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Sample records for placa vulnerable solitaria

  1. "Candidatus Fokinia solitaria", a Novel "Stand-Alone" Symbiotic Lineage of Midichloriaceae (Rickettsiales).

    PubMed

    Szokoli, Franziska; Sabaneyeva, Elena; Castelli, Michele; Krenek, Sascha; Schrallhammer, Martina; Soares, Carlos A G; da Silva-Neto, Inacio D; Berendonk, Thomas U; Petroni, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the family Midichloriaceae has been described within the bacterial order Rickettsiales. It includes a variety of bacterial endosymbionts detected in different metazoan host species belonging to Placozoa, Cnidaria, Arthropoda and Vertebrata. Representatives of Midichloriaceae are also considered possible etiological agents of certain animal diseases. Midichloriaceae have been found also in protists like ciliates and amoebae. The present work describes a new bacterial endosymbiont, "Candidatus Fokinia solitaria", retrieved from three different strains of a novel Paramecium species isolated from a wastewater treatment plant in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Symbionts were characterized through the full-cycle rRNA approach: SSU rRNA gene sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with three species-specific oligonucleotide probes. In electron micrographs, the tiny rod-shaped endosymbionts (1.2 x 0.25-0.35 ?m in size) were not surrounded by a symbiontophorous vacuole and were located in the peripheral host cytoplasm, stratified in the host cortex in between the trichocysts or just below them. Frequently, they occurred inside autolysosomes. Phylogenetic analyses of Midichloriaceae apparently show different evolutionary pathways within the family. Some genera, such as "Ca. Midichloria" and "Ca. Lariskella", have been retrieved frequently and independently in different hosts and environmental surveys. On the contrary, others, such as Lyticum, "Ca. Anadelfobacter", "Ca. Defluviella" and the presently described "Ca. Fokinia solitaria", have been found only occasionally and associated to specific host species. These last are the only representatives in their own branches thus far. Present data do not allow to infer whether these genera, which we named "stand-alone lineages", are an indication of poorly sampled organisms, thus underrepresented in GenBank, or represent fast evolving, highly adapted evolutionary lineages. PMID:26731731

  2. Archivo de placas astrométricas del Observatorio de La Plata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Sisto, R.; Orellana, R. B.

    Se ha realizado una base de datos con las placas fotográficas obtenidas con el Astrográfico del Observatorio de La Plata. Se han clasificado un total de 3000 placas obtenidas para asteroides y cometas. El acceso a la base de datos se hará por FTP y la misma contendrá la siguiente información: fecha y tiempo de exposición, coordenadas del centro de placa, tipo de emulsión fotográfica, estado de la placa, objeto fotografiado.

  3. Vulnerable Plaque

    MedlinePLUS

    ... bloodstream. The sticky cytokines on the artery wall capture blood cells (mainly platelets) that rush to the ... testing catheters that use infrared radiation and metal heat-sensing systems to measure the temperature of vulnerable ...

  4. Medición de placas astrométricas obtenidas con el telescopio Astrográfico de La Plata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Sisto, R. P.; Orellana, R.

    El Observatorio de La Plata cuenta con un gran número de placas de asteroides y cometas obtenidas con el telescopio astrográfico, que cubren gran parte del cielo del hemisferio sur. En 1996 se recopilaron y clasificaron 2187 placas (Beca para estudiantes de la AAA 1996) de las cuales 2031 corresponden a asteroides. Los datos de cada placa se volcaron en una base de datos creada para facilitar su manejo y preservar la información. A partir de este trabajo se revisaron los MPC electrónicos y se identificaron aquellas placas de asteroides pertenecientes a nuestra base de datos cuyos resultados no fueron publicados en los mismos. De un total de 400 placas que no aparecían publicadas sobresalía un paquete constituído por 40 placas obtenidas en 1977. Estas últimas fueron reducidas utilizando las posiciones y movimientos propios de las estrellas de referencia obtenidas del catálogo SAO 2000 dadas para el sistema FK5. Las posiciones calculadas fueron enviadas y publicadas en los Minor Planet Circulars (MPC).

  5. VULNERABILITY College students are particularly vulnerable

    E-print Network

    Linhardt, Robert J.

