; Boccaletti, Stefano

2011-01-01

251

Bifocals: Analyzing WebView Vulnerabilities in Android Applications  

E-print Network

exposed by the application. This may seem safe, as typically developers use Web- Views to display trustedBifocals: Analyzing WebView Vulnerabilities in Android Applications Erika Chin and David Wagner University of California, Berkeley {emc, daw}@cs.berkeley.edu Abstract. WebViews allow Android developers

Wagner, David

252

Sound and precise analysis of web applications for injection vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web applications are popular targets of security attacks. One common type of such attacks is SQL injection, where an attacker exploits faulty application code to execute maliciously crafted database queries. Bothstatic and dynamic approaches have been proposed to detect or prevent SQL injections; while dynamic approaches provide protection for deployed software, static approaches can detect potential vulnerabilities before software deployment.

Gary Wassermann; Zhendong Su

2007-01-01

253

Avoiding Serialization Vulnerabilities through the Use of Synchronization Contracts  

E-print Network

vulnerabilities, which pose serious security risks and which are very difficult to detect. In practice, however permitting the code to be safely integrated into an application that is written using synchronization contracts. We have applied the technique in writing a multi-threaded web server using synchronization

Dillon, Laura K.

254

Assessing DNS Vulnerability to Record Injection Kyle Schomp  

E-print Network

Assessing DNS Vulnerability to Record Injection Kyle Schomp , Tom Callahan , Michael Rabinovich Institute, Berkeley, CA, USA Abstract. The Domain Name System (DNS) is a critical component of the In. In this paper, we measure the Internet's vul- nerability to DNS record injection attacks--including a new attack

Rabinovich, Michael "Misha"

255

CHEX: Statically Vetting Android Apps for Component Hijacking Vulnerabilities  

E-print Network

of apps have been developed for Android in recent years, making it one of the most popular mobile operatCHEX: Statically Vetting Android Apps for Component Hijacking Vulnerabilities Long Lu Zhichun Li- ing systems. However, the quality of the booming apps can be a concern [4]. Poorly engineered apps may

Lee, Wenke

256

The Linneweil Affair: A Study in Adolescent Vulnerability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Details the case of Elizabeth Linneweil, a Jewish child who was persuaded by her guardians to convert to Catholicism. The motives of the emotionally vulnerable adolescent--desire to conform, to please guardians, and to cement social bonding in the community--are discussed. (JAC)

Isser, Natalie

1984-01-01

257

Extreme seismicity and disaster risks: Hazard versus vulnerability (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the extreme nature of earthquakes has been known for millennia due to the resultant devastation from many of them, the vulnerability of our civilization to extreme seismic events is still growing. It is partly because of the increase in the number of high-risk objects and clustering of populations and infrastructure in the areas prone to seismic hazards. Today an earthquake may affect several hundreds thousand lives and cause significant damage up to hundred billion dollars; it can trigger an ecological catastrophe if occurs in close vicinity to a nuclear power plant. Two types of extreme natural events can be distinguished: (i) large magnitude low probability events, and (ii) the events leading to disasters. Although the first-type events may affect earthquake-prone countries directly or indirectly (as tsunamis, landslides etc.), the second-type events occur mainly in economically less-developed countries where the vulnerability is high and the resilience is low. Although earthquake hazards cannot be reduced, vulnerability to extreme events can be diminished by monitoring human systems and by relevant laws preventing an increase in vulnerability. Significant new knowledge should be gained on extreme seismicity through observations, monitoring, analysis, modeling, comprehensive hazard assessment, prediction, and interpretations to assist in disaster risk analysis. The advanced disaster risk communication skill should be developed to link scientists, emergency management authorities, and the public. Natural, social, economic, and political reasons leading to disasters due to earthquakes will be discussed.

Ismail-Zadeh, A.

2013-12-01

258

Reuse-Oriented Camouflaging Trojan: Vulnerability Detection and Attack Construction  

E-print Network

Reuse-Oriented Camouflaging Trojan: Vulnerability Detection and Attack Construction Zhiqiang Lin,xyzhang,dxu}@cs.purdue.edu Abstract We introduce the reuse-oriented camouflaging trojan ­ a new threat to legitimate software binaries-world software binaries demonstrate that the reuse-oriented camouflaging trojans are a real threat

Zhang, Xiangyu

259

Opening Pathways for Vulnerable Young People in Patagonia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New and improved institutions are needed to support the transition to adulthood of vulnerable young people. Existing institutions that should provide that support demonstrate structural lag: they have not adapted to changing circumstances. Action research was conducted in Por un Manana, an employment training program for low-income youth and young…

Hamilton, Mary Agnes; Hamilton, Stephen F.; Bianchi, Lucia; Bran, Jacqui

2013-01-01

260

Early Detection Monitoring for Vulnerable Great Lakes Coastal Ecosystems  

EPA Science Inventory

Great Lakes harbors/embayments are vulnerable to introduction of aquatic invasive species. Monitoring is needed to inform on new introductions, as well as to track success of prevention programs intended to limit spread. We have completed a pilot field case study in the Duluth-...

261

The Development of Cognitive Vulnerability to Hopelessness Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

While several studies have supported the hopelessness theory's claim that depressogenic inferential styles serve as vulnerability factors to depression, little research has examined how these styles de- velop. The current study examined three theories of their development in children between the ages of 7 and 13. Results supported two of these theories, indicating that children with pessimistic infer- ential styles

Sabina Sarin; John R. Z. Abela

2005-01-01

262

Assessment of Air Force Accessions by Draft-Vulnerability Category.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This work assesses the characteristics of current Air Force accessions. On the basis of draft lottery numbers, four groups of basic trainees enlisting in early 1970 were defined in terms of their draft vulnerability at the time of enlistment. These groups, designated as high, moderate, low, and no threat, were compared on a number of dimensions.…

Vitola, Bart M.; Valentine, Lonnie D., Jr.

263

Providing legal aid to members of vulnerable minorities in Ukraine.  

PubMed

The rights of vulnerable groups--particularly injection drug users, people living with HIV/AIDS and sex workers--are routinely violated in Ukraine. In this article, which is based on a presentation from an abstract-driven session at the conference, Andrei Tolopilo describes a legal aid project undertaken to help people understand and defend their rights. PMID:17375430

Topolilo, Andrei

2006-12-01

264

1 INTRODUCTION Many existing masonry infill walls are vulnerable to  

E-print Network

1 INTRODUCTION Many existing masonry infill walls are vulnerable to extreme out-of-plane loading-filled with solid brick masonry. The specimens were strengthened with various types of FRP and utilized several dif approach was developed to simulate the re- sponse of FRP-strengthened masonry infill walls subjected to out

265

Serotonergic vulnerability and depression: assumptions, experimental evidence and implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the term serotonergic vulnerability (SV) has been used in scientific literature, but so far it has not been explicitly defined. This review article attempts to elucidate the SV concept. SV can be defined as increased sensitivity to natural or experimental alterations of the serotonergic (5-HTergic) system. Several factors that may disrupt the 5-HTergic system and hence contribute

L A W Jans; W J Riedel; C R Markus; A Blokland; LAW Jans

2007-01-01

266

From Vulnerability to Resilience: The Challenge of Adaptation to  

E-print Network

From Vulnerability to Resilience: The Challenge of Adaptation to Climate Change Case Studies from of Adaptation to Climate Change Case Studies from Bangladesh, Brazil, China, India, South Africa and Korea Wha: The Challenge of Adaptation to Climate Change Case Studies from Bangladesh, Brazil, China, India, South Africa

267

Psychosocial Factors in Heart Surgery: Presurgical Vulnerability and Postsurgical Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Distress and low perceived social support were examined as indicators of psychosocial vulnerability in patients about to undergo heart surgery. Design: A total of 550 study patients underwent heart surgeries, including bypass grafting and valve procedures. Psychosocial interviews were conducted about five days before surgery, and biomedical data were obtained from hospital records. Main Outcome Measures: Sociodemographic, personality, religious,

Richard J. Contrada; David A. Boulifard; Eric B. Hekler; Ellen L. Idler; Tanya M. Spruill; Erich W. Labouvie; Tyrone J. Krause

2008-01-01

268

Development of hazard-compatible building fragility and vulnerability models  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present a methodology for transforming the structural and non-structural fragility functions in HAZUS into a format that is compatible with conventional seismic hazard analysis information. The methodology makes use of the building capacity (or pushover) curves and related building parameters provided in HAZUS. Instead of the capacity spectrum method applied in HAZUS, building response is estimated by inelastic response history analysis of corresponding single-degree-of-freedom systems under a large number of earthquake records. Statistics of the building response are used with the damage state definitions from HAZUS to derive fragility models conditioned on spectral acceleration values. Using the developed fragility models for structural and nonstructural building components, with corresponding damage state loss ratios from HAZUS, we also derive building vulnerability models relating spectral acceleration to repair costs. Whereas in HAZUS the structural and nonstructural damage states are treated as if they are independent, our vulnerability models are derived assuming "complete" nonstructural damage whenever the structural damage state is complete. We show the effects of considering this dependence on the final vulnerability models. The use of spectral acceleration (at selected vibration periods) as the ground motion intensity parameter, coupled with the careful treatment of uncertainty, makes the new fragility and vulnerability models compatible with conventional seismic hazard curves and hence useful for extensions to probabilistic damage and loss assessment.

Karaca, E.; Luco, N.

2008-01-01

269

Is madagascar becoming increasingly vulnerable to food crises?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical need or status?quo approaches have not provided the appropriate conceptual framework for guiding food aid policies. As a response to this, models based on household or individual behavior are being articulated to explain food vulnerability. However, due to the complexity of these models and their data requirements, they have yet to become operational for the determination of food

M. Mahmud Khan; Nancy B. Mock; Victor Jeannoda; Shawn K. Baker

1993-01-01

270

Vulnerabilities of children admitted to a pediatric inpatient care unit?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To identify the vulnerabilities of children admitted to a pediatric inpatient unit of a university hospital. METHODS: Cross-sectional, descriptive study from April to September 2013 with36 children aged 30 days to 12 years old, admitted to medical-surgical pediatric inpatient units of a university hospital and their caregivers. Data concerning sociocultural, socioeconomic and clinical context of children and their families were collected by interview with the child caregiver and from patients, records, and analyzed by descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Of the total sample, 97.1% (n=132) of children had at least one type of vulnerability, the majority related to the caregiver's level of education, followed by caregiver's financial situation, health history of the child, caregiver's family situation, use of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs by the caregiver, family's living conditions, caregiver's schooling, and bonding between the caregiver and the child. Only 2.9% (n=4) of the children did not show any criteria to be classified in a category of vulnerability. CONCLUSIONS: Most children were classified has having a social vulnerability. It is imperative to create networks of support between the hospital and the primary healthcare service to promote healthcare practices directed to the needs of the child and family. PMID:25511001

de Oliveira, Larissa Natacha; Breigeiron, Márcia Koja; Hallmann, Sofia; Witkowski, Maria Carolina

2014-01-01

271

Climate Change, Agriculture and Poverty Vulnerabilityand Poverty Vulnerability  

E-print Network

Climate Change, Agriculture and Poverty Vulnerabilityand Poverty Vulnerability Presentation by-Medium-High productivity ­ Implications for agricultural production, trade and poverty · The issue of climate volatility ­ Impact of extreme climate events on poverty #12;Climate Science Debate Detection: - Little doubt about

272

Elevated Luteinizing Hormone Expression Colocalizes With Neurons Vulnerable to  

E-print Network

of Alzheimer's disease (AD). First, in line with the abrupt earlier loss of gonadal function in femalesElevated Luteinizing Hormone Expression Colocalizes With Neurons Vulnerable to Alzheimer's Disease in the pathogenesis of AD. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Key words: Alzheimer's disease; amyloid- ; estrogen; gonadotropin

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

273

Mapping vulnerability and conservation adaptation strategies under climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identification of spatial gradients in ecosystem vulnerability to global climate change and local stressors is an important step in the formulation and implementation of appropriate countermeasures. Here we build on recent work to map ecoregional exposure to future climate, using an envelope-based gauge of future climate stability--defined as a measure of how similar the future climate of a region will be to the present climate. We incorporate an assessment of each ecoregion's adaptive capacity, based on spatial analysis of its natural integrity--the proportion of intact natural vegetation--to present a measure of global ecosystem vulnerability. The relationship between intactness (adaptive capacity) and stability (exposure) varies widely across ecoregions, with some of the most vulnerable, according to this measure, located in southern and southeastern Asia, western and central Europe, eastern South America and southern Australia. To ensure the applicability of these findings to conservation, we provide a matrix that highlights the potential implications of this vulnerability assessment for adaptation planning and offers a spatially explicit management guide.

Watson, James E. M.; Iwamura, Takuya; Butt, Nathalie

2013-11-01

274

Voice over IP: Risks, Threats and Vulnerabilities Angelos D. Keromytis  

E-print Network

Europe Sophia-Antipolis, France Abstract-- Voice over IP (VoIP) and Internet Multimedia Subsystem (IMS Multimedia Subsystem (IMS), refers to a class of products that enable advanced communication services overVoice over IP: Risks, Threats and Vulnerabilities Angelos D. Keromytis Symantec Research Labs

Yang, Junfeng

275

Finite-State Modeling, Analysis and Testing of System Vulnerabilities  

E-print Network

Finite-State Modeling, Analysis and Testing of System Vulnerabilities Fevzi Belli, Christof J a stable system behavior and a robust operation. This work is about the modeling, analysis and testing, the device or the equipment, which the UI is intended for and embedded in, controlling technical processes

Belli, Fevzi

276

AN OVERVIEW OF EPA'S REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT (REVA) PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) is a, approach to place-based ecological risk assessment that is currently under development by ORD. The pilot assessment will be done for the Mid-Atlantic region and builds on data collected for EMAP. ReVA is being developed to identify t...

277

Autobiographical Memory as a Predictor of Depression Vulnerability in Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Overgeneral autobiographical memory (AM), the tendency to recall categories of events when asked to provide specific instances from one's life, is purported to be a marker of depression vulnerability that develops in childhood. Although early adolescence is a period of risk for depression onset especially among girls, prospective examination of…

Hipwell, Alison E.; Sapotichne, Brenna; Klostermann, Susan; Battista, Deena; Keenan, Kate

2011-01-01

278

Early Markers of Vulnerable Language Skill Development in Galactosaemia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are no known biomedical or genetic markers to identify which infants with galactosaemia (GAL) are most at risk of poor language skill development, yet pre-linguistic communicative "red flag" behaviours are recognised as early identifiers of heightened vulnerability to impaired language development. We report on pre-linguistic…

Lewis, Fiona M.; Coman, David J.; Syrmis, Maryanne

2014-01-01

279

Climate Change: Conflict, Security and Vulnerability Professor of Climate Change  

E-print Network

Climate Change: Conflict, Security and Vulnerability Mike Hulme Professor of Climate Change Science, Society and Sustainability Group School of Environmental Sciences Rethinking Climate Change, Conflict security" "increase risk of conflicts among and within nations" #12;· from `climatic change' to `climate-change

Hulme, Mike

280

Protecting the vulnerable: testing times for clinical research ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a number of historical breaches of research ethics. Typically the victims of such breaches belong to vulnerable populations, such as prisoners, mentally disabled people, women and people in developing countries. This article provides a brief introduction to the main ethical approaches in bioethics. Subsequently it looks at a number of currently discussed ethical issues in clinical research

Udo Schüklenk

2000-01-01

281

Ethical Issues in Research with "Vulnerable" and "HardtoReach"  

E-print Network

Ethical Issues in Research with "Vulnerable" and "HardtoReach" PopulationsPopulations Emily E, and literature of research ethics without undergoing g g stringent certification. And yet the need for some ETHICS GUIDANCEKEY RESEARCH ETHICS GUIDANCE DOCUMENTS #12;Belmont ReportBelmont Report · A reaction

Illinois at Chicago, University of

282

Finding behavioral and network indicators of brain vulnerability  

PubMed Central

Resilience research has usually focused on identifying protective factors associated with specific stress conditions (e.g., war, trauma) or psychopathologies (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD]). Implicit in this research is the concept that resilience is a global construct, invariant to the unfavorable circumstances or the psychopathologies that may develop (i.e., the mechanisms underlying the resilience of an individual in all cases are expected to be similar). Here we contribute to the understanding of resilience—and its counterpart, vulnerability—by employing an approach that makes use of this invariant quality. We outline two main characteristics that we would expect from indicators of a vulnerable state: that they should appear across disorders regardless of specific circumstances, and that they should appear much before the disorder is evident. Next, we identify two sets of factors that exhibit this pattern of association with psychopathological states. The first was a set of “low-level” sensory, motor and regulatory irregularities that have been reported across the clinical literature; we suggest that these can serve as behavioral indicators of a vulnerable state. The second was the set of aberrations in network metrics that have been reported in the field of systems neuroscience; we suggest that these can serve as network indicators of a vulnerable state. Finally, we explore how behavioral indicators may be related to network indicators and discuss the clinical and research-related implications of our work. PMID:22347174

Levit-Binnun, Nava; Golland, Yulia

2011-01-01

283

American Indian Adolescent Girls: Vulnerability to Sex Trafficking, Intervention Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Minnesota Indian Women's Resource Center offers harm reduction programming to at-risk adolescent American Indian girls, including outreach, case management, advocacy, healthy sexuality education, and support groups. To evaluate program impact, participants are assessed at intake and every 6 months afterward for current vulnerability to…

Pierce, Alexandra

2012-01-01

284

ORIGINAL PAPER Vulnerable island carnivores: the endangered endemic  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Vulnerable island carnivores: the endangered endemic dwarf procyonids from Cozumel online: 15 August 2009 � Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009 Abstract Insular carnivores represent action. Keywords Carnivore conservation Á Dwarf coati Á Mark-recapture Á Nasua nelsoni Á Procyon pygmaeus

Gompper, Matthew E.

285

Vulnerable Lives The Experience of Death and Loss  

E-print Network

15 Vulnerable Lives The Experience of Death and Loss among the Aka and Ngandu Adolescents or adolescent foragers or farmers view or deal with recurrent death. Some studies describe funeral rituals to loss among two culturally distinct adolescent groups in central Africa-Aka foragers and Ngandu farmers

286

Vulnerability Black Markets: Empirical Evidence and Scenario Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the manifest characteristics of online vulnerability black markets (VBM), insider actors, interactions and mechanisms, obtained from masked observation. Because VBM transactions are hidden from general view, we trace their precursors as secondary evidence of their development and activity. More general attributes of VBMs and the exploits they discuss are identified. Finally, we introduce a simulation model that

Jaziar Radianti; Eliot Rich; Jose J. Gonzalez

2009-01-01

287

Vulnerability of the US to future sea level rise  

SciTech Connect

The differential vulnerability of the conterminous United States to future sea level rise from greenhouse climate warming is assessed, using a coastal hazards data base. This data contains information on seven variables relating to inundation and erosion risks. High risk shorelines are characterized by low relief, erodible substrate, subsidence, shoreline retreat, and high wave/tide energies. Very high risk shorelines on the Atlantic Coast (Coastal Vulnerability Index {ge}33.0) include the outer coast of the Delmarva Peninsula, northern Cape Hatteras, and segments of New Jersey, Georgia and South Carolina. Louisiana and sections of Texas are potentially the most vulnerable, due to anomalously high relative sea level rise and erosion, coupled with low elevation and mobile sediments. Although the Pacific Coast is generally the least vulnerable, because of its rugged relief and erosion-resistant substrate, the high geographic variability leads to several exceptions, such as the San Joaquin-Sacramento Delta area, the barrier beaches of Oregon and Washington, and parts of the Puget Sound Lowlands. 31 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Gornitz, V. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, New York, NY (USA). Goddard Inst. for Space Studies); White, T.W.; Cushman, R.M. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1991-01-01

288

Paranoid schizophrenia: non-specificity of neuropsychological vulnerability markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

During stages of remission, patients with paranoid schizophrenia seldom show severe attentional or information-processing dysfunctions, except in cases of long-term chronicity. The diagnostic specificity of four putative psychological vulnerability indicators of schizophrenia — the Span of Apprehension, the degraded stimulus Continuous Performance Test (dsCPT), the degraded stimulus visual backward masking task and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) — was

Thomas Suslow; Volker Arolt

1997-01-01

289

Exploring Faculty Perceptions toward Working with Academically Vulnerable College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is an exploratory study of faculty members' knowledge and perceptions toward of with academically vulnerable college students who are specifically experiencing reading and writing difficulties. Data were gathered from 174 college faculty at six higher education institutions throughout northwestern Pennsylvania via an online…

Quick, Robin L.

2013-01-01

290

Virtue and vulnerability: Discourses on women, gender and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the limited literature on gender and climate change, two themes predominate – women as vulnerable or virtuous in relation to the environment. Two viewpoints become obvious: women in the South will be affected more by climate change than men in those countries and that men in the North pollute more than women. The debates are structured in specific ways

Seema Arora-Jonsson

2011-01-01

291

Biodiversity and inference on climate change vulnerability of  

E-print Network

­ Accommodate the interactions #12;Outline · Field data · Inference · Results · Implications #12;Long-term Bayes framework ­ Underlying states respond to climate & competition ­ Data models for obs at differentBiodiversity and inference on climate change vulnerability of competing species #12;Climate

Wolpert, Robert L

292

Childhood Cancer and Vulnerability for Significant Academic Underachievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning difficulties related to childhood cancer were examined by comparison of 22 oncology patients and 22 children (6 to 17 years old) referred for psychiatric/psychological evaluation. Findings demonstrated, among children undergoing treatment of cancer, some academic vulnerabilities for which psychosocial aspects may not fully account.…

Ott, Jeanne S.; And Others

1982-01-01

293

Automated detection of vulnerabilities in privileged programs by execution monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a method for detecting exploitations of vulnerabilities in privileged programs by monitoring their execution using audit trails, where the monitoring is with respect to specifications of the security-relevant behavior of the programs. Our work is motivated by the intrusion detection paradigm, but is an attempt to avoid ad hoc approaches to codifying misuse behavior. Our approach is based on

Calvin Ko; George Fink; Karl Levitt

1994-01-01

294

NV: Nessus Vulnerability Visualization for the Web Lane Harrison  

E-print Network

NV: Nessus Vulnerability Visualization for the Web Lane Harrison Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge TN, USA harrisonlt@ornl.gov Riley Spahn Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge TN, USA spahnrb1@ornl.gov Mike Iannacone Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge TN, USA iannaconemd@ornl.gov Evan

Kaiser, Gail E.

