Science.gov

Sample records for placa vulnerable solitaria

  1. Vulnerability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taback, I.

    1979-01-01

    The discussion of vulnerability begins with a description of some of the electrical characteristics of fibers before definiting how vulnerability calculations are done. The vulnerability results secured to date are presented. The discussion touches on post exposure vulnerability. After a description of some shock hazard work now underway, the discussion leads into a description of the planned effort and some preliminary conclusions are presented.

  2. Vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Thiago; Garrafa, Volnei

    2016-04-01

    Collating the concepts of vulnerability through five regional perspectives on bioethics from the United States, Europe, Latin America, Africa, and Asia, this article proposes a means of integration between the different approaches in order to seek a theoretical and normative basis for the field of global bioethics. It argues that only through opening continuous, critical, and self-critical dialogue within the international bioethical community will it be possible to achieve a sufficiently global understanding of vulnerability that is capable of identifying the means needed for addressing the conditions that leave certain groups and individuals more susceptible to "wounding" than others. PMID:26957445

  3. "Candidatus Fokinia solitaria", a Novel "Stand-Alone" Symbiotic Lineage of Midichloriaceae (Rickettsiales).

    PubMed

    Szokoli, Franziska; Sabaneyeva, Elena; Castelli, Michele; Krenek, Sascha; Schrallhammer, Martina; Soares, Carlos A G; da Silva-Neto, Inacio D; Berendonk, Thomas U; Petroni, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the family Midichloriaceae has been described within the bacterial order Rickettsiales. It includes a variety of bacterial endosymbionts detected in different metazoan host species belonging to Placozoa, Cnidaria, Arthropoda and Vertebrata. Representatives of Midichloriaceae are also considered possible etiological agents of certain animal diseases. Midichloriaceae have been found also in protists like ciliates and amoebae. The present work describes a new bacterial endosymbiont, "Candidatus Fokinia solitaria", retrieved from three different strains of a novel Paramecium species isolated from a wastewater treatment plant in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Symbionts were characterized through the full-cycle rRNA approach: SSU rRNA gene sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with three species-specific oligonucleotide probes. In electron micrographs, the tiny rod-shaped endosymbionts (1.2 x 0.25-0.35 μm in size) were not surrounded by a symbiontophorous vacuole and were located in the peripheral host cytoplasm, stratified in the host cortex in between the trichocysts or just below them. Frequently, they occurred inside autolysosomes. Phylogenetic analyses of Midichloriaceae apparently show different evolutionary pathways within the family. Some genera, such as "Ca. Midichloria" and "Ca. Lariskella", have been retrieved frequently and independently in different hosts and environmental surveys. On the contrary, others, such as Lyticum, "Ca. Anadelfobacter", "Ca. Defluviella" and the presently described "Ca. Fokinia solitaria", have been found only occasionally and associated to specific host species. These last are the only representatives in their own branches thus far. Present data do not allow to infer whether these genera, which we named "stand-alone lineages", are an indication of poorly sampled organisms, thus underrepresented in GenBank, or represent fast evolving, highly adapted evolutionary lineages. PMID:26731731

  4. Archivo de placas astrométricas del Observatorio de La Plata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Sisto, R.; Orellana, R. B.

    Se ha realizado una base de datos con las placas fotográficas obtenidas con el Astrográfico del Observatorio de La Plata. Se han clasificado un total de 3000 placas obtenidas para asteroides y cometas. El acceso a la base de datos se hará por FTP y la misma contendrá la siguiente información: fecha y tiempo de exposición, coordenadas del centro de placa, tipo de emulsión fotográfica, estado de la placa, objeto fotografiado.

  5. Vulnerable Plaque

    MedlinePlus

    ... all vulnerable plaque ruptures, and researchers at the Texas Heart Institute are looking at ways to determine ... comments. Terms of Use and Privacy Policy © Copyright Texas Heart Institute All rights reserved.

  6. National Vulnerability Database (NVD)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    National Vulnerability Database (NVD) (Web, free access)   NVD is a comprehensive cyber security vulnerability database that integrates all publicly available U.S. Government vulnerability resources and provides references to industry resources. It is based on and synchronized with the CVE vulnerability naming standard.

  7. [Aging and becoming vulnerable].

    PubMed

    Monod, Stéfanie; Sautebin, Annelore

    2009-11-18

    "The vulnerable are those whose autonomy, dignity and integrity are capable of being threatened". Based on this ethical definition of vulnerability, four risk factors of vulnerability might be identified among elderly persons, and are described in this article: the functional limitation, the loss of autonomy, the social precariousness and the restriction of access to medical care. A clinical case of elderly abuse is presented to illustrate vulnerability. Finally, some recommendations to lower the risk of vulnerability in elderly persons are proposed. PMID:20052868

  8. Software Vulnerability Taxonomy Consolidation

    SciTech Connect

    Polepeddi, S

    2004-12-08

    In today's environment, computers and networks are increasing exposed to a number of software vulnerabilities. Information about these vulnerabilities is collected and disseminated via various large publicly available databases such as BugTraq, OSVDB and ICAT. Each of these databases, individually, do not cover all aspects of a vulnerability and lack a standard format among them, making it difficult for end-users to easily compare various vulnerabilities. A central database of vulnerabilities has not been available until today for a number of reasons, such as the non-uniform methods by which current vulnerability database providers receive information, disagreement over which features of a particular vulnerability are important and how best to present them, and the non-utility of the information presented in many databases. The goal of this software vulnerability taxonomy consolidation project is to address the need for a universally accepted vulnerability taxonomy that classifies vulnerabilities in an unambiguous manner. A consolidated vulnerability database (CVDB) was implemented that coalesces and organizes vulnerability data from disparate data sources. Based on the work done in this paper, there is strong evidence that a consolidated taxonomy encompassing and organizing all relevant data can be achieved. However, three primary obstacles remain: lack of referencing a common ''primary key'', un-structured and free-form descriptions of necessary vulnerability data, and lack of data on all aspects of a vulnerability. This work has only considered data that can be unambiguously extracted from various data sources by straightforward parsers. It is felt that even with the use of more advanced, information mining tools, which can wade through the sea of unstructured vulnerability data, this current integration methodology would still provide repeatable, unambiguous, and exhaustive results. Though the goal of coalescing all available data, which would be of use to

  9. What Does Vulnerability Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parley, Fiona F

    2011-01-01

    Protection of those deemed vulnerable has received increasing attention since 2000. This article reports on care staff views of vulnerability using original data from a research study (Parley. "Vulnerability and abuse: an exploration of views of care staff working with people who have learning disabilities," PhD Thesis, 2007) in which care staff…

  10. Safeguarding vulnerable adults.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    Nurses have a professional duty to safeguard vulnerable adults from abuse under the provisions of the Nursing and Midwifery Council's (NMC) revised Code (2015). With adult abuse continuing to increase, all members of the nursing team are well placed to identify and take action to safeguard the vulnerable. This article sets out how the Care Act 2014 seeks to improve the safeguarding of vulnerable adults and the role of nurses in that process. PMID:26153813

  11. Lessons about vulnerability assessments.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R. G.

    2004-01-01

    The Vulnerability Assessment Team (VAT) at Los Alamos National Laboratory believes that physical security can only be optimized through the use of effective vulnerability assessments. As a result of conducting vulnerability assessments on hundreds of different security devices and systems in the last few years, we have identified some of the attributes of effective assessments. These, along with our recommendations and observations about vulnerability assessments, are summarized in this paper. While our work has primarily involved physical security (in contrast to, for example, computer, network, or information security), our experiences may have applicability to other types of security as well.

  12. Medición de placas astrométricas obtenidas con el telescopio Astrográfico de La Plata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Sisto, R. P.; Orellana, R.

    El Observatorio de La Plata cuenta con un gran número de placas de asteroides y cometas obtenidas con el telescopio astrográfico, que cubren gran parte del cielo del hemisferio sur. En 1996 se recopilaron y clasificaron 2187 placas (Beca para estudiantes de la AAA 1996) de las cuales 2031 corresponden a asteroides. Los datos de cada placa se volcaron en una base de datos creada para facilitar su manejo y preservar la información. A partir de este trabajo se revisaron los MPC electrónicos y se identificaron aquellas placas de asteroides pertenecientes a nuestra base de datos cuyos resultados no fueron publicados en los mismos. De un total de 400 placas que no aparecían publicadas sobresalía un paquete constituído por 40 placas obtenidas en 1977. Estas últimas fueron reducidas utilizando las posiciones y movimientos propios de las estrellas de referencia obtenidas del catálogo SAO 2000 dadas para el sistema FK5. Las posiciones calculadas fueron enviadas y publicadas en los Minor Planet Circulars (MPC).

  13. Facility Environmental Vulnerability Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoesen, S.D.

    2001-07-09

    From mid-April through the end of June 2001, a Facility Environmental Vulnerability Assessment (FEVA) was performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The primary goal of this FEVA was to establish an environmental vulnerability baseline at ORNL that could be used to support the Laboratory planning process and place environmental vulnerabilities in perspective. The information developed during the FEVA was intended to provide the basis for management to initiate immediate, near-term, and long-term actions to respond to the identified vulnerabilities. It was expected that further evaluation of the vulnerabilities identified during the FEVA could be carried out to support a more quantitative characterization of the sources, evaluation of contaminant pathways, and definition of risks. The FEVA was modeled after the Battelle-supported response to the problems identified at the High Flux Beam Reactor at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This FEVA report satisfies Corrective Action 3A1 contained in the Corrective Action Plan in Response to Independent Review of the High Flux Isotope Reactor Tritium Leak at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE) ORNL Site Office Manager on April 16, 2001. This assessment successfully achieved its primary goal as defined by Laboratory management. The assessment team was able to develop information about sources and pathway analyses although the following factors impacted the team's ability to provide additional quantitative information: the complexity and scope of the facilities, infrastructure, and programs; the significantly degraded physical condition of the facilities and infrastructure; the large number of known environmental vulnerabilities; the scope of legacy contamination issues [not currently addressed in the Environmental Management (EM) Program]; the lack of facility process and environmental pathway analysis performed by the accountable line management or facility owner; and poor

  14. Fleshing out vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Tavaglione, Nicolas; Martin, Angela K; Mezger, Nathalie; Durieux-Paillard, Sophie; François, Anne; Jackson, Yves; Hurst, Samia A

    2015-02-01

    In the literature on medical ethics, it is generally admitted that vulnerable persons or groups deserve special attention, care or protection. One can define vulnerable persons as those having a greater likelihood of being wronged - that is, of being denied adequate satisfaction of certain legitimate claims. The conjunction of these two points entails what we call the Special Protection Thesis. It asserts that persons with a greater likelihood of being denied adequate satisfaction of their legitimate claims deserve special attention, care or protection. Such a thesis remains vague, however, as long as we do not know what legitimate claims are. This article aims at dispelling this vagueness by exploring what claims we have in relation to health care - thus fleshing out a claim-based conception of vulnerability. We argue that the Special Protection Thesis must be enriched as follows: If individual or group X has a greater likelihood of being denied adequate satisfaction of some of their legitimate claims to (i) physical integrity, (ii) autonomy, (iii) freedom, (iv) social provision, (v) impartial quality of government, (vi) social bases of self-respect or (vii) communal belonging, then X deserves special attention, care or protection. With this improved understanding of vulnerability, vulnerability talk in healthcare ethics can escape vagueness and serve as an adequate basis for practice. PMID:24602115

  15. Energy vulnerability relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, B.R.; Boesen, J.L.

    1998-02-01

    The US consumption of crude oil resources has been a steadily growing indicator of the vitality and strength of the US economy. At the same time import diversity has also been a rapidly developing dimension of the import picture. In the early 1970`s, embargoes of crude oil from Organization of Producing and Exporting Countries (OPEC) created economic and political havoc due to a significant lack of diversity and a unique set of economic, political and domestic regulatory circumstances. The continued rise of imports has again led to concerns over the security of our crude oil resource but threats to this system must be considered in light of the diversity and current setting of imported oil. This report develops several important issues concerning vulnerability to the disruption of oil imports: (1) The Middle East is not the major supplier of oil to the United States, (2) The US is not vulnerable to having its entire import stream disrupted, (3) Even in stable countries, there exist vulnerabilities to disruption of the export stream of oil, (4) Vulnerability reduction requires a focus on international solutions, and (5) DOE program and policy development must reflect the requirements of the diverse supply. Does this increasing proportion of imported oil create a {open_quotes}dependence{close_quotes}? Does this increasing proportion of imported oil present a vulnerability to {open_quotes}price shocks{close_quotes} and the tremendous dislocations experienced during the 1970`s? Finally, what is the vulnerability of supply disruptions from the current sources of imported oil? If oil is considered to be a finite, rapidly depleting resource, then the answers to these questions must be {open_quotes}yes.{close_quotes} However, if the supply of oil is expanding, and not limited, then dependence is relative to regional supply sources.

  16. Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan describes the Department of Energy`s response to the vulnerabilities identified in the Plutonium Working Group Report which are a result of the cessation of nuclear weapons production. The responses contained in this document are only part of an overall, coordinated approach designed to enable the Department to accelerate conversion of all nuclear materials, including plutonium, to forms suitable for safe, interim storage. The overall actions being taken are discussed in detail in the Department`s Implementation Plan in response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-1. This is included as Attachment B.

  17. Vulnerability of dynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siljak, D. D.

    1976-01-01

    Directed graphs are associated with dynamic systems in order to determine in any given system if each state can be reached by at least one input (input reachability), or can each state reach at least one output (output reachability). Then, the structural perturbations of a dynamic system are identified as lines or points removals from the corresponding digraph, and a system is considered vulnerable at those lines or points of the digraph whose removal destroys its input or output reachability. A suitable framework is formulated for resolving the problems of reachability and vulnerability which applies to both linear and nonlinear systems alike.

  18. Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

  19. Delinquent Recidivists: Vulnerable Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Roslyn; And Others

    1984-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between vulnerability factors and recidivism of juvenile offenders. Four factors are identified which distinguish recedivists from nonrecidivists in a sample of 96 first offenders matched by age and sex. Results are discussed from an epidemiological and early intervention perspective. (Author/BS)

  20. Delinquent recidivists: Vulnerable children.

    PubMed

    Moore, R; Pauker, J D; Moore, T E

    1984-10-01

    This study examines the relationship between vulnerability factors and recidivism by testing the hypothesis that first offenders who repeat delinquencies display more high-risk factors than those who do not repeat delinquencies. Four factors are identified which distinguish recidivists from nonrecidivists in a sample of first offenders matched by age and sex. Results are discussed from an epidemiological and early-intervention perspective. PMID:24306838

  1. Beyond 'vulnerable groups': contexts and dynamics of vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Zarowsky, Christina; Haddad, Slim; Nguyen, Vinh-Kim

    2013-03-01

    This paper reviews approaches to vulnerability in public health, introducing a series of 10 papers addressing vulnerability in health in Africa. We understand vulnerability as simultaneously a condition and a process. Social inequalities are manifest in and exacerbate three key dimensions of vulnerability: the initial level of wellbeing, the degree of exposure to risk, and the capacity to manage risk effectively. We stress the dynamic interactions linking material and social deprivation, poverty, powerlessness and ill health: risks or shocks and their health impacts are intimately interconnected and reinforce each other in a cycle which in the absence of effective interventions, increases vulnerability. An inductive process which does not begin with an a priori definition or measurement of 'vulnerability' and which does not assume the existence of fixed 'vulnerable groups' allowed us both to re-affirm core aspects of existing conceptual frameworks, and to engage in new ways with literature specifically addressing vulnerability and resilience at the population level as well as with literature - for example in ecology, and on the concept of frailty in research on aging - with which researchers on health and poverty in Africa may not be familiar. We invite conceptual and empirical work on vulnerability in complex systems frameworks. These perspectives emphasize contexts and nonlinear causality thus supporting analyses of vulnerability and resilience as both markers and emergent properties of dynamic interactions. We accept a working definition of vulnerability, and recognize that some definable groups of people are more likely than others to suffer harm from exposure to health risks. But we suggest that the real work - at both intellectual and policy/political levels - lies in understanding and responding to the dynamics, meanings and power relations underlying actual instances and processes of vulnerability and harm. PMID:23549696

  2. Vulnerability of weighted networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Asta, Luca; Barrat, Alain; Barthélemy, Marc; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2006-04-01

    In real networks complex topological features are often associated with a diversity of interactions as measured by the weights of the links. Moreover, spatial constraints may also play an important role, resulting in a complex interplay between topology, weight, and geography. In order to study the vulnerability of such networks to intentional attacks, these attributes must therefore be considered along with the topological quantities. In order to tackle this issue, we consider the case of the worldwide airport network, which is a weighted heterogeneous network whose evolution and structure are influenced by traffic and geographical constraints. We first characterize relevant topological and weighted centrality measures and then use these quantities as selection criteria for the removal of vertices. We consider different attack strategies and different measures of the damage achieved in the network. The analysis of weighted properties shows that centrality driven attacks are capable of shattering the network's communication or transport properties even at a very low level of damage in the connectivity pattern. The inclusion of weight and traffic therefore provides evidence for the extreme vulnerability of complex networks to any targeted strategy and the need for them to be considered as key features in the finding and development of defensive strategies.

  3. Markers of vulnerability in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Prelipceanu, D

    2009-01-01

    Vulnerability in schizophrenia is an integrative concept, which tries to explain the development of schizophrenia as an interaction between different individual susceptibility factors and environmental risk factors. Vulnerability markers used in genetic studies include biochemical indicators, neuroanatomical, neurophysiologic, and cognitive abnormalities. Among those, the most extensive studied markers were: evoked potentials, smooth pursuit eye movements, and attentional deficits. Some of the potential indicators presented in this paper satisfy most of the criteria necessary for a vulnerability marker, but none meets all of them. Nevertheless, they represent important markers of risk to schizophrenia. Key words: vulnerability, evoked potentials, eye movements, attentional deficits PMID:20108534

  4. Common Control System Vulnerability

    SciTech Connect

    Trent Nelson

    2005-12-01

    The Control Systems Security Program and other programs within the Idaho National Laboratory have discovered a vulnerability common to control systems in all sectors that allows an attacker to penetrate most control systems, spoof the operator, and gain full control of targeted system elements. This vulnerability has been identified on several systems that have been evaluated at INL, and in each case a 100% success rate of completing the attack paths that lead to full system compromise was observed. Since these systems are employed in multiple critical infrastructure sectors, this vulnerability is deemed common to control systems in all sectors. Modern control systems architectures can be considered analogous to today's information networks, and as such are usually approached by attackers using a common attack methodology to penetrate deeper and deeper into the network. This approach often is composed of several phases, including gaining access to the control network, reconnaissance, profiling of vulnerabilities, launching attacks, escalating privilege, maintaining access, and obscuring or removing information that indicates that an intruder was on the system. With irrefutable proof that an external attack can lead to a compromise of a computing resource on the organization's business local area network (LAN), access to the control network is usually considered the first phase in the attack plan. Once the attacker gains access to the control network through direct connections and/or the business LAN, the second phase of reconnaissance begins with traffic analysis within the control domain. Thus, the communications between the workstations and the field device controllers can be monitored and evaluated, allowing an attacker to capture, analyze, and evaluate the commands sent among the control equipment. Through manipulation of the communication protocols of control systems (a process generally referred to as ''reverse engineering''), an attacker can then map out the

  5. Vulnerability and Trustworthiness.

    PubMed

    Barnard, David

    2016-04-01

    Although recent literature on professionalism in healthcare abounds in recommended character traits, attitudes, or behaviors, with a few exceptions, the recommendations are untethered to any serious consideration of the contours and ethical demands of the healing relationship. This article offers an approach based on the professional's commitment to trustworthiness in response to the vulnerability of those seeking professional help. Because our willingness and ability to trust health professionals or healthcare institutions are affected by our personality, culture, race, age, prior experiences with illness and healthcare, and socioeconomic and political circumstances-"the social determinants of trust"-the attitudes and behaviors that actually do gain trust are patient and context specific. Therefore, in addition to the commitment to cultivating attitudes and behaviors that embody trustworthiness, professionalism also includes the commitment to actually gaining a patient's or family's trust by learning, through individualized dialogue, which conditions would win their justified trust, given their particular history and social situation. PMID:26957454

  6. The Vulnerability of Elderly Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhee, Jerrie L.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews research on the vulnerability of the elderly to consumer fraud. Patterns of consumption, situational characteristics, education and product knowledge, psychological losses, social isolation, and psychosocial transitions influence the elderly's vulnerability and ability to cope with consumer abuse. Higher educational attainment and greater…

  7. We are vulnerable, too.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    My transition to becoming a student midwife has not been straightforward: I bring baggage. I was raped 11 years ago and buried it, so did not consider that becoming a midwife would pose any problems. Little did I know that this journey would make me question my own experiences of pregnancy and motherhood, and would bring the rape and subsequent termination to the forefront of my mind, forcing me to confront issues that I would have preferred to leave unearthed. Reading around the subject has helped me to understand emotions that have surfaced, and put a name to how I am feeling, yet certain procedures in practice make me uncomfortable. It is thought that 20 per cent of women aged 16-59 have experienced a sexual assault of some type since turning 16 (Rape Crisis 2015), so being sensitive to vulnerabilities faced by service users, students and colleagues is crucial. I do not make recommendations for practice, but the reference list provides a starting point for those who wish to read more extensively. PMID:27172678

  8. Identifying Frailty Among Vulnerable Populations

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Benissa E.; Nyamathi, Adeline; Phillips, Linda R.; Mentes, Janet; Sarkisian, Catherine; Brecht, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Frailty is a significant public health issue which is experienced by homeless and other vulnerable adults; to date, a frailty framework has not been proposed to guide researchers who study this hard-to-reach population. The Frailty Framework among Homeless and other Vulnerable Populations (FFHVP) has been developed from empirical research and consultation with frailty experts in an effort to characterize antecedents, i.e. situational, health-related, behavioral, resource, biological, and environmental factors which contribute to physical, psychological and social frailty domains and impact adverse outcomes. As vulnerable populations continue to age, a greater understanding of frailty will enable the development of nursing interventions. PMID:24469090

  9. Safeguard Vulnerability Analysis Program (SVAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, F.M.; Dittmore, M.H.; Orvis, W.J.; Wahler, P.S.

    1980-06-23

    This report gives an overview of the Safeguard Vulnerability Analysis Program (SVAP) developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. SVAP was designed as an automated method of analyzing the safeguard systems at nuclear facilities for vulnerabilities relating to the theft or diversion of nuclear materials. SVAP addresses one class of safeguard threat: theft or diversion of nuclear materials by nonviolent insiders, acting individually or in collusion. SVAP is a user-oriented tool which uses an interactive input medium for preprocessing the large amounts of safeguards data. Its output includes concise summary data as well as detailed vulnerability information.

  10. Are Vulnerability Disclosure Deadlines Justified?

    SciTech Connect

    Miles McQueen; Jason L. Wright; Lawrence Wellman

    2011-09-01

    Vulnerability research organizations Rapid7, Google Security team, and Zero Day Initiative recently imposed grace periods for public disclosure of vulnerabilities. The grace periods ranged from 45 to 182 days, after which disclosure might occur with or without an effective mitigation from the affected software vendor. At this time there is indirect evidence that the shorter grace periods of 45 and 60 days may not be practical. However, there is strong evidence that the recently announced Zero Day Initiative grace period of 182 days yields benefit in speeding up the patch creation process, and may be practical for many software products. Unfortunately, there is also evidence that the 182 day grace period results in more vulnerability announcements without an available patch.

  11. Food Chain Security and Vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, Sébastien; Delvenne, Pierre; Claisse, Frédéric

    In our contemporary societies, the food chain could be defined as a macro-technical system, which depends on a wide variety of actors and risks analysis methods. In this contribution, risks related to the food chain are defined in terms of "modern risks" (Beck 1992). The whole national economic sector of food production/distribution is vulnerable to a local accident, which can affect the functioning of food chain, the export programs and even the political system. Such a complex socio-technical environment is undoubtedly vulnerable to intentional act such as terrorism.

  12. Molecular Imaging of Plaque Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli, Sina; Vashist, Aseem; Sadeghi, Mehran M.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade significant progress has been made in the development of novel imaging strategies focusing on the biology of the vessel wall for identification of vulnerable plaques. While the majority of these studies are still in the preclinical stage, few techniques (e.g., 18F-FDG and 18F-NaF PET imaging) have already been evaluated in clinical studies with promising results. Here, we will briefly review the pathobiology of atherosclerosis and discuss molecular imaging strategies that have been developed to target these events, with an emphasis on mechanisms that are associated with atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability. PMID:25124827

  13. Measuring Vulnerability to Stereotype Threat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, Lucy; Burley, Hansel; Olivarez, Arturo; Crooks, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: In this study, we examined the psychometric properties of an instrument intended to measure vulnerability to stereotype threat. Method: We revised the instrument through assessing score reliability and then examined a domain specific model using confirmatory factor analyses. After examining the responses of the total sample…

  14. US Vulnerability to Natural Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Vink, G.; Apgar, S.; Batchelor, A.; Carter, C.; Gail, D.; Jarrett, A.; Levine, N.; Morgan, W.; Orlikowski, M.; Pray, T.; Raymar, M.; Siebert, A.; Shawa, T. W.; Wallace, C.

    2002-05-01

    Natural disasters result from the coincidence of natural events with the built environment. Our nation's infrastructure is growing at an exponential rate in many areas of high risk, and the Federal government's liability is increasing proportionally. By superimposing population density with predicted ground motion from earthquakes, historical hurricane tracks, historical tornado locations, and areas within the flood plain, we are able to identify locations of high vulnerability within the United States. We present a comprehensive map of disaster risk for the United States that is being produced for the Senate Natural Hazards Caucus. The map allows for the geographic comparison of natural disaster risk with past disaster declarations, the expenditure of Federal dollars for disaster relief, population increase, and variations of GDP. Every state is vulnerable to natural disasters. Although their frequency varies considerably, the annualized losses for disaster relief from hurricanes, earthquakes, and floods are approximately equivalent. While fast-growing states such as California and Florida remain highly vulnerable, changes in the occurrence of natural events combined with population increases are making areas such as Texas, North Carolina, and the East Coast increasingly vulnerable.

  15. Placas and Murals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romotsky, Jerry; Romotsky, Sally

    1974-01-01

    Presented examples of graffiti as seen in the barrios of East Los Angeles that told of the past and demonstrated how graffiti could be used in a positive fashion reflecting the positive aspirations, interests, and identities of the residents. (Author/RK)

  16. Assessing European wild fire vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehler, F.; Oliveira, S.; Barredo, J. I.; Camia, A.; Ayanz, J. San Miguel; Pettenella, D.; Mavsar, R.

    2012-04-01

    Wild fire vulnerability is a measure of potential socio-economic damage caused by a fire in a specific area. As such it is an important component of long-term fire risk management, helping policy-makers take informed decisions about adequate expenditures for fire prevention and suppression, and to target those regions at highest risk. This paper presents a first approach to assess wild fire vulnerability at the European level. A conservative approach was chosen that assesses the cost of restoring the previous land cover after a potential fire. Based on the CORINE Land Cover, a restoration cost was established for each land cover class at country level, and an average restoration time was assigned according to the recovery capacity of the land cover. The damage caused by fire was then assessed by discounting the cost of restoring the previous land cover over the restoration period. Three different vulnerability scenarios were considered assuming low, medium and high fire severity causing different levels of damage. Over Europe, the potential damage of wild land fires ranges from 10 - 13, 732 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for low fire severity, 32 - 45,772 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for medium fire severity and 54 - 77,812 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for high fire severity. The least vulnerable are natural grasslands, moors and heathland and sclerophyllous vegetation, while the highest cost occurs for restoring broad-leaved forest. Preliminary validation comparing these estimates with official damage assessments for past fires shows reasonable results. The restoration cost approach allows for a straightforward, data extensive assessment of fire vulnerability at European level. A disadvantage is the inherent simplification of the evaluation procedure with the underestimation of non-markets goods and services. Thus, a second approach has been developed, valuing individual wild land goods and services and assessing their annual flow which is lost for a certain period of time in case of a fire event. However

  17. MID-ATLANTIC REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    ORD's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (REVA) Program is developing and demonstrating approaches to assess current and future environmental vulnerabilities so that risk management activities can be targeted. The sister program to EMA.P (Environmental Monitoring Assessment Progr...

  18. Soil vulnerability for cesium transfer.

    PubMed

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Sweeck, Lieve

    2011-07-01

    The recent events at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan have raised questions about the accumulation of radionuclides in soils and the possible impacts on agriculture surrounding nuclear power plants. This article summarizes the knowledge gained after the nuclear power plant accident in Chernobyl, Ukraine, on how soil parameters influence soil vulnerability for radiocesium bioavailability, discusses some potential agrochemical countermeasures, and presents some predictions of radiocesium crop concentrations for areas affected by the Fukushima accident. PMID:21608116

  19. Vulnerability to coastal cholera ecology.

    PubMed

    Collins, Andrew E

    2003-10-01

    The battle to completely control cholera continues. Multiple strains, high levels of morbidity in some regions of the world, and a complex of influences on its distribution in people and the environment are accompanied by only rough resolution prediction of outbreaks. Uncertainty as to the most effective array of interventions for one of the most researched infectious diseases thwarts further progress in providing cost-effective solutions. Progress on the research front consistently points towards the importance of disease ecology, coastal environments, and the sea. However, evaluation of the link between cholera in people and environment can only be effective with analysis of human vulnerability to variable coastal cholera ecologies. As there are some clear links between the organism, cholera incidence and the sea, it is appropriate that cholera research should examine the nature of coastal population vulnerability to the disease. The paper reviews the cholera risks of human-environment interactions in coastal areas as one component of the evaluation of cholera management. This points to effective intervention through integrative knowledge of changing human and environmental ecologies, requiring improved detection, but also an acceptance of complex causality. The challenge is to identify indicators and interventions for case specific ecologies in variable locales of human vulnerability and disease hazard. Further work will therefore aim to explore improved surveillance and intervention across the socio-behavioural and ecological spectrum. Furthermore, the story of cholera continues to inform us about how we should more effectively view emergent and resurgent infectious disease hazards more generally. PMID:12927470

  20. Measuring vulnerability to disaster displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brink, Susan A.; Khazai, Bijan; Power, Christopher; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2015-04-01

    Large scale disasters can cause devastating impacts in terms of population displacement. Between 2008 and 2013, on average 27 million people were displaced annually by disasters (Yonetani 2014). After large events such as hurricane Katrina or the Port-au-Prince earthquake, images of inadequate public shelter and concerns about large scale and often inequitable migration have been broadcast around the world. Population displacement can often be one of the most devastating and visible impacts of a natural disaster. Despite the importance of population displacement in disaster events, measures to understand the socio-economic vulnerability of a community often use broad metrics to estimate the total socio-economic risk of an event rather than focusing on the specific impacts that a community faces in a disaster. Population displacement is complex and multi-causal with the physical impact of a disaster interacting with vulnerability arising from the response, environmental issues (e.g., weather), cultural concerns (e.g., expectations of adequate shelter), and many individual factors (e.g., mobility, risk perception). In addition to the complexity of the causes, population displacement is difficult to measure because of the wide variety of different terms and definitions and its multi-dimensional nature. When we speak of severe population displacement, we may refer to a large number of displaced people, an extended length of displacement or associated difficulties such as poor shelter quality, risk of violence and crime in shelter communities, discrimination in aid, a lack of access to employment or other difficulties that can be associated with large scale population displacement. We have completed a thorough review of the literature on disaster population displacement. Research has been conducted on historic events to understand the types of negative impacts associated with population displacement and also the vulnerability of different groups to these impacts. We

  1. Mountain torrents: Quantifying vulnerability and assessing uncertainties

    PubMed Central

    Totschnig, Reinhold; Fuchs, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Vulnerability assessment for elements at risk is an important component in the framework of risk assessment. The vulnerability of buildings affected by torrent processes can be quantified by vulnerability functions that express a mathematical relationship between the degree of loss of individual elements at risk and the intensity of the impacting process. Based on data from the Austrian Alps, we extended a vulnerability curve for residential buildings affected by fluvial sediment transport processes to other torrent processes and other building types. With respect to this goal to merge different data based on different processes and building types, several statistical tests were conducted. The calculation of vulnerability functions was based on a nonlinear regression approach applying cumulative distribution functions. The results suggest that there is no need to distinguish between different sediment-laden torrent processes when assessing vulnerability of residential buildings towards torrent processes. The final vulnerability functions were further validated with data from the Italian Alps and different vulnerability functions presented in the literature. This comparison showed the wider applicability of the derived vulnerability functions. The uncertainty inherent to regression functions was quantified by the calculation of confidence bands. The derived vulnerability functions may be applied within the framework of risk management for mountain hazards within the European Alps. The method is transferable to other mountain regions if the input data needed are available. PMID:27087696

  2. [Genetic vulnerability of methamphetamine dependence].

    PubMed

    Moriya, Yuki; Kasahara, Yoshiyuki; Sora, Ichiro

    2013-08-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) dependence show strong familial and genetic influences in family and twin studies. METH exerts its reinforcing effects by modulating monoaminergic transmission, of which dopamine is supposed to be important. Previously, experimental animals were being used to identify mechanisms of action of METH that are related to its abuse and toxicity, and genetic mouse models have also been used to define genes that may predict risk for the development of drug addiction. We found that genetic variances of dopamine transporter, dopamine receptor, micro-opioid receptor, serotonin 1A receptor, serotonin 6 receptor, and adenosine 2A adenosine receptor could be vulnerability factors for METH dependence or psychosis in the Japanese population. Genetic analysis with a genome-wide association study (GWAS)-based approach has been successful for investigating the genetic influences of METH dependence and other complex features. Collaborative studies with JGIDA and NIDA/NIH have obtained the results that the genetic vulnerability to METH dependence contributes to other major drug addiction. The genetic studies for METH dependence might help to identify the risk of individuals and to develop treatments that take advantage of individual genetic information in the future. PMID:25069251

  3. An Eliminativist Approach to Vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Wrigley, Anthony

    2015-09-01

    The concept of vulnerability has been subject to numerous different interpretations but accounts are still beset with significant problems as to their adequacy, such as their contentious application or the lack of genuine explanatory role for the concept. The constant failure to provide a compelling conceptual analysis and satisfactory definition leaves the concept open to an eliminativist move whereby we can question whether we need the concept at all. I highlight problems with various kinds of approach and explain why a satisfactory account of vulnerability is unlikely ever to be offered if we wish the concept to play a genuinely explanatory role in bioethical contexts. I outline why an eliminativist position should be taken with regard to this concept in light of these concerns but mitigate some of the severity of this position by arguing that we can still make sense of retaining our widespread use of the term by viewing it as nothing more than a useful pragmatic linguistic device that acts as a marker to draw attention to certain kinds of issue. These issues will be entirely governed by other, better understood ethical concepts and theories. PMID:25425540

  4. Dynamics of immune system vulnerabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stromberg, Sean P.

    The adaptive immune system can be viewed as a complex system, which adapts, over time, to reflect the history of infections experienced by the organism. Understanding its operation requires viewing it in terms of tradeoffs under constraints and evolutionary history. It typically displays "robust, yet fragile" behavior, meaning common tasks are robust to small changes but novel threats or changes in environment can have dire consequences. In this dissertation we use mechanistic models to study several biological processes: the immune response, the homeostasis of cells in the lymphatic system, and the process that normally prevents autoreactive cells from entering the lymphatic system. Using these models we then study the effects of these processes interacting. We show that the mechanisms that regulate the numbers of cells in the immune system, in conjunction with the immune response, can act to suppress autoreactive cells from proliferating, thus showing quantitatively how pathogenic infections can suppress autoimmune disease. We also show that over long periods of time this same effect can thin the repertoire of cells that defend against novel threats, leading to an age correlated vulnerability. This vulnerability is shown to be a consequence of system dynamics, not due to degradation of immune system components with age. Finally, modeling a specific tolerance mechanism that normally prevents autoimmune disease, in conjunction with models of the immune response and homeostasis we look at the consequences of the immune system mistakenly incorporating pathogenic molecules into its tolerizing mechanisms. The signature of this dynamic matches closely that of the dengue virus system.

  5. Scenarios for coastal vulnerability assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicholls, Robert J.; Woodroffe, Colin D.; Burkett, Virginia; Hay, John; Wong, Poh Poh; Nurse, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    Coastal vulnerability assessments tend to focus mainly on climate change and especially on sea-level rise. Assessment of the influence of nonclimatic environmental change or socioeconomic change is less well developed and these drivers are often completely ignored. Given that the most profound coastal changes of the twentieth century due to nonclimate drivers are likely to continue through the twenty-first century, this is a major omission. It may result in not only overstating the importance of climate change but also overlooking significant interactions of climate change and other drivers. To support the development of policies relating to climate change and coastal management, integrated assessments of climatic change in coastal areas are required, including the effects of all the relevant drivers. This chapter explores the development of scenarios (or "plausible futures") of relevant climate and nonclimate drivers that can be used for coastal analysis, with an emphasis on the nonclimate drivers. It shows the importance of analyzing the impacts of climate change and sea-level rise in a broader context of coastal change and all its drivers. This will improve the analysis of impacts, key vulnerabilities, and adaptation needs and, hence, inform climate and coastal policy. Stakeholder engagement is important in the development of scenarios, and the underlying assumptions need to be explicit, transparent, and open to scientific debate concerning their uncertainties/realism and likelihood.

  6. Vulnerability of network of networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havlin, S.; Kenett, D. Y.; Bashan, A.; Gao, J.; Stanley, H. E.

    2014-10-01

    Our dependence on networks - be they infrastructure, economic, social or others - leaves us prone to crises caused by the vulnerabilities of these networks. There is a great need to develop new methods to protect infrastructure networks and prevent cascade of failures (especially in cases of coupled networks). Terrorist attacks on transportation networks have traumatized modern societies. With a single blast, it has become possible to paralyze airline traffic, electric power supply, ground transportation or Internet communication. How, and at which cost can one restructure the network such that it will become more robust against malicious attacks? The gradual increase in attacks on the networks society depends on - Internet, mobile phone, transportation, air travel, banking, etc. - emphasize the need to develop new strategies to protect and defend these crucial networks of communication and infrastructure networks. One example is the threat of liquid explosives a few years ago, which completely shut down air travel for days, and has created extreme changes in regulations. Such threats and dangers warrant the need for new tools and strategies to defend critical infrastructure. In this paper we review recent advances in the theoretical understanding of the vulnerabilities of interdependent networks with and without spatial embedding, attack strategies and their affect on such networks of networks as well as recently developed strategies to optimize and repair failures caused by such attacks.

  7. Metadata for selecting or submitting generic seismic vulnerability functions via GEM's vulnerability database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaiswal, Kishor

    2013-01-01

    This memo lays out a procedure for the GEM software to offer an available vulnerability function for any acceptable set of attributes that the user specifies for a particular building category. The memo also provides general guidelines on how to submit the vulnerability or fragility functions to the GEM vulnerability repository, stipulating which attributes modelers must provide so that their vulnerability or fragility functions can be queried appropriately by the vulnerability database. An important objective is to provide users guidance on limitations and applicability by providing the associated modeling assumptions and applicability of each vulnerability or fragility function.

  8. An holistic view on aquifer vulnerability based on a distinction of different types of vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Lasagna, Manuela; Franchino, Elisa

    2016-04-01

    AN HOLISTIC VIEW ON AQUIFER VULNERABILITY BASED ON A DISTINCTION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF VULNERABILITY D.A. De Luca1 , M. Lasagna1, E. Franchino1 1Department of Earth Sciences, University of Turin The concept of vulnerability is certainly useful in the field of groundwater protection. Nevertheless, within the scientific community, the definition of groundwater vulnerability is still debatable and not clear and conclusive. This is probably due to the fact that researchers often have very different experiences and education. A positive effect of it is a constant exchange of ideas, but there are also negative consequences and difficulties in deepening the issue. The different approaches are very important but they are usable only if the concept of vulnerability is standardized: thus, for the sake of clarity, a number of definitions should be laid down, based on the different types of vulnerability. These definitions can then provide the necessary holistic view for the aquifer vulnerability assessment. Nowadays vulnerability methods focus on the degree of vulnerability and the parameters needed for its evaluation, often neglecting to clarify what is the type of vulnerability the proposed methods are referred. The type of vulnerability, indeed, is both logically and hierarchically superior to the degree of vulnerability. More specifically the type of vulnerability represents the evaluation of the hydrogeological conditions considered in the vulnerability assessment and able to influence the way in which the contamination can take place. Currently the only distinction, based on of the type of vulnerability, is referred to intrinsic and specific vulnerability. Intrinsic vulnerability assesses the susceptibility of the receptor based on the natural properties of the land and subsurface; specific vulnerability also includes properties of the analyzed contaminant. This distinction is useful but not exhaustive. In addition to this, e.g., a distinction of vertical vulnerability

  9. Assessing human vulnerability: Daytime residential distribution as a vulnerability indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokesch, Karin; Promper, Catrin; Papathoma-Köhle, Maria; Glade, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Natural hazard risk management is based on detailed information on potential impacts of natural hazards. Especially concerning fast onset hazards such as flash floods, earthquakes but also debris flows and landslides, knowing potential hotspots of impact to both, assets and human lives is essential. This information is important for emergency management and decision making in the response phase of the disaster management cycle. Emergency managers are in need of information regarding not only the number of humans being potentially affected but also the respective vulnerability of the group affected based on characteristics such as age, income, health condition, mobility, etc. regarding a certain hazard. The analysis presented focuses on the distribution of the population, assuming a certain pattern of people in a certain radius of action. The method applied is based on a regular pattern of movement of different groups of people and a pattern of presence in certain units, e.g. schools, businesses or residential buildings. The distribution is calculated on a minimum of available data including the average household size, as well as information on building types. The study area is located in the Southwest of Lower Austria, Austria. The city of Waidhofen/Ybbs can be regarded as a regional center providing basic infrastructure, shops and schools. The high concentration of buildings combining shops and residential units leads to a high damage potential throughout the whole study area. The presented results indicate the population distribution within the study area on an average working day. It is clear that explicitly high numbers of people are located in specific buildings (e.g. schools and hospitals) which also include highly vulnerable groups especially to fast onset hazards. The results provide emergency services with the information that they need in order to intervene directly where large numbers of victims or people that need to be evacuated are located. In this

  10. NV: Nessus Vulnerability Visualization for the Web

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Lane; Spahn, Riley B; Iannacone, Michael D; Downing, Evan P; Goodall, John R

    2012-01-01

    Network vulnerability is a critical component of network se- curity. Yet vulnerability analysis has received relatively lit- tle attention from the security visualization community. In this paper we describe nv, a web-based Nessus vulnerability visualization. Nv utilizes treemaps and linked histograms to allow system administrators to discover, analyze, and man- age vulnerabilities on their networks. In addition to visual- izing single Nessus scans, nv supports the analysis of sequen- tial scans by showing which vulnerabilities have been fixed, remain open, or are newly discovered. Nv was also designed to operate completely in-browser, to avoid sending sensitive data to outside servers. We discuss the design of nv, as well as provide case studies demonstrating vulnerability analysis workflows which include a multiple-node testbed and data from the 2011 VAST Challenge.

  11. Assessing the Security Vulnerabilities of Correctional Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, G.S.; Spencer, D.S.

    1998-10-27

    The National Institute of Justice has tasked their Satellite Facility at Sandia National Laboratories and their Southeast Regional Technology Center in Charleston, South Carolina to devise new procedures and tools for helping correctional facilities to assess their security vulnerabilities. Thus, a team is visiting selected correctional facilities and performing vulnerability assessments. A vulnerability assessment helps to identi~ the easiest paths for inmate escape, for introduction of contraband such as drugs or weapons, for unexpected intrusion fi-om outside of the facility, and for the perpetration of violent acts on other inmates and correctional employees, In addition, the vulnerability assessment helps to quantify the security risks for the facility. From these initial assessments will come better procedures for performing vulnerability assessments in general at other correctional facilities, as well as the development of tools to assist with the performance of such vulnerability assessments.

  12. Measuring and incorporating vulnerability into conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kerrie; Pressey, Robert L; Newton, Adrian; Burgman, Mark; Possingham, Hugh; Weston, Chris

    2005-05-01

    Conservation planning is the process of locating and designing conservation areas to promote the persistence of biodiversity in situ. To do this, conservation areas must be able to mitigate at least some of the proximate threats to biodiversity. Information on threatening processes and the relative vulnerability of areas and natural features to these processes is therefore crucial for effective conservation planning. However, measuring and incorporating vulnerability into conservation planning have been problematic. We develop a conceptual framework of the role of vulnerability assessments in conservation planning and propose a definition of vulnerability that incorporates three dimensions: exposure, intensity, and impact. We review and categorize methods for assessing the vulnerability of areas and the features they contain and identify the relative strengths and weaknesses of each broad approach. Our review highlights the need for further development and evaluation of approaches to assess vulnerability and for comparisons of their relative effectiveness. PMID:15920667

  13. Assessing the security vulnerabilities of correctional facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Debra D.; Morrison, G. Steve

    1998-12-01

    The National Institute of Justice has tasked their satellite facility at Sandia National Laboratories and their Southeast Regional Technology Center in Charleston, South Carolina to devise new procedures and tools for helping correctional facilities to assess their security vulnerabilities. Thus, a team is visiting selected correctional facilities and performing vulnerability assessments. A vulnerability assessment helps identify the easiest paths for inmate escape, for introduction of contraband such as drugs or weapons, for unexpected intrusion from outside of the facility, and for the perpetration of violent acts on other inmates and correctional employees. In addition, the vulnerability assessment helps to quantify the security risks for the facility. From these assessments will come better procedures for performing vulnerability assessments in general at other correctional facilities, as well as the development of tools to assist with the performance of such vulnerability assessments.

  14. Mining Bug Databases for Unidentified Software Vulnerabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Dumidu Wijayasekara; Milos Manic; Jason Wright; Miles McQueen

    2012-06-01

    Identifying software vulnerabilities is becoming more important as critical and sensitive systems increasingly rely on complex software systems. It has been suggested in previous work that some bugs are only identified as vulnerabilities long after the bug has been made public. These vulnerabilities are known as hidden impact vulnerabilities. This paper discusses the feasibility and necessity to mine common publicly available bug databases for vulnerabilities that are yet to be identified. We present bug database analysis of two well known and frequently used software packages, namely Linux kernel and MySQL. It is shown that for both Linux and MySQL, a significant portion of vulnerabilities that were discovered for the time period from January 2006 to April 2011 were hidden impact vulnerabilities. It is also shown that the percentage of hidden impact vulnerabilities has increased in the last two years, for both software packages. We then propose an improved hidden impact vulnerability identification methodology based on text mining bug databases, and conclude by discussing a few potential problems faced by such a classifier.

  15. Saudis awaken to their vulnerability

    SciTech Connect

    Tinnin, D.B.

    1980-03-10

    Saudi Arabia is becoming aware that it is vulnerable to internal and external pressures which threaten its security. The strains of rapid modernization and threats from hostile neighbors are undermining the consensus which has held the widely diverse country together in a system of open communication. Influence by the Bedouin (ruling) and the ulama (religious) groups has predominated a traditional society determined to modernize and still remain conservative. Members of the ruling class are seeking to profit from the modernization process, but the common Saudi resists becoming an industrial laborer. Recent events in Mecca, Afghanistan and elsewhere illustrate how political pressures are affecting the country's leadership in the threat of armed conflicts over its oil supplies. (DCK)

  16. Proliferation Vulnerability Red Team report

    SciTech Connect

    Hinton, J.P.; Barnard, R.W.; Bennett, D.E.

    1996-10-01

    This report is the product of a four-month independent technical assessment of potential proliferation vulnerabilities associated with the plutonium disposition alternatives currently under review by DOE/MD. The scope of this MD-chartered/Sandia-led study was limited to technical considerations that could reduce proliferation resistance during various stages of the disposition processes below the Stored Weapon/Spent Fuel standards. Both overt and covert threats from host nation and unauthorized parties were considered. The results of this study will be integrated with complementary work by others into an overall Nonproliferation and Arms Control Assessment in support of a Secretarial Record of Decision later this year for disposition of surplus U.S. weapons plutonium.

  17. Neuroimaging of the Vulnerable Plaque

    PubMed Central

    Lovblad, Karl-Olof; Mendes-Pereira, Vitor; Garibotto, Valentina; Assal, Frédéric; Willi, Jean-Pierre; Stztajzel, Roman; Ratib, Osman; Vargas, Maria Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Plaque vulnerability due to inflammation has been shown to be a participating factor in the degenerative process in the arterial wall that contributes to stenosis and embolism. This is believed to have an important role to play also in the genesis of stroke or cerebrovascular diseases. In order to appropriately screen patients for treatment, there is an absolute need to directly or indirectly visualize both the normal carotid and the suspected plaque. This can be done with a variety of techniques ranging from ultrasound to computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition to angiographic techniques, direct imaging of the plaque can be done either by ultrasound or by the so-called molecular imaging techniques, i.e. positron emission tomography (PET). These findings, together with other clinical and paraclinical parameters should finally guide the therapeutic choice. PMID:24188487

  18. Attack Vulnerability of Network Controllability.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhe-Ming; Li, Xin-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Controllability of complex networks has attracted much attention, and understanding the robustness of network controllability against potential attacks and failures is of practical significance. In this paper, we systematically investigate the attack vulnerability of network controllability for the canonical model networks as well as the real-world networks subject to attacks on nodes and edges. The attack strategies are selected based on degree and betweenness centralities calculated for either the initial network or the current network during the removal, among which random failure is as a comparison. It is found that the node-based strategies are often more harmful to the network controllability than the edge-based ones, and so are the recalculated strategies than their counterparts. The Barabási-Albert scale-free model, which has a highly biased structure, proves to be the most vulnerable of the tested model networks. In contrast, the Erdős-Rényi random model, which lacks structural bias, exhibits much better robustness to both node-based and edge-based attacks. We also survey the control robustness of 25 real-world networks, and the numerical results show that most real networks are control robust to random node failures, which has not been observed in the model networks. And the recalculated betweenness-based strategy is the most efficient way to harm the controllability of real-world networks. Besides, we find that the edge degree is not a good quantity to measure the importance of an edge in terms of network controllability. PMID:27588941

  19. Infrastructure Vulnerability Assessment Model (I-VAM).

    PubMed

    Ezell, Barry Charles

    2007-06-01

    Quantifying vulnerability to critical infrastructure has not been adequately addressed in the literature. Thus, the purpose of this article is to present a model that quantifies vulnerability. Vulnerability is defined as a measure of system susceptibility to threat scenarios. This article asserts that vulnerability is a condition of the system and it can be quantified using the Infrastructure Vulnerability Assessment Model (I-VAM). The model is presented and then applied to a medium-sized clean water system. The model requires subject matter experts (SMEs) to establish value functions and weights, and to assess protection measures of the system. Simulation is used to account for uncertainty in measurement, aggregate expert assessment, and to yield a vulnerability (Omega) density function. Results demonstrate that I-VAM is useful to decisionmakers who prefer quantification to qualitative treatment of vulnerability. I-VAM can be used to quantify vulnerability to other infrastructures, supervisory control and data acquisition systems (SCADA), and distributed control systems (DCS). PMID:17640208

  20. Predicting Vulnerability Risks Using Software Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roumani, Yaman

    2012-01-01

    Software vulnerabilities have been regarded as one of the key reasons for computer security breaches that have resulted in billions of dollars in losses per year (Telang and Wattal 2005). With the growth of the software industry and the Internet, the number of vulnerability attacks and the ease with which an attack can be made have increased. From…

  1. Design Vulnerability Assessments for Safeguards Sealing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brockman, Linda; Johnston, Roger; Kravtchenko, Victor; Undem, Halvor A.; Wishard, Bernard

    2010-08-11

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (the "Agency") engages in a rigorous equipment authorization process prior to deploying Safeguards instrumentation, including Safeguards sealing systems, for world-wide use. A positive result from a vulnerability assessment is one of the many requirements that must be met prior to instrumentation deployment. Given the long time period in the Safeguards instrumentation development cycle, the substantial Member State investments made, and the significant Agency staff time required, a negative result for the vulnerability assessment can result in the loss of time, considerable additional expense, or even the failure to deploy an instrument or sealing system at all. First suggested in 1998 by the General Physics Institute in Moscow, an approach that incorporates a design vulnerability assessment minimizes the risk of deployment failure by teaming a public sector vulnerability assessment team with the instrument or sealing system design team in order to identify, at the earliest possible design stage, inherent vulnerabilities. Involving the vulnerability assessors early and often in the design and development process avoids many of the problems inherent in evaluating security vulnerabilities only after the design is finalized. The disadvantages include increased costs and time to deployment. An improved pressure-sensitive adhesive label seal, called the "VOID-3 seal" was developed for the Agency using this design vulnerability assessment process.

  2. [Medical research and vulnerable subjects: unemployed people].

    PubMed

    Niebrój, Lesław

    2006-01-01

    Although the importance of medical research for the diagnosis and treatment of human diseases is unquestionable, the use of human subjects, however, still presents a complex ethical problem. Moral difficulties occur in particular when the medical research deals with vulnerable subjects. Vulnerable individuals are defined as those who experience diminished actual autonomy. Among the groups which should be considered as being vulnerable are usually listed the following: children, pregnant women, mentally or emotionally disabled, physically disabled, homeless, and institutionalized people. This study addresses key concerns that gave rise to the question of whether unemployed people had to be recognized as vulnerable subjects. The term "vulnerability" was clarified and it was assumed that the "vulnerability" of medical research subjects' had to be understood as a form of continuum from potential, through the circumstantial, temporal, episodic, permanent to inevitable vulnerability. The conclusion was drawn that unemployed people were, at least, potentially vulnerable subjects. Research involving unemployed people presents important moral challenges to researchers and should be undertaken very carefully, following special ethical guidelines. PMID:17441390

  3. Opportunistic Interruptions: Interactional Vulnerabilities Deriving from Linearization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, David R.

    2005-01-01

    Speaking involves "linearizing" a message into a string of words. This process leaves us vulnerable to being interrupted in such a way that the aborted turn is a misrepresentation of the intended message. Further, because we linearize our messages in standard ways, we are recurrently vulnerable to interruptions at particular turn-construction…

  4. Vulnerable Youth and Transitions to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Rongbing; Sen, Bisakha; Foster, E. Michael

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on vulnerable youth, the challenges they face during their transitions to adulthood, and the adverse effects of limited support systems on those transitions. The authors offer recommendations on how adult educators can help facilitate smooth transitions into adulthood for vulnerable youth.

  5. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: cell vulnerability or system vulnerability?

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a complex neurodegenerative disease with clinical, pathological and genetic overlap with frontotemporal dementia (FTD). No longer viewed as one disease with a single unified cause, ALS is now considered to be a clinicopathological syndrome resulting from a complex convergence of genetic susceptibility, age-related loss of cellular homeostasis, and possible environmental influences. The rapid increase in recent years of the number of genes in which mutations have been associated with ALS has led to in vitro and in vivo models that have generated a wealth of data indicating disruption of specific biochemical pathways and sub-cellular compartments. Data implicating pathways including protein misfolding, mRNA splicing, oxidative stress, proteosome and mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of ALS reinforce a disease model based on selective age-dependent vulnerability of a specific population of cells. To the clinical neurologist, however, ALS presents as a disease of focal onset and contiguous spread. Characteristic regional patterns of involvement and progression suggest that the disease does not proceed randomly but via a restricted number of anatomical pathways. These clinical observations combined with electrophysiological and brain-imaging studies underpin the concept of ALS at the macroscopic level as a ‘system degeneration’. This dichotomy between cellular and systems neurobiology raises the fundamental questions of what initiates the disease process in a specific anatomical site and how the disease is propagated. Is the essence of ALS a cell-to-cell transmission of pathology with, for example, a ‘prion-like’ mechanism, or does the cellular pathology follow degeneration of specific synaptic networks? Elucidating the interaction between cellular degeneration and system level degeneration will aid modeling of the disease in the earliest phases, improve the development of sensitive markers of disease

  6. Determining Vulnerability Importance in Environmental Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Toro, Javier; Duarte, Oscar; Requena, Ignacio; Zamorano, Montserrat

    2012-01-15

    The concept of vulnerability has been used to describe the susceptibility of physical, biotic, and social systems to harm or hazard. In this sense, it is a tool that reduces the uncertainties of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) since it does not depend exclusively on the value assessments of the evaluator, but rather is based on the environmental state indicators of the site where the projects or activities are being carried out. The concept of vulnerability thus reduces the possibility that evaluators will subjectively interpret results, and be influenced by outside interests and pressures during projects. However, up until now, EIA has been hindered by a lack of effective methods. This research study analyzes the concept of vulnerability, defines Vulnerability Importance and proposes its inclusion in qualitative EIA methodology. The method used to quantify Vulnerability Importance is based on a set of environmental factors and indicators that provide a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. The results obtained in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method since there is a direct relation between this value and the environmental state of the departments analyzed. - Research Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The concept of vulnerability could be considered defining Vulnerability Importance included in qualitative EIA methodology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The use of the concept of environmental vulnerability could reduce the subjectivity of qualitative methods of EIA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method to quantify the Vulnerability Importance proposed provides a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method.

  7. Understanding the Code: safeguarding vulnerable adults.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Under the provisions of the Nursing and Midwifery Council's revised Code (2015) , all district and community nurses have a professional duty to safeguard vulnerable adults from abuse. With adult abuse continuing to increase, all members of the district and community nursing teams are well placed to identify and take action to safeguard the vulnerable. In this article, Richard Griffith explains how the Care Act 2014 seeks to improve the safeguarding of vulnerable adults and the role of district and community nurses in that process. PMID:26551387

  8. Nuclear material production cycle vulnerability analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bott, T.F.

    1996-07-01

    This paper discusses a method for rapidly and systematically identifying vulnerable equipment in a nuclear material or similar production process and ranking that equipment according to its attractiveness to a malevolent attacker. A multistep approach was used in the analysis. First, the entire production cycle was modeled as a flow diagram. This flow diagram was analyzed using graph theoretical methods to identify processes in the production cycle and their locations. Models of processes that were judged to be particularly vulnerable based on the cycle analysis then were developed in greater detail to identify equipment in that process that is vulnerable to intentional damage.

  9. Global health, vulnerable populations, and law.

    PubMed

    Benatar, Solomon R

    2013-01-01

    Given the fragility of individual and population wellbeing in an interdependent world threatened by many overlapping crises, the suggestion is made that new legal mechanisms have the robust potential to reduce human vulnerability locally and globally. PMID:23581656

  10. [Aged woman's vulnerability related to AIDS].

    PubMed

    Silva, Carla Marins; Lopes, Fernanda Maria do Valle Martins; Vargens, Octavio Muniz da Costa

    2010-09-01

    This article is a systhematic literature review including the period from 1994 to 2009, whose objective was to discuss the aged woman's vulnerability in relation to Acquired Imunodeficiency Syndrome (Aids). The search for scientific texts was accomplished in the following databases: Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, Scientific Eletronic Library Online (SciELO), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE). The descriptors used were vulnerability, woman and Aids. Eighteen texts were analyzed, including articles in scientific journals, thesis and dissertations. As a conclusion, it was noted that aged women and vulnerability to Aids are directly related, through gender characteristics including submission and that were built historical and socially. We consider as fundamental the development of studies which may generate publications accessible to women, in order to help them see themselves as persons vulnerable to Aids contagion just for being women. PMID:21574329

  11. Salt vulnerability assessment methodology for urban streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, A. R.; Gharabaghi, B.; McBean, E. A.

    2014-09-01

    De-icing agents such as road salts while used for winter road maintenance can cause negative effects on urban stream water quality and drinking water supplies. A new methodology using readily available spatial data to identify Salt Vulnerable Areas (SVAs) for urban streams is used to prioritize implementation of best management practices. The methodology calculates the probable chloride concentration statistics at specified points in the urban stream network and compares the results with known aquatic species exposure tolerance limits to characterize the vulnerability scores. The approach prioritizes implementation of best management practices to areas identified as vulnerable to road salt. The vulnerability assessment is performed on seven sites in four watersheds in the Greater Toronto Area and validated using the Hanlon Creek watershed in Guelph. The mean annual in-stream chloride concentration equation uses readily available spatial data - with province-wide coverage - that can be easily used in any urban watershed.

  12. Housing concerns of vulnerable older Canadians.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Lori E; LeBlanc, Kristal

    2010-09-01

    Preparing for the future housing needs of older adults is imperative in countries with an aging population, but little is known about these issues among vulnerable older adults. This study used a qualitative approach to identify key housing concerns in this group. A total of 84 vulnerable older adults including Aboriginal elders, those with various disabilities, and ethnic minorities participated in 10 focus groups. The Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation's (CMHC's) standards of core housing need provided a framework for data analysis, along with the identification of additional key housing themes across and within groups of vulnerable older adults. The results provide insight into preferred housing characteristics, regardless of housing form. Additionally, the results provide insight into how to support vulnerable older adults who choose to remain in their homes and communities and how to help ensure that appropriate housing is developed that meets the needs of this diverse population. PMID:20712917

  13. [Vulnerability and National Health Service].