    VULNERABILITY College students are particularly vulnerable to victimization. Many are living away are very strong, contribute to this vulnerability. Research suggests that sexual activity may be forced against assault of any kind is to avoid situations where you are vulnerable. Here are a few suggestions

  6. Climate change vulnerability

    E-print Network

    Hilderbrand, Robert H.

    Climate change vulnerability assessment of the Verde Island Passage, Philippines #12;ii Vulnerability Assessment of the Verde Island Passage, Philippines. Technical report. Conservation International information on the Verde Island Passage Vulnerability Assessment Project, contact: Emily Pidgeon, PhD Director

  7. Software Vulnerability Taxonomy Consolidation

    SciTech Connect

    Polepeddi, S

    2004-12-08

    In today's environment, computers and networks are increasing exposed to a number of software vulnerabilities. Information about these vulnerabilities is collected and disseminated via various large publicly available databases such as BugTraq, OSVDB and ICAT. Each of these databases, individually, do not cover all aspects of a vulnerability and lack a standard format among them, making it difficult for end-users to easily compare various vulnerabilities. A central database of vulnerabilities has not been available until today for a number of reasons, such as the non-uniform methods by which current vulnerability database providers receive information, disagreement over which features of a particular vulnerability are important and how best to present them, and the non-utility of the information presented in many databases. The goal of this software vulnerability taxonomy consolidation project is to address the need for a universally accepted vulnerability taxonomy that classifies vulnerabilities in an unambiguous manner. A consolidated vulnerability database (CVDB) was implemented that coalesces and organizes vulnerability data from disparate data sources. Based on the work done in this paper, there is strong evidence that a consolidated taxonomy encompassing and organizing all relevant data can be achieved. However, three primary obstacles remain: lack of referencing a common ''primary key'', un-structured and free-form descriptions of necessary vulnerability data, and lack of data on all aspects of a vulnerability. This work has only considered data that can be unambiguously extracted from various data sources by straightforward parsers. It is felt that even with the use of more advanced, information mining tools, which can wade through the sea of unstructured vulnerability data, this current integration methodology would still provide repeatable, unambiguous, and exhaustive results. Though the goal of coalescing all available data, which would be of use to system administrators, software developers and vulnerability researchers is not yet achieved, this work has resulted in the most exhaustive collection of vulnerability data to date.

  8. Vulnerability of Northwestern

    E-print Network

    Vulnerability of Northwestern Pennsylvania Forests to Major Windstorms Alexander M. Evans, Mary L Institute of Sustainable Forestry #12;Vulnerability of Northwestern Pennsylvania Forests to Major Windstorms of stand vulnerability to windthrow. We hypothesized that windthrow severity is a function of stand

  9. What Does Vulnerability Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parley, Fiona F

    2011-01-01

    Protection of those deemed vulnerable has received increasing attention since 2000. This article reports on care staff views of vulnerability using original data from a research study (Parley. "Vulnerability and abuse: an exploration of views of care staff working with people who have learning disabilities," PhD Thesis, 2007) in which care staff…

  10. Vulnerability Scanning Policy 1 Introduction

    E-print Network

    Vulnerability Scanning Policy 1 Introduction Vulnerability scanning is an important and necessary and can alert system administrators to potentially serious problems. However vulnerability scanning also to compromise system security. The following policy details the conditions under which vulnerability scans may

  11. Lessons about vulnerability assessments.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R. G.

    2004-01-01

    The Vulnerability Assessment Team (VAT) at Los Alamos National Laboratory believes that physical security can only be optimized through the use of effective vulnerability assessments. As a result of conducting vulnerability assessments on hundreds of different security devices and systems in the last few years, we have identified some of the attributes of effective assessments. These, along with our recommendations and observations about vulnerability assessments, are summarized in this paper. While our work has primarily involved physical security (in contrast to, for example, computer, network, or information security), our experiences may have applicability to other types of security as well.