295

A Framework for Analysing Vulnerability to Food Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whilst traditional food security analysis offers an ex post view on who the food insecure are and why they are so, looking at food insecurity from a vulnerability perspective provides a dynamic and forward looking way of analysing causes and more importantly options for reducing food insecurity. This can help improving policy responses to food insecurity. The paper seeks to

Christian Romer Lovendal; Macro Knowles

296

Selective Prevention: Addressing Vulnerability to Problem Drug Use in Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following the 2003 publication of the European Union (EU) Council Recommendations and the 2005-2008 and 2009-2012 EU Drugs Action Plans, increasing attention has been given in EU member states' drug policies to populations that are vulnerable to problem drug use (PDU). Monitoring data reported to the EMCDDA by designated agencies from 30 countries…

Burkhart, Gregor; Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Bo, Alessandra

2011-01-01

297

Predation Vulnerability and Trophic Interactions of Pallid Sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus  

E-print Network

Predation Vulnerability and Trophic Interactions of Pallid Sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus By William! Abstract Trophic Interactions of Pallid Sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus William E. French May 8, 2010 Recruitment of the federally endangered pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus in the Missouri River has been

298

EPA'S REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT PROGRAM (REVA) DEMONSTRATING RESULTS THROUGH PARTNERSHIPS  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) program, a regional-scale comparative risk research effort, has been under development since 1998 with a pilot study focused on the Mid- Atlantic region. ReVA is part of the interagency Integrated Science for Ecosystem Challenges ini...

299

CONFU: Configuration Fuzzing Testing Framework for Software Vulnerability Detection  

PubMed Central

Many software security vulnerabilities only reveal themselves under certain conditions, i.e., particular configurations and inputs together with a certain runtime environment. One approach to detecting these vulnerabilities is fuzz testing. However, typical fuzz testing makes no guarantees regarding the syntactic and semantic validity of the input, or of how much of the input space will be explored. To address these problems, we present a new testing methodology called Configuration Fuzzing. Configuration Fuzzing is a technique whereby the configuration of the running application is mutated at certain execution points, in order to check for vulnerabilities that only arise in certain conditions. As the application runs in the deployment environment, this testing technique continuously fuzzes the configuration and checks “security invariants” that, if violated, indicate a vulnerability. We discuss the approach and introduce a prototype framework called ConFu (CONfiguration FUzzing testing framework) for implementation. We also present the results of case studies that demonstrate the approach’s feasibility and evaluate its performance. PMID:21037923

Dai, Huning; Murphy, Christian; Kaiser, Gail

2010-01-01

300

CONFU: Configuration Fuzzing Testing Framework for Software Vulnerability Detection.  

PubMed

Many software security vulnerabilities only reveal themselves under certain conditions, i.e., particular configurations and inputs together with a certain runtime environment. One approach to detecting these vulnerabilities is fuzz testing. However, typical fuzz testing makes no guarantees regarding the syntactic and semantic validity of the input, or of how much of the input space will be explored. To address these problems, we present a new testing methodology called Configuration Fuzzing. Configuration Fuzzing is a technique whereby the configuration of the running application is mutated at certain execution points, in order to check for vulnerabilities that only arise in certain conditions. As the application runs in the deployment environment, this testing technique continuously fuzzes the configuration and checks "security invariants" that, if violated, indicate a vulnerability. We discuss the approach and introduce a prototype framework called ConFu (CONfiguration FUzzing testing framework) for implementation. We also present the results of case studies that demonstrate the approach's feasibility and evaluate its performance. PMID:21037923

Dai, Huning; Murphy, Christian; Kaiser, Gail

2010-01-01

301

Youth Work with Vulnerable Young People. Interchange No. 51.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research was conducted in Scotland to evaluate the effectiveness of youth work with vulnerable young people, primarily between the ages of 13 and 16. Four complementary methods were adopted: (1) a survey of secondary school students; (2) a series of focus group interviews with young people with experience of youth work; (3) interviews with…

Powney, Janet; Furlong, Andy; Cartmel, Fred; Hall, Stuart

302

Perceptions about prenatal care: views of urban vulnerable groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In the United States, infant mortality rates remain more than twice as high for African Americans as compared to other racial groups. Lack of adherence to prenatal care schedules in vulnerable, hard to reach, urban, poor women is associated with high infant mortality, particularly for women who abuse substances, are homeless, or live in communities having high poverty and

Renee Milligan; Barbara K Wingrove; Leslie Richards; Margaret Rodan; Lillie Monroe-Lord; Velishie Jackson; Barbara Hatcher; Cynthia Harris; Cassandra Henderson; Allan A Johnson

2002-01-01

303

Reconciling supply chain vulnerability, risk and supply chain management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supply chain vulnerability has become a fashionable area of management research. The purpose of this paper is to provide a critique of the extant canon and to review of the positioning of research in the field, together with literature drawn from several relevant and overlapping fields of research and practice. The aim is to foster a more explicit understanding of

H. Peck

2006-01-01

304

Cybersecurity of SCADA Systems: Vulnerability assessment and mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this panel presentation, we will discuss our proposed framework for cyber security vulnerability assessment and mitigation based on our recent work [1-3]. We will demonstrate how a probabilistic cyber security index can be calculated for a cyber-power system. A risk measure is determined using an integrated SCADA model and the steady state power flow program. Future research needs in

Chen-Ching Liu; Chee-Wooi Ten; Manimaran Govindarasu

2009-01-01

305

Vulnerability Assessment of Cybersecurity for SCADA Systems Using Attack Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

By penetrating the SCADA system, an intruder may remotely operate a power system using supervisory control privileges. Hence, cybersecurity has been recognized as a major threat due to the potential intrusion to the online system. This paper proposes a methodology to evaluate the cybersecurity vulnerability using attack trees. The attack tree formulation based on power system control networks is used

Chee-Wooi Ten; Chen-Ching Liu; Manimaran Govindarasu

2007-01-01

306

The Vulnerable System: An Analysis of the Tenerife Air Disaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tenerife air disaster, in which a KLM 747 and a Pan Am 747 collided with a loss of 583 lives, is examined as a prototype of system vulnerability to crisis. It is concluded that the combination of interruption of important routines among interdependent systems, interdependencies that become tighter, a loss of cognitive efficiency due to autonomic arousal, and a

Karl E. Weick

1990-01-01

307

Vulnerability analysis for a drought Early Warning System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early Warning Systems (EWS) for drought are often based on risk models that do not, or marginally, take into account the vulnerability factor. The multifaceted nature of drought (hydrological, meteorological, and agricultural) is source of coexistence for different ways to measure this phenomenon and its effects. The latter, together with the complexity of impacts generated by this hazard, causes the current underdevelopment of drought EWS compared to other hazards. In Least Developed Countries, where drought events causes the highest numbers of affected people, the importance of correct monitoring and forecasting is considered essential. Existing early warning and monitoring systems for drought produced at different geographic levels, provide only in a few cases an actual spatial model that tries to describe the cause-effect link between where the hazard is detected and where impacts occur. Integrate vulnerability information in such systems would permit to better estimate affected zones and livelihoods, improving the effectiveness of produced hazard-related datasets and maps. In fact, the need of simplification and, in general, of a direct applicability of scientific outputs is still a matter of concern for field experts and early warning products end-users. Even if the surplus of hazard related information produced right after catastrophic events has, in some cases, led to the creation of specific data-sharing platforms, the conveyed meaning and usefulness of each product has not yet been addressed. The present work is an attempt to fill this gap which is still an open issue for the scientific community as well as for the humanitarian aid world. The study aims at conceiving a simplified vulnerability model to embed into an existing EWS for drought, which is based on the monitoring of vegetation phenological parameters and the Standardized Precipitation Index, both produced using free satellite derived datasets. The proposed vulnerability model includes (i) a pure agricultural vulnerability and (ii) a systemic vulnerability. The first considers the agricultural potential of terrains, the diversity of cultivated crops and the percentage of irrigated area as main driving factors. The second vulnerability aspect consists of geographic units in which a set of socio-economic factors are modeled geographically on the basis of the physical accessibility to market centers in one case, and according to a spatial gravity model of market areas in another case. Results of the model applied to a case study (Niger) and evaluated with food insecurity data, are presented.

Angeluccetti, Irene; Demarchi, Alessandro; Perez, Francesca

2014-05-01

308

Do the Most Vulnerable People Live in the Worst Slums? A Spatial Analysis of Accra, Ghana  

PubMed Central

Slums are examples of localized communities within third world urban systems representing a range of vulnerabilities and adaptive capacities. This study examines vulnerability in relation to flooding, environmental degradation, social-status, demographics, and health in the slums of Accra, Ghana by utilizing a place-based approach informed by fieldwork, remote sensing, census data, and geographically weighted regression. The study objectives are threefold: (1) to move slums from a dichotomous into a continuous classification and examine the spatial patterns of the gradient, (2) develop measures of vulnerability for a developing world city and model the relationship between slums and vulnerability, and (3) to assess if the most vulnerable individuals live in the worst slums. A previously developed slum index is utilized, and four new measures of vulnerability are developed through principle components analysis, including a novel component of health vulnerability based on child mortality. Visualizations of the vulnerability measures assess spatial patterns of vulnerability in Accra. Ordinary least squares, spatial, and geographically weighted regression model the ability of the slum index to predict the four vulnerability measures. The slum index performs well for three of the four vulnerability measures, but is least able to predict health vulnerability underscoring the complex relationship between slums and child mortality in Accra. Finally, quintile analysis demonstrates the elevated prevalence of high vulnerability in places with high slum index scores. PMID:22379509

Jankowska, Marta M.; Weeks, John R.; Engstrom, Ryan

2011-01-01

309

Repeated Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Mechanisms of Cerebral Vulnerability  

PubMed Central

Abstract Among the 3.5 million annual new head injury cases is a subpopulation of children and young adults who experience repeated traumatic brain injury (TBI). The duration of vulnerability after a single TBI remains unknown, and biomarkers have yet to be determined. Decreases in glucose metabolism (cerebral metabolic rate of glucose [CMRglc]) are consistently observed after experimental and human TBI. In the current study, it is hypothesized that the duration of vulnerability is related to the duration of decreased CMRglc and that a single mild TBI (mTBI) increases the brain's vulnerability to a second insult for a period, during which a subsequent mTBI will worsen the outcome. Postnatal day 35 rats were given sham, single mTBI, or two mTBI at 24-h or 120-h intervals. 14C-2-deoxy-D-glucose autoradiography was conducted at 1 or 3 days post-injury to calculate CMRglc. At 24?h after a single mTBI, CMRglc is decreased by 19% in both the parietal cortex and hippocampus, but approached sham levels by 3 days post-injury. When a second mTBI is introduced during the CMRglc depression of the first injury, the consequent CMRglc is depressed (36.5%) at 24?h and remains depressed (25%) at 3 days. In contrast, when the second mTBI is introduced after the metabolic recovery of the first injury, the consequent CMRglc depression is similar to that seen with a single injury. Results suggest that the duration of metabolic depression reflects the time-course of vulnerability to second injury in the juvenile brain and could serve as a valuable biomarker in establishing window of vulnerability guidelines. PMID:23025820

Alexander, Daya; Giza, Christopher C.; Hovda, David A.

2013-01-01

310

A comparison of data-driven groundwater vulnerability assessment methods.  

PubMed

Increasing availability of geo-environmental data has promoted the use of statistical methods to assess groundwater vulnerability. Nitrate is a widespread anthropogenic contaminant in groundwater and its occurrence can be used to identify aquifer settings vulnerable to contamination. In this study, multivariate Weights of Evidence (WofE) and Logistic Regression (LR) methods, where the response variable is binary, were used to evaluate the role and importance of a number of explanatory variables associated with nitrate sources and occurrence in groundwater in the Milan District (central part of the Po Plain, Italy). The results of these models have been used to map the spatial variation of groundwater vulnerability to nitrate in the region, and we compare the similarities and differences of their spatial patterns and associated explanatory variables. We modify the standard WofE method used in previous groundwater vulnerability studies to a form analogous to that used in LR; this provides a framework to compare the results of both models and reduces the effect of sampling bias on the results of the standard WofE model. In addition, a nonlinear Generalized Additive Model has been used to extend the LR analysis. Both approaches improved discrimination of the standard WofE and LR models, as measured by the c-statistic. Groundwater vulnerability probability outputs, based on rank-order classification of the respective model results, were similar in spatial patterns and identified similar strong explanatory variables associated with nitrate source (population density as a proxy for sewage systems and septic sources) and nitrate occurrence (groundwater depth). PMID:23289724

Sorichetta, Alessandro; Ballabio, Cristiano; Masetti, Marco; Robinson, Gilpin R; Sterlacchini, Simone

2013-01-01

311

Cognitive vulnerability to depression: A dual process model Christopher G. Beevers  

E-print Network

Cognitive vulnerability to depression: A dual process model Christopher G. Beevers Department process models offer powerful accounts of cognitive phenomena in social and personality psychology of cognitive vulnerability to unipolar depression. According to dual process theories, humans possess two modes

Beevers, Christopher

312

MINIMIZING THE VULNERABILITY OF WATER SUPPLIES TO NATURAL AND TERRORIST THREATS  

EPA Science Inventory

There is increasing concern that drinking water utilities may be vulnerable to attacks by terrorists. In the US the President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection has concluded the US drinking water utilities are vulnerable to physical, cyber and biological terroris...

313

TO APPEAR IN IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS 1 Vulnerability Assessment of Cybersecurity for  

E-print Network

TO APPEAR IN IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS 1 Vulnerability Assessment of Cybersecurity Govindarasu, Member, IEEE Abstract--Vulnerability assessment is a requirement of NERC's cybersecurity within the substation networks. Countermeasures are identified for improvement of the cybersecurity

Manimaran, Govindarasu

314

Looming Vulnerability: Incremental Validity of a Fearful Cognitive Distortion in Contamination Fears  

Microsoft Academic Search

Looming vulnerability is a cognitive vulnerability for anxiety syndromes that pertains to a tendency to construct dynamic\\u000a expectations (i.e., mental scenarios) of negative events as progressively increasing in danger and rapidly escalating in risk.\\u000a The present study tested the hypothesis that looming vulnerability to contamination (i.e., looming of contamination) and generalized\\u000a looming vulnerability would be positively related to contamination fears

Lisa S. Elwood; John H. Riskind; Bunmi O. Olatunji

2011-01-01

315

VuWiki: An Ontology-Based Semantic Wiki for Vulnerability Assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of vulnerability, as well as its implementation in vulnerability assessments, is used in various disciplines and contexts ranging from disaster management and reduction to ecology, public health or climate change and adaptation, and a corresponding multitude of ideas about how to conceptualize and measure vulnerability exists. Three decades of research in vulnerability have generated a complex and growing body of knowledge that challenges newcomers, practitioners and even experienced researchers. To provide a structured representation of the knowledge field "vulnerability assessment", we have set up an ontology-based semantic wiki for reviewing and representing vulnerability assessments: VuWiki, www.vuwiki.org. Based on a survey of 55 vulnerability assessment studies, we first developed an ontology as an explicit reference system for describing vulnerability assessments. We developed the ontology in a theoretically controlled manner based on general systems theory and guided by principles for ontology development in the field of earth and environment (Raskin and Pan 2005). Four key questions form the first level "branches" or categories of the developed ontology: (1) Vulnerability of what? (2) Vulnerability to what? (3) What reference framework was used in the vulnerability assessment?, and (4) What methodological approach was used in the vulnerability assessment? These questions correspond to the basic, abstract structure of the knowledge domain of vulnerability assessments and have been deduced from theories and concepts of various disciplines. The ontology was then implemented in a semantic wiki which allows for the classification and annotation of vulnerability assessments. As a semantic wiki, VuWiki does not aim at "synthesizing" a holistic and overarching model of vulnerability. Instead, it provides both scientists and practitioners with a uniform ontology as a reference system and offers easy and structured access to the knowledge field of vulnerability assessments with the possibility for any user to retrieve assessments using specific research criteria. Furthermore, Vuwiki can serve as a collaborative knowledge platform that allows for the active participation of those generating and using the knowledge represented in the wiki.

Khazai, Bijan; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Büscher, Christian; Wegner, Antje

2014-05-01

316

Social vulnerability to climate change in primary producers: A typology approach  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Adaptation in agro-ecological systems will be important for moderating the impacts of climate change. Vulnerability assessments provide the basis for developing strategies to reduce social vulnerability and plan for climate adaptation. Primary industries have been identified as the most vulnerable i...

317

Vulnerability to 35% CO 2 of panic disorder patients with a history of respiratory disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with panic disorder often report a history of respiratory pathology. Furthermore, panic disorder patients are vulnerable to CO2 challenges. The increased CO2 vulnerability displayed by panic disorder patients may be related to lifetime respiratory pathology. We examined whether panic disorder patients with a history of respiratory disorders are more vulnerable to a 35% CO2 challenge than those without such

Nicole van Beek; Giampaolo Perna; Koen Schruers; Kees Verburg; Michele Cucchi; Laura Bellodi; Eric Griez

2003-01-01

318

A Static Analysis Tool for Detecting Web Application Injection Vulnerabilities for ASP Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Publicly reported vulnerability in recent years strong growth of the Web Application , Cross-site scripting (XSS) and SQL injection have been the most dominant class of web vulnerabilities, Web application security has been a great challenge. For the case, the static analysis tools ASPWC presented in this paper to detect XSS attacks and SQL injection vulnerabilities based on taint analysis,

Xin-hua Zhang; Zhi-jian Wang

2010-01-01

319

Wary managers: Unfavorable environments, perceived vulnerability, and the development of trust in foreign enterprises in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vulnerability is salient among international managers, who tend to be wary when operating in transition economies like China. Systematic research is lacking, though, on how the local environment influences foreign managers’ perception of vulnerability, and how foreign managers can develop trust even when their perceived vulnerability is high. We conducted in-depth case studies of two foreign-controlled enterprises in China, and

Lai Si Tsui-Auch; Guido Möllering

2008-01-01

320

Why Johnny Can't Pentest: An Analysis of Black-box Web Vulnerability Scanners  

E-print Network

Why Johnny Can't Pentest: An Analysis of Black-box Web Vulnerability Scanners Adam Doup´e, Marco,marco,vigna}@cs.ucsb.edu Abstract. Black-box web vulnerability scanners are a class of tools that can be used to identify security scanners, both commercial and open-source. The evaluation composes different types of vulnerabilities

California at Santa Barbara, University of

321

Indra Prasad Paneru Livelihood strategy and occupational vulnerability of street ice cream vendors in Kathmandu Valley  

E-print Network

Indra Prasad Paneru Livelihood strategy and occupational vulnerability of street ice cream vendors in Kathmandu Valley Livelihood strategy and occupational vulnerability of street ice cream vendors in Kathmandu Valley Summary The present study on 'livelihood strategy and occupational vulnerability of street ice-cream

Richner, Heinz

322

Theory and Practice in Assessing Vulnerability to Climate Change andFacilitating Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss approaches to the assessment of vulnerability to climatevariability and change andattempt to clarify the relationship between the concepts of vulnerability andadaptation. In searchof a robust, policy-relevant framework, we define vulnerability in terms ofthe capacity ofindividuals and social groups to respond to, that is, to cope with, recoverfrom or adapt to, anyexternal stress placed on their livelihoods and well-being.

P. M. Kelly; W. N. Adger

2000-01-01

323

Perceptions of Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS: A Comparison of Two College Cohorts, 1990 and 2005  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theories of preventive health behavior posit that perceived vulnerability to health threats motivates self-protective behavior. Fifteen years after an initial study of college students' perceptions of their vulnerability to HIV, a replication was conducted on the same campus in 2005. Comparisons between cohorts on vulnerability judgements were…

Teague, Susan M.

2009-01-01

324

Understanding Young Women's Sexual Relationship Experiences: The Nature and Role of Vulnerability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper seeks to operationalise the concept of social "vulnerability" and explore its usefulness as a framework for understanding sexual relationships. Data from 30 vulnerable and less vulnerable young women in one UK city were collected through in-depth interviews and focus groups. An analysis of differences and similarities in participants'…

Maxwell, Claire

2006-01-01

325

Depression vulnerability predicts cigarette smoking among college students: Gender and negative reinforcement expectancies as contributing factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the association between vulnerability to depression and smoking behavior in 1214 college students (54% female), and evaluated gender and expectancies of negative affect reduction as moderators or mediators of this relationship. Depression vulnerability predicted smoking in females, but not males. The relationship between depression vulnerability and smoking status was mediated by expectancies of negative affect reduction in

Holly E. R. Morrell; Lee M. Cohen; Dennis E. McChargue

2010-01-01

326

CAT A Practical Graph & SDL Based Toolkit for Vulnerability Assessment of 3G Networks  

E-print Network

CAT ­ A Practical Graph & SDL Based Toolkit for Vulnerability Assessment of 3G Networks Kameswari Vulnerability As- sessment Toolkit - CAT, designed for end-to-end vulnerability assessment of 3G networks. CAT uses freely available 3G telecommunication specifications written in SDL, the stan- dard

Yener, Aylin

327

Policy Name: Vulnerable Sector Screening Policy Original/Responsible Department: Carleton University Art Gallery  

E-print Network

://www.arts.on.ca/ Definition of a vulnerable person: Vulnerable members of society are defined in the Criminal Records Act, as well as people who are victims of crime or harm. The vulnerability may be a temporary or permanent permanent, temporary and volunteer) who comes into contact with the public to obtain a "Police Records Check

Dawson, Jeff W.