    PubMed

    Lima, Cristina

    2006-01-01

    to value life. The article concludes drawing attention to the need to invest in health education, which is just as important as the fair distribution of precious health care resources in reducing harmful risks to the most vulnerable patients. PMID:16987443

  14. Camana, Peru, and Tsunami Vulnerability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A tsunami washed over the low-lying coastal resort region near Camana, southern Peru, following a strong earthquake on June 23, 2001. The earthquake was one of the most powerful of the last 35 years and had a magnitude of 8.4. After the initial quake, coastal residents witnessed a sudden drawdown of the ocean and knew a tsunami was imminent. They had less than 20 minutes to reach higher ground before the tsunami hit. Waves as high as 8 m came in four destructive surges reaching as far as 1.2 km inland. The dashed line marks the approximate area of tsunami inundation. Thousands of buildings were destroyed, and the combined earthquake and tsunami killed as many as 139 people. This image (ISS004-ESC-6128) was taken by astronauts onboard the International Space Station on 10 January 2002. It shows some of the reasons that the Camana area was so vulnerable to tsunami damage. The area has a 1 km band of coastal plain that is less than 5 m in elevation. Much of the plain can be seen by the bright green fields of irrigated agriculture that contrast with the light-colored desert high ground. Many of the tsunami-related deaths were workers in the onion fields in the coastal plain that were unwilling to leave their jobs before the end of the shift. A number of lives were spared because the tsunami occurred during the resort off-season, during the daylight when people could see the ocean drawdown, and during one of the lowest tides of the year. Information on the Tsunami that hit Camana can be found in a reports on the visit by the International Tsunami Survey Team and the USC Tsunami Research Lab. Earthquake Epicenter, Peru shows another image of the area. Image provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  15. Vulnerability assessment of mining subsidence hazards.

    PubMed

    Deck, Olivier; Verdel, Thierry; Salmon, Romuald

    2009-10-01

    Between 1996 and 1999, five mining subsidence events occurred in the iron-ore field in Lorraine, France, and damaged several hundred buildings. Because of the thousand hectares of undermined areas, an assessment of the vulnerability of buildings and land is necessary for risk management. Risk assessment methods changed from initial risk management decisions that took place immediately after the mining subsidence to the risk assessment studies that are currently under consideration. These changes reveal much about the complexity of the vulnerability concept and about difficulties in developing simple and relevant methods for its assessment. The objective of this article is to present this process, suggest improvements on the basis of theoretical definitions of the vulnerability, and give an operational example of vulnerability assessment in the seismic field. The vulnerability is divided into three components: weakness, stakes value, and resilience. Final improvements take into account these three components and constitute an original method of assessing the vulnerability of a city to subsidence. PMID:19473313

  16. Global Distributions of Vulnerability to Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Yohe, Gary; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Brenkert, Antoinette L.; Schlesinger, Michael; Meij, Henk; Xiaoshi, Xing

    2006-12-01

    Signatories of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have committed themselves to addressing the “specific needs and special circumstances of developing country parties, especially those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change”.1 The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has since concluded with high confidence that “developing countries will be more vulnerable to climate change than developed countries”.2 In their most recent report, however, the IPCC notes that “current knowledge of adaptation and adaptive capacity is insufficient for reliable prediction of adaptations” 3 because “the capacity to adapt varies considerably among regions, countries and socioeconomic groups and will vary over time”.4 Here, we respond to the apparent contradiction in these two statements by exploring how variation in adaptive capacity and climate impacts combine to influence the global distribution of vulnerability. We find that all countries will be vulnerable to climate change, even if their adaptive capacities are enhanced. Developing nations are most vulnerable to modest climate change. Reducing greenhouse-gas emissions would diminish their vulnerabilities significantly. Developed countries would benefit most from mitigation for moderate climate change. Extreme climate change overwhelms the abilities of all countries to adapt. These findings should inform both ongoing negotiations for the next commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol and emerging plans for implementing UNFCCC-sponsored adaptation funds.

  17. Drought vulnerability assesssment and mapping in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imani, Yasmina; Lahlou, Ouiam; Bennasser Alaoui, Si; Naumann, Gustavo; Barbosa, Paulo; Vogt, Juergen

    2014-05-01

    Drought vulnerability assessment and mapping in Morocco Authors: Yasmina Imani 1, Ouiam Lahlou 1, Si Bennasser Alaoui 1 Paulo Barbosa 2, Jurgen Vogt 2, Gustavo Naumann 2 1: Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II (IAV Hassan II), Rabat Morocco. 2: European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Environment and Sustainability (IES), Ispra, Italy. In Morocco, nearly 50% of the population lives in rural areas. They are mostly small subsistent farmers whose production depends almost entirely on rainfall. They are therefore very sensitive to drought episodes that may dramatically affect their incomes. Although, as a consequence of the increasing frequency, length and severity of drought episodes in the late 90's, the Moroccan government decided, to move on from a crisis to a risk management approach, drought management remains in practice mainly reactive and often ineffective. The lack of effectiveness of public policy is in part a consequence of the poor understanding of drought vulnerability at the rural community level, which prevents the development of efficient mitigation actions and adaptation strategies, tailored to the needs and specificities of each rural community. Thus, the aim of this study is to assess and map drought vulnerability at the rural commune level in the Oum Er-Rbia basin which is a very heterogeneous basin, showing a big variability of climates, landscapes, cropping systems and social habits. Agricultural data collected from the provincial and local administrations of Agriculture and socio-economic data from the National Department of Statistics were used to compute a composite vulnerability index (DVI) integrating four different components: (i) the renewable natural capacity, (ii) the economic capacity, (iii) human and civic resources, and (iv) infrastructure and technology. The drought vulnerability maps that were derived from the computation of the DVI shows that except very specific areas, most of the Oum er Rbia

  18. A knowledge integration approach to flood vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzorana, Bruno; Fuchs, Sven

    2014-05-01

    Understanding, qualifying and quantifying vulnerability is an essential need for implementing effective and efficient flood risk mitigation strategies; in particular if possible synergies between different mitigation alternatives, such as active and passive measures, should be achieved. In order to combine different risk management options it is necessary to take an interdisciplinary approach to vulnerability reduction, and as a result the affected society may be willing to accept a certain degree of self-responsibility. However, due to differing mono-disciplinary approaches and regional foci undertaken until now, different aspects of vulnerability to natural hazards in general and to floods in particular remain uncovered and as a result the developed management options remain sub-optimal. Taking an even more fundamental viewpoint, the empirical vulnerability functions used in risk assessment specifically fail to capture physical principles of the damage-generating mechanisms to the build environment. The aim of this paper is to partially close this gap by discussing a balanced knowledge integration approach which can be used to resolve the multidisciplinary disorder in flood vulnerability research. Modelling techniques such as mathematical-physical modelling of the flood hazard impact to and response from the building envelope affected, and formative scenario analyses of possible consequences in terms of damage and loss are used in synergy to provide an enhanced understanding of vulnerability and to render the derived knowledge into interdisciplinary mitigation strategies. The outlined formal procedure allows for a convincing knowledge alignment of quantified, but partial, information about vulnerability as a result of the application of physical and engineering notions and valuable, but often underspecified, qualitative argumentation strings emerging from the adopted socio-economic viewpoint.

  19. Vulnerability of schools to floods in Nyando River catchment, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ochola, Samuel O; Eitel, Bernhard; Olago, Daniel O

    2010-07-01

    This paper assesses the vulnerability of schools to floods in the Nyando River catchment (3,600 km(2)) in western Kenya and identifies measures needed to reduce this vulnerability. It surveys 130 schools in the lower reaches, where flooding is a recurrent phenomenon. Of the primary schools assessed, 40% were vulnerable, 48% were marginally vulnerable and 12% were not vulnerable. Of the secondary schools, 8% were vulnerable, 73% were marginally vulnerable and 19% were not vulnerable. Vulnerability to floods is due to a lack of funds, poor building standards, local topography, soil types and inadequate drainage. The Constituencies Development Fund (CDF), established in 2003, provides financial support to cover school construction and reconstruction costs; CDF Committees are expected to adopt school building standards. In an effort to promote safe and resilient construction and retrofitting to withstand floods, this paper presents vulnerability reduction strategies and recommendations for incorporating minimum standards in the on-going Primary School Infrastructure Programme Design. PMID:20298261

  20. Cyber/Physical Security Vulnerability Assessment Integration

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, Douglas G.; Clements, Samuel L.; Patrick, Scott W.; Perkins, Casey J.; Muller, George; Lancaster, Mary J.; Hutton, William J.

    2013-02-28

    Securing high value and critical assets is one of the biggest challenges facing this nation and others around the world. In modern integrated systems, there are four potential modes of attack available to an adversary: • physical only attack, • cyber only attack, • physical-enabled cyber attack, • cyber-enabled physical attack. Blended attacks involve an adversary working in one domain to reduce system effectiveness in another domain. This enables the attacker to penetrate further into the overall layered defenses. Existing vulnerability assessment (VA) processes and software tools which predict facility vulnerabilities typically evaluate the physical and cyber domains separately. Vulnerabilities which result from the integration of cyber-physical control systems are not well characterized and are often overlooked by existing assessment approaches. In this paper, we modified modification of the timely detection methodology, used for decades in physical security VAs, to include cyber components. The Physical and Cyber Risk Analysis Tool (PACRAT) prototype illustrates an integrated vulnerability assessment that includes cyber-physical interdependencies. Information about facility layout, network topology, and emplaced safeguards is used to evaluate how well suited a facility is to detect, delay, and respond to attacks, to identify the pathways most vulnerable to attack, and to evaluate how often safeguards are compromised for a given threat or adversary type. We have tested the PACRAT prototype on critical infrastructure facilities and the results are promising. Future work includes extending the model to prescribe the recommended security improvements via an automated cost-benefit analysis.

  1. Vulnerabilities in snakebites in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bertolozzi, Maria Rita; Scatena, Camila Morato da Conceição; França, Francisco Oscar de Siqueira

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe elements of vulnerability of victims of snakebite. METHODS This qualitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study had, as theoretical framework, the concept of vulnerability in individual, social, and programmatic dimensions. We interviewed 21 patients admitted into a hospital specialized in the care of accidents caused by venomous animals. The interviews were analyzed according to a discourse analysis technique. RESULTS Patients were mainly young men, living in remote countryside areas, where health services frequently have limited resources. We found social and individual conditions of vulnerability, such as precarious schooling, low professional qualification, housing without access to piped water, no sewage treated, and no regular garbage collection, and lack of knowledge on this health problem. Regarding the programmatic dimension, we found limited accessibility to the health services that could affect the prognosis and the frequency of sequelae and deaths. CONCLUSIONS Considering such vulnerabilities evoke the need to improve the program for control the Accidents by Venomous Animals and the training of health workers, we highlight the potential use of the concept of vulnerability, which may amplify the understanding and the recommendations for the practice and education related to snakebites. PMID:26603351

  2. Reactions to research participation in vulnerable subgroups.

    PubMed

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally J

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the extent to which vulnerable individuals (defined by economic, social, psychological, physical health, and child maltreatment status) react to research participation. As part of an ongoing longitudinal study, participants (N=896) completed a lengthy and intrusive in-person interview and provided a small amount of blood through finger pricks. At the end of the interview, participants were asked eight questions about their reactions to the research experience. Vulnerable individuals in general agreed more strongly about having an emotional reaction, but were not less willing to continue to participate. In addition, psychologically vulnerable individuals more strongly agreed they would continue to participate, were treated with respect and dignity, and found their participation meaningful. Compared to whites, nonwhites reported stronger agreement about the meaningfulness of the research and the belief that their responses would be kept private. Like others, individuals vulnerable by virtue of their prisoner status or homelessness (past or current) agreed more strongly about having an emotional reaction to the interview, but otherwise did not differ in their reactions. These results suggest that researchers and institutional review boards should not be deterred from conducting research on sensitive topics with potentially vulnerable populations. PMID:16220625

  3. Understanding the Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act 2006.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam

    2009-07-01

    The Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act 2006 was enacted as a result of the Government adopting the recommendations of the Bichard Inquiry (2004), that looked into the circumstances surrounding the death of two children in Soham in 2002. The 2006 Act provides a new vetting and barring scheme to replace the existing arrangements for safeguarding children and vulnerable adults from harm, or the risk of harm, by employees and volunteers whose work gives them significant access to these vulnerable groups. The Act extends statutory vetting and barring schemes to the health service as well as the social care sector. It is therefore important that district nurses are aware of the provisions of the Act and the timetable for implementation. This will enable them to better understand their legal duties, in order to protect themselves from liability and to protect their patients from abuse. PMID:19597384

  4. Mapping Regional Drought Vulnerability: a Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamouz, M.; Zeynolabedin, A.; Olyaei, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is among the natural disaster that causes damages and affects many people's life in many part of the world including in Iran. Recently, some factors such as climate variability and the impact of climate change have influenced drought frequency and intensity in many parts of the world. Drought can be divided into four categories of meteorological, hydrological, agricultural and social-economic. In meteorological the important feature is lack of rainfall. In hydrological drought river flows and dam storage are considered. Lack of soil moisture is the key factor in agricultural droughts while in social-economic type of drought the relation between supply and demand and social-economic damages due to water deficiency is studied. While the first three types relates to the lack of some hydrological characteristics, social-economic type of drought is actually the consequence of other types expressed in monetary values. Many indices are used in assessing drought; each has its own advantages and disadvantages and can be used for specific types of drought. Therefore knowing the types of drought can provide a better understanding of shortages and their characteristics. Drought vulnerability is a concept which shows the likelihood of damages from hazard in a particular place by focusing on the system status prior to the disaster. Drought vulnerability has been viewed as a potential for losses in the region due to water deficiency at the time of drought. In this study the application of vulnerability concept in drought management in East Azarbaijan province in Iran is investigated by providing vulnerability maps which demonstrates spatial characteristics of drought vulnerability. In the first step, certain governing parameters in drought analysis such as precipitation, temperature, land use, topography, solar radiation and ground water elevation have been investigated in the region. They are described in details and calculated in suitable time series. Vulnerabilities

  5. A framework for modeling rail transport vulnerability

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Steven K; Church, Richard L.

    2008-01-01

    Railroads represent one of the most efficient methods of long-haul transport for bulk commodities, from coal to agricultural products. Over the past fifty years, the rail network has contracted while tonnage has increased. Service, geographically, has been abandoned along short haul routes and increased along major long haul routes, resulting in a network that is more streamlined. The current rail network may be very vulnerable to disruptions, like the failure of a trestle. This paper proposes a framework to model rail network vulnerability and gives an application of this modeling framework in analyzing rail network vulnerability for the State of Washington. It concludes with a number of policy related issues that need to be addressed in order to identify, plan, and mitigate the risks associated with the sudden loss of a bridge or trestle.

  6. Climate challenges, vulnerabilities, and food security

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Margaret C.; Ingram, Scott E.; Dugmore, Andrew J.; Streeter, Richard; Peeples, Matthew A.; McGovern, Thomas H.; Hegmon, Michelle; Arneborg, Jette; Brewington, Seth; Spielmann, Katherine A.; Simpson, Ian A.; Strawhacker, Colleen; Comeau, Laura E. L.; Torvinen, Andrea; Madsen, Christian K.; Hambrecht, George; Smiarowski, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    This paper identifies rare climate challenges in the long-term history of seven areas, three in the subpolar North Atlantic Islands and four in the arid-to-semiarid deserts of the US Southwest. For each case, the vulnerability to food shortage before the climate challenge is quantified based on eight variables encompassing both environmental and social domains. These data are used to evaluate the relationship between the “weight” of vulnerability before a climate challenge and the nature of social change and food security following a challenge. The outcome of this work is directly applicable to debates about disaster management policy. PMID:26712017

  7. Assessment of Chemical and Radiological Vulnerabilities

    SciTech Connect

    SETH, S.S.

    2000-05-17

    Following the May 14, 1997 chemical explosion at Hanford's Plutonium Reclamation Facility, the Department of Energy Richland Operations Office and its prime contractor, Fluor Hanford, Inc., completed an extensive assessment to identify and address chemical and radiological safety vulnerabilities at all facilities under the Project Hanford Management Contract. This was a challenging undertaking because of the immense size of the problem, unique technical issues, and competing priorities. This paper focuses on the assessment process, including the criteria and methodology for data collection, evaluation, and risk-based scoring. It does not provide details on the facility-specific results and corrective actions, but discusses the approach taken to address the identified vulnerabilities.

  8. Microbiological Food Safety for Vulnerable People

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Barbara M.

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne pathogens are more likely to cause infection and to result in serious consequences in vulnerable people than in healthy adults. People with some increase in susceptibility may form nearly 20% of the population in the UK and the USA. Conditions leading to increased susceptibility are listed. The main factors leading to foodborne disease caused by major pathogens are outlined and examples are given of outbreaks resulting from these factors. Measures to prevent foodborne disease include procedures based on Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point principles and prerequisite programmes and, especially for vulnerable people, the use of lower-risk foods in place of higher-risk products. PMID:26308030

  9. Climate challenges, vulnerabilities, and food security.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Margaret C; Ingram, Scott E; Dugmore, Andrew J; Streeter, Richard; Peeples, Matthew A; McGovern, Thomas H; Hegmon, Michelle; Arneborg, Jette; Kintigh, Keith W; Brewington, Seth; Spielmann, Katherine A; Simpson, Ian A; Strawhacker, Colleen; Comeau, Laura E L; Torvinen, Andrea; Madsen, Christian K; Hambrecht, George; Smiarowski, Konrad

    2016-01-12

    This paper identifies rare climate challenges in the long-term history of seven areas, three in the subpolar North Atlantic Islands and four in the arid-to-semiarid deserts of the US Southwest. For each case, the vulnerability to food shortage before the climate challenge is quantified based on eight variables encompassing both environmental and social domains. These data are used to evaluate the relationship between the "weight" of vulnerability before a climate challenge and the nature of social change and food security following a challenge. The outcome of this work is directly applicable to debates about disaster management policy. PMID:26712017

  10. Climate vulnerability of drinking water supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selmeczi, Pál; Homolya, Emese; Rotárné Szalkai, Ágnes

    2016-04-01

    Extreme weather conditions in Hungary led to difficulties in drinking water management on diverse occasions in the past. Due to reduced water resources and the coexisting high demand for drinking water in dry summer periods the availability of a number of water supplies became insufficient therefore causing limitations in water access. In some other cases, as a result of floods and flash floods over karstic areas evolving in consequence of excessive precipitation, several water supplies had to be excluded in order to avoid the risk of infections. More frequent occurrence of extreme weather conditions and further possible changes in the future induce the necessity for an analysis of the vulnerability of drinking water resources to climate change. Since 95% of the total drinking water supply in Hungary originates from subsurface layers, significance of groundwater resources is outstanding. The aim of our work carried out in the frames of the NAGiS (National Adaptation Geo-information System) project was to build up a methodology for the study and determination of the vulnerability of drinking water supplies to climate. The task covered analyses of climatic parameters influencing drinking water supplies principally and hydrogeological characteristics of the geological media that significantly determines vulnerability. Effects on drinking water resources and their reduction or exclusion may imply societal and economic consequences therefore we extended the analyses to the investigation of possibilities concerning the adaptation capacity to changed conditions. We applied the CIVAS (Climate Impact and Vulnerability Assessment Scheme) model developed in the frames of the international climate research project CLAVIER (Climate Change and Variability: Impact on Central and Eastern Europe) to characterize climate vulnerability of drinking water supplies. The CIVAS model, being based on the combined evaluation of exposure, sensitivity and adaptability, provides a unified

  11. Retrieval from Memory: Vulnerable or Inviolable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dylan M.; Marsh, John E.; Hughes, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    We show that retrieval from semantic memory is vulnerable even to the mere presence of speech. Irrelevant speech impairs semantic fluency--namely, lexical retrieval cued by a semantic category name--but only if it is meaningful (forward speech compared to reversed speech or words compared to nonwords). Moreover, speech related semantically to the…

  12. Web vulnerability study of online pharmacy sites.

    PubMed

    Kuzma, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Consumers are increasingly using online pharmacies, but these sites may not provide an adequate level of security with the consumers' personal data. There is a gap in this research addressing the problems of security vulnerabilities in this industry. The objective is to identify the level of web application security vulnerabilities in online pharmacies and the common types of flaws, thus expanding on prior studies. Technical, managerial and legal recommendations on how to mitigate security issues are presented. The proposed four-step method first consists of choosing an online testing tool. The next steps involve choosing a list of 60 online pharmacy sites to test, and then running the software analysis to compile a list of flaws. Finally, an in-depth analysis is performed on the types of web application vulnerabilities. The majority of sites had serious vulnerabilities, with the majority of flaws being cross-site scripting or old versions of software that have not been updated. A method is proposed for the securing of web pharmacy sites, using a multi-phased approach of technical and managerial techniques together with a thorough understanding of national legal requirements for securing systems. PMID:21208091

  13. CYBER/PHYSICAL SECURITY VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT INTEGRATION

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, Douglas G.; Key, Brad; Clements, Samuel L.; Hutton, William J.; Craig, Philip A.; Patrick, Scott W.; Crawford, Cary E.

    2011-07-17

    This internally funded Laboratory-Directed R&D project by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in conjunction with QinetiQ North America, is intended to identify and properly assess areas of overlap (and interaction) in the vulnerability assessment process between cyber security and physical protection. Existing vulnerability analysis (VA) processes and software tools exist, and these are heavily utilized in the determination of predicted vulnerability within the physical and cyber security domains. These determinations are normally performed independently of one another, and only interact on a superficial level. Both physical and cyber security subject matter experts have come to realize that though the various interactive elements exist, they are not currently quantified in most periodic security assessments. This endeavor aims to evaluate both physical and cyber VA techniques and provide a strategic approach to integrate the interdependent relationships of each into a single VA capability. This effort will also transform the existing suite of software currently utilized in the physical protection world to more accurately quantify the risk associated with a blended attack scenario. Performance databases will be created to support the characterization of the cyber security elements, and roll them into prototype software tools. This new methodology and software capability will enable analysts to better identify and assess the overall risk during a vulnerability analysis.

  14. Vulnerability to Climate Change in Rural Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, T. R.; Townshend, I.; Byrne, J. M.; McDaniel, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    While there is a growing recognition of the impact that climate change may have on human development, there has been a shift in focus from an impacts-led assessment approach towards a vulnerability-led assessment approach. This research operationalizes the IPCC's definition of vulnerability in a sub-national assessment to understand how different factors that shape vulnerability to climate change vary spatially across rural Nicaragua. The research utilizes the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations' (FAO UN) CropWat model to evaluate how the annual yield of two of Nicaragua's staple crops may change under projected changes in temperature and precipitation. This analysis of agricultural sensitivity under exposure to climate change is then overlain with an indicator-based assessment of adaptive capacity in rural Nicaraguan farming households. Adaptive capacity was evaluated using household survey data from the 2001 National Household Survey on Living Standards Measurement, which was provided to us by the FAO UN. The result is a map representing current vulnerability to future climate change, and can serve as a basis for targeting policy interventions in rural Nicaragua.

  15. Who's Vulnerable in Infant Child Care Centers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Earline D.; Moukaddem, Virginia E.

    1992-01-01

    Maintains that infants and toddlers, parents, and child caregivers are vulnerable to a variety of infectious diseases from infant-toddler child care centers. These diseases include infectious diarrhea; rubella; cytomeglovirus; hepatitis A, and haemophilus influenza type B. Suggests ways to prevent the spread of such diseases. (BB)

  16. DEMONSTRATING APPLICATIONS OF REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This task is designed to respond to 2 Congressional earmarks of $1,000,000 to the Canaan Valley Institute (CVI) to work in close coordination with the Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) initiative to develop research and educational tools using integrative technologies to p...

  17. Perceived Vulnerability to Disease Predicts Environmental Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Kubiatko, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Investigating predictors of environmental attitudes may bring valuable benefits in terms of improving public awareness about biodiversity degradation and increased pro-environmental behaviour. Here we used an evolutionary approach to study environmental attitudes based on disease-threat model. We hypothesized that people vulnerable to diseases may…

  18. A physical approach on flood risk vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzorana, Bruno; Fuchs, Sven; Keiler, Margreth

    2013-04-01

    The design of efficient flood risk mitigation strategies and their subsequent implementation relies on a careful vulnerability analysis of the elements exposed to flood hazard. Recently, extensive research efforts were undertaken to develop and refine empirical relationships linking the structural vulnerability of buildings to the intensity of the impacting water-related hazard processes. These empirical vulnerability functions allow for an estimation of the expected direct losses as a result of the hazard scenario on the basis of a spatially explicit representation of the process patterns and the elements at risk, and improve both risk assessments and cost-benefit analyses of planned mitigation strategies. However, due to the underlying empiricism of such vulnerability functions, the physics of the damage generating mechanisms remain unveiled, and, as such, the applicability of the empirical approach for planning hazard-proof residential buildings is rather limited. Therefore, we propose a conceptual assessment scheme to close this gap. This assessment scheme comprises distinct analytical steps: (a) modelling the process intensity and (b) the impact on the element at risk exposed, (c) the physical response of the building envelope, (d) the damage accounting and (f) the economic damage valuation. This dynamic assessment supports all relevant planning activities with respect to a minimisation of flood hazard losses, and can be implemented in the operational risk assessment procedure.

  19. Vulnerability--A New View of Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubin, Joseph; Spring, Bonnie

    1977-01-01

    Although descriptive and etiological approaches to psychopathology have made notable advances, they seem to have reached a plateau. After reviewing the six approaches to etiology that now preempt the field--ecological, developmental, learning, genetic, internal environment, and neurophysiological models--a second-order model, vulnerability, is…

  20. Defining and Measuring Vulnerability in Young People.

    PubMed

    Arora, Shilpa Khanna; Shah, Dheeraj; Chaturvedi, Sanjay; Gupta, Piyush

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents and youth, together addressed as "young people", form the future building blocks of any society. They being most energetic and dynamic, tend to get involved in high-risk behaviors making themselves susceptible to criminal offences, accidents, physical injuries, emotional trauma, and medical problems - some of them extremely serious like transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The concept of vulnerability is applicable to all the people who are more exposed to risks than their peers like the young people. In order to deal with social evils like criminal offences, domestic violence, sexual abuse, HIV, etc. we need to define vulnerability and understand the factors that influence it. This review also attempts to summarize the indicators of vulnerability and the data currently available to estimate its burden in India. Measuring the magnitude of vulnerability by means of certain indicators/variables might help us in devising tools to assess this poorly defined entity. This may also evolve a conceptual framework on which targeted remedial interventions can be devised and implemented. PMID:26170545

  1. Criminal injuries compensation: Protecting vulnerable applicants.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Each year large numbers of persons sustain injury as a consequence of criminal behaviour. All Australian jurisdictions provide State-funded compensation to those harmed in this way. In the case of vulnerable applicants, the Assessor must consider not simply the appropriate and fair amount of compensation, but also how a person will be affected by the payment of compensation. Often a vulnerable applicant will apply through a guardian or a public trustee, although many apply in person. This article examines the use of legislative provisions, rules, regulations and practices in the various Australian jurisdictions in relation to how vulnerable applicants may be protected and supported once an award of compensation is made in their favour. Most jurisdictions provide for a mechanism by which compensation may be held in trust where the Assessor considers that the applicant may be unable to manage his or her financial affairs in his or her best interests. This article explores what factors are taken into account by Assessors in the absence of and pursuant to legislative directions. It considers how the approach may vary across jurisdictions and creative approaches to financial protection of vulnerable applicants. PMID:26554206

  2. Evaluating Youth Work with Vulnerable Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlong, Andy; Cartmel, Fred; Powney, Janet; Hall, Stuart

    This report presents the results of an 18-month research project that studied the effectiveness of youth work with vulnerable young people. The research, representing six distinct geographical areas of Scotland characterized by disadvantage, focused on young people aged 13 to 16. In each neighborhood, the project examined the experiences of young…

  3. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This report marks the culmination of a 4-month review conducted to identify chemical safety vulnerabilities existing at DOE facilities. This review is an integral part of DOE's efforts to raise its commitment to chemical safety to the same level as that for nuclear safety.

  4. Defining and Measuring Vulnerability in Young People

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Shilpa Khanna; Shah, Dheeraj; Chaturvedi, Sanjay; Gupta, Piyush

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents and youth, together addressed as “young people”, form the future building blocks of any society. They being most energetic and dynamic, tend to get involved in high-risk behaviors making themselves susceptible to criminal offences, accidents, physical injuries, emotional trauma, and medical problems — some of them extremely serious like transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The concept of vulnerability is applicable to all the people who are more exposed to risks than their peers like the young people. In order to deal with social evils like criminal offences, domestic violence, sexual abuse, HIV, etc. we need to define vulnerability and understand the factors that influence it. This review also attempts to summarize the indicators of vulnerability and the data currently available to estimate its burden in India. Measuring the magnitude of vulnerability by means of certain indicators/variables might help us in devising tools to assess this poorly defined entity. This may also evolve a conceptual framework on which targeted remedial interventions can be devised and implemented. PMID:26170545

  5. African agriculture especially vulnerable to warming climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-09-01

    Malnourishment across Africa could jump 40% by 2050 due to climate change, according to the Africa Agriculture Status Report 2014 (AASR), released on 2 September. With temperatures predicted to rise 1.5°C-2.5°C by midcentury, African smallholder farms, which are generally run by one family, are more vulnerable than ever, the report finds.

  6. Cosmopolitan Sensitivities, Vulnerability, and Global Englishes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Ushma Chauhan

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the outcome of an afterthought that assembles connections between three elements: the ambitions of cultivating cosmopolitan sensitivities that circulate vibrantly in connection with the internationalization of higher education, a course on Global Englishes at a Danish university and the sensation of vulnerability. It discusses the…

  7. REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT: A CONCEPTUAL APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (REVA) project is developing and testing an approach to conducting comparative ecological risk assessments at the regional scale. I't seeks an objective and quantifiable answer to answer the question, "What are the greatest threaten accompa...

  8. Nuclear material production cycle vulnerability analysis. Revision.

    SciTech Connect

    Bott, T.F.

    1996-10-01

    This paper discusses a method for rapidly and systematically identifying vulnerable equipment in a nuclear material or similar production process and ranking that equipment according to its attractiveness to a malevolent attacker. A multi-step approach was used in the analysis. First, the entire production cycle was modeled as a flow diagram. This flow diagram was analyzed using graph theoretical methods to identify processes in the production cycle and their locations. Models of processes that were judged to be particularly vulnerable based on the cycle analysis then were developed in greater detail to identify equipment in that process that is vulnerable to intentional damage. The information generated by this analysis may be used to devise protective features for critical equipment. The method uses directed graphs, fault trees, and evaluation matrices. Expert knowledge of plant engineers and operators is used to determine the critical equipment and evaluate its attractiveness to potential attackers. The vulnerability of equipment can be ranked and sorted according to any criterion desired and presented in a readily grasped format using matrices.

  9. [Vulnerability in adolescent health: contemporary issues].

    PubMed

    Silva, Marta Angélica Iossi; Mello, Flávia Carvalho Malta de; Mello, Débora Falleiros de; Ferriani, Maria das Graças Carvalho; Sampaio, Julliane Messias Cordeiro; Oliveira, Wanderlei Abadio de

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this exploratory study with a qualitative approach was to analyze how adolescents perceive reality in terms of vulnerability in respect to health. A total of 17 semi-structured interviews were staged with adolescents from two elementary-middle (k-8) schools in a city in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil. Content analysis was used to interpret the data, from which three thematic nuclei emerged. The results revealed that the adolescents understand the complex interaction between individual predisposition and health vulnerability, as well as the issues related to social structure, which contributes to strengthening the concept of vulnerability based on individual, social and programmatic logic. It was established that public policies, prevention and care provided during adolescence should not be guided by a single reference point, but instead by the plurality of the adolescent individuals concerning vulnerability in their dimensions, which should be acknowledged in order to break with the idea of the universality of the process of becoming an adolescent. PMID:24863838

  10. Seismic vulnerability assessments in risk analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolova, Nina; Larionov, Valery; Bonnin, Jean; Ugarov, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    The assessment of seismic vulnerability is a critical issue within natural and technological risk analysis. In general, there are three common types of methods used for development of vulnerability functions of different elements at risk: empirical, analytical and expert estimations. The paper addresses the empirical methods for seismic vulnerability estimation for residential buildings and industrial facilities. The results of engineering analysis of past earthquake consequences, as well as the statistical data on buildings behavior during strong earthquakes presented in the different seismic intensity scales, are used to verify the regional parameters of mathematical models in order to simulate physical and economic vulnerability for different building types classified according to seismic scale MMSK-86. Verified procedure has been used to estimate the physical and economic vulnerability of buildings and constructions against earthquakes for the Northern Caucasus Federal region of the Russian Federation and Krasnodar area, which are characterized by rather high level of seismic activity and high population density. In order to estimate expected damage states to buildings and constructions in the case of the earthquakes according to the OSR-97B (return period T=1,000 years) within big cities and towns, they were divided into unit sites and their coordinates were presented as dots located in the centers of unit sites. Then the indexes obtained for each unit site were summed up. The maps of physical vulnerability zoning for Northern Caucasus Federal region of the Russian Federation and Krasnodar area includes two elements: percent of different damage states for settlements with number of inhabitants less than 1,000 and vulnerability for cities and towns with number of inhabitants more than 1,000. The hypsometric scale is used to represent both elements on the maps. Taking into account the size of oil pipe line systems located in the highly active seismic zones in

  11. The specificity of cognitive vulnerabilities to emotional disorders: anxiety sensitivity, looming vulnerability and explanatory style.

    PubMed

    Reardon, John M; Williams, Nathan L

    2007-01-01

    Mood and anxiety disorders share considerable phenomenological and diagnostic overlap. Several models have advanced the understanding of the phenomenological overlap of anxiety and depression; however, identification of disorder-specific etiological mechanisms remains elusive. Recently, research has advanced several cognitive vulnerability-stress models proposing that one's characteristic way of attending to, interpreting, and remembering negative events contributes vulnerability to psychopathology. These cognitive vulnerabilities may elucidate specific etiological mechanisms that distinguish mood and anxiety pathology. The present study examines the specificity of three cognitive vulnerability constructs, the looming cognitive style, anxiety sensitivity, and explanatory style, in the prediction of latent anxiety disorder symptoms and latent depression symptoms. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that the looming cognitive style demonstrated specificity predicting only anxiety disorder symptoms whereas anxiety sensitivity and a pessimistic explanatory style predicted both anxiety disorder and mood disorder symptoms. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:17070666

  12. Aircraft vulnerability analysis by modeling and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willers, Cornelius J.; Willers, Maria S.; de Waal, Alta

    2014-10-01

    Infrared missiles pose a significant threat to civilian and military aviation. ManPADS missiles are especially dangerous in the hands of rogue and undisciplined forces. Yet, not all the launched missiles hit their targets; the miss being either attributable to misuse of the weapon or to missile performance restrictions. This paper analyses some of the factors affecting aircraft vulnerability and demonstrates a structured analysis of the risk and aircraft vulnerability problem. The aircraft-missile engagement is a complex series of events, many of which are only partially understood. Aircraft and missile designers focus on the optimal design and performance of their respective systems, often testing only in a limited set of scenarios. Most missiles react to the contrast intensity, but the variability of the background is rarely considered. Finally, the vulnerability of the aircraft depends jointly on the missile's performance and the doctrine governing the missile's launch. These factors are considered in a holistic investigation. The view direction, altitude, time of day, sun position, latitude/longitude and terrain determine the background against which the aircraft is observed. Especially high gradients in sky radiance occur around the sun and on the horizon. This paper considers uncluttered background scenes (uniform terrain and clear sky) and presents examples of background radiance at all view angles across a sphere around the sensor. A detailed geometrical and spatially distributed radiometric model is used to model the aircraft. This model provides the signature at all possible view angles across the sphere around the aircraft. The signature is determined in absolute terms (no background) and in contrast terms (with background). It is shown that the background significantly affects the contrast signature as observed by the missile sensor. A simplified missile model is constructed by defining the thrust and mass profiles, maximum seeker tracking rate, maximum

  13. Vendor System Vulnerability Testing Test Plan

    SciTech Connect

    James R. Davidson

    2005-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) prepared this generic test plan to provide clients (vendors, end users, program sponsors, etc.) with a sense of the scope and depth of vulnerability testing performed at the INL’s Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Test Bed and to serve as an example of such a plan. Although this test plan specifically addresses vulnerability testing of systems applied to the energy sector (electric/power transmission and distribution and oil and gas systems), it is generic enough to be applied to control systems used in other critical infrastructures such as the transportation sector, water/waste water sector, or hazardous chemical production facilities. The SCADA Test Bed is established at the INL as a testing environment to evaluate the security vulnerabilities of SCADA systems, energy management systems (EMS), and distributed control systems. It now supports multiple programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, other government agencies, and private sector clients. This particular test plan applies to testing conducted on a SCADA/EMS provided by a vendor. Before performing detailed vulnerability testing of a SCADA/EMS, an as delivered baseline examination of the system is conducted, to establish a starting point for all-subsequent testing. The series of baseline tests document factory delivered defaults, system configuration, and potential configuration changes to aid in the development of a security plan for in depth vulnerability testing. The baseline test document is provided to the System Provider,a who evaluates the baseline report and provides recommendations to the system configuration to enhance the security profile of the baseline system. Vulnerability testing is then conducted at the SCADA Test Bed, which provides an in-depth security analysis of the Vendor’s system.b a. The term System Provider replaces the name of the company/organization providing the system

  14. Empirical Estimates and Observations of 0Day Vulnerabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Miles A. McQueen; Trevor A. McQueen; Wayne F. Boyer; May R. Chaffin

    2009-01-01

    We define a 0Day vulnerability to be any vulnerability, in deployed software, that has been discovered by at least one person but has not yet been publicly announced or patched. These 0Day vulnerabilities are of particular interest when assessing the risk to a system from exploit of vulnerabilities which are not generally known to the public or, most importantly, to the owners of the system. Using the 0Day definition given above, we analyzed the 0Day lifespans of 491 vulnerabilities and conservatively estimated that in the worst year there were on average 2500 0Day vulnerabilities in existence on any given day. Then using a small but intriguing set of 15 0Day vulnerability lifespans representing the time from actual discovery to public disclosure, we made a more aggressive estimate. In this case, we estimated that in the worst year there were, on average, 4500 0Day vulnerabilities in existence on any given day.

  15. Evaluation of Equipment Vulnerability and Potential Shock Hazards. [carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taback, I.

    1980-01-01

    The vulnerability of electric equipment to carbon fibers released from aircraft accidents is investigated and the parameters affecting vulnerability are discussed. The shock hazard for a hypothetical set of accidents is computed.

  16. On the Library and Information Literacy Education of Vulnerable Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Tian-hui

    2009-01-01

    This paper defines and classifies vulnerable groups, elaborates the necessity of information literacy education of vulnerable groups, analyzes the feasibility for the library to carry out the education, and then discusses specific measures taken by the library to fulfill it.

  17. Vulnerability curves vs. vulnerability indicators: application of an indicator-based methodology for debris-flow hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papathoma-Köhle, Maria

    2016-08-01

    The assessment of the physical vulnerability of elements at risk as part of the risk analysis is an essential aspect for the development of strategies and structural measures for risk reduction. Understanding, analysing and, if possible, quantifying physical vulnerability is a prerequisite for designing strategies and adopting tools for its reduction. The most common methods for assessing physical vulnerability are vulnerability matrices, vulnerability curves and vulnerability indicators; however, in most of the cases, these methods are used in a conflicting way rather than in combination. The article focuses on two of these methods: vulnerability curves and vulnerability indicators. Vulnerability curves express physical vulnerability as a function of the intensity of the process and the degree of loss, considering, in individual cases only, some structural characteristics of the affected buildings. However, a considerable amount of studies argue that vulnerability assessment should focus on the identification of these variables that influence the vulnerability of an element at risk (vulnerability indicators). In this study, an indicator-based methodology (IBM) for mountain hazards including debris flow (Kappes et al., 2012) is applied to a case study for debris flows in South Tyrol, where in the past a vulnerability curve has been developed. The relatively "new" indicator-based method is being scrutinised and recommendations for its improvement are outlined. The comparison of the two methodological approaches and their results is challenging since both methodological approaches deal with vulnerability in a different way. However, it is still possible to highlight their weaknesses and strengths, show clearly that both methodologies are necessary for the assessment of physical vulnerability and provide a preliminary "holistic methodological framework" for physical vulnerability assessment showing how the two approaches may be used in combination in the future.

  18. The Vulnerable Faces of Pathological Gambling

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Pathological gambling is an emerging psychiatric disorder that has medical, psychiatric, and social consequences. Recently, research has been focusing on identifying which portions of the population are most vulnerable to developing problems related to ongoing gambling. Specific populations of interest have included adolescents, elderly, minorities, those with comorbid psychiatric or substance use disorders, and gender differences. Each group possesses unique biological, psychological, and/or social characteristics that confer a vulnerability to develop pathological gambling behaviors. Being able to recognize those who are at risk to become pathological gamblers is the first step toward developing effective prevention and early intervention programs. This is Part Two of a three-part series on pathological gambling. Part One appeared in the March issue of Psychiatry 2005. PMID:21179650

  19. Vulnerability, diversity and scarcity: on universal rights.

    PubMed

    Turner, Bryan Stanley; Dumas, Alex

    2013-11-01

    This article makes a contribution to the on-going debates about universalism and cultural relativism from the perspective of sociology. We argue that bioethics has a universal range because it relates to three shared human characteristics,--human vulnerability, institutional precariousness and scarcity of resources. These three components of our argument provide support for a related notion of 'weak foundationalism' that emphasizes the universality and interrelatedness of human experience, rather than their cultural differences. After presenting a theoretical position on vulnerability and human rights, we draw on recent criticism of this approach in order to paint a more nuanced picture. We conclude that the dichotomy between universalism and cultural relativism has some conceptual merit, but it also has obvious limitations when we consider the political economy of health and its impact on social inequality. PMID:23846549

  20. Modernization, weather variability, and vulnerability to famine.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Simone

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows that under weather variability the transformation from a rural to an incomplete market economy can increase the vulnerability of peasants to famine. This can occur even if improvements in technology have raised agricultural productivity and made production less responsive to weather variability. Indeed, negative environmental shocks can produce a drop in wages that outweighs the increase in wages due to an equivalent positive environmental shock. Consequently, the amount of grain stored increases more slowly in good seasons than it decreases in bad ones. This paper gives new insights on the catastrophic effects produced by widespread droughts in India during the second half of the 19th century. Notwithstanding the introduction of new modes of production and the modernization of infrastructures, the interaction between environmental variability and new institutional arrangements might have contributed to increase the vulnerability of peasants to famine. PMID:22164874

  1. Neural mechanisms of stress resilience and vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Tamara B; Saab, Bechara J; Mansuy, Isabelle M

    2012-09-01

    Exposure to stressful events can be differently perceived by individuals and can have persistent sequelae depending on the level of stress resilience or vulnerability of each person. The neural processes that underlie such clinically and socially important differences reside in the anatomical, functional, and molecular connectivity of the brain. Recent work has provided novel insight into some of the involved biological mechanisms that promises to help prevent and treat stress-related disorders. In this review, we focus on causal and mechanistic evidence implicating altered functions and connectivity of the neuroendocrine system, and of hippocampal, cortical, reward, and serotonergic circuits in the establishment and the maintenance of stress resilience and vulnerability. We also touch upon recent findings suggesting a role for epigenetic mechanisms and neurogenesis in these processes and briefly discuss promising avenues of future investigation. PMID:22958817

  2. An Empirical Measure of Computer Security Strength for Vulnerability Remediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villegas, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Remediating all vulnerabilities on computer systems in a timely and cost effective manner is difficult given that the window of time between the announcement of a new vulnerability and an automated attack has decreased. Hence, organizations need to prioritize the vulnerability remediation process on their computer systems. The goal of this…

  3. Reconceptualizing Vulnerability in Personal Narrative Writing with Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Through a student/teacher classroom conflict, the author explores ways adults produce student writers as vulnerable. Drawing on post-structural concepts of adolescence, identity production, interrogation, and vulnerability, the author details how an English teacher invited students to perform vulnerability in personal narratives about issues like…

  4. 6 CFR 27.215 - Security vulnerability assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Security vulnerability assessments. 27.215... FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Chemical Facility Security Program § 27.215 Security vulnerability...-risk, the facility must complete a Security Vulnerability Assessment. A Security...

  5. Space Station Program threat and vulnerability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Meter, Steven D.; Veatch, John D.

    1987-01-01

    An examination has been made of the physical security of the Space Station Program at the Kennedy Space Center in a peacetime environment, in order to furnish facility personnel with threat/vulnerability information. A risk-management approach is used to prioritize threat-target combinations that are characterized in terms of 'insiders' and 'outsiders'. Potential targets were identified and analyzed with a view to their attractiveness to an adversary, as well as to the consequentiality of the resulting damage.

  6. Seaside, Oregon, Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Varner, J.

    2006-12-01

    The results of a pilot study to assess the risk from tsunamis for the Seaside-Gearhart, Oregon region will be presented. To determine the risk from tsunamis, it is first necessary to establish the hazard or probability that a tsunami of a particular magnitude will occur within a certain period of time. Tsunami inundation maps that provide 100-year and 500-year probabilistic tsunami wave height contours for the Seaside-Gearhart, Oregon, region were developed as part of an interagency Tsunami Pilot Study(1). These maps provided the probability of the tsunami hazard. The next step in determining risk is to determine the vulnerability or degree of loss resulting from the occurrence of tsunamis due to exposure and fragility. The tsunami vulnerability assessment methodology used in this study was developed by M. Papathoma and others(2). This model incorporates multiple factors (e.g. parameters related to the natural and built environments and socio-demographics) that contribute to tsunami vulnerability. Data provided with FEMA's HAZUS loss estimation software and Clatsop County, Oregon, tax assessment data were used as input to the model. The results, presented within a geographic information system, reveal the percentage of buildings in need of reinforcement and the population density in different inundation depth zones. These results can be used for tsunami mitigation, local planning, and for determining post-tsunami disaster response by emergency services. (1)Tsunami Pilot Study Working Group, Seaside, Oregon Tsunami Pilot Study--Modernization of FEMA Flood Hazard Maps, Joint NOAA/USGS/FEMA Special Report, U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2006, Final Draft. (2)Papathoma, M., D. Dominey-Howes, D.,Y. Zong, D. Smith, Assessing Tsunami Vulnerability, an example from Herakleio, Crete, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 3, 2003, p. 377-389.

  7. Vulnerability assessment using two complementary analysis tools

    SciTech Connect

    Paulus, W.K.

    1993-07-01

    To analyze the vulnerability of nuclear materials to theft or sabotage, Department of Energy facilities have been using, since 1989, a computer program called ASSESS, Analytic System and Software for Evaluation of Safeguards and Security. During the past year Sandia National Laboratories has begun using an additional program, SEES, Security Exercise Evaluation Simulation, enhancing the picture of vulnerability beyond what either program achieves alone. Assess analyzes all possible paths of attack on a target and, assuming that an attack occurs, ranks them by the probability that a response force of adequate size can interrupt the attack before theft or sabotage is accomplished. A Neutralization module pits, collectively, a security force against the interrupted adversary force in a fire fight and calculates the probability that the adversaries are defeated. SEES examines a single scenario and simulates in detail the interactions among all combatants. its output includes shots fired between shooter and target, and the hits and kills. Whereas ASSESS gives breadth of analysis, expressed statistically and performed relatively quickly, SEES adds depth of detail, modeling tactical behavior. ASSESS finds scenarios that exploit the greatest weakness of a facility. SEES explores these scenarios to demonstrate in detail how various tactics to nullify the attack might work out. Without ASSESS to find the facility weakness, it is difficult to focus SEES objectively on scenarios worth analyzing. Without SEES to simulate the details of response vs. adversary interaction, it is not possible to test tactical assumptions and hypotheses. Using both programs together, vulnerability analyses achieve both breadth and depth.

  8. Vulnerability assessment using two complementary analysis tools

    SciTech Connect

    Paulus, W.K.

    1993-07-01

    To analyze the vulnerability of nuclear materials to theft or sabotage, Department of Energy facilities have been using, since 1989, a computer program called ASSESS, Analytic System and Software for Evaluation of Safeguards and Security. During the past year Sandia National Laboratories has began using an additional program, SEES, Security Exercise Evaluation Simulation, enhancing the picture of vulnerability beyond what either program achieves alone. ASSESS analyzes all possible paths of attack on a target and, assuming that an attack occurs, ranks them by the probability that a response force of adequate size can interrupt the attack before theft or sabotage is accomplished. A Neutralization module pits, collectively, a security force against the interrupted adversary force in a fire fight and calculates the probability that the adversaries are defeated. SEES examines a single scenario and simulates in detail the interactions among all combatants. Its output includes shots fired between shooter and target, and the hits and kills. Whereas ASSESS gives breadth of analysis, expressed statistically and performed relatively quickly, SEES adds depth of detail, modeling tactical behavior. ASSESS finds scenarios that exploit the greatest weaknesses of a facility. SEES explores these scenarios to demonstrate in detail how various tactics to nullify the attack might work out. Without ASSESS to find the facility weaknesses, it is difficult to focus SEES objectively on scenarios worth analyzing. Without SEES to simulate the details of response vs. adversary interaction, it is not possible to test tactical assumptions and hypotheses. Using both programs together, vulnerability analyses achieve both breadth and depth.

  9. Growth of Necrotic Cores in Vulnerable Plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fok, Pak-Wing

    2011-03-01

    Plaques are fatty deposits that grow mainly in arteries and develop as a result of a chronic inflammatory response. Plaques are called vulnerable when they are prone to mechanical rupture. Vulnerable Plaques (VPs) are characterized by lipid-rich, necrotic cores that are heavily infiltrated with macrophages. The rupture of VPs releases thrombogenic agents into the bloodstream, usually resulting in myocardial infarctions. We propose a quantitative model to predict the development of a plaque's necrotic core. By solving coupled reaction-diffusion equations for macrophages and dead cells, we explore the joint effects of hypoxic cell death and chemo-attraction to Ox-LDL, a molecule that is strongly linked to atherosclerosis. Our model predicts cores that have approximately the right size and shape. Normal mode analysis and subsequent calculation of the smallest eigenvalues allow us to compute the times required for the system to reach its steady state. This study allows us to make quantitative predictions for how quickly vulnerable plaques develop and how their growth depends on system parameters such as chemotactic coefficients and cell death rates.

  10. NASA's Research in Aircraft Vulnerability Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Cheryl L.

    2005-01-01

    Since its inception in 1958, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) role in civil aeronautics has been to develop high-risk, high-payoff technologies to meet critical national aviation challenges. Following the events of Sept. 11, 2001, NASA recognized that it now shared the responsibility for improving homeland security. The NASA Strategic Plan was modified to include requirements to enable a more secure air transportation system by investing in technologies and collaborating with other agencies, industry, and academia. NASA is conducting research to develop and advance innovative and commercially viable technologies that will reduce the vulnerability of aircraft to threats or hostile actions, and identify and inform users of potential vulnerabilities in a timely manner. Presented in this paper are research plans and preliminary status for mitigating the effects of damage due to direct attacks on civil transport aircraft. The NASA approach to mitigation includes: preventing loss of an aircraft due to a hit from man-portable air defense systems; developing fuel system technologies that prevent or minimize in-flight vulnerability to small arms or other projectiles; providing protection from electromagnetic energy attacks by detecting directed energy threats to aircraft and on/off-board systems; and minimizing the damage due to high-energy attacks (explosions and fire) by developing advanced lightweight, damage-resistant composites and structural concepts. An approach to preventing aircraft from being used as weapons of mass destruction will also be discussed.

  11. Vulnerability of Coastal Communities from Storm Surge and Flood Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Bathi, Jejal Reddy; Das, Himangshu S.

    2016-01-01

    Disasters in the form of coastal storms and hurricanes can be very destructive. Preparing for anticipated effects of such disasters can help reduce the public health and economic burden. Identifying vulnerable population groups can help prioritize resources for the most needed communities. This paper presents a quantitative framework for vulnerability measurement that incorporates both socioeconomic and flood inundation vulnerability. The approach is demonstrated for three coastal communities in Mississippi with census tracts being the study unit. The vulnerability results are illustrated as thematic maps for easy usage by planners and emergency responders to assist in prioritizing their actions to vulnerable populations during storm surge and flood disasters. PMID:26907313

  12. Vulnerability of Coastal Communities from Storm Surge and Flood Disasters.

    PubMed

    Bathi, Jejal Reddy; Das, Himangshu S

    2016-02-01

    Disasters in the form of coastal storms and hurricanes can be very destructive. Preparing for anticipated effects of such disasters can help reduce the public health and economic burden. Identifying vulnerable population groups can help prioritize resources for the most needed communities. This paper presents a quantitative framework for vulnerability measurement that incorporates both socioeconomic and flood inundation vulnerability. The approach is demonstrated for three coastal communities in Mississippi with census tracts being the study unit. The vulnerability results are illustrated as thematic maps for easy usage by planners and emergency responders to assist in prioritizing their actions to vulnerable populations during storm surge and flood disasters. PMID:26907313

  13. Technological solution for vulnerable communities: How does its approach matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sianipar, C. P. M.; Dowaki, K.; Yudoko, G.

    2014-06-01

    Vulnerability is an emerging term for both scientific communities and practitioners. Vulnerabilities attributed to a particular community are then aggregated to state it as a vulnerable community. Vulnerability-related study is recognized as an interdisciplinary one due to the complex characteristics of vulnerabilities in each contextual situation. In common understandings, technology is recognized as an interdisciplinary solution, making it possible for supporting any activity in eradicating vulnerability. This study aims to observe such possibilities. Literature survey is taken to investigate the interconnection between vulnerability eradication and technology. Brief comparison between several developing countries and particular focus on Indonesia become a medium of further investigation to reveal issues surrounding technology-related efforts for vulnerability eradication in vulnerable communities. The study reveals that developing countries, particularly Indonesia, tend to adopt approaches from Northern hemisphere, including transferring technologies from developed countries without proper propagation. It means that local knowledge and power are largely ignored in the pursuit of local problem solving for vulnerability eradication. These facts become a signpost to emphasize that approach in implementing technological solution for such purpose is the critical mechanism to ensure the success in every contextual situation. Then, looking at the results of this brief study, its emphasis indicates further requirements to shift the paradigm of typical community development to contextual community empowerment in order to ensure the continuity of every technological solution for a consistent eradication of local vulnerabilities, including possible changes of required approach alongside the shift.

  14. Not the usual suspects: addressing layers of vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Luna, Florencia; Vanderpoel, Sheryl

    2013-07-01

    This paper challenges the traditional account of vulnerability in healthcare which conceptualizes vulnerability as a list of identifiable subpopulations. This list of 'usual suspects', focusing on groups from lower resource settings, is a narrow account of vulnerability. In this article we argue that in certain circumstances middle-class individuals can be also rendered vulnerable. We propose a relational and layered account of vulnerability and explore this concept using the case study of cord blood (CB) banking. In the first section, two different approaches to 'vulnerability' are contrasted: categorical versus layered. In the second section, we describe CB banking and present a case study of CB banking in Argentina. We examine the types of pressure that middle-class pregnant women feel when considering CB collection and storage. In section three, we use the CB banking case study to critique the categorical approach to vulnerability: this model is unable to account for the ways in which these women are vulnerable. A layered account of vulnerability identifies several ways in which middle-class women are vulnerable. Finally, by utilizing the layered approach, this paper suggests how public health policies could be designed to overcome vulnerabilities. PMID:23718852

  15. Karst morphology and groundwater vulnerability of high alpine karst plateaus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plan, Lukas; Decker, Kurt; Faber, Robert; Wagreich, Michael; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2009-07-01

    High alpine karst plateaus are recharge areas for major drinking water resources in the Alps and many other regions. Well-established methods for the vulnerability mapping of groundwater to contamination have not been applied to such areas yet. The paper characterises this karst type and shows that two common vulnerability assessment methods (COP and PI) classify most of the areas with high vulnerability classes. In the test site on the Hochschwab plateau (Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria), overlying layers are mostly absent, not protective or even enhance point recharge, where they have aquiclude character. The COP method classifies 82% of the area as highly or extremely vulnerable. The resulting maps are reasonable, but do not differentiate vulnerabilities to the extent that the results can be used for protective measures. An extension for the upper end of the vulnerability scale is presented that allows identifying ultra vulnerable areas. The proposed enhancement of the conventional approach points out that infiltration conditions are of key importance for vulnerability. The method accounts for karst genetical and hydrologic processes using qualitative and quantitative properties of karst depressions and sinking streams including parameters calculated from digital elevations models. The method is tested on the Hochschwab plateau where 1.7% of the area is delineated as ultra vulnerable. This differentiation could not be reached by the COP and PI methods. The resulting vulnerability map highlights spots of maximum vulnerability and the combination with a hazard map enables protective measures for a manageable area and number of sites.

  16. Evaluating regional vulnerability to climate change: purposes and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, Elizabeth L.; Engle, Nathan L.

    2011-03-15

    As the emphasis in climate change research, international negotiations, and developing-country activities has shifted from mitigation to adaptation, vulnerability has emerged as a bridge between impacts on one side and the need for adaptive changes on the other. Still, the term vulnerability remains abstract, its meaning changing with the scale, focus, and purpose of each assessment. Understanding regional vulnerability has advanced over the past several decades, with studies using a combination of indicators, case studies and analogues, stakeholder-driven processes, and scenario-building methodologies. As regions become increasingly relevant scales of inquiry for bridging the aggregate and local, for every analysis, it is perhaps most appropriate to ask three “what” questions: “What/who is vulnerable?,” “What is vulnerability?,” and “Vulnerable to what?” The answers to these questions will yield different definitions of vulnerability as well as different methods for assessing it.

  17. Cultural knowledge and local vulnerability in African American communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller Hesed, Christine D.; Paolisso, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Policymakers need to know what factors are most important in determining local vulnerability to facilitate effective adaptation to climate change. Quantitative vulnerability indices are helpful in this endeavour but are limited in their ability to capture subtle yet important aspects of vulnerability such as social networks, knowledge and access to resources. Working with three African American communities on Maryland’s Eastern Shore, we systematically elicit local cultural knowledge on climate change and connect it with a scientific vulnerability framework. The results of this study show that: a given social-ecological factor can substantially differ in the way in which it affects local vulnerability, even among communities with similar demographics and climate-related risks; and social and political isolation inhibits access to sources of adaptive capacity, thereby exacerbating local vulnerability. These results show that employing methods for analysing cultural knowledge can yield new insights to complement those generated by quantitative vulnerability indices.

  18. Extending Vulnerability Assessment to Include Life Stages Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Emma E.; Essington, Timothy E.; Kaplan, Isaac C.

    2016-01-01

    Species are experiencing a suite of novel stressors from anthropogenic activities that have impacts at multiple scales. Vulnerability assessment is one tool to evaluate the likely impacts that these stressors pose to species so that high-vulnerability cases can be identified and prioritized for monitoring, protection, or mitigation. Commonly used semi-quantitative methods lack a framework to explicitly account for differences in exposure to stressors and organism responses across life stages. Here we propose a modification to commonly used spatial vulnerability assessment methods that includes such an approach, using ocean acidification in the California Current as an illustrative case study. Life stage considerations were included by assessing vulnerability of each life stage to ocean acidification and were used to estimate population vulnerability in two ways. We set population vulnerability equal to: (1) the maximum stage vulnerability and (2) a weighted mean across all stages, with weights calculated using Lefkovitch matrix models. Vulnerability was found to vary across life stages for the six species explored in this case study: two krill–Euphausia pacifica and Thysanoessa spinifera, pteropod–Limacina helicina, pink shrimp–Pandalus jordani, Dungeness crab–Metacarcinus magister and Pacific hake–Merluccius productus. The maximum vulnerability estimates ranged from larval to subadult and adult stages with no consistent stage having maximum vulnerability across species. Similarly, integrated vulnerability metrics varied greatly across species. A comparison showed that some species had vulnerabilities that were similar between the two metrics, while other species’ vulnerabilities varied substantially between the two metrics. These differences primarily resulted from cases where the most vulnerable stage had a low relative weight. We compare these methods and explore circumstances where each method may be appropriate. PMID:27416031

  19. Extending Vulnerability Assessment to Include Life Stages Considerations.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Emma E; Essington, Timothy E; Kaplan, Isaac C

    2016-01-01

    Species are experiencing a suite of novel stressors from anthropogenic activities that have impacts at multiple scales. Vulnerability assessment is one tool to evaluate the likely impacts that these stressors pose to species so that high-vulnerability cases can be identified and prioritized for monitoring, protection, or mitigation. Commonly used semi-quantitative methods lack a framework to explicitly account for differences in exposure to stressors and organism responses across life stages. Here we propose a modification to commonly used spatial vulnerability assessment methods that includes such an approach, using ocean acidification in the California Current as an illustrative case study. Life stage considerations were included by assessing vulnerability of each life stage to ocean acidification and were used to estimate population vulnerability in two ways. We set population vulnerability equal to: (1) the maximum stage vulnerability and (2) a weighted mean across all stages, with weights calculated using Lefkovitch matrix models. Vulnerability was found to vary across life stages for the six species explored in this case study: two krill-Euphausia pacifica and Thysanoessa spinifera, pteropod-Limacina helicina, pink shrimp-Pandalus jordani, Dungeness crab-Metacarcinus magister and Pacific hake-Merluccius productus. The maximum vulnerability estimates ranged from larval to subadult and adult stages with no consistent stage having maximum vulnerability across species. Similarly, integrated vulnerability metrics varied greatly across species. A comparison showed that some species had vulnerabilities that were similar between the two metrics, while other species' vulnerabilities varied substantially between the two metrics. These differences primarily resulted from cases where the most vulnerable stage had a low relative weight. We compare these methods and explore circumstances where each method may be appropriate. PMID:27416031

  20. Systemic vulnerability model for coastal erosion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, M.; Martino, G.; Guariglia, A.