  12. Individual vulnerability to addiction.

    PubMed

    Swendsen, Joel; Le Moal, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The process of addiction is often studied in the neurosciences as a function of the quantity or type of substance consumed, with the ultimate goal of counteracting these effects by other pharmacological means. However, epidemiology and clinical research have extensively demonstrated that most individuals who use drugs do not develop dependence. Numerous factors may explain an individual's propensity to addiction. This review discusses these paradigms and summarizes research on individual differences that encompass cultural and sociodemographic factors, psychiatric or psychological vulnerability, and biological or genetic propensity to addiction. Although these different factors often interact in the expression of vulnerable phenotypes, it is possible to alter or control specific sources of vulnerability. For these reasons, integrating individual vulnerability to addiction across different research disciplines is likely to provide the greatest advances for intervention and prevention efforts. PMID:21272012

  13. Finding Security Vulnerabilities

    E-print Network

    Livshits, Ben

    Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2.3.1 SQL Injections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 6.3.2 Classification of Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 6.3.3 SQL Injection Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2 Overview of Vulnerabilities 10 2.1 SQL

  14. October 2007 THE COMMON VULNERABILITY

    E-print Network

    October 2007 THE COMMON VULNERABILITY SCORING SYSTEM (CVSS) THE COMMON VULNERABILITY SCORING SYSTEM technology (IT) systems, managers must continually identify and assess the vulnerabilities of their systems. These weaknesses, or vulnerabilities, make the systems attractive targets for attacks that can seriously change

  15. Imaging the vulnerable plaque.

    PubMed

    Vancraeynest, David; Pasquet, Agnes; Roelants, Véronique; Gerber, Bernhard L; Vanoverschelde, Jean-Louis J

    2011-05-17

    Cardiovascular diseases are still the primary causes of mortality in the United States and in Western Europe. Arterial thrombosis is triggered by a ruptured atherosclerotic plaque and precipitates an acute vascular event, which is responsible for the high mortality rate. These rupture-prone plaques are called "vulnerable plaques." During the past decades, much effort has been put toward accurately detecting the presence of vulnerable plaques with different imaging techniques. In this review, we provide an overview of the currently available invasive and noninvasive imaging modalities used to detect vulnerable plaques. We will discuss the upcoming challenges in translating these techniques into clinical practice and in assigning them their exact place in the decision-making process. PMID:21565634

  16. Energy vulnerability relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, B.R.; Boesen, J.L.

    1998-02-01

    The US consumption of crude oil resources has been a steadily growing indicator of the vitality and strength of the US economy. At the same time import diversity has also been a rapidly developing dimension of the import picture. In the early 1970`s, embargoes of crude oil from Organization of Producing and Exporting Countries (OPEC) created economic and political havoc due to a significant lack of diversity and a unique set of economic, political and domestic regulatory circumstances. The continued rise of imports has again led to concerns over the security of our crude oil resource but threats to this system must be considered in light of the diversity and current setting of imported oil. This report develops several important issues concerning vulnerability to the disruption of oil imports: (1) The Middle East is not the major supplier of oil to the United States, (2) The US is not vulnerable to having its entire import stream disrupted, (3) Even in stable countries, there exist vulnerabilities to disruption of the export stream of oil, (4) Vulnerability reduction requires a focus on international solutions, and (5) DOE program and policy development must reflect the requirements of the diverse supply. Does this increasing proportion of imported oil create a {open_quotes}dependence{close_quotes}? Does this increasing proportion of imported oil present a vulnerability to {open_quotes}price shocks{close_quotes} and the tremendous dislocations experienced during the 1970`s? Finally, what is the vulnerability of supply disruptions from the current sources of imported oil? If oil is considered to be a finite, rapidly depleting resource, then the answers to these questions must be {open_quotes}yes.{close_quotes} However, if the supply of oil is expanding, and not limited, then dependence is relative to regional supply sources.

  17. Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan describes the Department of Energy`s response to the vulnerabilities identified in the Plutonium Working Group Report which are a result of the cessation of nuclear weapons production. The responses contained in this document are only part of an overall, coordinated approach designed to enable the Department to accelerate conversion of all nuclear materials, including plutonium, to forms suitable for safe, interim storage. The overall actions being taken are discussed in detail in the Department`s Implementation Plan in response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-1. This is included as Attachment B.