328

Climate Change and Infrastructure, Urban Systems, and Vulnerabilities  

SciTech Connect

This Technical Report on Climate Change and Infrastructure, Urban Systems, and Vulnerabilities has been prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in support of the U.S. National Climate Assessment (NCA). It is a summary of the currently existing knowledge base on its topic, nested within a broader framing of issues and questions that need further attention in the longer run. The report arrives at a number of assessment findings, each associated with an evaluation of the level of consensus on that issue within the expert community, the volume of evidence available to support that judgment, and the section of the report that provides an explanation for the finding. Cross-sectoral issues related to infrastructures and urban systems have not received a great deal of attention to date in research literatures in general and climate change assessments in particular. As a result, this technical report is breaking new ground as a component of climate change vulnerability and impact assessments in the U.S., which means that some of its assessment findings are rather speculative, more in the nature of propositions for further study than specific conclusions that are offered with a high level of confidence and research support. But it is a start in addressing questions that are of interest to many policymakers and stakeholders. A central theme of the report is that vulnerabilities and impacts are issues beyond physical infrastructures themselves. The concern is with the value of services provided by infrastructures, where the true consequences of impacts and disruptions involve not only the costs associated with the clean-up, repair, and/or replacement of affected infrastructures but also economic, social, and environmental effects as supply chains are disrupted, economic activities are suspended, and/or social well-being is threatened. Current knowledge indicates that vulnerability concerns tend to be focused on extreme weather events associated with climate change that can disrupt infrastructure services, often cascading across infrastructures because of extensive interdependencies threatening health and local economies, especially in areas where human populations and economic activities are concentrated in urban areas. Vulnerabilities are especially large where infrastructures are subject to multiple stresses, beyond climate change alone; when they are located in areas vulnerable to extreme weather events; and if climate change is severe rather than moderate. But the report also notes that there are promising approaches for risk management, based on emerging lessons from a number of innovative initiatives in U.S. cities and other countries, involving both structural and non-structural (e.g., operational) options.

Wilbanks, Thomas J [ORNL] [ORNL; Fernandez, Steven J [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

329

Vulnerability assessment at a national level in Georgia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vulnerability assessment at a national level in Georgia Nino Tsereteli, Vakhtang Arabidze, Otar Varazanashvili, Tengiz Gugeshashvili The risk always exists when cities are built on. Population growth in cities and urbanization in natural hazard-prone zones leads to infrastructure expansion. The goal of the society is to construct natural hazards resistant infrastructure and minimize the expected losses. This is a complicated task as there is always knowledge deficiency on real seismic hazard and vulnerability. Assessment of vulnerability is vital in risk analysis, as vulnerability is defined in many different ways. Work presented here mostly deals with assessment of infrastructure's and population vulnerability at national level in Georgia. This work was initiated by NATO SFP project "seismic Hazard and Risk Assessment for Southern Caucasus - Eastern Turkey Energy Corridors" and the two work packages WP4 (seismic risk) and WP5 (city scenarios) of risk module of EMME (Earthquake Model of the Middle East Region) project. First step was creation databases (inventory) of elements at risk in GIS. Element at risk were the buildings, population, pipelines. The inventories was studied and Created in GIS for the following categories: Building material, number of stories, number of entrances, condition of building, building period. For pipelines pipe tipe (continous or segmented), material, pipe diameter. Very important is to estimate the initial cost of building for assessment of economic losses. From this purpose the attempt was done and the algorithm of this estimation were prepared taking into account obtained the inventory. Build quality, reliability and durability are of special importance to corresponding state agencies and include different aesthetic, engineering, practical, social, technological and economical aspects. The necessity that all of these aspects satisfy existing normative requirements becomes evident as the building and structures come into exploitation. The long term usage of building is very complex. It relates to the reliability and durability of buildings. The long term usage and durability of a building is determined by the concept of depreciation. Depreciation of an entire building is calculated by summing the products of individual construction unit' depreciation rates and the corresponding value of these units within the building. This method of calculation is based on an assumption that depreciation is proportional to the building's (constructions) useful life. We used this methodology to create a matrix, which provides a way to evaluate the depreciation rates of buildings with different type and construction period and to determine their corresponding value. Finely some attempt was done to investigate how these structures were damaged by various hazards. In other words vulnerability curves were constrained on the basis on the relation between various hazard intensities and damage data.

Tsereteli, N.; Arabidze, V.; Varazanashvili, O.; Gugeshashvili, T.

2012-04-01

330

Learning the requirements for compassionate practice: student vulnerability and courage.  

PubMed

Student nurses' professional development arises through socialisation in nursing knowledge, values and behaviours. Students are expected to demonstrate compassion; however, compassion is a complex concept, one that creates emotional challenges. A grounded theory study was undertaken to explore student nurse socialisation in compassionate practice. In-depth interviews were undertaken with 19 students in the north of England during 2009-2010, and their concerns and concern management emerged. Students expressed several concerns, one being their emotional vulnerability and uncertainty of the emotional requirements for compassionate practice. A core category of 'balancing future intentions' was identified: that students managed feelings of vulnerability and uncertainty through balancing their intentions towards and away from engagement in compassionate practice, depending upon perceived impact on their emotional well-being. The findings are discussed in relation to emotional labour and moral distress, and courage, resilience and self-compassion are explored as a means to enable sustainable compassionate practice. PMID:23515253

Curtis, Katherine

2014-03-01

331

Vulnerability, Sensitivity, and Coping/Adaptive Capacity Worldwide  

SciTech Connect

Research and analyses have repeatedly shown that impacts of climate change will be unevenly distributed and will affect various societies in various ways. The severity of impacts will depend in part on ability to cope in the short term and adapt in the longer term. However, it has been difficult to find a comparative basis on which to assess differential impacts of climate change. This chapter describes the Vulnerability-Resilience Indicator Model that uses 18 proxy indicators, grouped into 8 elements, to assess on a quantitative basis the comparative potential vulnerability and resilience of countries to climate change. The model integrates socioeconomic and environmental information such as land use, crop production, water availability, per capita GDP, inequality, and health status. Comparative results for 160 countries are presented and analyzed.

Malone, Elizabeth L.; Brenkert, Antoinette L.

2009-10-01

332

Vulnerability of complex networks under path-based attacks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate vulnerability of complex networks including model networks and real-world networks subject to path-based attacks. Specifically, we remove approximately the longest simple path from a network iteratively until there are no paths left in the network. We propose two algorithms, the random augmenting approach (RPA) and the Hamilton-path based approach (HPA), for finding the approximately longest simple path in a network. Results demonstrate that steps of longest-path attacks increase with network density linearly for random networks, while exponentially increasing for scale-free networks. The more homogeneous the degree distribution is, the more fragile the network, which is different from the previous results of node or edge attacks. HPA is generally more efficient than RPA in the longest-path attacks of complex networks. These findings further help us understand the vulnerability of complex systems, better protect complex systems, and design more tolerant complex systems.

Pu, Cun-Lai; Cui, Wei

2015-02-01

333

Existential vulnerability: toward a psychopathology of limit situations.  

PubMed

Jaspers' concept of limit situations seems particularly appropriate not only to elucidate outstanding existential situations in general, but also basic preconditions for the occurrence of mental disorders. For this purpose, the concept is first explained in Jaspers' sense and then related to an 'existential vulnerability' of mentally ill persons that makes them experience even inconspicuous events as distressing limit situations. In such situations, an otherwise hidden fundamental condition of existence becomes manifest for them, e.g. the fragility of one's own body, the inevitability of freedom, or the finiteness of life. This fundamental condition is found unbearable and, as a reaction, gives rise to mental illness. This concept of existential vulnerability is illustrated by some psychopathological examples. PMID:23860487

Fuchs, Thomas

2013-01-01

334

Geomorphological hazard and tourist vulnerability along Portofino Park trails (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The many trails existing in the coastal area of Portofino Promontory are used by tourists for trekking or as pathways to small villages and beaches. The aim of this paper is to define geomorphological hazard and tourist vulnerability in this area, within the framework of the management and planning of hiking activities in Portofino Natural Park. In particular, processes triggered by gravity, running waters and wave motion, affecting the slopes and the cliff, are considered. The typology of the trails and trail maintenance are also taken into account in relation to weather conditions that can make the excursion routes dangerous for tourists. In conclusion, an operative model is applied for the definition of possible risk scenarios. This model is founded on an inventory and the quantification of geomorphological hazards and tourist vulnerability, in comparison with trail rescue data. The model can be applied to other environments and tourist areas.

Brandolini, P.; Faccini, F.; Piccazzo, M.

2006-06-01

335

Comprehensive care for vulnerable elderly veterans during disasters.  

PubMed

Despite problematic evacuation and sheltering of nursing home residents during Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, an exploration of the experiences of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) nursing homes (VANHs) is necessary for a comprehensive examination of the healthcare community's response to these disasters. VANH evacuations during these hurricanes have not been widely studied. This exploratory project aimed to provide information about the evacuation experiences and characteristics of vulnerable nursing home residents. Interviews with key informants from VHA facilities with nursing home staff and representatives revealed that physical harm, psychological distress, cognitive decline and increased social isolation were areas that deserved special attention for this vulnerable population. Moreover, physical, psychological and social needs were interconnected in that each influenced the others. Findings contribute to the general conversation about meeting the biopsychosocial needs of nursing home residents in an integrated healthcare delivery system and more broadly, the role of long-term care facilities in general in planning for future disasters. PMID:22901664

Claver, Maria; Dobalian, Aram; Fickel, Jacqueline J; Ricci, Karen A; Mallers, Melanie Horn

2013-01-01

336

[Vulnerability of adolescent students to STD / HIV in Imperatriz - Maranhao].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the vulnerability of adolescent students related to sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), identifying the main risk behaviors and prevention. This quantitative, cross-sectional study was performed in three public schools in Imperatriz--Maranhão, with 295 adolescents, using a structured questionnaire. The results show that: most young people (86.3%) who used a condom the last time they had intercourse, usually keep this practice, 82.8% of adolescents who understand the concept of HIV protect themselves against these infections and believe the main form of contamination is through sex, infected blood or through the placental barrier. We conclude that most teenager participants showed coherent knowledge about sexual practices and risk behaviors that make them vulnerable to STD/HIK presenting a positive aspect for the prevention of these diseases. PMID:24344601

Costa, Ana Cristina Pereira de Jesus; Lins, Anamaria Gomes; de Araújo, Márcio Flávio Moura; de Araújo, Thiago Moura; Gubert, Fabiane do Amaral; Vieira, Neiva Francenely Cunha

2013-09-01

337

Dyadic Vulnerability and Risk Profiling for Elder Neglect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Neglect of older adults accounts for 60% to 70% of all elder-mistreatment reports made to adult protective services. The purpose of this article is to re- port data from research, using a risk-and-vulnerability model, that captures the independent contributions of both the elder and the caregiver as they relate to theoutcomeofneglect. Methods: Between February 2001 and September 2003, older

Terry Fulmer; Gregory Paveza; Carla VandeWeerd; Susan Fairchild; Lisa Guadagno; Marguarette Bolton-Blatt; Robert Norman

2005-01-01

338

American Indian adolescent girls: vulnerability to sex trafficking, intervention strategies.  

PubMed

The Minnesota Indian Women's Resource Center offers harm reduction programming to at-risk adolescent American Indian girls, including outreach, case management, advocacy, healthy sexuality education, and support groups. To evaluate program impact, participants are assessed at intake and every 6 months afterward for current vulnerability to commercial sexual exploitation, violence, and addiction. Evaluation results indicate frequent exposure to sex traffickers and suggest that harm reduction methods can help girls reduce risk of commercial sexual exploitation. PMID:22569724

Pierce, Alexandra Sandi

2012-01-01

339

Climate change and coastal vulnerability assessment: scenarios for integrated assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal vulnerability assessments still focus mainly on sea-level rise, with less attention paid to other dimensions of climate\\u000a change. The influence of non-climatic environmental change or socio-economic change is even less considered, and is often\\u000a completely ignored. Given that the profound coastal changes of the twentieth century are likely to continue through the twenty-first\\u000a century, this is a major omission,

Robert J. Nicholls; Poh Poh Wong; Virginia Burkett; Colin D. Woodroffe; John Hay

2008-01-01

340

Developing Credible Vulnerability Indicators for Climate Adaptation Policy Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the issue of how to develop credible indicators of vulnerability to climate change that can be used to guide the\\u000a development of adaptation policies. We compare the indicators and measures that five past national-level studies have used\\u000a and examine how and why their approaches have differed. Other relevant indicator studies of social facets of society as well\\u000a as

S. H. Eriksen; P. M. Kelly

2007-01-01

341

Collateral DNA Damage Makes Cancer Vulnerable | Physical Sciences in Oncology  

Cancer.gov

Genomic deletions promote cancer by disrupting or eliminating tumor-suppressor genes. Based on new results from researchers at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute at Harvard Medical School, it appears that these so-called driver mutations produce collateral damage on neighboring genes that actually exposes cancer cells to vulnerabilities and new avenues for attack.

342

Chapter 2 Vulnerability of Marine Turtles to Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine turtles are generally viewed as vulnerable to climate change because of the role that temperature plays in the sex determination of embryos, their long life history, long age-to-maturity and their highly migratory nature. Extant species of marine turtles probably arose during the mid–late Jurassic period (180–150 Mya) so have survived past shifts in climate, including glacial periods and warm

Elvira S. Poloczanska; Colin J. Limpus; Graeme C. Hays

2009-01-01

343

Patient safety through RFID: vulnerabilities in recently proposed grouping protocols.  

PubMed

As RFID-tagged systems become ubiquitous, acceptance of this technology by the general public necessitates addressing related security/privacy issues. The past eight years have seen an increasing number of publications in this direction, specifically using cryptographic approaches. Recently, the Journal of Medical Systems published two papers addressing security/privacy issues through cryptographic protocols. We consider the proposed protocols and identify some existing vulnerabilities. PMID:20703708

Wickboldt, Anne-Katrin; Piramuthu, Selwyn

2012-04-01

344

Country Stakes in Climate Change Negotiations. Two Dimensions of Vulnerability  

SciTech Connect

Using a comprehensive geo-referenced database of indicators relating to global change and energy, the paper assesses countries' likely attitudes with respect to international treaties that regulate carbon emissions. The authors distinguish between source and impact vulnerability and classify countries according to these dimensions. The findings show clear differences in the factors that determine likely negotiating positions. This analysis and the resulting detailed, country level information help to explain the incentives required to make the establishment of such agreements more likely.

Buys, P.; Deichmann, U.; Meisner, C. [Development Research Group, World Bank, Washington DC (United States); That, Thao Ton [UN Environment Programme, Geneva (Switzerland); Wheeler, D. [Center for Global Development, Washington DC (United States)

2007-08-15

345

Activity Dependent Degeneration Explains Hub Vulnerability in Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Brain connectivity studies have revealed that highly connected ‘hub’ regions are particularly vulnerable to Alzheimer pathology: they show marked amyloid-? deposition at an early stage. Recently, excessive local neuronal activity has been shown to increase amyloid deposition. In this study we use a computational model to test the hypothesis that hub regions possess the highest level of activity and that hub vulnerability in Alzheimer's disease is due to this feature. Cortical brain regions were modeled as neural masses, each describing the average activity (spike density and spectral power) of a large number of interconnected excitatory and inhibitory neurons. The large-scale network consisted of 78 neural masses, connected according to a human DTI-based cortical topology. Spike density and spectral power were positively correlated with structural and functional node degrees, confirming the high activity of hub regions, also offering a possible explanation for high resting state Default Mode Network activity. ‘Activity dependent degeneration’ (ADD) was simulated by lowering synaptic strength as a function of the spike density of the main excitatory neurons, and compared to random degeneration. Resulting structural and functional network changes were assessed with graph theoretical analysis. Effects of ADD included oscillatory slowing, loss of spectral power and long-range synchronization, hub vulnerability, and disrupted functional network topology. Observed transient increases in spike density and functional connectivity match reports in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) patients, and may not be compensatory but pathological. In conclusion, the assumption of excessive neuronal activity leading to degeneration provides a possible explanation for hub vulnerability in Alzheimer's disease, supported by the observed relation between connectivity and activity and the reproduction of several neurophysiologic hallmarks. The insight that neuronal activity might play a causal role in Alzheimer's disease can have implications for early detection and interventional strategies. PMID:22915996

de Haan, Willem; Mott, Katherine; van Straaten, Elisabeth C. W.; Scheltens, Philip; Stam, Cornelis J.

2012-01-01

346

Assessment of floodplain vulnerability during extreme Mississippi River flood 2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Regional change in the variability and magnitude of flooding could be a major consequence of future global climate change. Extreme floods have the capacity to rapidly transform landscapes and expose landscape vulnerabilities through highly variable spatial patterns of inundation, erosion, and deposition. We use the historic activation of the Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway during the Mississippi and Ohio River Flooding of 2011 as a scientifically unique stress experiment to analyze indicators of floodplain vulnerability. We use pre- and postflood airborne Light Detection and Ranging data sets to locate erosional and depositional hotspots over the 540 km2 agricultural Floodway. While riparian vegetation between the river and the main levee breach likely prevented widespread deposition, localized scour and deposition occurred near the levee breaches. Eroded gullies nearly 1 km in length were observed at a low ridge of a relict meander scar of the Mississippi River. Our flow modeling and spatial mapping analysis attributes this vulnerability to a combination of erodible soils, flow acceleration associated with legacy fluvial landforms, and a lack of woody vegetation to anchor soil and enhance flow resistance. Results from this study could guide future mitigation and adaptation measures in cases of extreme flooding.

Goodwell, Allison E.; Zhu, Zhenduo; Dutta, Debsunder; Greenberg, Jonathan A.; Kumar, Praveen; Garcia, Marcelo H.; Rhoads, Bruce L.; Holmes, Robert R.; Parker, Gary; Berretta, David P.; Jacobson, Robert B.

2014-01-01

347

Improving delivery of primary care for vulnerable migrants  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To identify and prioritize innovative strategies to address the health concerns of vulnerable migrant populations. Design Modified Delphi consensus process. Setting Canada. Participants Forty-one primary care practitioners, including family physicians and nurse practitioners, who provided care for migrant populations. Methods We used a modified Delphi consensus process to identify and prioritize innovative strategies that could potentially improve the delivery of primary health care for vulnerable migrants. Forty-one primary care practitioners from various centres across Canada who cared for migrant populations proposed strategies and participated in the consensus process. Main findings The response rate was 93% for the first round. The 3 most highly ranked practice strategies to address delivery challenges for migrants were language interpretation, comprehensive interdisciplinary care, and evidence-based guidelines. Training and mentorship for practitioners, intersectoral collaboration, and immigrant community engagement ranked fourth, fifth, and sixth, respectively, as strategies to address delivery challenges. These strategies aligned with strategies coming out of the United States, Europe, and Australia, with the exception of the proposed evidence-based guidelines. Conclusion Primary health care practices across Canada now need to evolve to address the challenges inherent in caring for vulnerable migrants. The selected strategies provide guidance for practices and health systems interested in improving health care delivery for migrant populations. PMID:24452576

Pottie, Kevin; Batista, Ricardo; Mayhew, Maureen; Mota, Lorena; Grant, Karen

2014-01-01

348

An approach for modeling vulnerability of the network of networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a framework is given to model the network of networks and to investigate the vulnerability of the network of networks subjected to failures. Because there are several redundant systems in infrastructure systems, the dependent intensity between two networks is introduced and adopted to discuss the vulnerability of the interdependent infrastructure networks subjected to failures. Shanghai electrified rail transit network is used to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed framework. Because the rail network is dependent on the power grid and communication network, the corresponding power grid and communication network are also included in this system. Meanwhile the failures to the power grid and communication network are utilized to investigate the vulnerability of the rail network. The results show that the rail network strongly depends on the power grid and weakly depends on the communication network, and the transport functionality loss of the rail network increases with the increase of dependent intensity. Meanwhile the highest betweenness node-based attack to the power grid and the largest degree node-based attack to the communication network can result in the most functionality losses to the rail network. Moreover, the functionality loss of the rail network has the smallest value when the tolerance parameter of the power grid equals 0.75 and the critical nodes of the power grid and communication network can be obtained by simulations.

Zhang, Jianhua; Song, Bo; Zhang, Zhaojun; Liu, Haikuan

2014-10-01

349

Parkinson’s disease: animal models and dopaminergic cell vulnerability  

PubMed Central

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects about 1.5% of the global population over 65 years of age. A hallmark feature of PD is the degeneration of the dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and the consequent striatal DA deficiency. Yet, the pathogenesis of PD remains unclear. Despite tremendous growth in recent years in our knowledge of the molecular basis of PD and the molecular pathways of cell death, important questions remain, such as: (1) why are SNc cells especially vulnerable; (2) which mechanisms underlie progressive SNc cell loss; and (3) what do Lewy bodies or ?-synuclein reveal about disease progression. Understanding the variable vulnerability of the dopaminergic neurons from the midbrain and the mechanisms whereby pathology becomes widespread are some of the primary objectives of research in PD. Animal models are the best tools to study the pathogenesis of PD. The identification of PD-related genes has led to the development of genetic PD models as an alternative to the classical toxin-based ones, but does the dopaminergic neuronal loss in actual animal models adequately recapitulate that of the human disease? The selection of a particular animal model is very important for the specific goals of the different experiments. In this review, we provide a summary of our current knowledge about the different in vivo models of PD that are used in relation to the vulnerability of the dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain in the pathogenesis of PD.

Blesa, Javier; Przedborski, Serge

2014-01-01

350

Indicators of hazard, vulnerability and risk in urban drainage.  