    2010-09-01

    Many coastal areas constitute an extraordinary environmental worth and economic value resource continuously exposed to an unceasing transformation due to climatic and anthropic factors. The pressure factor overloads carry out an amplification of environmental degradation and economic rent decrease of these territories producing a disruption of normal and anticipated community growth. This paper copes with coastal erosion problem by a systemic vulnerability model application and environmental indicators approach. Through the definition of an original indicator depending on the observed annual rate of coastal erosion and wave climate parameters, such an approach allow scenario generation and it is useful and powerful planning and management tool. The model has been applied on the test case of Ionian Coast of Basilicata Region located in the southern part of Italy, in the middle of Mediterranean basin. The littoral area is constituted of sandy shores of about 50 km length and 5 river deltas take place. Looking at the shoreline in terms of displacements, a shift of a coastal part is a function of grain size characteristics of the shore sands and of the wave climate. Therefore the selected index taking into account the energy stress affecting the shore area, characterizing the territorial system state and finalized to vulnerability estimation, is defined through the maximum annual erosion,tE, and the surface-wave parameters (H,T) corresponding to the wave-generated bottom orbital velocities higher than critical velocity matches with the bottom incipient transport condition. The resulting coefficient ? (? = tE? ? gH2-?T) is obviously dimensionless and represents the part of the available power in the seas, dissipated by erosion processes. If ? increases, the system integrity decreases and the system vulnerability increases. Available data, in terms of topographic/bathymetric information referred to the period 1873-2008, were utilized to derive tE by the use of a GIS

  1. Earthquakes, vulnerability and disaster risk: Georgia case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsereteli, Nino; Varazanashvili, Otar; Askan, Aysegul

    2015-04-01

    The Republic of Georgia, located on the East coast of the Black Sea, is prone to multiple natural hazards, the most dangerous and devastating of which are strong earthquakes. This work issues a call for advance planning and action to reduce natural disaster risks, notably seismic risk through the investigation of vulnerability and seismic hazard for Georgia. Ground motion prediction equations are essential for several purposes ranging from seismic design and analysis to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment. Seismic hazard maps were calculated based on modern approach of selecting and ranking global and regional ground motion prediction equation for region. We have also applied the host-to-target method in two regions in Georgia with different source mechanisms. According to the tectonic regime of the target areas, two different regions are chosen as host regions. One of them is the North Anatolian Fault zone in Turkey with the dominant strike-slip source mechanism while the other is Tabas in Iran with mostly events of reverse mechanism. We performed stochastic finite-fault simulations in both host and target areas and employed the hybrid-empirical method as introduced and outlined in Campbell (2003). An initial hybrid empirical ground motion model is developed for PGA and SA at selected periods for Georgia. An application of these coefficients for ground motion models have been used in probabilistic seismic hazard assessment. Intensity based vulnerability study were completed for Georgian buildings. Finally, Probabilistic seismic risk assessment in terms of structural damage and casualties were calculated. This methodology gave prediction of damage and casualty for a given probability of recurrence, based on a probabilistic seismic hazard model, population distribution, inventory, and vulnerability of buildings

  2. Ruptures of vulnerability: Linda Stein's Knight Series.

    PubMed

    Bible, Ann Vollmann

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on the work of Monique Wittig, this article understands Linda Stein's Knight Series as a lacunary writing communicating both her challenges to come to representation and her creative registration of subjectivity. The argument is grounded in an exploration of the rich interplay of power and vulnerability across the series as against the discourse of escapist fashion. Specifically, Stein's critical contradictions of inside and outside, conflated temporality, disjunctions between decoration and abstraction, and fluidity of sex and gender are examined. The discussion is elaborated through consideration of the work of Julia Kristeva, Elizabeth Grosz, and Hayao Miyazaki. PMID:20408009

  3. Why healthcare facilities are vulnerable to crime.

    PubMed

    Mikow-Porto, Victoria A; Smith, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Although the public's view of healthcare facilities is that they are inherently safe and secure, administrators and staff members in hospitals are very aware that they could be vulnerable to an episode of violence at any time, according to the author. Today, crimes, including homicide, are an ever-present reality in healthcare facilities, they report, citing recent studies which attempt to explain why this is so. The article is based on the introduction to the IAHSS and IHSS Foundation 2012 Crime and Security Trends Survey. The complete survey is accessible to members in the Reference Section of the IAHSS web page. PMID:24020317

  4. Modelling farm vulnerability to flooding: A step toward vulnerability mitigation policies appraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brémond, P.; Abrami, G.; Blanc, C.; Grelot, F.

    2009-04-01

    Recent catastrophic flood events such as Elbe in 2002 or Rhône in 2003 have shown limits of flood management policies relying on dykes protection: worsening of flood impacts downstream, increased damage by dykes rupture. Those events, among others, contributes to radical changes on the philosophy of flood prevention, with the promotion of new orientations for mitigating flood exposition. Two new trends may have a significant impact on rural areas: floodplain restoration and vulnerability mitigation. The Rhône River program, which is an contract of objectives signed between French Government and local collectivites, is highly illustrative of these new trends and their impact on agricultural sector. In this program, it appears that areas to be concerned by floodplain restoration are agricultural ones, because their supposed vulnerability to flood is expected to be less important to urban areas. As a consequence, agricultural sector is particularly concerned by planned actions on mitigation of assets vulnerability, an important part of the program (financial support of European Union of 7.5 Million euros). Mitigation of agricultural assets vulnerability reveals particularly interesting for two following reasons. Firstly, it is a way to maintain agricultural activities in floodplains yet existing, without promoting flood protection. Secondly, in case of floodplain restoration, vulnerability mitigation is a way for local authorities to compensate over-flooding impacts. In practice, local authorities may financially support farmers for implementing measures to mitigate their farm vulnerability. On the Rhône River, an important work has already been done to identify farm vulnerability to flooding, and propose measures to mitigate it. More than 3 000 farms exposed to flood risk have been identified representing 88 690 ha of agricultural areas which is estimated to generate damage between 400 and 800 Million euros depending on the season of occurrence for a catastrophic

  5. Perspectives on contextual vulnerability in discourses of climate conflict

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okpara, U. T.; Stringer, L. C.; Dougill, A. J.

    2016-02-01

    The science of climate security and conflict is replete with controversies. Yet the increasing vulnerability of politically fragile countries to the security consequences of climate change is widely acknowledged. Although climate conflict reflects a continuum of conditional forces that coalesce around the notion of vulnerability, how different portrayals of vulnerability influence the discursive formation of climate conflict relations remains an exceptional but under-researched issue. This paper combines a systematic discourse analysis with a vulnerability interpretation diagnostic tool to explore (i) how discourses of climate conflict are constructed and represented, (ii) how vulnerability is communicated across discourse lines, and (iii) the strength of contextual vulnerability against a deterministic narrative of scarcity-induced conflict, such as that pertaining to land. Systematically characterising climate conflict discourses based on the central issues constructed, assumptions about mechanistic relationships, implicit normative judgements and vulnerability portrayals, provides a useful way of understanding where discourses differ. While discourses show a wide range of opinions "for" and "against" climate conflict relations, engagement with vulnerability has been less pronounced - except for the dominant context centrism discourse concerned about human security (particularly in Africa). In exploring this discourse, we observe an increasing sense of contextual vulnerability that is oriented towards a concern for complexity rather than predictability. The article concludes by illustrating that a turn towards contextual vulnerability thinking will help advance a constructivist theory-informed climate conflict scholarship that recognises historicity, specificity, and variability as crucial elements of contextual totalities of any area affected by climate conflict.

  6. Perspectives on contextual vulnerability in discourses of climate conflict

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okpara, U. T.; Stringer, L. C.; Dougill, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    The science of climate security and conflict is replete with controversies. Yet the increasing vulnerability of politically fragile countries to the security consequences of climate change is widely acknowledged. Although climate conflict reflects a continuum of conditional forces that coalesce around the notion of vulnerability, how different portrayals of vulnerability influence the discursive formation of climate conflict relations remains an exceptional but under-researched issue. This paper combines a systematic discourse analysis with a vulnerability interpretation diagnostic tool to explore: (i) how discourses of climate conflict are constructed and represented, (ii) how vulnerability is communicated across discourse lines, and (iii) the strength of contextual vulnerability against a deterministic narrative of scarcity-induced conflict, such as that pertaining to land. Systematically characterising climate conflict discourses based on the central issues constructed, assumptions about mechanistic relationships, implicit normative judgements and vulnerability portrayals, provides a useful way of understanding where discourses differ. While discourses show a wide range of opinions "for" and "against" climate conflict relations, engagement with vulnerability has been less pronounced - except for the dominant context centrism discourse concerned about human security (particularly in Africa). In exploring this discourse, we observe an increasing sense of contextual vulnerability that is oriented towards a concern for complexity rather than predictability. The article concludes by illustrating that a turn towards contextual vulnerability thinking will help advance a constructivist theory-informed climate conflict scholarship that recognises historicity, specificity and variability as crucial elements of contextual totalities of any area affected by climate conflict.

  7. Protecting and Respecting the Vulnerable: Existing Regulations or Further Protections?

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Stephanie R.

    2013-01-01

    Scholars and policymakers continue to struggle over the meaning of the word “vulnerable” in the context of research ethics. One major reason for the stymied discussions regarding vulnerable populations is that there is no clear distinction between accounts of research vulnerabilities that exist for certain populations and discussions of research vulnerabilities that require special regulations in the context of research ethics policies. I suggest an analytic process by which to ascertain whether particular vulnerable populations should be contenders for additional regulatory protections. I apply this process to two vulnerable populations: the cognitively vulnerable and the economically vulnerable. I conclude that a subset of the cognitively vulnerable require extra protections while the economically vulnerable should be protected by implementing existing regulations more appropriately and rigorously. Unless or until the informed consent process is more adequately implemented and the distributive justice requirement of the Belmont Report is emphasized and operationalized, the economically disadvantaged will remain particularly vulnerable to the harm of exploitation in research. PMID:23329228

  8. Reducing societal vulnerability to drought: A methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhite, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    Given worldwide experience with drought during the past several decades and the magnitude of associated impacts, it is apparent that vulnerability to extended periods of water shortage is escalating. Developing a national or provincial drought policy and preparedness plan is a complicated but essential first step toward reducing societal vulnerability. Until recently, nations had devoted little effort to drought preparedness, preferring instead the reactive or crisis management approach. Presently, an increasing number of nations are pursuing a more proactive approach that emphasizes the principles of risk management and sustainable development. Because of the multitude of impacts associated with drought and the numerous governmental agencies that have responsibility for some aspect of monitoring, assessment, mitigation, and planning, developing a policy and plan must be an integrated process within and between levels of government. This paper outlines a generic process that can be adopted by governments that desire to develop a more comprehensive and long-term approach to drought management and planning. Countries and states or provincial authorities that have adopted this approach is presented as case studies. This process is timely, given the declaration of the 1990s as the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction and the recent International Convention to Combat Desertification and Drought (June, 1994), an offshoot of deliberations at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development.

  9. Airport vulnerability assessment: an analytical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarick, Richard T.

    1998-12-01

    The Airport Vulnerability Assessment Project (AVAP) is the direct result of congressional funding of recommendation 3.13 of the White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security. This project takes a new approach to the assessment of U.S. commercial airports. AVAP uses automation, analytical methods and tools to evaluate vulnerability and risk, and to analyze cost/benefits in a more quantitative manner. This paper addresses both the process used to conduct this program, as well as a generalized look at the results, which have been achieved for the initial airport assessments. The process description covers the acquisition approach, the project structure, and a review of the various methodologies and tools being used by the sever performing organizations (Abacus Technology, Battelle, CTI, Lockwood Greene, Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, SAIC, and Science & Engineering Associates). The tools described include ASSESS, SAM, RiskWatch, CASRAP, and AVAT. Included in the process is the utilization of an advisory panel made up predominantly of experts from the National Laboratories 9Sandia, Oak Ridge, Argonne and Brookhaven). The results portion addresses the findings and products resulting from the initial airport assessments. High level (unrestricted) summaries of the results are presented, along with initial trends in commonly recommended security improvements (countermeasures). Opportunities for the application of optics technology are identified.

  10. Mapping of earthquakes vulnerability area in Papua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad Fawzy Ismullah, M.; Massinai, Muh. Altin

    2016-05-01

    Geohazard is a geological occurrence which may lead to a huge loss for human. A mitigation of these natural disasters is one important thing to be done properly in order to reduce the risks. One of the natural disasters that frequently occurs in the Papua Province is the earthquake. This study applies the principle of Geospatial and its application for mapping the earthquake-prone area in the Papua region. It uses earthquake data, which is recorded for 36 years (1973-2009), fault location map, and ground acceleration map of the area. The earthquakes and fault map are rearranged into an earthquake density map, as well as an earthquake depth density map and fault density map. The overlaid data of these three maps onto ground acceleration map are then (compiled) to obtain an earthquake unit map. Some districts area, such as Sarmi, Nabire, and Dogiyai, are identified by a high vulnerability index. In the other hand, Waropen, Puncak, Merauke, Asmat, Mappi, and Bouven Digoel area shows lower index. Finally, the vulnerability index in other places is detected as moderate.

  11. Vulnerabilities to misinformation in online pharmaceutical marketing

    PubMed Central

    De Freitas, Julian; Falls, Brian A; Haque, Omar S; Bursztajn, Harold J

    2013-01-01

    Given the large percentage of Internet users who search for health information online, pharmaceutical companies have invested significantly in online marketing of their products. Although online pharmaceutical marketing can potentially benefit both physicians and patients, it can also harm these groups by misleading them. Indeed, some pharmaceutical companies have been guilty of undue influence, which has threatened public health and trust. We conducted a review of the available literature on online pharmaceutical marketing, undue influence and the psychology of decision-making, in order to identify factors that contribute to Internet users’ vulnerability to online pharmaceutical misinformation. We find five converging factors: Internet dependence, excessive trust in the veracity of online information, unawareness of pharmaceutical company influence, social isolation and detail fixation. As the Internet continues to change, it is important that regulators keep in mind not only misinformation that surrounds new web technologies and their contents, but also the factors that make Internet users vulnerable to misinformation in the first place. Psychological components are a critical, although often neglected, risk factor for Internet users becoming misinformed upon exposure to online pharmaceutical marketing. Awareness of these psychological factors may help Internet users attentively and safely navigate an evolving web terrain. PMID:23761527

  12. Vulnerabilities to misinformation in online pharmaceutical marketing.

    PubMed

    De Freitas, Julian; Falls, Brian A; Haque, Omar S; Bursztajn, Harold J

    2013-05-01

    Given the large percentage of Internet users who search for health information online, pharmaceutical companies have invested significantly in online marketing of their products. Although online pharmaceutical marketing can potentially benefit both physicians and patients, it can also harm these groups by misleading them. Indeed, some pharmaceutical companies have been guilty of undue influence, which has threatened public health and trust. We conducted a review of the available literature on online pharmaceutical marketing, undue influence and the psychology of decision-making, in order to identify factors that contribute to Internet users' vulnerability to online pharmaceutical misinformation. We find five converging factors: Internet dependence, excessive trust in the veracity of online information, unawareness of pharmaceutical company influence, social isolation and detail fixation. As the Internet continues to change, it is important that regulators keep in mind not only misinformation that surrounds new web technologies and their contents, but also the factors that make Internet users vulnerable to misinformation in the first place. Psychological components are a critical, although often neglected, risk factor for Internet users becoming misinformed upon exposure to online pharmaceutical marketing. Awareness of these psychological factors may help Internet users attentively and safely navigate an evolving web terrain. PMID:23761527

  13. Framework for Vulnerability Assessment of Coastal Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrien, P. S.; Moritz, H. R.; White, K. D.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal infrastructure can be highly vulnerable to changing climate, including increasing sea levels and altered frequency and intensity of coastal storms. Existing coastal infrastructure may be of a sufficient age that it is already experiencing noticeable impacts from global sea level rise, and require a variety of potential preparedness and resilience measures to adapt to changing climate. Methods to determine vulnerability to changing sea level and support planning of potential future adaptation measures are needed for application to projects having multiple purposes (e.g., navigation, coastal risk reduction). Here we describe a potential framework for assessing projects with several components typical of existing coastal infrastructure spanning a range of engineering disciplines (e.g., hydrology, geotechnical, structural, electrical, and mechanical). The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Climate Preparedness and Resilience Register (CPRR) framework is currently under development. It takes a tiered approach as described in earlier USACE guidance (Engineer Technical Letter 1100-2-1) using the three scenarios prescribed by Engineer Regulation ER 1100-2-8162. Level 1 is a qualitative assessment defining the major sea level change-related impacts and ranks them in order of soonest occurrence. Level 2 is a quantitative evaluation that analyzes current and future performance of individual project components, including electrical, mechanical and structural components and functions using the sea level change scenarios prescribed by ER 1100-2-8162. Level 3 proposes adaptation measures per ETL 1100-2-1 and evaluates changes in sea level change-related impacts.

  14. A network approach to evaluate ecosystem vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwell, Allison; Kumar, Praveen

    2016-04-01

    Ecohydrologic systems exhibit shifts in behavior due to natural or human induced perturbations or stresses. These shifts result from changes in dependencies between many interacting components. A framework that defines a system based on these shifting interactions is needed to holistically evaluate properties such as resilience, vulnerability, or health that cannot be reached through the isolated study of component behaviors. This study uses a network approach in which ecohydrologic time-series data are nodes, and information theoretic measures that capture various aspects of time dependencies are links. It has been shown that an information decomposition approach can be used to determine the relative redundant (shared by multiple source nodes to a target), synergistic (arising only from the knowledge of multiple source nodes), or unique (only provided by an individual source node) information within a given detected link. We construct networks from flux tower and ecohydrologic model output nodes and evaluate how these evolve in terms of connectivity, dominant time scales of interactions, link uniqueness, and link stability over time windows ranging from several hours to several weeks as ecosystems respond to shifting environmental conditions. We associate these network properties with simulated and observed vegetation responses, and show that a network framework can be used to detect critical interactions that dictate ecosystem vulnerabilities to extremes.

  15. Evaluating intensity parameters for debris flow vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiler, Margreth

    2014-05-01

    In mountain regions natural hazard processes such as debris flows or hyper-concentrated flows repeatedly lead to high damages. After an event, detailed documentation of the meteorological, hydrological and geomorphological indicators are standardized, and additional data on debris covering run out areas, indicators for processes velocity and transported volumes are gathered. Information on deposition height of debris is an important parameter to estimate the intensity of the process impacting the buildings and infrastructure and hence to establish vulnerability curves. However, the deposition height of mobilized material in settlements and on infrastructure is mostly not directly evaluated because recovery work starts immediately or even during the event leading to a removal of accumulated material. Different approaches exist to reconstruct deposition heights after torrent events, such as mind mapping, comparison of LIDAR-based DEM before and after the event as well as the reconstruction by using photo documentation and the estimation of deposition heights according to standardised elements at buildings and infrastructure. In our study, these different approaches to estimate deposition height and the spatial distribution of the accumulated material are applied and compared against each other by using the case study of the debris flow event in Brienz (Switzerland) which occurred during the serve flood events of August 2005 in the Alps. Within the analysis, different factors including overall costs and time consumption (manpower, equipment), accuracy and preciseness are compared and evaluated to establish optimal maps of the extent and deposition depth after torrent events and to integrate this information in the vulnerability analysis.

  16. Evaluating operating system vulnerability to memory errors.

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Bridges, Patrick G.; Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Mueller, Frank; Fiala, David; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2012-05-01

    Reliability is of great concern to the scalability of extreme-scale systems. Of particular concern are soft errors in main memory, which are a leading cause of failures on current systems and are predicted to be the leading cause on future systems. While great effort has gone into designing algorithms and applications that can continue to make progress in the presence of these errors without restarting, the most critical software running on a node, the operating system (OS), is currently left relatively unprotected. OS resiliency is of particular importance because, though this software typically represents a small footprint of a compute node's physical memory, recent studies show more memory errors in this region of memory than the remainder of the system. In this paper, we investigate the soft error vulnerability of two operating systems used in current and future high-performance computing systems: Kitten, the lightweight kernel developed at Sandia National Laboratories, and CLE, a high-performance Linux-based operating system developed by Cray. For each of these platforms, we outline major structures and subsystems that are vulnerable to soft errors and describe methods that could be used to reconstruct damaged state. Our results show the Kitten lightweight operating system may be an easier target to harden against memory errors due to its smaller memory footprint, largely deterministic state, and simpler system structure.

  17. Vulnerability analysis methods for road networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bíl, Michal; Vodák, Rostislav; Kubeček, Jan; Rebok, Tomáš; Svoboda, Tomáš

    2014-05-01

    Road networks rank among the most important lifelines of modern society. They can be damaged by either random or intentional events. Roads are also often affected by natural hazards, the impacts of which are both direct and indirect. Whereas direct impacts (e.g. roads damaged by a landslide or due to flooding) are localized in close proximity to the natural hazard occurrence, the indirect impacts can entail widespread service disabilities and considerable travel delays. The change in flows in the network may affect the population living far from the places originally impacted by the natural disaster. These effects are primarily possible due to the intrinsic nature of this system. The consequences and extent of the indirect costs also depend on the set of road links which were damaged, because the road links differ in terms of their importance. The more robust (interconnected) the road network is, the less time is usually needed to secure the serviceability of an area hit by a disaster. These kinds of networks also demonstrate a higher degree of resilience. Evaluating road network structures is therefore essential in any type of vulnerability and resilience analysis. There are a range of approaches used for evaluation of the vulnerability of a network and for identification of the weakest road links. Only few of them are, however, capable of simulating the impacts of the simultaneous closure of numerous links, which often occurs during a disaster. The primary problem is that in the case of a disaster, which usually has a large regional extent, the road network may remain disconnected. The majority of the commonly used indices use direct computation of the shortest paths or time between OD (origin - destination) pairs and therefore cannot be applied when the network breaks up into two or more components. Since extensive break-ups often occur in cases of major disasters, it is important to study the network vulnerability in these cases as well, so that appropriate

  18. Vulnerability of housing buildings in Bucharest, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostenaru, M.

    2009-04-01

    The author participates to the World Housing Encyclopedia project (www.world-housing.net), an internet based database of housing buildings in earthquake prone areas of the world. This is a voluntary project run by the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, Oakland, California and the International Association of Earthquake Engineering, financial means being available only for the website where the information is shared. For broader dissemination in 2004 a summary publication of the reports to date was published. The database can be querried for various parameters and browsed after geographic distribution. Participation is open to any housing experts. Between 2003 and 2006 the author was also member of the editorial board. The author contributed numerous reports about building types in Romania, and each one about building types in Germany and Switzerland. This presentation will be about the contributed reports on building types in Romania. To the Encyclopedia eight reports on building types from Bucharest were contributed, while in further research of the author one more was similarly described regarding the vulnerability and the seismic retrofit. The selection of these types was done considering the historic development of the built substance in Bucharest from 1850 on, time from which a representative amount of housing buildings which can be classified in typologies can be found in Bucharest. While the structural types are not necessarily characteristic for the style, since the style has other time limits, often appearing before the type became common and then remaining being practiced also after another style gained ground, a historic succession can be seen also in this case. The nine types considered can be grouped in seven time categories: - the time 1850-1880, for a vernacular housing type with masonry load bearing walls and timber floors, - the time 1880-1920, for the type of two storey or multi-storey house with masonry walls and timber floors (in which

  19. Susceptibility to mountain hazards in Austria - paradigms of vulnerability revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Sven

    2010-05-01

    The concept of vulnerability is pillared by multiple disciplinary theories underpinning either a technical or a social origin of the concept and resulting in a range of paradigms for either a qualitative or quantitative assessment of vulnerability. However, efforts to reduce susceptibility to hazards and to create disaster-resilient communities require intersections among these theories, since human activity cannot be seen independently from the environmental setting. Acknowledging different roots of disciplinary paradigms, issues determining structural, economic, institutional and social vulnerability are discussed with respect to mountain hazards in Austria. The underlying idea of taking such an integrative viewpoint was the cognition that human action in mountain environments affects the state of vulnerability, and the state of vulnerability in turn shapes the possibilities of human action. It is argued that structural vulnerability as originator results in considerable economic vulnerability, generated by the institutional settings of dealing with natural hazards and shaped by the overall societal framework. Hence, the vulnerability of a specific location and within a considered point of time is triggered by the hazardous event and the related physical susceptibility of structures, such as buildings located on a torrent fan. Depending on the specific institutional settings, economic vulnerability of individuals or of the society results, above all with respect to imperfect loss compensation mechanisms in the areas under investigation. While this potential for harm can be addressed as social vulnerability, the concept of institutional vulnerability has been developed with respect to the overall political settings of governmental risk management. As a result, the concept of vulnerability, as being used in natural sciences, can be extended by integration of possible reasons why such physical susceptibility of structures exists, and by integration of compensation

  20. Social vulnerability indicators as a sustainable planning tool

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yung-Jaan

    2014-01-15

    In the face of global warming and environmental change, the conventional strategy of resource centralization will not be able to cope with a future of increasingly extreme climate events and related disasters. It may even contribute to inter-regional disparities as a result of these events. To promote sustainable development, this study offers a case study of developmental planning in Chiayi, Taiwan and a review of the relevant literature to propose a framework of social vulnerability indicators at the township level. The proposed framework can not only be used to measure the social vulnerability of individual townships in Chiayi, but also be used to capture the spatial developmental of Chiayi. Seventeen social vulnerability indicators provide information in five dimensions. Owing to limited access to relevant data, the values of only 13 indicators were calculated. By simply summarizing indicators without using weightings and by using zero-mean normalization to standardize the indicators, this study calculates social vulnerability scores for each township. To make social vulnerability indicators more useful, this study performs an overlay analysis of social vulnerability and patterns of risk associated with national disasters. The social vulnerability analysis draws on secondary data for 2012 from Taiwan's National Geographic Information System. The second layer of analysis consists of the flood potential ratings of the Taiwan Water Resources Agency as an index of biophysical vulnerability. The third layer consists of township-level administrative boundaries. Analytical results reveal that four out of the 18 townships in Chiayi not only are vulnerable to large-scale flooding during serious flood events, but also have the highest degree of social vulnerability. Administrative boundaries, on which social vulnerability is based, do not correspond precisely to “cross-administrative boundaries,” which are characteristics of the natural environment. This study adopts

  1. Social vulnerability assessment: a growing practice in Europe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapsell, S.; McC arthy, S.

    2012-04-01

    This paper builds upon work on social vulnerability from the CapHaz-Net consortium, an ongoing research project funded by the European Commission in its 7th Framework Programme. The project focuses on the social dimensions of natural hazards, as well as on regional practices of risk prevention and management, and aims at improving the resilience of European societies to natural hazards, paying particular attention to social capacity building. The topic of social vulnerability is one of seven themes being addressed in the project. There are various rationales for examining the relevance of social vulnerability to natural hazards. Vulnerability assessment has now been accepted as a requirement for the effective development of emergency management capability, and assessment of social vulnerability has been recognised as being integral to understanding the risk to natural hazards. The aim of our research was to examine social vulnerability, how it might be understood in the context of natural hazards in Europe, and how social vulnerability can be addressed to increase social capacity. The work comprised a review of research on social vulnerability to different natural hazards within Europe and included concepts and definitions of social vulnerability (and related concepts), the purpose of vulnerability assessment and who decides who is vulnerable, different approaches to assessing or measuring social vulnerability (such as the use of 'classical' quantitative vulnerability indicators and qualitative community-based approaches, along with the advantages and disadvantages of both), conceptual frameworks for assessing social vulnerability and three case studies of social vulnerability studies within Europe: flash floods in the Italian Alps, fluvial flooding in Germany and heat waves in Spain. The review reveals variable application of social vulnerability analysis across Europe and there are indications why this might be the case. Reasons could range from the scale of

  2. Childhood physical abuse and aggression: Shame and narcissistic vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Keene, Amanda C; Epps, James

    2016-01-01

    This study examined narcissistic vulnerability and shame-proneness as potential mediators between childhood physical abuse (CPA) and adult anger and aggression. Participants were 400 undergraduate students, 134 of whom had a history of CPA. All participants completed self-report questionnaires assessing history of CPA, shame-proneness, narcissistic vulnerability, physical aggression, trait anger, and hostility. Results indicated abused participants were more angry and aggressive and experienced higher levels of shame-proneness and narcissistic vulnerability than nonabused participants. Multiple mediation analyses showed that narcissistic vulnerability, but not shame-proneness, partially mediated the relation between abuse and physical aggression. However, narcissistic vulnerability and shame-proneness both emerged as partial mediators between abuse and the anger and hostility variables. These findings suggest that narcissistic vulnerability and shame-proneness may function as mediators of adjustment following childhood maltreatment. Study limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:26560235

  3. Intravascular probe for detection of vulnerable plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patt, Bradley E.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; MacDonald, Lawrence R.; Yamaguchi, Yuko; Tull, Carolyn R.; Janecek, Martin; Hoffman, Edward J.; Strauss, H. William; Tsugita, Ross; Ghazarossian, Vartan

    2001-12-01

    Coronary angiography is unable to define the status of the atheroma, and only measures the luminal dimensions of the blood vessel, without providing information about plaque content. Up to 70% of heart attacks are caused by minimally obstructive vulnerable plaques, which are too small to be detected adequately by angiography. We have developed an intravascular imaging detector to identify vulnerable coronary artery plaques. The detector works by sensing beta or conversion electron radiotracer emissions from plaque-binding radiotracers. The device overcomes the technical constraints of size, sensitivity and conformance to the intravascular environment. The detector at the distal end of the catheter uses six 7mm long by 0.5mm diameter scintillation fibers coupled to 1.5m long plastic fibers. The fibers are offset from each other longitudinally by 6mm and arranged spirally around a guide wire in the catheter. At the proximal end of the catheter the optical fibers are coupled to an interface box with a snap on connector. The interface box contains a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT) to decode the individual fibers. The whole detector assembly fits into an 8-French (2.7 mm in diameter) catheter. The PSPMT image is further decoded with software to give a linear image, the total instantaneous count rate and an audio output whose tone corresponds to the count rate. The device was tested with F-18 and Tl-204 sources. Spectrometric response, spatial resolution, sensitivity and beta to background ratio were measured. System resolution is 6 mm and the sensitivity is >500 cps / micrometers Ci when the source is 1 mm from the detector. The beta to background ratio was 11.2 for F-18 measured on a single fiber. The current device will lead to a system allowing imaging of labeled vulnerable plaque in coronary arteries. This type of signature is expected to enable targeted and cost effective therapies to prevent acute coronary artery diseases such as: unstable angina

  4. Cyber / Physical Security Vulnerability Assessment Integration

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, Douglas G.; Simpkins, Bret E.

    2012-07-28

    Abstract Both physical protection and cyber security domains offer solutions for the discovery of vulnerabilities through the use of various assessment processes and software tools. Each vulnerability assessment (VA) methodology provides the ability to identify and categorize vulnerabilities, and quantifies the risks within their own areas of expertise. Neither approach fully represents the true potential security risk to a site and/or a facility, nor comprehensively assesses the overall security posture. The technical approach to solving this problem was to identify methodologies and processes that blend the physical and cyber security assessments, and develop tools to accurately quantify the unaccounted for risk. SMEs from both the physical and the cyber security domains developed the blending methodologies, and cross trained each other on the various aspects of the physical and cyber security assessment processes. A local critical infrastructure entity volunteered to host a proof of concept physical/cyber security assessment, and the lessons learned have been leveraged by this effort. The four potential modes of attack an adversary can use in approaching a target are; Physical Only Attack, Cyber Only Attack, Physical Enabled Cyber Attack, and the Cyber Enabled Physical Attack. The Physical Only and the Cyber Only pathway analysis are two of the most widely analyzed attack modes. The pathway from an off-site location to the desired target location is dissected to ensure adversarial activity can be detected and neutralized by the protection strategy, prior to completion of a predefined task. This methodology typically explores a one way attack from the public space (or common area) inward towards the target. The Physical Enabled Cyber Attack and the Cyber Enabled Physical Attack are much more intricate. Both scenarios involve beginning in one domain to affect change in the other, then backing outward to take advantage of the reduced system effectiveness, before

  5. Assessing Vulnerability to Drought on a pan-European scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urquijo, Julia; De Stefano, Lucia; González-Tánago, Itziar; Blauhut, Veit; Stahl, Kerstin

    2014-05-01

    During the past decade, a number of theoretical frameworks have been defined within the Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change communities to assess drought vulnerability at different scales, sectors, socio-political contexts, and geo-climatic conditions. However, there is still little consensus around the criteria, dimensions and factors used in these assessments; and none of them has been applied at a pan-European scale. This is due to a triple complexity. Firstly, drought as a natural hazard is a complex phenomenon due to the difficulty of determining its onset and its multiscale, multifaceted and dynamic nature. Secondly, there is an on-going debate regarding the concept of vulnerability and its constitutive elements, together with an important diversity of theoretical approaches to assess it. Finally, Europe's diversity in bioclimatic conditions, national water use practice and water use policies adds a challenging characteristic for working on pan-European scale. This work addresses the challenge of defining a methodological approach to the assessment of vulnerability factors to drought at a pan-European scale. For this purpose, we first review existing conceptual frameworks as well as of past initiatives for drought vulnerability assessment. The literature review showed that the high complexity of drought vulnerability assessment requires a clear definition of the concept of vulnerability and the associated terms, and that, before undertaking any assessment, it is necessary to clearly define the "vulnerable unit" i.e. replying to the questions 'whose vulnerability is being assessed?' and 'vulnerability to what type of impact?'. In this context, this work proposes the application of a factor-based approach, consisting in the analysis of significant factors that influence vulnerability in the context of specific situations of potential vulnerability. Those situations are framed within the specific drought characteristics of four different geoclimatic macro

  6. Global analysis of urban surface water supply vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padowski, Julie C.; Gorelick, Steven M.

    2014-10-01

    This study presents a global analysis of urban water supply vulnerability in 71 surface-water supplied cities, with populations exceeding 750 000 and lacking source water diversity. Vulnerability represents the failure of an urban supply-basin to simultaneously meet demands from human, environmental and agricultural users. We assess a baseline (2010) condition and a future scenario (2040) that considers increased demand from urban population growth and projected agricultural demand. We do not account for climate change, which can potentially exacerbate or reduce urban supply vulnerability. In 2010, 35% of large cities are vulnerable as they compete with agricultural users. By 2040, without additional measures 45% of cities are vulnerable due to increased agricultural and urban demands. Of the vulnerable cities in 2040, the majority are river-supplied with mean flows so low (1200 liters per person per day, l/p/d) that the cities experience ‘chronic water scarcity’ (1370 l/p/d). Reservoirs supply the majority of cities facing individual future threats, revealing that constructed storage potentially provides tenuous water security. In 2040, of the 32 vulnerable cities, 14 would reduce their vulnerability via reallocating water by reducing environmental flows, and 16 would similarly benefit by transferring water from irrigated agriculture. Approximately half remain vulnerable under either potential remedy.

  7. Modelling homogeneous regions of social vulnerability to malaria in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Bizimana, Jean Pierre; Kienberger, Stefan; Hagenlocher, Michael; Twarabamenye, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Despite the decline in malaria incidence due to intense interventions, potentials for malaria transmission persist in Rwanda. To eradicate malaria in Rwanda, strategies need to expand beyond approaches that focus solely on malaria epidemiology and also consider the socioeconomic, demographic and biological/disease-related factors that determine the vulnerability of potentially exposed populations. This paper analyses current levels of social vulnerability to malaria in Rwanda by integrating a set of weighted vulnerability indicators. The paper uses regionalisation techniques as a spatially explicit approach for delineating homogeneous regions of social vulnerability to malaria. This overcomes the limitations of administrative boundaries for modelling the trans-boundary social vulnerability to malaria. The utilised approach revealed high levels of social vulnerability to malaria in the highland areas of Rwanda, as well as in remote areas where populations are more susceptible. Susceptibility may be due to the populations' lacking the capacity to anticipate mosquito bites, or lacking resilience to cope with or recover from malaria infection. By highlighting the most influential indicators of social vulnerability to malaria, the applied approach indicates which vulnerability domains need to be addressed, and where appropriate interventions are most required. Interventions to improve the socioeconomic development in highly vulnerable areas could prove highly effective, and provide sustainable outcomes against malaria in Rwanda. This would ultimately increase the resilience of the population and their capacity to better anticipate, cope with, and recover from possible infection. PMID:27063738

  8. Empirical Estimates of 0Day Vulnerabilities in Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Miles A. McQueen; Wayne F. Boyer; Sean M. McBride; Trevor A. McQueen

    2009-01-01

    We define a 0Day vulnerability to be any vulnerability, in deployed software, which has been discovered by at least one person but has not yet been publicly announced or patched. These 0Day vulnerabilities are of particular interest when assessing the risk to well managed control systems which have already effectively mitigated the publicly known vulnerabilities. In these well managed systems the risk contribution from 0Days will have proportionally increased. To aid understanding of how great a risk 0Days may pose to control systems, an estimate of how many are in existence is needed. Consequently, using the 0Day definition given above, we developed and applied a method for estimating how many 0Day vulnerabilities are in existence on any given day. The estimate is made by: empirically characterizing the distribution of the lifespans, measured in days, of 0Day vulnerabilities; determining the number of vulnerabilities publicly announced each day; and applying a novel method for estimating the number of 0Day vulnerabilities in existence on any given day using the number of vulnerabilities publicly announced each day and the previously derived distribution of 0Day lifespans. The method was first applied to a general set of software applications by analyzing the 0Day lifespans of 491 software vulnerabilities and using the daily rate of vulnerability announcements in the National Vulnerability Database. This led to a conservative estimate that in the worst year there were, on average, 2500 0Day software related vulnerabilities in existence on any given day. Using a smaller but intriguing set of 15 0Day software vulnerability lifespans representing the actual time from discovery to public disclosure, we then made a more aggressive estimate. In this case, we estimated that in the worst year there were, on average, 4500 0Day software vulnerabilities in existence on any given day. We then proceeded to identify the subset of software applications likely to be used in some

  9. A new species of Loxosomatidae (Entoprocta, Solitaria) from the White Sea: Loxosomella unicornis sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Borisanova, Anastasiya O; Krylova, Elena M

    2014-01-01

    A new solitary entoproct, Loxosomella unicornis sp. nov., is described. The species was found on the gymnolaemate bryozoans Cribrilina sp. and Electra sp. in Kandalaksha Bay, White Sea. Loxosomella unicornis sp. nov. is a medium-sized species with a total length up to 650 µm, eight tentacles and a conspicuous horn-shaped appendage on the top part of calyx.  PMID:25283409

  10. Vulnerability of unconfined aquifers to virus contamination.

    PubMed

    Schijven, J F; Hassanizadeh, S Majid; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2010-02-01

    An empirical formula was developed for determining the vulnerability of unconfined sandy aquifers to virus contamination, expressed as a dimensionless setback distance r(s)(*). The formula can be used to calculate the setback distance required for the protection of drinking water production wells against virus contamination. This empirical formula takes into account the intrinsic properties of the virus and the unconfined sandy aquifer. Virus removal is described by a rate coefficient that accounts for virus inactivation and attachment to sand grains. The formula also includes pumping rate, saturated thickness of the aquifer, depth of the screen of the pumping well, and anisotropy of the aquifer. This means that it accounts also for dilution effects as well as horizontal and vertical virus transport. Because the empirical model includes virus source concentration it can be used as an integral part of a quantitative viral risk assessment. PMID:20110099

  11. MODELING UNDERGROUND STRUCTURE VULNERABILITY IN JOINTED ROCK

    SciTech Connect

    R. SWIFT; D. STEEDMAN

    2001-02-01

    The vulnerability of underground structures and openings in deep jointed rock to ground shock attack is of chief concern to military planning and security. Damage and/or loss of stability to a structure in jointed rock, often manifested as brittle failure and accompanied with block movement, can depend significantly on jointed properties, such as spacing, orientation, strength, and block character. We apply a hybrid Discrete Element Method combined with the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics approach to simulate the MIGHTY NORTH event, a definitive high-explosive test performed on an aluminum lined cylindrical opening in jointed Salem limestone. Representing limestone with discrete elements having elastic-equivalence and explicit brittle tensile behavior and the liner as an elastic-plastic continuum provides good agreement with the experiment and damage obtained with finite-element simulations. Extending the approach to parameter variations shows damage is substantially altered by differences in joint geometry and liner properties.

  12. Costs of strikes between vulnerable missile forces

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-02-01

    This note derives the first and second strike magnitudes and costs for strikes between vulnerable missile forces with multiple warheads. The extension to mixes with invulnerable missiles is performed in a companion note. Stability increases as the number of weapons per missile is reduced. The optimal allocation of weapons between missiles and value is significant in predicting the stability impact of the reduction of the number of weapons per missile at large numbers of missiles, less significant in reducing the number of missiles for fixed weapons per missile. At low numbers of missiles, the stability indices for singlet and triplet configurations are comparable, as are the number of weapons each would deliver on value targets.

  13. Disability pornography: the fetishization of women's vulnerabilities.

    PubMed

    Elman, R A

    1997-06-01

    This paper offers a critical exploration of a form of pornography consisting in sexual abuse and exploitation of women and girls with disabilities. This practice allows men to create and maintain their sexual dominance over the female gender. Disability pornography, like all other forms of pornography, but in its own way, contributes to the second-class status of all women, particularly those who are suffering from limitations in mobility and other disabilities. By promoting the castrating, dominant, violent image of women, pornography allows men to justify their abusive behaviors toward women. This form of pornography preys on the vulnerability of disabled women and increases the possibility that they will be abused. The sexually explicit lack of physical mobility is as celebrated in disability pornography as the political mobility of women is condemned in all genres of pornography. Amputee pornography is just one example of this brutal practice. PMID:12319742

  14. Method and tool for network vulnerability analysis

    DOEpatents

    Swiler, Laura Painton; Phillips, Cynthia A.

    2006-03-14

    A computer system analysis tool and method that will allow for qualitative and quantitative assessment of security attributes and vulnerabilities in systems including computer networks. The invention is based on generation of attack graphs wherein each node represents a possible attack state and each edge represents a change in state caused by a single action taken by an attacker or unwitting assistant. Edges are weighted using metrics such as attacker effort, likelihood of attack success, or time to succeed. Generation of an attack graph is accomplished by matching information about attack requirements (specified in "attack templates") to information about computer system configuration (contained in a configuration file that can be updated to reflect system changes occurring during the course of an attack) and assumed attacker capabilities (reflected in "attacker profiles"). High risk attack paths, which correspond to those considered suited to application of attack countermeasures given limited resources for applying countermeasures, are identified by finding "epsilon optimal paths."

  15. Building vulnerability assessment based on cloud model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xixia; Cai, Chao

    2013-10-01

    This study aims at building a general framework for estimating building vulnerability to blast-fragmentation warhead of a missile. Considering the fuzziness and randomness existing in the damage criterion rules, cloud models are applied to represent the qualitative concepts. On the basis of building geometric description, element criticality analysis, blast wave and fragment movement description, and meeting analysis of fragments and target, kill probabilities of the components are estimated by the shot line method. The damage state of the whole building given the threat is obtained by cloud model based uncertainty reasoning and the proposed similarity measure, enabling both randomness of probability reasoning and the fuzziness of the traditional fuzzy logic to be considered. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can provide useful reference for optimizing warhead design and mission efficiency evaluation.

  16. Vulnerable Subjects: Why Does Informed Consent Matter?

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Michele

    2016-09-01

    This special issue of the Journal Law, Medicine & Ethics takes up the concern of informed consent, particularly in times of controversy. The dominant moral dilemmas that frame traditional bioethical concerns address medical experimentation on vulnerable subjects; physicians assisting their patients in suicide or euthanasia; scarce resource allocation and medical futility; human trials to develop drugs; organ and tissue donation; cloning; xenotransplantation; abortion; human enhancement; mandatory vaccination; and much more. The term "bioethics" provides a lens, language, and guideposts to the study of medical ethics. It is worth noting, however, that medical experimentation is neither new nor exclusive to one country. Authors in this issue address thorny subjects that span borders and patients: from matters dealing with children and vaccination to the language and perception of consent. PMID:27587443

  17. Ecosystems Vulnerability Challenge and Prize Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. H.; Frame, M. T.; Ferriter, O.; Recker, J.

    2014-12-01

    Stimulating innovation and private sector entrepreneurship is an important way to advance the preparedness of communities, businesses and individuals for the impacts of climate change on certain aspects of ecosystems, such as: fire regimes; water availability; carbon sequestration; biodiversity conservation; weather-related hazards, and the spread of invasive species. The creation of tools is critical to help communities and natural resource managers better understand the impacts of climate change on ecosystems and the potential resulting implications for ecosystem services and conservation efforts. The Department of the Interior is leading an interagency effort to develop the Ecosystems Vulnerability theme as part of the President's Climate Action Plan. This effort will provide seamless access to relevant datasets that can help address such issues as: risk of wildfires to local communities and federal lands; water sensitivity to climate change; and understanding the role of ecosystems in a changing climate. This session will provide an overview of the proposed Ecosystem Vulnerability Challenge and Prize Competition, outlining the intended audience, scope, goals, and overall timeline. The session will provide an opportunity for participants to offer new ideas. Through the Challenge, access will be made available to critical datasets for software developers, engineers, scientists, students, and researchers to develop and submit applications addressing critical science issues facing our Nation today. Application submission criteria and guidelines will also be discussed. The Challenge will be open to all sectors and organizations (i.e. federal, non-federal, private sector, non-profits, and universities) within the United States. It is anticipated the Challenge will run from early January 2015 until spring of 2015.

  18. Assessing Hydro-Ecological Vulnerability from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stampoulis, D.; Andreadis, K.; Granger, S. L.; Fisher, J. B.; Turk, F. J.; Behrangi, A.; Das, N. N.; Ines, A.

    2015-12-01

    The main driver of economic growth in East Africa is agriculture. However, climate change and the resulting intensification of the hydrologic cycle will increase water limitation in this already drought-burdened region, and the challenge of ensuring food security is bound to become critical. Efforts must, therefore, be made to develop appropriate adaptation strategies for agriculture in such regions. Assessing and predicting ecosystem responses to global environmental change can advance management and decision support systems that would improve food security and economic development. The current study uses a plethora of multi-year remote sensing earth observations to study the hydro-ecological vulnerability of the various ecosystems in the water-stressed East African region to droughts. More specifically, we assess the hydrologic sensitivity and resilience of soil moisture and vegetation water content (derived from NRL's WindSat radiometer), during dry spells, for different dry-period durations, and for various vegetation categories. Spatiotemporal patterns and characteristics of the response of the two aforementioned variables to sustained precipitation deficits (derived from TRMM 3B42 V7), as well as their persistence in maintaining their stability are identified. We also assess changes, in space and time, in the normalized radar surface-backscattering cross-sections from NASA's QuikSCAT Scatterometer, to obtain information on the vegetation regimes, as well as changes in vegetation phenometrics using the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) derived from MODIS. Quantifying the response and characterizing the resilience of the two aforementioned major hydrological attributes using various remote sensing techniques that complement each other, can provide critical insight into the region's vulnerability and adaptive capacity with respect to rainfall variability.

  19. Global trends and vulnerabilities of mangrove forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simard, M.; Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Rivera-Monroy, V. H.; Castaneda, E.; Roy Chowdhury, R.

    2015-12-01

    Mangrove forests are located along Earth's coastlines and estuaries within tropical and subtropical latitudes. They provide numerous services functioning as an extraordinary carbon sequestration system and serving as habitat and nursery for fish, crustaceans and amphibians. To coastal populations, they provide livelihood, food, lumber and act as an effective protection against tsunamis, storm surges and hurricanes. Their vulnerability to sea level rise is strongly related to their extraordinary ability to accumulate soils, which is in part related to their productivity and therefore canopy structure. As a first step to understand their vulnerability, we seek to understand mangrove dependencies on environmental and geophysical setting. To achieve this, we mapped mangrove canopy height and above ground biomass (AGB) at the Global scale. To identify mangrove forests, existing maps derived from a collection of Landsat data around the 2000 era were used. Using the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission elevation data collected in February of 2000, we produced a Global map of mangrove canopy height. The estimated heights were validated with the ICESat/Geoscience Altimeter System (GLAS) and in situ field data. Most importantly, field data were also used to derive relationships between canopy height and AGB. While the geographical coverage of in situ data is limited, ICESat/GLAS data provided extensive geographical coverage with independent estimates of maximum canopy height. These estimates were used to calibrate SRTM-estimates of height at the Global scale. We found the difference between GLAS RH100 and SRTM resulted from several sources of uncertainty that are difficult to isolate. These include natural variations of canopy structure with time, system errors from GLAS and SRTM, geo-location errors and discrepancies in spatial resolution. The Global canopy height map was trnasormed into AGB using the field-derived allometry. Depending on the scale of analysis and geographical

  20. An Integrated Approach for Urban Earthquake Vulnerability Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Düzgün, H. S.; Yücemen, M. S.; Kalaycioglu, H. S.

    2009-04-01

    The earthquake risk for an urban area has increased over the years due to the increasing complexities in urban environments. The main reasons are the location of major cities in hazard prone areas, growth in urbanization and population and rising wealth measures. In recent years physical examples of these factors are observed through the growing costs of major disasters in urban areas which have stimulated a demand for in-depth evaluation of possible strategies to manage the large scale damaging effects of earthquakes. Understanding and formulation of urban earthquake risk requires consideration of a wide range of risk aspects, which can be handled by developing an integrated approach. In such an integrated approach, an interdisciplinary view should be incorporated into the risk assessment. Risk assessment for an urban area requires prediction of vulnerabilities related to elements at risk in the urban area and integration of individual vulnerability assessments. However, due to complex nature of an urban environment, estimating vulnerabilities and integrating them necessities development of integrated approaches in which vulnerabilities of social, economical, structural (building stock and infrastructure), cultural and historical heritage are estimated for a given urban area over a given time period. In this study an integrated urban earthquake vulnerability assessment framework, which considers vulnerability of urban environment in a holistic manner and performs the vulnerability assessment for the smallest administrative unit, namely at neighborhood scale, is proposed. The main motivation behind this approach is the inability to implement existing vulnerability assessment methodologies for countries like Turkey, where the required data are usually missing or inadequate and decision makers seek for prioritization of their limited resources in risk reduction in the administrative districts from which they are responsible. The methodology integrates socio

  1. Social Vulnerability and Ebola Virus Disease in Rural Liberia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic that has stricken thousands of people in the three West African countries of Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea highlights the lack of adaptive capacity in post-conflict countries. The scarcity of health services in particular renders these populations vulnerable to multiple interacting stressors including food insecurity, climate change, and the cascading effects of disease epidemics such as EVD. However, the spatial distribution of vulnerable rural populations and the individual stressors contributing to their vulnerability are unknown. We developed a Social Vulnerability Classification using census indicators and mapped it at the district scale for Liberia. According to the Classification, we estimate that districts having the highest social vulnerability lie in the north and west of Liberia in Lofa, Bong, Grand Cape Mount, and Bomi Counties. Three of these counties together with the capital Monrovia and surrounding Montserrado and Margibi counties experienced the highest levels of EVD infections in Liberia. Vulnerability has multiple dimensions and a classification developed from multiple variables provides a more holistic view of vulnerability than single indicators such as food insecurity or scarcity of health care facilities. Few rural Liberians are food secure and many cannot reach a medical clinic in <80 minutes. Our results illustrate how census and household survey data, when displayed spatially at a sub-county level, may help highlight the location of the most vulnerable households and populations. Our results can be used to identify vulnerability hotspots where development strategies and allocation of resources to address the underlying causes of vulnerability in Liberia may be warranted. We demonstrate how social vulnerability index approaches can be applied in the context of disease outbreaks, and our methods are relevant elsewhere. PMID:26325519

  2. Social Vulnerability and Ebola Virus Disease in Rural Liberia.

    PubMed

    Stanturf, John A; Goodrick, Scott L; Warren, Melvin L; Charnley, Susan; Stegall, Christie M

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic that has stricken thousands of people in the three West African countries of Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea highlights the lack of adaptive capacity in post-conflict countries. The scarcity of health services in particular renders these populations vulnerable to multiple interacting stressors including food insecurity, climate change, and the cascading effects of disease epidemics such as EVD. However, the spatial distribution of vulnerable rural populations and the individual stressors contributing to their vulnerability are unknown. We developed a Social Vulnerability Classification using census indicators and mapped it at the district scale for Liberia. According to the Classification, we estimate that districts having the highest social vulnerability lie in the north and west of Liberia in Lofa, Bong, Grand Cape Mount, and Bomi Counties. Three of these counties together with the capital Monrovia and surrounding Montserrado and Margibi counties experienced the highest levels of EVD infections in Liberia. Vulnerability has multiple dimensions and a classification developed from multiple variables provides a more holistic view of vulnerability than single indicators such as food insecurity or scarcity of health care facilities. Few rural Liberians are food secure and many cannot reach a medical clinic in <80 minutes. Our results illustrate how census and household survey data, when displayed spatially at a sub-county level, may help highlight the location of the most vulnerable households and populations. Our results can be used to identify vulnerability hotspots where development strategies and allocation of resources to address the underlying causes of vulnerability in Liberia may be warranted. We demonstrate how social vulnerability index approaches can be applied in the context of disease outbreaks, and our methods are relevant elsewhere. PMID:26325519

  3. 7 CFR 1730.27 - Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA). 1730.27... Requirements § 1730.27 Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA). (a) Each borrower with an approved RUS electric... destroyed would cause significant risk to the safety and health of the public; (3) Critical assets...

  4. 7 CFR 1730.27 - Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA). 1730.27... Requirements § 1730.27 Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA). (a) Each borrower with an approved RUS electric... destroyed would cause significant risk to the safety and health of the public; (3) Critical assets...

  5. Development and Demography of Perceived Vulnerability in Youngsters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gochman, David S.

    In order to assess children's perceived vulnerability to health problems, a longitudinal study was designed to observe third and seventh graders at five intervals over a 2-year period. The hypotheses tested concerned relationships between perceived vulnerability to health problems and age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Data were obtained from a…

  6. The Vulnerable Child. Caring for Children, Number Five.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Lois B.; Leeper, Ethel M.

    The booklet addresses the problems of vulnerable children with suggestions child care center workers may use both for recognizing signs of handicaps in children and helping children overcome existing handicaps. The vulnerable child is defined as a child who may be overwhelmed by physical and/or emotional handicaps and thus is at risk of later…

  7. 6 CFR 27.215 - Security vulnerability assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... identification of existing layers of protection; (2) Threat Assessment, which includes a description of possible... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security vulnerability assessments. 27.215...-risk, the facility must complete a Security Vulnerability Assessment. A Security...

  8. Scenario-based Storm Surge Vulnerability Assessment of Catanduanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, J. K. B.

    2015-12-01

    After the devastating storm surge effect of Typhoon Haiyan, the public recognized an improved communication about risks, vulnerabilities and what is threatened by storm surge. This can be provided by vulnerability maps which allow better visual presentations and understanding of the risks and vulnerabilities. Local implementers can direct the resources needed for protection of these areas. Moreover, vulnerability and hazard maps are relevant in all phases of disaster management designed by the National Disaster Risk Reduction Council (NDRRMC) - disaster preparedness, prevention and mitigation and response and recovery and rehabilitation. This paper aims to analyze the vulnerability of Catanduanes, a coastal province in the Philippines, to storm surges in terms of four parameters: population, built environment, natural environment and agricultural production. The vulnerability study relies on the storm surge inundation maps based on the Department of Science and Technology Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards' (DOST-Project NOAH) proposed four Storm Surge Advisory (SSA) scenarios (1-2, 3, 4, and 5 meters) for predicting storm surge heights. To determine total percent affected for each parameter elements, an overlay analysis was performed in ArcGIS Desktop. Moreover, vulnerability and hazard maps are generated as a final output and a tool for visualizing the impacts of storm surge event at different surge heights. The result of this study would help the selected province to know their present condition and adapt strategies to strengthen areas where they are found to be most vulnerable in order to prepare better for the future.

  9. The Naïve nurse: revisiting vulnerability for nursing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nurses in the Western world have given considerable attention to the concept of vulnerability in recent decades. However, nurses have tended to view vulnerability from an individualistic perspective, and have rarely taken into account structural or collective dimensions of the concept. As the need grows for health workers to engage in the global health agenda, nurses must broaden earlier works on vulnerability, noting that conventional conceptualizations and practical applications on the notion of vulnerability warrant extension to include more collective conceptualizations thereby making a more complete understanding of vulnerability in nursing discourse. Discussion The purpose of this paper is to examine nursing contributions to the concept of vulnerability and consider how a broader perspective that includes socio-political dimensions may assist nurses to reach beyond the immediate milieu of the patient into the dominant social, political, and economic structures that produce and sustain vulnerability. Summary By broadening nurse’s conceptualization of vulnerability, nurses can obtain the consciousness needed to move beyond a peripheral role of nursing that has been dominantly situated within institutional settings to contribute in the larger arena of social, economic, political and global affairs. PMID:22520841

  10. Development of nursing theory and science in vulnerable populations research.

    PubMed

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Greengold, Barbara Ann

    2007-01-01

    Inequalities with respect to the distribution of societal resources can predispose people to vulnerability, which has led to a growing concern across America. The Federal Government has taken a leadership role and has launched several initiatives to combat health inequalities experienced by vulnerable populations. The National Institute of Health and all of its institutes, including the National Institute of Nursing Research, have written strategic plans to reduce, and ultimately, eliminate such health disparities. Nursing research has been conducted in the setting of vulnerable populations; several theoretical models for studying vulnerability have been created; and interventional studies designed to reduce health disparities have been implemented. This introduction includes the following: (a) a definition of the concept of vulnerability and health disparities; (b) a discussion of the conceptual models of vulnerability and health disparity and their applications; (c) a description of the impact of federal funding on vulnerable populations research; (d) a synopsis of the contributions made by nurse researchers in the field of vulnerable populations research; and (e) an overview of the volume. PMID:17958287

  11. A framework for understanding old-age vulnerabilities

    PubMed Central

    SCHRÖDER-BUTTERFILL, ELISABETH; MARIANTI, RULY

    2007-01-01

    Identifying vulnerable older people and understanding the causes and consequences of their vulnerability is of human concern and an essential task of social policy. To date, vulnerability in old age has mainly been approached by identifying high risk groups, like the poor, childless, frail or isolated. Yet vulnerability is the outcome of complex interactions of discrete risks, namely of being exposed to a threat, of a threat materialising, and of lacking the defences or resources to deal with a threat. In this article, we review approaches to vulnerability in various disciplines in order to develop a systematic framework for approaching vulnerability. This framework distinguishes and examines the interactions among the domains of exposure, threats, coping capacities and outcomes. Drawing on European and Asian gerontological literature, we discuss what might be meant by these domains and their place in the understanding of vulnerability in old age. Two case studies are presented - one on homelessness in Britain, the other on familial care provision in Indonesia - to illustrate the ways in which specific vulnerabilities are created and distributed over the lifecourse. PMID:23750062

  12. Temporal and spatial changes in social vulnerability to natural hazards

    PubMed Central

    Cutter, Susan L.; Finch, Christina

    2008-01-01

    During the past four decades (1960–2000), the United States experienced major transformations in population size, development patterns, economic conditions, and social characteristics. These social, economic, and built-environment changes altered the American hazardscape in profound ways, with more people living in high-hazard areas than ever before. To improve emergency management, it is important to recognize the variability in the vulnerable populations exposed to hazards and to develop place-based emergency plans accordingly. The concept of social vulnerability identifies sensitive populations that may be less likely to respond to, cope with, and recover from a natural disaster. Social vulnerability is complex and dynamic, changing over space and through time. This paper presents empirical evidence on the spatial and temporal patterns in social vulnerability in the United States from 1960 to the present. Using counties as our study unit, we found that those components that consistently increased social vulnerability for all time periods were density (urban), race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. The spatial patterning of social vulnerability, although initially concentrated in certain geographic regions, has become more dispersed over time. The national trend shows a steady reduction in social vulnerability, but there is considerable regional variability, with many counties increasing in social vulnerability during the past five decades. PMID:18268336

  13. International Space Station: Meteoroid/Orbital Debris Survivability and Vulnerability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Russell

    2000-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the surviability and vulnerability of the International Space Station (ISS) from the threat posed by meteoroid and orbital debris. The topics include: (1) Space station natural and induced environments (2) Meteoroid and orbital debris threat definition (3) Requirement definition (4) Assessment methods (5) Shield development and (6) Component vulnerability

  14. 7 CFR 1730.27 - Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA). 1730.27 Section 1730.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES... Requirements § 1730.27 Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA). (a) Each borrower with an approved RUS...

  15. 7 CFR 1730.27 - Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA). 1730.27 Section 1730.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES... Requirements § 1730.27 Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA). (a) Each borrower with an approved RUS...

  16. 7 CFR 1730.27 - Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA). 1730.27 Section 1730.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES... Requirements § 1730.27 Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA). (a) Each borrower with an approved RUS...

  17. Analyses Of Two End-User Software Vulnerability Exposure Metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Jason L. Wright; Miles McQueen; Lawrence Wellman

    2012-08-01

    The risk due to software vulnerabilities will not be completely resolved in the near future. Instead, putting reliable vulnerability measures into the hands of end-users so that informed decisions can be made regarding the relative security exposure incurred by choosing one software package over another is of importance. To that end, we propose two new security metrics, average active vulnerabilities (AAV) and vulnerability free days (VFD). These metrics capture both the speed with which new vulnerabilities are reported to vendors and the rate at which software vendors fix them. We then examine how the metrics are computed using currently available datasets and demonstrate their estimation in a simulation experiment using four different browsers as a case study. Finally, we discuss how the metrics may be used by the various stakeholders of software and to software usage decisions.

  18. Nutritional Vulnerability in Older Adults: A Continuum of Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N.; McDonald, Shelley R.; Bales, Connie W.