  18. Vulnerability of dynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siljak, D. D.

    1976-01-01

    Directed graphs are associated with dynamic systems in order to determine in any given system if each state can be reached by at least one input (input reachability), or can each state reach at least one output (output reachability). Then, the structural perturbations of a dynamic system are identified as lines or points removals from the corresponding digraph, and a system is considered vulnerable at those lines or points of the digraph whose removal destroys its input or output reachability. A suitable framework is formulated for resolving the problems of reachability and vulnerability which applies to both linear and nonlinear systems alike.

  19. Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

  20. Coastal Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerabilities

    E-print Network

    Kossin, James P.

    Coastal Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerabilities A Technical Input to the 2013 National Climate Margaret Davidson #12;#12;#12;Coastal Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerabilities A Technical Input). Coastal Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability: A Technical Input to the 2012 National Climate Assessment

  1. MALI CLIMATE VULNERABILITY JANUARY 2014

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    MALI CLIMATE VULNERABILITY MAPPING JANUARY 2014 This report is made possible by the support at Columbia University Cover Photo: Overall vulnerability map of Mali (quintile map legend), CIESIN, 2013 VULNERABILITY MAPPING AFRICAN AND LATIN AMERICAN RESILIENCE TO CLIMATE CHANGE (ARCC) JANUARY 2014 Mali Climate

  2. Beyond 'vulnerable groups': contexts and dynamics of vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Zarowsky, Christina; Haddad, Slim; Nguyen, Vinh-Kim

    2013-03-01

    This paper reviews approaches to vulnerability in public health, introducing a series of 10 papers addressing vulnerability in health in Africa. We understand vulnerability as simultaneously a condition and a process. Social inequalities are manifest in and exacerbate three key dimensions of vulnerability: the initial level of wellbeing, the degree of exposure to risk, and the capacity to manage risk effectively. We stress the dynamic interactions linking material and social deprivation, poverty, powerlessness and ill health: risks or shocks and their health impacts are intimately interconnected and reinforce each other in a cycle which in the absence of effective interventions, increases vulnerability. An inductive process which does not begin with an a priori definition or measurement of 'vulnerability' and which does not assume the existence of fixed 'vulnerable groups' allowed us both to re-affirm core aspects of existing conceptual frameworks, and to engage in new ways with literature specifically addressing vulnerability and resilience at the population level as well as with literature - for example in ecology, and on the concept of frailty in research on aging - with which researchers on health and poverty in Africa may not be familiar. We invite conceptual and empirical work on vulnerability in complex systems frameworks. These perspectives emphasize contexts and nonlinear causality thus supporting analyses of vulnerability and resilience as both markers and emergent properties of dynamic interactions. We accept a working definition of vulnerability, and recognize that some definable groups of people are more likely than others to suffer harm from exposure to health risks. But we suggest that the real work - at both intellectual and policy/political levels - lies in understanding and responding to the dynamics, meanings and power relations underlying actual instances and processes of vulnerability and harm. PMID:23549696

  3. Markers of vulnerability in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Prelipceanu, D

    2009-01-01

    Vulnerability in schizophrenia is an integrative concept, which tries to explain the development of schizophrenia as an interaction between different individual susceptibility factors and environmental risk factors. Vulnerability markers used in genetic studies include biochemical indicators, neuroanatomical, neurophysiologic, and cognitive abnormalities. Among those, the most extensive studied markers were: evoked potentials, smooth pursuit eye movements, and attentional deficits. Some of the potential indicators presented in this paper satisfy most of the criteria necessary for a vulnerability marker, but none meets all of them. Nevertheless, they represent important markers of risk to schizophrenia. Key words: vulnerability, evoked potentials, eye movements, attentional deficits PMID:20108534