PubMed

An alternative definition of risk is proposed as risk being a function of the hazard, which is related to the risk source and the vulnerability, which is related to the risk object. The same hazard will not cause the same effect on all risk objects. Therefore, vulnerability is introduced as a system-dependent property to be the link between the hazard and the effect so that the combination of the occurrence of a hazard and the vulnerability of an object results in the effect. In risk communication indicators are helpful since they help to simplify the message that has to be communicated. Three examples (pluvial flooding of sewers, dissolved oxygen depletion in streams and discharge of chemicals to receiving waters) show that dependent on the risk problem possibilities for risk reduction lies either at the risk source or at the risk object. Therefore, it is important to have indicators that can be used when the possibilities of risk reduction are analysed. PMID:17120679

Hauger, M B; Mouchel, J M; Mikkelsen, P S

2006-01-01

351

Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment for Idaho National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The University of Idaho (UI) was asked to participate in the development of a climate change vulnerability assessment for Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This report describes the outcome of that assessment. The climate change happening now, due in large part to human activities, is expected to continue in the future. UI and INL used a common framework for assessing vulnerability that considers exposure (future climate change), sensitivity (system or component responses to climate), impact (exposure combined with sensitivity), and adaptive capacity (capability of INL to modify operations to minimize climate change impacts) to assess vulnerability. Analyses of climate change (exposure) revealed that warming that is ongoing at INL will continue in the coming decades, with increased warming in later decades and under scenarios of greater greenhouse gas emissions. Projections of precipitation are more uncertain, with multi model means exhibiting somewhat wetter conditions and more wet days per year. Additional impacts relevant to INL include estimates of more burned area and increased evaporation and transpiration, leading to reduced soil moisture and plant growth.

Christopher P. Ischay; Ernest L. Fossum; Polly C. Buotte; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Alexander Peterson

2014-10-01

352

Socioeconomic Factors and Vulnerability to Outbreaks of Leptospirosis in Nicaragua  

PubMed Central

Leptospirosis is an epidemic-prone zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide, with more than 500,000 human cases reported annually. It is influenced by environmental and socioeconomic factors that affect the occurrence of outbreaks and the incidence of the disease. Critical areas and potential drivers for leptospirosis outbreaks have been identified in Nicaragua, where several conditions converge and create an appropriate scenario for the development of leptospirosis. The objectives of this study were to explore possible socioeconomic variables related to leptospirosis critical areas and to construct and validate a vulnerability index based on municipal socioeconomic indicators. Municipalities with lower socioeconomic status (greater unsatisfied basic needs for quality of the household and for sanitary services, and higher extreme poverty and illiteracy rates) were identified with the highest leptospirosis rates. The municipalities with highest local vulnerability index should be the priority for intervention. A distinction between risk given by environmental factors and vulnerability to risk given by socioeconomic conditions was shown as important, which also applies to the “causes of outbreaks” and “causes of cases”. PMID:25153463

Bacallao, Jorge; Schneider, Maria Cristina; Najera, Patricia; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Soto, Aida; Marquiño, Wilmer; Sáenz, Carlos; Jiménez, Eduardo; Moreno, Gilberto; Chávez, Octavio; Galan, Deise I.; Espinal, Marcos A.

2014-01-01

353

Can friends protect genetically vulnerable children from depression?  

PubMed

The study examined whether reciprocal friendship quantity or quality can mitigate genetic vulnerability for depression symptoms in children. The sample comprised 168 monozygotic twin pairs and 126 same-sex dizygotic twin pairs assessed in Grade 4 (mean age = 10.04 years). Friendship participation was measured via reciprocal nominations of close friendships within the classroom. Friendship quality was measured through self-reports. Depression symptoms were measured through teacher and peer reports. Genetic vulnerability for depression symptoms was unrelated to friendship participation or the number of reciprocal friends, but it was negatively related to positive friendship quality. In line with gene-environment interaction, genetic risk effects on depression symptoms were mitigated in girls who had at least one close reciprocal friend. In boys, only moderate main effects of genetic vulnerability and friendship participation were found but no interaction between them. However, among boys with at least one reciprocal friend, a greater number of friends was related to fewer depression symptoms whereas no cumulative effect of friendship was found for girls. Finally, positive friendship quality was related to fewer depression symptoms in girls and boys even when controlling for genetic risk. The findings emphasize the importance of teaching social interactional skills that promote high-quality friendship relations to help prevent the development of depression symptoms in children. PMID:23627944

Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Bukowski, William M; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E; Boivin, Michel

2013-05-01

354

Hierarchical statistical modeling of xylem vulnerability to cavitation.  

PubMed

Cavitation of xylem elements diminishes the water transport capacity of plants, and quantifying xylem vulnerability to cavitation is important to understanding plant function. Current approaches to analyzing hydraulic conductivity (K) data to infer vulnerability to cavitation suffer from problems such as the use of potentially unrealistic vulnerability curves, difficulty interpreting parameters in these curves, a statistical framework that ignores sampling design, and an overly simplistic view of uncertainty. This study illustrates how two common curves (exponential-sigmoid and Weibull) can be reparameterized in terms of meaningful parameters: maximum conductivity (k(sat)), water potential (-P) at which percentage loss of conductivity (PLC) =X% (P(X)), and the slope of the PLC curve at P(X) (S(X)), a 'sensitivity' index. We provide a hierarchical Bayesian method for fitting the reparameterized curves to K(H) data. We illustrate the method using data for roots and stems of two populations of Juniperus scopulorum and test for differences in k(sat), P(X), and S(X) between different groups. Two important results emerge from this study. First, the Weibull model is preferred because it produces biologically realistic estimates of PLC near P = 0 MPa. Second, stochastic embolisms contribute an important source of uncertainty that should be included in such analyses. PMID:19210723

Ogle, Kiona; Barber, Jarrett J; Willson, Cynthia; Thompson, Brenda

2009-01-01

355

Putting vulnerability to climate change on the map: a review of approaches, benefits, and risks  

SciTech Connect

There is growing demand among stakeholders across public and private institutions for spatially-explicit information regarding vulnerability to climate change at the local scale. However, the challenges associated with mapping the geography of climate change vulnerability are non-trivial, both conceptually and technically, suggesting the need for more critical evaluation of this practice. Here, we review climate change vulnerability mapping in the context of four key questions that are fundamental to assessment design. First, what are the goals of the assessment? A review of published assessments yields a range of objective statements that emphasize problem orientation or decision-making about adaptation actions. Second, how is the assessment of vulnerability framed? Assessments vary with respect to what values are assessed (vulnerability of what) and the underlying determinants of vulnerability that are considered (vulnerability to what). The selected frame ultimately influences perceptions of the primary driving forces of vulnerability as well as preferences regarding management alternatives. Third, what are the technical methods by which an assessment is conducted? The integration of vulnerability determinants into a common map remains an emergent and subjective practice associated with a number of methodological challenges. Fourth, who participates in the assessment and how will it be used to facilitate change? Assessments are often conducted under the auspices of benefiting stakeholders, yet many lack direct engagement with stakeholders. Each of these questions is reviewed in turn by drawing on an illustrative set of 45 vulnerability mapping studies appearing in the literature. A number of pathways for placing vulnerability

Preston, Benjamin L [ORNL

2011-01-01

356

Analysing agricultural drought vulnerability at sub-district level through exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity based composite index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information on agricultural drought vulnerability status of different regions is extremely useful for implementation of long term drought management measures. A quantitative approach for measuring agricultural drought vulnerability at sub-district level was developed and implemented in the current study, which was carried-out in Andhra Pradesh state, India with the data of main cropping season i.e., kharif. The contributing indicators represent exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity components of vulnerability and were drawn from weather, soil, crop, irrigation and land holdings related data. After performing data normalisation and variance based weights generation, component wise composite indices were generated. Agricultural Drought Vulnerability Index (ADVI) was generated using the three component indices and beta distribution was fitted to it. Mandals (sub-district level administrative units) of the state were categorised into 5 classes - Less vulnerable, Moderately vulnerable, Vulnerable, Highly vulnerable and Very highly vulnerable. Districts dominant with vulnerable Mandals showed considerably larger variability of detrended yields of principal crops compared to the other districts, thus validating the index based vulnerability status. Current status of agricultural drought vulnerability in the state, based on ADVI, indicated that vulnerable to very highly vulnerable group of Mandals represent 54 % of total Mandals and about 55 % of the agricultural area and 65 % of the rainfed crop area. The variability in the agricultural drought vulnerability at disaggregated level was effectively captured by ADVI. The vulnerability status map is useful for diagnostic analysis and for formulating vulnerability reduction plans.

Murthy, C. S.; Laxman, B.; Sesha Sai, M. V. R.; Diwakar, P. G.

2014-11-01

357

Assessment Model of Ecoenvironmental Vulnerability Based on Improved Entropy Weight Method  

PubMed Central

Assessment of ecoenvironmental vulnerability plays an important role in the guidance of regional planning, the construction and protection of ecological environment, which requires comprehensive consideration on regional resources, environment, ecology, society and other factors. Based on the driving mechanism and evolution characteristics of ecoenvironmental vulnerability in cold and arid regions of China, a novel evaluation index system on ecoenvironmental vulnerability is proposed in this paper. For the disadvantages of conventional entropy weight method, an improved entropy weight assessment model on ecoenvironmental vulnerability is developed and applied to evaluate the ecoenvironmental vulnerability in western Jilin Province of China. The assessing results indicate that the model is suitable for ecoenvironmental vulnerability assessment, and it shows more reasonable evaluation criterion, more distinct insights and satisfactory results combined with the practical conditions. The model can provide a new method for regional ecoenvironmental vulnerability evaluation. PMID:25133260

Zhang, Xianqi; Wang, Chenbo; Li, Enkuan; Xu, Cundong

2014-01-01

358

European information on climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vulnerability to natural and technological disasters is increasing due to a combination of intensifying land use, increasing industrial development, further urban expansion and expanding infrastructure and also climate change. At EU level the European Commission's White Paper on adaptation to climate change (published in 2009) highlights that adaptation actions should be focused on the most vulnerable areas and communities in Europe (e.g. mountains, coastal areas, river flood prone areas, Mediterranean, Arctic). Mainstreaming of climate change into existing EU policies will be a key policy, including within the Water Framework Directive, Marine Strategy Framework Directive, Nature protection and biodiversity policies, integrated coastal zone management, other (sectoral) policies (agriculture, forestry, energy, transport, health) and disaster risk prevention. 2010 is the international year on biodiversity and the Conference of Parties of the biodiversity convention will meet in autumn 2010 (Japan) to discuss amongst other post-2010 strategies, objectives and indicators. Both within the Biodiversity Convention (CBD) and the Climate Change Convention (UNFCCC) there is increasing recognition of the need for integration of biodiversity conservation into climate change mitigation and adaptation activities. Furthermore a number of European countries and also some regions have started to prepare and/or have adopted national adaptation plans or frameworks. Sharing of good practices on climate change vulnerability methods and adaptation actions is so far limited, but is essential to improve such plans, at national, sub national and local level where much of the adaptation action is already taking place and will be expanding in future, also involving increasingly the business community. The EU Clearinghouse on CC impacts, vulnerability and adaptation should address these needs and it is planned to be operational end of 2011. The EEA is expected to have a role in its development in 2010 and is likely to manage the system after 2011. The European Commission in its Communication in 2009 on disaster risk prevention also calls for improving and better sharing of data on disasters, disaster risk mapping and disaster risk management, in the context of the EU civil protection mechanism. Such information might also be linked to the planned EU Clearinghouse on climate change adaptation. The activities of EEA on climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation (including disaster risk reduction) include indicators of the impacts of climate change; a regularly updated overview of national assessments and adaptation plans on the EEA web site and specific focused reports, e.g. on adaptation to the challenges of changing water resources in the Alps (2009) and on analysis of past trends in natural disasters (due in 2010) and regular expert meetings and workshops with EEA member countries. The ECAC presentation will include the latest developments in the EU Clearinghouse on adaptation and progress in relevant EEA activities.

Jol, A.; Isoard, S.

2010-09-01

359

Hydropower and sustainability: resilience and vulnerability in China's powersheds.  

PubMed

Large dams represent a whole complex of social, economic and ecological processes, perhaps more than any other large infrastructure project. Today, countries with rapidly developing economies are constructing new dams to provide energy and flood control to growing populations in riparian and distant urban communities. If the system is lacking institutional capacity to absorb these physical and institutional changes there is potential for conflict, thereby threatening human security. In this paper, we propose analyzing sustainability (political, socioeconomic, and ecological) in terms of resilience versus vulnerability, framed within the spatial abstraction of a powershed. The powershed framework facilitates multi-scalar and transboundary analysis while remaining focused on the questions of resilience and vulnerability relating to hydropower dams. Focusing on examples from China, this paper describes the complex nature of dams using the sustainability and powershed frameworks. We then analyze the roles of institutions in China to understand the relationships between power, human security and the socio-ecological system. To inform the study of conflicts over dams China is a particularly useful case study because we can examine what happens at the international, national and local scales. The powershed perspective allows us to examine resilience and vulnerability across political boundaries from a dynamic, process-defined analytical scale while remaining focused on a host of questions relating to hydro-development that invoke drivers and impacts on national and sub-national scales. The ability to disaggregate the affects of hydropower dam construction from political boundaries allows for a deeper analysis of resilience and vulnerability. From our analysis we find that reforms in China's hydropower sector since 1996 have been motivated by the need to create stability at the national scale rather than resilient solutions to China's growing demand for energy and water resource control at the local and international scales. Some measures that improved economic development through the market economy and a combination of dam construction and institutional reform may indeed improve hydro-political resilience at a single scale. However, if China does address large-scale hydropower construction's potential to create multi-scale geopolitical tensions, they may be vulnerable to conflict - though not necessarily violent - in domestic and international political arenas. We conclude with a look toward a resilient basin institution for the Nu/Salween River, the site of a proposed large-scale hydropower development effort in China and Myanmar. PMID:19013007

McNally, Amy; Magee, Darrin; Wolf, Aaron T

2009-07-01

360

Vulnerability to stress among women in chronic pain from fibromyalgia and osteoarthritis davis et al. stress vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two investigations, we studied vulnerability to the negative effects of stress among women in chronic pain from 2 types\\u000a of musculoskeletal illnesses, fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and osteoarthritis (OA). In Study 1, there were 101 female participants\\u000a 50 to 78 years old: 50 had FMS, 29 had OA knee pain and were scheduled for knee surgery, and 22 had OA

Mary C. Davis; Alex J. Zautra; John W. Reich

2001-01-01

361

The arctic water resource vulnerability index: An integrated assessment tool for community resilience and vulnerability with respect to freshwater  

USGS Publications Warehouse

People in the Arctic face uncertainty in their daily lives as they contend with environmental changes at a range of scales from local to global. Freshwater is a critical resource to people, and although water resource indicators have been developed that operate from regional to global scales and for midlatitude to equatorial environments, no appropriate index exists for assessing the vulnerability of Arctic communities to changing water resources at the local scale. The Arctic Water Resource Vulnerability Index (AWRVI) is proposed as a tool that Arctic communities can use to assess their relative vulnerability-resilience to changes in their water resources from a variety of biophysical and socioeconomic processes. The AWRVI is based on a social-ecological systems perspective that includes physical and social indicators of change and is demonstrated in three case study communities/watersheds in Alaska. These results highlight the value of communities engaging in the process of using the AWRVI and the diagnostic capability of examining the suite of constituent physical and social scores rather than the total AWRVI score alone. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Alessa, L.; Kliskey, A.; Lammers, R.; Arp, C.; White, D.; Hinzman, L.; Busey, R.

2008-01-01

362

A Large Scale Exploratory Analysis of Software Vulnerability Life Cycles Muhammad Shahzad, M. Zubair Shafiq, Alex X. Liu  

E-print Network

A Large Scale Exploratory Analysis of Software Vulnerability Life Cycles Muhammad Shahzad, M. The study of vulnerability life cycles can help in the development, deployment, and maintenance of software investigate vulnerabilities along following seven dimensions: (1) phases in the life cycle of vulnerabilities

Liu, Alex X.

363

Antifeedant and Toxicity Effects of Some Plant Extracts on Thaumetopoae solitaria Frey. (Lep.: Thaumetopoeidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The insecticidal and antifeedant activity of extracts derived from different plants of Aesculus hippocastanum L. (Hippocastanaceae), Viscum album L. (Loranthaceae), Sambucus nigra L. (Caprifoliaceae), Buxus sempervirens L. (Buxaceae), Diospyros kaki L. (Ebenaceae), Artemisia absinthum L. (Compositae), Alnus glutiosa Goertn. (Betulaceae), Origanum vulgare L., (Labiatae), Hypericum androsaemum L. (Hypericaceae) and Ocimum basilicum L. (Labiatae) are reported. The 95% ethanol extracts of

Ömer ERTÜRK

364

Age-Related Psychophysiological Vulnerability to Phenylalanine in Phenylketonuria  

PubMed Central

Background: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by the inherited defect of the phenylalanine hydroxylase enzyme, which converts phenylalanine (Phe) into tyrosine (Tyr). Neonatal screening programs and early treatment have radically changed the natural history of PKU. Nevertheless, an increased risk of neurocognitive and psychiatric problems in adulthood remains a challenging aspect of the disease. In order to assess the vulnerability of complex skills to Phe, we explored: (a) the effect of a rapid increase in blood Phe levels on event-related potentials (ERP) in PKU subjects during their second decade of life; (b) the association (if existing) between psychophysiological and neurocognitive features. Methods: Seventeen early-treated PKU subjects, aged 10–20, underwent ERP [mismatch negativity, auditory P300, contingent negative variation (CNV), and Intensity Dependence of Auditory Evoked Potentials] recording before and 2?h after an oral loading of Phe. Neurocognitive functioning, historical and concurrent biochemical values of blood Phe, Tyr, and Phe/Tyr ratio, were all included in the statistical analysis. Results: Event-related potential components were normally detected in all the subjects. In subjects younger than 13 CNV amplitude, W2-CNV area, P3b latency, and reaction times in motor responses were negatively influenced by Phe-loading. Independently from the psychophysiological vulnerability, some neurocognitive skills were more impaired in younger patients. No correlation was found between biochemical alterations and neurocognitive and psychophysiological findings. Conclusion: The vulnerability of the emerging neurocognitive functions to Phe suggests a strict metabolic control in adolescents affected by PKU and a neurodevelopmental approach in the study of neurocognitive outcome in PKU. PMID:25003100

Leuzzi, Vincenzo; Mannarelli, Daniela; Manti, Filippo; Pauletti, Caterina; Locuratolo, Nicoletta; Carducci, Carla; Carducci, Claudia; Vanacore, Nicola; Fattapposta, Francesco

2014-01-01

365

Approaches of Seismic Vulnerability Assessments in Near Real Time Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data on seismic vulnerability of existing building stock and other elements at risk are rather important for near real time earthquake loss estimations by global systems. These data together with information on regional peculiarities of seismic intensity attenuation and other factors contribute greatly to the reliability of strong event consequences estimated in emergency mode. There are different approaches for vulnerability functions' development and the empirical one is most often used. It is based on analysis of engineering consequences of past strong events when well documented descriptions of damage to different building types and other elements at risk are available for the earthquake prone area under consideration. In the case such data do not exist the information from macroseismic scales may be used. Any approach of vulnerability functions' development requires the proper classification of buildings and structures under consideration. According to national and international building codes, as well as macroseismic scales different buildings' classifications exist. As a result the global systems, such as Extremum and PAGER, as well as GEM project make use of the non-unified information on building stock distribution worldwide. The paper addresses the issues of buildings' classification and city models in terms of these classifications. Distribution of different buildings types in Extremum and PAGER/GEM systems is analyzed for earthquake prone countries. The comparison of city models revealed significant differences which influence greatly earthquake loss estimations in emergency mode. The paper describes the practice of city models' development which make use of space images and web technology in social networks. It is proposed to use the G8 country (and other) initiatives related to open data and transparency aimed at improving building stock distribution and global population databases.

Frolova, Nina; Larionov, Valery; Bonnin, Jean; Ugarov, Alexander

2014-05-01

366

Global convergence in the vulnerability of forests to drought.  