    2015-01-01

    A nutritionally vulnerable older adult has a reduced physical reserve that limits the ability to mount a vigorous recovery in the face of an acute health threat or stressor. Often this vulnerability contributes to more medical complications, longer hospital stays, and increased likelihood of nursing home admission. We have characterized in this review the etiology of nutritional vulnerability across the continuum of the community, hospital, and long term care settings. Frail older adults may become less vulnerable with strong, consistent, and individualized nutritional care. Interventions for the vulnerable older adult must take their nutritional needs into account to optimize resiliency in the face of the acute and/or chronic health challenges they will surely face in their life course. PMID:26042189

  19. The meaning of vulnerability to nurses caring for older people.

    PubMed

    Stenbock-Hult, Bettina; Sarvimäki, Anneli

    2011-01-01

    Research concerning work on caring for older people shows that care providers experience a variety of consuming emotions and stress. They can be said to be in a vulnerable position. It is not known, however, how the care providers themselves understand vulnerability. The aim of this study was to illuminate the meaning of vulnerability to care providers caring for older people. A qualitative interpretive approach was adopted. Data were collected through tape-recorded interviews with 16 female registered and practical nurses who were experienced in caring for older people. Qualitative analysis resulted in one core theme and six themes with subthemes. The core theme showed that, for the participating nurses, vulnerability essentially meant being human. The meanings of being human were illustrated by the six themes: having feelings; experiencing moral indignation; being harmed; having courage; protecting oneself; and maturing and developing. Analysis showed that vulnerability was a resource as well as a burden. PMID:21285195

  20. Relational vulnerabilities of incarcerated and reentry mothers: therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Few-Demo, April L; Arditti, Joyce A

    2014-11-01

    A qualitative study involving a follow-up interview with 10 incarcerated and reentry mothers in rural southwest and central Virginia was conducted to explore the influence that women's close relationships have on their reentry experiences with their families. The Vulnerability Conceptual Model (VCM) was used to sensitize an examination of how incarcerated and reentry mothers negotiate relational vulnerabilities in the context of varying situational vulnerability. Grounded theory analysis revealed three themes that characterized relational vulnerabilities. Given our focus on close relationships and the potential of the VCM to identify opportunities for resilience and vulnerability, we highlighted the influence of ambiguous and ambivalent relationships and unresolved loss and grief due to relationship dissolution or the death of a parent, sibling, child, or intimate partner in the reentry process. The data revealed two types of reentry mothers with divergent trajectories for social reintegration. Implications of these types for therapeutic treatment approaches for reentry women are discussed. PMID:23847275

  1. Transplanting Supersites of HIV-1 Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yongping; Gorman, Jason; Ofek, Gilad; Srivatsan, Sanjay; Druz, Aliaksandr; Lees, Christopher R.; Lu, Gabriel; Soto, Cinque; Stuckey, Jonathan; Burton, Dennis R.; Koff, Wayne C.; Connors, Mark; Kwon, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    One strategy for isolating or eliciting antibodies against a specific target region on the envelope glycoprotein trimer (Env) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) involves the creation of site transplants, which present the target region on a heterologous protein scaffold with preserved antibody-binding properties. If the target region is a supersite of HIV-1 vulnerability, recognized by a collection of broadly neutralizing antibodies, this strategy affords the creation of “supersite transplants”, capable of binding (and potentially eliciting) antibodies similar to the template collection of effective antibodies. Here we transplant three supersites of HIV-1 vulnerability, each targeted by effective neutralizing antibodies from multiple donors. To implement our strategy, we chose a single representative antibody against each of the target supersites: antibody 10E8, which recognizes the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) on the HIV-1 gp41 glycoprotein; antibody PG9, which recognizes variable regions one and two (V1V2) on the HIV-1 gp120 glycoprotein; and antibody PGT128 which recognizes a glycopeptide supersite in variable region 3 (glycan V3) on gp120. We used a structural alignment algorithm to identify suitable acceptor proteins, and then designed, expressed, and tested antigenically over 100-supersite transplants in a 96-well microtiter-plate format. The majority of the supersite transplants failed to maintain the antigenic properties of their respective template supersite. However, seven of the glycan V3-supersite transplants exhibited nanomolar affinity to effective neutralizing antibodies from at least three donors and recapitulated the mannose9-N-linked glycan requirement of the template supersite. The binding of these transplants could be further enhanced by placement into self-assembling nanoparticles. Essential elements of the glycan V3 supersite, embodied by as few as 3 N-linked glycans and ∼25 Env residues, can be segregated

  2. Regional vulnerability of longitudinal cortical association connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Ceschin, Rafael; Lee, Vince K.; Schmithorst, Vince; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Preterm born children with spastic diplegia type of cerebral palsy and white matter injury or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), are known to have motor, visual and cognitive impairments. Most diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies performed in this group have demonstrated widespread abnormalities using averaged deterministic tractography and voxel-based DTI measurements. Little is known about structural network correlates of white matter topography and reorganization in preterm cerebral palsy, despite the availability of new therapies and the need for brain imaging biomarkers. Here, we combined novel post-processing methodology of probabilistic tractography data in this preterm cohort to improve spatial and regional delineation of longitudinal cortical association tract abnormalities using an along-tract approach, and compared these data to structural DTI cortical network topology analysis. DTI images were acquired on 16 preterm children with cerebral palsy (mean age 5.6 ± 4) and 75 healthy controls (mean age 5.7 ± 3.4). Despite mean tract analysis, Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) demonstrating diffusely reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) reduction in all white matter tracts, the along-tract analysis improved the detection of regional tract vulnerability. The along-tract map-structural network topology correlates revealed two associations: (1) reduced regional posterior–anterior gradient in FA of the longitudinal visual cortical association tracts (inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, optic radiation, posterior thalamic radiation) correlated with reduced posterior–anterior gradient of intra-regional (nodal efficiency) metrics with relative sparing of frontal and temporal regions; and (2) reduced regional FA within frontal–thalamic–striatal white matter pathways (anterior limb/anterior thalamic radiation, superior longitudinal fasciculus and cortical spinal tract) correlated

  3. Quantum key distribution: vulnerable if imperfectly implemented

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuchs, G.

    2013-10-01

    We report several vulnerabilities found in Clavis2, the flagship quantum key distribution (QKD) system from ID Quantique. We show the hacking of a calibration sequence run by Clavis2 to synchronize the Alice and Bob devices before performing the secret key exchange. This hack induces a temporal detection efficiency mismatch in Bob that can allow Eve to break the security of the cryptosystem using faked states. We also experimentally investigate the superlinear behaviour in the single-photon detectors (SPDs) used by Bob. Due to this superlinearity, the SPDs feature an actual multi-photon detection probability which is generally higher than the theoretically-modelled value. We show how this increases the risk of detector control attacks on QKD systems (including Clavis2) employing such SPDs. Finally, we review the experimental feasibility of Trojan-horse attacks. In the case of Clavis2, the objective is to read Bob's phase modulator to acquire knowledge of his basis choice as this information suffices for constructing the raw key in the Scarani-Acin-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 (SARG04) protocol. We work in close collaboration with ID Quantique and for all these loopholes, we notified them in advance. Wherever possible, we or ID Quantique proposed countermeasures and they implemented suitable patches and upgrade their systems.

  4. Vulnerability of streams to legacy nitrate sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tesoriero, Anthony J.; Duff, John H.; Saad, David A.; Spahr, Norman E.; Wolock, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of hydrogeologic setting on the susceptibility of streams to legacy nitrate was examined at seven study sites having a wide range of base flow index (BFI) values. BFI is the ratio of base flow to total streamflow volume. The portion of annual stream nitrate loads from base flow was strongly correlated with BFI. Furthermore, dissolved oxygen concentrations in streambed pore water were significantly higher in high BFI watersheds than in low BFI watersheds suggesting that geochemical conditions favor nitrate transport through the bed when BFI is high. Results from a groundwater-surface water interaction study at a high BFI watershed indicate that decades old nitrate-laden water is discharging to this stream. These findings indicate that high nitrate levels in this stream may be sustained for decades to come regardless of current practices. It is hypothesized that a first approximation of stream vulnerability to legacy nutrients may be made by geospatial analysis of watersheds with high nitrogen inputs and a strong connection to groundwater (e.g., high BFI).

  5. Tracking Nile Delta vulnerability to Holocene change.

    PubMed

    Marriner, Nick; Flaux, Clément; Morhange, Christophe; Stanley, Jean-Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Understanding deltaic resilience in the face of Holocene climate change and human impacts is an important challenge for the earth sciences in characterizing the full range of present and future wetland responses to global warming. Here, we report an 8000-year mass balance record from the Nile Delta to reconstruct when and how this sedimentary basin has responded to past hydrological shifts. In a global Holocene context, the long-term decrease in Nile Delta accretion rates is consistent with insolation-driven changes in the 'monsoon pacemaker', attested throughout the mid-latitude tropics. Following the early to mid-Holocene growth of the Nile's deltaic plain, sediment losses and pronounced erosion are first recorded after ~4000 years ago, the corollaries of falling sediment supply and an intensification of anthropogenic impacts from the Pharaonic period onwards. Against the backcloth of the Saharan 'depeopling', reduced river flow underpinned by a weakening of monsoonal precipitation appears to have been particularly conducive to the expansion of human activities on the delta by exposing productive floodplain lands for occupation and irrigation agriculture. The reconstruction suggests that the Nile Delta has a particularly long history of vulnerability to extreme events (e.g. floods and storms) and sea-level rise, although the present sediment-starved system does not have a direct Holocene analogue. This study highlights the importance of the world's deltas as sensitive archives to investigate Holocene geosystem responses to climate change, risks and hazards, and societal interaction. PMID:23922692

  6. Physiological Phenotype and Vulnerability in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Surmeier, D. James; Guzman, Jaime N.; Sanchez, Javier; Schumacker, Paul T.

    2012-01-01

    This review will focus on the principles underlying the hypothesis that neuronal physiological phenotype—how a neuron generates and regulates action potentials—makes a significant contribution to its vulnerability in Parkinson's disease (PD) and aging. A cornerstone of this hypothesis is that the maintenance of ionic gradients underlying excitability can pose a significant energetic burden for neurons, particularly those that have sustained residence times at depolarized membrane potentials, broad action potentials, prominent Ca2+ entry, and modest intrinsic Ca2+ buffering capacity. This energetic burden is shouldered in neurons primarily by mitochondria, the sites of cellular respiration. Mitochondrial respiration increases the production of damaging superoxide and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) that have widely been postulated to contribute to cellular aging and PD. Many of the genetic mutations and toxins associated with PD compromise mitochondrial function, providing a mechanistic linkage between known risk factors and cellular physiology that could explain the pattern of pathology in PD. Because much of the mitochondrial burden created by this at-risk phenotype is created by Ca2+ entry through L-type voltage-dependent channels for which there are antagonists approved for human use, a neuroprotective strategy to reduce this burden is feasible. PMID:22762023

  7. Environmental deterioration increases tadpole vulnerability to predation.

    PubMed

    Squires, Zoe E; Bailey, Paul C E; Reina, Richard D; Wong, Bob B M

    2008-08-23

    Human-induced environmental change is occurring at an unprecedented rate and scale. Many freshwater habitats, in particular, have been degraded as a result of increased salinity. Little is known about the effects of anthropogenic salinization on freshwater organisms, especially at sublethal concentrations, where subtle behavioural changes can have potentially drastic fitness consequences. Using a species of Australian frog (Litoria ewingii), we experimentally examined the effects of salinization on tadpole behaviour and their vulnerability to a predatory dragonfly nymph (Hemianax papuensis). We found that tadpoles exposed to an ecologically relevant concentration of salt (15% seawater, SW) were less active than those in our freshwater control (0.4% SW). Tadpoles in elevated salinity also experienced a higher risk of predation, even though the strike rate of the predator did not differ between salt and freshwater treatments. In a separate experiment testing the burst-speed performance of tadpoles, we found that tadpoles in saltwater were slower than those in freshwater. Thus, it would appear that salt compromised the anti-predator response of tadpoles and made them more susceptible to being captured. Our results demonstrate that environmentally relevant concentrations of aquatic contaminants can, even at sublethal levels, severely undermine the fitness of exposed organisms. PMID:18492650

  8. Hunger mapping: food insecurity and vulnerability information.

    PubMed

    1997-12-01

    Save the Children Foundation (SCF), a nongovernmental organization (NGO), developed the "household food economy analysis" to assess the needs of an area or population facing acute food insecurity. This method considers all of the ways people secure access to food and illustrates the distribution of various food supplies in pie charts that allow comparison of the percentage contribution of each option during a normal year and a "bad" year. Data are gathered through the use of key informants, and the analysis permits identification of ways to support local initiatives and to target assistance. As a result of this work, SCF and another NGO, Helen Keller International, attended a March 1997 expert consultation organized by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) to create a workplan for the Food Insecurity and Vulnerability Information and Mapping System (FIVIMS) called for in the World Food Summit Plan of Action. The consultation adopted use of the FAO's food and balance sheet approach, despite its limitations, and determined that indicators should be location- and time-specific as well as 1) simple and reliable, 2) readily available, 3) social and anthropometric, and 4) found at all levels. The consultation also recommended combination of the key informant and the indicator approach to data collection. Finally, the consultation identified appropriate actions that should be accomplished before the 1998 meeting of the FAO's Committee on World Food Security. PMID:12321564

  9. Somatostatin, neuronal vulnerability and behavioral emotionality

    PubMed Central

    Lin, LC; Sibille, E

    2014-01-01

    Somatostatin (SST) deficits are common pathological features in depression and other neurological disorders with mood disturbances, but little is known about the contribution of SST deficits to mood symptoms or causes of these deficits. Here we show that mice lacking Sst (SstKO) exhibit elevated behavioral emotionality, high basal plasma corticosterone and reduced gene expression of Bdnf, Cortistatin, and Gad67, together recapitulating behavioral, neuroendocrine and molecular features of human depression. Studies in SstKO and heterozygous (SstHZ) mice show that elevated corticosterone is not sufficient to reproduce the behavioral phenotype, suggesting a putative role for Sst cell-specific molecular changes. Using laser-capture microdissection, we show that cortical SST-positive interneurons display significantly greater transcriptome deregulations after chronic stress compared to pyramidal neurons. Protein translation through eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (EIF2) signaling, a pathway previously implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, was most affected and suppressed in stress-exposed SST neurons. We then show that activating EIF2 signaling through EIF2 kinase inhibition mitigated stress-induced behavioral emotionality in mice. Together, our data suggest that (1) low SST plays a causal role in mood-related phenotypes, (2) deregulated EIF2-mediated protein translation may represent a mechanism for vulnerability of SST neurons, and (3) that global EIF2 signaling has antidepressant/anxiolytic potential. PMID:25600109

  10. Risk assessment by dynamic representation of vulnerability, exploitation, and impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cam, Hasan

    2015-05-01

    Assessing and quantifying cyber risk accurately in real-time is essential to providing security and mission assurance in any system and network. This paper presents a modeling and dynamic analysis approach to assessing cyber risk of a network in real-time by representing dynamically its vulnerabilities, exploitations, and impact using integrated Bayesian network and Markov models. Given the set of vulnerabilities detected by a vulnerability scanner in a network, this paper addresses how its risk can be assessed by estimating in real-time the exploit likelihood and impact of vulnerability exploitation on the network, based on real-time observations and measurements over the network. The dynamic representation of the network in terms of its vulnerabilities, sensor measurements, and observations is constructed dynamically using the integrated Bayesian network and Markov models. The transition rates of outgoing and incoming links of states in hidden Markov models are used in determining exploit likelihood and impact of attacks, whereas emission rates help quantify the attack states of vulnerabilities. Simulation results show the quantification and evolving risk scores over time for individual and aggregated vulnerabilities of a network.

  11. Groundwater vulnerability to pollution mapping of Ranchi district using GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, R.; Iqbal, J.; Gorai, A. K.; Pathak, G.; Tuluri, F.; Tchounwou, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater pollution due to anthropogenic activities is one of the major environmental problems in urban and industrial areas. The present study demonstrates the integrated approach with GIS and DRASTIC model to derive a groundwater vulnerability to pollution map. The model considers the seven hydrogeological factors [Depth to water table ( D), net recharge ( R), aquifer media ( A), soil media ( S), topography or slope ( T), impact of vadose zone ( I) and hydraulic Conductivity( C)] for generating the groundwater vulnerability to pollution map. The model was applied for assessing the groundwater vulnerability to pollution in Ranchi district, Jharkhand, India. The model was validated by comparing the model output (vulnerability indices) with the observed nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the study area. The reason behind the selection of nitrate is that the major sources of nitrate in groundwater are anthropogenic in nature. Groundwater samples were collected from 30 wells/tube wells distributed in the study area. The samples were analyzed in the laboratory for measuring the nitrate concentrations in groundwater. A sensitivity analysis of the integrated model was performed to evaluate the influence of single parameters on groundwater vulnerability index. New weights were computed for each input parameters to understand the influence of individual hydrogeological factors in vulnerability indices in the study area. Aquifer vulnerability maps generated in this study can be used for environmental planning and groundwater management.

  12. Calcium Is a Major Determinant of Xylem Vulnerability to Cavitation

    PubMed Central

    Herbette, Stephane; Cochard, Herve

    2010-01-01

    Xylem vulnerability to cavitation is a key parameter in the drought tolerance of trees, but little is known about the control mechanisms involved. Cavitation is thought to occur when an air bubble penetrates through a pit wall, and would hence be influenced by the wall's porosity. We first tested the role of wall-bound calcium in vulnerability to cavitation in Fagus sylvatica. Stems perfused with solutions of oxalic acid, EGTA, or sodium phosphate (NaPO4) were found to be more vulnerable to cavitation. The NaPO4-induced increase in vulnerability to cavitation was linked to calcium removal from the wall. In contrast, xylem hydraulic conductance was unaffected by the chemical treatments, demonstrating that the mechanisms controlling vulnerability to cavitation and hydraulic resistance are uncoupled. The NaPO4 solution was then perfused into stems from 13 tree species possessing highly contrasted vulnerability to cavitation. Calcium was found to be a major determinant of between-species differences in vulnerability to cavitation. This was evidenced in angiosperms as well as conifer species, thus supporting the hypothesis of a common mechanism in drought-induced cavitation. PMID:20547703

  13. Groundwater vulnerability to pollution mapping of Ranchi district using GIS

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, R.; Iqbal, J.; Pathak, G.; Tuluri, F.; Tchounwou, P. B.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater pollution due to anthropogenic activities is one of the major environmental problems in urban and industrial areas. The present study demonstrates the integrated approach with GIS and DRASTIC model to derive a groundwater vulnerability to pollution map. The model considers the seven hydrogeological factors [Depth to water table (D), net recharge (R), aquifer media (A), soil media (S), topography or slope (T), impact of vadose zone (I) and hydraulic Conductivity(C)] for generating the groundwater vulnerability to pollution map. The model was applied for assessing the groundwater vulnerability to pollution in Ranchi district, Jharkhand, India. The model was validated by comparing the model output (vulnerability indices) with the observed nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the study area. The reason behind the selection of nitrate is that the major sources of nitrate in groundwater are anthropogenic in nature. Groundwater samples were collected from 30 wells/tube wells distributed in the study area. The samples were analyzed in the laboratory for measuring the nitrate concentrations in groundwater. A sensitivity analysis of the integrated model was performed to evaluate the influence of single parameters on groundwater vulnerability index. New weights were computed for each input parameters to understand the influence of individual hydrogeological factors in vulnerability indices in the study area. Aquifer vulnerability maps generated in this study can be used for environmental planning and groundwater management. PMID:26557470

  14. Vulnerability analysis of interdependent infrastructure systems: A methodological framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuliang; Hong, Liu; Chen, Xueguang

    2012-06-01

    Infrastructure systems such as power and water supplies make up the cornerstone of modern society which is essential for the functioning of a society and its economy. They become more and more interconnected and interdependent with the development of scientific technology and social economy. Risk and vulnerability analysis of interdependent infrastructures for security considerations has become an important subject, and some achievements have been made in this area. Since different infrastructure systems have different structural and functional properties, there is no universal all-encompassing 'silver bullet solution' to the problem of analyzing the vulnerability associated with interdependent infrastructure systems. So a framework of analysis is required. This paper takes the power and water systems of a major city in China as an example and develops a framework for the analysis of the vulnerability of interdependent infrastructure systems. Four interface design strategies based on distance, betweenness, degree, and clustering coefficient are constructed. Then two types of vulnerability (long-term vulnerability and focused vulnerability) are illustrated and analyzed. Finally, a method for ranking critical components in interdependent infrastructures is given for protection purposes. It is concluded that the framework proposed here is useful for vulnerability analysis of interdependent systems and it will be helpful for the system owners to make better decisions on infrastructure design and protection.

  15. Soil compaction vulnerability at Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, Robert H.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Carmichael, Shinji; Esque, Todd C.

    2014-01-01

    Compaction vulnerability of different types of soils by hikers and vehicles is poorly known, particularly for soils of arid and semiarid regions. Engineering analyses have long shown that poorly sorted soils (for example, sandy loams) compact to high densities, whereas well-sorted soils (for example, eolian sand) do not compact, and high gravel content may reduce compaction. Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (ORPI) in southwestern Arizona, is affected greatly by illicit activities associated with the United States–Mexico border, and has many soils that resource managers consider to be highly vulnerable to compaction. Using geospatial soils data for ORPI, compaction vulnerability was estimated qualitatively based on the amount of gravel and the degree of sorting of sand and finer particles. To test this qualitative assessment, soil samples were collected from 48 sites across all soil map units, and undisturbed bulk densities were measured. A scoring system was used to create a vulnerability index for soils on the basis of particle-size sorting, soil properties derived from Proctor compaction analyses, and the field undisturbed bulk densities. The results of the laboratory analyses indicated that the qualitative assessments of soil compaction vulnerability underestimated the area of high vulnerability soils by 73 percent. The results showed that compaction vulnerability of desert soils, such as those at ORPI, can be quantified using laboratory tests and evaluated using geographic information system analyses, providing a management tool that managers potentially could use to inform decisions about activities that reduce this type of soil disruption in protected areas.

  16. Assessing the vulnerability of buildings to tsunami in Sydney

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Osso, F.; Gonella, M.; Gabbianelli, G.; Withycombe, G.; Dominey-Howes, D.

    2009-12-01

    Australia is vulnerable to the impacts of tsunamis and exposure along the SE coast of New South Wales is especially high. Significantly, this is the same area reported to have been affected by repeated large magnitude tsunamis during the Holocene. Efforts are under way to complete probabilistic risk assessments for the region but local government planners and emergency risk managers need information now about building vulnerability in order to develop appropriate risk management strategies. We use the newly revised PTVA-3 Model (Dall'Osso et al., 2009) to assess the relative vulnerability of buildings to damage from a "worst case tsunami" defined by our latest understanding of regional risk - something never before undertaken in Australia. We present selected results from an investigation of building vulnerability within the local government area of Manly - an iconic coastal area of Sydney. We show that a significant proportion of buildings (in particular, residential structures) are classified as having "High" and "Very High" Relative Vulnerability Index scores. Furthermore, other important buildings (e.g., schools, nursing homes and transport structures) are also vulnerable to damage. Our results have serious implications for immediate emergency risk management, longer-term land-use zoning and development, and building design and construction standards. Based on the work undertaken here, we recommend further detailed assessment of the vulnerability of coastal buildings in at risk areas, development of appropriate risk management strategies and a detailed program of community engagement to increase overall resilience.

  17. A model for how to disclose physical security vulnerabilities.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R. G.

    2009-01-01

    When security vulnerabilities are discovered, it is often unclear how much public disclosure of the vulnerabilities is prudent. This is especially true for physical security vis a vis cyber security. We never want to help the 'bad guys' more than the 'good guys', but if the good guys aren't made aware of the problems, they are unlikely to fix them. This paper presents a unique semi-quantitative tool, called the 'Vulnerability Disclosure Index' (VDI), to help determine how much disclosure of vulnerabilities is warranted and in what forum. The VDI certainly does not represent the final, definitive answer to this complex issue. It does, however, provide a starting point for thinking about some of the factors that must go into making such a decision. Moreover, anyone using the VDI tool can at least claim to have shown some degree of responsibility in contemplating disclosure issues. The purpose of this paper is to provide a tool to help decide if and how security vulnerabilities should be disclosed. This tool, called the Vulnerability Disclosure Index (VDI), is not presented here as the ultimate, authoritative method for dealing with this complex issue. It is offered instead as a first step, and as a vehicle for thinking about and discussing some of the factors that need to be pondered when vulnerability disclosures are being considered.

  18. Rural Nevada and climate change: vulnerability, beliefs, and risk perception.

    PubMed

    Safi, Ahmad Saleh; Smith, William James; Liu, Zhnongwei

    2012-06-01

    In this article, we present the results of a study investigating the influence of vulnerability to climate change as a function of physical vulnerability, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity on climate change risk perception. In 2008/2009, we surveyed Nevada ranchers and farmers to assess their climate change-related beliefs, and risk perceptions, political orientations, and socioeconomic characteristics. Ranchers' and farmers' sensitivity to climate change was measured through estimating the proportion of their household income originating from highly scarce water-dependent agriculture to the total income. Adaptive capacity was measured as a combination of the Social Status Index and the Poverty Index. Utilizing water availability and use, and population distribution GIS databases; we assessed water resource vulnerability in Nevada by zip code as an indicator of physical vulnerability to climate change. We performed correlation tests and multiple regression analyses to examine the impact of vulnerability and its three distinct components on risk perception. We find that vulnerability is not a significant determinant of risk perception. Physical vulnerability alone also does not impact risk perception. Both sensitivity and adaptive capacity increase risk perception. While age is not a significant determinant of it, gender plays an important role in shaping risk perception. Yet, general beliefs such as political orientations and climate change-specific beliefs such as believing in the anthropogenic causes of climate change and connecting the locally observed impacts (in this case drought) to climate change are the most prominent determinants of risk perception. PMID:22583075

  19. An Extreme-Value Approach to Anomaly Vulnerability Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, Chris; Maggio, Gaspare; Groen, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a method for importance analysis in parametric probabilistic modeling where the result of interest is the identification of potential engineering vulnerabilities associated with postulated anomalies in system behavior. In the context of Accident Precursor Analysis (APA), under which this method has been developed, these vulnerabilities, designated as anomaly vulnerabilities, are conditions that produce high risk in the presence of anomalous system behavior. The method defines a parameter-specific Parameter Vulnerability Importance measure (PVI), which identifies anomaly risk-model parameter values that indicate the potential presence of anomaly vulnerabilities, and allows them to be prioritized for further investigation. This entails analyzing each uncertain risk-model parameter over its credible range of values to determine where it produces the maximum risk. A parameter that produces high system risk for a particular range of values suggests that the system is vulnerable to the modeled anomalous conditions, if indeed the true parameter value lies in that range. Thus, PVI analysis provides a means of identifying and prioritizing anomaly-related engineering issues that at the very least warrant improved understanding to reduce uncertainty, such that true vulnerabilities may be identified and proper corrective actions taken.

  20. Population vulnerability to storm surge flooding in coastal Virginia, USA.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua; Behr, Joshua G; Diaz, Rafael

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to assess the vulnerability of populations to storm surge flooding in 12 coastal localities of Virginia, USA. Population vulnerability is assessed by way of 3 physical factors (elevation, slope, and storm surge category), 3 built-up components (road availability, access to hospitals, and access to shelters), and 3 household conditions (storm preparedness, financial constraints to recovering from severe weather events, and health fragility). Fuzzy analysis is used to generate maps illustrating variation in several types of population vulnerability across the region. When considering physical factors and household conditions, the most vulnerable neighborhoods to sea level rise and storm surge flooding are largely found in urban areas. However, when considering access to critical infrastructure, we find rural residents to be more vulnerable than nonrural residents. These detailed assessments can inform both local and state governments in catastrophic planning. In addition, the methodology may be generalized to assess vulnerability in other coastal corridors and communities. The originality is highlighted by evaluating socioeconomic conditions at refined scale, incorporating a broader range of human perceptions and predispositions, and employing a geoinformatics approach combining physical, built-up, and socioeconomic conditions for population vulnerability assessment. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:500-509. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26295749

  1. Vulnerability of the Ecuador's Agricultural Sector as part of an Integrated Climate Change Vulnerability Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Lopez, F.; Depsky, N. J.

    2014-12-01

    Earlier this year SEI, in conjunction with the Environmental Secretary of Quito, concluded a vulnerability analysis for the Metropolitan District of Quito (DMQ). The study analyzed future anthropogenic and natural hazards, and how these threats may be potentially exacerbated by a changing climate over the next 40 years. The focus of this abstract is specifically on the vulnerability of the agricultural sector.Overall, there is a lack of consensus amongst the results of long-term trends of precipitation in the Quito region. However, there is much more confidence in the trends of mean air temperature increase, and therefore this analysis focused specifically upon the effects of increasing temperatures upon Quito's agricultural sector. Effects of a roughly 2°C increase in mean air temperature by 2050 (corresponding to a relative CO2 concentration pathway within the GCMs of 8.5) was evaluated with respect to its potential effects upon the length of growing season for principal crops, and which of these crops are most vulnerable to the increased heat stress. Also studied was the potential expansion of agriculture into higher elevation areas, namely the sensitive 'paramo' alpine ecosystem, due to increasing arability of these areas as temperatures rise. The extent of cultivation of 'paramos' areas was estimated in order to assess the likely diminutive effects upon local hydrology and ecosystem well-being.Our results show that in fact it is expected that the increase in temperature would have a positive effect on the development of some crops, though the growing seasons would likely be shortened, which may be problematic given soil and rainfall constraints.Regarding expansion of agriculture into the 'paramo' highlands, results showed that each 200m zone above 3400masl would experience a marked increase in agricultural land conversion, ranging from 15 - 55km2, depending upon the zone. The lowest zones are expectedly the most vulnerable as they already exist at the

  2. Volcanic risk assessment: Quantifying physical vulnerability in the built environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, S. F.; Spence, R. J. S.; Fonseca, J. F. B. D.; Solidum, R. U.; Wilson, T. M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents structured and cost-effective methods for assessing the physical vulnerability of at-risk communities to the range of volcanic hazards, developed as part of the MIA-VITA project (2009-2012). An initial assessment of building and infrastructure vulnerability has been carried out for a set of broadly defined building types and infrastructure categories, with the likelihood of damage considered separately for projectile impact, ash fall loading, pyroclastic density current dynamic pressure and earthquake ground shaking intensities. In refining these estimates for two case study areas: Kanlaon volcano in the Philippines and Fogo volcano in Cape Verde, we have developed guidelines and methodologies for carrying out physical vulnerability assessments in the field. These include identifying primary building characteristics, such as construction material and method, as well as subsidiary characteristics, for example the size and prevalence of openings, that may be important in assessing eruption impacts. At-risk buildings around Kanlaon were found to be dominated by timber frame buildings that exhibit a high vulnerability to pyroclastic density currents, but a low vulnerability to failure from seismic shaking. Around Fogo, the predominance of unreinforced masonry buildings with reinforced concrete slab roofs suggests a high vulnerability to volcanic earthquake but a low vulnerability to ash fall loading. Given the importance of agriculture for local livelihoods around Kanlaon and Fogo, we discuss the potential impact of infrastructure vulnerability for local agricultural economies, with implications for volcanic areas worldwide. These methodologies and tools go some way towards offering a standardised approach to carrying out future vulnerability assessments for populated volcanic areas.

  3. Attending to social vulnerability when rationing pandemic resources.

    PubMed

    Vawter, Dorothy E; Garrett, J Eline; Gervais, Karen G; Prehn, Angela Witt; DeBruin, Debra A

    2011-01-01

    Pandemic plans are increasingly attending to groups experiencing health disparities and other social vulnerabilities. Although some pandemic guidance is silent on the issue, guidance that attends to socially vulnerable groups ranges widely, some procedural (often calling for public engagement), and some substantive. Public engagement objectives vary from merely educational to seeking reflective input into the ethical commitments that should guide pandemic planning and response. Some plans that concern rationing during a severe pandemic recommend ways to protect socially vulnerable groups without prioritizing access to scarce resources based on social vulnerability per se. The Minnesota Pandemic Ethics Project (MPEP), a public engagement project on rationing scarce health resources during a severe influenza pandemic, agrees and recommends an integrated set of ways to attend to the needs of socially vulnerable people and avoid exacerbation of health disparities during a severe influenza pandemic. Among other things, MPEP recommends: 1. Engaging socially vulnerable populations to clarify unique needs and effective strategies; 2. Engaging socially vulnerable populations to elicit ethical values and perspectives on rationing; 3. Rejecting rationing based on race, socioeconomic class, citizenship, quality of life, length of life-extension and first-come, first-served; 4. Prioritizing those in the general population for access to resources based on combinations of risk (of death or severe complications from influenza, exposure to influenza, transmitting influenza to vulnerable groups) and the likelihood of responding well to the resource in question. 5. Protecting critical infrastructures on which vulnerable populations and the general public rely; 6. Identifying and removing access barriers during pandemic planning and response; and 7. Collecting and promptly analyzing data during the pandemic to identify groups at disproportionate risk of influenza-related mortality and

  4. Development of a frailty framework among vulnerable populations.

    PubMed

    Salem, Benissa E; Nyamathi, Adeline; Phillips, Linda R; Mentes, Janet C; Sarkisian, Catherine; Brecht, Mary-Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Frailty is a public health issue that is experienced by homeless and other vulnerable populations; to date, a frailty framework has not been proposed to guide researchers who study hard-to-reach populations. The Frailty Framework among Vulnerable Populations has been developed from empirical research and consultation with frailty experts in an effort to characterize antecedents, that is, situational, health-related, behavioral, resource, biological, and environmental factors that contribute to physical, psychological, and social frailty domains and impact adverse outcomes. As vulnerable populations continue to age, a greater understanding of frailty will enable the development of nursing interventions. PMID:24469090

  5. Drought vulnerability assessment for prioritising drought warning implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumann, Gustavo; Faneca Sànchez, Marta; Mwangi, Emmah; Barbosa, Paulo; Iglesias, Ana; Garrote, Luis; Werner, Micha

    2014-05-01

    Drought warning provides a potentially efficient approach to mitigation of drought impacts, and should be targeted at areas most vulnerable to being adversely impacted. Assessing drought vulnerability is, however, complex and needs to consider susceptibility to drought impact as well as the capacity to cope with drought. In this paper a Drought Vulnerability Index (DVI) is proposed that considers four primary components that reflect the capacity of society to adapt to drought; the renewable natural capital, the economic capacity, the human and civic resources, and the available infrastructure and technology. The DVI is established as a weighted combination of these four components, each a composite of selected indicators. Constituent indicators are calculated based on national and/or regional census data and statistics, and while the resulting DVI should not be considered an absolute measure of drought vulnerability it does provide for a prioritisation of areas that can be used to target drought warning efforts. Sensitivity analysis of weights applied show the established DVI to be robust. Through the DVI the development of drought forecasting and warning can be targeted at the most vulnerable areas. The proposed DVI is applied at both the continental scale in Africa to assess drought vulnerability of the different nations across Africa, and at the national level in Kenya, allowing for prioritisation of the counties within Kenya to drought vulnerability. Results show the relative vulnerability of countries and counties vulnerable to drought. At the continental scale, Somalia, Burundi, Niger, Ethiopia, Mali and Chad are found to be the countries most vulnerable to drought. At the national level, the relative vulnerability of the counties across Kenya is found, with counties in the North-East of Kenya having the highest values of DVI. At the country level results were compared with drought disaster information from the EM-DAT disaster database, showing a good

  6. Vulnerability Assessment for Cascading Failures in Electric Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Baldick, R.; Chowdhury, Badrul; Dobson, Ian; Dong, Zhao Yang; Gou, Bei; Hawkins, David L.; Huang, Zhenyu; Joung, Manho; Kim, Janghoon; Kirschen, Daniel; Lee, Stephen; Li, Fangxing; Li, Juan; Li, Zuyi; Liu, Chen-Ching; Luo, Xiaochuan; Mili, Lamine; Miller, Stephen; Nakayama, Marvin; Papic, Milorad; Podmore, Robin; Rossmaier, John; Schneider, Kevin P.; Sun, Hongbin; Sun, Kai; Wang, David; Wu, Zhigang; Yao, Liangzhong; Zhang, Pei; Zhang, Wenjie; Zhang, Xiaoping

    2008-09-10

    Cascading failures present severe threats to power grid security, and thus vulnerability assessment of power grids is of significant importance. Focusing on analytic methods, this paper reviews the state of the art of vulnerability assessment methods in the context of cascading failures in three categories: steady-state modeling based analysis; dynamic modeling analysis; and non-traditional modeling approaches. The impact of emerging technologies including phasor technology, high-performance computing techniques, and visualization techniques on the vulnerability assessment of cascading failures is then addressed, and future research directions are presented.

  7. Perfectionism and Depression: Vulnerabilities Nurses Need to Understand

    PubMed Central

    Melrose, Sherri

    2011-01-01

    Striving for excellence is an admirable goal. Adaptive or healthy perfectionism can drive ambition and lead to extraordinary accomplishments. High-achieving people often show signs of perfectionism. However, maladaptive, unhealthy, or neurotic perfectionism, where anything less than perfect is unacceptable, can leave individuals vulnerable to depression. In both personal and professional relationships, nurses need to understand how accepting only perfection in self and others is likely to lead to emotional distress. This paper reviews perfectionism as a personality style, comments on perfectionism and high achievement, discusses vulnerabilities to depression, identifies how to recognize perfectionists, and presents balancing strategies perfectionists can implement to lessen their vulnerability to depression. PMID:21994842

  8. Automated Vulnerability Detection for Compiled Smart Grid Software

    SciTech Connect

    Prowell, Stacy J; Pleszkoch, Mark G; Sayre, Kirk D; Linger, Richard C

    2012-01-01

    While testing performed with proper experimental controls can provide scientifically quantifiable evidence that software does not contain unintentional vulnerabilities (bugs), it is insufficient to show that intentional vulnerabilities exist, and impractical to certify devices for the expected long lifetimes of use. For both of these needs, rigorous analysis of the software itself is essential. Automated software behavior computation applies rigorous static software analysis methods based on function extraction (FX) to compiled software to detect vulnerabilities, intentional or unintentional, and to verify critical functionality. This analysis is based on the compiled firmware, takes into account machine precision, and does not rely on heuristics or approximations early in the analysis.

  9. Migration in Vulnerable Deltas: A Research Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutton, C.; Nicholls, R. J.; Allan, A.

    2015-12-01

    C. Hutton1, & R. J. Nicholls1, , 1 University of Southampton, University Road, Southampton, Hampshire, United Kingdom, SO17 1BJ. cwh@geodata. soton.ac.ukAbstractGlobally, deltas contain 500 million people and with rising sea levels often linked to large number of forced migrants are expected in the coming century. However, migration is already a major process in deltas, such as the growth of major cities such as Dhaka and Kolkata. Climate and environmental change interacts with a range of catchment and delta level drivers, which encompass a nexus of sea-level rise, storms, freshwater and sediment supply from the catchment, land degradation, subsidence, agricultural loss and socio-economic stresses. DECCMA (Deltas, Vulnerability and Climate Change: Migration and Adaptation/CARRIA) is investigating migration in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM), Mahanadi and Volta Deltas, including the influence of climate change. The research will explore migration from a range of perspectives including governance and stakeholder analysis, demographic analysis, household surveys of sending and receiving areas, macro-economic analysis, and hazards and hotspot analysis both historically and into the future. Migration under climate change will depend on other adaptation in the deltas and this will be examined. Collectively, integrated analysis will be developed to examine migration, other adaptation and development pathways with a particular focus on the implications for the poorest. This will require the development of input scenarios, including expert-derived exogenous scenarios (e.g., climate change) and endogenous scenarios of the delta developed in a participatory manner. This applied research will facilitate decision support methods for the development of deltas under climate change, with a focus on migration and other adaptation strategies.

  10. Rockfall vulnerability assessment for masonry buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavrouli, Olga

    2015-04-01

    The methodologies for the quantitative risk assessment vary in function of the application scale and the available data. For fragmental rockfalls, risk calculation requires data for the expected damage of the exposed elements due to potential rock block impacts with a range of trajectories, magnitudes and intensities. Although the procedures for the quantification of the rock block characteristics in terms of magnitude-frequency relationships are well established, there are few methodologies for the calculation of the vulnerability, and these are usually empirical or judgmental. The response of buildings to rock block impacts using analytical methods has been mainly realised so far for reinforced concrete buildings, and some fragility curves have been calculated with the results, indicating the potential damage for a range of rock block characteristics. Masonry buildings, as a common structural typology in mountainous areas, are in many cases impacted by rock blocks during rockfalls. Their response presents some peculiarities in comparison with reinforced-concrete structures given the non-homogeneity and variability of the compound materials (blocks and mortar), their orthotropy, low strength in tension, the statically indeterminate load-bearing system and the non-monolithic connections. To this purpose, analytical procedures which are specifically adapted to masonry structures should be used for the evaluation of the expected damage due to rock impacts. In this contribution we discuss the application of the analytical approach for the assessment of the expected damage in rockfall prone areas and the simulation assumptions that can be made concerning the materials, geometry, loading and the relevant simplifications. The amount of uncertainties introduced during their analytical simulation is high due to the dispersion of the data for material mechanical properties and the construction techniques and quality and thus a probabilistic assessment is suggested. The

  11. Early Brain Vulnerability in Wolfram Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hershey, Tamara; Lugar, Heather M.; Shimony, Joshua S.; Rutlin, Jerrel; Koller, Jonathan M.; Perantie, Dana C.; Paciorkowski, Alex R.; Eisenstein, Sarah A.; Permutt, M. Alan

    2012-01-01

    Wolfram Syndrome (WFS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, optic nerve atrophy, diabetes insipidus, deafness, and neurological dysfunction leading to death in mid-adulthood. WFS is caused by mutations in the WFS1 gene, which lead to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated cell death. Case studies have found widespread brain atrophy in late stage WFS. However, it is not known when in the disease course these brain abnormalities arise, and whether there is differential vulnerability across brain regions and tissue classes. To address this limitation, we quantified regional brain abnormalities across multiple imaging modalities in a cohort of young patients in relatively early stages of WFS. Children and young adults with WFS were evaluated with neurological, cognitive and structural magnetic resonance imaging measures. Compared to normative data, the WFS group had intact cognition, significant anxiety and depression, and gait abnormalities. Compared to healthy and type 1 diabetic control groups, the WFS group had smaller intracranial volume and preferentially affected gray matter volume and white matter microstructural integrity in the brainstem, cerebellum and optic radiations. Abnormalities were detected in even the youngest patients with mildest symptoms, and some measures did not follow the typical age-dependent developmental trajectory. These results establish that WFS is associated with smaller intracranial volume with specific abnormalities in the brainstem and cerebellum, even at the earliest stage of clinical symptoms. This pattern of abnormalities suggests that WFS has a pronounced impact on early brain development in addition to later neurodegenerative effects, representing a significant new insight into the WFS disease process. Longitudinal studies will be critical for confirming and expanding our understanding of the impact of ER stress dysregulation on brain development. PMID:22792385

  12. Young women most vulnerable to HIV infection.

    PubMed

    1993-12-01

    It is estimated that 70% of the 3000 women who are infected with HIV each day are 15-24 years old. This pattern of increased prevalence among young women has been noted since a 1986 report that AIDS cases in Zaire were equally divided among men and women, but that the women were an average of 10 years younger than the men, and cases in women peaked at age 20-29. Despite this information, the HIV research and program agenda has failed to address the gender issues that place young women at risk of infection. Societies that do not provide young women with information about reproductive anatomy and sex or with reproductive health services, that allow men to have multiple sex partners, and that condone condom use only for illicit intercourse, leave young girls and women at risk of forced and unprotected sexual intercourse. Studies have also shown that early marriage practices also increase the risk of women becoming infected (usually by their older and more "experienced" husbands). In some parts of Africa, older men seek out virgins in the belief that having sex with a virgin will cure them of sexually transmitted diseases. Poverty also drives women to barter sex for money or goods. In addition to these social and behavioral risk factors, young women appear to have a greater physiological susceptibility to infection than more mature women. Possible factors for this increased risk include the facts that, in younger women, the lining of the vagina is thinner, vaginal mucus may be less profuse, ovulation (which seems to have a protective effect against infection) is infrequent, and a transition zone of cells ringing the cervical opening is more exposed. Thus, biologic, social, and behavioral factors increase the vulnerability of young women. To protect young women, societies will have to change cultural and sexual norms, values, and practices. PMID:12288834

  13. Tracking Nile Delta Vulnerability to Holocene Change

    PubMed Central

    Marriner, Nick; Flaux, Clément; Morhange, Christophe; Stanley, Jean-Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Understanding deltaic resilience in the face of Holocene climate change and human impacts is an important challenge for the earth sciences in characterizing the full range of present and future wetland responses to global warming. Here, we report an 8000-year mass balance record from the Nile Delta to reconstruct when and how this sedimentary basin has responded to past hydrological shifts. In a global Holocene context, the long-term decrease in Nile Delta accretion rates is consistent with insolation-driven changes in the ‘monsoon pacemaker’, attested throughout the mid-latitude tropics. Following the early to mid-Holocene growth of the Nile’s deltaic plain, sediment losses and pronounced erosion are first recorded after ~4000 years ago, the corollaries of falling sediment supply and an intensification of anthropogenic impacts from the Pharaonic period onwards. Against the backcloth of the Saharan ‘depeopling’, reduced river flow underpinned by a weakening of monsoonal precipitation appears to have been particularly conducive to the expansion of human activities on the delta by exposing productive floodplain lands for occupation and irrigation agriculture. The reconstruction suggests that the Nile Delta has a particularly long history of vulnerability to extreme events (e.g. floods and storms) and sea-level rise, although the present sediment-starved system does not have a direct Holocene analogue. This study highlights the importance of the world’s deltas as sensitive archives to investigate Holocene geosystem responses to climate change, risks and hazards, and societal interaction. PMID:23922692

  14. Vulnerability of critical infrastructures : identifying critical nodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Roger Gary; Robinson, David Gerald

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this research was the development of tools and techniques for the identification of critical nodes within critical infrastructures. These are nodes that, if disrupted through natural events or terrorist action, would cause the most widespread, immediate damage. This research focuses on one particular element of the national infrastructure: the bulk power system. Through the identification of critical elements and the quantification of the consequences of their failure, site-specific vulnerability analyses can be focused at those locations where additional security measures could be effectively implemented. In particular, with appropriate sizing and placement within the grid, distributed generation in the form of regional power parks may reduce or even prevent the impact of widespread network power outages. Even without additional security measures, increased awareness of sensitive power grid locations can provide a basis for more effective national, state and local emergency planning. A number of methods for identifying critical nodes were investigated: small-world (or network theory), polyhedral dynamics, and an artificial intelligence-based search method - particle swarm optimization. PSO was found to be the only viable approach and was applied to a variety of industry accepted test networks to validate the ability of the approach to identify sets of critical nodes. The approach was coded in a software package called Buzzard and integrated with a traditional power flow code. A number of industry accepted test networks were employed to validate the approach. The techniques (and software) are not unique to power grid network, but could be applied to a variety of complex, interacting infrastructures.

  15. Using cyber vulnerability testing techniques to expose undocumented security vulnerabilities in DCS and SCADA equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Pollet, J.

    2006-07-01

    This session starts by providing an overview of typical DCS (Distributed Control Systems) and SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) architectures, and exposes cyber security vulnerabilities that vendors never admit, but are found through a comprehensive cyber testing process. A complete assessment process involves testing all of the layers and components of a SCADA or DCS environment, from the perimeter firewall all the way down to the end devices controlling the process, including what to look for when conducting a vulnerability assessment of real-time control systems. The following systems are discussed: 1. Perimeter (isolation from corporate IT or other non-critical networks) 2. Remote Access (third Party access into SCADA or DCS networks) 3. Network Architecture (switch, router, firewalls, access controls, network design) 4. Network Traffic Analysis (what is running on the network) 5. Host Operating Systems Hardening 6. Applications (how they communicate with other applications and end devices) 7. End Device Testing (PLCs, RTUs, DCS Controllers, Smart Transmitters) a. System Discovery b. Functional Discovery c. Attack Methodology i. DoS Tests (at what point does the device fail) ii. Malformed Packet Tests (packets that can cause equipment failure) iii. Session Hijacking (do anything that the operator can do) iv. Packet Injection (code and inject your own SCADA commands) v. Protocol Exploitation (Protocol Reverse Engineering / Fuzzing) This paper will provide information compiled from over five years of conducting cyber security testing on control systems hardware, software, and systems. (authors)

  16. Spatial vulnerability units - expert-based spatial modelling of socio-economic vulnerability in the Salzach catchment, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienberger, S.; Lang, S.; Zeil, P.

    2009-05-01

    The assessment of vulnerability has moved to centre-stage of the debate between different scientific disciplines related to climate change and disaster risk management. Composed by a combination of social, economical, physical and environmental factors the assessment implies combining different domains as well as quantitative with qualitative data and makes it therefore a challenge to identify an integrated metric for vulnerability. In this paper we define vulnerability in the context of climate change, targeting the hazard "flood". The developed methodology is being tested in the Salzach river catchment in Austria, which is largely prone to floods. The proposed methodology allows the spatial quantification of vulnerability and the identification of vulnerability units. These units build upon the geon concept which acts as a framework for the regionalization of continuous spatial information according to defined parameters of homogeneity. Using geons, we are capable of transforming singular domains of information on specific systemic components to policy-relevant, conditioned information. Considering the fact that vulnerability is not directly measurable and due to its complex dimension and social construction an expert-based approach has been chosen. Established methodologies such as Multicriteria Decision Analysis, Delphi exercises and regionalization approaches are being integrated. The method not only enables the assessment of vulnerability independent from administrative boundaries, but also applies an aggregation mode which reflects homogenous vulnerability units. This supports decision makers to reflect on complex issues such as vulnerability. Next to that, the advantage is to decompose the units to their underlying domains. Feedback from disaster management experts indicates that the approach helps to improve the design of measures aimed at strengthening preparedness and mitigation. From this point of view, we reach a step closer towards validation of the

  17. SOCIAL COMPETENCE AND PSYCHOLOGICAL VULNERABILITY: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF FLOURISHING.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Recep

    2015-10-01

    This study examined whether flourishing mediated the social competence and psychological vulnerability. Participants were 259 university students (147 women, 112 men; M age = 21.3 yr., SD = 1.7) who completed the Turkish versions of the Perceived Social Competence Scale, the Flourishing Scale, and the Psychological Vulnerability Scale. Mediation models were tested using the bootstrapping method to examine indirect effects. Consistent with the hypotheses, the results indicated a positive relationship between social competence and flourishing, and a negative relationship between social competence and psychological vulnerability. Results of the bootstrapping method revealed that flourishing significantly mediated the relationship between social competence and psychological vulnerability. The significance and limitations of the results were discussed. PMID:26340049

  18. 77 FR 28894 - Maritime Vulnerability Self-Assessment Tool

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ...-1933, email TSA-OSCCommunications@tsa.dhs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On December 5, 2003 (68 FR... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Maritime Vulnerability Self-Assessment Tool...

  19. A Methodology For Flood Vulnerability Analysis In Complex Flood Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, R.; Martina, M. L. V.; Dottori, F.

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, flood risk management is gaining importance in order to mitigate and prevent flood disasters, and consequently the analysis of flood vulnerability is becoming a key research topic. In this paper, we propose a methodology for large-scale analysis of flood vulnerability. The methodology is based on a GIS-based index, which considers local topography, terrain roughness and basic information about the flood scenario to reproduce the diffusive behaviour of floodplain flow. The methodology synthetizes the spatial distribution of index values into maps and curves, used to represent the vulnerability in the area of interest. Its application allows for considering different levels of complexity of flood scenarios, from localized flood defence failures to complex hazard scenarios involving river reaches. The components of the methodology are applied and tested in two floodplain areas in Northern Italy recently affected by floods. The results show that the methodology can provide an original and valuable insight of flood vulnerability variables and processes.

  20. Rethinking the Vulnerability of Minority Populations in Research

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Margaret Meek

    2013-01-01

    The Belmont Report, produced in 1979 by a United States government commission, includes minority populations among its list of vulnerable research participants. In this article, we consider some previous attempts to understand the vulnerability of minorities in research, and then provide our own account. First we examine the question of the representation of minorities in research. Then we argue that the best understanding of minorities, vulnerability, and research will begin with a broad understanding of the risk of individual members of minority groups to poor health outcomes. We offer a typology of vulnerability to help with this task. Finally, we show how researchers should be guided by this broad analysis in the design and execution of their research. PMID:24134375

  1. Vulnerability of Oregon hydrologic landscapes and streamflow to climate change

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrologic classification systems can provide a basis for broadscale assessments of the hydrologic functions of landscapes and watersheds and their responses to stressors. Such assessments could be particularly useful in determining hydrologic vulnerability from climate change. ...

  2. Assessing vulnerability to drought: identifying underlying factors across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urquijo, Julia; Gonzalez Tánago, Itziar; Ballesteros, Mario; De Stefano, Lucia

    2015-04-01

    Drought is considered one of the most severe and damaging natural hazards in terms of people and sectors affected and associated losses. Drought is a normal and recurrent climatic phenomenon that occurs worldwide, although its spatial and temporal characteristics vary significantly among climates. In the case of Europe, in the last thirty years, the region has suffered several drought events that have caused estimated economic damages over a €100 billion and have affected almost 20% of its territory and population. In recent years, there has been a growing awareness among experts and authorities of the need to shift from a reactive crisis approach to a drought risk management approach, as well as of the importance of designing and implementing policies, strategies and plans at country and river basin levels to deal with drought. The identification of whom and what is vulnerable to drought is a central aspect of drought risk mitigation and planning and several authors agree that societal vulnerability often determines drought risk more than the actual precipitation shortfalls. The final aim of a drought vulnerability assessment is to identify the underlying sources of drought impact, in order to develop policy options that help to enhance coping capacity and therefore to prevent drought impact. This study identifies and maps factors underlying vulnerability to drought across Europe. The identification of factors influencing vulnerability starts from the analysis of past drought impacts in four European socioeconomic sectors. This analysis, along with an extensive literature review, led to the selection of vulnerability factors that are both relevant and adequate for the European context. Adopting the IPCC model, vulnerability factors were grouped to describe exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. The aggregation of these components has resulted in the mapping of vulnerability to drought across Europe at NUTS02 level. Final results have been compared with

  3. Evaluation Of The Seismic Vulnerability of Fortified Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Baratta, Alessandro; Corbi, Ileana; Coppari, Sandro

    2008-07-08

    In the paper a prompt method to evaluate the seismic vulnerability of an ancient structure has been applied to the seismic vulnerability of the fortified structures in Italy, having as basics the elaboration of rather gross information about the state, the consistency and the history of the considered population of fabrics. The procedure proves to be rather effective and able to produce reliable results, despite the poor initial data.

  4. Population Evacuation: Assessing Biophysical Risk and Social Vulnerability to Floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, S.; Lee, D. H.

    2014-12-01

    A relatively new topic of environmental hazards research revolves around vulnerability to disasters. These studies focused separately on biophysical and social vulnerability perspectives. Only recently, community-based vulnerability studies have become common because of the recognition that combining social and biophysical components is important and practical (Cutter, et al., 2000; Cutter, et al., 2003; Turner, et al., 2003). Researchers have modeled vulnerability to analyze its spatial variation (Montz, Cross, and Cutter, 2006). This study aimed at developing a technical framework for community-based vulnerability to the specific hazards of floods. Developing a technical framework in this research used a "vulnerability of place" method (Hebb & Mortsch, 2007). The data reduction technique used was Principal Components Analysis (PCA) which allows for each variable to explain part of the vulnerability. The case study was on flooding in the Tennessee River Basin. The initial run with all 46 variables produced 13 components that explained 69.77% of the variance. Because of the relative homogeneity across the county (i.e., land use and soil types most vulnerable to flooding being located away from heavily populated areas) biophysical variables became less important in this region in creating overall risk scores. This is made all the more obvious by the number of social variables (17) compared to the number of biophysical variables (8) in the final components. The lowest risk block groups are located within the cities: central Florence, central, and central Madison. The highest risk block groups are in rural areas covered predominately with pasture and agricultural land or forests. They also lie near or within the 100 year floodplain.

  5. The hack attack - Increasing computer system awareness of vulnerability threats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quann, John; Belford, Peter

    1987-01-01

    The paper discusses the issue of electronic vulnerability of computer based systems supporting NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) by unauthorized users. To test the security of the system and increase security awareness, NYMA, Inc. employed computer 'hackers' to attempt to infiltrate the system(s) under controlled conditions. Penetration procedures, methods, and descriptions are detailed in the paper. The procedure increased the security consciousness of GSFC management to the electronic vulnerability of the system(s).

  6. Vulnerability-attention analysis for space-related activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, Donnie; Hays, Dan; Lee, Sung Yong; Wolfsberger, John

    1988-01-01

    Techniques for representing and analyzing trouble spots in structures and processes are discussed. Identification of vulnerable areas usually depends more on particular and often detailed knowledge than on algorithmic or mathematical procedures. In some cases, machine inference can facilitate the identification. The analysis scheme proposed first establishes the geometry of the process, then marks areas that are conditionally vulnerable. This provides a basis for advice on the kinds of human attention or machine sensing and control that can make the risks tolerable.

  7. Parental overprotection and its relation to perceived child vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P

    1997-04-01

    A study of 280 parents with a child age 5-10 years examined the relation between and correlates of parental overprotection (less education, younger child age, being an only child) and parental perception of increased child vulnerability (history of life-threatening illness, child medical condition, first child). One-third of parents who considered their child vulnerable were also considered overprotective. PMID:9142367

  8. Climate change vulnerability of global hydropower generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farinosi, F.; De Cian, E.; Sue Wing, I.

    2014-12-01

    This paper explores the vulnerability of global hydropower generation to the variability in seasonal averages as well as changes in extreme conditions of precipitation, surface runoff, and temperature. A statistical model is used to estimate the elasticity of hydroelectricity generation to the historical variation (1962-2010) in precipitation or runoff, while controlling for potential confounding factors and temperature changes. The estimated elasticities, which informs about hydropower sensitivity to meteorological variations, are combined with changes in future exposure around 2050 in different warming scenarios as simulated by an ensemble of GCMs participating in the CMIP5 project (Taylor et al., 2012). We use a panel regression model to estimate the parameters characterizing a reduced-form relationship between hydropower electricity generation at country level, a set of meteorological indicators, and number of other covariates that control for time-invariant country-specific heterogeneity (country effect), unspecified exogenous influences affecting all countries and units (time effects), and other confounding factors such the electricity generation mix. The estimated model shows that total annual runoff has a significant impact on the annual generation from the small and medium-sized units, whereas large-sized units do not appear to be sensitive to the inter-annual variation in runoff. This finding is reasonably explained by the greater buffer effect of reservoir capacity, which sensibly increases the resilience of these plants to inter-annual runoff variability. In medium-sized units an increase in total runoff by 1% increases electricity generation by 0.028%. Small-sized units are more sensitivity to inter-annual variations in runoff, and the same change in total runoff (1%) increases electricity generation by 0.037%. Seasonal temperature has also a significant impact. A 1% increase in spring temperature reduces electricity generation by 1.63%, while a 1

  9. The Vulnerable Plaque: the Real Villain in Acute Coronary Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Michael; Puri, Aniket; Devlin, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    The term "vulnerable plaque" refers to a vascular lesion that is prone to rupture and may result in life-threatening events which include myocardial infarction. It consists of thin-cap fibroatheroma and a large lipid core which is highly thrombogenic. Acute coronary syndromes often result from rupture of vulnerable plaques which frequently are only moderately stenosed and not visible by conventional angiography. Several invasive and non-invasive strategies have been developed to assess the burden of vulnerable plaques. Intravascular ultrasound provides a two-dimensional cross-sectional image of the arterial wall and can help assess the plaque burden and composition. Optical coherent tomography offers superior resolution over intravascular ultrasound. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging provides non-invasive imaging for visualizing fibrous cap thickness and rupture in plaques. In addition, it may be of value in assessing the effects of treatments, such as lipid-lowering therapy. Technical issues however limit its clinical applicability. The role of multi-slice computed tomography, a well established screening tool for coronary artery disease, remains to be determined. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) may provide physiological functional assessment of plaque vulnerability; however, its role in the management of vulnerable plaque requires further studies. Treatment of the vulnerable patient may involve systemic therapy which currently include statins, ACE inhibitors, beta-blockers, aspirin, and calcium-channel blockers and in the future local therapeutic options such as drug-eluting stents or photodynamic therapy. PMID:21673834

  10. Multimodal spectroscopy detects features of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque

    PubMed Central

    Šćepanović, Obrad R.; Fitzmaurice, Maryann; Miller, Arnold; Kong, Chae-Ryon; Volynskaya, Zoya; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Kramer, John R.; Feld, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Early detection and treatment of rupture-prone vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is critical to reducing patient mortality associated with cardiovascular disease. The combination of reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopy—termed multimodal spectroscopy (MMS)—provides detailed biochemical information about tissue and can detect vulnerable plaque features: thin fibrous cap (TFC), necrotic core (NC), superficial foam cells (SFC), and thrombus. Ex vivo MMS spectra are collected from 12 patients that underwent carotid endarterectomy or femoral bypass surgery. Data are collected by means of a unitary MMS optical fiber probe and a portable clinical instrument. Blinded histopathological analysis is used to assess the vulnerability of each spectrally evaluated artery lesion. Modeling of the ex vivo MMS spectra produce objective parameters that correlate with the presence of vulnerable plaque features: TFC with fluorescence parameters indicative of collagen presence; NC∕SFC with a combination of diffuse reflectance β-carotene∕ceroid absorption and the Raman spectral signature of lipids; and thrombus with its Raman signature. Using these parameters, suspected vulnerable plaques can be detected with a sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 72%. These encouraging results warrant the continued development of MMS as a catheter-based clinical diagnostic technique for early detection of vulnerable plaques. PMID:21280896

  11. Malware Sandbox Analysis for Secure Observation of Vulnerability Exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, Katsunari; Inoue, Daisuke; Eto, Masashi; Hoshizawa, Yuji; Nogawa, Hiroki; Nakao, Koji

    Exploiting vulnerabilities of remote systems is one of the fundamental behaviors of malware that determines their potential hazards. Understanding what kind of propagation tactics each malware uses is essential in incident response because such information directly links with countermeasures such as writing a signature for IDS. Although recently malware sandbox analysis has been studied intensively, little work is done on securely observing the vulnerability exploitation by malware. In this paper, we propose a novel sandbox analysis method for securely observing malware's vulnerability exploitation in a totally isolated environment. In our sandbox, we prepare two victim hosts. We first execute the sample malware on one of these hosts and then let it attack the other host which is running multiple vulnerable services. As a simple realization of the proposed method, we have implemented a sandbox using Nepenthes, a low-interaction honeypot, as the second victim. Because Nepenthes can emulate a variety of vulnerable services, we can efficiently observe the propagation of sample malware. In the experiments, among 382 samples whose scan capabilities are confirmed, 381 samples successfully started exploiting vulnerabilities of the second victim. This indicates the certain level of feasibility of the proposed method.