  4. Common Control System Vulnerability

    SciTech Connect

    Trent Nelson

    2005-12-01

    The Control Systems Security Program and other programs within the Idaho National Laboratory have discovered a vulnerability common to control systems in all sectors that allows an attacker to penetrate most control systems, spoof the operator, and gain full control of targeted system elements. This vulnerability has been identified on several systems that have been evaluated at INL, and in each case a 100% success rate of completing the attack paths that lead to full system compromise was observed. Since these systems are employed in multiple critical infrastructure sectors, this vulnerability is deemed common to control systems in all sectors. Modern control systems architectures can be considered analogous to today's information networks, and as such are usually approached by attackers using a common attack methodology to penetrate deeper and deeper into the network. This approach often is composed of several phases, including gaining access to the control network, reconnaissance, profiling of vulnerabilities, launching attacks, escalating privilege, maintaining access, and obscuring or removing information that indicates that an intruder was on the system. With irrefutable proof that an external attack can lead to a compromise of a computing resource on the organization's business local area network (LAN), access to the control network is usually considered the first phase in the attack plan. Once the attacker gains access to the control network through direct connections and/or the business LAN, the second phase of reconnaissance begins with traffic analysis within the control domain. Thus, the communications between the workstations and the field device controllers can be monitored and evaluated, allowing an attacker to capture, analyze, and evaluate the commands sent among the control equipment. Through manipulation of the communication protocols of control systems (a process generally referred to as ''reverse engineering''), an attacker can then map out the control system processes and functions. With the detailed knowledge of how the control data functions, as well as what computers and devices communicate using this data, the attacker can use a well known Man-in-the-Middle attack to perform malicious operations virtually undetected. The control systems assessment teams have used this method to gather enough information about the system to craft an attack that intercepts and changes the information flow between the end devices (controllers) and the human machine interface (HMI and/or workstation). Using this attack, the cyber assessment team has been able to demonstrate complete manipulation of devices in control systems while simultaneously modifying the data flowing back to the operator's console to give false information of the state of the system (known as ''spoofing''). This is a very effective technique for a control system attack because it allows the attacker to manipulate the system and the operator's situational awareness of the perceived system status. The three main elements of this attack technique are: (1) network reconnaissance and data gathering, (2) reverse engineering, and (3) the Man-in-the-Middle attack. The details of this attack technique and the mitigation techniques are discussed.

  5. November, 2011 Vulnerable Bank s

    E-print Network

    11-280 November, 2011 Vulnerable Bank s AUGUSTIN LANDIER, DAVID THESMARD AND ROBIN GREENWOOD Research Group: Finance #12;Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1961952 Vulnerable Banks Robin Greenwood, Augustin Landier, and David Thesmar This Draft: November 2011 Abstract When a bank

  6. Guide to Using Vulnerability Naming Schemes

    E-print Network

    Guide to Using Vulnerability Naming Schemes Recommendationsof the National Institute Publication 800-51 Revision 1 Guide to Using Vulnerability Naming Schemes Recommendations of the National VULNERABILITY NAMING SCHEMES ii Reports on Computer Systems Technology The Information Technology Laboratory

  7. Cultural vulnerability and professional narratives.

    PubMed

    Gunaratnam, Yasmin

    2011-01-01

    In this article the author draws upon research with palliative care professionals in the United Kingdom to discuss the value of a stance of cultural vulnerability in intercultural care. Cultural vulnerability recognizes the reality, but also the ethical value of uncertainty and not-knowing in care. Attentiveness to professional narratives is advocated as vital in the development of greater understanding of cultural vulnerability and its effects. The role of cultural identifications and the politics of racism in social work narratives is given specific attention. PMID:22150178

  8. Identifying Frailty Among Vulnerable Populations

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Benissa E.; Nyamathi, Adeline; Phillips, Linda R.; Mentes, Janet; Sarkisian, Catherine; Brecht, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Frailty is a significant public health issue which is experienced by homeless and other vulnerable adults; to date, a frailty framework has not been proposed to guide researchers who study this hard-to-reach population. The Frailty Framework among Homeless and other Vulnerable Populations (FFHVP) has been developed from empirical research and consultation with frailty experts in an effort to characterize antecedents, i.e. situational, health-related, behavioral, resource, biological, and environmental factors which contribute to physical, psychological and social frailty domains and impact adverse outcomes. As vulnerable populations continue to age, a greater understanding of frailty will enable the development of nursing interventions. PMID:24469090