PubMed

Shifts in rainfall patterns and increasing temperatures associated with climate change are likely to cause widespread forest decline in regions where droughts are predicted to increase in duration and severity. One primary cause of productivity loss and plant mortality during drought is hydraulic failure. Drought stress creates trapped gas emboli in the water transport system, which reduces the ability of plants to supply water to leaves for photosynthetic gas exchange and can ultimately result in desiccation and mortality. At present we lack a clear picture of how thresholds to hydraulic failure vary across a broad range of species and environments, despite many individual experiments. Here we draw together published and unpublished data on the vulnerability of the transport system to drought-induced embolism for a large number of woody species, with a view to examining the likely consequences of climate change for forest biomes. We show that 70% of 226 forest species from 81 sites worldwide operate with narrow (<1?megapascal) hydraulic safety margins against injurious levels of drought stress and therefore potentially face long-term reductions in productivity and survival if temperature and aridity increase as predicted for many regions across the globe. Safety margins are largely independent of mean annual precipitation, showing that there is global convergence in the vulnerability of forests to drought, with all forest biomes equally vulnerable to hydraulic failure regardless of their current rainfall environment. These findings provide insight into why drought-induced forest decline is occurring not only in arid regions but also in wet forests not normally considered at drought risk. PMID:23172141

Choat, Brendan; Jansen, Steven; Brodribb, Tim J; Cochard, Hervé; Delzon, Sylvain; Bhaskar, Radika; Bucci, Sandra J; Feild, Taylor S; Gleason, Sean M; Hacke, Uwe G; Jacobsen, Anna L; Lens, Frederic; Maherali, Hafiz; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Mayr, Stefan; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Mitchell, Patrick J; Nardini, Andrea; Pittermann, Jarmila; Pratt, R Brandon; Sperry, John S; Westoby, Mark; Wright, Ian J; Zanne, Amy E

2012-11-29

367

Differential vulnerability of interneurons in the epileptic hippocampus  

PubMed Central

The loss of hippocampal interneurons has been considered as one reason for the onset of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) by shifting the excitation-inhibition balance. Yet, there are many different interneuron types which show differential vulnerability in the context of an epileptogenic insult. We used the intrahippocampal kainate (KA) mouse model for TLE in which a focal, unilateral KA injection induces status epilepticus (SE) followed by development of granule cell dispersion (GCD) and hippocampal sclerosis surrounding the injection site but not in the intermediate and temporal hippocampus. In this study, we characterized the loss of interneurons with respect to septotemporal position and to differential vulnerability of interneuron populations. To this end, we performed intrahippocampal recordings of the initial SE, in situ hybridization for glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) mRNA and immunohistochemistry for parvalbumin (PV) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the early phase of epileptogenesis at 2 days and at 21 days after KA injection, when recurrent epileptic activity and GCD have fully developed. We show that SE extended along the entire septotemporal axis of both hippocampi, but was stronger at distant sites than at the injection site. There was an almost complete loss of interneurons surrounding the injection site and expanding to the intermediate hippocampus already at 2 days but increasing until 21 days after KA. Furthermore, we observed differential vulnerability of PV- and NPY-expressing cells: while the latter were lost at the injection site but preserved at intermediate sites, PV-expressing cells were gone even at sites more temporal than GCD. In addition, we found upregulation of GAD67 mRNA expression in dispersed granule cells and of NPY staining in ipsilateral granule cells and ipsi- and contralateral mossy fibers. Our data thus indicate differential survival capacity of interneurons in the epileptic hippocampus and compensatory plasticity mechanisms depending on the hippocampal position. PMID:24098270

Marx, Markus; Haas, Carola A.; Häussler, Ute

2013-01-01

368

Socio-Economic Vulnerability to Climate Change in California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The western United States faces a range of impacts from global climate change, including increases in extreme heat, wildfires, and coastal flooding and erosion; changes are also likely to occur in air quality, water availability, and the spread of infectious diseases. To date, a great deal of research has been done to forecast the physical effects of climate change, while less attention has been given to the factors make different populations more or less vulnerable to harm from such changes. For example, mortality rates from Hurricane Audrey, which struck the coast of Louisiana in 1957, were more than eight times higher among blacks than among whites. While disaster events may not discriminate, impacts on human populations are shaped by "intervening conditions" that determine the human impact of the flood and the specific needs for preparedness, response, and recovery. In this study, we analyze the potential impacts of climate change by using recent downscaled climate model outputs, creating a variety of statistics and visualizations to communicate potential impacts to community groups and decision makers, after several meetings with these groups to ask, "What types of information are most useful to you for planning?" We relate climate impacts to social vulnerability - defined as the intersection of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of a person or group of people - with a focus on the U.S. state of California. Understanding vulnerability factors and the populations that exhibit these factors are critical for crafting effective climate change policies and response strategies. It is also important to the emerging study of climate justice, which is the concept that no group of people should disproportionately bear the burden of climate impacts or the costs of mitigation and adaptation.

Heberger, M. G.; Cooley, H.; Moore, E.; Garzon, C.

2011-12-01

369

Brain renin-angiotensin system and dopaminergic cell vulnerability  

PubMed Central

Although the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) was classically considered as a circulating system that regulates blood pressure, many tissues are now known to have a local RAS. Angiotensin, via type 1 receptors, is a major activator of the NADPH-oxidase complex, which mediates several key events in oxidative stress (OS) and inflammatory processes involved in the pathogenesis of major aging-related diseases. Several studies have demonstrated the presence of RAS components in the basal ganglia, and particularly in the nigrostriatal system. In the nigrostriatal system, RAS hyperactivation, via NADPH-oxidase complex activation, exacerbates OS and the microglial inflammatory response and contributes to progression of dopaminergic degeneration, which is inhibited by angiotensin receptor blockers and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Several factors may induce an increase in RAS activity in the dopaminergic system. A decrease in dopaminergic activity induces compensatory upregulation of local RAS function in both dopaminergic neurons and glia. In addition to its role as an essential neurotransmitter, dopamine may also modulate microglial inflammatory responses and neuronal OS via RAS. Important counterregulatory interactions between angiotensin and dopamine have also been observed in several peripheral tissues. Neurotoxins and proinflammatory factors may also act on astrocytes to induce an increase in RAS activity, either independently of or before the loss of dopamine. Consistent with a major role of RAS in dopaminergic vulnerability, increased RAS activity has been observed in the nigra of animal models of aging, menopause and chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, which also showed higher dopaminergic vulnerability. Manipulation of the brain RAS may constitute an effective neuroprotective strategy against dopaminergic vulnerability and progression of Parkinson’s disease. PMID:25071471

Labandeira-García, Jose L.; Garrido-Gil, Pablo; Rodriguez-Pallares, Jannette; Valenzuela, Rita; Borrajo, Ana; Rodríguez-Perez, Ana I.

2014-01-01

370

Estimating catchment vulnerability to diffuse herbicide losses from hydrograph statistics.  

PubMed

The prediction of diffuse herbicide losses to surface waters using process-based models is data and time demanding. There is a need for simpler and more efficient catchment screening tools. We developed and tested a new proxy for screening catchments for their vulnerability to diffuse herbicide losses relying on widely available river flow data only. The proxy combines the fast flow index (FFI) (i.e., the long-term average proportion of fast flow to total discharge) and the fast flow volume (FFVs) (i.e., the stormflow component of the hydrograph during the spring flush period). We tested the proxy and the underlying hypotheses by regression analyses of existing high-frequency, multiannual monitoring datasets of atrazine, metolachlor, alachlor, and acetochlor concentrations from six US and European catchments. The percentages of applied amounts of three of the four herbicides lost to surface water were positively correlated with the FFV, and the slope of the correlation was positively correlated with the FFI. Based on the empirical data, we derived quantitative proxies to estimate atrazine and metolachlor losses based on the measured FFI and FFV values. The application to 65 European catchments revealed that many of them had a lower vulnerability than the six test catchments. The observed FFI dependency of the slope seems reasonable because with increasing FFI less rain is needed to trigger fast flow and more herbicide is available in the topsoil. The proposed FFI-FFVs proxy can guide researchers and authorities in selecting monitoring areas, setting monitoring results into context, and prioritizing mitigation strategies according to catchment vulnerability. PMID:20830931

Leu, Christian; Schneider, Manuel K; Stamm, Christian

2010-01-01

371

Vulnerability of mesostriatal dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

The term vulnerability was first associated with the midbrain dopaminergic neurons 85 years ago, before they were identified as monoaminergic neurons, when Foix and Nicolesco (1925) reported the loss of neuromelanin containing neurons in the midbrain of patients with post-encephalitic Parkinson's disease (PD). A few years later, Hassler (1938) showed that degeneration is more intense in the ventral tier of the substantia nigra compacta than in its dorsal tier and the ventral tegmental area (VTA), outlining the concept of differential vulnerability of midbrain dopaminergic (DA-) neurons. Nowadays, we know that other neuronal groups degenerate in PD, but the massive loss of nigral DA-cells is its pathological hallmark, having a pivotal position in the pathophysiology of the disease as it is responsible for the motor symptoms. Data from humans as well as cellular and animal models indicate that DA-cell degeneration is a complex process, probably precipitated by the convergence of different risk factors, mediated by oxidative stress, and involving pathogenic factors arising within the DA-neuron (intrinsic factors), and from its environment and distant interconnected brain regions (extrinsic factors). In light of current data, intrinsic factors seem to be preferentially involved in the first steps of the degenerative process, and extrinsic factors in its progression. A controversial issue is the relative weight of the impairment of common cell functions, such as energy metabolism and proteostasis, and specific dopaminergic functions, such as pacemaking activity and DA handling, in the pathogenesis of DA-cell degeneration. Here we will review the current knowledge about the relevance of these factors at the beginning and during the progression of PD, and in the differential vulnerability of midbrain DA-cells. PMID:21079748

González-Hernández, Tomás; Cruz-Muros, Ignacio; Afonso-Oramas, Domingo; Salas-Hernandez, Josmar; Castro-Hernandez, Javier

2010-01-01

372

Vulnerability of Mesostriatal Dopaminergic Neurons in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

The term vulnerability was first associated with the midbrain dopaminergic neurons 85 years ago, before they were identified as monoaminergic neurons, when Foix and Nicolesco (1925) reported the loss of neuromelanin containing neurons in the midbrain of patients with post-encephalitic Parkinson's disease (PD). A few years later, Hassler (1938) showed that degeneration is more intense in the ventral tier of the substantia nigra compacta than in its dorsal tier and the ventral tegmental area (VTA), outlining the concept of differential vulnerability of midbrain dopaminergic (DA-) neurons. Nowadays, we know that other neuronal groups degenerate in PD, but the massive loss of nigral DA-cells is its pathological hallmark, having a pivotal position in the pathophysiology of the disease as it is responsible for the motor symptoms. Data from humans as well as cellular and animal models indicate that DA-cell degeneration is a complex process, probably precipitated by the convergence of different risk factors, mediated by oxidative stress, and involving pathogenic factors arising within the DA-neuron (intrinsic factors), and from its environment and distant interconnected brain regions (extrinsic factors). In light of current data, intrinsic factors seem to be preferentially involved in the first steps of the degenerative process, and extrinsic factors in its progression. A controversial issue is the relative weight of the impairment of common cell functions, such as energy metabolism and proteostasis, and specific dopaminergic functions, such as pacemaking activity and DA handling, in the pathogenesis of DA-cell degeneration. Here we will review the current knowledge about the relevance of these factors at the beginning and during the progression of PD, and in the differential vulnerability of midbrain DA-cells. PMID:21079748

González-Hernández, Tomás; Cruz-Muros, Ignacio; Afonso-Oramas, Domingo; Salas-Hernandez, Josmar; Castro-Hernandez, Javier

2010-01-01

373

DNA deletions promote cancer, but collateral damage make it vulnerable  

Cancer.gov

Genomic deletions promote cancer by carving up or eliminating tumor-suppressor genes, but now scientists report in the journal Nature that the collateral damage they inflict on neighboring genes exposes cancer cells to vulnerabilities and new avenues for attack. Working with cell lines of glioblastoma multiforme, the most lethal type of brain tumor, researchers from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute at Harvard Medical School, and some now at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, found that collateral deletion of a gene vital to tumor metabolism allowed them to kill malignant cells by blocking another gene that redundantly performs the same function.

374

Multispectral optoacoustic tomography resolves smart probe activation in vulnerable plaques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we show, for the first time to our knowledge, that multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) can deliver high resolution images of activatable molecular probe's distribution, sensitive to matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), deep within optically scattering human carotid specimen. It is further demonstrated that this method can be used in order to provide accurate maps of vulnerable plaque formations in atherosclerotic disease. Moreover, optoacoustic images can simultaneously show the underlining plaque morphology for accurate localization of MMP activity in three dimensions. This performance directly relates to small animal screening applications and to clinical potential as well.

Razansky, Daniel; Harlaar, Niels J.; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Taruttis, Adrian; Herzog, Eva; Zeebregts, Clark; van Dam, Goitzen; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

2011-03-01

375

Water vulnerabilities for existing coal-fired power plants.  

SciTech Connect

This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Water consumption by all users in the United States over the 2005-2030 time period is projected to increase by about 7% (from about 108 billion gallons per day [bgd] to about 115 bgd) (Elcock 2010). By contrast, water consumption by coal-fired power plants over this period is projected to increase by about 21% (from about 2.4 to about 2.9 bgd) (NETL 2009b). The high projected demand for water by power plants, which is expected to increase even further as carbon-capture equipment is installed, combined with decreasing freshwater supplies in many areas, suggests that certain coal-fired plants may be particularly vulnerable to potential water demand-supply conflicts. If not addressed, these conflicts could limit power generation and lead to power disruptions or increased consumer costs. The identification of existing coal-fired plants that are vulnerable to water demand and supply concerns, along with an analysis of information about their cooling systems and related characteristics, provides information to help focus future research and development (R&D) efforts to help ensure that coal-fired generation demands are met in a cost-effective manner that supports sustainable water use. This study identified coal-fired power plants that are considered vulnerable to water demand and supply issues by using a geographical information system (GIS) that facilitated the analysis of plant-specific data for more than 500 plants in the NETL's Coal Power Plant Database (CPPDB) (NETL 2007a) simultaneously with 18 indicators of water demand and supply. Two types of demand indicators were evaluated. The first type consisted of geographical areas where specific conditions can generate demand vulnerabilities. These conditions include high projected future water consumption by thermoelectric power plants, high projected future water consumption by all users, high rates of water withdrawal per square mile (mi{sup 2}), high projected population increases, and areas projected to be in a water crisis or conflict by 2025. The second type of demand indicator was plant specific. These indicators were developed for each plant and include annual water consumption and withdrawal rates and intensities, net annual power generation, and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. The supply indictors, which are also area based, include areas with low precipitation, high temperatures, low streamflow, and drought. The indicator data, which were in various formats (e.g., maps, tables, raw numbers) were converted to a GIS format and stored, along with the individual plant data from the CPPDB, in a single GIS database. The GIS database allowed the indicator data and plant data to be analyzed and visualized in any combination. To determine the extent to which a plant would be considered 'vulnerable' to a given demand or supply concern (i.e., that the plant's operations could be affected by water shortages represented by a potential demand or supply indicator), criteria were developed to categorize vulnerability according to one of three types: major, moderate, or not vulnerable. Plants with at least two major demand indicator values and/or at least four moderate demand indicator values were considered vulnerable to demand concerns. By using this approach, 144 plants were identified as being subject to demand concerns only. Plants with at least one major supply indicator value and/or at least two moderate supply indicator values were considered vulnerable to supply concerns. By using this approach, 64 plants were identified as being subject to supply concerns only. In addition, 139 plants were identified as subject to both demand and supply concerns. Therefore, a total of 347 plants were considere

Elcock, D.; Kuiper, J.; Environmental Science Division

2010-08-19

376

Rare species support vulnerable functions in high-diversity ecosystems.  

PubMed

Around the world, the human-induced collapses of populations and species have triggered a sixth mass extinction crisis, with rare species often being the first to disappear. Although the role of species diversity in the maintenance of ecosystem processes has been widely investigated, the role of rare species remains controversial. A critical issue is whether common species insure against the loss of functions supported by rare species. This issue is even more critical in species-rich ecosystems where high functional redundancy among species is likely and where it is thus often assumed that ecosystem functioning is buffered against species loss. Here, using extensive datasets of species occurrences and functional traits from three highly diverse ecosystems (846 coral reef fishes, 2,979 alpine plants, and 662 tropical trees), we demonstrate that the most distinct combinations of traits are supported predominantly by rare species both in terms of local abundance and regional occupancy. Moreover, species that have low functional redundancy and are likely to support the most vulnerable functions, with no other species carrying similar combinations of traits, are rarer than expected by chance in all three ecosystems. For instance, 63% and 98% of fish species that are likely to support highly vulnerable functions in coral reef ecosystems are locally and regionally rare, respectively. For alpine plants, 32% and 89% of such species are locally and regionally rare, respectively. Remarkably, 47% of fish species and 55% of tropical tree species that are likely to support highly vulnerable functions have only one individual per sample on average. Our results emphasize the importance of rare species conservation, even in highly diverse ecosystems, which are thought to exhibit high functional redundancy. Rare species offer more than aesthetic, cultural, or taxonomic diversity value; they disproportionately increase the potential breadth of functions provided by ecosystems across spatial scales. As such, they are likely to insure against future uncertainty arising from climate change and the ever-increasing anthropogenic pressures on ecosystems. Our results call for a more detailed understanding of the role of rarity and functional vulnerability in ecosystem functioning. PMID:23723735

Mouillot, David; Bellwood, David R; Baraloto, Christopher; Chave, Jerome; Galzin, Rene; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille; Kulbicki, Michel; Lavergne, Sebastien; Lavorel, Sandra; Mouquet, Nicolas; Paine, C E Timothy; Renaud, Julien; Thuiller, Wilfried

2013-01-01

377

Disaster management: vulnerability and resilience in disaster recovery in Thailand.  

PubMed

This project explores disaster management in Thailand with a focus on the vulnerability and resilience of women, children, the elderly, and the disabled population and on the impact of disaster on these subpopulations. The 2 main findings deal with the major models of disaster management in Thailand and building resilience for social recovery. The selected 5 major models currently employed in disaster management in Thailand are the (a) model of royal project and international cooperation on disaster preparedness and response, (b) ASEAN Socio-Cultural Blueprint, (c) rights-based approach, (d) welfare mix model, and (e) knowledge management model. PMID:23679805

Busapathumrong, Pattamaporn

2013-01-01

378

Applying a Comprehensive Contextual Climate Change Vulnerability Framework to New Zealand's Tourism Industry.  

PubMed

Conceptualisations of 'vulnerability' vary amongst scholarly communities, contributing to a wide variety of applications. Research investigating vulnerability to climate change has often excluded non-climatic changes which may contribute to degrees of vulnerability perceived or experienced. This paper introduces a comprehensive contextual vulnerability framework which incorporates physical, social, economic and political factors which could amplify or reduce vulnerability. The framework is applied to New Zealand's tourism industry to explore its value in interpreting a complex, human-natural environment system with multiple competing vulnerabilities. The comprehensive contextual framework can inform government policy and industry decision making, integrating understandings of climate change within the broader context of internal and external social, physical, economic, and institutional stressors. PMID:24805920

Hopkins, Debbie

2014-05-01

379

Savannah River Site management response plan for chemical safety vulnerability field assessment. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) initiative to identify potential chemical safety vulnerabilities in the DOE complex, the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Core Working Group issued a field verification assessment report. While the report concluded that Savannah River Site (SRS) is moving in a positive direction, the report also identified five chemical safety vulnerabilities with broad programmatic impact that are not easily nor quickly remedied. The May 1994 SRS Management Response Plan addressed the five SRS vulnerabilities identified in the field assessment report. The SRS response plan listed observations supporting the vulnerabilities and any actions taken or planned toward resolution. Many of the observations were resolved by simple explanations, such as the existence of implementation plans for Safety Analysis Report updates. Recognizing that correcting individual observations does not suffice in remedying the vulnerabilities, a task team was assembled to address the broader programmatic issues and to recommend corrective actions.

Kahal, E.J.; Murphy, S.L.; Salaymeh, S.R.

1994-09-01

380

The Occurrence and Prevention of Foodborne Disease in Vulnerable People  

PubMed Central

Abstract In developed countries, such as the United Kingdom and the United States, between 15% and 20% of the population show greater susceptibility than the general population to foodborne disease. This proportion includes people with primary immunodeficiency, patients treated with radiation or with immunosuppressive drugs for cancer and diseases of the immune system, those with acquired immune-deficiency syndrome and diabetics, people suffering from liver or kidney disease or with excessive iron in the blood, pregnant women, infants, and the elderly. Malnutrition and use of antacids, particularly proton-pump inhibitors, also increase susceptibility. We review the occurrence of infection by foodborne pathogens in these groups of people and measures to prevent infection. The nature and use of low microbial diets to reduce the risk of foodborne disease in immunocompromised patients are very variable. Diets for vulnerable people in care should exclude higher-risk foods, and vulnerable people in the community should receive clear advice about food safety, in particular avoidance of higher-risk foods and substitution of safer, nutritious foods. PMID:21561383

O'Brien, Sarah J.

2011-01-01

381

HIV vulnerabilities of sex-trafficked Indian women and girls  

PubMed Central

Objective To qualitatively explore potential mechanisms that may confer heightened risk for HIV infection among survivors of sex trafficking in India. Methods Case narratives of 61 repatriated women and girls who reported being trafficked into sex work and were receiving services at an NGO in Mysore, India, were reviewed. Narratives were analyzed to examine potential sources of HIV risk related to sex trafficking. Results Participants were aged 14–30 years. Among the 48 women and girls tested for HIV, 45.8% were HIV positive. Narratives described very low levels of autonomy, with control exacted by brothel managers and traffickers. Lack of control appeared to heighten trafficked women and girls’ vulnerability to HIV infection in the following ways: use of violent rape as a means of coercing initiation into sex work, inability to refuse sex, inability to use condoms or negotiate use, substance use as a coping strategy, and inadequate access to health care. Conclusion Sex trafficked women and girls lack autonomy and are rendered vulnerable to HIV infection through several means. Development of HIV prevention strategies specifically designed to deal with lack of autonomy and reach sex-trafficked women and girls is imperative. PMID:19625022

Gupta, Jhumka; Raj, Anita; Decker, Michele R.; Reed, Elizabeth; Silverman, Jay G.

2009-01-01

382

Assessing vulnerability of marine bird populations to offshore wind farms.  

PubMed

Offshore wind farms may affect bird populations through collision mortality and displacement. Given the pressures to develop offshore wind farms, there is an urgent need to assess population-level impacts on protected marine birds. Here we refine an approach to assess aspects of their ecology that influence population vulnerability to wind farm impacts, also taking into account the conservation importance of each species. Flight height appears to be a key factor influencing collision mortality risk but improved data on flight heights of marine birds are needed. Collision index calculations identify populations of gulls, white-tailed eagles, northern gannets and skuas as of particularly high concern in Scottish waters. Displacement index calculations identify populations of divers and common scoters as most vulnerable to population-level impacts of displacement, but these are likely to be less evident than impacts of collision mortality. The collision and displacement indices developed here for Scottish marine bird populations could be applied to populations elsewhere, and this approach will help in identifying likely impacts of future offshore wind farms on marine birds and prioritising monitoring programmes, at least until data on macro-avoidance rates become available. PMID:23454414

Furness, Robert W; Wade, Helen M; Masden, Elizabeth A

2013-04-15

383

Field information links permafrost carbon to physical vulnerabilities of thawing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep soil profiles containing permafrost (Gelisols) were characterized for organic carbon (C) and total nitrogen (N) stocks to 3 m depths. Using the Community Climate System Model (CCSM4) we calculate cumulative distributions of active layer thickness (ALT) under current and future climates. The difference in cumulative ALT distributions over time was multiplied by C and N contents of soil horizons in Gelisol suborders to calculate newly thawed C and N. Thawing ranged from 147 PgC with 10 PgN by 2050 (representative concentration pathway RCP scenario 4.5) to 436 PgC with 29 PgN by 2100 (RCP 8.5). Organic horizons that thaw are vulnerable to combustion, and all horizon types are vulnerable to shifts in hydrology and decomposition. The rates and extent of such losses are unknown and can be further constrained by linking field and modelling approaches. These changes have the potential for strong additional loading to our atmosphere, water resources, and ecosystems.