  12. Vulnerability assessment of atmospheric environment driven by human impacts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Shen, Jing; Ding, Feng; Li, Yu; He, Li

    2016-11-15

    Atmospheric environment quality worsening is a substantial threat to public health worldwide, and in many places, air pollution due to the intensification of the human activity is increasing dramatically. However, no studies have been investigated the integration of vulnerability assessment and atmospheric environment driven by human impacts. The objective of this study was to identify and prioritize the undesirable environmental changes as an early warning system for environment managers and decision makers in term of human, atmospheric environment, and social economic elements. We conduct a vulnerability assessment method of atmospheric environment associated with human impact, this method integrates spatial context of Geographic Information System (GIS) tool, multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method, ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operators under the Exposure-Sensitivity- Adaptive Capacity (ESA) framework. Decision makers can find out relevant vulnerability assessment results with different vulnerable attitudes. In the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, China, we further applied this developed method and proved it to be reliable and consistent with the China Environmental Status Bulletin. Results indicate that the vulnerability of atmospheric environment in the BTH region is not optimistic, and environment managers should do more about air pollution. Thus, the most appropriate strategic decision and development program of city or state can be picked out assisting by the vulnerable results. PMID:27424115

  13. Forest climate change Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment in Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitale, V. S.; Shrestha, H. L.; Agarwal, N. K.; Choudhurya, D.; Gilani, H.; Dhonju, H. K.; Murthy, M. S. R.

    2014-11-01

    Forests offer an important basis for creating and safeguarding more climate-resilient communities over Hindu Kush Himalayan region. The forest ecosystem vulnerability assessment to climate change and developing knowledge base to identify and support relevant adaptation strategies is realized as an urgent need. The multi scale adaptation strategies portray increasing complexity with the increasing levels in terms of data requirements, vulnerability understanding and decision making to choose a particular adaptation strategy. We present here how such complexities could be addressed and adaptation decisions could be either directly supported by open source remote sensing based forestry products or geospatial analysis and modelled products. The forest vulnerability assessment under climate change scenario coupled with increasing forest social dependence was studied using IPCC Landscape scale Vulnerability framework in Chitwan-Annapurna Landscape (CHAL) situated in Nepal. Around twenty layers of geospatial information on climate, forest biophysical and forest social dependence data was used to assess forest vulnerability and associated adaptation needs using self-learning decision tree based approaches. The increase in forest fires, evapotranspiration and reduction in productivity over changing climate scenario was observed. The adaptation measures on enhancing productivity, improving resilience, reducing or avoiding pressure with spatial specificity are identified to support suitable decision making. The study provides spatial analytical framework to evaluate multitude of parameters to understand vulnerabilities and assess scope for alternative adaptation strategies with spatial explicitness.

  14. Latin hypercube approach to estimate uncertainty in ground water vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Gurdak, Jason J; McCray, John E; Thyne, Geoffrey; Qi, Sharon L

    2007-01-01

    A methodology is proposed to quantify prediction uncertainty associated with ground water vulnerability models that were developed through an approach that coupled multivariate logistic regression with a geographic information system (GIS). This method uses Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) to illustrate the propagation of input error and estimate uncertainty associated with the logistic regression predictions of ground water vulnerability. Central to the proposed method is the assumption that prediction uncertainty in ground water vulnerability models is a function of input error propagation from uncertainty in the estimated logistic regression model coefficients (model error) and the values of explanatory variables represented in the GIS (data error). Input probability distributions that represent both model and data error sources of uncertainty were simultaneously sampled using a Latin hypercube approach with logistic regression calculations of probability of elevated nonpoint source contaminants in ground water. The resulting probability distribution represents the prediction intervals and associated uncertainty of the ground water vulnerability predictions. The method is illustrated through a ground water vulnerability assessment of the High Plains regional aquifer. Results of the LHS simulations reveal significant prediction uncertainties that vary spatially across the regional aquifer. Additionally, the proposed method enables a spatial deconstruction of the prediction uncertainty that can lead to improved prediction of ground water vulnerability. PMID:17470124

  15. Multimodal spectroscopy detects features of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šćepanović, Obrad R.; Fitzmaurice, Maryann; Miller, Arnold; Kong, Chae-Ryon; Volynskaya, Zoya; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Kramer, John R.; Feld, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Early detection and treatment of rupture-prone vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is critical to reducing patient mortality associated with cardiovascular disease. The combination of reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopy-termed multimodal spectroscopy (MMS)-provides detailed biochemical information about tissue and can detect vulnerable plaque features: thin fibrous cap (TFC), necrotic core (NC), superficial foam cells (SFC), and thrombus. Ex vivo MMS spectra are collected from 12 patients that underwent carotid endarterectomy or femoral bypass surgery. Data are collected by means of a unitary MMS optical fiber probe and a portable clinical instrument. Blinded histopathological analysis is used to assess the vulnerability of each spectrally evaluated artery lesion. Modeling of the ex vivo MMS spectra produce objective parameters that correlate with the presence of vulnerable plaque features: TFC with fluorescence parameters indicative of collagen presence; NC/SFC with a combination of diffuse reflectance β-carotene/ceroid absorption and the Raman spectral signature of lipids; and thrombus with its Raman signature. Using these parameters, suspected vulnerable plaques can be detected with a sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 72%. These encouraging results warrant the continued development of MMS as a catheter-based clinical diagnostic technique for early detection of vulnerable plaques.

  16. Coastal vulnerability: climate change and natural hazards perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romieu, E.; Vinchon, C.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction Studying coastal zones as a territorial concept (Integrated coastal zone management) is an essential issue for managers, as they have to consider many different topics (natural hazards, resources management, tourism, climate change…). The recent approach in terms of "coastal vulnerability" studies (since the 90's) is the main tool used nowadays to help them in evaluating impacts of natural hazards on coastal zones, specially considering climate change. This present communication aims to highlight the difficulties in integrating this concept in risk analysis as it is usually practiced in natural hazards sciences. 1) Coastal vulnerability as a recent issue The concept of coastal vulnerability mainly appears in the International panel on climate change works of 1992 (IPCC. 2001), where it is presented as essential for climate change adaptation. The concept has been defined by a common methodology which proposes the assessment of seven indicators, in regards to a sea level rise of 1m in 2100: people affected, people at risk, capital value at loss, land at loss, wetland at loss, potential adaptation costs, people at risk assuming this adaptation. Many national assessments have been implemented (Nicholls, et al. 1995) and a global assessment was proposed for three indicators (Nicholls, et al. 1999). The DINAS-Coast project reuses this methodology to produce the DIVA-tool for coastal managers (Vafeidis, et al. 2004). Besides, many other methodologies for national or regional coastal vulnerability assessments have been developed (review by (UNFCCC. 2008). The use of aggregated vulnerability indicators (including geomorphology, hydrodynamics, climate change…) is widespread: the USGS coastal vulnerability index is used worldwide and was completed by a social vulnerability index (Boruff, et al. 2005). Those index-based methods propose a vulnerability mapping which visualise indicators of erosion, submersion and/or socio economic sensibility in coastal zones

  17. Coastal vulnerability: climate change and natural hazards perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romieu, E.; Vinchon, C.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction Studying coastal zones as a territorial concept (Integrated coastal zone management) is an essential issue for managers, as they have to consider many different topics (natural hazards, resources management, tourism, climate change…). The recent approach in terms of "coastal vulnerability" studies (since the 90's) is the main tool used nowadays to help them in evaluating impacts of natural hazards on coastal zones, specially considering climate change. This present communication aims to highlight the difficulties in integrating this concept in risk analysis as it is usually practiced in natural hazards sciences. 1) Coastal vulnerability as a recent issue The concept of coastal vulnerability mainly appears in the International panel on climate change works of 1992 (IPCC. 2001), where it is presented as essential for climate change adaptation. The concept has been defined by a common methodology which proposes the assessment of seven indicators, in regards to a sea level rise of 1m in 2100: people affected, people at risk, capital value at loss, land at loss, wetland at loss, potential adaptation costs, people at risk assuming this adaptation. Many national assessments have been implemented (Nicholls, et al. 1995) and a global assessment was proposed for three indicators (Nicholls, et al. 1999). The DINAS-Coast project reuses this methodology to produce the DIVA-tool for coastal managers (Vafeidis, et al. 2004). Besides, many other methodologies for national or regional coastal vulnerability assessments have been developed (review by (UNFCCC. 2008). The use of aggregated vulnerability indicators (including geomorphology, hydrodynamics, climate change…) is widespread: the USGS coastal vulnerability index is used worldwide and was completed by a social vulnerability index (Boruff, et al. 2005). Those index-based methods propose a vulnerability mapping which visualise indicators of erosion, submersion and/or socio economic sensibility in coastal zones

  18. Assessing Agricultural Vulnerability in India using NDVI Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushalya, R.; Praveen Kumar, V.; Shubhasmita, S.

    2014-11-01

    Impact of climate change on Indian rainfed agriculture was assessed using temporal NDVI data products from AVHRR and MODIS. Agricultural vulnerability was analysed using CV of Max NDVI from NOAA-AVHRR (15-day, 8 km) and MODIS-TERRA (16-day, 250 m) NDVI data products from 1982-2012. AVHRR dataset was found suitable for estimating regional vulnerability at state and agro-eco-sub-region (AESR) level while MODIS dataset was suitable for drawing district-level strategy for adaptation and mitigation. Methodology was developed to analyse NDVI variations with spatial pattern of rainfall using 10 X 10 girded data and spatially interpolating it to estimate Standard Precipitation Index. Study indicated large variations in vegetation dynamics across India owing to bio-climate and natural resource base. IPCC framework of vulnerability and exposure was used to identify vulnerable region extending from arid western India to semi-arid and dry sub-humid regions in central India and southern peninsula. This is a major agricultural region in the country with sizable human and livestock population with millions of marginal and small farm holdings. Exposure to climatic variability at local and regional levels have national implications and study indicated that over 122 districts extending over 110 mha was vulnerable to climate change that spread across 26 typical AESR in 11 states in India. Of the 74 mha under agriculture in the region, MODIS dataset indicated 47 mha as agriculturally vulnerable while coarser resolution of AVHRR dataset indicated a conservative estimate of 29 mha. First ever estimates of agricultural vulnerability for India indicates 20.4 to 33.1 % agricultural land under risk from climate change.

  19. Vulnerability to climate change: people, place and exposure to hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutton, C. W.; Kienberger, S.; Amoako Johnson, F.; Allan, A.; Giannini, V.; Allen, R.

    2011-04-01

    The Human Dimension of the Twinning European and South Asian River Basins to Enhance Capacity and Implement Adaptive Management Approaches Project (EC-Project BRAHMATWINN) is aimed at developing socio-economic tools and context for the effective inclusion of the "Human Dimension" or socio-economic vulnerability into the overall assessment of climate risk in the twinned basins of the Upper Brahmaputra River Basin (UBRB), and the Upper Danube River Basin (UDRB) . This work is conducted in the light of stakeholder/actor analysis and the prevailing legal framework. In order to effectively achieve this end, four key research and associated activities were defined: 1. Identifying stakeholders and actors including: implement an approach to ensure a broad spread of appropriate stakeholder input to the assessment of vulnerability undertaken in Asia and Europe within the research activities of the project. 2. Contextualising legal framework: to provide an assessment of the governance framework relating to socio-environmental policy development within the study site administrative areas leading to the specific identification of related policy and legal recommendations. 3. Spatial analysis and mapping of vulnerability: providing a spatial assessment of the variation of vulnerability to pre-determined environmental stressors across the study areas with an additional specific focus on gender. 4. Inclusion of findings with the broader context of the BRAHMATWINN risk of climate change study through scenarios of hazard and vulnerability (subsequent chapters). This study utilises stakeholder inputs to effectively identify and map relative weightings of vulnerability domains, such as health and education in the context of pre-specified hazards such as flood. The process is underpinned by an adaptation of the IPCC (2001) which characterizes Risk as having the components of Hazard (physiographic component) and Vulnerability (socio-economic component).

  20. A Vulnerability Assessment Approach for Dams of Mississippi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuszmaul, J. S.; Gunter, B.; McGregor, G.; Holt, R. M.; Pickens, J.; Holtz, T.; Jones, T.; Phillips, P.

    2007-12-01

    As part of a state-wide effort to characterize the vulnerability of Mississippi's dams, we are developing a new set of vulnerability assessment tools. Our vulnerability assessment methods will consider earlier attempts to develop risk indexing methods for dams, but will be designed to be applied to Mississippi's entire database of over 3,700 dams. Unlike earlier efforts to dams, which emphasized hazards posed by the dams, our methods will be designed to consider intrinsic and extrinsic vulnerability, and consider consequences as well. Intrinsic sources of vulnerability consider such factors as the potential for unstable slopes, piping, and spillway inadequacy. Extrinsic sources of vulnerability will include features such as the potential for intentional or unintentional human acts. Other factors that will be included will be the potential for neglect of maintenance of the dam and susceptibility to interference from wildlife. Consequences will be assessed by considering the downstream population and economic resources that may be at risk due to an uncontrolled release of the reservoir. The analysis of these vulnerabilities and consequences is being calculated using a GIS-based database of all of Mississippi's dams along with population distribution, terrain, and economic resources across the state. Conventional methods of analysis of a dam breach or other uncontrolled release will still be necessary, but the extent to which downstream features and population are affected can be more readily identified. This approach facilitates assessment and decision making on a large dam inventory to permit resources within the state to be directed efficiently to dams that merit attention.

  1. Prediction of individualized therapeutic vulnerabilities in cancer from genomic profiles

    PubMed Central

    Aksoy, Bülent Arman; Demir, Emek; Babur, Özgün; Wang, Weiqing; Jing, Xiaohong; Schultz, Nikolaus; Sander, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Somatic homozygous deletions of chromosomal regions in cancer, while not necessarily oncogenic, may lead to therapeutic vulnerabilities specific to cancer cells compared with normal cells. A recently reported example is the loss of one of the two isoenzymes in glioblastoma cancer cells such that the use of a specific inhibitor selectively inhibited growth of the cancer cells, which had become fully dependent on the second isoenzyme. We have now made use of the unprecedented conjunction of large-scale cancer genomics profiling of tumor samples in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and of tumor-derived cell lines in the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia, as well as the availability of integrated pathway information systems, such as Pathway Commons, to systematically search for a comprehensive set of such epistatic vulnerabilities. Results: Based on homozygous deletions affecting metabolic enzymes in 16 TCGA cancer studies and 972 cancer cell lines, we identified 4104 candidate metabolic vulnerabilities present in 1019 tumor samples and 482 cell lines. Up to 44% of these vulnerabilities can be targeted with at least one Food and Drug Administration-approved drug. We suggest focused experiments to test these vulnerabilities and clinical trials based on personalized genomic profiles of those that pass preclinical filters. We conclude that genomic profiling will in the future provide a promising basis for network pharmacology of epistatic vulnerabilities as a promising therapeutic strategy. Availability and implementation: A web-based tool for exploring all vulnerabilities and their details is available at http://cbio.mskcc.org/cancergenomics/statius/ along with supplemental data files. Contact: statius@cbio.mskcc.org Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24665131

  2. Potential of 3D City Models to assess flood vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröter, Kai; Bochow, Mathias; Schüttig, Martin; Nagel, Claus; Ross, Lutz; Kreibich, Heidi

    2016-04-01

    Vulnerability, as the product of exposure and susceptibility, is a key factor of the flood risk equation. Furthermore, the estimation of flood loss is very sensitive to the choice of the vulnerability model. Still, in contrast to elaborate hazard simulations, vulnerability is often considered in a simplified manner concerning the spatial resolution and geo-location of exposed objects as well as the susceptibility of these objects at risk. Usually, area specific potential flood loss is quantified on the level of aggregated land-use classes, and both hazard intensity and resistance characteristics of affected objects are represented in highly simplified terms. We investigate the potential of 3D City Models and spatial features derived from remote sensing data to improve the differentiation of vulnerability in flood risk assessment. 3D City Models are based on CityGML, an application scheme of the Geography Markup Language (GML), which represents the 3D geometry, 3D topology, semantics and appearance of objects on different levels of detail. As such, 3D City Models offer detailed spatial information which is useful to describe the exposure and to characterize the susceptibility of residential buildings at risk. This information is further consolidated with spatial features of the building stock derived from remote sensing data. Using this database a spatially detailed flood vulnerability model is developed by means of data-mining. Empirical flood damage data are used to derive and to validate flood susceptibility models for individual objects. We present first results from a prototype application in the city of Dresden, Germany. The vulnerability modeling based on 3D City Models and remote sensing data is compared i) to the generally accepted good engineering practice based on area specific loss potential and ii) to a highly detailed representation of flood vulnerability based on a building typology using urban structure types. Comparisons are drawn in terms of

  3. Anxiety vulnerability in women: a two-hit hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Catuzzi, Jennifer E; Beck, Kevin D

    2014-09-01

    Females are twice as likely to develop an anxiety disorder compared to males, and thus, are believed to possess an innate vulnerability that increases their susceptibility to develop an anxiety disorder. However, studies using aversive learning paradigms to model anxiety disorders in humans and animals have revealed contradictory results. While females exhibit the ability to rapidly acquire stimulus-response associations, which may result from a greater attentional bias towards threat, females are also capable to readily extinguish these associations. Thus, there is little evidence to suggest that the female sex represents a vulnerability factor of anxiety, per se. However, if females are to possess a second vulnerability factor that increases the inflexibility of stimulus-response associations, then an anxiety disorder may be more likely to develop. Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a vulnerability factor associated with the formation of inflexible stimulus-response associations. In this "two hit" model of anxiety vulnerability, females possessing a BI temperament will rapidly acquire stimulus-response associations that are resistant to extinction, resulting in the development of an anxiety disorder. In this review we explore evidence for a "two-hit" hypothesis underlying anxiety vulnerability in females. We explore the literature for evidence of a sex difference in attentional bias towards threat that may lead to the facilitated acquisition of stimulus-response associations in females. We also provide evidence that BI is associated with inflexible stimulus-response association formation. We conclude with data generated from our laboratory that highlights the additive effect of the female sex and behavioral inhibition vulnerabilities using a model behavior for anxiety disorder-susceptibility, active avoidance. PMID:24518489

  4. A Preliminary Tsunami Vulnerability Analysis for Yenikapi Region in Istanbul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceren Cankaya, Zeynep; Suzen, Lutfi; Cevdet Yalciner, Ahmet; Kolat, Cagil; Aytore, Betul; Zaytsev, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    One of the main requirements during post disaster recovery operations is to maintain proper transportation and fluent communication at the disaster areas. Ports and harbors are the main transportation hubs which must work with proper performance at all times especially after the disasters. Resilience of coastal utilities after earthquakes and tsunamis have major importance for efficient and proper rescue and recovery operations soon after the disasters. Istanbul is a mega city with its various coastal utilities located at the north coast of the Sea of Marmara. At Yenikapi region of Istanbul, there are critical coastal utilities and vulnerable coastal structures and critical activities occur daily. Fishery ports, commercial ports, small craft harbors, passenger terminals of intercity maritime transportation, water front commercial and/or recreational structures are some of the examples of coastal utilization which are vulnerable against marine disasters. Therefore their vulnerability under tsunami or any other marine hazard to Yenikapi region of Istanbul is an important issue. In this study, a methodology of vulnerability analysis under tsunami attack is proposed with the applications to Yenikapi region. In the study, high resolution (1m) GIS database of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (IMM) is used and analyzed by using GIS implementation. The bathymetry and topography database and the vector dataset containing all buildings/structures/infrastructures in the study area are obtained for tsunami numerical modeling for the study area. GIS based tsunami vulnerability assessment is conducted by applying the Multi-criteria Decision Making Analysis (MCDA). The tsunami parameters from deterministically defined worst case scenarios are computed from the simulations using tsunami numerical model NAMI DANCE. The vulnerability parameters in the region due to two different classifications i) vulnerability of buildings/structures and ii) vulnerability of (human) evacuation

  5. Probabilistic seismic vulnerability and risk assessment of stone masonry structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abo El Ezz, Ahmad

    Earthquakes represent major natural hazards that regularly impact the built environment in seismic prone areas worldwide and cause considerable social and economic losses. The high losses incurred following the past destructive earthquakes promoted the need for assessment of the seismic vulnerability and risk of the existing buildings. Many historic buildings in the old urban centers in Eastern Canada such as Old Quebec City are built of stone masonry and represent un-measurable architectural and cultural heritage. These buildings were built to resist gravity loads only and generally offer poor resistance to lateral seismic loads. Seismic vulnerability assessment of stone masonry buildings is therefore the first necessary step in developing seismic retrofitting and pre-disaster mitigation plans. The objective of this study is to develop a set of probability-based analytical tools for efficient seismic vulnerability and uncertainty analysis of stone masonry buildings. A simplified probabilistic analytical methodology for vulnerability modelling of stone masonry building with systematic treatment of uncertainties throughout the modelling process is developed in the first part of this study. Building capacity curves are developed using a simplified mechanical model. A displacement based procedure is used to develop damage state fragility functions in terms of spectral displacement response based on drift thresholds of stone masonry walls. A simplified probabilistic seismic demand analysis is proposed to capture the combined uncertainty in capacity and demand on fragility functions. In the second part, a robust analytical procedure for the development of seismic hazard compatible fragility and vulnerability functions is proposed. The results are given by sets of seismic hazard compatible vulnerability functions in terms of structure-independent intensity measure (e.g. spectral acceleration) that can be used for seismic risk analysis. The procedure is very efficient for

  6. A unified framework for addiction: Vulnerabilities in the decision process

    PubMed Central

    Redish, A. David; Jensen, Steve; Johnson, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The understanding of decision-making systems has come together in recent years to form a unified theory of decision-making in the mammalian brain as arising from multiple, interacting systems (a planning system, a habit system, and a situation-recognition system). This unified decision-making system has multiple potential access points through which it can be driven to make maladaptive choices, particularly choices that entail seeking of certain drugs or behaviors. We identify 10 key vulnerabilities in the system: (1) moving away from homeostasis, (2) changing allostatic set points, (3) euphorigenic “reward-like” signals, (4) overvaluation in the planning system, (5) incorrect search of situation-action-outcome relationships, (6) misclassification of situations, (7) overvaluation in the habit system, (8) a mismatch in the balance of the two decision systems, (9) over-fast discounting processes, and (10) changed learning rates. These vulnerabilities provide a taxonomy of potential problems with decision-making systems. Although each vulnerability can drive an agent to return to the addictive choice, each vulnerability also implies a characteristic symptomology. Different drugs, different behaviors, and different individuals are likely to access different vulnerabilities. This has implications for an individual’s susceptibility to addiction and the transition to addiction, for the potential for relapse, and for the potential for treatment. PMID:18662461

  7. The influence of transport network vulnerability for maritime ports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruscă, F.; Roşca, E.; Rusca, A.; Roşca, M.; Burciu, S.

    2015-11-01

    The concepts of reliability and vulnerability are quite important in assessing the ability of transport networks from land to provide continuity in operation tacking in consideration the relation with seaports. Transport infrastructure modernizing and extension according to land use and sustainable development requirements still represents a challenging issue among policy makers, regional/local communities and scientists. The interest for the researches reliability and vulnerability for transport networks who connect maritime ports with interior city's is generate by the natural disasters, the terrorist acts, unconventional war, etc.. Transport network modelling enable the development of mathematical models used in evaluating the reliability and vulnerability. Nodes or link disruption could have an important impact over transport network users. In our paper we investigates the Romanian road network vulnerability related to Danube crossing versus maritime ports (Constanta and Mangalia) and its mitigation by improving network topology. We use Visum software to promote a methodology to assess road transport network vulnerability versus Romanian seaports and we propose some solutions to reduce probability of road transport network to fail.

  8. Climate variability and climate change vulnerability and adaptation. Workshop summary

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatti, N.; Cirillo, R.R.; Dixon, R.K.

    1995-12-31

    Representatives from fifteen countries met in Prague, Czech Republic, on September 11-15, 1995, to share results from the analysis of vulnerability and adaptation to global climate change. The workshop focused on the issues of global climate change and its impacts on various sectors of a national economy. The U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), which has been signed by more than 150 governments worldwide, calls on signatory parties to develop and communicate measures they are implementing to respond to global climate change. An analysis of a country`s vulnerability to changes in the climate helps it identify suitable adaptation measures. These analyses are designed to determine the extent of the impacts of global climate change on sensitive sectors such as agricultural crops, forests, grasslands and livestock, water resources, and coastal areas. Once it is determined how vulnerable a country may be to climate change, it is possible to identify adaptation measures for ameliorating some or all of the effects.The objectives of the vulnerability and adaptation workshop were to: The objectives of the vulnerability and adaptation workshop were to: Provide an opportunity for countries to describe their study results; Encourage countries to learn from the experience of the more complete assessments and adjust their studies accordingly; Identify issues and analyses that require further investigation; and Summarize results and experiences for governmental and intergovernmental organizations.

  9. Larger brain size indirectly increases vulnerability to extinction in mammals.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro; González-Suárez, Manuela; Vilà, Carles; Revilla, Eloy

    2016-06-01

    Although previous studies have addressed the question of why large brains evolved, we have limited understanding of potential beneficial or detrimental effects of enlarged brain size in the face of current threats. Using novel phylogenetic path analysis, we evaluated how brain size directly and indirectly, via its effects on life history and ecology, influences vulnerability to extinction across 474 mammalian species. We found that larger brains, controlling for body size, indirectly increase vulnerability to extinction by extending the gestation period, increasing weaning age, and limiting litter sizes. However, we found no evidence of direct, beneficial, or detrimental effects of brain size on vulnerability to extinction, even when we explicitly considered the different types of threats that lead to vulnerability. Order-specific analyses revealed qualitatively similar patterns for Carnivora and Artiodactyla. Interestingly, for Primates, we found that larger brain size was directly (and indirectly) associated with increased vulnerability to extinction. Our results indicate that under current conditions, the constraints on life history imposed by large brains outweigh the potential benefits, undermining the resilience of the studied mammals. Contrary to the selective forces that have favored increased brain size throughout evolutionary history, at present, larger brains have become a burden for mammals. PMID:27159368

  10. Assessing the Agricultural Vulnerability for India under Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Tarul; Vardhan Murari, Harsha; Karmakar, Subhankar; Ghosh, Subimal; Singh, Jitendra

    2016-04-01

    Global climate change has proven to show majorly negative impacts for the far future. These negative impacts adversely affect almost all the fields including agriculture, water resources, tourism, and marine ecosystem. Among these, the effects on agriculture are considered to be of prime importance since its regional impacts can directly affect the global food security. Under such lines, it becomes essential to understand how climate change directs agricultural production for a region along with its vulnerability. In India, rice and wheat are considered as major staple diet and hence understanding its production loss/gain due to regional vulnerability to climate change becomes necessary. Here, an attempt has been made to understand the agricultural vulnerability for rice and wheat, considering yield as a function of temperature and precipitation during growing period. In order to accomplish this objective, the ratio of actual to potential evapo-transpiration has been considered which serves as a reliable indicator; with more this ratio towards unity, less vulnerable will be the region. The current objective needs an integration of climatic, hydrological and agricultural parameters; that can be achieved by simulating a climate data driven hydrologic (Variable Infiltration Capacity, VIC) model and a crop (Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer, DSSAT) model. The proposed framework is an attempt to derive a crop vulnerability map that can facilitate in strategizing adaption practices which can reduce the adverse impacts of climate change in future.

  11. Development of a method for assessing flood vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Connor, R F; Hiroki, K

    2005-01-01

    Over the past few decades, a growing number of studies have been conducted on the mechanisms responsible for climate change and the elaboration of future climate scenarios. More recently, studies have emerged examining the potential effects of climate change on human societies, including how variations in hydrological regimes impact water resources management. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's third assessment report, climate change will lead to an intensification of the hydrological cycle, resulting in greater variability in precipitation patterns and an increase in the intensity and frequency of severe storms and other extreme events. In other words, climate change will likely increase the risks of flooding in many areas. Structural and non-structural countermeasures are available to reduce flood vulnerability, but implementing new measures can be a lengthy process requiring political and financial support. In order to help guide such policy decisions, a method for assessing flood vulnerability due to climate change is proposed. In this preliminary study, multivariate analysis has been used to develop a Flood Vulnerability Index (FVI), which allows for a comparative analysis of flood vulnerability between different basins. Once fully developed, the FVI will also allow users to identify the main factors responsible for a basin's vulnerability, making it a valuable tool to assist in priority setting within decision-making processes. PMID:15918359

  12. Soft Error Vulnerability of Iterative Linear Algebra Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Bronevetsky, G; de Supinski, B

    2007-12-15

    Devices become increasingly vulnerable to soft errors as their feature sizes shrink. Previously, soft errors primarily caused problems for space and high-atmospheric computing applications. Modern architectures now use features so small at sufficiently low voltages that soft errors are becoming significant even at terrestrial altitudes. The soft error vulnerability of iterative linear algebra methods, which many scientific applications use, is a critical aspect of the overall application vulnerability. These methods are often considered invulnerable to many soft errors because they converge from an imprecise solution to a precise one. However, we show that iterative methods can be vulnerable to soft errors, with a high rate of silent data corruptions. We quantify this vulnerability, with algorithms generating up to 8.5% erroneous results when subjected to a single bit-flip. Further, we show that detecting soft errors in an iterative method depends on its detailed convergence properties and requires more complex mechanisms than simply checking the residual. Finally, we explore inexpensive techniques to tolerate soft errors in these methods.

  13. A Heat Vulnerability Index and Adaptation Solutions for Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klima, K.; Abrahams, L.; Bradford, K.; Hegglin, M.

    2015-12-01

    With increasing evidence of global warming, many cities have focused attention on response plans to address their populations' vulnerabilities. Despite expected increased frequency and intensity of heat waves, the health impacts of such events in urban areas can be minimized with careful policy and economic investments. We focus on Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and ask two questions. First, what are the top factors contributing to heat vulnerability and how do these characteristics manifest geospatially throughout Pittsburgh? Second, assuming the City wishes to deploy additional cooling centers, what placement will optimally address the vulnerability of the at risk populations? We use national census data, ArcGIS geospatial modeling, and statistical analysis to determine a range of heat vulnerability indices and optimal cooling center placement. We find that while different studies use different data and statistical calculations, all methods tested locate additional cooling centers at the confluence of the three rivers (Downtown), the northeast side of Pittsburgh (Shadyside/ Highland Park), and the southeast side of Pittsburgh (Squirrel Hill). This suggests that for Pittsburgh, a researcher could apply the same factor analysis procedure to compare datasets for different locations and times; factor analyses for heat vulnerability are more robust than previously thought.

  14. Defining Resilience and Vulnerability Based on Ontology Engineering Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumazawa, T.; Matsui, T.; Endo, A.

    2014-12-01

    It is necessary to reflect the concepts of resilience and vulnerability into the assessment framework of "Human-Environmental Security", but it is also in difficulty to identify the linkage between both concepts because of the difference of the academic community which has discussed each concept. The authors have been developing the ontology which deals with the sustainability of the social-ecological systems (SESs). Resilience and vulnerability are also the concepts in the target world which this ontology covers. Based on this point, this paper aims at explicating the semantic relationship between the concepts of resilience and vulnerability based on ontology engineering approach. For this purpose, we first examine the definitions of resilience and vulnerability which the existing literatures proposed. Second, we incorporate the definitions in the ontology dealing with sustainability of SESs. Finally, we focus on the "Water-Energy-Food Nexus Index" to assess Human-Environmental Security, and clarify how the concepts of resilience and vulnerability are linked semantically through the concepts included in these index items.

  15. Assessing girls' HIV vulnerability: evidence from Botswana, Malawi and Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Carol R; Schwandt, Hilary M

    2016-07-01

    Past research documents multiple factors associated with girls' susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus transmission; yet a literature review found no systematic approach to measure vulnerability. This study characterized, developed and tested a set of indicators to measure girls' vulnerability, resulting in the vulnerable girls index (VGI). A quasi- experimental, separate-sample pre-/post-test design was used to test the index. Adolescent girls were randomly drawn for the pre-test (2277 respondents) and post-test (1418 respondents) from 16 purposively selected communities in Botswana, Malawi and Mozambique. The higher the VGI score-or the more vulnerable the girl-the more likely she was to report premarital sexual experience across the three countries and the more likely she was to report low agency to insist upon condom use in Botswana and Mozambique. The VGI can be used to assess girls' vulnerability levels across time and space for policy and programme planning purposes, and as part of programme evaluations. PMID:26701916

  16. A Heat Vulnerability Index and Adaptation Solutions for Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Kathryn; Abrahams, Leslie; Hegglin, Miriam; Klima, Kelly

    2015-10-01

    With increasing evidence of global warming, many cities have focused attention on response plans to address their populations' vulnerabilities. Despite expected increased frequency and intensity of heat waves, the health impacts of such events in urban areas can be minimized with careful policy and economic investments. We focus on Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and ask two questions. First, what are the top factors contributing to heat vulnerability and how do these characteristics manifest geospatially throughout Pittsburgh? Second, assuming the City wishes to deploy additional cooling centers, what placement will optimally address the vulnerability of the at risk populations? We use national census data, ArcGIS geospatial modeling, and statistical analysis to determine a range of heat vulnerability indices and optimal cooling center placement. We find that while different studies use different data and statistical calculations, all methods tested locate additional cooling centers at the confluence of the three rivers (Downtown), the northeast side of Pittsburgh (Shadyside/Highland Park), and the southeast side of Pittsburgh (Squirrel Hill). This suggests that for Pittsburgh, a researcher could apply the same factor analysis procedure to compare data sets for different locations and times; factor analyses for heat vulnerability are more robust than previously thought. PMID:26333158

  17. Assessing groundwater vulnerability to agrichemical contamination in the Midwest US

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkart, M.R.; Kolpin, D.W.; James, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    Agrichemicals (herbicides and nitrate) are significant sources of diffuse pollution to groundwater. Indirect methods are needed to assess the potential for groundwater contamination by diffuse sources because groundwater monitoring is too costly to adequately define the geographic extent of contamination at a regional or national scale. This paper presents examples of the application of statistical, overlay and index, and process-based modeling methods for groundwater vulnerability assessments to a variety of data from the Midwest U.S. The principles for vulnerability assessment include both intrinsic (pedologic, climatologic, and hydrogeologic factors) and specific (contaminant and other anthropogenic factors) vulnerability of a location. Statistical methods use the frequency of contaminant occurrence, contaminant concentration, or contamination probability as a response variable. Statistical assessments are useful for defining the relations among explanatory and response variables whether they define intrinsic or specific vulnerability. Multivariate statistical analyses are useful for ranking variables critical to estimating water quality responses of interest. Overlay and index methods involve intersecting maps of intrinsic and specific vulnerability properties and indexing the variables by applying appropriate weights. Deterministic models use process-based equations to simulate contaminant transport and are distinguished from the other methods in their potential to predict contaminant transport in both space and time. An example of a one-dimensional leaching model linked to a geographic information system (GIS) to define a regional metamodel for contamination in the Midwest is included.

  18. Repetitive extrasystole as an index of vulnerability to ventricular fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Matta, R J; Verrier, R L; Lown, B

    1976-06-01

    The assessment of ventricular vulnerability by inducing ventricular fibrillation (VF) presents limitations when neural activity is being investigated, especially in the unanesthetized animal. As repetitive extrasystoles (RE) have been observed to precede the occurrence of VF, it was relevant to determine whether the RE threshold provides a reliable index of cardiac susceptivility to fibrillation. The RE and VF threshold relationships were studied in 32 chloralose-anesthetized dogs during left stellate ganglion stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, and beta-adrenergic blockage with practolol. The vulnerable period was scanned at 1-ms intervals and at 2-mA increments with a single, 2-ms, constant-current cathodal stimulus; RE and multiple RE were induced reproducibly when 66% and 82%, respectively, of the fibrillatory current was administered. The nadirs for RE and multiple RE were coincident in the cardiac cycle with the vulnerable-period threshold for VF. Stellate and vagal stimulation and beta-adrenergic blockade resulted in comparable changes in RE and VF thresholds and produced equivalent shifts in the cardiac cycle of the RE and VF vulnerable-period nadirs. These observations suggest that RE and VF phenomena share a common electrophysiologic basis and that the RE threshold can be used as an end point for measuring ventricular vulnerability to VF. PMID:59552

  19. A vulnerability analysis for a drought vulnerable catchment in South-Eastern Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohmann, Clara; Kirchengast, Gottfried; Birk, Steffen

    2016-04-01

    To detect uncertainties and thresholds in a drought vulnerable region we focus on a typical river catchment of the Austrian South-Eastern Alpine forelands with good data availability, the Raab valley. This mid-latitude region in the south-east of the Austrian state Styria (˜ 47° N, ˜ 16° E) exhibits a strong temperature increase over the last decades. Especially the mean summer temperatures (June to August) show a strong increase (˜ 0.7 °C per decade) over the last decades (1971 - 2015) (Kabas et al., Meteorol. Z. 20, 277-289, 2011; pers. comm., 2015). The Styrian Raab valley, with a catchment size of 986 km2, has already struggled with drought periods (e.g., summers of 1992, 2001 and 2003). Thus, it is important to know what happens if warm and dry periods occur more frequently. Therefore we analyze which sensitivities and related uncertainties exist, which thresholds might be crossed, and what the effects on the different components of the water balance equation are, in particular on runoff, soil moisture, groundwater recharge, and evapotranspiration. We use the mainly physics-based hydrological Water Flow and Balance Simulation Model (WaSiM), developed at ETH Zurich (Schulla, Diss., ETH Zurich, CH, 1997). The model is well established and widely used for hydrological modeling at a diversity of spatial and temporal resolutions. We choose a model set up which is as simple as possible but as complex as necessary to perform sensitivity studies on uncertainties and thresholds in the context of climate change. In order to assess the model performance under a wide range of conditions, the calibration and validation is performed with a split sample for dry and wet periods. With the calibrated and validated model we perform a low-flow vulnerability analysis ("stress test"), with focus on drought-related conditions. Therefore we simulate changes in weather and climate (e.g., 20% and 50% less precipitation, 2 °C and 5 °C higher temperature), changes in land use and

  20. Comparison of four Vulnerability Approaches to Mapping of Shallow Aquifers of Eastern Dahomey Basin of Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oke, Saheed; Vermeulen, Danie

    2016-04-01

    This study presents the outcome of mapping the shallow aquifers of the eastern Dahomey Basin of southwestern Nigeria vulnerability studies. The basin is a coastal transboundary aquifer extending from eastern Ghana to southwestern Nigeria. The study aimed to examine the most suitable method for mapping the basin shallow aquifers by comparing the results of four different vulnerability approaches. This is most important due to differences in vulnerability assessment parameters, approaches and results derived from most vulnerability methods on a particular aquifer. The methodology involves using vulnerability techniques that assess the intrinsic properties of the aquifer. Two methods from travel time approach (AVI and RTt) and index approach (DRASTIC and PI) were employed in the mapping of the basin. The results show the AVI has the least mapping parameters with 75% of the basin classified as very high vulnerability and 25% with high vulnerability. The DRASTIC mapping shows 18% as low vulnerability, 61% as moderate vulnerability and 21% reveal high vulnerability. Mapping with the PI method which has highest parameters shows 66% of the aquifer as low vulnerability and 34% reveal moderate vulnerability. The RTt method shows 18% as very high vulnerability, 8% as high vulnerability, 64% as moderate vulnerability and 10% reveal very low vulnerability. Further analysis involving correlation plots shows the highest correlation of 62% between the RTt and DRASTIC method than within any others methods. The analysis shows that the PI method is the mildest of all the vulnerability methods while the AVI method is the strictest of the methods considered in this vulnerability mapping. The significance of using four different approaches to the mapping of the shallow aquifers of the eastern Dahomey Basin will guide in the recommendation of the best vulnerability method for subsequent future assessment of this and other shallow aquifers. Keywords: Aquifer vulnerability, Dahomey Basin

  1. Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serre, D.; Barroca, B.

    2009-04-01

    Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city Bruno Barroca1, Damien Serre2 1Laboratory of Urban Engineering, Environment and Building (L G U E H) - Université de Marne-la-Vallée - Pôle Ville, 5, Bd Descartes - Bâtiment Lavoisier - 77454 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 - France 2City of Paris Engineering School, Construction - Environment Department, 15 rue Fénelon, 75010 Paris, France In France, as in Europe and more generally throughout the world, river floods have been increasing in frequency and severity over the last ten years, and there are more instances of rivers bursting their banks, aggravating the impact of the flooding of areas supposedly protected by flood defenses. Despite efforts made to well maintain the flood defense assets, we often observe flood defense failures leading to finally increase flood risk in protected area during major flood events. Furthermore, flood forecasting models, although they benefit continuous improvements, remain partly inaccurate due to uncertainties populated all along data calculation processes. These circumstances obliged stakeholders and the scientific communities to manage flood risk by integrating new concepts like stakes management, vulnerability assessments and more recently urban resilience development. Definitively, the goal is to reduce flood risk by managing of course flood defenses and improving flood forecasting models, but also stakes and vulnerability of flooded areas to achieve urban resilience face to flood events. Vulnerability to flood is essentially concentrated in urban areas. Assessing vulnerability of a city is very difficult. Indeed, urban area is a complex system composed by a sum of technical sub-systems as complex as the urban area itself. Assessing city vulnerability consists in talking into account each sub system vulnerability and integrating all direct and indirect impacts generally depending from city shape and city spatial organization. At this time, although

  2. Reducing US oil vulnerability: Energy policy for the 1980's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-11-01

    Current Federal energy policies and programs are asked in light of recent events and in light of what are believed to be the most reliable available projections of the future. Additional steps are outlined that could reduce our vulnerability to an oil import disruption during the next decade. Specifically, the study seeks to answer three questions: as a base case, what levels of US energy consumption, production, and imports might we anticipate for 1985 and 1990 under existing statutes, policies, and programs; considering both our own and our allies dependence on oil imports, how vulnerable does this leave the United States to foreign supply disruptions; considering the likely effects of government policies and programs which already exist to reduce our vulnerability (through reduction of US oil imports or by any other means), are there additional initiatives that could be undertaken to give us greater protection - especially between now and 1990.

  3. Betweenness as a Tool of Vulnerability Analysis of Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rout, Gyanendra Kumar; Chowdhury, Tamalika; Chanda, Chandan Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Complex network theory finds its application in analysis of power grid as both share some common characteristics. By using this theory finding critical elements in power network can be achieved. As vulnerabilities of elements of the network decide the vulnerability of the total network, in this paper, vulnerability of each element is studied using two complex network models—betweenness centrality and extended betweenness. The betweenness centrality considers only topological structure of power system whereas extended betweenness is based on both topological and physical properties of the system. In the latter case, some of the electrical properties such as electrical distance, line flow limits, transmission capacities of lines and PTDF matrix are included. The standard IEEE 57 bus system has been studied based upon the above mentioned indices and following conclusions have been discussed.

  4. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains the Executive summary; Introduction; Summary of vulnerabilities; Management systems weaknesses; Commendable practices; Summary of management response plan; Conclusions; and a Glossary of chemical terms.

  5. Mechanical vulnerability explains size-dependent mortality of reef corals

    PubMed Central

    Madin, Joshua S; Baird, Andrew H; Dornelas, Maria; Connolly, Sean R

    2014-01-01

    Understanding life history and demographic variation among species within communities is a central ecological goal. Mortality schedules are especially important in ecosystems where disturbance plays a major role in structuring communities, such as coral reefs. Here, we test whether a trait-based, mechanistic model of mechanical vulnerability in corals can explain mortality schedules. Specifically, we ask whether species that become increasingly vulnerable to hydrodynamic dislodgment as they grow have bathtub-shaped mortality curves, whereas species that remain mechanically stable have decreasing mortality rates with size, as predicted by classical life history theory for reef corals. We find that size-dependent mortality is highly consistent between species with the same growth form and that the shape of size-dependent mortality for each growth form can be explained by mechanical vulnerability. Our findings highlight the feasibility of predicting assemblage-scale mortality patterns on coral reefs with trait-based approaches. PMID:24894390

  6. Treating the most vulnerable and costly in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wagner, David V; Stoeckel, Maggie; E Tudor, Megan; Harris, Michael A

    2015-06-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is associated with negative health outcomes and high costs for patients, families, and communities. Interventions developed to effectively reduce DKA and related costs should target the multiple risk factors associated with DKA and adherence difficulties. Certain demographic, psychological, and family factors are associated with increased risk for adherence problems and DKA. Individuals with a combination of risk factors (e.g., mental health problems, low socioeconomic status, high family conflict) may be particularly vulnerable to DKA. Although several different interventions have demonstrated promise in improving adherence and/or decreasing the risk of DKA, the generalizability of treatment results to those individuals most vulnerable to DKA is limited. Approaches which include multiple evidence-based components of care, are flexible in treatment delivery (e.g., home- and community-based, utilize technology), and target the multiple risk factors across relevant systems (e.g., individual, family, school, medical) are warranted to effectively reduce DKA in vulnerable populations. PMID:25877049

  7. An holistic approach to beach erosion vulnerability assessment.

    PubMed

    Alexandrakis, George; Poulos, Serafim Ε

    2014-01-01

    Erosion is a major threat for coasts worldwide, beaches in particular, which constitute one of the most valuable coastal landforms. Vulnerability assessments related to beach erosion may contribute to planning measures to counteract erosion by identifying, quantifying and ranking vulnerability. Herein, we present a new index, the Beach Vulnerability Index (BVI), which combines simplicity in calculations, easily obtainable data and low processing capacity. This approach provides results not only for different beaches, but also for different sectors of the same beach and enables the identification of the relative significance of the processes involved. It functions through the numerical approximation of indicators that correspond to the mechanisms related to the processes that control beach evolution, such as sediment availability, wave climate, beach morhodynamics and sea level change. The BVI is also intended to be used as a managerial tool for beach sustainability, including resilience to climate change impact on beach erosion. PMID:25123815

  8. The Department of Defense energy vulnerabilities: Potential problems and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freiwald, D. A.; Berger, M. E.; Roach, J. F.

    1982-08-01

    The Department of Defense is almost entirely dependent on civilian energy supplies to meet its needs in both peacetime and periods of heightened conflict. There are a number of potential vulnerabilities to the continual and timely supply of energy to both the civilian and military sectors. These include denial of the energy resources themselves, disruption of critical transportation networks, destruction of storage facilities, and interruption of electrical power. This report briefly reviews the present situation for provision of energy from the civilian sector to the military. General vulnerabilities of the existing energy supply system are identified, along with the potential for armed aggression (including terrorist and sabotage activities) against the energy network. Conclusions and some tentative observations are made as to a proper response to the existing vulnerabilities.

  9. Climate volatility deepens poverty vulnerability in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Syud A.; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Hertel, Thomas W.

    2009-07-01

    Extreme climate events could influence poverty by affecting agricultural productivity and raising prices of staple foods that are important to poor households in developing countries. With the frequency and intensity of extreme climate events predicted to change in the future, informed policy design and analysis requires an understanding of which countries and groups are going to be most vulnerable to increasing poverty. Using a novel economic-climate analysis framework, we assess the poverty impacts of climate volatility for seven socio-economic groups in 16 developing countries. We find that extremes under present climate volatility increase poverty across our developing country sample—particularly in Bangladesh, Mexico, Indonesia, and Africa—with urban wage earners the most vulnerable group. We also find that global warming exacerbates poverty vulnerability in many nations.

  10. Vulnerability Analysis and Evaluation of Urban Road System in Tianjin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. Q.; Wu, X.

    In recent years, with the development of economy, the road construction of our country has entered into a period of rapid growth. The road transportation network has been expanding and the risk of disasters is increasing. In this paper we study the vulnerability of urban road system in Tianjin. After analyzed many risk factors of the urban road system security, including road construction, road traffic and the natural environment, we proposed an evaluation index of vulnerability of urban road system and established the corresponding evaluation index system. Based on the results of analysis and comprehensive evaluation, appropriate improvement measures and suggestions which may reduce the vulnerability of the road system and improve the safety and reliability of the road system are proposed.

  11. Economic vulnerability of timber resources to forest fires.

    PubMed

    y Silva, Francisco Rodríguez; Molina, Juan Ramón; González-Cabán, Armando; Machuca, Miguel Ángel Herrera

    2012-06-15

    The temporal-spatial planning of activities for a territorial fire management program requires knowing the value of forest ecosystems. In this paper we extend to and apply the economic valuation principle to the concept of economic vulnerability and present a methodology for the economic valuation of the forest production ecosystems. The forest vulnerability is analyzed from criteria intrinsically associated to the forest characterization, and to the potential behavior of surface fires. Integrating a mapping process of fire potential and analytical valuation algorithms facilitates the implementation of fire prevention planning. The availability of cartography of economic vulnerability of the forest ecosystems is fundamental for budget optimization, and to help in the decision making process. PMID:22343614

  12. Assessing and managing freshwater ecosystems vulnerable to global change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Birge, Hannah E.; Drakare, Stina; McKie, Brendan G.; Johnson, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Freshwater ecosystems are important for global biodiversity and provide essential ecosystem services. There is consensus in the scientific literature that freshwater ecosystems are vulnerable to the impacts of environmental change, which may trigger irreversible regime shifts upon which biodiversity and ecosystem services may be lost. There are profound uncertainties regarding the management and assessment of the vulnerability of freshwater ecosystems to environmental change. Quantitative approaches are needed to reduce this uncertainty. We describe available statistical and modeling approaches along with case studies that demonstrate how resilience theory can be applied to aid decision-making in natural resources management. We highlight especially how long-term monitoring efforts combined with ecological theory can provide a novel nexus between ecological impact assessment and management, and the quantification of systemic vulnerability and thus the resilience of ecosystems to environmental change.

  13. Reducing the Vulnerability of Space Systems to Small Debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cougnet, C.; Oswald, M.

    2012-01-01

    The number of debris in space is continuously increasing. While debris larger than 10 cm can be tracked and debris smaller than 1mm are usually taken into account, small debris with size in between remains a significant threat for the space assets. A European FP7 project, entitled ReVuS, commenced in 2011 with the objective to define design solutions to reduce the vulnerability of future low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites to small sized debris. At first, the vulnerability of a current LEO satellite to these types of debris is assessed. Then, systems and satellite architecture solutions to minimise the vulnerability of the satellites will be analysed and assessed. The use of shielding protection appears as one of the main satellite architecture solutions, and shielding materials will be developed and tested during the project. The paper describes the activities that will be carried out during the project

  14. DoD energy vulnerabilities: potential problems and observations

    SciTech Connect

    Freiwald, D A; Berger, M E; Roach, J F

    1982-08-01

    The Department of Defense is almost entirely dependent on civilian energy supplies to meet its needs in both peacetime and periods of heightened conflict. There are a number of potential vulnerabilities to the continual and timely supply of energy to both the civilian and military sectors. These include denial of the energy resources themselves, disruption of critical transportation networks, destruction of storage facilities, and interruption of electrical power. This report briefly reviews the present situation for provision of energy from the civilian sector to the military. General vulnerabilities of the existing energy supply system are identified, along with the potential for armed aggression (including terrorist and sabotage activities) against the energy network. Conclusions and some tentative observations are made as to a proper response to the existing vulnerabilities.

  15. Imaging of coronary atherosclerosis and identification of the vulnerable plaque

    PubMed Central

    de Feyter, P.J.; Serruys, P. W.; Nieman, K.; Mollet, N.; Cademartiri, F.; van Geuns, R. J.; Slager, C.; van der Steen, A.F.W.; Krams, R.; Schaar, J.A.; Wielopolski, P.; Pattynama, P.M.T.; Arampatzis, A.; van der Lugt, A.; Regar, E.; Ligthart, J.; Smits, P.

    2003-01-01

    Identification of the vulnerable plaque responsible for the occurrence of acute coronary syndromes and acute coronary death is a prerequisite for the stabilisation of this vulnerable plaque. Comprehensive coronary atherosclerosis imaging in clinical practice should involve visualisation of the entire coronary artery tree and characterisation of the plaque, including the three-dimensional morphology of the plaque, encroachment of the plaque on the vessel lumen, the major tissue components of the plaque, remodelling of the vessel and presence of inflammation. Obviously, no single diagnostic modality is available that provides such comprehensive imaging and unfortunately no diagnostic tool is available that unequivocally identifies the vulnerable plaque. The objective of this article is to discuss experience with currently available diagnostic modalities for coronary atherosclerosis imaging. In addition, a number of evolving techniques will be briefly discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:25696244

  16. Assessing the nutritional vulnerability of older people in developing countries.

    PubMed

    1997-12-01

    The nutrition of older people in developing countries, and the effect of their nutritional status on the quality of life, have not received sufficient attention. A 1997 symposium held at the London (England) School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine addressed the assessment of nutritional vulnerability in older people in rural and urban settings. Reported were the results of a collaborative study conducted in the urban slums of Mumbai, India; a refugee camp for Rwandans in Karagwe, Tanzania; and rural communities in Malawi. Physical impairment was highest in India and increased with both age and deteriorating nutritional status in all three settings. Among the risk factors for nutritional vulnerability identified through the study to date are living alone, social isolation, reduced food intake, illiteracy, low socioeconomic status, and certain diseases. A field handbook to assess nutritional vulnerability has been prepared based on the research program and will be published in 1988. PMID:12293175

  17. Flood hazard, vulnerability, and risk assessment for human life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, T.; Chang, T.; Lai, J.; Hsieh, M.; Tan, Y.; Lin, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Flood risk assessment is an important issue for the countries suffering tropical cyclones and monsoon. Taiwan is located in the hot zone of typhoon tracks in the Western Pacific. There are three to five typhoons landing Taiwan every year. Typhoons and heavy rainfalls often cause inundation disaster rising with the increase of population and the development of social economy. The purpose of this study is to carry out the flood hazard, vulnerability and risk in term of human life. Based on the concept that flood risk is composed by flood hazard and vulnerability, a inundation simulation is performed to evaluate the factors of flood hazard for human life according to base flood (100-year return period). The flood depth, velocity and rising ratio are the three factors of flood hazards. Furthermore, the factors of flood vulnerability are identified in terms of human life that are classified into two main factors, residents and environment. The sub factors related to residents are the density of population and the density of vulnerable people including elders, youngers and disabled persons. The sub factors related to environment include the the number of building floors, the locations of buildings, the and distance to rescue center. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is adopted to determine the weights of these factors. The risk matrix is applied to show the risk from low to high based on the evaluation of flood hazards and vulnerabilities. The Tseng-Wen River watershed is selected as the case study because a serious flood was induced by Typhoon Morakot in 2009, which produced a record-breaking rainfall of 2.361mm in 48 hours in the last 50 years. The results of assessing the flood hazard, vulnerability and risk in term of human life could improve the emergency operation for flood disaster to prepare enough relief goods and materials during typhoon landing.

  18. Ten questions for evolutionary studies of disease vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Nesse, Randolph M

    2011-01-01

    Many evolutionary applications in medicine rely on well-established methods, such as population genetics, phylogenetic analysis, and observing pathogen evolution. Approaches to evolutionary questions about traits that leave bodies vulnerable to disease are less well developed. Strategies for formulating questions and hypotheses remain unsettled, and methods for testing evolutionary hypotheses are unfamiliar to many in medicine. This article uses recent examples to illustrate successful strategies and some common challenges. Ten questions arise in the course of considering hypotheses about traits that leave bodies vulnerable to disease. Addressing them systematically can help minimize confusion and errors. PMID:25567972

  19. Vulnerability Analysis Considerations for the Transportation of Special Nuclear Material

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, Lary G.; Purvis, James W.

    1999-07-21

    The vulnerability analysis methodology developed for fixed nuclear material sites has proven to be extremely effective in assessing associated transportation issues. The basic methods and techniques used are directly applicable to conducting a transportation vulnerability analysis. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that the same physical protection elements (detection, delay, and response) are present, although the response force plays a dominant role in preventing the theft or sabotage of material. Transportation systems are continuously exposed to the general public whereas the fixed site location by its very nature restricts general public access.

  20. Integrating Science and Engineering to Reduce Vulnerability to Climate Extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Mari R.; Holland, Greg J.; Done, James M.

    2013-12-01

    How does our built environment make society vulnerable to climate extremes such as flooding? What knowledge is required by engineering designers and risk managers to address the associated risks? How can engineering/scientific approaches be adapted to reduce vulnerability to weather and climate extremes? These were some of the key questions posed during a recent workshop at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), which was attended by climate scientists, civil engineering practitioners, and governmental departments. Engineering design encompasses a broad range of applications; to focus discussions, this workshop targeted the specific theme of water resources.

  1. Simple model of population vulnerability during crisis relocation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of the study is to estimate the cost in survivors of short warning leading to attack during full nationwide crises relocation. A simulation model of traffic flow over the national interstate road network was developed to predict population vulnerability during a crisis relocation. The model predicts large initial rates of reduction in nationwide vulnerability (half the at-risk population is evacuated in 21 hours) due to the large number of risk areas, reception areas, and over the road network to achieve the traffic plan assumptions of the model are discussed. No unreasonable problems are uncovered in achieving the major production of the model.

  2. Assessing environmental vulnerability in EIA-The content and context of the vulnerability concept in an alternative approach to standard EIA procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Kvaerner, Jens . E-mail: jens.kvarner@bioforsk.no; Swensen, Grete . E-mail: grete.swensen@niku.no; Erikstad, Lars . E-mail: lars.erikstad@nina.no

    2006-07-15

    In the traditional EIA procedure environmental vulnerability is only considered to a minor extent in the early stages when project alternatives are worked out. In Norway, an alternative approach to EIA, an integrated vulnerability model (IVM), emphasising environmental vulnerability and alternatives development in the early stages of EIA, has been tried out in a few pilot cases. This paper examines the content and use of the vulnerability concept in the IVM approach, and discusses the concept in an EIA context. The vulnerability concept is best suited to overview analyses and large scale spatial considerations. The concept is particularly useful in the early stages of EIA when alternatives are designed and screened. By introducing analyses of environmental vulnerability at the start of the EIA process, the environment can be a more decisive issue for the creation of project alternatives as well as improving the basis for scoping. Vulnerability and value aspects should be considered as separate dimensions. There is a need to operate with a specification between general and specific vulnerability. The concept of environmental vulnerability has proven useful in a wide range of disciplines. Different disciplines have different lengths of experience regarding vulnerability. In disciplines such as landscape planning and hydrogeology we find elements suitable as cornerstones in the further development of an interdisciplinary methodology. Further development of vulnerability criteria in different disciplines and increased public involvement in the early stages of EIA are recommended.

  3. Working Vulnerability: Agency of Caring Children and Children's Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wihstutz, Anne

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of empirical studies deal with children's participation in care relationships in the family. Based on a review of empirical findings in the UK and Germany, this article discusses care-giving children in terms of vulnerability and agency. The focus is set on understandings of family life as interdependent and reciprocal…

  4. Vulnerability Assessment of Selected Buildings Designated as Shelters: Dominica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (IDCA), Washington, DC.