  9. Simulation with PLACA/DPLACA of thermal and mechanical phenomena in monolithic and dispersed fuel plates

    SciTech Connect

    Soba, Alejandro; Denis, Alicia

    2008-07-15

    The codes PLACA and DPLACA simulate the irradiation behavior of fuels for research reactors under normal operation conditions. They represent, respectively, plate-type fuels of the monolithic and dispersed types. Both codes contain about thirty interconnected and mutually dependent models structured in a modular scheme. This characteristic gives to the codes a large versatility. To simulate U-Mo/Al dispersion fuels, where the growth of an interaction layer can provoke uncontrolled swelling, a diffusion model with two moving boundaries has been developed. It assumes that the kinetics of both layer boundaries is determined by diffusion of U and Al through the layer. The codes make possible a detailed simulation of the evolution of the more relevant physical parameters of a fuel plate during its permanence within a reactor. Both codes were applied to simulate irradiation histories for which experimental data are available. The good quality of the codes predictions reveals the correct performance of the models involved and the appropriate coupling of the ensemble. (author)

  10. On automated prepared statement generation to remove SQL injection vulnerabilities

    E-print Network

    Xie, Tao

    On automated prepared statement generation to remove SQL injection vulnerabilities Stephen Thomas vulnerabilities were SQL injection vulnerabilities (SQLIVs). This paper presents an algorithm of prepared. Introduction SQL injection vulnerabilities (SQLIVs) accounted for 20% of in- put validation vulnerabilities

  11. Are Vulnerability Disclosure Deadlines Justified?

    SciTech Connect

    Miles McQueen; Jason L. Wright; Lawrence Wellman

    2011-09-01

    Vulnerability research organizations Rapid7, Google Security team, and Zero Day Initiative recently imposed grace periods for public disclosure of vulnerabilities. The grace periods ranged from 45 to 182 days, after which disclosure might occur with or without an effective mitigation from the affected software vendor. At this time there is indirect evidence that the shorter grace periods of 45 and 60 days may not be practical. However, there is strong evidence that the recently announced Zero Day Initiative grace period of 182 days yields benefit in speeding up the patch creation process, and may be practical for many software products. Unfortunately, there is also evidence that the 182 day grace period results in more vulnerability announcements without an available patch.

  12. REGIONAL VULNERABILITY: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regional vulnerability assessment, or ReVA, is an approach to place-based ecological risk assessment that is currently under development by the Office of Research and Development of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The assessment is done at the scale of EPA region...

  13. Vulnerabilities of Academically Gifted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Stocking, Vicki B.

    2000-01-01

    Gifted students and youth possess a set of personality characteristics that make them uniquely vulnerable. School personnel and parents need to be aware of these risk factors so that they can provide coordinated educational and social opportunities to foster resilience. They must also be ready to offer preventive and therapeutic mental health…

  14. MID-ATLANTIC REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    ORD's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (REVA) Program is developing and demonstrating approaches to assess current and future environmental vulnerabilities so that risk management activities can be targeted. The sister program to EMA.P (Environmental Monitoring Assessment Progr...

  15. NIST Interagency Report 7435 The Common Vulnerability

    E-print Network

    NIST Interagency Report 7435 The Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) and Its Applicability to Federal Agency Systems PeterMell KarenScarfone SashaRomanosky #12;The Common Vulnerability Scoring NIST Jeffrey, Director #12;THE COMMON VULNERABILITY SCORING SYSTEM (CVSS) AND ITS APPLICABILITY TO FEDERAL

  16. TOPOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF NETWORK ATTACK VULNERABILITY

    E-print Network

    Noel, Steven

    Chapter 5 TOPOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF NETWORK ATTACK VULNERABILITY Sushil Jajodia, Steven Noel, Brian O vulnerability to network attack, one must consider attacker exploits not just in isolation, but also in combination. That is, one must analyze how low-level vulnerabilities can be combined to achieve high- level

  17. GUNNISON BASIN CLIMATE CHANGE VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT

    E-print Network

    Neff, Jason

    GUNNISON BASIN CLIMATE CHANGE VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT For the Gunnison Climate Working Group. The goals of this vulnerability assessment are to identify which species and ecosystems of the Gunnison to be vulnerable. This report is intended to help natural resource managers set priorities for conservation

  18. INDICATORS OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC VULNERABILITY TO

    E-print Network

    Bateman, Ian J.

    INDICATORS OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN VIETNAM by W. Neil Adger CSERGE Working Paper GEC 98-02 #12;INDICATORS OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE Programme, under the project `Socio-economic and Physical Approaches to Vulnerability to Climate Change

  19. ASSESSING VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND

    E-print Network

    Bateman, Ian J.