Harden, Jennifer W.; Koven, Charles D.; Ping, Chien-Lu; Hugelius, Gustaf; David McGuire, A.; Camill, Phillip; Jorgenson, Torre; Kuhry, Peter; Michaelson, Gary J.; O'Donnell, Jonathan A.; Schuur, Edward A. G.; Tarnocai, Charles; Johnson, Kristopher; Grosse, Guido

2012-08-01

384

Seismic Vulnerability and Performance Level of confined brick walls  

SciTech Connect

There has been an increase on the interest of Engineers and designers to use designing methods based on displacement and behavior (designing based on performance) Regarding to the importance of resisting structure design against dynamic loads such as earthquake, and inability to design according to prediction of nonlinear behavior element caused by nonlinear properties of constructional material.Economically speaking, easy carrying out and accessibility of masonry material have caused an enormous increase in masonry structures in villages, towns and cities. On the other hand, there is a necessity to study behavior and Seismic Vulnerability in these kinds of structures since Iran is located on the earthquake belt of Alpide.Different reasons such as environmental, economic, social, cultural and accessible constructional material have caused different kinds of constructional structures.In this study, some tied walls have been modeled with software and with relevant accelerator suitable with geology conditions under dynamic analysis to research on the Seismic Vulnerability and performance level of confined brick walls. Results from this analysis seem to be satisfactory after comparison of them with the values in Code ATC40, FEMA and standard 2800 of Iran.

Ghalehnovi, M.; Rahdar, H. A. [University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2008-07-08

385

Linkages between Cigarette Smoking Outcome Expectancies and Negative Emotional Vulnerability  

PubMed Central

The present investigation examined whether smoking outcome expectancies, as measured by the Smoking Consequences Questionnaire (SCQ; Brandon & Baker, 1991), were incrementally related to emotional vulnerability factors among an adult sample of 202 daily cigarette smokers (44.6% women; Mage = 23.78 years, SD = 9.69 years). After controlling for cigarettes smoked per day, past 30-day marijuana use, current alcohol consumption, and coping style, negative reinforcement/negative affect reduction outcome expectancies were significantly associated with greater levels of negative affectivity, emotional dysregulation, and anxiety sensitivity. The observed effects for negative reinforcement/negative affect reduction also were independent of shared variance with other outcome expectancies. Negative personal consequences outcome expectancies were significantly and incrementally related to anxiety sensitivity, but not negative affectivity or emotional dysregulation. Findings are discussed in terms of the role of negative reinforcement/negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies and clinically-relevant negative emotional vulnerability for better understanding cigarette smoking-negative mood problems. PMID:18550294

Johnson, Kirsten A.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Marshall, Erin C.; Gonzalez, Adam; Abrams, Kenneth; Vujanovic, Anka A.

2008-01-01

386

Chronic Stress, Drug Use, and Vulnerability to Addiction  

PubMed Central

Stress is a well-known risk factor in the development of addiction and in addiction relapse vulnerability. A series of population-based and epidemiological studies have identified specific stressors and individual-level variables that are predictive of substance use and abuse. Preclinical research also shows that stress exposure enhances drug self-administration and reinstates drug seeking in drug-experienced animals. The deleterious effects of early life stress, child maltreatment, and accumulated adversity on alterations in the corticotropin releasing factor and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (CRF/HPA), the extrahypothalamic CRF, the autonomic arousal, and the central noradrenergic systems are also presented. The effects of these alterations on the corticostriatal-limbic motivational, learning, and adaptation systems that include mesolimbic dopamine, glutamate, and gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) pathways are discussed as the underlying pathophysiology associated with stress-related risk of addiction. The effects of regular and chronic drug use on alterations in these stress and motivational systems are also reviewed, with specific attention to the impact of these adaptations on stress regulation, impulse control, and perpetuation of compulsive drug seeking and relapse susceptibility. Finally, research gaps in furthering our understanding of the association between stress and addiction are presented, with the hope that addressing these unanswered questions will significantly influence new prevention and treatment strategies to address vulnerability to addiction. PMID:18991954

Sinha, Rajita

2009-01-01

387

Vulnerability of ecosystems to climate change moderated by habitat intactness.  

PubMed

The combined effects of climate change and habitat loss represent a major threat to species and ecosystems around the world. Here, we analyse the vulnerability of ecosystems to climate change based on current levels of habitat intactness and vulnerability to biome shifts, using multiple measures of habitat intactness at two spatial scales. We show that the global extent of refugia depends highly on the definition of habitat intactness and spatial scale of the analysis of intactness. Globally, 28% of terrestrial vegetated area can be considered refugia if all natural vegetated land cover is considered. This, however, drops to 17% if only areas that are at least 50% wilderness at a scale of 48 × 48 km are considered and to 10% if only areas that are at least 50% wilderness at a scale of 4.8 × 4.8 km are considered. Our results suggest that, in regions where relatively large, intact wilderness areas remain (e.g. Africa, Australia, boreal regions, South America), conservation of the remaining large-scale refugia is the priority. In human-dominated landscapes, (e.g. most of Europe, much of North America and Southeast Asia), focusing on finer scale refugia is a priority because large-scale wilderness refugia simply no longer exist. Action to conserve such refugia is particularly urgent since only 1 to 2% of global terrestrial vegetated area is classified as refugia and at least 50% covered by the global protected area network. PMID:25059822

Eigenbrod, Felix; Gonzalez, Patrick; Dash, Jadunandan; Steyl, Ilse

2015-01-01

388

Application of Satellite Gravimetry for Water Resource Vulnerability Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The force of Earth's gravity field varies in proportion to the amount of mass near the surface. Spatial and temporal variations in the gravity field can be measured via their effects on the orbits of satellites. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) is the first satellite mission dedicated to monitoring temporal variations in the gravity field. The monthly gravity anomaly maps that have been delivered by GRACE since 2002 are being used to infer changes in terrestrial water storage (the sum of groundwater, soil moisture, surface waters, and snow and ice), which are the primary source of gravity variability on monthly to decadal timescales after atmospheric and oceanic circulation effects have been removed. Other remote sensing techniques are unable to detect water below the first few centimeters of the land surface. Conventional ground based techniques can be used to monitor terrestrial water storage, but groundwater, soil moisture, and snow observation networks are sparse in most of the world, and the countries that do collect such data rarely are willing to share them. Thus GRACE is unique in its ability to provide global data on variations in the availability of fresh water, which is both vital to life on land and vulnerable to climate variability and mismanagement. This chapter describes the unique and challenging aspects of GRACE terrestrial water storage data, examples of how the data have been used for research and applications related to fresh water vulnerability and change, and prospects for continued contributions of satellite gravimetry to water resources science and policy.

Rodell, Matthew

2012-01-01

389

Non-invasive detection of vulnerable coronary plaque  

PubMed Central

Critical coronary stenoses have been shown to contribute to only a minority of acute coronary syndromes and sudden cardiac death. Autopsy studies have identified a subgroup of high-risk patients with disrupted vulnerable plaque and modest stenosis. Consequently, a clinical need exists to develop methods to identify these plaques prospectively before disruption and clinical expression of disease. Recent advances in invasive and non-invasive imaging techniques have shown the potential to identify these high-risk plaques. Non-invasive imaging with magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and positron emission tomography holds the potential to differentiate between low- and high-risk plaques. There have been significant technological advances in non-invasive imaging modalities, and the aim is to achieve a diagnostic sensitivity for these technologies similar to that of the invasive modalities. Molecular imaging with the use of novel targeted nanoparticles may help in detecting high-risk plaques that will ultimately cause acute myocardial infarction. Moreover, nanoparticle-based imaging may even provide non-invasive treatments for these plaques. However, at present none of these imaging modalities are able to detect vulnerable plaque nor have they been shown to definitively predict outcome. Further trials are needed to provide more information regarding the natural history of high-risk but non-flow-limiting plaque to establish patient specific targeted therapy and to refine plaque stabilizing strategies in the future. PMID:21860703

Sharif, Faisal; Lohan, Derek G; Wijns, William

2011-01-01

390

Public Health Consequences on Vulnerable Populations from Acute Chemical Releases  

PubMed Central

Data from a large, multi-state surveillance system on acute chemical releases were analyzed to describe the type of events that are potentially affecting vulnerable populations (children, elderly and hospitalized patients) in order to better prevent and plan for these types of incidents in the future. During 2003–2005, there were 231 events where vulnerable populations were within ¼ mile of the event and the area of impact was greater than 200 feet from the facility/point of release. Most events occurred on a weekday during times when day care centers or schools were likely to be in session. Equipment failure and human error caused a majority of the releases. Agencies involved in preparing for and responding to chemical emergencies should work with hospitals, nursing homes, day care centers, and schools to develop policies and procedures for initiating appropriate protective measures and managing the medical needs of patients. Chemical emergency response drills should involve the entire community to protect those that may be more susceptible to harm. PMID:21572842

Ruckart, Perri Zeitz; Orr, Maureen F.

2008-01-01

391

Vulnerability of supply basins to demand from multiple cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humans have appropriated more than half of the world's available water resources, and continued population growth and climate change threaten to put increasing pressure on remaining supplies. Many cities have constructed infrastructure to collect, transport from and store water at distant locations. Supply basins can become vulnerable if there are multiple users depending on the same supply system or network. Basin vulnerability assessments often only report the impacts of local demands on system health, but rarely account future stress from multi-urban demands. This study presents a global assessment of urban impacts on supply basins. Specifically, hydrologic and regulatory information are used to quantify the level of supply basin stress created by demand from multiple cities. The aim is to identify at-risk basins. This study focuses on large urban areas (generally over 1 million people) that use surface water (n=412). The stress on supply water basins by urban demand was based on three parameters: 1) the number of cities using a basin for water supply, 2) the number of alternative urban sources (e.g. lakes, reservoirs, rivers) within the supply basin, and 3) the percent of available surface water in each basin that is required to meet the total of urban and environmental demands. The degree of management within each basin is assessed using information on federal water policies and local basin management plans.

Padowski, J. C.; Gorelick, S.

2013-12-01

392

The Vulnerability of Threatened Species: Adaptive Capability and Adaptation Opportunity  

PubMed Central

Global targets to halt the loss of biodiversity have not been met, and there is now an additional Aichi target for preventing the extinction of known threatened species and improving their conservation status. Climate change increasingly needs to be factored in to these, and thus there is a need to identify the extent to which it could increase species vulnerability. This paper uses the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity framework to assess the vulnerability of a selection of WWF global priority large mammals and marine species to climate change. However, it divides adaptive capacity into adaptive capability and adaptation opportunity, in order to identify whether adaptation is more constrained by the biology of the species or by its environmental setting. Lack of evidence makes it difficult to apply the framework consistently across the species, but it was found that, particularly for the terrestrial mammals, adaptation opportunities seems to be the greater constraint. This framework and analysis could be used by conservationists and those wishing to enhance the resilience of species to climate change. PMID:24833051

Berry, Pam; Ogawa-Onishi, Yuko; McVey, Andrew

2013-01-01

393

Vulnerability of settlements around Mt. Cameroon volcano, Cameroon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Located at the bottom of the Gulf of Guinea, Cameroon is exposed to a large variety of natural hazards, including volcanism. Most of the hazard are concentrated around the active volcano Mt. Cameroon which combines effusive and explosive types of activity. The threatened stakes are numerous and different exposed: people, settlements, industrial plantations, petrol refinery and many other factories and infrastructures. Until 2005, no risk management plans has been available. In 2006, the French Embassy in Cameroon, within the framework of a financial convention between Cameroon and France, put in place the GRINP (Management of Natural Risks and Civil Protection) project whose objective was to reinforce the capacity of Cameroon's civil protection department and thus, contribute to the improvement of the security of the population faced with catastrophes. The objective was to realize a Risk Prevention Plan at a local council scale, and taking into consideration the specific natural risks of each zone. The general objective of the RPP was to clearly draw land use maps for risks zones, showing the overlay of stakes with risk of different intensities. In 2008 European Commission funded the Mia-Vita project (Mitigating and Assessing Volcanic Impacts on Terrain and human Activities). The aim of the project is to improve the crisis management capabilities based on monitoring and early warning systems and secure communications; reduction of people's vulnerability and development of recovering capabilities after an event occurs for both local communities and ecological systems. Keyword: natural hazards, Mt. Cameroon, vulnerability, risk prevention plan

Zogning, Appolinaire; Spinetti, Claudia; Ngouanet, Chretien; Tchoudam, David; Kouokam, Emmanuel; Thierry, Pierre; Bignami, Christian; Fabrizia Buongiorno, Maria; Ilaria Pannaccione Apa, Maria

2010-05-01

394

Cognitive vulnerability in moderate, mild, and low seasonality.  

PubMed

This study examined the association between cognitive vulnerability factors and seasonality. Students (N = 88), classified based on the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire as experiencing moderate (n = 26) or mild (n = 32) seasonality, and nondepressed, low-seasonality controls (n = 30) completed explicit (i.e., dysfunctional attitudes, automatic negative thoughts, seasonal attitudes, and rumination) and implicit (i.e., implicit associations test) measures of cognitive vulnerability at one winter and one nonwinter assessment. Relative to low- and mild-seasonality participants, moderate-seasonality participants endorsed more automatic thoughts and rumination in winter and more dysfunctional attitudes across both seasons. Moderate- and mild-seasonality participants endorsed more maladaptive seasonal attitudes than did low-seasonality participants. All groups demonstrated increased dysfunctional attitudes, automatic thoughts, and rumination and stronger implicit associations about light and dark during the winter. The findings support a possible cognitive mechanism of winter depression onset and/or maintenance unique to individuals with moderate, as opposed to mild, seasonality. PMID:22134455

Rohan, Kelly J; Nillni, Yael I; Mahon, Jennifer N; Roecklein, Kathryn A; Sitnikov, Lilya; Haaga, David A F

2011-12-01

395

Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 3  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 3 consists of eleven appendices containing the following: Field verification reports for Idaho National Engineering Lab., Rocky Flats Plant, Brookhaven National Lab., Los Alamos National Lab., and Sandia National Laboratories (NM); Mini-visits to small DOE sites; Working Group meeting, June 7--8, 1994; Commendable practices; Related chemical safety initiatives at DOE; Regulatory framework and industry initiatives related to chemical safety; and Chemical inventory data from field self-evaluation reports.

Not Available

1994-09-01

396

Optical coherence tomography for imaging the vulnerable plaque  

PubMed Central

While our understanding of vulnerable coronary plaque is still at an early stage, the concept that certain types of plaques predispose patients to developing an acute myocardial infarction continues to be at the forefront of cardiology research. Intracoronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been developed to both identify and study these lesions due to its distinct resolution advantage over other imaging modalities. We review clinical research conducted at the Massachusetts General Hospital over the past five years to develop, validate, and utilize this technology to improve our understanding of vulnerable plaque. Our results show that intracoronary OCT may be safely conducted in patients and that it provides abundant information regarding plaque microscopic morphology, which is essential to the identification and study of high-risk lesions. Even though many basic biological, clinical, and technological challenges must be addressed prior to widespread use of this technology, the unique capabilities of OCT ensure that it will have a prominent role in shaping the future of cardiology. PMID:16674177

Tearney, Guillermo J.; Jang, Ik-Kyung; Bouma, Brett E.

2009-01-01

397

Does inadequate sleep play a role in vulnerability to obesity?  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of obesity is increasing rapidly worldwide, which is cause for concern because obesity increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes, reduces life expectancy and impairs quality of life. A better understanding of the risk factors for obesity is therefore a critical global health concern and human biologists can play an important role in identifying these risk factors in various populations. The objective of this review is to present the evidence that inadequate sleep may be a novel risk factor associated with increased vulnerability to obesity and associated cardiometabolic disease. Experimental studies have found that short-term sleep restriction is associated with impaired glucose metabolism, dysregulation of appetite and increased blood pressure. Observational studies have observed cross-sectional associations between short sleep duration (generally <6 hours per night) and increased body mass index or obesity, prevalent diabetes and prevalent hypertension. Some studies also reported an association between self-reported long sleep duration (generally >8 hours per night) and cardiometabolic disease. A few prospective studies have found a significant increased risk of weight gain, incident diabetes and incident hypertension associated with inadequate sleep. Given the potential link between inadequate sleep and obesity, a critical next step is to identify the social, cultural and environmental determinants of sleep, which would help to identify vulnerable populations. Future human biology research should consider variation in sleep characteristics among different populations and determine whether the associations between sleep and obesity observed in Western populations persist elsewhere. PMID:22275135

Knutson, Kristen L.

2011-01-01

398

Integrated Care of Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Ekondo Titi and Isangele Health Areas of Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

For orphans and vulnerable children in Cameroon, HIV\\/AIDS impacts child survival, growth, and development. The objective of this study was to identify and census orphans and vulnerable children and determine their medical, educational, nutritional, housing, employment, and legal needs. A participative approach involving public and traditional authorities consisted of a door-to-door search of orphans and vulnerable children from village to

Dickson Shey Nsagha; Rosetta Bola Thompson

2011-01-01

399

Energy Sector Vulnerability to Climate Change: Adaptation Options to Increase Resilience (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy is conducting an assessment of vulnerabilities of the U.S. energy sector to climate change and extreme weather. Emphasizing peer reviewed research, it seeks to quantify vulnerabilities and identify specific knowledge or technology gaps. It draws upon a July 2012 workshop, ?Climate Change and Extreme Weather Vulnerability Assessment of the US Energy Sector?, hosted by the Atlantic Council and sponsored by DOE to solicit industry input.

Newmark, R. L.; Bilello, D.; Macknick, J.; Hallet, K. C.; Anderson, R.; Tidwell, V.; Zamuda, C.

2013-02-01

400

The Value of Validated Vulnerability Data for Conservation Planning in Rapidly Changing Landscapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data needed for informed conservation prioritization are generally greater than the data available, and surrogates are often used. Although the need to anticipate threats is recognized, the effectiveness of surrogates for predicting habitat loss (or vulnerability) to land-use change is seldom tested. Here, we compared properties of two different vulnerability surrogates to validated vulnerability—validated prediction of habitat conversion based on a recent assessment of land-use change. We found that neither surrogate was a particularly effective predictor of vulnerability. Importantly, both surrogates performed poorly in places most imminently threatened with habitat conversion. We also show that the majority of areas protected over the last two decades have low vulnerability to the most active threatening process in this biome (habitat conversion). The contrary patterns of vulnerability and protection suggest that use of validated vulnerability would help to clarify protection needs, which might lead to the improvement of conservation decisions. Our study suggests the integration of validated vulnerability into conservation planning tools may be an important requirement for effective conservation planning in rapidly changing landscapes. We apply our results to discuss the practical considerations and potential value of incorporating validated vulnerability into conservation planning tools both generally and in the context of New Zealand's indigenous grasslands.

Weeks, Emily Sherra; Walker, Susan; Overton, Jake McC; Clarkson, Bruce

2013-05-01

401

AVQS: Attack Route-Based Vulnerability Quantification Scheme for Smart Grid  

PubMed Central

A smart grid is a large, consolidated electrical grid system that includes heterogeneous networks and systems. Based on the data, a smart grid system has a potential security threat in its network connectivity. To solve this problem, we develop and apply a novel scheme to measure the vulnerability in a smart grid domain. Vulnerability quantification can be the first step in security analysis because it can help prioritize the security problems. However, existing vulnerability quantification schemes are not suitable for smart grid because they do not consider network vulnerabilities. We propose a novel attack route-based vulnerability quantification scheme using a network vulnerability score and an end-to-end security score, depending on the specific smart grid network environment to calculate the vulnerability score for a particular attack route. To evaluate the proposed approach, we derive several attack scenarios from the advanced metering infrastructure domain. The experimental results of the proposed approach and the existing common vulnerability scoring system clearly show that we need to consider network connectivity for more optimized vulnerability quantification. PMID:25152923

Lim, Hyunwoo; Lee, Seokjun; Shon, Taeshik

2014-01-01

402

A comparative study of four vulnerability mapping methods in a detritic aquifer under mediterranean climatic conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of a comparative study relating to the application of four vulnerability mapping methods, GOD, AVI, DRASTIC and SINTACS, in a pilot detritic aquifer situated in NW Morocco, known as the Martil-Alila aquifer. The principal objective of this work is to determine the most suitable such methods for this aquifer type within a Mediterranean context, and to show the effect of the rainfall variations that are characteristic of the Mediterranean climate on the degree of vulnerability. The methods applied distinguish five classes of vulnerability, these being irregularly divided up in space, with the division varying according to the method in question. The vulnerability maps obtained by the different methods strongly suggest that the eastern half of the aquifer is more vulnerable to contamination than the western half, for all hydrological situations. The effect of climatic conditions on the degree of vulnerability is well represented by the DRASTIC, according to which the aquifer is moderately to strongly vulnerable during humid hydrological years and weakly to moderately vulnerable during dry ones. For the other methods, this climatic effect is limited to the area occupied by the two predominant classes (“High” and “Low” for GOD and “High” and “Moderate” for SINTACS) while it is null for AVI. In conclusion, DRASTIC appears the most suitable for mapping the vulnerability to contamination of Mediterranean coastal detritic aquifers such as the Martil-Alila aquifer.

Draoui, M.; Vias, J.; Andreo, B.; Targuisti, K.; Stitou El Messari, J.

2008-04-01

403

Stochastic landslide vulnerability modeling in space and time in a part of the northern Himalayas, India.  