    Educational facilities in the Caribbean often serve roles as shelters during natural hazards, but they often sustain as much damage as other buildings. This study investigated the physical vulnerability of schools located on Dominica to wind forces, torrential rain, and seismic forces in order to provide relevant local agencies with some of the…

  5. Vulnerability Assessment of Selected Buildings Designated as Shelters: Grenada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Tony

    Educational facilities in the Caribbean often serve as shelters during natural hazards, but they often sustain as much damage as other buildings. This study investigated the physical vulnerability of schools, located in Grenada, to wind forces, torrential rain, and seismic forces in order to provide relevant local agencies with some of the input…

  6. Vulnerability Assessment of Selected Buildings Designated as Shelters: Anguilla.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Tony

    Educational facilities in the Caribbean often serve roles as shelters during natural hazards, but they often sustain as much damage as other buildings. This study investigated the physical vulnerability of schools located on Anguilla to wind forces, torrential rain, and seismic forces in order to provide relevant local agencies with some of the…

  7. Selective Prevention: Addressing Vulnerability to Problem Drug Use in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Gregor; Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Bo, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Following the 2003 publication of the European Union (EU) Council Recommendations and the 2005-2008 and 2009-2012 EU Drugs Action Plans, increasing attention has been given in EU member states' drug policies to populations that are vulnerable to problem drug use (PDU). Monitoring data reported to the EMCDDA by designated agencies from 30 countries…

  8. Prefrontal vulnerabilities and whole brain connectivity in aging and depression

    PubMed Central

    Lamar, Melissa; Charlton, Rebecca A.; Ajilore, Olusola; Zhang, Aifeng; Yang, Shaolin; Barrick, Thomas R.; Rhodes, Emma; Kumar, Anand

    2013-01-01

    Studies exploring the underpinnings of age-related neurodegeneration suggest fronto-limbic alterations that are increasingly vulnerable in the presence of disease including late life depression. Less work has assessed the impact of this specific vulnerability on widespread brain circuitry. Seventy-nine older adults (healthy controls=45; late life depression=34) completed translational tasks shown in non-human primates to rely on fronto-limbic networks involving dorsolateral (Self-Ordered Pointing Task) or orbitofrontal (Object Alternation Task) cortices. A sub-sample of participants also completed diffusion tensor imaging for white matter tract quantification (uncinate and cingulum bundle; n=58) and whole brain tract-based spatial statistics (n=62). Despite task associations to specific white matter tracts across both groups, only healthy controls demonstrated significant correlations between widespread tract integrity and cognition. Thus, increasing Object Alternation Task errors were associated with decreasing fractional anisotropy in the uncinate in late life depression; however, only in healthy controls was the uncinate incorporated into a larger network of white matter vulnerability associating fractional anisotropy with Object Alternation Task errors using whole brain tract-based spatial statistics. It appears that the whole brain impact of specific fronto-limbic vulnerabilities in aging may be eclipsed in the presence of disease-specific neuropathology like that seen in late life depression. PMID:23680399

  9. Prefrontal vulnerabilities and whole brain connectivity in aging and depression.

    PubMed

    Lamar, Melissa; Charlton, Rebecca A; Ajilore, Olusola; Zhang, Aifeng; Yang, Shaolin; Barrick, Thomas R; Rhodes, Emma; Kumar, Anand

    2013-07-01

    Studies exploring the underpinnings of age-related neurodegeneration suggest fronto-limbic alterations that are increasingly vulnerable in the presence of disease including late life depression. Less work has assessed the impact of this specific vulnerability on widespread brain circuitry. Seventy-nine older adults (healthy controls=45; late life depression=34) completed translational tasks shown in non-human primates to rely on fronto-limbic networks involving dorsolateral (Self-Ordered Pointing Task) or orbitofrontal (Object Alternation Task) cortices. A sub-sample of participants also completed diffusion tensor imaging for white matter tract quantification (uncinate and cingulum bundle; n=58) and whole brain tract-based spatial statistics (n=62). Despite task associations to specific white matter tracts across both groups, only healthy controls demonstrated significant correlations between widespread tract integrity and cognition. Thus, increasing Object Alternation Task errors were associated with decreasing fractional anisotropy in the uncinate in late life depression; however, only in healthy controls was the uncinate incorporated into a larger network of white matter vulnerability associating fractional anisotropy with Object Alternation Task errors using whole brain tract-based spatial statistics. It appears that the whole brain impact of specific fronto-limbic vulnerabilities in aging may be eclipsed in the presence of disease-specific neuropathology like that seen in late life depression. PMID:23680399

  10. REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT: CREATING A CONTEXT FOR EVALUATING STREAM ACIDIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    USEPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) program is designed to identify ecosystems that are likely to vary beyond the range of natural variability and thereby experience reduced ecological integrity as a result of natural and human-induced stressors. ReVA makes use of r...

  11. Women and vulnerability to depression: some personality and clinical factors.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Jesús M; Rojo, Nieves; Staats, Arthur W

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the role of sex differences and personality in vulnerability to depression. Sex differences in personality and some clinical variables are described. We also assess the value of the variables that revealed significant sex differences as predictors of vulnerability to depression. In a group of adult participants (N = 112), 50% males and 50% females (mean age = 41.30; SD = 15.09; range 17-67), we studied sex differences in the three-factor personality model, using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Form A (EPQ-A; Eysenck & Eysenck, 1975), and in the Five-Factor Personality Model, with the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI; Costa & McCrae, 1985). The following clinical scales were used: the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; Beck, Rush, Shaw, & Emery, 1979), the Schizotypy Questionnaire (STQ; Claridge & Broks, 1984; Spanish version, Carrillo & Rojo, 1999), the THARL Scales (Dua, 1989, 1990; Spanish version, Dua & Carrillo, 1994) and the Adjustment Inventory (Bell, 1937; Spanish version, Cerdá, 1980). Subsequently, simple linear regression analysis, with BDI scores as criterion, were performed to estimate the value of the variables as predictors of vulnerability to depression. The results indicate that a series of personality variables cause women to be more vulnerable to depression than men and that these variables could be explained by a negative emotion main factor. Results are discussed within the framework of the psychological behaviorism theory of depression. PMID:15139246

  12. A physical approach on flood risk vulnerability of buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzorana, B.; Simoni, S.; Scherer, C.; Gems, B.; Fuchs, S.; Keiler, M.

    2014-09-01

    The design of efficient hydrological risk mitigation strategies and their subsequent implementation relies on a careful vulnerability analysis of the elements exposed. Recently, extensive research efforts were undertaken to develop and refine empirical relationships linking the structural vulnerability of buildings to the impact forces of the hazard processes. These empirical vulnerability functions allow estimating the expected direct losses as a result of the hazard scenario based on spatially explicit representation of the process patterns and the elements at risk classified into defined typological categories. However, due to the underlying empiricism of such vulnerability functions, the physics of the damage-generating mechanisms for a well-defined element at risk with its peculiar geometry and structural characteristics remain unveiled, and, as such, the applicability of the empirical approach for planning hazard-proof residential buildings is limited. Therefore, we propose a conceptual assessment scheme to close this gap. This assessment scheme encompasses distinct analytical steps: modelling (a) the process intensity, (b) the impact on the element at risk exposed and (c) the physical response of the building envelope. Furthermore, these results provide the input data for the subsequent damage evaluation and economic damage valuation. This dynamic assessment supports all relevant planning activities with respect to a minimisation of losses, and can be implemented in the operational risk assessment procedure.

  13. Our Shared Future: Social Media, Leadership, Vulnerability, and Digital Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoller, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Social media have challenged us in our journey to support our students. Administrators have entered into new web-based conversations with one another and with their students. Personal branding has created a sense of performativity that conflicts with a growing trend towards online vulnerability. Our leaders have increasingly been engaged in…

  14. International Student-Workers in Australia: A New Vulnerable Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyland, Chris; Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Marginson, Simon; Ramia, Gaby; Sawir, Erlenawati; Smith, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    In the period immediately preceding the 2007 Australian election, much attention was accorded to the impact of the nation's labour laws on vulnerable employees. This debate centred on specific groups including women, youth, migrants and workers on individual employment contracts. International students, by contrast, were ignored in the debate.…

  15. Vulnerability Assessment of Water Supply Systems: Status, Gaps and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheater, H. S.

    2015-12-01

    Conventional frameworks for assessing the impacts of climate change on water resource systems use cascades of climate and hydrological models to provide 'top-down' projections of future water availability, but these are subject to high uncertainty and are model and scenario-specific. Hence there has been recent interest in 'bottom-up' frameworks, which aim to evaluate system vulnerability to change in the context of possible future climate and/or hydrological conditions. Such vulnerability assessments are generic, and can be combined with updated information from top-down assessments as they become available. While some vulnerability methods use hydrological models to estimate water availability, fully bottom-up schemes have recently been proposed that directly map system vulnerability as a function of feasible changes in water supply characteristics. These use stochastic algorithms, based on reconstruction or reshuffling methods, by which multiple water supply realizations can be generated under feasible ranges of change in water supply conditions. The paper reports recent successes, and points to areas of future improvement. Advances in stochastic modeling and optimization can address some technical limitations in flow reconstruction, while various data mining and system identification techniques can provide possibilities to better condition realizations for consistency with top-down scenarios. Finally, we show that probabilistic and Bayesian frameworks together can provide a potential basis to combine information obtained from fully bottom-up analyses with projections available from climate and/or hydrological models in a fully integrated risk assessment framework for deep uncertainty.

  16. Linking degradation status with ecosystem vulnerability to environmental change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angeler, David G.; Baho, Didier L.; Allen, Craig R.; Johnson, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental change can cause regime shifts in ecosystems, potentially threatening ecosystem services. It is unclear if the degradation status of ecosystems correlates with their vulnerability to environmental change, and thus the risk of future regime shifts. We assessed resilience in acidified (degraded) and circumneutral (undegraded) lakes with long-term data (1988–2012), using time series modeling. We identified temporal frequencies in invertebrate assemblages, which identifies groups of species whose population dynamics vary at particular temporal scales. We also assessed species with stochastic dynamics, those whose population dynamics vary irregularly and unpredictably over time. We determined the distribution of functional feeding groups of invertebrates within and across the temporal scales identified, and in those species with stochastic dynamics, and assessed attributes hypothesized to contribute to resilience. Three patterns of temporal dynamics, consistent across study lakes, were identified in the invertebrates. The first pattern was one of monotonic change associated with changing abiotic lake conditions. The second and third patterns appeared unrelated to the environmental changes we monitored. Acidified and the circumneutral lakes shared similar levels and patterns of functional richness, evenness, diversity, and redundancy for species within and across the observed temporal scales and for stochastic species groups. These similar resilience characteristics suggest that both lake types did not differ in vulnerability to the environmental changes observed here. Although both lake types appeared equally vulnerable in this study, our approach demonstrates how assessing systemic vulnerability by quantifying ecological resilience can help address uncertainty in predicting ecosystem responses to environmental change across ecosystems.

  17. Intergenerational Transmission of Sexual Victimization Vulnerability as Mediated via Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, Maria; Hoffman, Joseph H.; Livingston, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Previous research suggests that women's early sexual victimization experiences may influence their parenting behaviors and increase the vulnerability of their children to being sexually victimized. The current study considered whether mother's sexual victimization experiences, in childhood and after age 14, were associated with the…

  18. Sex-driven vulnerability in stress and drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Berry, Alessandra; Raggi, Carla; Borgi, Marta; Cirulli, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of literature shows that a link exists between substance abuse and stress and that the crosstalk of sex hormones with the neuroendocrine system might differently prime vulnerability to drug addiction in male and female subjects. Thus, understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of addiction and the identification of sex-driven determinants in vulnerability to drug abuse may help to better devise and/or implement strategic (pharmacological, behavioural, social) interventions to prevent or face the issue of addiction. Differences between sexes can be found at all stages of life (in both the animal model and human studies) and may account for genetic, epigenetic and environmental/hormonal factors that in turn affect the functionality of the whole organism leading also to a sex-driven differential vulnerability or resilience to non-communicable pathologies. These include the onset and precipitation of stress-related psychiatric disorders as well as "substance-related and addictive disorders" (as defined in the DSM-V). This paper reviews the scientific literature highlighting significant differences in male and female subjects in stress and neuroendocrine function and the implications for sex-dependent differential vulnerability to drug addiction. PMID:27364390

  19. Vulnerabilities of children admitted to a pediatric inpatient care unit☆

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Larissa Natacha; Breigeiron, Márcia Koja; Hallmann, Sofia; Witkowski, Maria Carolina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the vulnerabilities of children admitted to a pediatric inpatient unit of a university hospital. METHODS: Cross-sectional, descriptive study from April to September 2013 with36 children aged 30 days to 12 years old, admitted to medical-surgical pediatric inpatient units of a university hospital and their caregivers. Data concerning sociocultural, socioeconomic and clinical context of children and their families were collected by interview with the child caregiver and from patients, records, and analyzed by descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Of the total sample, 97.1% (n=132) of children had at least one type of vulnerability, the majority related to the caregiver's level of education, followed by caregiver's financial situation, health history of the child, caregiver's family situation, use of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs by the caregiver, family's living conditions, caregiver's schooling, and bonding between the caregiver and the child. Only 2.9% (n=4) of the children did not show any criteria to be classified in a category of vulnerability. CONCLUSIONS: Most children were classified has having a social vulnerability. It is imperative to create networks of support between the hospital and the primary healthcare service to promote healthcare practices directed to the needs of the child and family. PMID:25511001

  20. Spatial vulnerability of Australian urban populations to extreme heat events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughnan, Margaret; Tapper, Nigel; Phan, Thu; Lynch, Kellie; McInnes, Judith

    2013-04-01

    Extreme heat events pose a risk to the health of all individuals, especially the elderly and the chronically ill, and are associated with an increased demand for healthcare services. In order to address this problem, policy makers' need information about temperatures above which mortality and morbidity of the exposed population is likely to increase, where the vulnerable groups in the community are located, and how the risks from extreme heat events are likely to change in the future. This study identified threshold temperatures for all Australian capital cities, developed a spatial index of population vulnerability, and used climate model output to predict changes in the number of days exceeding temperature thresholds in the future, as well as changes in risk related to changes in urban density and an ageing population. The study has shown that daily maximum and minimum temperatures from the Bureau of Meteorology forecasts can be used to calculate temperature thresholds for heat alert days. The key risk factors related to adverse health outcomes were found to be areas with intense urban heat islands, areas with higher proportions of older people, and areas with ethnic communities. Maps of spatial vulnerability have been developed to provide information to assist emergency managers, healthcare professionals, and ancillary services develop heatwave preparedness plans at a local scale that target vulnerable groups and address heat-related health risks. The numbers of days exceeding current heat thresholds are predicted to increase over the next 20 to 40 years in all Australian capital cities.

  1. Childhood Cancer and Vulnerability for Significant Academic Underachievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Jeanne S.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Learning difficulties related to childhood cancer were examined by comparison of 22 oncology patients and 22 children (6 to 17 years old) referred for psychiatric/psychological evaluation. Findings demonstrated, among children undergoing treatment of cancer, some academic vulnerabilities for which psychosocial aspects may not fully account.…

  2. A physical approach on flood risk vulnerability of buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzorana, B.; Simoni, S.; Scherer, C.; Gems, B.; Fuchs, S.; Keiler, M.

    2014-02-01

    The design of efficient hydrological risk mitigation strategies and their subsequent implementation relies on a careful vulnerability analysis of the elements exposed. Recently, extensive research efforts were undertaken to develop and refine empirical relationships linking the structural vulnerability of buildings to the impact forces of the hazard processes. These empirical vulnerability functions allow estimating the expected direct losses as a result of the hazard scenario based on spatially explicit representation of the process patterns and the elements at risk classified into defined typological categories. However, due to the underlying empiricism of such vulnerability functions, the physics of the damage generating mechanisms for a well-defined element at risk with its peculiar geometry and structural characteristics remain unveiled, and, as such, the applicability of the empirical approach for planning hazard-proof residential buildings is limited. Therefore, we propose a conceptual assessment scheme to close this gap. This assessment scheme encompasses distinct analytical steps: modelling (a) the process intensity, (b) the impact on the element at risk exposed and (c) the physical response of the building envelope. Furthermore, these results provide the input data for the subsequent damage evaluation and economic damage valuation. This dynamic assessment supports all relevant planning activities with respect to a minimisation of losses, and can be implemented in the operational risk assessment procedure.

  3. The Linneweil Affair: A Study in Adolescent Vulnerability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isser, Natalie

    1984-01-01

    Details the case of Elizabeth Linneweil, a Jewish child who was persuaded by her guardians to convert to Catholicism. The motives of the emotionally vulnerable adolescent--desire to conform, to please guardians, and to cement social bonding in the community--are discussed. (JAC)

  4. Stressful Segregation Housing and Psychosocial Vulnerability in Prison Suicide Ideators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, Ronald L.

    2006-01-01

    Psychosocially vulnerable prisoners under stressful conditions of confinement are ill prepared to cope and at risk for developing suicide intention. The present study examined the relationships of depression, hopelessness, reasons for living, mental health problem history, suicide attempt lethality history, and stressful segregation housing with…

  5. 40 CFR 1400.4 - Vulnerable zone indicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vulnerable zone indicator system. 1400.4 Section 1400.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS UNDER THE CLEAN AIR ACT SECTION...

  6. 40 CFR 1400.4 - Vulnerable zone indicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vulnerable zone indicator system. 1400.4 Section 1400.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS UNDER THE CLEAN AIR ACT SECTION...

  7. 6 CFR 27.400 - Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... record contains Chemical-terrorism Vulnerability Information controlled by 6 CFR 27.400. Do not disclose to persons without a “need to know” in accordance with 6 CFR 27.400(e). Unauthorized release may... shall be treated as classified information in accordance with 6 CFR 27.400(h) and (i). (4) Other...

  8. 6 CFR 27.400 - Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... record contains Chemical-terrorism Vulnerability Information controlled by 6 CFR 27.400. Do not disclose to persons without a “need to know” in accordance with 6 CFR 27.400(e). Unauthorized release may... shall be treated as classified information in accordance with 6 CFR 27.400(h) and (i). (4) Other...

  9. 6 CFR 27.400 - Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... record contains Chemical-terrorism Vulnerability Information controlled by 6 CFR 27.400. Do not disclose to persons without a “need to know” in accordance with 6 CFR 27.400(e). Unauthorized release may... shall be treated as classified information in accordance with 6 CFR 27.400(h) and (i). (4) Other...

  10. 6 CFR 27.400 - Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... record contains Chemical-terrorism Vulnerability Information controlled by 6 CFR 27.400. Do not disclose to persons without a “need to know” in accordance with 6 CFR 27.400(e). Unauthorized release may... shall be treated as classified information in accordance with 6 CFR 27.400(h) and (i). (4) Other...

  11. The vulnerability index calculation for determination of groundwater quality

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, D.A.; Parizek, R.R.

    1995-12-01

    Non-point source pollutants, such as pesticides, enter groundwater systems in a variety of means at wide-ranging concentrations. Risks in using groundwater in human consumption vary depending on the amounts of contaminants, the type of groundwater aquifer, and various use factors. We have devised a method of determining the vulnerability of an aquifer towards contamination with the Vulnerability Index. The Index can be used either as a comparative or an absolute index (comparative with a pure water source or aquifer spring or without comparison, assuming no peaks in the compared sample). Data for the calculation is obtained by extraction of a given water sample followed by analysis with a nitrogen/phosphorus detector on gas chromatography. The calculation uses the sum of peak heights as its determination. An additional peak number factor is added to emphasize higher numbers of compounds found in a given sample. Karst aquifers are considered to be highly vulnerable due to the large solution openings in its structure. Examples will be given of Vulnerability Indices taken from springs emanating from karst, intermediate, and diffuse flow aquifers taken at various times of the 1992 sampling year and compared with rainfall during that time. Comparisons will be made of the Index vs. rainfall events and vs. pesticide application data. The risk of using contaminated drinking water sources can be evaluated with the use of this index.

  12. 6 CFR 27.215 - Security vulnerability assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... identification of existing layers of protection; (2) Threat Assessment, which includes a description of possible internal threats, external threats, and internally-assisted threats; (3) Security Vulnerability Analysis... asset and the likelihood of a success of an attack; and (5) Countermeasures Analysis,...

  13. 6 CFR 27.215 - Security vulnerability assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... identification of existing layers of protection; (2) Threat Assessment, which includes a description of possible internal threats, external threats, and internally-assisted threats; (3) Security Vulnerability Analysis... asset and the likelihood of a success of an attack; and (5) Countermeasures Analysis,...

  14. 6 CFR 27.215 - Security vulnerability assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... identification of existing layers of protection; (2) Threat Assessment, which includes a description of possible internal threats, external threats, and internally-assisted threats; (3) Security Vulnerability Analysis... asset and the likelihood of a success of an attack; and (5) Countermeasures Analysis,...

  15. Critiquing War in the Classroom: Professor Positionality, Vulnerability, and Possibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an analytic autoethnographical research study focusing on my experiences developing, delivering, and evaluating course content critiquing war from a feminist anti-militarist perspective as a pre-tenured faculty member. Themes include: professional vulnerability, student resistance, pedagogical possibility, and scholarly…

  16. Early Markers of Vulnerable Language Skill Development in Galactosaemia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Fiona M.; Coman, David J.; Syrmis, Maryanne

    2014-01-01

    There are no known biomedical or genetic markers to identify which infants with galactosaemia (GAL) are most at risk of poor language skill development, yet pre-linguistic communicative "red flag" behaviours are recognised as early identifiers of heightened vulnerability to impaired language development. We report on pre-linguistic…

  17. Early Detection Monitoring for Vulnerable Great Lakes Coastal Ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes harbors/embayments are vulnerable to introduction of aquatic invasive species. Monitoring is needed to inform on new introductions, as well as to track success of prevention programs intended to limit spread. We have completed a pilot field case study in the Duluth-...

  18. 40 CFR 1400.4 - Vulnerable zone indicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vulnerable zone indicator system. 1400.4 Section 1400.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS UNDER THE CLEAN AIR ACT SECTION...

  19. 40 CFR 1400.4 - Vulnerable zone indicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vulnerable zone indicator system. 1400.4 Section 1400.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS UNDER THE CLEAN AIR ACT SECTION...

  20. Vulnerability to shocks in the global seafood trade network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gephart, Jessica A.; Rovenskaya, Elena; Dieckmann, Ulf; Pace, Michael L.; Brännström, Åke

    2016-03-01

    Trade can allow countries to overcome local or regional losses (shocks) to their food supply, but reliance on international food trade also exposes countries to risks from external perturbations. Countries that are nutritionally or economically dependent on international trade of a commodity may be adversely affected by such shocks. While exposure to shocks has been studied in financial markets, communication networks, and some infrastructure systems, it has received less attention in food-trade networks. Here, we develop a forward shock-propagation model to quantify how trade flows are redistributed under a range of shock scenarios and assess the food-security outcomes by comparing changes in national fish supplies to indices of each country’s nutritional fish dependency. Shock propagation and distribution among regions are modeled on a network of historical bilateral seafood trade data from UN Comtrade using 205 reporting territories grouped into 18 regions. In our model exposure to shocks increases with total imports and the number of import partners. We find that Central and West Africa are the most vulnerable to shocks, with their vulnerability increasing when a willingness-to-pay proxy is included. These findings suggest that countries can reduce their overall vulnerability to shocks by reducing reliance on imports and diversifying food sources. As international seafood trade grows, identifying these types of potential risks and vulnerabilities is important to build a more resilient food system.

  1. VIRAL TRANSPORT AND FATE MODELS FOR GROUND WATER VULNERABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this project is to develop a model to assess the vulnerability of public water systems to pathogens. It is focused on the sources, fate and transport of viruses in aquifer systems in specific hydrologic settings. It's intended to be used by resource managers or r...

  2. Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression in Canadian and Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Randy P.; Eberhart, Nicole K.; Abela, John R. Z.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to compare diathesis-stress and transactional models of cognitive vulnerability to depression in samples of Canadian (n = 118) and Chinese (n = 405) adolescents. We utilized a six-month multi-wave, longitudinal design in order to examine whether (a) perceived control moderated the association between the…

  3. Psychological Distress and Mortality: Are Women More Vulnerable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferraro, Kenneth F.; Nuriddin, Tariqah A.

    2006-01-01

    Does psychological distress increase mortality risk? If it does, are women more vulnerable than men to the effect of distress on mortality? Drawing from cumulative disadvantage theory, these questions are addressed with data from a 20-year follow-up of a national sample of adults ages 25-74. Event history analyses were performed to examine…

  4. Cross comparison of five popular groundwater pollution vulnerability index approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brindha, K.; Elango, L.

    2015-05-01

    Identification of a suitable overlay and index method to map vulnerable zones for pollution in weathered rock aquifers was carried out in this study. DRASTIC and four models derived from it, namely Pesticide DRASTIC, modified DRASTIC, modified Pesticide DRASTIC and Susceptibility Index (SI) were compared by applying them to a weathered rock aquifer in southern India. The results were validated with the measured geochemical data. This study also introduces the use of temporal variation in the groundwater level and nitrate concentration in groundwater as input and for validation respectively to obtain more reliable and meaningful results. Sensitivity analysis of the vulnerability index maps highlight the importance of one parameter over another for a given hydrogeological setting, which will help to plan the field investigations based on the most or the least influential parameter. It is recommended to use modified Pesticide DRASTIC for weathered rock regions with irrigation practises and shallow aquifers (<20 m bgl). The crucial input due to land use should not be neglected and to be considered in any hydrogeological setting. It is better to estimate the specific vulnerability wherever possible rather than the intrinsic vulnerability as overlay and index methods are more suited for this purpose. It is also necessary to consider the maximum and minimum values of input parameters measured during a normal year in the models used for decision making.

  5. Vulnerability of the US to future sea level rise

    SciTech Connect

    Gornitz, V. . Goddard Inst. for Space Studies); White, T.W.; Cushman, R.M. )

    1991-01-01

    The differential vulnerability of the conterminous United States to future sea level rise from greenhouse climate warming is assessed, using a coastal hazards data base. This data contains information on seven variables relating to inundation and erosion risks. High risk shorelines are characterized by low relief, erodible substrate, subsidence, shoreline retreat, and high wave/tide energies. Very high risk shorelines on the Atlantic Coast (Coastal Vulnerability Index {ge}33.0) include the outer coast of the Delmarva Peninsula, northern Cape Hatteras, and segments of New Jersey, Georgia and South Carolina. Louisiana and sections of Texas are potentially the most vulnerable, due to anomalously high relative sea level rise and erosion, coupled with low elevation and mobile sediments. Although the Pacific Coast is generally the least vulnerable, because of its rugged relief and erosion-resistant substrate, the high geographic variability leads to several exceptions, such as the San Joaquin-Sacramento Delta area, the barrier beaches of Oregon and Washington, and parts of the Puget Sound Lowlands. 31 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Validating the soil vulnerability index for a claypan watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assessment studies of conservation efforts have shown that best management practices were not always implemented in the most vulnerable areas where they are most needed. While complex computer simulation models can be used to identify these areas, resources needed for using such models are beyond re...

  7. Assessing the Vulnerability of Older Americans to Climate Change

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project is comprised of a series of activities – listening sessions, literature reviews, and an expert elicitation research agenda-setting workshop – designed to examine and characterize the vulnerability of older adults to climate change and opportunities for adaptation. ...

  8. American Indian Adolescent Girls: Vulnerability to Sex Trafficking, Intervention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    The Minnesota Indian Women's Resource Center offers harm reduction programming to at-risk adolescent American Indian girls, including outreach, case management, advocacy, healthy sexuality education, and support groups. To evaluate program impact, participants are assessed at intake and every 6 months afterward for current vulnerability to…

  9. 6 CFR 27.400 - Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... record contains Chemical-terrorism Vulnerability Information controlled by 6 CFR 27.400. Do not disclose to persons without a “need to know” in accordance with 6 CFR 27.400(e). Unauthorized release may... shall be treated as classified information in accordance with 6 CFR 27.400(h) and (i). (4) Other...

  10. Teachers' Professional Vulnerability and Cultural Tradition: A Chinese Paradox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Xuesong

    2008-01-01

    The paper explores the issue of teachers' professional vulnerability using a range of messages from an online teachers' community on the Chinese mainland. The study reveals how macro changes at policy level impact on teachers' professional relationships and in turn their professional identities in teacher discussants' perceptions. Furthermore, the…

  11. Youth Work with Vulnerable Young People. Interchange No. 51.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powney, Janet; Furlong, Andy; Cartmel, Fred; Hall, Stuart

    Research was conducted in Scotland to evaluate the effectiveness of youth work with vulnerable young people, primarily between the ages of 13 and 16. Four complementary methods were adopted: (1) a survey of secondary school students; (2) a series of focus group interviews with young people with experience of youth work; (3) interviews with…

  12. Unipolar Depression, Life Context Vulnerabilities, and Drinking to Cope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holahan, Charles J.; Moos, Rudolf H.; Holahan, Carole K.; Cronkite, Ruth C.; Randall, Patrick K.

    2004-01-01

    This study followed baseline samples of 424 unipolar depressed patients and 424 community controls across 10 years to investigate the association between depression and alcohol-related coping and to examine how life context vulnerabilities underlie the risk for depressed individuals to rely on drinking to cope. Findings supported all hypotheses.…

  13. 40 CFR 1400.4 - Vulnerable zone indicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS UNDER THE CLEAN AIR ACT SECTION 112(r)(7); DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION Public Access § 1400.4 Vulnerable zone indicator system. (a) In general. The Administrator...

  14. Opening Pathways for Vulnerable Young People in Patagonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Mary Agnes; Hamilton, Stephen F.; Bianchi, Lucia; Bran, Jacqui

    2013-01-01

    New and improved institutions are needed to support the transition to adulthood of vulnerable young people. Existing institutions that should provide that support demonstrate structural lag: they have not adapted to changing circumstances. Action research was conducted in Por un Manana, an employment training program for low-income youth and young…

  15. Doubly Vulnerable: The Paradox of Disability and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    Parker Palmer's comment that teaching is a "daily exercise in vulnerability" might just as easily be said about living with a disability. As much as the person with a disability might want to hide his or her differences, it is often difficult to do so. Something as commonplace as walking through a grocery store without being stared at is often…

  16. Vulnerability analysis for complex networks using aggressive abstraction.

    SciTech Connect

    Colbaugh, Richard; Glass, Kristin L.

    2010-06-01

    Large, complex networks are ubiquitous in nature and society, and there is great interest in developing rigorous, scalable methods for identifying and characterizing their vulnerabilities. This paper presents an approach for analyzing the dynamics of complex networks in which the network of interest is first abstracted to a much simpler, but mathematically equivalent, representation, the required analysis is performed on the abstraction, and analytic conclusions are then mapped back to the original network and interpreted there. We begin by identifying a broad and important class of complex networks which admit vulnerability-preserving, finite state abstractions, and develop efficient algorithms for computing these abstractions. We then propose a vulnerability analysis methodology which combines these finite state abstractions with formal analytics from theoretical computer science to yield a comprehensive vulnerability analysis process for networks of realworld scale and complexity. The potential of the proposed approach is illustrated with a case study involving a realistic electric power grid model and also with brief discussions of biological and social network examples.

  17. Assessing application vulnerability to radiation-induced SEUs in memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, P. L.

    2001-01-01

    One of the goals of the Remote Exploration and Experimentation (REE) project at JPL is to determine how vulnerable applications are to single event upsets (SEUs) when run in low radiation space environments using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components.

  18. Development of hazard-compatible building fragility and vulnerability models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karaca, E.; Luco, N.

    2008-01-01

    We present a methodology for transforming the structural and non-structural fragility functions in HAZUS into a format that is compatible with conventional seismic hazard analysis information. The methodology makes use of the building capacity (or pushover) curves and related building parameters provided in HAZUS. Instead of the capacity spectrum method applied in HAZUS, building response is estimated by inelastic response history analysis of corresponding single-degree-of-freedom systems under a large number of earthquake records. Statistics of the building response are used with the damage state definitions from HAZUS to derive fragility models conditioned on spectral acceleration values. Using the developed fragility models for structural and nonstructural building components, with corresponding damage state loss ratios from HAZUS, we also derive building vulnerability models relating spectral acceleration to repair costs. Whereas in HAZUS the structural and nonstructural damage states are treated as if they are independent, our vulnerability models are derived assuming "complete" nonstructural damage whenever the structural damage state is complete. We show the effects of considering this dependence on the final vulnerability models. The use of spectral acceleration (at selected vibration periods) as the ground motion intensity parameter, coupled with the careful treatment of uncertainty, makes the new fragility and vulnerability models compatible with conventional seismic hazard curves and hence useful for extensions to probabilistic damage and loss assessment.

  19. The Vulnerable Researcher: Some Unanticipated Challenges of Doctoral Fieldwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballamingie, Patricia; Johnson, Sherrill

    2011-01-01

    This paper draws explicitly on the field experiences of two doctoral researchers in geography to elucidate some of the challenges and issues related to researcher vulnerability that are especially acute for graduate students. In spite of significant differences in context, both researchers experienced an unanticipated degree of professional…

  20. Regulatory Guide on Conducting a Security Vulnerability Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Ek, David R.

    2016-01-01

    This document will provide guidelines on conducting a security vulnerability assessment at a facility regulated by the Radiation Protection Centre. The guidelines provide a performance approach assess security effectiveness. The guidelines provide guidance for a review following the objectives outlined in IAEA NSS#11 for Category 1, 2, & 3 sources.

  1. Extreme seismicity and disaster risks: Hazard versus vulnerability (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.

    2013-12-01

    Although the extreme nature of earthquakes has been known for millennia due to the resultant devastation from many of them, the vulnerability of our civilization to extreme seismic events is still growing. It is partly because of the increase in the number of high-risk objects and clustering of populations and infrastructure in the areas prone to seismic hazards. Today an earthquake may affect several hundreds thousand lives and cause significant damage up to hundred billion dollars; it can trigger an ecological catastrophe if occurs in close vicinity to a nuclear power plant. Two types of extreme natural events can be distinguished: (i) large magnitude low probability events, and (ii) the events leading to disasters. Although the first-type events may affect earthquake-prone countries directly or indirectly (as tsunamis, landslides etc.), the second-type events occur mainly in economically less-developed countries where the vulnerability is high and the resilience is low. Although earthquake hazards cannot be reduced, vulnerability to extreme events can be diminished by monitoring human systems and by relevant laws preventing an increase in vulnerability. Significant new knowledge should be gained on extreme seismicity through observations, monitoring, analysis, modeling, comprehensive hazard assessment, prediction, and interpretations to assist in disaster risk analysis. The advanced disaster risk communication skill should be developed to link scientists, emergency management authorities, and the public. Natural, social, economic, and political reasons leading to disasters due to earthquakes will be discussed.

  2. Dyadic Vulnerability and Risk Profiling for Elder Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulmer, Terry; Paveza, Gregory; VandeWeerd, Carla; Fairchild, Susan; Guadagno, Lisa; Bolton-Blatt, Marguarette; Norman, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Neglect of older adults accounts for 60% to 70% of all elder-mistreatment reports made to adult protective services. The purpose of this article is to report data from research, using a risk-and-vulnerability model, that captures the independent contributions of both the elder and the caregiver as they relate to the outcome of neglect.…

  3. Reflecting on a Difficult Life: Narrative Construction in Vulnerable Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Kate C.; Wood, Becky; Breen, Andrea V.

    2013-01-01

    We examined narrative processes of identity development as they related to desistance from delinquent behavior in a sample of vulnerable adolescents. Building on a robust theoretical and empirical foundation in the field of narrative identity, we examined processes of meaning-making and agency in relation to desistance. Thirty-one adolescents were…

  4. Autobiographical Memory as a Predictor of Depression Vulnerability in Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipwell, Alison E.; Sapotichne, Brenna; Klostermann, Susan; Battista, Deena; Keenan, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (AM), the tendency to recall categories of events when asked to provide specific instances from one's life, is purported to be a marker of depression vulnerability that develops in childhood. Although early adolescence is a period of risk for depression onset especially among girls, prospective examination of…

  5. Vulnerability analysis for a drought Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeluccetti, Irene; Demarchi, Alessandro; Perez, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    Early Warning Systems (EWS) for drought are often based on risk models that do not, or marginally, take into account the vulnerability factor. The multifaceted nature of drought (hydrological, meteorological, and agricultural) is source of coexistence for different ways to measure this phenomenon and its effects. The latter, together with the complexity of impacts generated by this hazard, causes the current underdevelopment of drought EWS compared to other hazards. In Least Developed Countries, where drought events causes the highest numbers of affected people, the importance of correct monitoring and forecasting is considered essential. Existing early warning and monitoring systems for drought produced at different geographic levels, provide only in a few cases an actual spatial model that tries to describe the cause-effect link between where the hazard is detected and where impacts occur. Integrate vulnerability information in such systems would permit to better estimate affected zones and livelihoods, improving the effectiveness of produced hazard-related datasets and maps. In fact, the need of simplification and, in general, of a direct applicability of scientific outputs is still a matter of concern for field experts and early warning products end-users. Even if the surplus of hazard related information produced right after catastrophic events has, in some cases, led to the creation of specific data-sharing platforms, the conveyed meaning and usefulness of each product has not yet been addressed. The present work is an attempt to fill this gap which is still an open issue for the scientific community as well as for the humanitarian aid world. The study aims at conceiving a simplified vulnerability model to embed into an existing EWS for drought, which is based on the monitoring of vegetation phenological parameters and the Standardized Precipitation Index, both produced using free satellite derived datasets. The proposed vulnerability model includes (i) a

  6. Respect for Human Vulnerability: The Emergence of a New Principle in Bioethics.

    PubMed

    ten Have, Henk

    2015-09-01

    Vulnerability has become a popular though controversial topic in bioethics, notably since 2000. As a result, a common body of knowledge has emerged (1) distinguishing between different types of vulnerability, (2) criticizing the categorization of populations as vulnerable, and (3) questioning the practical implications. It is argued that two perspectives on vulnerability, i.e., the philosophical and political, pose challenges to contemporary bioethics discourse: they re-examine the significance of human agency, the primacy of the individual person, and the negativity of vulnerability. As a phenomenon of globalization, vulnerability can only be properly addressed in a global bioethics that takes the social dimension of human existence seriously. PMID:26160601

  7. Vulnerability assessment and risk perception: the case of the Arieş River Middle Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozunu, Al.; Botezan, C.

    2012-04-01

    Vulnerability assessment is influenced by a number of factors, including risk perception. This paper investigates the vulnerability of people living in the middle basin of the Aries river region, a former mining area, to natural and technologic hazards. The mining industry lead to significant environmental changes, which combined with the social problems caused by its decline (high unemployment rate, low income and old age) raised the level of the vulnerability in the area. This case study is unique, as it includes an evaluation of risk perception and its influence on the social vulnerability and resilience of local communities to disasters. Key words: vulnerability assessment, natural hazards, social vulnerability, risk perception

  8. Patterns of Freshwater Species Richness, Endemism, and Vulnerability in California.

    PubMed

    Howard, Jeanette K; Klausmeyer, Kirk R; Fesenmyer, Kurt A; Furnish, Joseph; Gardali, Thomas; Grantham, Ted; Katz, Jacob V E; Kupferberg, Sarah; McIntyre, Patrick; Moyle, Peter B; Ode, Peter R; Peek, Ryan; Quiñones, Rebecca M; Rehn, Andrew C; Santos, Nick; Schoenig, Steve; Serpa, Larry; Shedd, Jackson D; Slusark, Joe; Viers, Joshua H; Wright, Amber; Morrison, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    The ranges and abundances of species that depend on freshwater habitats are declining worldwide. Efforts to counteract those trends are often hampered by a lack of information about species distribution and conservation status and are often strongly biased toward a few well-studied groups. We identified the 3,906 vascular plants, macroinvertebrates, and vertebrates native to California, USA, that depend on fresh water for at least one stage of their life history. We evaluated the conservation status for these taxa using existing government and non-governmental organization assessments (e.g., endangered species act, NatureServe), created a spatial database of locality observations or distribution information from ~400 data sources, and mapped patterns of richness, endemism, and vulnerability. Although nearly half of all taxa with conservation status (n = 1,939) are vulnerable to extinction, only 114 (6%) of those vulnerable taxa have a legal mandate for protection in the form of formal inclusion on a state or federal endangered species list. Endemic taxa are at greater risk than non-endemics, with 90% of the 927 endemic taxa vulnerable to extinction. Records with spatial data were available for a total of 2,276 species (61%). The patterns of species richness differ depending on the taxonomic group analyzed, but are similar across taxonomic level. No particular taxonomic group represents an umbrella for all species, but hotspots of high richness for listed species cover 40% of the hotspots for all other species and 58% of the hotspots for vulnerable freshwater species. By mapping freshwater species hotspots we show locations that represent the top priority for conservation action in the state. This study identifies opportunities to fill gaps in the evaluation of conservation status for freshwater taxa in California, to address the lack of occurrence information for nearly 40% of freshwater taxa and nearly 40% of watersheds in the state, and to implement adequate

  9. Assessing tsunami vulnerability, an example from Herakleio, Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papathoma, M.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Zong, Y.; Smith, D.

    Recent tsunami have caused massive loss of life, destruction of coastal infrastructures and disruption to economic activity. To date, tsunami hazard studies have concentrated on determining the frequency and magnitude of events and in the production of simplistic flood maps. In general, such maps appear to have assumed a uniform vulnerability of population, infrastructure and business. In reality however, a complex set of factors interact to produce a pattern of vulnerability that varies spatially and temporally. A new vulnerability assessment approach is described, that incorporates multiple factors (e.g. parameters relating to the natural and built environments and socio-demographics) that contribute to tsunami vulnerability. The new methodology is applied on a coastal segment in Greece and, in particular, in Crete, westof the city of Herakleio. The results are presented within a Geographic Information System (GIS). The application of GIS ensures the approach is novel for tsunami studies, since it permits interrogation of the primary database by several different end-users. For example, the GIS may be used: (1) to determine immediate post-tsunami disaster response needs by the emergency services; (2) to preplan tsunami mitigation measures by disaster planners; (3) as a tool for local planning by the municipal authorities or; (4) as a basis for catastrophe modelling by insurance companies. We show that population density varies markedly with the time of the year and that 30% of buildings within the inundation zone are only single story thus increasing the vulnerability of their occupants. Within the high inundation depth zone, 11% of buildings are identified as in need of reinforcement and this figure rises to 50% within the medium inundation depth zone. 10% of businesses are located within the high inundation depth zone and these may need to consider their level of insurance cover to protect against primary building damage, contents loss and business interruption

  10. Patterns of Freshwater Species Richness, Endemism, and Vulnerability in California

    PubMed Central

    Furnish, Joseph; Gardali, Thomas; Grantham, Ted; Katz, Jacob V. E.; Kupferberg, Sarah; McIntyre, Patrick; Moyle, Peter B.; Ode, Peter R.; Peek, Ryan; Quiñones, Rebecca M.; Rehn, Andrew C.; Santos, Nick; Schoenig, Steve; Serpa, Larry; Shedd, Jackson D.; Slusark, Joe; Viers, Joshua H.; Wright, Amber; Morrison, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    The ranges and abundances of species that depend on freshwater habitats are declining worldwide. Efforts to counteract those trends are often hampered by a lack of information about species distribution and conservation status and are often strongly biased toward a few well-studied groups. We identified the 3,906 vascular plants, macroinvertebrates, and vertebrates native to California, USA, that depend on fresh water for at least one stage of their life history. We evaluated the conservation status for these taxa using existing government and non-governmental organization assessments (e.g., endangered species act, NatureServe), created a spatial database of locality observations or distribution information from ~400 data sources, and mapped patterns of richness, endemism, and vulnerability. Although nearly half of all taxa with conservation status (n = 1,939) are vulnerable to extinction, only 114 (6%) of those vulnerable taxa have a legal mandate for protection in the form of formal inclusion on a state or federal endangered species list. Endemic taxa are at greater risk than non-endemics, with 90% of the 927 endemic taxa vulnerable to extinction. Records with spatial data were available for a total of 2,276 species (61%). The patterns of species richness differ depending on the taxonomic group analyzed, but are similar across taxonomic level. No particular taxonomic group represents an umbrella for all species, but hotspots of high richness for listed species cover 40% of the hotspots for all other species and 58% of the hotspots for vulnerable freshwater species. By mapping freshwater species hotspots we show locations that represent the top priority for conservation action in the state. This study identifies opportunities to fill gaps in the evaluation of conservation status for freshwater taxa in California, to address the lack of occurrence information for nearly 40% of freshwater taxa and nearly 40% of watersheds in the state, and to implement adequate

  11. Calibration of the DRASTIC ground water vulnerability mapping method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, M.G.

    2001-01-01

    Ground water vulnerability maps developed using the DRASTIC method have been produced in many parts of the world. Comparisons of those maps with actual ground water quality data have shown that the DRASTIC method is typically a poor predictor of ground water contamination. This study significantly improved the effectiveness of a modified DRASTIC ground water vulnerability map by calibrating the point rating schemes to actual ground water quality data by using nonparametric statistical techniques and a geographic information system. Calibration was performed by comparing data on nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen (NO2 + NO3-N) concentrations in ground water to land-use, soils, and depth to first-encountered ground water data. These comparisons showed clear statistical differences between NO2 + NO3-N concentrations and the various categories. Ground water probability point ratings for NO2 + NO3-N contamination were developed from the results of these comparisons, and a probability map was produced. This ground water probability map was then correlated with an independent set of NO2 + NO3-N data to demonstrate its effectiveness in predicting elevated NO2 + NO3-N concentrations in ground water. This correlation demonstrated that the probability map was effective, but a vulnerability map produced with the uncalibrated DRASTIC method in the same area and using the same data layers was not effective. Considerable time and expense have been outlaid to develop ground water vulnerability maps with the DRASTIC method. This study demonstrates a cost-effective method to improve and verify the effectiveness of ground water vulnerability maps.

  12. Targeting attention on local vulnerabilities using an integrated index approach: the example of the climate vulnerability index.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, C; Meigh, J

    2005-01-01

    It is known that climate impacts can have significant effects on the environment, societies and economies. For human populations, climate change impacts can be devastating, giving rise to economic disruption and mass migration as agricultural systems fail, either through drought or floods. Such events impact significantly, not only where they happen, but also in the neighbouring areas. Vulnerability to the impacts of climate change needs to be assessed, so that adaptation strategies can be developed and populations can be protected. In this paper, we address the issue of vulnerability assessment through the use of an indicator approach, the climate vulnerability index (CVI). We show how this can overcome some of the difficulties of incommensurability associated with the combination of different types of data, and how the approach can be applied at a variety of scales. Through the development of nested index values, more reliable and robust coverage of large areas can be achieved, and we provide an indication of how this could be done. While further work is required to improve the methodology through wider application and component refinement, it seems likely that this approach will have useful application in the assessment of climate vulnerability. Through its application at sub-national and community scales, the CVI can help to identify those human populations most at risk from climate change impacts, and as a result, resources can be targeted towards those most in need. PMID:15918360

  13. User friendly tools to target vulnerable areas at watershed scale: evaluation of the soil vulnerability and conductivity claypan indices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One finding of the Conservation Effects Assessment Program (CEAP) watershed studies was that Best Management practices (BMPs) were not always installed where most needed: in many watersheds, only a fraction of BMPs were implemented in the most vulnerable areas. While complex computer simulation mode...

  14. What if quality of damage data is poor: an Entity-Vulnerability approach for flood vulnerability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naso, Susanna; Chen, Albert S.; Djordjević, Slobodan; Aronica, Giuseppe T.

    2015-04-01

    The classical approach to flood defence, aimed at reducing the probability of flooding through hard defences, has been substituted by flood risk management approach which accepts the idea of coping with floods and aims at reducing not only the probability of flooding, but also the consequences. In this view, the concept of vulnerability becomes central, such as the (non-structural) measures for its increment. On 22 November 2011, an exceptional rainstorm hit the Longano catchment (North-East part of Sicily, Italy) producing local heavy rainfall, mud-debris flow and flash flooding. The flash flood involved property, buildings, roads and more than 100 commercial estates have suffered severe damages. Some days after the event, the municipality provided people forms to describe the damages that occurred on their properties. Unfortunately, the lack of common guidelines in compiling them, their coarseness and the impossibility to have monetary information on them (such us damage data from previous events), did not allow the implementation of a detailed damage analysis. What we're developing in this work is a method for a qualitative evaluation of the consequences of floods, based on vulnerability curves for structures and classes of entities at risk. The difficulty in deriving the vulnerability curves for different building typologies, as function of the water depth, was due to the lack of quantitative information both on damages caused by previous events and on buildings' value. To solve the problem we submitted a questionnaire to a team of experts asking for an estimation of building damages to different hypothetical inundation depths. What we wanted to obtain was deriving the vulnerability data from technicians' experience, believing in the fundamental importance of the collaboration among research and professional engineers. Through the elaboration and the synthesis of the experts' estimations we derived the vulnerability curves for different building typologies and

  15. Groundwater vulnerability mapping in Guadalajara aquifers system (Western Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizo-Decelis, L. David; Marín, Ana I.; Andreo, Bartolomé

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater vulnerability mapping is a practical tool to implement strategies for land-use planning and sustainable socioeconomic development coherent with groundwater protection. The objective of vulnerability mapping is to identify the most vulnerable zones of catchment areas and to provide criteria for protecting the groundwater used for drinking water supply. The delineation of protection zones in fractured aquifers is a challenging task due to the heterogeneity and anisotropy of hydraulic conductivities, which makes difficult prediction of groundwater flow organization and flow velocities. Different methods of intrinsic groundwater vulnerability mapping were applied in the Atemajac-Toluquilla groundwater body, an aquifers system that covers around 1300 km2. The aquifer supplies the 30% of urban water resources of the metropolitan area of Guadalajara (Mexico), where over 4.6 million people reside. Study area is located in a complex neotectonic active volcanic region in the Santiago River Basin (Western Mexico), which influences the aquifer system underneath the city. Previous works have defined the flow dynamics and identified the origin of recharge. In addition, the mixture of fresh groundwater with hydrothermal and polluted waters have been estimated. Two main aquifers compose the multilayer system. The upper aquifer is unconfined and consists of sediments and pyroclastic materials. Recharge of this aquifer comes from rainwater and ascending vertical fluids from the lower aquifer. The lower aquifer consists of fractured basalts of Pliocene age. Formerly, the main water source has been the upper unit, which is a porous and unconsolidated unit, which acts as a semi-isotropic aquifer. Intense groundwater usage has resulted in lowering the water table in the upper aquifer. Therefore, the current groundwater extraction is carried out from the deeper aquifer and underlying bedrock units, where fracture flow predominates. Pollution indicators have been reported in

  16. Free and Open Source Software for land degradation vulnerability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imbrenda, Vito; Calamita, Giuseppe; Coluzzi, Rosa; D'Emilio, Mariagrazia; Lanfredi, Maria Teresa; Perrone, Angela; Ragosta, Maria; Simoniello, Tiziana

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays the role of FOSS software in scientific research is becoming increasingly important. Besides the important issues of reduced costs for licences, legality and security there are many other reasons that make FOSS software attractive. Firstly, making the code opened is a warranty of quality permitting to thousands of developers around the world to check the code and fix bugs rather than rely on vendors claims. FOSS communities are usually enthusiastic about helping other users for solving problems and expand or customize software (flexibility). Most important for this study, the interoperability allows to combine the user-friendly QGIS with the powerful GRASS-GIS and the richness of statistical methods of R in order to process remote sensing data and to perform geo-statistical analysis in one only environment. This study is focused on the land degradation (i.e. the reduction in the capacity of the land to provide ecosystem goods and services and assure its functions) and in particular on the estimation of the vulnerability levels in order to suggest appropriate policy actions to reduce/halt land degradation impacts, using the above mentioned software. The area investigated is the Basilicata Region (Southern Italy) where large natural areas are mixed with anthropized areas. To identify different levels of vulnerability we adopted the Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAs) model, based on the combination of indicators related to soil, climate, vegetation and anthropic stress. Such indicators were estimated by using the following data-sources: - Basilicata Region Geoportal to assess soil vulnerability; - DESERTNET2 project to evaluate potential vegetation vulnerability and climate vulnerability; - NDVI-MODIS satellite time series (2000-2010) with 250m resolution, available as 16-day composite from the NASA LP DAAC to characterize the dynamic component of vegetation; - Agricultural Census data 2010, Corine Land Cover 2006 and morphological information to assess

  17. Hippocampal developmental vulnerability to methylmercury extends into prepubescence

    PubMed Central

    Obiorah, Maryann; McCandlish, Elizabeth; Buckley, Brian; DiCicco-Bloom, Emanuel

    2015-01-01

    The developing brain is sensitive to environmental toxicants such as methylmercury (MeHg), to which humans are exposed via contaminated seafood. Prenatal exposure in children is associated with learning, memory and IQ deficits, which can result from hippocampal dysfunction. To explore underlying mechanisms, we have used the postnatal day (P7) rat to model the third trimester of human gestation. We previously showed that a single low exposure (0.6 μg/gbw) that approaches human exposure reduced hippocampal neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) 24 h later, producing later proliferation and memory deficits in adolescence. Yet, the vulnerable stem cell population and period of developmental vulnerability remain undefined. In this study, we find that P7 exposure of stem cells has long-term consequences for adolescent neurogenesis. It reduced the number of mitotic S-phase cells (BrdU), especially those in the highly proliferative Tbr2+ population, and immature neurons (Doublecortin) in adolescence, suggesting partial depletion of the later stem cell pool. To define developmental vulnerability to MeHg in prepubescent (P14) and adolescent (P21) rats, we examined acute 24 h effects of MeHg exposure on mitosis and apoptosis. We found that low exposure did not adversely impact neurogenesis at either age, but that a higher exposure (5 μg/gbw) at P14 reduced the total number of neural stem cells (Sox2+) by 23% and BrdU+ cells by 26% in the DG hilus, suggesting that vulnerability diminishes with age. To determine whether these effects reflect changes in MeHg transfer across the blood brain barrier (BBB), we assessed Hg content in the hippocampus after peripheral injection and found that similar levels (~800 ng/gm) were obtained at 24 h at both P14 and P21, declining in parallel, suggesting that changes in vulnerability depend more on local tissue and cellular mechanisms. Together, we show that MeHg vulnerability declines with age, and that early exposure impairs later

  18. Vulnerability assessment at a national level in Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsereteli, N.; Arabidze, V.; Varazanashvili, O.; Gugeshashvili, T.

    2012-04-01

    Vulnerability assessment at a national level in Georgia Nino Tsereteli, Vakhtang Arabidze, Otar Varazanashvili, Tengiz Gugeshashvili The risk always exists when cities are built on. Population growth in cities and urbanization in natural hazard-prone zones leads to infrastructure expansion. The goal of the society is to construct natural hazards resistant infrastructure and minimize the expected losses. This is a complicated task as there is always knowledge deficiency on real seismic hazard and vulnerability. Assessment of vulnerability is vital in risk analysis, as vulnerability is defined in many different ways. Work presented here mostly deals with assessment of infrastructure's and population vulnerability at national level in Georgia. This work was initiated by NATO SFP project "seismic Hazard and Risk Assessment for Southern Caucasus - Eastern Turkey Energy Corridors" and the two work packages WP4 (seismic risk) and WP5 (city scenarios) of risk module of EMME (Earthquake Model of the Middle East Region) project. First step was creation databases (inventory) of elements at risk in GIS. Element at risk were the buildings, population, pipelines. The inventories was studied and Created in GIS for the following categories: Building material, number of stories, number of entrances, condition of building, building period. For pipelines pipe tipe (continous or segmented), material, pipe diameter. Very important is to estimate the initial cost of building for assessment of economic losses. From this purpose the attempt was done and the algorithm of this estimation were prepared taking into account obtained the inventory. Build quality, reliability and durability are of special importance to corresponding state agencies and include different aesthetic, engineering, practical, social, technological and economical aspects. The necessity that all of these aspects satisfy existing normative requirements becomes evident as the building and structures come into exploitation

  19. A Preliminary Tsunami vulnerability analysis for Bakirkoy district in Istanbul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tufekci, Duygu; Lutfi Suzen, M.; Cevdet Yalciner, Ahmet; Zaytsev, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    Resilience of coastal utilities after earthquakes and tsunamis has major importance for efficient and proper rescue and recovery operations soon after the disasters. Vulnerability assessment of coastal areas under extreme events has major importance for preparedness and development of mitigation strategies. The Sea of Marmara has experienced numerous earthquakes as well as associated tsunamis. There are variety of coastal facilities such as ports, small craft harbors, and terminals for maritime transportation, water front roads and business centers mainly at North Coast of Marmara Sea in megacity Istanbul. A detailed vulnerability analysis for Yenikapi region and a detailed resilience analysis for Haydarpasa port in Istanbul have been studied in previously by Cankaya et al., (2015) and Aytore et al., (2015) in SATREPS project. In this study, the methodology of vulnerability analysis under tsunami attack given in Cankaya et al., (2015) is modified and applied to Bakirkoy district of Istanbul. Bakirkoy district is located at western part of Istanbul and faces to the North Coast of Marmara Sea from 28.77oE to 28.89oE. High resolution spatial dataset of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (IMM) is used and analyzed. The bathymetry and topography database and the spatial dataset containing all buildings/structures/infrastructures in the district are collated and utilized for tsunami numerical modeling and following vulnerability analysis. The tsunami parameters from deterministically defined worst case scenarios are computed from the simulations using tsunami numerical model NAMI DANCE. The vulnerability assessment parameters in the district according to vulnerability and resilience are defined; and scored by implementation of a GIS based TVA with appropriate MCDA methods. The risk level is computed using tsunami intensity (level of flow depth from simulations) and TVA results at every location in Bakirkoy district. The preliminary results are presented and discussed

  20. Climate Change and Infrastructure, Urban Systems, and Vulnerabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbanks, Thomas J; Fernandez, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    This Technical Report on Climate Change and Infrastructure, Urban Systems, and Vulnerabilities has been prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in support of the U.S. National Climate Assessment (NCA). It is a summary of the currently existing knowledge base on its topic, nested within a broader framing of issues and questions that need further attention in the longer run. The report arrives at a number of assessment findings, each associated with an evaluation of the level of consensus on that issue within the expert community, the volume of evidence available to support that judgment, and the section of the report that provides an explanation for the finding. Cross-sectoral issues related to infrastructures and urban systems have not received a great deal of attention to date in research literatures in general and climate change assessments in particular. As a result, this technical report is breaking new ground as a component of climate change vulnerability and impact assessments in the U.S., which means that some of its assessment findings are rather speculative, more in the nature of propositions for further study than specific conclusions that are offered with a high level of confidence and research support. But it is a start in addressing questions that are of interest to many policymakers and stakeholders. A central theme of the report is that vulnerabilities and impacts are issues beyond physical infrastructures themselves. The concern is with the value of services provided by infrastructures, where the true consequences of impacts and disruptions involve not only the costs associated with the clean-up, repair, and/or replacement of affected infrastructures but also economic, social, and environmental effects as supply chains are disrupted, economic activities are suspended, and/or social well-being is threatened. Current knowledge indicates that vulnerability concerns tend to be focused on extreme weather events

  1. MINIMIZING THE VULNERABILITY OF WATER SUPPLIES TO NATURAL AND TERRORIST THREATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is increasing concern that drinking water utilities may be vulnerable to attacks by terrorists. In the US the President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection has concluded the US drinking water utilities are vulnerable to physical, cyber and biological terroris...

  2. VuWiki: An Ontology-Based Semantic Wiki for Vulnerability Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazai, Bijan; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Büscher, Christian; Wegner, Antje

    2014-05-01

    The concept of vulnerability, as well as its implementation in vulnerability assessments, is used in various disciplines and contexts ranging from disaster management and reduction to ecology, public health or climate change and adaptation, and a corresponding multitude of ideas about how to conceptualize and measure vulnerability exists. Three decades of research in vulnerability have generated a complex and growing body of knowledge that challenges newcomers, practitioners and even experienced researchers. To provide a structured representation of the knowledge field "vulnerability assessment", we have set up an ontology-based semantic wiki for reviewing and representing vulnerability assessments: VuWiki, www.vuwiki.org. Based on a survey of 55 vulnerability assessment studies, we first developed an ontology as an explicit reference system for describing vulnerability assessments. We developed the ontology in a theoretically controlled manner based on general systems theory and guided by principles for ontology development in the field of earth and environment (Raskin and Pan 2005). Four key questions form the first level "branches" or categories of the developed ontology: (1) Vulnerability of what? (2) Vulnerability to what? (3) What reference framework was used in the vulnerability assessment?, and (4) What methodological approach was used in the vulnerability assessment? These questions correspond to the basic, abstract structure of the knowledge domain of vulnerability assessments and have been deduced from theories and concepts of various disciplines. The ontology was then implemented in a semantic wiki which allows for the classification and annotation of vulnerability assessments. As a semantic wiki, VuWiki does not aim at "synthesizing" a holistic and overarching model of vulnerability. Instead, it provides both scientists and practitioners with a uniform ontology as a reference system and offers easy and structured access to the knowledge field of

  3. Vulnerability and adaptation of US shellfisheries to ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekstrom, Julia A.; Suatoni, Lisa; Cooley, Sarah R.; Pendleton, Linwood H.; Waldbusser, George G.; Cinner, Josh E.; Ritter, Jessica; Langdon, Chris; van Hooidonk, Ruben; Gledhill, Dwight; Wellman, Katharine; Beck, Michael W.; Brander, Luke M.; Rittschof, Dan; Doherty, Carolyn; Edwards, Peter E. T.; Portela, Rosimeiry

    2015-03-01

    Ocean acidification is a global, long-term problem whose ultimate solution requires carbon dioxide reduction at a scope and scale that will take decades to accomplish successfully. Until that is achieved, feasible and locally relevant adaptation and mitigation measures are needed. To help to prioritize societal responses to ocean acidification, we present a spatially explicit, multidisciplinary vulnerability analysis of coastal human communities in the United States. We focus our analysis on shelled mollusc harvests, which are likely to be harmed by ocean acidification. Our results highlight US regions most vulnerable to ocean acidification (and why), important knowledge and information gaps, and opportunities to adapt through local actions. The research illustrates the benefits of integrating natural and social sciences to identify actions and other opportunities while policy, stakeholders and scientists are still in relatively early stages of developing research plans and responses to ocean acidification.