    ASSESSING VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND FACILITATING ADAPTATION by P. Mick Kelly and W. Neil Adger CSERGE Working Paper GEC 99-07 #12;ASSESSING VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND FACILITATING-economic and Physical Approaches to Vulnerability to Climate Change in Vietnam'(Award No. L320253240) is gratefully

  20. VULCAN: Vulnerability Assessment Framework for Cloud Computing

    E-print Network

    Kavi, Krishna

    VULCAN: Vulnerability Assessment Framework for Cloud Computing Patrick Kamongi Srujan Kotikela services on Cloud is complex because the security depends on the vulnerability of infrastructure, platform. In this paper we propose a novel vulnerability assessment framework for cloud computing systems. We have

  1. APPROACHES TO VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE

    E-print Network

    Bateman, Ian J.

    APPROACHES TO VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE by W. Neil Adger CSERGE Working Paper GEC 96-05 #12;APPROACHES TO VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE by W. Neil Adger Centre for Social and Economic Research and Physical Approaches to Vulnerability to Climate Change in Vietnam' is also gratefully acknowledged. ISSN

  2. Safeguarding Children and Vulnerable Adults 1. Introduction

    E-print Network

    Molinari, Marc

    1 Safeguarding Children and Vulnerable Adults 1. Introduction 2. Definition & Legislation 3. Scope are likely to be a) vulnerable adults or b) children. The welfare and protection from abuse of vulnerable adults and children is paramount and central to this policy. A multi-agency approach is recommended

  3. SEISMIC HAZARD AND VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT IN TURRIALBA, COSTA RICA Seismic hazard and vulnerability

    E-print Network

    SEISMIC HAZARD AND VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT IN TURRIALBA, COSTA RICA I Seismic hazard and vulnerability assessment in Turrialba, Costa Rica Rafael German Urban Lamadrid March 2002 #12;SEISMIC HAZARD AND VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT IN TURRIALBA, COSTA RICA II Seismic hazard and vulnerability assessment in Turrialba

  4. Cizelj, Koncar, Leskovar: Vulnerability of a partially flooded.... Vulnerability of a partially flooded

    E-print Network

    Cizelj, Leon

    Cizelj, Koncar, Leskovar: Vulnerability of a partially flooded.... Vulnerability of a partially, vulnerability Abstract When the hot molten core comes into contact with the water in the reactor cavity a steam structures during a steam explosion, and to make an assessment of the vulnerabilities of the typical PWR

  5. Modeling Learningless Vulnerability Discovery using a Folded Distribution

    E-print Network

    Malaiya, Yashwant K.

    Modeling Learningless Vulnerability Discovery using a Folded Distribution Awad A. Younis1 , Hyun, CO 80523, USA Abstract ­ A vulnerability discovery model describes the vulnerability discovery rate vulnerability discovery models. The models are based on different as- sumptions, and thus differ

  6. 082911v1Vulnerability Management Policy Page 1 Policy Version

    E-print Network

    McLaughlin, Richard M.

    082911v1Vulnerability Management Policy Page 1 Policy Version: Responsible University Officer Chief Information Officer Responsible Office Information Technology Services Vulnerability Management Policy Policy, for vulnerabilities. Any detected vulnerabilities must be remediated in accordance with the specific timeframes

  7. Topological Vulnerability Analysis Sushil Jajodia and Steven Noel

    E-print Network

    Noel, Steven

    Topological Vulnerability Analysis Sushil Jajodia and Steven Noel Traditionally, network administrators rely on labor-intensive processes for tracking network configurations and vulnerabilities security data. The interdependencies of network vulnerabilities make traditional point-wise vulnerability