PubMed

Little is known about the quantitative vulnerability analysis to landslides as not many attempts have been made to assess it comprehensively. This study assesses the spatio-temporal vulnerability of elements at risk to landslides in a stochastic framework. The study includes buildings, persons inside buildings, and traffic as elements at risk to landslides. Building vulnerability is the expected damage and depends on the position of a building with respect to the landslide hazard at a given time. Population and vehicle vulnerability are the expected death toll in a building and vehicle damage in space and time respectively. The study was carried out in a road corridor in the Indian Himalayas that is highly susceptible to landslides. Results showed that 26% of the buildings fall in the high and very high vulnerability categories. Population vulnerability inside buildings showed a value >0.75 during 0800 to 1000 hours and 1600 to 1800 hours in more buildings that other times of the day. It was also observed in the study region that the vulnerability of vehicle is above 0.6 in half of the road stretches during 0800 hours to 1000 hours and 1600 to 1800 hours due to high traffic density on the road section. From this study, we conclude that the vulnerability of an element at risk to landslide is a space and time event, and can be quantified using stochastic modeling. Therefore, the stochastic vulnerability modeling forms the basis for a quantitative landslide risk analysis and assessment. PMID:20809386

Das, Iswar; Kumar, Gaurav; Stein, Alfred; Bagchi, Arunabha; Dadhwal, Vinay K

2011-07-01

404

Drought vulnerability assessment: The case of wheat farmers in Western Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drought, as a natural and slow-onset phenomenon, creates numerous damages to agricultural communities. As a drought prone area in the Middle East, Iran has currently launched a crisis management approach to mitigate the harmful impacts of drought. However, thus far studies indicate that effective drought management strategies should be designed based upon vulnerability management which can increase farmers' ability to challenge the impacts. The purpose of this study was to assess drought vulnerability across three drought intensities (very high, extremely high, and critical) areas in Western Iran. Accordingly, a survey study was applied and 370 wheat farmers who all experienced drought during 2007-2009 were selected through a multi-stage stratified random sampling method. Face to face interviews were used to collect data on vulnerability indices from the farmers. Me-Bar and Valdez's vulnerability formula was applied to assess the vulnerability of wheat farmers during drought. Results revealed that the farmers' vulnerability is influenced mainly by economic, socio-cultural, psychological, technical, and infrastructural factors. The results also indicated that the farmers in Sarpole-Zahab township were most vulnerable compared to those in the Kermanshah township as the least vulnerable. Accordingly, some conclusions and recommendations are drawn for both policy-makers and practitioners who often must prioritize limited resources in the design vulnerability-reducing interventions.

Zarafshani, Kiumars; Sharafi, Lida; Azadi, Hossein; Hosseininia, Gholamhossein; De Maeyer, Philippe; Witlox, Frank

2012-12-01

405

AIDS orphans and vulnerable children in India: problems, prospects, and concerns.  

PubMed

This article reviews and discusses the problems, responses, and concerns of orphans and vulnerable children in India. The article shows that HIV/AIDS programs and interventions are vital for survival and welfare of orphan and vulnerable children, but they have reached only to a small fraction of the most vulnerable children. The article suggests a number of measures that government and civil society could take to address the problems and emphasizes the need to learn from other countries' experience and initiatives in developing appropriate policy and programmes for orphan and vulnerable children. PMID:22486426

Kumar, Anant

2012-01-01

406

Depression Vulnerability Predicts Cigarette Smoking among College Students: Gender and Negative Reinforcement Expectancies as Contributing Factors  

PubMed Central

This study examined the association between vulnerability to depression and smoking behavior in college students in 1214 college students (54% female), and evaluated gender and expectancies of negative affect reduction as moderators or mediators of this relationship. Depression vulnerability predicted smoking in females, but not males. The relationship between depression vulnerability and smoking status was mediated by expectancies of negative affect reduction in females only. Female college students who are vulnerable to depression may smoke because they expect smoking to relieve negative affect. Smoking interventions for college females may increase in effectiveness by targeting depression and emphasizing mood regulation. PMID:20181432

Morrell, Holly E. R.; Cohen, Lee M.; McChargue, Dennis E.

2010-01-01

407

Effect of beta on Seismic Vulnerability Curve for RC Bridge Based on Double Damage Criterion  

SciTech Connect

In the analysis of seismic vulnerability curve based on double damage criterion, the randomness of structural parameter and randomness of seismic should be considered. Firstly, the distribution characteristics of structure capability and seismic demand are obtained based on IDA and PUSHOVER, secondly, the vulnerability of the bridge is gained based on ANN and MC and a vulnerability curve according to this bridge and seismic is drawn. Finally, the analysis for a continuous bridge is displayed as an example, and parametric analysis for the effect of beta is done, which reflects the bridge vulnerability overall from the point of total probability, and in order to reduce the discreteness, large value of beta are suggested.

Feng Qinghai [CCCC Highway, CO., Ltd. (China); Yuan Wancheng [Bridge Department, Tongji University, Shanghai (China)

2010-05-21

408

THEORY AND PRACTICE IN ASSESSING VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND FACILITATING ADAPTATION  

E-print Network

communities: poverty reduction; risk-spreading through income diversification; respecting common property the underlying causes of social vulnerability, including the inequitable distribution of resources. 1

Kelly, Mick

409

Assessing ecosystem vulnerability to invasive rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus).  

PubMed

Despite the widespread introduction of nonnative species and the heterogeneity of ecosystems in their sensitivity to ecological impacts, few studies have assessed ecosystem vulnerability to the entire invasion process, from arrival to establishment and impacts. Our study addresses this challenge by presenting a probabilistic, spatially explicit approach to predicting ecosystem vulnerability to species invasions. Using the freshwater-rich landscapes of Wisconsin, USA, we model invasive rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) as a function of exposure risk (i.e., likelihood of introduction and establishment of O. rusticus based on a species distribution model) and the sensitivity of the recipient community (i.e., likelihood of impacts on native O. virilis and O. propinquus based on a retrospective analysis of population changes). Artificial neural networks predicted that approximately 10% of 4200 surveyed lakes (n = 388) and approximately 25% of mapped streams (23 523 km total length) are suitable for O. rusticus introduction and establishment. A comparison of repeated surveys before vs. post-1985 revealed that O. virilis was six times as likely and O. propinquus was twice as likely to be extirpated in streams invaded by O. rusticus, compared to streams that were not invaded. Similarly, O. virilis was extirpated in over three-quarters of lakes invaded by O. rusticus compared to half of the uninvaded lakes, whereas no difference was observed for O. propinquus. We identified 115 lakes (approximately 3% of lakes) and approximately 5000 km of streams (approximately 6% of streams) with a 25% chance of introduction, establishment, and extirpation by O. rusticus of either native congener. By identifying highly vulnerable ecosystems, our study offers an effective strategy for prioritizing on-the-ground management action and informing decisions about the most efficient allocation of resources. Moreover, our results provide the flexibility for stakeholders to identify priority sites for prevention efforts given a maximum level of acceptable risk or based on budgetary or time restrictions. To this end, we incorporate the model predictions into a new online mapping tool with the intention of closing the communication gap between academic research and stakeholders that requires information on the prospects of future invasions. PMID:22073646

Olden, Julian D; Vander Zanden, M Jake; Johnson, Pieter T J

2011-10-01

410

Climate change and Public health: vulnerability, impacts, and adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate Change plays a significant role in public health. Changes in climate affect weather conditions that we are accustomed to. Increases in the frequency or severity of extreme weather events such as storms could increase the risk of dangerous flooding, high winds, and other direct threats to people and property. Changes in temperature, precipitation patterns, and extreme events could enhance the spread of some diseases. According to studies by EPA, the impacts of climate change on health will depend on many factors. These factors include the effectiveness of a community's public health and safety systems to address or prepare for the risk and the behavior, age, gender, and economic status of individuals affected. Impacts will likely vary by region, the sensitivity of populations, the extent and length of exposure to climate change impacts, and society's ability to adapt to change. Transmissions of infectious disease have been associated with social, economic, ecological, health care access, and climatic factors. Some vector-borne diseases typically exhibit seasonal patterns in which the role of temperature and rainfall is well documented. Some of the infectious diseases that have been documented by previous studies, include the correlation between rainfall and drought in the occurrence of malaria, the influence of the dry season on epidemic meningococcal disease in the sub-Saharan African, and the importance of warm ocean waters in driving cholera occurrence in the Ganges River delta in Asia The rise of climate change has been a major concern in the public health sector. Climate change mainly affects vulnerable populations especially in developing countries; therefore, it's important that public health advocates are involve in the decision-making process in order to provide resources and preventative measures for the challenges that are associated with climate change. The main objective of this study is to assess the vulnerability and impact of climate change on public health and identify appropriate adaptation strategies. Several studies have evaluated the impact of climate change on health, which have included evaluating the current associations between the recent changes in climate, and the evidence base analysis of current, as well as projecting the future impacts of climate change on health. This study will document the use of building an integrated approach for sustainable management of climate, environmental, health surveillance and epidemiological data that will support the assessment of vulnerability, impact and adaption to climate change.

Guzzone, F.; Setegn, S.

2013-12-01

411

Spatial-explicit modeling of social vulnerability to malaria in East Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Despite efforts in eradication and control, malaria remains a global challenge, particularly affecting vulnerable groups. Despite the recession in malaria cases, previously malaria free areas are increasingly confronted with epidemics as a result of changing environmental and socioeconomic conditions. Next to modeling transmission intensities and probabilities, integrated spatial methods targeting the complex interplay of factors that contribute to social vulnerability are required to effectively reduce malaria burden. We propose an integrative method for mapping relative levels of social vulnerability in a spatially explicit manner to support the identification of intervention measures. Methods Based on a literature review, a holistic risk and vulnerability framework has been developed to guide the assessment of social vulnerability to water-related vector-borne diseases (VBDs) in the context of changing environmental and societal conditions. Building on the framework, this paper applies spatially explicit modeling for delineating homogeneous regions of social vulnerability to malaria in eastern Africa, while taking into account expert knowledge for weighting the single vulnerability indicators. To assess the influence of the selected indicators on the final index a local sensitivity analysis is carried out. Results Results indicate that high levels of malaria vulnerability are concentrated in the highlands, where immunity within the population is currently low. Additionally, regions with a lack of access to education and health services aggravate vulnerability. Lower values can be found in regions with relatively low poverty, low population pressure, low conflict density and reduced contributions from the biological susceptibility domain. Overall, the factors characterizing vulnerability vary spatially in the region. The vulnerability index reveals a high level of robustness in regard to the final choice of input datasets, with the exception of the immunity indicator which has a marked impact on the composite vulnerability index. Conclusions We introduce a conceptual framework for modeling risk and vulnerability to VBDs. Drawing on the framework we modeled social vulnerability to malaria in the context of global change using a spatially explicit approach. The results provide decision makers with place-specific options for targeting interventions that aim at reducing the burden of the disease amongst the different vulnerable population groups. PMID:25127688

2014-01-01

412

Climate Change Vulnerability of Native and Alien Freshwater Fishes of California: A Systematic Assessment Approach  

PubMed Central

Freshwater fishes are highly vulnerable to human-caused climate change. Because quantitative data on status and trends are unavailable for most fish species, a systematic assessment approach that incorporates expert knowledge was developed to determine status and future vulnerability to climate change of freshwater fishes in California, USA. The method uses expert knowledge, supported by literature reviews of status and biology of the fishes, to score ten metrics for both (1) current status of each species (baseline vulnerability to extinction) and (2) likely future impacts of climate change (vulnerability to extinction). Baseline and climate change vulnerability scores were derived for 121 native and 43 alien fish species. The two scores were highly correlated and were concordant among different scorers. Native species had both greater baseline and greater climate change vulnerability than did alien species. Fifty percent of California’s native fish fauna was assessed as having critical or high baseline vulnerability to extinction whereas all alien species were classified as being less or least vulnerable. For vulnerability to climate change, 82% of native species were classified as highly vulnerable, compared with only 19% for aliens. Predicted climate change effects on freshwater environments will dramatically change the fish fauna of California. Most native fishes will suffer population declines and become more restricted in their distributions; some will likely be driven to extinction. Fishes requiring cold water (<22°C) are particularly likely to go extinct. In contrast, most alien fishes will thrive, with some species increasing in abundance and range. However, a few alien species will likewise be negatively affected through loss of aquatic habitats during severe droughts and physiologically stressful conditions present in most waterways during summer. Our method has high utility for predicting vulnerability to climate change of diverse fish species. It should be useful for setting conservation priorities in many different regions. PMID:23717503

Moyle, Peter B.; Kiernan, Joseph D.; Crain, Patrick K.; Quiñones, Rebecca M.

2013-01-01

413

Spatial Analysis of the Vulnerability Assessment to Meteorological Hazards in Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As climate change progresses, the amount of damages and the number of casualties are expected to increase due to the increment of the number and intensity of natural disasters. Numerous governments have already tried to reduce adverse impacts of increased natural disasters by recognizing susceptible regions to disasters. However, too many variables are associated, making it difficult to find appropriate index. In this study, vulnerable areas are investigated with four main factors (demographic, socioeconomic, climatological and geographic, and technological factors). Each factor represents distinct spatial patterns and some regions present low vulnerability values (demographic factor: south-west regions, climatological and geographic factor: south-east, north-east, west coast, socioeconomic and technological factor: south-west, north-east). Especially, demographic and climatological and geographic factors represent high spatial autocorrelation, meaning a spatial imbalanced economic ability and development state. Extracted vulnerability index has strong correlation with the amount of damages per person (r = -0.607, 1-p = 0.999). Based on these results, we can assume that customized policies and strategies are highly required for each region to improve vulnerability, and extracted vulnerability index could provide a reliable representative index for assessing vulnerability. Fig.1. Spatial distribution of each 4 factor. Darker color means low vulnerability and brighter color means high vulnerability. Each region has their own values except for technological factors. Fig.2. Total vulnerability is represented in the left figure and total vulnerability except for technological factors is presented in the right side. Most of vulnerability values are between -0.5 and 0.5.

Jung, J.; Lee, J.; Kim, I.; Park, K.; Shin, J.; Kim, B.

2013-12-01

414

Tittel: What's in a word? Conflicting interpretations of vulnerability in climate change research Title: What's in a word? Conflicting interpretations of vulnerability in climate change research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we discuss two competing interpretations of vulnerability in the climate change literature and consider the implications for both research and policy. The first interpretation, which can

Karen O' Brien; Siri Eriksen; Ane Schjolden; Lynn P. Nygaard; Karen O'Brien; Knut Alfsen

415

Vulnerability of Bread-Baskets to Weather Shocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many analyses of food security consider broad trends in food supply (crop production, crop use) and demand (changing diets, population growth.) However, if past shocks to the food system due to weather events (i.e. droughts) were to repeat themselves today, the resulting famines could be far more serious due to increased concentration of grain production in vulnerable bread-baskets, and decreased resilience of global and regional food systems (i.e. lower stocks, dependence on fewer crops). The present research project takes advantage of high-resolution historical weather datasets to assess probabilities of historically observed droughts repeating themselves in one or more of today's bread-basket regions. Using recently developed relationships between weather and crop yield, we consider the likelihood of region-wide crop failures under current conditions, and also under various climate scenarios.

Gerber, J. S.; Ray, D. K.; West, P. C.; Foley, J. A.

2013-12-01

416

The efficacy of primary care for vulnerable population groups.  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the existing literature on the efficacy of primary care with an emphasis on the evaluation of primary care for vulnerable populations: groups whose demographic, geographic, or economic characteristics impede or prevent their access to health care services. A significant portion of the literature derives from studies of poor and underserved populations. However, to construct a more complete evaluation of primary care services, the authors cite literature that has examined both advantaged and disadvantaged populations. Even then the literature is incomplete, at best. The article describes a definition of primary care suitable for policy analysis and formulation, reviews evidence on the efficacy of care that meets that definition, and concludes that widespread use of primary care services is likely to result in improved patient satisfaction and health status. PMID:7721596

Blumenthal, D; Mort, E; Edwards, J

1995-01-01

417

Epigenetics and the regulation of stress vulnerability and resilience.  

PubMed

The human brain has a remarkable capacity to adapt to and learn from a wide range of variations in the environment. However, environmental challenges can also precipitate psychiatric disorders in susceptible individuals. Why any given experience should induce one brain to adapt while another is edged toward psychopathology remains poorly understood. Like all aspects of psychological function, both nature (genetics) and nurture (life experience) sculpt the brain's response to stressful stimuli. Here we review how these two influences intersect at the epigenetic regulation of neuronal gene transcription, and we discuss how the regulation of genomic DNA methylation near key stress-response genes may influence psychological susceptibility or resilience to environmental stressors. Our goal is to offer a perspective on the epigenetics of stress responses that works to bridge the gap between the study of this molecular process in animal models and its potential usefulness for understanding stress vulnerabilities in humans. PMID:24333971

Zannas, A S; West, A E

2014-04-01

418

Calcium, cellular aging, and selective neuronal vulnerability in Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease in developed countries. The core motor symptoms are attributable to the degeneration of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Why these neurons, and other restricted sets of non-dopamine neuron, succumb in PD is not clear. One potential clue has come from the observation that the engagement of L-type Ca2+ channels during autonomous pacemaking elevates the sensitivity of SNc DA neurons to mitochondrial toxins used to create animal models of PD, suggesting that Ca2+ entry is a factor in their selective vulnerability. Epidemiological data also supports a linkage between L-type Ca2+ channels and the risk of developing PD. This review examines the hypothesis that the primary factor driving neurodegenerative changes in PD is the metabolic stress created by sustained Ca2+ entry, particularly in the face of genetic or environmental factors that compromise oxidative defenses or proteostatic competence. PMID:20053445

Surmeier, D. James; Guzman, Jaime N.; Sanchez-Padilla, Javier

2011-01-01

419

Assessing Vulnerabilities, Risks, and Consequences of Damage to Critical Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

Since the publication of 'Critical Foundations: Protecting America's Infrastructure,' there has been a keen understanding of the complexity, interdependencies, and shared responsibility required to protect the nation's most critical assets that are essential to our way of life. The original 5 sectors defined in 1997 have grown to 18 Critical Infrastructures and Key Resources (CIKR), which are discussed in the 2009 National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) and its supporting sector-specific plans. The NIPP provides the structure for a national program dedicated to enhanced protection and resiliency of the nation's infrastructure. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provides in-depth, multi-disciplinary assessments of threat, vulnerability, and consequence across all 18 sectors at scales ranging from specific facilities to infrastructures spanning multi-state regions, such as the Oil and Natural Gas (ONG) sector. Like many of the CIKR sectors, the ONG sector is comprised of production, processing, distribution, and storage of highly valuable and potentially dangerous commodities. Furthermore, there are significant interdependencies with other sectors, including transportation, communication, finance, and government. Understanding the potentially devastating consequences and collateral damage resulting from a terrorist attack or natural event is an important element of LLNL's infrastructure security programs. Our work began in the energy sector in the late 1990s and quickly expanded other critical infrastructure sectors. We have performed over 600 physical assessments with a particular emphasis on those sectors that utilize, store, or ship potentially hazardous materials and for whom cyber security is important. The success of our approach is based on building awareness of vulnerabilities and risks and working directly with industry partners to collectively advance infrastructure protection. This approach consists of three phases: The Pre-Assessment Phase brings together infrastructure owners and operators to identify critical assets and help the team create a structured information request. During this phase, we gain information about the critical assets from those who are most familiar with operations and interdependencies, making the time we spend on the ground conducting the assessment much more productive and enabling the team to make actionable recommendations. The Assessment Phase analyzes 10 areas: Threat environment, cyber architecture, cyber penetration, physical security, physical penetration, operations security, policies and procedures, interdependencies, consequence analysis, and risk characterization. Each of these individual tasks uses direct and indirect data collection, site inspections, and structured and facilitated workshops to gather data. Because of the importance of understanding the cyber threat, LLNL has built both fixed and mobile cyber penetration, wireless penetration and supporting tools that can be tailored to fit customer needs. The Post-Assessment Phase brings vulnerability and risk assessments to the customer in a format that facilitates implementation of mitigation options. Often the assessment findings and recommendations are briefed and discussed with several levels of management and, if appropriate, across jurisdictional boundaries. The end result is enhanced awareness and informed protective measures. Over the last 15 years, we have continued to refine our methodology and capture lessons learned and best practices. The resulting risk and decision framework thus takes into consideration real-world constraints, including regulatory, operational, and economic realities. In addition to 'on the ground' assessments focused on mitigating vulnerabilities, we have integrated our computational and atmospheric dispersion capability with easy-to-use geo-referenced visualization tools to support emergency planning and response operations. LLNL is home to the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) and the Interagency Modeling and Atmospheric Assessment Center (IMAAC). NA

Suski, N; Wuest, C

2011-02-04

420

Root tips moving through soil: an intrinsic vulnerability.  