  4. Vulnerability and risk in children living with a physical disability.

    PubMed

    Heaslip, Vanessa; Hewitt-Taylor, Jaqui

    2014-12-01

    Children are identified as a vulnerable group in need of a degree of safeguarding. About 6% of children in the UK have a disability, which can increase their level of vulnerability. How disability is perceived by others may affect the way they work with these young people in coping with life's risks, which may be increased due to the disability. Each individual's perception of the risks and benefits of a given venture varies. Children's nurses work with these young people and their families, aiming to give them maximum autonomy, self-reliance, empowerment and independence in adulthood. This involves risk-taking, as every young person needs to learn from graduated exposure to new experiences, environments, associations and hazards; the chance of harm must be balanced with the disadvantages of over-protection. PMID:25487401

  5. Attitude before method: disability in vulnerability and capacity assessment.

    PubMed

    Twigg, John

    2014-07-01

    Many agencies working on disaster risk reduction use vulnerability and capacity assessment (VCA) to identify vulnerable groups, to assess their needs and capacities, and to develop appropriate programmes and policies. In theory, VCA offers a good opportunity to incorporate disabled people's needs and resources in counter-disaster programming. This paper seeks to establish and explain the extent to which disability is included in VCA in practice. It reviews VCA reports and findings, formal VCA guidance, and other methodological literature. The review indicates that disability is a neglected issue in VCA practice and that manuals and guidelines, while promoting the general ideal of inclusiveness, are insufficiently aware of the challenges to achieving this in practice and do not offer enough guidance on how to reach and include disabled people. Ways of overcoming these problems are suggested. However, the real challenge may be to change core attitudes and perceptions of disability within implementing organisations. PMID:24905706

  6. Cognitive vulnerabilities as mediators between emotional abuse and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Padilla Paredes, Patricia; Calvete, Esther

    2014-01-01

    This study tested whether childhood parental emotional abuse and peer emotional bullying serve as antecedents of depression in adolescence and identified the cognitive mechanisms involved in this process. It was hypothesized that the experience of emotional abuse would predict depressive symptoms via development of rumination and negative inferences. A 3-wave longitudinal study was carried out with 998 adolescents (471 girls and 526 boys) between 13 and 17 years of age. Results showed that emotional abuse by parents and peers at Time 1 predicted a worsening of several cognitive vulnerabilities at Time 2. In addition, brooding mediated between the experiences of abuse and the increase of depressive symptoms at Time 3. Thus, findings suggest that the experiences of childhood emotional abuse by parents and peers serve as antecedents to develop a negative cognitive style, vulnerability that, once developed, is a risk factor for the onset of depressive symptoms in adolescence. PMID:24292965

  7. Integrating Climate and Ocean Change Vulnerability into Conservation Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcleod, E.; Green, A.; Game, E.; Anthony, K.; Cinner, J.; Heron, S. F.; Kleypas, J. A.; Lovelock, C.; Pandolfi, J.; Pressey, B.; Salm, R.; Schill, S.; Woodroffe, C. D.

    2013-05-01

    Tropical coastal and marine ecosystems are particularly vulnerable to ocean warming, ocean acidification, and sea-level rise. Yet these projected climate and ocean change impacts are rarely considered in conservation planning due to the lack of guidance on how existing climate and ocean change models, tools, and data can be applied. We address this gap by describing how conservation planning can use available tools and data for assessing the vulnerability of tropical marine ecosystems to key climate threats. Additionally, we identify limitations of existing tools and provide recommendations for future research to improve integration of climate and ocean change information and conservation planning. Such information is critical for developing a conservation response that adequately protects these ecosystems and dependent coastal communities in the face of climate and ocean change.

  8. Responding to vulnerability in old age: patient-centred care.

    PubMed

    Abley, Clare

    Patient-centred care is a term widely used in health policy and is familiar to staff as a principle or commonly agreed approach to care. However, nursing and multidisciplinary teams often do not agree how it should be provided for older patients. This article outlines three different models of patient-centred care applicable to the care of older people. The article also explores the concept of vulnerability in old age, highlighting differences between the perspectives of older people and those of professionals and how clinical practice can be improved to achieve a more patient-centred approach. The links between patient-centred care and vulnerability in old age are considered along with the implications of this for clinical practice. PMID:23240515

  9. Humanitarian responses to mass violence perpetrated against vulnerable populations.

    PubMed Central

    Gellert, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    This multidisciplinary review links three areas of legitimate inquiry for practitioners of medicine and public health. The first is occurrences of mass violence or genocide perpetrated against vulnerable populations, with a focus on the failure of national and international mechanisms to prevent or predict such violence. The second is evolving concepts of national sovereignty and an emerging framework in which the imperative to assist vulnerable populations supersedes a state's right to self determination. The last is how medical, public health, and other systems of surveillance and rapid assessment of mass violence can accelerate public awareness and facilitate structured, consistent political decision making to prevent mass violence and to provide international humanitarian assistance. Images p1000-a PMID:7580643

  10. Subsidence vulnerability in shallow room-and-pillar mines

    SciTech Connect

    Missavage, R.

    1985-07-01

    Concern over mining-related subsidence is inhibiting the development of surface land uses in previously mined areas and is constraining the recovery of coal resources in areas with established land uses that might be impacted by subsequent subsidence. The determination of subsidence vulnerability of mined-out areas (especially abandoned mine areas) can be a useful tool in the design and location of surface structures. A model has been developed for assessing subsidence vulnerability in shallow room-and-pillar mines based on the flexural rigidity and strength characteristics of the overlying strata. The model does not predict the subsidence profile or when the subsidence will occur. It only predicts those areas that are likely to subside. This paper briefly describes the model and its testing.

  11. Ecosystem vulnerability to climate change in the southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cartwright, Jennifer M.; Costanza, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Two recent investigations of climate-change vulnerability for 19 terrestrial, aquatic, riparian, and coastal ecosystems of the southeastern United States have identified a number of important considerations, including potential for changes in hydrology, disturbance regimes, and interspecies interactions. Complementary approaches using geospatial analysis and literature synthesis integrated information on ecosystem biogeography and biodiversity, climate projections, vegetation dynamics, soil and water characteristics, anthropogenic threats, conservation status, sea-level rise, and coastal flooding impacts. Across a diverse set of ecosystems—ranging in size from dozens of square meters to thousands of square kilometers—quantitative and qualitative assessments identified types of climate-change exposure, evaluated sensitivity, and explored potential adaptive capacity. These analyses highlighted key gaps in scientific understanding and suggested priorities for future research. Together, these studies help create a foundation for ecosystem-level analysis of climate-change vulnerability to support effective biodiversity conservation in the southeastern United States.

  12. Geomorphological hazard and tourist vulnerability along Portofino Park trails (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandolini, P.; Faccini, F.; Piccazzo, M.

    2006-06-01

    The many trails existing in the coastal area of Portofino Promontory are used by tourists for trekking or as pathways to small villages and beaches. The aim of this paper is to define geomorphological hazard and tourist vulnerability in this area, within the framework of the management and planning of hiking activities in Portofino Natural Park. In particular, processes triggered by gravity, running waters and wave motion, affecting the slopes and the cliff, are considered. The typology of the trails and trail maintenance are also taken into account in relation to weather conditions that can make the excursion routes dangerous for tourists. In conclusion, an operative model is applied for the definition of possible risk scenarios. This model is founded on an inventory and the quantification of geomorphological hazards and tourist vulnerability, in comparison with trail rescue data. The model can be applied to other environments and tourist areas.

  13. Overestimation of marsh vulnerability to sea level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirwan, Matthew L.; Temmerman, Stijn; Skeehan, Emily E.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Fagherazzi, Sergio

    2016-03-01

    Coastal marshes are considered to be among the most valuable and vulnerable ecosystems on Earth, where the imminent loss of ecosystem services is a feared consequence of sea level rise. However, we show with a meta-analysis that global measurements of marsh elevation change indicate that marshes are generally building at rates similar to or exceeding historical sea level rise, and that process-based models predict survival under a wide range of future sea level scenarios. We argue that marsh vulnerability tends to be overstated because assessment methods often fail to consider biophysical feedback processes known to accelerate soil building with sea level rise, and the potential for marshes to migrate inland.

  14. Overestimation of marsh vulnerability to sea level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirwan, Matthew L.; Temmerman, Stijn; Skeehan, Emily E.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Fagherazzi, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Coastal marshes are considered to be among the most valuable and vulnerable ecosystems on Earth, where the imminent loss of ecosystem services is a feared consequence of sea level rise. However, we show with a meta-analysis that global measurements of marsh elevation change indicate that marshes are generally building at rates similar to or exceeding historical sea level rise, and that process-based models predict survival under a wide range of future sea level scenarios. We argue that marsh vulnerability tends to be overstated because assessment methods often fail to consider biophysical feedback processes known to accelerate soil building with sea level rise, and the potential for marshes to migrate inland.

  15. Vulnerability Assessment: The Seasons-to-Centuries Links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenkert, A.; Malone, E. L.; Moss, R.

    2002-05-01

    Actors within societies must cope with climate variability all the time, for example, with the aftermath of a severe storm, a persistent drought, severe flooding or coastal erosion from storm-induced sea-level surges. Understanding the capacity to respond to these types of experiences is important in its own right, and also provides a baseline against which to measure adaptive responses to long-term changes to climate. Because the rate, magnitude, pattern, and potential for non-linear rapid future changes in climate remain uncertain, increasing resilience of systems to climate variability is an important first step in planning for adaptation to long-term changes. An important characteristic of analysis of vulnerability to climate variability is the need to integrate information on both environmental and socio-economic factors that affect the ability of different actors to mount an effective response. We developed a framework for considering responses to both climate variability and change that is relevant to analysis at a variety of geographic scales. Our Vulnerability-Resilience Assessment methodology is an indicator-based prototype model that calculates the overall vulnerability or resilience of an area to climate variability and change. The model integrates information on the climate sensitivity of five sectors or areas of activity (food security, water resources, human settlements, ecosystem services, and human health) with information on economic, human resources, and environmental capacity to cope or adapt to variability and change. The model can be used for both static assessment of vulnerability at a point in time as well as for assessing how vulnerability and resilience would evolve in the future under different assumptions of socio-economic and environmental change. When coupled with uncertainty analysis, the modeling system can be used to identify those factors that have the most influence on vulnerability and capacity to adapt to variability and change

  16. Assessing the Vulnerability of Agriculture to Climate Change in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khresat, Sa'eb; Shraidaeh, Fadi; Maddat, Amer

    2015-04-01

    Climate change represents one of the greatest environmental, social and economic threats facing Jordan. In particular, the combined effects of climate change and water scarcity threaten to affect food and water resources that are critical for livelihoods in Jordan. This is especially true for those communities who live in the dryland area in the country and who rely wholly on rain-fed agriculture. The exact nature and extent of the impact of climate change on temperature and precipitation distribution pattern remain uncertain and it is the poor and vulnerable who will be the most susceptible to climate change adverse effects. A vulnerability assessment of rain fed agriculture to climate change and variability in semi-arid parts of Jordan was conducted in 2014. The purpose of this study is to assess the vulnerability and resilience of the most vulnerable groups where rainfed and irrigated agriculture is practiced. Also, the study focused on quantifying the impacts on agricultural productivity in response to climate change. This will help policymakers and researchers better understand and anticipate the likely impacts of climate change on agriculture and on vulnerable communities in Jordan. Also, it will provide them with tools to identify and implement appropriate adaptation strategies. The data used includes; Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 adopted by the IPCC for its fifth Assessment Report (AR5). Those pathways were used for climate modeling. A decision support system (DSSAT) for agricultural production was used to assess the impact of climate changes on agricultural production. This approach was used for the Identification of climate change risk and their impacts on Agriculture. Outputs from models are used to assess the vulnerability of farmers and crops to climate and socio-economic change by estimating their sensitivity and capacity to adapt to external factors as a means of identifying what causes the differences in their

  17. High shear stress induces atherosclerotic vulnerable plaque formation through angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Qiu, Juhui; Luo, Shisui; Xie, Xiang; Zheng, Yiming; Zhang, Kang; Ye, Zhiyi; Liu, Wanqian; Gregersen, Hans; Wang, Guixue

    2016-01-01

    Rupture of atherosclerotic plaques causing thrombosis is the main cause of acute coronary syndrome and ischemic strokes. Inhibition of thrombosis is one of the important tasks developing biomedical materials such as intravascular stents and vascular grafts. Shear stress (SS) influences the formation and development of atherosclerosis. The current review focuses on the vulnerable plaques observed in the high shear stress (HSS) regions, which localizes at the proximal region of the plaque intruding into the lumen. The vascular outward remodelling occurs in the HSS region for vascular compensation and that angiogenesis is a critical factor for HSS which induces atherosclerotic vulnerable plaque formation. These results greatly challenge the established belief that low shear stress is important for expansive remodelling, which provides a new perspective for preventing the transition of stable plaques to high-risk atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:27482467

  18. Stressful segregation housing and psychosocial vulnerability in prison suicide ideators.

    PubMed

    Bonner, Ronald L

    2006-04-01

    Psychosocially vulnerable prisoners under stressful conditions of confinement are ill prepared to cope and at risk for developing suicide intention. The present study examined the relationships of depression, hopelessness, reasons for living, mental health problem history, suicide attempt lethality history, and stressful segregation housing with suicide ideation in 134 prisoners. Prisoners housed in segregation were found to have significantly higher levels of depression and suicide ideation than prisoners in general population. A hierarchical regression model of suicide ideation found significant interactions between mental health problem history, suicide attempt lethality history, and hopelessness with anticipated segregation stress, independent of depressed mood. Results of the study are discussed in terms of the stress-vulnerability model, various methodological limitations, and future research. PMID:16704328

  19. Targeting the vulnerable plaque: the evolving role of nuclear imaging.

    PubMed

    Davies, John R; Rudd, James F; Fryer, Tim D; Weissberg, Peter L

    2005-01-01

    The majority of acute ischemic events relating to atherosclerosis are caused by plaque rupture and ensuing thrombosis. The risk of plaque rupture is dictated in part by plaque morphology, which in turn is influenced by pathophysiologic mechanisms at the cellular and molecular level. Anatomic imaging modalities such as intravascular ultrasound, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, and multislice computed tomography can identify morphologic features of the vulnerable plaque, such as a large lipid core and thin fibrous cap, but give little or no information regarding molecular and cellular mechanisms, such as endothelial function, macrophage activation, lipid transport and metabolism, and cell death. Recent studies suggest that nuclear imaging may be able to provide images of sufficient quality to identify and quantify some of these molecular and cellular pathophysiologic processes. In the future this could allow for the early identification and noninvasive monitoring of vulnerable plaque. PMID:15812381

  20. Non-invasive and invasive imaging of vulnerable coronary plaque.

    PubMed

    Celeng, Csilla; Takx, Richard A P; Ferencik, Maros; Maurovich-Horvat, Pál

    2016-08-01

    Vulnerable plaque is characterized by a large necrotic core and an overlying thin fibrous cap. Non-invasive imaging modalities such as computed tomography angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allow for the assessment of morphological plaque characteristics, while positron emission tomography (PET) enables the detection of metabolic activity within the atherosclerotic lesions. Invasive imaging modalities such as intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), optical-coherence tomography (OCT), and intravascular MRI (IV-MRI) display plaques at a high spatial resolution. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) allows for the detection of chemical components of atherosclerotic plaques. In this review, we describe state-of-the-art non-invasive and invasive imaging modalities and stress the combination of their advantages to identify vulnerable plaque features. PMID:27079893

  1. Vulnerability of a killer whale social network to disease outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimarães, Paulo R., Jr.; de Menezes, Márcio Argollo; Baird, Robin W.; Lusseau, David; Guimarães, Paulo; Dos Reis, Sérgio F.

    2007-10-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are among the main threats to conservation of biological diversity. A crucial task facing epidemiologists is to predict the vulnerability of populations of endangered animals to disease outbreaks. In this context, the network structure of social interactions within animal populations may affect disease spreading. However, endangered animal populations are often small and to investigate the dynamics of small networks is a difficult task. Using network theory, we show that the social structure of an endangered population of mammal-eating killer whales is vulnerable to disease outbreaks. This feature was found to be a consequence of the combined effects of the topology and strength of social links among individuals. Our results uncover a serious challenge for conservation of the species and its ecosystem. In addition, this study shows that the network approach can be useful to study dynamical processes in very small networks.

  2. Mitigations for Security Vulnerabilities Found in Control System Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Trent D. Nelson

    2006-05-01

    Industry is aware of the need for Control System (CS) security, but in on-site assessments, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has observed that security procedures and devices are not consistently and effectively implemented. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), National Cyber Security Division (NCSD), established the Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) at INL to help industry and government improve the security of the CSs used in the nation's critical infrastructures. One of the main CSSC objectives is to identify control system vulnerabilities and develop effective mitigations for them. This paper discusses common problems and vulnerabilities seen in on-site CS assessments and suggests mitigation strategies to provide asset owners with the information they need to better protect their systems from common security flows.

  3. CARVE: The Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Charles E.; Dinardo, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    The Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) is a NASA Earth Ventures (EV-1) investigation designed to quantify correlations between atmospheric and surface state variables for the Alaskan terrestrial ecosystems through intensive seasonal aircraft campaigns, ground-based observations, and analysis sustained over a 5-year mission. CARVE bridges critical gaps in our knowledge and understanding of Arctic ecosystems, linkages between the Arctic hydrologic and terrestrial carbon cycles, and the feedbacks from fires and thawing permafrost. CARVE's objectives are to: (1) Directly test hypotheses attributing the mobilization of vulnerable Arctic carbon reservoirs to climate warming; (2) Deliver the first direct measurements and detailed maps of CO2 and CH4 sources on regional scales in the Alaskan Arctic; and (3) Demonstrate new remote sensing and modeling capabilities to quantify feedbacks between carbon fluxes and carbon cycle-climate processes in the Arctic (Figure 1). We describe the investigation design and results from 2011 test flights in Alaska.

  4. Intracoronary Imaging in the Detection of Vulnerable Plaques.

    PubMed

    Batty, Jonathan A; Subba, Shristy; Luke, Peter; Gigi, Li Wing Chi; Sinclair, Hannah; Kunadian, Vijay

    2016-03-01

    Coronary artery disease is the result of atherosclerotic changes to the coronary arterial wall, comprising endothelial dysfunction, vascular inflammation and deposition of lipid-rich macrophage foam cells. Certain high-risk atherosclerotic plaques are vulnerable to disruption, leading to rupture, thrombosis and the clinical sequelae of acute coronary syndrome. Though recognised as the gold standard for evaluating the presence, distribution and severity of atherosclerotic lesions, invasive coronary angiography is incapable of identifying non-stenotic, vulnerable plaques that are responsible for adverse cardiovascular events. The recognition of such limitations has impelled the development of intracoronary imaging technologies, including intravascular ultrasound, optical coherence tomography and near-infrared spectroscopy, which enable the detailed evaluation of the coronary wall and atherosclerotic plaques in clinical practice. This review discusses the present status of invasive imaging technologies; summarises up-to-date, evidence-based clinical guidelines; and addresses questions that remain unanswered with regard to the future of intracoronary plaque imaging. PMID:26879196

  5. Comprehensive care for vulnerable elderly veterans during disasters.

    PubMed

    Claver, Maria; Dobalian, Aram; Fickel, Jacqueline J; Ricci, Karen A; Mallers, Melanie Horn

    2013-01-01

    Despite problematic evacuation and sheltering of nursing home residents during Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, an exploration of the experiences of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) nursing homes (VANHs) is necessary for a comprehensive examination of the healthcare community's response to these disasters. VANH evacuations during these hurricanes have not been widely studied. This exploratory project aimed to provide information about the evacuation experiences and characteristics of vulnerable nursing home residents. Interviews with key informants from VHA facilities with nursing home staff and representatives revealed that physical harm, psychological distress, cognitive decline and increased social isolation were areas that deserved special attention for this vulnerable population. Moreover, physical, psychological and social needs were interconnected in that each influenced the others. Findings contribute to the general conversation about meeting the biopsychosocial needs of nursing home residents in an integrated healthcare delivery system and more broadly, the role of long-term care facilities in general in planning for future disasters. PMID:22901664

  6. High shear stress induces atherosclerotic vulnerable plaque formation through angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Qiu, Juhui; Luo, Shisui; Xie, Xiang; Zheng, Yiming; Zhang, Kang; Ye, Zhiyi; Liu, Wanqian; Gregersen, Hans; Wang, Guixue

    2016-12-01

    Rupture of atherosclerotic plaques causing thrombosis is the main cause of acute coronary syndrome and ischemic strokes. Inhibition of thrombosis is one of the important tasks developing biomedical materials such as intravascular stents and vascular grafts. Shear stress (SS) influences the formation and development of atherosclerosis. The current review focuses on the vulnerable plaques observed in the high shear stress (HSS) regions, which localizes at the proximal region of the plaque intruding into the lumen. The vascular outward remodelling occurs in the HSS region for vascular compensation and that angiogenesis is a critical factor for HSS which induces atherosclerotic vulnerable plaque formation. These results greatly challenge the established belief that low shear stress is important for expansive remodelling, which provides a new perspective for preventing the transition of stable plaques to high-risk atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:27482467

  7. [Nurses' autonomy and vulnerability in the Nursing Assistance Systematization practice].

    PubMed

    Menezes, Silvia Regina Tamae; Priel, Margareth Rose; Pereira, Luciane Lucio

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to recognize the autonomy and vulnerability of nurses in the implementation of the Sistema da Assistência de Enfermagem (SAE) Nursing Care System through an integrative literature review, using content analysis. A survey was conducted, and 40 articles published between 1998 and 2008 were selected based on their relevance. Results showed two main categories of meaning: Benefits associated to the SAE practice (to patients, to the profession and to the institution) and Determinants for the Implementation of SAE (nurse's competence, training and education, record-instruments, infrastructure and collective sharing-construction). From the integration of the two categories, the highlights were the autonomy in acting with freedom and responsibility, science-based decision-making, and being valued for their social work, as well as the vulnerability expressed by interpersonal relationships, the wear generated by professional stress and the risk inherent to the service. PMID:21876898

  8. Effective Health Risk Communication About Pandemic Influenza for Vulnerable Populations

    PubMed Central

    Tinker, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    The consequences of pandemic influenza for vulnerable populations will depend partly on the effectiveness of health risk communications. Strategic planning should fully consider how life circumstances, cultural values, and perspectives on risk influence behavior during a pandemic. We summarize recent scientific evidence on communication challenges and examine how sociocultural, economic, psychological, and health factors can jeopardize or facilitate public health interventions that require a cooperative public. If ignored, current communication gaps for vulnerable populations could result in unequal protection across society during an influenza pandemic. We offer insights on communication preparedness gleaned from scientific studies and the deliberations of public health experts at a meeting convened by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, May 1 and 2, 2008. PMID:19797744

  9. Probabilistic Vulnerability Assessment Based on Power Flow and Voltage Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Jian; Huang, Zhenyu; Wong, Pak C.; Ferryman, Thomas A.

    2010-04-30

    Risk assessment of large scale power systems has been an important problem in power system reliability study. Probabilistic technique provides a powerful tool to solve the task. In this paper, we present the results of a study on probabilistic vulnerability assessment on WECC system. Cumulant based expansion method is applied to obtain the probabilistic distribution function (PDF) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) of power flows on transmission lines and voltage. Overall risk index based on the system vulnerability analysis is calculated using the WECC system. The simulation results based on WECC system is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. The methodology can be applied to the risk analysis on large scale power systems.

  10. A neural biomarker of psychological vulnerability to future life stress.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Johnna R; Knodt, Annchen R; Radtke, Spenser R; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2015-02-01

    We all experience a host of common life stressors such as the death of a family member, medical illness, and financial uncertainty. While most of us are resilient to such stressors, continuing to function normally, for a subset of individuals, experiencing these stressors increases the likelihood of developing treatment-resistant, chronic psychological problems, including depression and anxiety. It is thus paramount to identify predictive markers of risk, particularly those reflecting fundamental biological processes that can be targets for intervention and prevention. Using data from a longitudinal study of 340 healthy young adults, we demonstrate that individual differences in threat-related amygdala reactivity predict psychological vulnerability to life stress occurring as much as 1 to 4 years later. These results highlight a readily assayed biomarker, threat-related amygdala reactivity, which predicts psychological vulnerability to commonly experienced stressors and represents a discrete target for intervention and prevention. PMID:25654256

  11. Caring for vulnerable ostomists: learning disabilities and stoma care.

    PubMed

    Parker, Michaela

    It is without doubt that people with learning difficulties are considered vulnerable and meeting the healthcare needs of this group in society is now recognised as a challenging task. This case study examines the implications of life with a stoma for one particular man with learning difficulties and reflects on the key issues that have influenced his care: stigma and isolation, general healthcare needs for people with learning disabilities and the association with stoma care, and the provision of care and whose role it is. Key findings include inconsistencies between primary, secondary and social care, resulting in lack of integration and flexibility in provision of care; lack of responsibility for care, with a 'pass the buck' response; lack of knowledge about stoma care in most care settings; and, as a stoma care nurse, the importance of personal instinct, along with persistence in advocating appropriate levels of care for vulnerable ostomists. PMID:23123618

  12. Diversity Strategies to Mitigate Postulated Common Cause Failure Vulnerabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Richard Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to establish effective mitigating strategies that can resolve potential common-cause failure (CCF) vulnerabilities in instrumentation and control (I&C) systems at nuclear power plants. A particular objective in the development of these strategies, which consist of combinations of diversity attributes and their associated criteria, is to address the unique characteristics of digital technology that can contribute to CCF concerns. The research approach employed to establish diversity strategies involves investigation of available documentation on diversity usage and experience from nuclear power and non-nuclear industries, capture of expert knowledge and lessons learned, determination of common practices, and assessment of the nature of CCFs and compensating diversity attributes. The resulting diversity strategies address considerations such as the effect of technology choices, the nature of CCF vulnerabilities, and the prospective impact of each diversity type. In particular, the impact of each attribute and criterion on the purpose, process, product, and performance aspects of diverse systems are considered.

  13. Vulnerability, Sensitivity, and Coping/Adaptive Capacity Worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, Elizabeth L.; Brenkert, Antoinette L.

    2009-10-01

    Research and analyses have repeatedly shown that impacts of climate change will be unevenly distributed and will affect various societies in various ways. The severity of impacts will depend in part on ability to cope in the short term and adapt in the longer term. However, it has been difficult to find a comparative basis on which to assess differential impacts of climate change. This chapter describes the Vulnerability-Resilience Indicator Model that uses 18 proxy indicators, grouped into 8 elements, to assess on a quantitative basis the comparative potential vulnerability and resilience of countries to climate change. The model integrates socioeconomic and environmental information such as land use, crop production, water availability, per capita GDP, inequality, and health status. Comparative results for 160 countries are presented and analyzed.

  14. Accounting for the Impact of Impermeable Soil Layers on Pesticide Runoff and Leaching in a Landscape Vulnerability Model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A regional-scale model that estimates landscape vulnerability of pesticide leaching and runoff (solution and particle adsorbed) underestimated runoff vulnerability and overestimated leaching vulnerability compared to measured data when applied to a gently rolling landscape in northeast Missouri. Man...

  15. Assessment of human-natural system characteristics influencing global freshwater supply vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padowski, Julie C.; Gorelick, Steven M.; Thompson, Barton H.; Rozelle, Scott; Fendorf, Scott

    2015-10-01

    Global freshwater vulnerability is a product of environmental and human dimensions, however, it is rarely assessed as such. Our approach identifies freshwater vulnerability using four broad categories: endowment, demand, infrastructure, and institutions, to capture impacts on natural and managed water systems within the coupled human-hydrologic environment. These categories are represented by 19 different endogenous and exogenous characteristics affecting water supply vulnerability. By evaluating 119 lower per capita income countries (<10 725), we find that every nation experiences some form of vulnerability. Institutional vulnerability is experienced most commonly, occurring in 44 nations, and 23 countries suffer deficiencies in all four categories. Of these highly vulnerable countries, Jordan is the most vulnerable, reporting the greatest number of characteristics (5 of 19) at critical vulnerability levels, with Yemen and Djibouti nearly as vulnerable. Surprising similarities in vulnerability were also found among geographically disparate nations such as Vietnam, Sri Lanka, and Guatemala. Determining shared patterns of freshwater vulnerability provides insights into why water supply vulnerabilities are manifested in human-water systems at the national scale.

  16. Multi-vulnerability assessment for flash flood risk management in East Attica, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagiorgos, Konstantinos; Thaler, Thomas; Hübl, Johannes; Maris, Fotios; Mallinis, Giorgos; Fuchs, Sven

    2015-04-01

    Vulnerability assessment implies a quantitative evaluation of the individual vulnerability components such as elements at risk, their physical exposure and social characteristics. Current approaches in vulnerability research are driven by a divide between social scientists who tend to view vulnerability as representing a set of socio-economic factors, and scientists who view vulnerability in terms of the degree of loss to an element at risk. To close this gap, a multi-dimensional vulnerability analysis has been undertaken focusing on flash flood hazards in Greece. To represent physical vulnerability, an empirical relation between the process intensity and the degree of loss was established. With respect to social vulnerability, an assessment was undertaken by means of empirical data collection based on a door-to-door survey. In general, both physical and social vulnerability was comparable low, which is interpreted as a result from (a) specific building regulations in Greece as well as general design principles leading to less structural susceptibility of elements at risk exposed, and (b) a relatively low economic loss leading to less social vulnerability of citizens exposed. It is shown that a combination of different perspectives of vulnerability will lead to a better understanding of perceptions of actors regarding their vulnerabilities and capacities.

  17. Perceptions of Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS: A Comparison of Two College Cohorts, 1990 and 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teague, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Theories of preventive health behavior posit that perceived vulnerability to health threats motivates self-protective behavior. Fifteen years after an initial study of college students' perceptions of their vulnerability to HIV, a replication was conducted on the same campus in 2005. Comparisons between cohorts on vulnerability judgements were…

  18. Vulnerable Children, Communities and Schools: Lessons from Three HIV/AIDS Affected Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Nancy; O'Gara, Chloe

    2007-01-01

    The growing number of children made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS threatens the achievement of Education for All (EFA) and Millennium Development goals. Policy recommendations assign schools key roles in meeting the needs of vulnerable children, but there is a dearth of evidence about how vulnerable children and schools interact in AIDS affected…

  19. A preliminary analysis of quantifying computer security vulnerability data in "the wild"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farris, Katheryn A.; McNamara, Sean R.; Goldstein, Adam; Cybenko, George

    2016-05-01

    A system of computers, networks and software has some level of vulnerability exposure that puts it at risk to criminal hackers. Presently, most vulnerability research uses data from software vendors, and the National Vulnerability Database (NVD). We propose an alternative path forward through grounding our analysis in data from the operational information security community, i.e. vulnerability data from "the wild". In this paper, we propose a vulnerability data parsing algorithm and an in-depth univariate and multivariate analysis of the vulnerability arrival and deletion process (also referred to as the vulnerability birth-death process). We find that vulnerability arrivals are best characterized by the log-normal distribution and vulnerability deletions are best characterized by the exponential distribution. These distributions can serve as prior probabilities for future Bayesian analysis. We also find that over 22% of the deleted vulnerability data have a rate of zero, and that the arrival vulnerability data is always greater than zero. Finally, we quantify and visualize the dependencies between vulnerability arrivals and deletions through a bivariate scatterplot and statistical observations.

  20. 6 CFR 27.240 - Review and approval of security vulnerability assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Review and approval of security vulnerability... of security vulnerability assessments. (a) Review and Approval. The Department will review and approve in writing all Security Vulnerability Assessments that satisfy the requirements of §...

  1. 6 CFR 27.240 - Review and approval of security vulnerability assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Review and approval of security vulnerability... of security vulnerability assessments. (a) Review and Approval. The Department will review and approve in writing all Security Vulnerability Assessments that satisfy the requirements of §...

  2. 6 CFR 27.240 - Review and approval of security vulnerability assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Review and approval of security vulnerability... of security vulnerability assessments. (a) Review and Approval. The Department will review and approve in writing all Security Vulnerability Assessments that satisfy the requirements of §...

  3. 6 CFR 27.240 - Review and approval of security vulnerability assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Review and approval of security vulnerability... of security vulnerability assessments. (a) Review and Approval. The Department will review and approve in writing all Security Vulnerability Assessments that satisfy the requirements of §...

  4. Social vulnerability to climate change in primary producers: A typology approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adaptation in agro-ecological systems will be important for moderating the impacts of climate change. Vulnerability assessments provide the basis for developing strategies to reduce social vulnerability and plan for climate adaptation. Primary industries have been identified as the most vulnerable i...

  5. Martyrdom redefined: self-destructive killers and vulnerable narcissism.

    PubMed

    Bobadilla, Leonardo

    2014-08-01

    Lankford shows that suicide terrorists have much in common with maladjusted persons who die by suicide. However, what differentiates suicidal killers from those who "only" commit suicide? A key element may be vulnerable narcissism. Narcissism has been simultaneously linked to interpersonal aggression, achievement, and depression. These traits may explain the paradoxical picture of a person who may appear "normal" in some aspects, and yet hate himself and others so intensely as to seek mutual destruction. PMID:25162842

  6. Women migrant workers' vulnerability to HIV infection in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, M; Thomas, J

    2002-08-01

    Research on population mobility and HIV/AIDS risk among migrant populations is quite limited, and research on migrant women workers' vulnerability is further limited. Hong Kong, the Special Administrative Region of China, has currently about 200,000 women migrant workers working as domestic helps. This paper reports migrant women worker's access to AIDS-related health information and health care facilities, perceptions about vulnerability, and risk behaviour profile. Data was collected through a pre-tested questionnaire from a random sample of 2,010 women migrant workers. A majority of the migrant women workers (63.6%) have been living and working in Hong Kong for between 4-10 years. Fifty-four per cent of the respondents felt that being a female they were vulnerable to HIV infection. Overall, the knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS and its route of transmission is inadequate amongst the migrant women workers in Hong Kong. It appears that AIDS-related information education and communication needs of women migrants workers are not met by the current HIV prevention and care activities in Hong Kong. The study indicates that migrant women workers who experienced sexual violence (9%) in Hong Kong perceive themselves to be 'at risk' of HIV infection. Seventy per cent of the respondents reported that they have felt discriminated against in Hong Kong, of which 42% felt discriminated against in Hong Kong hospitals. Addressing discrimination in health care settings is an essential element of AIDS prevention. The discussion urges researchers and policy makers to pay more attention to the vulnerability of migrant women workers. PMID:12204153

  7. [Precarity, vulnerability, anticipating end-of-life care at home].

    PubMed

    Bonneval, Camille

    2016-02-01

    Many patients want to end their life at home. Care teams adapt to these wishes and organise a form of treatment which blends safety of care and the respect of the expectations of the patients and family members. When factors of precarity increase the vulnerability inherent to the end of life, caregivers anticipate and support as best as they can the difficulties encountered as testified by a hospital at home team in Dax. PMID:26861082

  8. Applying marketing concepts to promote health in vulnerable groups.

    PubMed

    Fontana, S A

    1991-06-01

    Public health nurses must have a valid marketing orientation. Two marketing concepts, exchange relationships and channels of distribution and their application for public health nursing practice, have relevance in this context. In spite of the complexities inherent in applying them, they can be used to promote health in at-risk populations. By incorporating these concepts in planning and delivering public health nursing services, it is hoped that the health goals of a larger number of vulnerable individuals can be achieved. PMID:1924108

  9. Hypertension and vulnerability to hemorrhagic shock in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Penny S; Song, Kyle Seokhan; Tamariz, Francisco J; Wayne Barbee, R

    2015-02-01

    Trauma mortality may be increased in the presence of preexisting diseases such as chronic hypertension. We hypothesized that systemic and microvascular alterations accompanying chronic hypertension would increase the vulnerability to hemorrhage relative to normotensive controls in a rat model of hemorrhagic shock. We present a novel comparative hemorrhage model of shock vulnerability, quantified by "vulnerability curves" expressing physiological response to hemorrhage as a function of three matched shock metrics: cumulative blood volume, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and oxygen delivery (Do2). Responses were central hemodynamics and respiratory and muscle oxygenation obtained for one hypertensive (spontaneously hypertensive [SHR]) and two normotensive (Sprague-Dawley, Wistar-Kyoto) rat strains. Hemorrhagic shock was induced by incremental (0.5 mL) hemorrhage to cardiovascular collapse in anesthetized and mechanically ventilated animals. Shock vulnerability of SHR rats was primarily pressure-driven; in general, SHR exhibited the expected patterns of more rapid deterioration in MAP and Vo2 over smaller ranges of blood loss and Do2. Sternotomy-related depression of CO and thus Do2 in SHR meant that we could not test hypotheses related to the role of Do2 and contribution to perfusion differences between normotensive and hypertensive subjects. Insensitivity of lactate to strain effects suggests that lactate may be a reliable biomarker of shock status. Unexpected similarities between Wistar-Kyoto and SHR suggest strain-related effects other than those related to hypertension per se contribute to hemorrhage response; body size effects and genetic relationships could not be ruled out. Future studies should incorporate phylogenetically based methods to examine the role of hypertension and physiological response to hemorrhage across multiple strains. PMID:25300030

  10. Temperature-based Instanton Analysis: Identifying Vulnerability in Transmission Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Kersulis, Jonas; Hiskens, Ian; Chertkov, Michael; Backhaus, Scott N.; Bienstock, Daniel

    2015-04-08

    A time-coupled instanton method for characterizing transmission network vulnerability to wind generation fluctuation is presented. To extend prior instanton work to multiple-time-step analysis, line constraints are specified in terms of temperature rather than current. An optimization formulation is developed to express the minimum wind forecast deviation such that at least one line is driven to its thermal limit. Results are shown for an IEEE RTS-96 system with several wind-farms.

  11. Vulnerable populations: Hurricane Katrina as a case study.

    PubMed

    Zoraster, Richard M

    2010-01-01

    Mitigating disaster impact requires identifying risk factors. The increased vulnerability of the physically fragile is easily understood. Less obvious are the socio-economic risk factors, especially within relatively affluent societies. Hurricane Katrina demonstrated many of these risks within the United States. These factors include poverty, home ownership, poor English language proficiency, ethnic minorities, immigrant status, and high-density housing. These risk factors must be considered when planning for disaster preparation, mitigation, and response. PMID:20405467

  12. American Indian adolescent girls: vulnerability to sex trafficking, intervention strategies.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Alexandra Sandi

    2012-01-01

    The Minnesota Indian Women's Resource Center offers harm reduction programming to at-risk adolescent American Indian girls, including outreach, case management, advocacy, healthy sexuality education, and support groups. To evaluate program impact, participants are assessed at intake and every 6 months afterward for current vulnerability to commercial sexual exploitation, violence, and addiction. Evaluation results indicate frequent exposure to sex traffickers and suggest that harm reduction methods can help girls reduce risk of commercial sexual exploitation. PMID:22569724

  13. Impact of Degree Heterogeneity on Attack Vulnerability of Interdependent Networks.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shiwen; Wu, Yafang; Ma, Yilin; Wang, Li; Gao, Zhongke; Xia, Chengyi

    2016-01-01

    The study of interdependent networks has become a new research focus in recent years. We focus on one fundamental property of interdependent networks: vulnerability. Previous studies mainly focused on the impact of topological properties upon interdependent networks under random attacks, the effect of degree heterogeneity on structural vulnerability of interdependent networks under intentional attacks, however, is still unexplored. In order to deeply understand the role of degree distribution and in particular degree heterogeneity, we construct an interdependent system model which consists of two networks whose extent of degree heterogeneity can be controlled simultaneously by a tuning parameter. Meanwhile, a new quantity, which can better measure the performance of interdependent networks after attack, is proposed. Numerical simulation results demonstrate that degree heterogeneity can significantly increase the vulnerability of both single and interdependent networks. Moreover, it is found that interdependent links between two networks make the entire system much more fragile to attacks. Enhancing coupling strength between networks can greatly increase the fragility of both networks against targeted attacks, which is most evident under the case of max-max assortative coupling. Current results can help to deepen the understanding of structural complexity of complex real-world systems. PMID:27609483

  14. Community clusters of tsunami vulnerability in the US Pacific Northwest.

    PubMed

    Wood, Nathan J; Jones, Jeanne; Spielman, Seth; Schmidtlein, Mathew C

    2015-04-28

    Many coastal communities throughout the world are threatened by local (or near-field) tsunamis that could inundate low-lying areas in a matter of minutes after generation. Although the hazard and sustainability literature often frames vulnerability conceptually as a multidimensional issue involving exposure, sensitivity, and resilience to a hazard, assessments often focus on one element or do not recognize the hazard context. We introduce an analytical framework for describing variations in population vulnerability to tsunami hazards that integrates (i) geospatial approaches to identify the number and characteristics of people in hazard zones, (ii) anisotropic path distance models to estimate evacuation travel times to safety, and (iii) cluster analysis to classify communities with similar vulnerability. We demonstrate this approach by classifying 49 incorporated cities, 7 tribal reservations, and 17 counties from northern California to northern Washington that are directly threatened by tsunami waves associated with a Cascadia subduction zone earthquake. Results suggest three primary community groups: (i) relatively low numbers of exposed populations with varied demographic sensitivities, (ii) high numbers of exposed populations but sufficient time to evacuate before wave arrival, and (iii) moderate numbers of exposed populations but insufficient time to evacuate. Results can be used to enhance general hazard-awareness efforts with targeted interventions, such as education and outreach tailored to local demographics, evacuation training, and/or vertical evacuation refuges. PMID:25870283

  15. Vulnerability to temperature-related mortality in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jong-Tae; Anderson, G. Brooke; Bell, Michelle L.

    2011-07-01

    Studies indicate that the mortality effects of temperature may vary by population and region, although little is known about the vulnerability of subgroups to these risks in Korea. This study examined the relationship between temperature and cause-specific mortality for Seoul, Korea, for the period 2000-7, including whether some subgroups are particularly vulnerable with respect to sex, age, education and place of death. The authors applied time-series models allowing nonlinear relationships for heat- and cold-related mortality, and generated exposure-response curves. Both high and low ambient temperatures were associated with increased risk for daily mortality. Mortality risk was 10.2% (95% confidence interval 7.43, 13.0%) higher at the 90th percentile of daily mean temperatures (25 °C) compared to the 50th percentile (15 °C). Mortality risk was 12.2% (3.69, 21.3%) comparing the 10th (-1 °C) and 50th percentiles of temperature. Cardiovascular deaths showed a higher risk to cold, whereas respiratory deaths showed a higher risk to heat effect, although the differences were not statistically significant. Susceptible populations were identified such as females, the elderly, those with no education, and deaths occurring outside of a hospital for heat- and cold-related total mortality. Our findings provide supportive evidence of a temperature-mortality relationship in Korea and indicate that some subpopulations are particularly vulnerable.

  16. Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment for Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher P. Ischay; Ernest L. Fossum; Polly C. Buotte; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Alexander Peterson

    2014-10-01

    The University of Idaho (UI) was asked to participate in the development of a climate change vulnerability assessment for Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This report describes the outcome of that assessment. The climate change happening now, due in large part to human activities, is expected to continue in the future. UI and INL used a common framework for assessing vulnerability that considers exposure (future climate change), sensitivity (system or component responses to climate), impact (exposure combined with sensitivity), and adaptive capacity (capability of INL to modify operations to minimize climate change impacts) to assess vulnerability. Analyses of climate change (exposure) revealed that warming that is ongoing at INL will continue in the coming decades, with increased warming in later decades and under scenarios of greater greenhouse gas emissions. Projections of precipitation are more uncertain, with multi model means exhibiting somewhat wetter conditions and more wet days per year. Additional impacts relevant to INL include estimates of more burned area and increased evaporation and transpiration, leading to reduced soil moisture and plant growth.

  17. Life histories predict vulnerability to overexploitation in parrotfishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Brett M.; Houk, Peter; Russ, Garry R.; Choat, J. Howard

    2014-12-01

    A scarcity of life-history data currently exists for many exploited coral reef fishes, hindering our ability to interpret fishery dynamics and develop sound conservation policies. In particular, parrotfishes (Family Labridae) represent a ubiquitous and ecologically important group that is increasingly prevalent in commercial and artisanal fisheries worldwide. We used both fishery-dependent and fishery-independent data to examine the effect of life histories on vulnerability to overexploitation in parrotfishes. Vulnerability for each species was derived from independent measures associated with both temporal (20-year catch records) and spatial datasets. Most life-history traits examined were significant predictors of vulnerability across species, but their relative utility differed considerably. Length-based traits (e.g., lengths at maturity and sex change, maximum length) were generally superior to age-based traits (e.g., life span), but one age-based trait, age at female maturation, was the best predictor. The results suggest that easily derived metrics such as maximum length can be effective measures of sensitivity to exploitation when applied to phylogenetically related multispecies assemblages, but more holistic and comprehensive age-based demographic data should be sought, especially in data-deficient and heavily impacted regions. Given the increasing prevalence of parrotfishes in the global coral reef harvest, species-specific responses demonstrate the capacity for heavy fishing pressure to alter parrotfish assemblages considerably.

  18. Report to Congress on Insular Area energy vulnerability

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This report was prepared in response to Section 1406 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-486), which directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to ``conduct a study of the implications of the unique vulnerabilities of the insular areas to an oil supply disruption,`` and to ``outline how the insular areas shall gain access to vital oil supplies during times of national emergency.`` The Act defines the insular areas to be the US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico in the Caribbean, and Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), and Palau in the Pacific. In the study, ``unique vulnerabilities`` were defined as susceptibility to: (1) more frequent or more likely interruptions of oil supplies compared to the US Mainland, and/or (2) disproportionately larger or more likely economic losses in the event of an oil supply disruption. In order to assess unique vulnerabilities, the study examined the insular areas` experience during past global disruptions of oil supplies and during local emergencies caused by natural disasters. The effects of several possible future global disruptions and local emergencies were also analyzed. Analyses were based on historical data, simulations using energy and economic models, and interviews with officials in the insular governments and the energy industry.

  19. Socioeconomic Factors and Vulnerability to Outbreaks of Leptospirosis in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Bacallao, Jorge; Schneider, Maria Cristina; Najera, Patricia; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Soto, Aida; Marquiño, Wilmer; Sáenz, Carlos; Jiménez, Eduardo; Moreno, Gilberto; Chávez, Octavio; Galan, Deise I.; Espinal, Marcos A.

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an epidemic-prone zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide, with more than 500,000 human cases reported annually. It is influenced by environmental and socioeconomic factors that affect the occurrence of outbreaks and the incidence of the disease. Critical areas and potential drivers for leptospirosis outbreaks have been identified in Nicaragua, where several conditions converge and create an appropriate scenario for the development of leptospirosis. The objectives of this study were to explore possible socioeconomic variables related to leptospirosis critical areas and to construct and validate a vulnerability index based on municipal socioeconomic indicators. Municipalities with lower socioeconomic status (greater unsatisfied basic needs for quality of the household and for sanitary services, and higher extreme poverty and illiteracy rates) were identified with the highest leptospirosis rates. The municipalities with highest local vulnerability index should be the priority for intervention. A distinction between risk given by environmental factors and vulnerability to risk given by socioeconomic conditions was shown as important, which also applies to the “causes of outbreaks” and “causes of cases”. PMID:25153463

  20. The hippocampus in aging and disease: From plasticity to vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, T; Wulff, P

    2015-11-19

    The hippocampus has a pivotal role in learning and in the formation and consolidation of memory and is critically involved in the regulation of emotion, fear, anxiety, and stress. Studies of the hippocampus have been central to the study of memory in humans and in recent years, the regional specialization and organization of hippocampal functions have been elucidated in experimental models and in human neurological and psychiatric diseases. The hippocampus has long been considered a classic model for the study of neuroplasticity as many examples of synaptic plasticity such as long-term potentiation and -depression have been identified and demonstrated in hippocampal circuits. Neuroplasticity is the ability to adapt and reorganize the structure or function to internal or external stimuli and occurs at the cellular, population, network or behavioral level and is reflected in the cytological and network architecture as well as in intrinsic properties of hippocampal neurons and circuits. The high degree of hippocampal neuroplasticity might, however, be also negatively reflected in the pronounced vulnerability of the hippocampus to deleterious conditions such as ischemia, epilepsy, chronic stress, neurodegeneration and aging targeting hippocampal structure and function and leading to cognitive deficits. Considering this framework of plasticity and vulnerability, we here review basic principles of hippocampal anatomy and neuroplasticity on various levels as well as recent findings regarding the functional organization of the hippocampus in light of the regional vulnerability in Alzheimer's disease, ischemia, epilepsy, neuroinflammation and aging. PMID:26241337

  1. Assessment of floodplain vulnerability during extreme Mississippi River flood 2011.

    PubMed

    Goodwell, Allison E; Zhu, Zhenduo; Dutta, Debsunder; Greenberg, Jonathan A; Kumar, Praveen; Garcia, Marcelo H; Rhoads, Bruce L; Holmes, Robert R; Parker, Gary; Berretta, David P; Jacobson, Robert B

    2014-01-01

    Regional change in the variability and magnitude of flooding could be a major consequence of future global climate change. Extreme floods have the capacity to rapidly transform landscapes and expose landscape vulnerabilities through highly variable spatial patterns of inundation, erosion, and deposition. We use the historic activation of the Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway during the Mississippi and Ohio River Flooding of 2011 as a scientifically unique stress experiment to analyze indicators of floodplain vulnerability. We use pre- and postflood airborne Light Detection and Ranging data sets to locate erosional and depositional hotspots over the 540 km(2) agricultural Floodway. While riparian vegetation between the river and the main levee breach likely prevented widespread deposition, localized scour and deposition occurred near the levee breaches. Eroded gullies nearly 1 km in length were observed at a low ridge of a relict meander scar of the Mississippi River. Our flow modeling and spatial mapping analysis attributes this vulnerability to a combination of erodible soils, flow acceleration associated with legacy fluvial landforms, and a lack of woody vegetation to anchor soil and enhance flow resistance. Results from this study could guide future mitigation and adaptation measures in cases of extreme flooding. PMID:24512322

  2. Rapid Assessment of Seismic Vulnerability in Palestinian Refugee Camps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Dabbeek, Jalal N.; El-Kelani, Radwan J.

    Studies of historical and recorded earthquakes in Palestine demonstrate that damaging earthquakes are occurring frequently along the Dead Sea Transform: Earthquake of 11 July 1927 (ML 6.2), Earthquake of 11 February 2004 (ML 5.2). In order to reduce seismic vulnerability of buildings, losses in lives, properties and infrastructures, an attempt was made to estimate the percentage of damage degrees and losses at selected refugee camps: Al Ama`ri, Balata and Dhaishe. Assessing the vulnerability classes of building structures was carried out according to the European Macro-Seismic Scale 1998 (EMS-98) and the Fedral Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The rapid assessment results showed that very heavy structural and non structural damages will occur in the common buildings of the investigated Refugee Camps (many buildings will suffer from damages grades 4 and 5). Bad quality of buildings in terms of design and construction, lack of uniformity, absence of spaces between the building and the limited width of roads will definitely increase the seismic vulnerability under the influence of moderate-strong (M 6-7) earthquakes in the future.

  3. Improving delivery of primary care for vulnerable migrants

    PubMed Central

    Pottie, Kevin; Batista, Ricardo; Mayhew, Maureen; Mota, Lorena; Grant, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To identify and prioritize innovative strategies to address the health concerns of vulnerable migrant populations. Design Modified Delphi consensus process. Setting Canada. Participants Forty-one primary care practitioners, including family physicians and nurse practitioners, who provided care for migrant populations. Methods We used a modified Delphi consensus process to identify and prioritize innovative strategies that could potentially improve the delivery of primary health care for vulnerable migrants. Forty-one primary care practitioners from various centres across Canada who cared for migrant populations proposed strategies and participated in the consensus process. Main findings The response rate was 93% for the first round. The 3 most highly ranked practice strategies to address delivery challenges for migrants were language interpretation, comprehensive interdisciplinary care, and evidence-based guidelines. Training and mentorship for practitioners, intersectoral collaboration, and immigrant community engagement ranked fourth, fifth, and sixth, respectively, as strategies to address delivery challenges. These strategies aligned with strategies coming out of the United States, Europe, and Australia, with the exception of the proposed evidence-based guidelines. Conclusion Primary health care practices across Canada now need to evolve to address the challenges inherent in caring for vulnerable migrants. The selected strategies provide guidance for practices and health systems interested in improving health care delivery for migrant populations. PMID:24452576

  4. Neural vulnerability factors that increase risk for future weight gain.

    PubMed

    Stice, Eric; Yokum, Sonja

    2016-05-01

    Theorists have proposed several neural vulnerability factors that may increase overeating and consequent weight gain. Early cross-sectional imaging studies could not determine whether aberrant neural responsivity was a precursor or consequence of overeating. However, recent prospective imaging studies examining predictors of future weight gain and response to obesity treatment, and repeated-measures imaging studies before and after weight gain and loss have advanced knowledge of etiologic processes and neural plasticity resulting from weight change. The present article reviews evidence from prospective studies using imaging and behavioral measures reflecting neural function, as well as randomized experiments with humans and animals that are consistent or inconsistent with 5 neural vulnerability theories for excessive weight gain. Extant data provide strong support for the incentive sensitization theory of obesity and moderate support for the reward surfeit theory, inhibitory control deficit theory, and dynamic vulnerability model of obesity, which attempted to synthesize the former theories into a single etiologic model. However, existing data provide only minimal support for the reward deficit theory. Findings are synthesized into a new working etiologic model that is based on current scientific knowledge. Important directions for future studies, which have the potential to support or refute this working etiologic model, are delineated. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26854866

  5. Molecular Imaging of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaques in Animal Models.

    PubMed

    Gargiulo, Sara; Gramanzini, Matteo; Mancini, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is characterized by intimal plaques of the arterial vessels that develop slowly and, in some cases, may undergo spontaneous rupture with subsequent heart attack or stroke. Currently, noninvasive diagnostic tools are inadequate to screen atherosclerotic lesions at high risk of acute complications. Therefore, the attention of the scientific community has been focused on the use of molecular imaging for identifying vulnerable plaques. Genetically engineered murine models such as ApoE(-/-) and ApoE(-/-)Fbn1C1039G(+/-) mice have been shown to be useful for testing new probes targeting biomarkers of relevant molecular processes for the characterization of vulnerable plaques, such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-1, VEGFR-2, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, P-selectin, and integrins, and for the potential development of translational tools to identify high-risk patients who could benefit from early therapeutic interventions. This review summarizes the main animal models of vulnerable plaques, with an emphasis on genetically altered mice, and the state-of-the-art preclinical molecular imaging strategies. PMID:27618031

  6. Vulnerability to temperature-related mortality in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jong-Tae; Anderson, G Brooke; Bell, Michelle L

    2012-01-01

    Studies indicate that the mortality effects of temperature may vary by population and region, although little is known about the vulnerability of subgroups to these risks in Korea. This study examined the relationship between temperature and cause-specific mortality for Seoul, Korea, for the period 2000–7, including whether some subgroups are particularly vulnerable with respect to sex, age, education and place of death. The authors applied time-series models allowing nonlinear relationships for heat- and cold-related mortality, and generated exposure–response curves. Both high and low ambient temperatures were associated with increased risk for daily mortality. Mortality risk was 10.2% (95% confidence interval 7.43, 13.0%) higher at the 90th percentile of daily mean temperatures (25 °C) compared to the 50th percentile (15 °C). Mortality risk was 12.2% (3.69, 21.3%) comparing the 10th (−1 °C) and 50th percentiles of temperature. Cardiovascular deaths showed a higher risk to cold, whereas respiratory deaths showed a higher risk to heat effect, although the differences were not statistically significant. Susceptible populations were identified such as females, the elderly, those with no education, and deaths occurring outside of a hospital for heat- and cold-related total mortality. Our findings provide supportive evidence of a temperature–mortality relationship in Korea and indicate that some subpopulations are particularly vulnerable. PMID:23335945

  7. General Vulnerability and Exposure Profile to Tsunami in Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, R.; Huérfano-Moreno, V.

    2012-12-01

    The Puerto Rico archipelago, located in the seismically active Caribbean region, has been directly affected by tsunamis in the last two centuries. The M 7.3 tsunamigenic earthquake, which occurred on October 11, 1918, caused $29 million in damage, death of 116 people and 100 residents were reported as missing. Presently, deficiencies on urban planning have induced an increase on the number of vulnerable people living inside the tsunami flood areas. Tsunami-prone areas have been delimited for Puerto Rico based on numerical tsunami modeling. However, the demographic, social and physical (e.g. critical and essential facilities) characteristics of these areas have not been documented in detail. We are conducting a municipality and community-level tsunami vulnerability and exposure study using Geographical Information System (GIS) tool. The results of our study are being integrated into the Puerto Rico Disaster Decision Support Tool (DDST). The DDST is a tool that brings access, at no cost, to a variety of updated geo-referenced information for Puerto Rico. This tool provides internet-based scalable maps that will aid emergency managers and decision-makers on their responsibilities and will improve Puerto Rico communities' resilience against tsunami hazard. This project aims to provide an initial estimate of Puerto Rico vulnerability and exposure to tsunami and brings to the community a technological tool that will help increase their awareness of this hazard and to assist them on their decisions.

  8. Neural Vulnerability Factors that Increase Risk for Future Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Yokum, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Theorists have proposed several neural vulnerability factors that may increase overeating and consequent weight gain. Early cross-sectional imaging studies could not determine whether aberrant neural responsivity was a precursor or consequence of overeating. However, recent prospective imaging studies examining predictors of future weight gain and response to obesity treatment, and repeated-measures imaging studies before and after weight gain and loss have advanced knowledge of etiologic processes and neural plasticity resulting from weight change. The present article reviews evidence from prospective studies using imaging and behavioral measures reflecting neural function, as well as randomized experiments with humans and animals that are consistent or inconsistent with five neural vulnerability theories for excessive weight gain. Extant data provide strong support for the incentive sensitization theory of obesity and moderate support for the reward surfeit theory, inhibitory control deficit theory, and dynamic vulnerability model of obesity, which attempted to synthesize the former theories into a single etiologic model. However, existing data provide only minimal support for the reward deficit theory. Findings are synthesized into a new working etiologic model that is based on current scientific knowledge. Important directions for future studies, which have the potential to support or refute this working etiologic model, are delineated. PMID:26854866

  9. Impact of Degree Heterogeneity on Attack Vulnerability of Interdependent Networks

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shiwen; Wu, Yafang; Ma, Yilin; Wang, Li; Gao, Zhongke; Xia, Chengyi

    2016-01-01

    The study of interdependent networks has become a new research focus in recent years. We focus on one fundamental property of interdependent networks: vulnerability. Previous studies mainly focused on the impact of topological properties upon interdependent networks under random attacks, the effect of degree heterogeneity on structural vulnerability of interdependent networks under intentional attacks, however, is still unexplored. In order to deeply understand the role of degree distribution and in particular degree heterogeneity, we construct an interdependent system model which consists of two networks whose extent of degree heterogeneity can be controlled simultaneously by a tuning parameter. Meanwhile, a new quantity, which can better measure the performance of interdependent networks after attack, is proposed. Numerical simulation results demonstrate that degree heterogeneity can significantly increase the vulnerability of both single and interdependent networks. Moreover, it is found that interdependent links between two networks make the entire system much more fragile to attacks. Enhancing coupling strength between networks can greatly increase the fragility of both networks against targeted attacks, which is most evident under the case of max-max assortative coupling. Current results can help to deepen the understanding of structural complexity of complex real-world systems. PMID:27609483

  10. Community clusters of tsunami vulnerability in the US Pacific Northwest

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Nathan J.; Jones, Jeanne; Spielman, Seth; Schmidtlein, Mathew C.

    2015-01-01

    Many coastal communities throughout the world are threatened by local (or near-field) tsunamis that could inundate low-lying areas in a matter of minutes after generation. Although the hazard and sustainability literature often frames vulnerability conceptually as a multidimensional issue involving exposure, sensitivity, and resilience to a hazard, assessments often focus on one element or do not recognize the hazard context. We introduce an analytical framework for describing variations in population vulnerability to tsunami hazards that integrates (i) geospatial approaches to identify the number and characteristics of people in hazard zones, (ii) anisotropic path distance models to estimate evacuation travel times to safety, and (iii) cluster analysis to classify communities with similar vulnerability. We demonstrate this approach by classifying 49 incorporated cities, 7 tribal reservations, and 17 counties from northern California to northern Washington that are directly threatened by tsunami waves associated with a Cascadia subduction zone earthquake. Results suggest three primary community groups: (i) relatively low numbers of exposed populations with varied demographic sensitivities, (ii) high numbers of exposed populations but sufficient time to evacuate before wave arrival, and (iii) moderate numbers of exposed populations but insufficient time to evacuate. Results can be used to enhance general hazard-awareness efforts with targeted interventions, such as education and outreach tailored to local demographics, evacuation training, and/or vertical evacuation refuges. PMID:25870283

  11. Assessment of floodplain vulnerability during extreme Mississippi River flood 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodwell, Allison E.; Zhu, Zhenduo; Dutta, Debsunder; Greenberg, Jonathan A.; Kumar, Praveen; Garcia, Marcelo H.; Rhoads, Bruce L.; Holmes, Jr., Robert R.; Parker, Gary; Berretta, David P.; Jacobson, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Regional change in the variability and magnitude of flooding could be a major consequence of future global climate change. Extreme floods have the capacity to rapidly transform landscapes and expose landscape vulnerabilities through highly variable spatial patterns of inundation, erosion, and deposition. We use the historic activation of the Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway during the Mississippi and Ohio River Flooding of 2011 as a scientifically unique stress experiment to analyze indicators of floodplain vulnerability. We use pre- and postflood airborne Light Detection and Ranging data sets to locate erosional and depositional hotspots over the 540 km2 agricultural Floodway. While riparian vegetation between the river and the main levee breach likely prevented widespread deposition, localized scour and deposition occurred near the levee breaches. Eroded gullies nearly 1 km in length were observed at a low ridge of a relict meander scar of the Mississippi River. Our flow modeling and spatial mapping analysis attributes this vulnerability to a combination of erodible soils, flow acceleration associated with legacy fluvial landforms, and a lack of woody vegetation to anchor soil and enhance flow resistance. Results from this study could guide future mitigation and adaptation measures in cases of extreme flooding.