PubMed

Root elongation occurs by the generation of new cells from meristematic tissue within the apical 1-2 mm region of root tips. Therefore penetration of the soil environment is carried out by newly synthesized plant tissue, whose cells are inherently vulnerable to invasion by pathogens. This conundrum, on its face, would seem to reflect an intolerable risk to the successful establishment of root systems needed for plant life. Yet root tip regions housing the meristematic tissues repeatedly have been found to be free of microbial infection and colonization. Even when spore germination, chemotaxis, and/or growth of pathogens are stimulated by signals from the root tip, the underlying root tissue can escape invasion. Recent insights into the functions of root border cells, and the regulation of their production by transient exposure to external signals, may shed light on long-standing observations.  PMID:21455030

Curlango-Rivera, Gilberto; Hawes, Martha C

2011-05-01

421

Vulnerabilities of fingerprint reader to fake fingerprints attacks.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research is to assess the vulnerabilities of a high resolution fingerprint sensor when confronted with fake fingerprints. The study has not been focused on the decision outcome of the biometric device, but essentially on the scores obtained following the comparison between a query (genuine or fake) and a template using an AFIS system. To do this, fake fingerprints of 12 subjects have been produced with and without their cooperation. These fake fingerprints have been used alongside with real fingers. The study led to three major observations: First, genuine fingerprints produced scores higher than fake fingers (translating a closer proximity) and this tendency is observed considering each subject separately. Second, scores are however not sufficient as a single measure to differentiate these samples (fake from genuine) given the variation due to the donors themselves. That explains why fingerprint readers without vitality detection can be fooled. Third, production methods and subjects greatly influence the scores obtained for fake fingerprints. PMID:21216360

Espinoza, Marcela; Champod, Christophe; Margot, Pierre

2011-01-30

422

Sexual and reproductive health needs of vulnerable youth in Myanmar.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional survey of 56 youth, using participatory research methods, was conducted with the objective to identify the sexual and reproductive health needs among vulnerable youth in Pyin Oo Lwin town in terms of their livelihoods, perceptions about health and health risks, sex practices, perceived health information needs and preferred channels for health information, and visions for their future generation. The results indicated that a majority of young people of both sexes were deficient in knowledge of the locations and functions of reproductive organs. The majority of respondents of both sexes said that their main health concern was AIDS. Pre-marital sex among youth, 16-20 years of age, was identified in our study. Malaria and AIDS were mentioned as information needed by young people. TV and magazines/journals were prioritized as preferred channels of disseminating health messages. Almost all reported that education was the one thing that they wanted for their own children. PMID:19062705

Hla-Soe-Tint; Phyo-Maung-Thaw; Yin-Thet-Nu-Oo; Ko-Ko-Zaw; Than-Tun-Sein; Thein-Tun

2008-11-01

423

FROM SELECTIVE VULNERABILITY TO CONNECTIVITY: INSIGHTS FROM NEWBORN BRAIN IMAGING  

PubMed Central

The ability to image the newborn brain during development has provided new information regarding the effects of injury on brain development at different vulnerable time periods. Studies in animal models of brain injury correlate beautifully with what is now observed in the human newborn. We now know that injury at term results in a predilection for gray matter injury while injury in the premature brain results in a white matter predominant pattern although recent evidence suggests a blurring of this distinction. These injuries affect how the brain matures subsequently and again, imaging has led to new insights that allow us to match function and structure. This review will focus on these patterns of injury that are so critically determined by age at insult. In addition, this review will highlight how the brain responds to these insults with changes in connectivity that have profound functional consequences. PMID:19712981

Miller, Steven P.; Ferriero, Donna M

2009-01-01

424

Using Remotely Sensed Data to Map Urban Vulnerability to Heat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation defines remote sensing, and presents examples of remote sensing and astronaut photography, which has been a part of many space missions. The presentation then reviews the project aimed at analyzing urban vulnerability to climate change, which is to test the hypotheses that Exposure to excessively warm weather threatens human health in all types of climate regimes; Heat kills and sickens multitudes of people around the globe every year -- directly and indirectly, and Climate change, coupled with urban development, will impact human health. Using Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixing Analysis (MESMA), and the Phoenix urban area as the example, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is calculated, a change detection analysis is shown, and surface temperature is shown.

Stefanov, William L.

2010-01-01

425

A study of radiation vulnerability of ferroelectric material and devices  

SciTech Connect

The radiation effects on ferroelectric material and devices are presented, based on commercially available samples. After recalling the background, effects in ferroelectric PZT capacitors are presented, concerning dose, neutrons and fatigue associated with dose effects. Physical implications and interpretations are sketched. In a second stage, effects are studied at the complete non-volatile RAM device level. Vulnerability in dose, dose rate and neutron fluence of commercial 4 kbit ferroelectric RAM is addressed. 64 kbit results are mentioned in dose rate. These results are compared to previously published data from other manufacturers or laboratories and supplement them. In the appendix, equivalence between rad(Si) and rad (PZT) is discussed in the case of low energy ''10 keV Aracor'' x-rays and [sup 60]Co gamma rays.

Coiec, Y.M.; Musseau, O.; Leray, J.L. (CEA, Bruyeres-Le-Chatel (France))

1994-06-01

426

Establishing therapeutic relationships with vulnerable and potentially stigmatized clients.  

PubMed

Grounded theory was employed to elucidate how public health nurses (PHNs) develop therapeutic relationships with vulnerable and potentially stigmatized clients, specifically, single mothers living in low-income situations. We named the emerging theoretical model Targeting Essence: Pragmatic Variation of the Therapeutic Relationship, after discovering that although PHNs strove to achieve relational goals, their attention was primarily focused on the goal of ascertaining concerns foremost on the hearts and minds of mothers, and that PHNs had to accomplish these goals within short practice timeframes. The study's focused context elicited a nuanced explanation of the dynamic relationship-building process derived from subjective relationship experiences of PHNs and single mothers living in low-income situations. We believe Targeting Essence will serve as an effectual relationship-building model, enabling PHNs to know essentially what mothers want and need, and enabling mothers to know essentially that their PHN can be trusted not to render judgment. PMID:21890718

Porr, Caroline; Drummond, Jane; Olson, Karin

2012-03-01

427

Sensory and motor secondary symptoms as indicators of brain vulnerability  

PubMed Central

In addition to the primary symptoms that distinguish one disorder from the next, clinicians have identified, yet largely overlooked, another set of symptoms that appear across many disorders, termed secondary symptoms. In the emerging era of systems neuroscience, which highlights that many disorders share common deficits in global network features, the nonspecific nature of secondary symptoms should attract attention. Herein we provide a scholarly review of the literature on a subset of secondary symptoms––sensory and motor. We demonstrate that their pattern of appearance––across a wide range of psychopathologies, much before the full-blown disorder appears, and in healthy individuals who display a variety of negative symptoms––resembles the pattern of appearance of network abnormalities. We propose that sensory and motor secondary symptoms can be important indicators of underlying network aberrations and thus of vulnerable brain states putting individuals at risk for psychopathology following extreme circumstances. PMID:24063566

2013-01-01

428

Urban vulnerability and resilience within the context of climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural hazards, due to climate change, are particularly damaging in urban areas because of interdependencies of their networks. So, urban resilience has to face up to climate risks. The most impacting phenomenon is the urban heat island (UHI) effect. The storage capacity of heat is depending on shapes of buildings, public spaces, spatial organization, transport or even industrial activities. So, adaptive strategies for improving urban climate could be possible in different ways. In the framework of the French project Resilis, this study characterises urban vulnerability and resilience in terms of energy needs of buildings and outside urban comfort according to the IPCC carbon dioxide emission scenarios B2 and A2 for the period 2050-2100 for 10 French cities. The evolutions of four climate indicators in terms of heating and cooling needs and number of hours when the temperature is above 28 °C are then obtained for each city to analyse climate risks and their impacts in urban environment.

Tromeur, E.; Ménard, R.; Bailly, J.-B.; Soulié, C.

2012-05-01

429

NMDA receptor genotypes associated with the vulnerability to develop dyskinesia  

PubMed Central

Dyskinesias are involuntary muscle movements that occur spontaneously in Huntington's disease (HD) and after long-term treatments for Parkinson's disease (levodopa-induced dyskinesia; LID) or for schizophrenia (tardive dyskinesia, TD). Previous studies suggested that dyskinesias in these three conditions originate from different neuronal pathways that converge on overstimulation of the motor cortex. We hypothesized that the same variants of the N-methyl--aspartate receptor gene that were previously associated with the age of dyskinesia onset in HD were also associated with the vulnerability for TD and not LID. Genotyping patients with LID and TD revealed, however, that these two variants were dose-dependently associated with susceptibility to LID, but not TD. This suggested that LID, TD and HD might arise from the same neuronal pathways, but TD results from a different mechanism. PMID:22832729

Ivanova, S A; Loonen, A J M; Pechlivanoglou, P; Freidin, M B; Al Hadithy, A F Y; Rudikov, E V; Zhukova, I A; Govorin, N V; Sorokina, V A; Fedorenko, O Y; Alifirova, V M; Semke, A V; Brouwers, J R B J; Wilffert, B

2012-01-01

430

Evaluating Common Privacy Vulnerabilities in Internet Service Providers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Privacy in electronic communications receives increased attention in both research and industry forums, stemming from both the users' needs and from legal and regulatory requirements in national or international context. Privacy in internet-based communications heavily relies on the level of security of the Internet Service Providers (ISPs), as well as on the security awareness of the end users. This paper discusses the role of the ISP in the privacy of the communications. Based on real security audits performed in national-wide ISPs, we illustrate privacy-specific threats and vulnerabilities that many providers fail to address when implementing their security policies. We subsequently provide and discuss specific security measures that the ISPs can implement, in order to fine-tune their security policies in the context of privacy protection.

Kotzanikolaou, Panayiotis; Maniatis, Sotirios; Nikolouzou, Eugenia; Stathopoulos, Vassilios

431

Using vulnerability assessments to design facility safeguards and security systems  

SciTech Connect

The Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (WCR) Program is meant to prepare the Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex to meet the needs of the next century through construction of now facilities or upgrades-in-place at existing facilities. This paper describes how a vulnerability (VA) was used to identify potential S&S features for the conceptual design for a plutonium storage facility as part of the WCR Program. We distinguish those features of the design that need to be investigated at the conceptual stage from those that can be evaluated later. We also examined what protection features may allow reduced S&S operating costs, with the main focus on protective force costs. While some of these concepts hold the promise for significantly reducing life-cycle protective force costs, their use depends on resolving long-standing tradeoffs between S&S and safety, which are discussed in the study.

Snell, M.; Jaeger, C.

1994-08-01

432

The vulnerability of commercial aircraft avionics to carbon fibers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Avionics components commonly used in commercial aircraft were tested for vulnerability to failure when operated in an environment with a high density of graphite fibers. The components were subjected to a series of exposures to graphite fibers of different lengths. Lengths used for the tests were (in order) 1 mm, 3 mm, and 10 mm. The test procedure included subjecting the equipment to characteristic noise and shock environments. Most of the equipment was invulnerable or did not fail until extremely high average exposures were reached. The single exception was an air traffic control transponder produced in the early 1960's. It had the largest case open area through which fibers could enter and it had no coated boards.

Meyers, J. A.; Salmirs, S.

1980-01-01

433

HIV education for the deaf, a vulnerable minority.  

PubMed Central

Large numbers of deaf and hard-of-hearing people are in danger of becoming infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The deaf are particularly vulnerable because of language barriers, their unique culture, and the paucity of community services, educational programs, and general information directed to this population. The particular barriers that the deaf must face in learning about HIV protection range from inadequate schooling about human sexuality to the scarcity of locally available education programs outside the cities with high rates of HIV infection. The programs for the deaf in Houston, Los Angeles, and New York City are described as well as the array of national efforts directed to this special population. PMID:8190862

Peinkofer, J R

1994-01-01

434

Methods for measuring plant vulnerability to cavitation: a critical review.  

PubMed

Xylem cavitation resistance has profound implications for plant physiology and ecology. This process is characterized by a 'vulnerability curve' (VC) showing the variation of the percentage of cavitation as a function of xylem pressure potential. The shape of this VC varies from 'sigmoidal' to 'exponential'. This review provides a panorama of the techniques that have been used to generate such a curve. The techniques differ by (i) the way cavitation is induced (e.g. bench dehydration, centrifugation, or air injection), and (ii) the way cavitation is measured (e.g. percentage loss of conductivity (PLC) or acoustic emission), and a nomenclature is proposed based on these two methods. A survey of the literature of more than 1200 VCs was used to draw statistics on the usage of these methods and on their reliability and validity. Four methods accounted for more than 96% of all curves produced so far: bench dehydration-PLC, centrifugation-PLC, pressure sleeve-PLC, and Cavitron. How the shape of VCs varies across techniques and species xylem anatomy was also analysed. Strikingly, it was found that the vast majority of curves obtained with the reference bench dehydration-PLC method are 'sigmoidal'. 'Exponential' curves were more typical of the three other methods and were remarkably frequent for species having large xylem conduits (ring-porous), leading to a substantial overestimation of the vulnerability of cavitation for this functional group. We suspect that 'exponential' curves may reflect an open-vessel artefact and call for more precautions with the usage of the pressure sleeve and centrifugation techniques. PMID:23888067

Cochard, Hervé; Badel, Eric; Herbette, Stéphane; Delzon, Sylvain; Choat, Brendan; Jansen, Steven

2013-11-01

435

The Extinction of Dengue through Natural Vulnerability of Its Vectors  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue is the world's most important mosquito-borne viral illness. Successful future management of this disease requires an understanding of the population dynamics of the vector, especially in the context of changing climates. Our capacity to predict future dynamics is reflected in our ability to explain the significant historical changes in the distribution and abundance of the disease and its vector. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we combine daily weather records with simulation modelling techniques to explain vector (Aedes aegypti (L.)) persistence within its current and historic ranges in Australia. We show that, in regions where dengue presently occurs in Australia (the Wet Tropics region of Far North Queensland), conditions are persistently suitable for year-round adult Ae. aegypti activity and oviposition. In the historic range, however, the vector is vulnerable to periodic extinction due to the combined influence of adult activity constraints and stochastic loss of suitable oviposition sites. Conclusions/Significance These results, together with changes in water-storage behaviour by humans, can explain the observed historical range contraction of the disease vector. For these reasons, future eradication of dengue in wet tropical regions will be extremely difficult through classical mosquito control methods alone. However, control of Ae. aegypti in sub-tropical and temperate regions will be greatly facilitated by government policy regulating domestic water-storage. Exploitation of the natural vulnerabilities of dengue vectors (e.g., habitat specificity, climatic limitations) should be integrated with the emerging novel transgenic and symbiotic bacterial control techniques to develop future control and elimination strategies. PMID:21200424

Williams, Craig R.; Bader, Christie A.; Kearney, Michael R.; Ritchie, Scott A.; Russell, Richard C.

2010-01-01

436

Vulnerability Assessment, Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Measures in Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In relation to the priority tasks of the climate change measures, the Republic of Slovenia estimates that special attention needs to be devoted to the following sectors in general: - sectors that currently indicate a strong vulnerability for the current climate variability (for instance, agriculture), - sectors where the vulnerability for climate change is increased by current trends (for instance, urban development, use of space), - sectors where the adaptation time is the longest and the subsequent development changes are connected with the highest costs (for instance, use of space, infrastructural objects, forestry, urban development, building stock). Considering the views of Slovenia to the climate change problem in Europe and Slovenia, priority measures and emphasis on future adaptation to climate change, the Republic of Slovenia has especially exposed the following action areas: - sustainable and integrated management of water sources for water power production, prevention of floods, provision of water for the enrichment of low flow rates, and preservation of environmental function as well as provision of water for other needs; - sustainable management of forest ecosystems, adjusted to changes, for the provision of their environmental function as well as being a source of biomass, wood for products for the conservation of carbon, and carbon sinks; - spatial planning as one of the important preventive instruments for the adaptation to climate change through the processes of integral planning of spatial and urban development; - sustainable use and preservation of natural wealth and the preservation of biodiversity as well as ecosystem services with measures and policies that enable an enhanced resistance of ecosystems to climate change, and the role of biological diversity in integral adaptation measures; - informing and awareness on the consequences of climate change and adaptation possibilities. For years, the most endangered sectors have been agriculture and forestry; therefore, they are also the only sectors for which a national adaptation strategy was adopted.

Cegnar, T.

2010-09-01

437

Atypical antipsychotics in the EPS-vulnerable patient.  

PubMed

'Typical' antipsychotic agents can lead to a variety of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), including parkinsonism. The efficacy of a number of atypical antipsychotics in reducing psychosis without a detrimental effect on motor function has been studied in the group of patients most vulnerable to EPS, those who already have parkinsonian symptoms. Multiple open-label studies with clozapine strongly suggested that at low doses the drug was an effective antipsychotic and did not impair motor function. This was confirmed by two double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. A disadvantage of clozapine is that it can cause agranulocytosis and therefore patients require ongoing hematological monitoring. Studies with both risperidone and olanzapine have produced conflicting results, with some patients showing an overall improvement and others exhibiting severe deterioration of motor function. As with clozapine, multiple open-label studies with quetiapine have consistently demonstrated that it improves psychosis without impairing motor function. Double-blind trials are yet to be performed: however, the existing data, coupled with the lack of required blood monitoring, have led some experts to recommend quetiapine as the drug of choice for treatment of drug-induced psychosis in patients with parkinsonism. The atypical antipsychotics have also been tested in the largest group of EPS-vulnerable patients, the demented elderly. Results from a number of trials are described here. These data are more difficult to interpret as the number of variables is far greater than for the population with parkinsonism. However, the evidence to date indicates a generally low incidence of tardive dyskinesia with atypical antipsychotics. PMID:12504071

Friedman, J H

2003-01-01

438

Mapping vulnerability to multiple stressors: climate change and globalization in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing recognition in the human dimensions research community that climate change impact studies must take into account the effects of other ongoing global changes. Yet there has been no systematic methodology to study climate change vulnerability in the context of multiple stressors. Using the example of Indian agriculture, this paper presents a methodology for investigating regional vulnerability to

Karen O'Brien; Robin Leichenko; Ulka Kelkar; Henry Venema; Guro Aandahl; Heather Tompkins; Akram Javed; Suruchi Bhadwal; Stephan Barg; Lynn Nygaard; Jennifer West

439

Proximity Analysis of Vulnerable Facilities to Infrastructure Facilities Using Density Estimation: California Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public and private decision-makers continue to seek risk-based approaches to allocating funds to secure facilities that are potentially vulnerable to terrorist attacks. An important input into decisions about allocating funds for security is the density of critical infrastructure around facilities that could be potential targets of an attack. A terrorist attack on a vulnerable facility located in the vicinity of

Rae Zimmerman; Jeffrey S. Simonoff; Zvia Naphtali; Carlos E. Restrepo; Henry H. Willis

2008-01-01

440

Remitted depression studies as tests of the cognitive vulnerability hypotheses of depression onset  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations of cognitive patterns among individuals who have recovered from a depressive episode (i.e., remitted depressives) have figured importantly in evaluations of the validity of the vulnerability hypotheses of the cognitive theories of depression. However, we suggest that remitted depression studies as typically conducted and interpreted are inadequate tests of the cognitive vulnerability hypotheses of depression onset for four reasons:

Nancy Just; Lyn Y. Abramson; Lauren B. Alloy

2001-01-01

441

Cumulative Stress and Substantiated Maltreatment: The Importance of Caregiver Vulnerability and Adult Partner Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Our goal is to assess the effect of caregiver vulnerabilities, singly and in combination, on the substantiation of child abuse (physical, sexual) and neglect, while controlling for relevant background variables. We test the moderator role of adult partner violence in qualifying the relationship between caregiver vulnerabilities and…

Wekerle, Christine; Wall, Anne-Marie; Leung, Eman; Trocme, Nico

2007-01-01

442

Drought Vulnerability of Community Water Systems in northern Gila County, Arizona  

E-print Network

Drought Vulnerability of Community Water Systems in northern Gila County, Arizona Joseph S. Abraham SUMMARY An assessment of drought vulnerability was conducted for the "Rim Country" communities of Payson on the capacity of both communities to adapt to sustained precipitation deficits (i.e., drought) and increasing

Fay, Noah

443

Vulnerability of Central Neurons to Secondary Insults after In Vitro Mechanical Stretch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mild traumatic brain injuries are of major public health significance. Neurons in such injuries often survive the primary mechanical deformation only to succumb to subsequent insults. To study mechanisms of vulnerability of injured neurons to secondary insults, we used an in vitro model of sublethal mechanical stretch. Stretch enhanced the vulnerability of the neurons to excitotoxic insults, causing nuclear irregularities,

Mark Arundine; Michelle Aarts; Anthony Lau; Michael Tymianski

2004-01-01

444

Automated Detection of Client-State Manipulation Vulnerabilities ANDERS MLLER, Aarhus University  

E-print Network

by detecting weaknesses. Many vulnerabilities are related to web application code that stores references and countermeasures. Among the most popular guidelines for programming safe web applications are those in the OWASPAutomated Detection of Client-State Manipulation Vulnerabilities ANDERS MÃ?LLER, Aarhus University

Møller, Anders

445

A Prospective Test of Cognitive Vulnerability Models of Depression with Adolescent Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to provide a more rigorous prospective test of two cognitive vulnerability models of depression with longitudinal data from 496 adolescent girls. Results supported the cognitive vulnerability model in that stressors predicted future increases in depressive symptoms and onset of clinically significant major depression for…

Bohon, Cara; Stice, Eric; Burton, Emily; Fudell, Molly; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

2008-01-01

446

Canopy sensors to match N rate to crop need and reduce the pool of vulnerable nitrate  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nitrate in soil after harvest represents the most vulnerable pool of N for transfer to surface waters and eventually the Gulf of Mexico. Applying precisely as much N fertilizer as the crop needs reduces the pool of vulnerable post-harvest soil nitrate. Achieving this precision requires intensive dia...

447

Vulnerability Analysis of the Brazilian Payment System Dimitri do B. DeFigueiredo  

E-print Network

of the new Brazilian Payment System. No worrying vulnerabilities were found, but there are some issues infrastructure was required. From a technical point of view, the new Brazilian Payment System (SPB) consistsVulnerability Analysis of the Brazilian Payment System Dimitri do B. DeFigueiredo defigueiredo

California at Davis, University of

448

Reconciling Belief and Vulnerability in Information Sardaouna Hamadou and Vladimiro Sassone  

E-print Network

--Belief and vulnerability have been proposed recently to quantify information flow in security systems. Both concepts stand with (potentially inaccurate) attackers' extra knowledge. To this end we propose a new metric based on vulnerability communication, auction, payment and voting. Many protocols for protecting confidential information have been

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

449

Geospatial analysis of vulnerable beach-foredune systems from decadal time series of lidar data  

E-print Network

Geospatial analysis of vulnerable beach-foredune systems from decadal time series of lidar data, Geospatial analysis of vulnerable beach- foredune systems from decadal time series of lidar data, Journal islands and their beach and dune systems. GIS- based per grid cell statistics and map algebra was applied

Mitasova, Helena