  12. Community clusters of tsunami vulnerability in the US Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Nathan J.; Jones, Jeanne M.; Spielman, Seth; Schmidtlein, Mathew C.

    2015-01-01

    Many coastal communities throughout the world are threatened by local (or near-field) tsunamis that could inundate low-lying areas in a matter of minutes after generation. Although the hazard and sustainability literature often frames vulnerability conceptually as a multidimensional issue involving exposure, sensitivity, and resilience to a hazard, assessments often focus on one element or do not recognize the hazard context. We introduce an analytical framework for describing variations in population vulnerability to tsunami hazards that integrates (i) geospatial approaches to identify the number and characteristics of people in hazard zones, (ii) anisotropic path distance models to estimate evacuation travel times to safety, and (iii) cluster analysis to classify communities with similar vulnerability. We demonstrate this approach by classifying 49 incorporated cities, 7 tribal reservations, and 17 counties from northern California to northern Washington that are directly threatened by tsunami waves associated with a Cascadia subduction zone earthquake. Results suggest three primary community groups: (i) relatively low numbers of exposed populations with varied demographic sensitivities, (ii) high numbers of exposed populations but sufficient time to evacuate before wave arrival, and (iii) moderate numbers of exposed populations but insufficient time to evacuate. Results can be used to enhance general hazard-awareness efforts with targeted interventions, such as education and outreach tailored to local demographics, evacuation training, and/or vertical evacuation refuges.

  13. Hydropower and sustainability: resilience and vulnerability in China's powersheds.

    PubMed

    McNally, Amy; Magee, Darrin; Wolf, Aaron T

    2009-07-01

    Large dams represent a whole complex of social, economic and ecological processes, perhaps more than any other large infrastructure project. Today, countries with rapidly developing economies are constructing new dams to provide energy and flood control to growing populations in riparian and distant urban communities. If the system is lacking institutional capacity to absorb these physical and institutional changes there is potential for conflict, thereby threatening human security. In this paper, we propose analyzing sustainability (political, socioeconomic, and ecological) in terms of resilience versus vulnerability, framed within the spatial abstraction of a powershed. The powershed framework facilitates multi-scalar and transboundary analysis while remaining focused on the questions of resilience and vulnerability relating to hydropower dams. Focusing on examples from China, this paper describes the complex nature of dams using the sustainability and powershed frameworks. We then analyze the roles of institutions in China to understand the relationships between power, human security and the socio-ecological system. To inform the study of conflicts over dams China is a particularly useful case study because we can examine what happens at the international, national and local scales. The powershed perspective allows us to examine resilience and vulnerability across political boundaries from a dynamic, process-defined analytical scale while remaining focused on a host of questions relating to hydro-development that invoke drivers and impacts on national and sub-national scales. The ability to disaggregate the affects of hydropower dam construction from political boundaries allows for a deeper analysis of resilience and vulnerability. From our analysis we find that reforms in China's hydropower sector since 1996 have been motivated by the need to create stability at the national scale rather than resilient solutions to China's growing demand for energy and water

  14. Trait-Like Vulnerability to Total and Partial Sleep Loss

    PubMed Central

    Rupp, Tracy L.; Wesensten, Nancy J.; Balkin, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the extent to which individual differences in vulnerability to total sleep deprivation also reflect individual differences in vulnerability to multiple nights of sleep restriction. Design: Two sleep loss conditions (order counterbalanced) separated by 2 to 4 weeks: (a) total sleep deprivation (TSD) of 2 nights (63 h continuous wakefulness); (b) sleep restriction (SR) of 7 nights of 3 h nightly time in bed (TIB). Both conditions were preceded by 7 in-laboratory nights with 10 h nightly TIB; and followed by 3 recovery nights with 8 h nightly TIB. Measures of cognitive performance (psychomotor vigilance, working memory [1-Back], and mathematical processing), objective alertness, subjective sleepiness, and mood were obtained at regular intervals under both conditions. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) were computed using outcome metrics averaged over the last day (08:00-20:00) of TSD and SR. Setting: Residential sleep/performance testing facility. Participants: Nineteen healthy adults (ages 18-39; 11 males, 8 females). Interventions: 2 nights of TSD and 7 nights SR (3 h nightly TIB). Results: Volunteers who displayed greater vulnerability to TSD displayed greater vulnerability to SR on cognitive performance tasks (ICC: PVT lapses = 0.89; PVT speed = 0.86; 1-Back = 0.88; mathematical processing = 0.68, Ps < 0.05). In addition, trait-like responsivity to TSD/SR was found for mood variables vigor (ICC = 0.91), fatigue (ICC = 0.73), and happiness (ICC = 0.85) (all Ps < 0.05). Conclusion: Resilience to sleep loss is a trait-like characteristic that reflects an individual's ability to maintain performance during both types of sleep loss (SR and TSD). Whether the findings extend to sleep schedules other than those investigated here (63 h of TSD and 7 nights of 3 h nightly TIB) will be the focus of future studies. Citation: Rupp TL; Wesensten NJ; Balkin TJ. Trait-like vulnerability to total and partial sleep loss. SLEEP 2012

  15. European information on climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jol, A.; Isoard, S.

    2010-09-01

    Vulnerability to natural and technological disasters is increasing due to a combination of intensifying land use, increasing industrial development, further urban expansion and expanding infrastructure and also climate change. At EU level the European Commission's White Paper on adaptation to climate change (published in 2009) highlights that adaptation actions should be focused on the most vulnerable areas and communities in Europe (e.g. mountains, coastal areas, river flood prone areas, Mediterranean, Arctic). Mainstreaming of climate change into existing EU policies will be a key policy, including within the Water Framework Directive, Marine Strategy Framework Directive, Nature protection and biodiversity policies, integrated coastal zone management, other (sectoral) policies (agriculture, forestry, energy, transport, health) and disaster risk prevention. 2010 is the international year on biodiversity and the Conference of Parties of the biodiversity convention will meet in autumn 2010 (Japan) to discuss amongst other post-2010 strategies, objectives and indicators. Both within the Biodiversity Convention (CBD) and the Climate Change Convention (UNFCCC) there is increasing recognition of the need for integration of biodiversity conservation into climate change mitigation and adaptation activities. Furthermore a number of European countries and also some regions have started to prepare and/or have adopted national adaptation plans or frameworks. Sharing of good practices on climate change vulnerability methods and adaptation actions is so far limited, but is essential to improve such plans, at national, sub national and local level where much of the adaptation action is already taking place and will be expanding in future, also involving increasingly the business community. The EU Clearinghouse on CC impacts, vulnerability and adaptation should address these needs and it is planned to be operational end of 2011. The EEA is expected to have a role in its

  16. The arctic water resource vulnerability index: An integrated assessment tool for community resilience and vulnerability with respect to freshwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alessa, L.; Kliskey, A.; Lammers, R.; Arp, C.; White, D.; Hinzman, L.; Busey, R.

    2008-01-01

    People in the Arctic face uncertainty in their daily lives as they contend with environmental changes at a range of scales from local to global. Freshwater is a critical resource to people, and although water resource indicators have been developed that operate from regional to global scales and for midlatitude to equatorial environments, no appropriate index exists for assessing the vulnerability of Arctic communities to changing water resources at the local scale. The Arctic Water Resource Vulnerability Index (AWRVI) is proposed as a tool that Arctic communities can use to assess their relative vulnerability-resilience to changes in their water resources from a variety of biophysical and socioeconomic processes. The AWRVI is based on a social-ecological systems perspective that includes physical and social indicators of change and is demonstrated in three case study communities/watersheds in Alaska. These results highlight the value of communities engaging in the process of using the AWRVI and the diagnostic capability of examining the suite of constituent physical and social scores rather than the total AWRVI score alone. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  17. General vulnerability to stuttering: The experience of stuttering and conditions bringing about invulnerability.

    PubMed

    Briley, P M; Kalinowski, J S

    2016-08-01

    General vulnerability to stuttering is the broad awareness of stuttering and the ever-present, experiential sense of a person who stutters (PWS). It is defined by stuttering in all its forms and the awareness of its presence, both in moments of stuttering and moments of perceivably fluent speech. Under the heading of general vulnerability to stuttering is specific vulnerability to stuttering, which includes the actual events of stuttering (i.e., overt symptoms, covert symptoms, subperceptual stuttering, and anticipation of stuttering). The differentiation between the two is that specific vulnerability requires a specific moment of stuttering where general vulnerability does not. PMID:27372857

  18. Putting vulnerability to climate change on the map: a review of approaches, benefits, and risks

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, Benjamin L

    2011-01-01

    There is growing demand among stakeholders across public and private institutions for spatially-explicit information regarding vulnerability to climate change at the local scale. However, the challenges associated with mapping the geography of climate change vulnerability are non-trivial, both conceptually and technically, suggesting the need for more critical evaluation of this practice. Here, we review climate change vulnerability mapping in the context of four key questions that are fundamental to assessment design. First, what are the goals of the assessment? A review of published assessments yields a range of objective statements that emphasize problem orientation or decision-making about adaptation actions. Second, how is the assessment of vulnerability framed? Assessments vary with respect to what values are assessed (vulnerability of what) and the underlying determinants of vulnerability that are considered (vulnerability to what). The selected frame ultimately influences perceptions of the primary driving forces of vulnerability as well as preferences regarding management alternatives. Third, what are the technical methods by which an assessment is conducted? The integration of vulnerability determinants into a common map remains an emergent and subjective practice associated with a number of methodological challenges. Fourth, who participates in the assessment and how will it be used to facilitate change? Assessments are often conducted under the auspices of benefiting stakeholders, yet many lack direct engagement with stakeholders. Each of these questions is reviewed in turn by drawing on an illustrative set of 45 vulnerability mapping studies appearing in the literature. A number of pathways for placing vulnerability

  19. Genetic Vulnerability as a Distal Risk Factor for Suicidal Behaviour: Historical Perspective and Current Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    ANDRIESSEN, Karl; VIDETIC-PASKA, Alja

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Suicide is a multidimensional problem. Observations of family history of suicide suggest the existence of a genetic vulnerability to suicidal behaviour. Aim Starting with a historical perspective, the article reviews current knowledge of a genetic vulnerability to suicidal behaviour, distinct from the genetic vulnerability to psychiatric disorders, focused on clinical and population-based studies, and findings from recent molecular genetics association studies. Method The review includes peer-reviewed research articles and review papers from the professional literature in English language, retrieved from PubMed/Medline and PsycINFO. Results The research literature confirms a existence of a genetic vulnerability to suicidal behaviour. Even though the results of individual studies are difficult to compare, genetic influences could explain up to half of the variance of the occurrence of suicide. Conclusion Genetic vulnerability could be a distal risk factor for suicide, which helps us to understand the occurrence of suicide among vulnerable people. Ethical implications of such vulnerability are highlighted.

  20. Assessment Model of Ecoenvironmental Vulnerability Based on Improved Entropy Weight Method

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xianqi; Wang, Chenbo; Li, Enkuan; Xu, Cundong

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of ecoenvironmental vulnerability plays an important role in the guidance of regional planning, the construction and protection of ecological environment, which requires comprehensive consideration on regional resources, environment, ecology, society and other factors. Based on the driving mechanism and evolution characteristics of ecoenvironmental vulnerability in cold and arid regions of China, a novel evaluation index system on ecoenvironmental vulnerability is proposed in this paper. For the disadvantages of conventional entropy weight method, an improved entropy weight assessment model on ecoenvironmental vulnerability is developed and applied to evaluate the ecoenvironmental vulnerability in western Jilin Province of China. The assessing results indicate that the model is suitable for ecoenvironmental vulnerability assessment, and it shows more reasonable evaluation criterion, more distinct insights and satisfactory results combined with the practical conditions. The model can provide a new method for regional ecoenvironmental vulnerability evaluation. PMID:25133260

  1. Analysing agricultural drought vulnerability at sub-district level through exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity based composite index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, C. S.; Laxman, B.; Sesha Sai, M. V. R.; Diwakar, P. G.

    2014-11-01

    Information on agricultural drought vulnerability status of different regions is extremely useful for implementation of long term drought management measures. A quantitative approach for measuring agricultural drought vulnerability at sub-district level was developed and implemented in the current study, which was carried-out in Andhra Pradesh state, India with the data of main cropping season i.e., kharif. The contributing indicators represent exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity components of vulnerability and were drawn from weather, soil, crop, irrigation and land holdings related data. After performing data normalisation and variance based weights generation, component wise composite indices were generated. Agricultural Drought Vulnerability Index (ADVI) was generated using the three component indices and beta distribution was fitted to it. Mandals (sub-district level administrative units) of the state were categorised into 5 classes - Less vulnerable, Moderately vulnerable, Vulnerable, Highly vulnerable and Very highly vulnerable. Districts dominant with vulnerable Mandals showed considerably larger variability of detrended yields of principal crops compared to the other districts, thus validating the index based vulnerability status. Current status of agricultural drought vulnerability in the state, based on ADVI, indicated that vulnerable to very highly vulnerable group of Mandals represent 54 % of total Mandals and about 55 % of the agricultural area and 65 % of the rainfed crop area. The variability in the agricultural drought vulnerability at disaggregated level was effectively captured by ADVI. The vulnerability status map is useful for diagnostic analysis and for formulating vulnerability reduction plans.

  2. [Vulnerability to depression in children and adolescents: update and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Purper-Ouakil, D; Michel, G; Mouren-Siméoni, M-C

    2002-01-01

    Depression in children and adolescents is associated with poor psychosocial functioning, high psychiatric comorbidity, risk of recurrent episodes or onset of bipolar disorder. These findings emphasize the importance of early identification of children and adolescents having elevated risk for future depression and further development, evaluation and greater availability of prevention strategies. Our review aims an update about depressive vulnerability in children and adolescents in the perspective of better identification of at-risk populations and targeting of prevention programs. Psychopathology, in particular anxiety and disruptive disorders are well identified risk-factors for later depression. Subclinical depressive symptomatology, also termed "demoralization", also identifies high-risk populations, likely to become incident cases of depression. It is still unclear whether this condition is prodromal depression, a specific clinical entity or the expression of biological and/or cognitive vulnerability. Familial risk for depressive disorders involves both genetic and psychosocial factors. Marital discord, poor communication and dysfunctional parenting practices are often present in families with affective disorders and can be implicated in increased depressive vulnerability in the offspring. Research on individual vulnerability in children and adolescents has focused on temperamental and cognitive characteristics. Temperament traits describe individual differences in reactivity and behavior. High emotionality, defined as the tendency to become upset easily and intensely has been associated with an increased risk for subsequent major depression. However, as the majority of high scorers will not become depressive cases, emotionality should not be the only criterion for selection of at-risk populations. Cognitive style including poor self esteem, low social competence and negative attributions are also associated with increased likelihood of depressive symptoms, but

  3. Groundwater Resource Vulnerability for Small Island Developing States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, D. M.; Holding, S.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater constitutes the majority of naturally-occurring freshwater supply on many small islands. However, in addition to potential impacts of climate change and population growth that may compromise water supply and demand on small islands, Small Island Developing States (SIDS) often lack hydrogeological data for characterizing aquifers and have limited institutional means for managing the groundwater resource. As part of UNESCO-IHP's Transboundary Water Assessment Programme (TWAP), an assessment of groundwater systems on 43 SIDS was undertaken. This SIDS assessment represents the first baseline global assessment of the status of groundwater in SIDS, covering all major island states of the world with an area less than 50,000 km2. As many SIDS comprise multiple islands with different hydrogeologic settings, a representative island from each SIDS was chosen to represent the majority of the population. Data were compiled from publications, accessible datasets and a questionnaire distributed to collect local expertise. A total of 74 variables were defined for each SIDS, according to the level of confidence in the data (i.e. high confidence when based on specific studies and low confidence when inferred). These variables represent the current hydrogeologic conditions for each island and were used to define indicators that characterise vulnerability. Recharge was modelled for both current and future projected climate change for the 2060s using regionally downscaled data for each SIDS to identify islands likely to experience significant stress due to changes in recharge. The assessment results were categorized based on island type to identify trends in hydrogeologic conditions and vulnerability for similar island types. Despite limitations and uncertainty in the data used in the assessment, the results provide a broad assessment of current and future groundwater resource vulnerability for SIDS throughout the world.

  4. Chemical plants remain vulnerable to terrorists: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Lippin, Tobi Mae; McQuiston, Thomas H; Bradley-Bull, Kristin; Burns-Johnson, Toshiba; Cook, Linda; Gill, Michael L; Howard, Donna; Seymour, Thomas A; Stephens, Doug; Williams, Brian K

    2006-09-01

    U.S. chemical plants currently have potentially catastrophic vulnerabilities as terrorist targets. The possible consequences of these vulnerabilities echo from the tragedies of the Bhopal incident in 1984 to the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001 and, most recently, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Findings from a 2004 nationwide participatory research study of 125 local union leaders at sites with very large volumes of highly hazardous chemicals suggest that voluntary efforts to achieve chemical plant security are not succeeding. Study respondents reported that companies had only infrequently taken actions that are most effective in preventing or in preparing to respond to a terrorist threat. In addition, companies reportedly often failed to involve key stakeholders, including workers, local unions, and the surrounding communities, in these efforts. The environmental health community thus has an opportunity to play a key role in advocating for and supporting improvements in prevention of and preparation for terrorist attacks. Policy-level recommendations to redress chemical site vulnerabilities and the related ongoing threats to the nation's security are as follows: a) specify detailed requirements for chemical site assessment and security ; b) mandate audit inspections supported by significant penalties for cases of noncompliance ; c) require progress toward achieving inherently safer processes, including the minimizing of storage of highly hazardous chemicals ; d) examine and require additional effective actions in prevention, emergency preparedness, and response and remediation ; e) mandate and fund the upgrading of emergency communication systems ; and f) involve workers and community members in plan creation and equip and prepare them to prevent and respond effectively to an incident. PMID:16966080

  5. Socio-Economic Vulnerability to Climate Change in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heberger, M. G.; Cooley, H.; Moore, E.; Garzon, C.

    2011-12-01

    The western United States faces a range of impacts from global climate change, including increases in extreme heat, wildfires, and coastal flooding and erosion; changes are also likely to occur in air quality, water availability, and the spread of infectious diseases. To date, a great deal of research has been done to forecast the physical effects of climate change, while less attention has been given to the factors make different populations more or less vulnerable to harm from such changes. For example, mortality rates from Hurricane Audrey, which struck the coast of Louisiana in 1957, were more than eight times higher among blacks than among whites. While disaster events may not discriminate, impacts on human populations are shaped by "intervening conditions" that determine the human impact of the flood and the specific needs for preparedness, response, and recovery. In this study, we analyze the potential impacts of climate change by using recent downscaled climate model outputs, creating a variety of statistics and visualizations to communicate potential impacts to community groups and decision makers, after several meetings with these groups to ask, "What types of information are most useful to you for planning?" We relate climate impacts to social vulnerability - defined as the intersection of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of a person or group of people - with a focus on the U.S. state of California. Understanding vulnerability factors and the populations that exhibit these factors are critical for crafting effective climate change policies and response strategies. It is also important to the emerging study of climate justice, which is the concept that no group of people should disproportionately bear the burden of climate impacts or the costs of mitigation and adaptation.

  6. Approaches of Seismic Vulnerability Assessments in Near Real Time Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolova, Nina; Larionov, Valery; Bonnin, Jean; Ugarov, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Data on seismic vulnerability of existing building stock and other elements at risk are rather important for near real time earthquake loss estimations by global systems. These data together with information on regional peculiarities of seismic intensity attenuation and other factors contribute greatly to the reliability of strong event consequences estimated in emergency mode. There are different approaches for vulnerability functions' development and the empirical one is most often used. It is based on analysis of engineering consequences of past strong events when well documented descriptions of damage to different building types and other elements at risk are available for the earthquake prone area under consideration. In the case such data do not exist the information from macroseismic scales may be used. Any approach of vulnerability functions' development requires the proper classification of buildings and structures under consideration. According to national and international building codes, as well as macroseismic scales different buildings' classifications exist. As a result the global systems, such as Extremum and PAGER, as well as GEM project make use of the non-unified information on building stock distribution worldwide. The paper addresses the issues of buildings' classification and city models in terms of these classifications. Distribution of different buildings types in Extremum and PAGER/GEM systems is analyzed for earthquake prone countries. The comparison of city models revealed significant differences which influence greatly earthquake loss estimations in emergency mode. The paper describes the practice of city models' development which make use of space images and web technology in social networks. It is proposed to use the G8 country (and other) initiatives related to open data and transparency aimed at improving building stock distribution and global population databases.

  7. Can mother-infant interaction produce vulnerability to schizophrenia?

    PubMed

    Brody, E B

    1981-02-01

    Schizophrenia is regarded as a final common behavioral syndrome which may be arrived at though a variety of routes. Even with a probably genotype, environmental influence seems necessary for the phenotype to appear. The problem concerns the likelihood of an early experience-induced sequence of events within the person of infant and later adult vs. a continuing pathogenic environment. Either may or may not interact with a continuing genic factor(s) as a source of vulnerability. Vulnerability is here, then, viewed as epigenetically evolving via individual-environment transactions throughout life (although with major impacts from conception through adolescence). At any point, therapeutic intervention may preclude or minimize the actualization of the pathogenic potential. It may begin during pregnancy, with attention to such factors as diet, drugs, physical stress, and illness, influencing fetal development and obstetrical manipulations and the birth process. All influence earliest mother-infant interaction from the point of view both of the infant's evocation of maternal behavior and maternal responsivity. Therapeutic interventions also include attention to the multigenerational context of earliest interaction, with special reference to a woman's relationships with her own mother. At every point, nonspecific protective or pathogenic factors such as social support or stressful precipitating events may become important. Socioeconomic status appears to have a powerful nonspecific influence as the core of a cluster of factors which exert an enduring influence from infancy to adulthood. A continuing specific factor may reside in distorted communicative reciprocity between parent an child rooted in the preverbal period of infant development. Context-mediated cerebral deficits may influence learning capacity, hedonic capacity, behavioral rigidity, and many other factors leading ultimately to impaired social competence and increased vulnerability. PMID:7009784

  8. Brain renin-angiotensin system and dopaminergic cell vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Labandeira-García, Jose L.; Garrido-Gil, Pablo; Rodriguez-Pallares, Jannette; Valenzuela, Rita; Borrajo, Ana; Rodríguez-Perez, Ana I.

    2014-01-01

    Although the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) was classically considered as a circulating system that regulates blood pressure, many tissues are now known to have a local RAS. Angiotensin, via type 1 receptors, is a major activator of the NADPH-oxidase complex, which mediates several key events in oxidative stress (OS) and inflammatory processes involved in the pathogenesis of major aging-related diseases. Several studies have demonstrated the presence of RAS components in the basal ganglia, and particularly in the nigrostriatal system. In the nigrostriatal system, RAS hyperactivation, via NADPH-oxidase complex activation, exacerbates OS and the microglial inflammatory response and contributes to progression of dopaminergic degeneration, which is inhibited by angiotensin receptor blockers and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Several factors may induce an increase in RAS activity in the dopaminergic system. A decrease in dopaminergic activity induces compensatory upregulation of local RAS function in both dopaminergic neurons and glia. In addition to its role as an essential neurotransmitter, dopamine may also modulate microglial inflammatory responses and neuronal OS via RAS. Important counterregulatory interactions between angiotensin and dopamine have also been observed in several peripheral tissues. Neurotoxins and proinflammatory factors may also act on astrocytes to induce an increase in RAS activity, either independently of or before the loss of dopamine. Consistent with a major role of RAS in dopaminergic vulnerability, increased RAS activity has been observed in the nigra of animal models of aging, menopause and chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, which also showed higher dopaminergic vulnerability. Manipulation of the brain RAS may constitute an effective neuroprotective strategy against dopaminergic vulnerability and progression of Parkinson’s disease. PMID:25071471

  9. Age-Related Psychophysiological Vulnerability to Phenylalanine in Phenylketonuria

    PubMed Central

    Leuzzi, Vincenzo; Mannarelli, Daniela; Manti, Filippo; Pauletti, Caterina; Locuratolo, Nicoletta; Carducci, Carla; Carducci, Claudia; Vanacore, Nicola; Fattapposta, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Background: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by the inherited defect of the phenylalanine hydroxylase enzyme, which converts phenylalanine (Phe) into tyrosine (Tyr). Neonatal screening programs and early treatment have radically changed the natural history of PKU. Nevertheless, an increased risk of neurocognitive and psychiatric problems in adulthood remains a challenging aspect of the disease. In order to assess the vulnerability of complex skills to Phe, we explored: (a) the effect of a rapid increase in blood Phe levels on event-related potentials (ERP) in PKU subjects during their second decade of life; (b) the association (if existing) between psychophysiological and neurocognitive features. Methods: Seventeen early-treated PKU subjects, aged 10–20, underwent ERP [mismatch negativity, auditory P300, contingent negative variation (CNV), and Intensity Dependence of Auditory Evoked Potentials] recording before and 2 h after an oral loading of Phe. Neurocognitive functioning, historical and concurrent biochemical values of blood Phe, Tyr, and Phe/Tyr ratio, were all included in the statistical analysis. Results: Event-related potential components were normally detected in all the subjects. In subjects younger than 13 CNV amplitude, W2-CNV area, P3b latency, and reaction times in motor responses were negatively influenced by Phe-loading. Independently from the psychophysiological vulnerability, some neurocognitive skills were more impaired in younger patients. No correlation was found between biochemical alterations and neurocognitive and psychophysiological findings. Conclusion: The vulnerability of the emerging neurocognitive functions to Phe suggests a strict metabolic control in adolescents affected by PKU and a neurodevelopmental approach in the study of neurocognitive outcome in PKU. PMID:25003100

  10. Increased vulnerability to ethanol consumption in adolescent maternal separated mice.

    PubMed

    García-Gutiérrez, María S; Navarrete, Francisco; Aracil, Auxiliadora; Bartoll, Adrián; Martínez-Gras, Isabel; Lanciego, José L; Rubio, Gabriel; Manzanares, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of early life stress on the vulnerability to ethanol consumption in adolescence. To this aim, mice were separated from their mothers for 12 hours/day on postnatal days 8 and 12. Emotional behavior (light-dark box, elevated plus maze and tail suspension tests) and pre-attentional deficit (pre-pulse inhibition) were evaluated in adolescent maternal separated (MS) mice. Alterations of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), mu-opioid receptor (MOr), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neuronal nuclei (NeuN), microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and neurofilament heavy (NF200)-immunoreactive fibers were studied in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens (NAc) or hippocampus (HIP). The effects of maternal separation (alone or in combination with additional stressful stimuli) on ethanol consumption during adolescence were evaluated using the oral ethanol self-administration paradigm. MS mice presented mood-related alterations and pre-attentional deficit. Increased CRF, MOr and TH, and reduced BDNF, NR3C1, NeuN, MAP2 and NF200-immunoreactive fibers were observed in the PVN, NAc and HIP of adolescent MS mice. In the oral ethanol self-administration test, adolescent MS mice presented higher ethanol consumption and motivation. Exposure to additional new stressful stimuli during adolescence significantly increased the vulnerability to ethanol consumption induced by maternal separation. These results clearly demonstrated that exposure to early life stress increased the vulnerability to ethanol consumption, potentiated the effects of stressful stimuli exposure during adolescence on ethanol consumption and modified the expression of key targets involved in the response to stress, ethanol reinforcing properties and cognitive processes. PMID:25988842

  11. Water vulnerabilities for existing coal-fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.; Kuiper, J.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-08-19

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Water consumption by all users in the United States over the 2005-2030 time period is projected to increase by about 7% (from about 108 billion gallons per day [bgd] to about 115 bgd) (Elcock 2010). By contrast, water consumption by coal-fired power plants over this period is projected to increase by about 21% (from about 2.4 to about 2.9 bgd) (NETL 2009b). The high projected demand for water by power plants, which is expected to increase even further as carbon-capture equipment is installed, combined with decreasing freshwater supplies in many areas, suggests that certain coal-fired plants may be particularly vulnerable to potential water demand-supply conflicts. If not addressed, these conflicts could limit power generation and lead to power disruptions or increased consumer costs. The identification of existing coal-fired plants that are vulnerable to water demand and supply concerns, along with an analysis of information about their cooling systems and related characteristics, provides information to help focus future research and development (R&D) efforts to help ensure that coal-fired generation demands are met in a cost-effective manner that supports sustainable water use. This study identified coal-fired power plants that are considered vulnerable to water demand and supply issues by using a geographical information system (GIS) that facilitated the analysis of plant-specific data for more than 500 plants in the NETL's Coal Power Plant Database (CPPDB) (NETL 2007a) simultaneously with 18 indicators of water demand and supply. Two types of demand indicators were evaluated. The first type

  12. Structural vulnerability assessment using reliability of slabs in avalanche area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favier, Philomène; Bertrand, David; Eckert, Nicolas; Naaim, Mohamed

    2013-04-01

    Improvement of risk assessment or hazard zoning requires a better understanding of the physical vulnerability of structures. To consider natural hazard issue such as snow avalanches, once the flow is characterized, highlight on the mechanical behaviour of the structure is a decisive step. A challenging approach is to quantify the physical vulnerability of impacted structures according to various avalanche loadings. The main objective of this presentation is to introduce methodology and outcomes regarding the assessment of vulnerability of reinforced concrete buildings using reliability methods. Reinforced concrete has been chosen as it is one of the usual material used to build structures exposed to potential avalanche loadings. In avalanche blue zones, structures have to resist to a pressure up to 30kPa. Thus, by providing systematic fragility relations linked to the global failure of the structure, this method may serve the avalanche risk assessment. To do so, a slab was numerically designed. It represented the avalanche facing wall of a house. Different configuration cases of the element in stake have been treated to quantify numerical aspects of the problem, such as the boundary conditions or the mechanical behaviour of the structure. The structure is analysed according to four different limit states, semi-local and global failures are considered to describe the slab behaviour. The first state is attained when cracks appear in the tensile zone, then the two next states are described consistent with the Eurocode, the final state is the total collapse of the structure characterized by the yield line theory. Failure probability is estimated in accordance to the reliability framework. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to quantify the fragility to different loadings. Sensitivity of models in terms of input distributions were defined with statistical tools such as confidence intervals and Sobol's indexes. Conclusion and discussion of this work are established to

  13. Dermatitis artefacta in a vulnerable adult with a dissociative state.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, A; Bewley, A; Taylor, R

    2013-12-01

    Dermatitis artefacta (DA), a factitious skin disorder, often occurs as a response to traumatic life events or as a factitious behaviour, which may result in secondary gain. It can be difficult to get patients to engage with health services, and they seldom admit to causing the lesions themselves. The possibility of DA lesions occurring in dissociative states is less well known. We present a case of DA diagnosed in a vulnerable adult, who we believe caused the lesions during periods of dissociation. We discuss the way in which the concept of dissociation can provide an acceptable way of discussing the behaviour with patients and initiating psychological therapy. PMID:23758341

  14. Taxonomy for Common-Cause Failure Vulnerability and Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Richard Thomas; Korsah, Kofi; Mullens, James Allen; Pullum, Laura L.

    2015-09-01

    Applying current guidance and practices for common-cause failure (CCF) mitigation to digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems has proven problematic, and the regulatory environment has been unpredictable. The potential for CCF vulnerability inhibits I&C modernization, thereby challenging the long-term sustainability of existing plants. For new plants and advanced reactor concepts, concern about CCF vulnerability in highly integrated digital I&C systems imposes a design burden that results in higher costs and increased complexity. The regulatory uncertainty in determining which mitigation strategies will be acceptable (e.g., what diversity is needed and how much is sufficient) drives designers to adopt complicated, costly solutions devised for existing plants. To address the conditions that constrain the transition to digital I&C technology by the US nuclear industry, crosscutting research is needed to resolve uncertainty, demonstrate necessary characteristics, and establish an objective basis for qualification of digital technology for nuclear power plant (NPP) I&C applications. To fulfill this research need, Oak Ridge National Laboratory is investigating mitigation of CCF vulnerability for nuclear-qualified applications. The outcome of this research is expected to contribute to a fundamentally sound, comprehensive basis to qualify digital technology for nuclear power applications. This report documents the development of a CCF taxonomy. The basis for the CCF taxonomy was generated by determining consistent terminology and establishing a classification approach. The terminology is based on definitions from standards, guides, and relevant nuclear power industry technical reports. The classification approach is derived from identified classification schemes focused on I&C systems and key characteristics, including failure modes. The CCF taxonomy provides the basis for a systematic organization of key systems aspects relevant to analyzing the potential for

  15. Electronic equipment vulnerability to fire released carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pride, R. A.; Mchatton, A. D.; Musselman, K. A.

    1980-01-01

    The vulnerability of electronic equipment to damage by carbon fibers released from burning aircraft type structural composite materials was investigated. Tests were conducted on commercially available stereo power amplifiers which showed that the equipment was damaged by fire released carbon fibers but not by the composite resin residue, soot and products of combustion of the fuel associated with burning the carbon fiber composites. Results indicate that the failure rates of the equipment exposed to the fire released fiber were consistent with predictions based on tests using virgin fibers.

  16. Vulnerability Factors for the Psychiatric and Behavioral Effects of Cannabis

    PubMed Central

    Bortolato, Marco; Bini, Valentina; Tambaro, Simone

    2010-01-01

    Cogent evidence shows that cannabis plays a variable role on behavioral regulation and the pathophysiology of most psychiatric conditions. Accordingly, cannabis has been alternatively shown to exacerbate or ameliorate mental symptoms, depending on its composition and route of consumption, as well as specific individual and contextual characteristics. The vulnerability to the psychological effects of cannabis is influenced by a complex constellation of genetic and environmental factors. In the present article, we will review the current evidence on the pharmacological, individual and situational factors that have been documented to affect the behavioral and psychiatric effects of cannabinoids.

  17. A Contamination Vulnerability Assessment for the Sacramento Area Groundwater Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, J E; Hudson, G B; Eaton, G F; Leif, R

    2004-03-10

    In response to concerns expressed by the California Legislature and the citizenry of the State of California, the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), implemented a program to assess groundwater quality, and provide a predictive capability for identifying areas that are vulnerable to contamination. The program was initiated in response to concern over public supply well closures due to contamination by chemicals such as MtBE from gasoline, and solvents from industrial operations. As a result of this increased awareness regarding groundwater quality, the Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act mandated the SWRCB to develop a comprehensive ambient groundwater-monitoring plan, and led to the initiation of the Ambient Groundwater Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The primary objective of the GAMA Program is to assess the water quality and to predict the relative susceptibility to contamination of groundwater resources throughout the state of California. Under the GAMA program, scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) collaborate with the SWRCB, the U.S. Geological Survey, the California Department of Health Services (DHS), and the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) to implement the groundwater assessment program in cooperation with local water purveyors. In 2001 and 2002, LLNL carried out this vulnerability study in the groundwater basin of Sacramento suburban area, located to the north of the American River and to the east of the Sacramento River. The goal of the study is to provide a probabilistic assessment of the relative vulnerability of groundwater used for the public water supply to contamination from surface sources. This assessment of relative contamination vulnerability is made based on the results of two types of analyses that are not routinely carried out at public water supply wells: ultra low-level measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and groundwater age dating (using the tritium-helium-3

  18. Rare Species Support Vulnerable Functions in High-Diversity Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Mouillot, David; Bellwood, David R.; Baraloto, Christopher; Chave, Jerome; Galzin, Rene; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille; Kulbicki, Michel; Lavergne, Sebastien; Lavorel, Sandra; Mouquet, Nicolas; Paine, C. E. Timothy; Renaud, Julien; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    Around the world, the human-induced collapses of populations and species have triggered a sixth mass extinction crisis, with rare species often being the first to disappear. Although the role of species diversity in the maintenance of ecosystem processes has been widely investigated, the role of rare species remains controversial. A critical issue is whether common species insure against the loss of functions supported by rare species. This issue is even more critical in species-rich ecosystems where high functional redundancy among species is likely and where it is thus often assumed that ecosystem functioning is buffered against species loss. Here, using extensive datasets of species occurrences and functional traits from three highly diverse ecosystems (846 coral reef fishes, 2,979 alpine plants, and 662 tropical trees), we demonstrate that the most distinct combinations of traits are supported predominantly by rare species both in terms of local abundance and regional occupancy. Moreover, species that have low functional redundancy and are likely to support the most vulnerable functions, with no other species carrying similar combinations of traits, are rarer than expected by chance in all three ecosystems. For instance, 63% and 98% of fish species that are likely to support highly vulnerable functions in coral reef ecosystems are locally and regionally rare, respectively. For alpine plants, 32% and 89% of such species are locally and regionally rare, respectively. Remarkably, 47% of fish species and 55% of tropical tree species that are likely to support highly vulnerable functions have only one individual per sample on average. Our results emphasize the importance of rare species conservation, even in highly diverse ecosystems, which are thought to exhibit high functional redundancy. Rare species offer more than aesthetic, cultural, or taxonomic diversity value; they disproportionately increase the potential breadth of functions provided by ecosystems across

  19. Dynamic Flood Vulnerability Mapping with Google Earth Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellman, B.; Kuhn, C.; Max, S. A.; Sullivan, J.

    2015-12-01

    Satellites capture the rate and character of environmental change from local to global levels, yet integrating these changes into flood exposure models can be cost or time prohibitive. We explore an approach to global flood modeling by leveraging satellite data with computing power in Google Earth Engine to dynamically map flood hazards. Our research harnesses satellite imagery in two main ways: first to generate a globally consistent flood inundation layer and second to dynamically model flood vulnerability. Accurate and relevant hazard maps rely on high quality observation data. Advances in publicly available spatial, spectral, and radar data together with cloud computing allow us to improve existing efforts to develop a comprehensive flood extent database to support model training and calibration. This talk will demonstrate the classification results of algorithms developed in Earth Engine designed to detect flood events by combining observations from MODIS, Landsat 8, and Sentinel-1. Our method to derive flood footprints increases the number, resolution, and precision of spatial observations for flood events both in the US, recorded in the NCDC (National Climatic Data Center) storm events database, and globally, as recorded events from the Colorado Flood Observatory database. This improved dataset can then be used to train machine learning models that relate spatial temporal flood observations to satellite derived spatial temporal predictor variables such as precipitation, antecedent soil moisture, and impervious surface. This modeling approach allows us to rapidly update models with each new flood observation, providing near real time vulnerability maps. We will share the water detection algorithms used with each satellite and discuss flood detection results with examples from Bihar, India and the state of New York. We will also demonstrate how these flood observations are used to train machine learning models and estimate flood exposure. The final stage of

  20. Multispectral optoacoustic tomography resolves smart probe activation in vulnerable plaques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razansky, Daniel; Harlaar, Niels J.; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Taruttis, Adrian; Herzog, Eva; Zeebregts, Clark; van Dam, Goitzen; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2011-03-01

    In this work, we show, for the first time to our knowledge, that multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) can deliver high resolution images of activatable molecular probe's distribution, sensitive to matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), deep within optically scattering human carotid specimen. It is further demonstrated that this method can be used in order to provide accurate maps of vulnerable plaque formations in atherosclerotic disease. Moreover, optoacoustic images can simultaneously show the underlining plaque morphology for accurate localization of MMP activity in three dimensions. This performance directly relates to small animal screening applications and to clinical potential as well.

  1. The Safeguards Evaluation Method for evaluating vulnerability to insider threats

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.; Renis, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    As protection of DOE facilities against outsiders increases to acceptable levels, attention is shifting toward achieving comparable protection against insiders. Since threats and protection measures for insiders are substantially different from those for outsiders, new perspectives and approaches are needed. One such approach is the Safeguards Evaluation Method. This method helps in assessing safeguards vulnerabilities to theft or diversion of special nuclear material (SNM) by insiders. The Safeguards Evaluation Method-Insider Threat is a simple model that can be used by safeguards and security planners to evaluate safeguards and proposed upgrades at their own facilities. A discussion of the Safeguards Evaluation Method is presented in this paper.

  2. Does the new EU Regulation on clinical trials adequately protect vulnerable research participants?

    PubMed

    Gennet, Éloïse; Andorno, Roberto; Elger, Bernice

    2015-07-01

    Vulnerable research participants deserve special protection because of their increased risks of being wronged. Yet, paradoxically, the conduct of trials involving vulnerable groups is sometimes inescapable to develop safe and efficient therapies suitable to these groups. The key question is therefore how to protect vulnerable research participants from harm and exploitation without excluding the populations they belong to from the benefits of research. The European Union faced this challenge in April 2014 when adopting the new Regulation on clinical trials, which will replace the currently applicable 2001 Clinical Trials Directive in 2016. In order to assess the protection of vulnerable persons in the new Regulation, this paper makes four suggestions: first, the need to adopt a risk-based approach to vulnerability in biomedical research; second, to better distinguish between decisional vulnerabilities and health-related vulnerabilities; third, to emphasise the need to preserve the freedom of consent of subjects with decisional vulnerability, who are more susceptible to undue influence; and finally to assert the need of actively promoting specific clinical trials involving people with physical or psychological vulnerabilities. In conclusion, this paper claims that the protection of vulnerable subjects still needs to be improved in the new EU Regulation. PMID:25951954

  3. Comparison and Evaluation of Global Scale Studies of Vulnerability and Risks to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muccione, Veruska; Allen, Simon K.; Huggel, Christian; Birkmann, Joern

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the present and future distribution of different climate change impacts and vulnerability to climate change is a central subject in the context of climate justice and international climate policy. Commonly, it is claimed that poor countries that contributed little to anthropogenic climate change are those most affected and most vulnerable to climate change. Such statements are backed by a number of global-scale vulnerability studies, which identified poor countries as most vulnerable. However, some studies have challenged this view, likewise highlighting the high vulnerability of richer countries. Overall, no consensus has been reached so far about which concept of vulnerability should be applied and what type of indicators should be considered. Furthermore, there is little agreement which specific countries are most vulnerable. This is a major concern in view of the need to inform international climate policy, all the more if such assessments should contribute to allocate climate adaptation funds as was invoked at some instances. We argue that next to the analysis of who is most vulnerable, it is also important to better understand and compare different vulnerability profiles assessed in present global studies. We perform a systematic literature review of global vulnerability assessments with the scope to highlight vulnerability distribution patterns. We then compare these distributions with global risk distributions in line with revised and adopted concepts by most recent IPCC reports. It emerges that improved differentiation of key drivers of risk and the understanding of different vulnerability profiles are important contributions, which can inform future adaptation policies at the regional and national level. This can change the perspective on, and basis for distributional issues in view of climate burden share, and therefore can have implications for UNFCCC financing instruments (e.g. Green Climate Fund). However, in order to better compare

  4. Defining the non-vulnerable and vulnerable patients with computed tomography coronary angiography: evaluation of atherosclerotic plaque burden and composition.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Granillo, Gaston A; Carrascosa, Patricia; Bruining, Nico; Waksman, Ron; Garcia-Garcia, Hector M

    2016-05-01

    The shift from coronary plaque stability to plaque instability remains poorly understood despite enormous efforts and expenditures have been assigned to the study of the subject. On the other hand, there have been serious advances in imaging helping us to characterizenon-vulnerable patients The latter has much more value in the clinical decision-making process since it provides high certainty that the patient's probability of a future acute event is low and treatment decisions should be made accordingly. Although coronary plaque rupture is still recognized as the main source of acute thrombotic events, numerous studies have shown that the prediction of events on an individual basis is far more complex and demands a more open approach aimed at characterizing patient risk rather than assessing the risk of thrombosis of a single plaque. Computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) has the ability to evaluate non-invasively the extent, burden, severity, and characteristics of coronary artery disease (CAD) and has a close relationship to intravascular ultrasound. On the basis of an excellent negative predictive value with an annualized event rate of ∼0.20% assessed over more than 6000 patients, thus providing a 5-year warranty period, CTCA has been identified as the finest non-invasive tool to exclude CAD. This means that CTCA is able to reliably characterize the non-vulnerable patient. Conversely, in the past few years, several studies have attempted to establish CTCA-derived predictors of acute coronary syndromes, both from a lesion level and a patient level basis with very low positive predictive value, thus questioning the vulnerable patient/plaque concept. PMID:26903599

  5. Assessing mechanical vulnerability in water distribution networks under multiple failures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berardi, Luigi; Ugarelli, Rita; Røstum, Jon; Giustolisi, Orazio

    2014-03-01

    Understanding mechanical vulnerability of water distribution networks (WDN) is of direct relevance for water utilities since it entails two different purposes. On the one hand, it might support the identification of severe failure scenarios due to external causes (e.g., natural or intentional events) which result into the most critical consequences on WDN supply capacity. On the other hand, it aims at figure out the WDN portions which are more prone to be affected by asset disruptions. The complexity of such analysis stems from the number of possible scenarios with single and multiple simultaneous shutdowns of asset elements leading to modifications of network topology and insufficient water supply to customers. In this work, the search for the most disruptive combinations of multiple asset failure events is formulated and solved as a multiobjective optimization problem. The higher vulnerability failure scenarios are detected as those causing the lower supplied demand due to the lower number of simultaneous failures. The automatic detection of WDN topology, subsequent to the detachments of failed elements, is combined with pressure-driven analysis. The methodology is demonstrated on a real water distribution network. Results show that, besides the failures causing the detachment of reservoirs, tanks, or pumps, there are other different topological modifications which may cause severe WDN service disruptions. Such information is of direct relevance to support planning asset enhancement works and improve the preparedness to extreme events.

  6. Developing public health provision for vulnerable young people.

    PubMed

    Fewings, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Engaging vulnerable children and young people can be a challenge. This article reports on the development of a specialist school nurse service, known as Support Services Health Team, aimed at the most vulnerable children and young people in Hull. The aim was to provide public health support and coordinate healthcare to children and young people in the looked after system, those in pupil referrals units, home educated and those outside of the educational system (missing from education). This innovative approach to addressing the health needs of this population helped to establish firm networks across the city of Hull, reduce duplication of support being offered and avoid young people slipping through the systems. The team has a sound knowledge around health trends for young people, social groups and hotspots where they are at risk across the city. They have created a presence in the city where professionals and young people are aware of them and the service offered. Clear pathways have been established on intervention starting with the completion of a comprehensive health needs assessment and care plan. A creative approach to supervision has been established to ensure staff do not feel overwhelmed and that they are evidence-based in their approach to intervention and advice offered. PMID:26911101

  7. Minireview: Epigenomic Plasticity and Vulnerability to EDC Exposures.

    PubMed

    Walker, Cheryl Lyn

    2016-08-01

    The epigenome undergoes significant remodeling during tissue and organ development, which coincides with a period of exquisite sensitivity to environmental exposures. In the case of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), exposures can reprogram the epigenome of developing tissues to increase susceptibility to diseases later in life, a process termed "developmental reprogramming." Both DNA methylation and histone modifications have been shown to be vulnerable to disruption by EDC exposures, and several mechanisms have been identified by which EDCs can reprogram the epigenome. These include altered methyl donor availability, loss of imprinting control, changes in dioxygenase activity, altered expression of noncoding RNAs, and activation of cell signaling pathways that can phosphorylate, and alter the activity of, histone methyltransferases. This altered epigenomic programming can persist across the life course, and in some instances generations, to alter gene expression in ways that correlate with increased disease susceptibility. Together, these studies on developmental reprogramming of the epigenome by EDCs are providing new insights into epigenomic plasticity that is vulnerable to disruption by environmental exposures. PMID:27355193

  8. A Methodology for Assessing the Seismic Vulnerability of Highway Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cirianni, Francis; Leonardi, Giovanni; Scopelliti, Francesco

    2008-07-08

    Modern society is totally dependent on a complex and articulated infrastructure network of vital importance for the existence of the urban settlements scattered on the territory. On these infrastructure systems, usually indicated with the term lifelines, are entrusted numerous services and indispensable functions of the normal urban and human activity.The systems of the lifelines represent an essential element in all the urbanised areas which are subject to seismic risk. It is important that, in these zones, they are planned according to opportune criteria based on two fundamental assumptions: a) determination of the best territorial localization, avoiding, within limits, the places of higher dangerousness; b) application of constructive technologies finalized to the reduction of the vulnerability.Therefore it is indispensable that in any modern process of seismic risk assessment the study of the networks is taken in the rightful consideration, to be integrated with the traditional analyses of the buildings.The present paper moves in this direction, dedicating particular attention to one kind of lifeline: the highway system, proposing a methodology of analysis finalized to the assessment of the seismic vulnerability of the system.

  9. Seismic Vulnerability and Performance Level of confined brick walls

    SciTech Connect

    Ghalehnovi, M.; Rahdar, H. A.

    2008-07-08

    There has been an increase on the interest of Engineers and designers to use designing methods based on displacement and behavior (designing based on performance) Regarding to the importance of resisting structure design against dynamic loads such as earthquake, and inability to design according to prediction of nonlinear behavior element caused by nonlinear properties of constructional material.Economically speaking, easy carrying out and accessibility of masonry material have caused an enormous increase in masonry structures in villages, towns and cities. On the other hand, there is a necessity to study behavior and Seismic Vulnerability in these kinds of structures since Iran is located on the earthquake belt of Alpide.Different reasons such as environmental, economic, social, cultural and accessible constructional material have caused different kinds of constructional structures.In this study, some tied walls have been modeled with software and with relevant accelerator suitable with geology conditions under dynamic analysis to research on the Seismic Vulnerability and performance level of confined brick walls. Results from this analysis seem to be satisfactory after comparison of them with the values in Code ATC40, FEMA and standard 2800 of Iran.

  10. Initiation of reentry inside the vulnerable window of the heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudenbacher, Petra; Baudenbacher, Franz; Aliev, Rubin; Wikswo, John

    2000-03-01

    Cardiac vulnerability refers to the initiation of self-sustained waves after the application of a stimulus in the wake of a propagating pulse, which can lead to arrhythmias and fibrillation. We used optical mapping of the transmembrane potential on the epicardium of Langendorff-perfused, di-4-ANNEPS stained isolated rabbit hearts. After a planar wave was launched by an S1 stimulus with line electrodes perpendicular to the fiber direction, an S2 stimulus was applied with a point electrode at a different location at a time ΔT after S1. The S1 strength was 2-4×threshold S2=2×S1. The spatio-temporal dynamics of S2 responses shows three distinct excitation regions: For ΔT>160ms, a point shaped hypopolarized region (make excitation) leads to propagation symmetrical in both directions perpendicular to the wire. For ΔT<160ms, a dog-bone shaped hyperpolarized region is followed by a hypopolarized region (break excitation), leading to an asymmetrical curved wave due to partial functional block, and in some cases reentry, especially at shorter time intervals. For ΔT<115ms, break excitation occurs without propagation. Stimulating inside the vulnerable window results in multiple responses due to functional block and allows us to extract the propagation velocity as a function of refractoriness.

  11. Public Health Consequences on Vulnerable Populations from Acute Chemical Releases

    PubMed Central

    Ruckart, Perri Zeitz; Orr, Maureen F.

    2008-01-01

    Data from a large, multi-state surveillance system on acute chemical releases were analyzed to describe the type of events that are potentially affecting vulnerable populations (children, elderly and hospitalized patients) in order to better prevent and plan for these types of incidents in the future. During 2003–2005, there were 231 events where vulnerable populations were within ¼ mile of the event and the area of impact was greater than 200 feet from the facility/point of release. Most events occurred on a weekday during times when day care centers or schools were likely to be in session. Equipment failure and human error caused a majority of the releases. Agencies involved in preparing for and responding to chemical emergencies should work with hospitals, nursing homes, day care centers, and schools to develop policies and procedures for initiating appropriate protective measures and managing the medical needs of patients. Chemical emergency response drills should involve the entire community to protect those that may be more susceptible to harm. PMID:21572842

  12. Remote sensing techniques applied to seismic vulnerability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan Arranz, Jose; Torres, Yolanda; Hahgi, Azade; Gaspar-Escribano, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    Advances in remote sensing and photogrammetry techniques have increased the degree of accuracy and resolution in the record of the earth's surface. This has expanded the range of possible applications of these data. In this research, we have used these data to document the construction characteristics of the urban environment of Lorca, Spain. An exposure database has been created with the gathered information to be used in seismic vulnerability assessment. To this end, we have used data from photogrammetric flights at different periods, using both orthorectified images in the visible and infrared spectrum. Furthermore, the analysis is completed using LiDAR data. From the combination of these data, it has been possible to delineate the building footprints and characterize the constructions with attributes such as the approximate date of construction, area, type of roof and even building materials. To carry out the calculation, we have developed different algorithms to compare images from different times, segment images, classify LiDAR data, and use the infrared data in order to remove vegetation or to compute roof surfaces with height value, tilt and spectral fingerprint. In addition, the accuracy of our results has been validated with ground truth data. Keywords: LiDAR, remote sensing, seismic vulnerability, Lorca

  13. Cognitive vulnerability in moderate, mild, and low seasonality.

    PubMed

    Rohan, Kelly J; Nillni, Yael I; Mahon, Jennifer N; Roecklein, Kathryn A; Sitnikov, Lilya; Haaga, David A F

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the association between cognitive vulnerability factors and seasonality. Students (N = 88), classified based on the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire as experiencing moderate (n = 26) or mild (n = 32) seasonality, and nondepressed, low-seasonality controls (n = 30) completed explicit (i.e., dysfunctional attitudes, automatic negative thoughts, seasonal attitudes, and rumination) and implicit (i.e., implicit associations test) measures of cognitive vulnerability at one winter and one nonwinter assessment. Relative to low- and mild-seasonality participants, moderate-seasonality participants endorsed more automatic thoughts and rumination in winter and more dysfunctional attitudes across both seasons. Moderate- and mild-seasonality participants endorsed more maladaptive seasonal attitudes than did low-seasonality participants. All groups demonstrated increased dysfunctional attitudes, automatic thoughts, and rumination and stronger implicit associations about light and dark during the winter. The findings support a possible cognitive mechanism of winter depression onset and/or maintenance unique to individuals with moderate, as opposed to mild, seasonality. PMID:22134455

  14. Optical coherence tomography for imaging the vulnerable plaque

    PubMed Central

    Tearney, Guillermo J.; Jang, Ik-Kyung; Bouma, Brett E.

    2009-01-01

    While our understanding of vulnerable coronary plaque is still at an early stage, the concept that certain types of plaques predispose patients to developing an acute myocardial infarction continues to be at the forefront of cardiology research. Intracoronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been developed to both identify and study these lesions due to its distinct resolution advantage over other imaging modalities. We review clinical research conducted at the Massachusetts General Hospital over the past five years to develop, validate, and utilize this technology to improve our understanding of vulnerable plaque. Our results show that intracoronary OCT may be safely conducted in patients and that it provides abundant information regarding plaque microscopic morphology, which is essential to the identification and study of high-risk lesions. Even though many basic biological, clinical, and technological challenges must be addressed prior to widespread use of this technology, the unique capabilities of OCT ensure that it will have a prominent role in shaping the future of cardiology. PMID:16674177

  15. Vulnerability of supply basins to demand from multiple cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padowski, J. C.; Gorelick, S.

    2013-12-01

    Humans have appropriated more than half of the world's available water resources, and continued population growth and climate change threaten to put increasing pressure on remaining supplies. Many cities have constructed infrastructure to collect, transport from and store water at distant locations. Supply basins can become vulnerable if there are multiple users depending on the same supply system or network. Basin vulnerability assessments often only report the impacts of local demands on system health, but rarely account future stress from multi-urban demands. This study presents a global assessment of urban impacts on supply basins. Specifically, hydrologic and regulatory information are used to quantify the level of supply basin stress created by demand from multiple cities. The aim is to identify at-risk basins. This study focuses on large urban areas (generally over 1 million people) that use surface water (n=412). The stress on supply water basins by urban demand was based on three parameters: 1) the number of cities using a basin for water supply, 2) the number of alternative urban sources (e.g. lakes, reservoirs, rivers) within the supply basin, and 3) the percent of available surface water in each basin that is required to meet the total of urban and environmental demands. The degree of management within each basin is assessed using information on federal water policies and local basin management plans.

  16. Field information links permafrost carbon to physical vulnerabilities of thawing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Jennifer W.; Koven, Charles; Ping, Chien-Lu; Hugelius, Gustaf; McGuire, A. David; Camill, P.; Jorgenson, Torre; Kuhry, Peter; Michaelson, Gary; O'Donnell, Jonathan A.; Schuur, Edward A.G.; Tamocai, Charles; Johnson, K.; Grosse, G.

    2012-01-01

    Deep soil profiles containing permafrost (Gelisols) were characterized for organic carbon (C) and total nitrogen (N) stocks to 3m depths. Using the Community Climate System Model (CCSM4) we calculate cumulative probability functions (PDFs) for active layer depths under current and future climates. The difference in PDFs over time was multiplied by C and N contents of soil horizons in Gelisol suborders to calculate newly thawed C and N, Thawing ranged from 147 PgC with 10 PgN by 2050 (representative concentration pathway RCP scenario 4.5) to 436 PgC with 29 PgN by 2100 (RCP 8.5). Organic horizons that thaw are vulnerable to combustion, and all horizon types are vulnerable to shifts in hydrology and decomposition. The rates and extent of such losses are unknown and can be further constrained by linking field and modelling approaches. These changes have the potential for strong additional loading to our atmosphere, water resources, and ecosystems.

  17. The Occurrence and Prevention of Foodborne Disease in Vulnerable People

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Sarah J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In developed countries, such as the United Kingdom and the United States, between 15% and 20% of the population show greater susceptibility than the general population to foodborne disease. This proportion includes people with primary immunodeficiency, patients treated with radiation or with immunosuppressive drugs for cancer and diseases of the immune system, those with acquired immune-deficiency syndrome and diabetics, people suffering from liver or kidney disease or with excessive iron in the blood, pregnant women, infants, and the elderly. Malnutrition and use of antacids, particularly proton-pump inhibitors, also increase susceptibility. We review the occurrence of infection by foodborne pathogens in these groups of people and measures to prevent infection. The nature and use of low microbial diets to reduce the risk of foodborne disease in immunocompromised patients are very variable. Diets for vulnerable people in care should exclude higher-risk foods, and vulnerable people in the community should receive clear advice about food safety, in particular avoidance of higher-risk foods and substitution of safer, nutritious foods. PMID:21561383

  18. The Vulnerability of Threatened Species: Adaptive Capability and Adaptation Opportunity

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Pam; Ogawa-Onishi, Yuko; McVey, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Global targets to halt the loss of biodiversity have not been met, and there is now an additional Aichi target for preventing the extinction of known threatened species and improving their conservation status. Climate change increasingly needs to be factored in to these, and thus there is a need to identify the extent to which it could increase species vulnerability. This paper uses the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity framework to assess the vulnerability of a selection of WWF global priority large mammals and marine species to climate change. However, it divides adaptive capacity into adaptive capability and adaptation opportunity, in order to identify whether adaptation is more constrained by the biology of the species or by its environmental setting. Lack of evidence makes it difficult to apply the framework consistently across the species, but it was found that, particularly for the terrestrial mammals, adaptation opportunities seems to be the greater constraint. This framework and analysis could be used by conservationists and those wishing to enhance the resilience of species to climate change. PMID:24833051

  19. Application of Satellite Gravimetry for Water Resource Vulnerability Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The force of Earth's gravity field varies in proportion to the amount of mass near the surface. Spatial and temporal variations in the gravity field can be measured via their effects on the orbits of satellites. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) is the first satellite mission dedicated to monitoring temporal variations in the gravity field. The monthly gravity anomaly maps that have been delivered by GRACE since 2002 are being used to infer changes in terrestrial water storage (the sum of groundwater, soil moisture, surface waters, and snow and ice), which are the primary source of gravity variability on monthly to decadal timescales after atmospheric and oceanic circulation effects have been removed. Other remote sensing techniques are unable to detect water below the first few centimeters of the land surface. Conventional ground based techniques can be used to monitor terrestrial water storage, but groundwater, soil moisture, and snow observation networks are sparse in most of the world, and the countries that do collect such data rarely are willing to share them. Thus GRACE is unique in its ability to provide global data on variations in the availability of fresh water, which is both vital to life on land and vulnerable to climate variability and mismanagement. This chapter describes the unique and challenging aspects of GRACE terrestrial water storage data, examples of how the data have been used for research and applications related to fresh water vulnerability and change, and prospects for continued contributions of satellite gravimetry to water resources science and policy.

  20. Vulnerability of cloud forest reserves in Mexico to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce-Reyes, Rocío; Reynoso-Rosales, Víctor-Hugo; Watson, James E. M.; Vanderwal, Jeremy; Fuller, Richard A.; Pressey, Robert L.; Possingham, Hugh P.

    2012-06-01

    Tropical montane cloud forests are among the most vulnerable terrestrial ecosystems to climate change owing to their restricted climatic requirements and their narrow and fragmented distribution. Although 12% of Mexican cloud forest is protected, it is not known whether reserves will ensure the persistence of the ecosystem and its endemic species under climate change. Here, we show that 68% of Mexico's cloud forest could vanish by 2080 because of climate change and more than 90% of cloud forest that is protected at present will not be climatically suitable for that ecosystem in 2080. Moreover, if we assume unprotected forests are cleared, 99% of the entire ecosystem could be lost through a combination of climate change and habitat loss, resulting in the extinction of about 70% of endemic cloud forest vertebrate species. Immediate action is required to minimize this loss--expansion of the protected-area estate in areas of low climate vulnerability is an urgent priority. Our analysis indicates that one key area for immediate protection is the Sierra de Juárez in Oaxaca. This area supports many endemic species and is expected to retain relatively large fragments of cloud forest despite rapid climate change.