  8. Health status of vulnerable populations.

    PubMed

    Aday, L A

    1994-01-01

    The notion of risk underlying the concept of vulnerability implies that everyone is potentially vulnerable (or at risk), that is, there is always a chance of developing health problems. The risk is, however, greater for those with the least social status, social capital, and human capital resources to either prevent or ameliorate the origins and consequences of poor physical, psychological, or social health. The completeness and accuracy of information on the health status of the vulnerable populations examined here varies substantially across groups. Methodological work is needed to derive standardized definitions of terms, specify the content and timing for collecting information for minimum basic data sets, and develop uniform standards for evaluating and reporting data quality on the health status of vulnerable populations. The variety of indicators of vulnerable populations examined indicates that during the decade of the 1980s the incidence of serious physical, psychological, and/or social needs increased (at worst) and was unameliorated (at best) for millions of Americans. AIDS emerged as a new and deadly threat from a handful of cases classified as Gay-Related Immune Deficiency in the early part of the 1980s to what now may be over a million Americans who are HIV-positive. The number of homeless has increased an average of 20% a year to estimates now ranging up to one million men, women, or children homeless on any given night to twice that number who may be homeless sometime during the year. Over seven million people immigrated to the United States during the period from 1981 to 1990--an increasing proportion of whom are refugees carrying with them the physical, psychological, and social wounds of war. The number of children abused by family members or other intimates has burgeoned to an estimated 1.6 to 1.7 million per year, and with the greater use of firearms, intentional acts of violence towards oneself or others are becoming increasingly deadly in their consequences. Though fewer Americans smoke, drink, and use illicit drugs in general than was the case earlier in the decade of the 1980s, the use of cocaine (and particularly crack) among hard-core addicts has resulted in increases in the number of drug-related deaths.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8054096

  9. Measuring vulnerability to disaster displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brink, Susan A.; Khazai, Bijan; Power, Christopher; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2015-04-01

    Large scale disasters can cause devastating impacts in terms of population displacement. Between 2008 and 2013, on average 27 million people were displaced annually by disasters (Yonetani 2014). After large events such as hurricane Katrina or the Port-au-Prince earthquake, images of inadequate public shelter and concerns about large scale and often inequitable migration have been broadcast around the world. Population displacement can often be one of the most devastating and visible impacts of a natural disaster. Despite the importance of population displacement in disaster events, measures to understand the socio-economic vulnerability of a community often use broad metrics to estimate the total socio-economic risk of an event rather than focusing on the specific impacts that a community faces in a disaster. Population displacement is complex and multi-causal with the physical impact of a disaster interacting with vulnerability arising from the response, environmental issues (e.g., weather), cultural concerns (e.g., expectations of adequate shelter), and many individual factors (e.g., mobility, risk perception). In addition to the complexity of the causes, population displacement is difficult to measure because of the wide variety of different terms and definitions and its multi-dimensional nature. When we speak of severe population displacement, we may refer to a large number of displaced people, an extended length of displacement or associated difficulties such as poor shelter quality, risk of violence and crime in shelter communities, discrimination in aid, a lack of access to employment or other difficulties that can be associated with large scale population displacement. We have completed a thorough review of the literature on disaster population displacement. Research has been conducted on historic events to understand the types of negative impacts associated with population displacement and also the vulnerability of different groups to these impacts. We aggregate these ideas into a framework of disaster displacement vulnerability that distinguishes between three main aspects of disaster displacement. Disaster displacement can be considered in terms of the number of displaced people and the length of that displacement. However, the literature emphasizes that the severity of disaster displacement can not be measured completely in quantitative terms. Thus, we include a measure representing people who are trapped and unable to leave their homes due to mobility, resources or for other reasons. Finally the third main aspect considers the difficulties that are associated with displacement and reflects the difference between the experiences of those who are displaced into safe and supportive environments as compared to those whose only alternate shelter is dangerous and inadequate for their needs. Finally, we apply the framework to demonstrate a methodology to estimate vulnerability to disaster displacement. Using data from the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) Social and Economic Vulnerability sub-National Database, we generate an index to measure the vulnerability of Japanese prefectures to the dimensions of displacement included in the framework. References Yonitani, M. (2014). Global Estimates 2014: People displaced by disasters. http://www.internal-displacement.org/publications/2014/global-estimates-2014-people-displaced-by-disasters/

  10. Metadata for selecting or submitting generic seismic vulnerability functions via GEM's vulnerability database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaiswal, Kishor

    2013-01-01

    This memo lays out a procedure for the GEM software to offer an available vulnerability function for any acceptable set of attributes that the user specifies for a particular building category. The memo also provides general guidelines on how to submit the vulnerability or fragility functions to the GEM vulnerability repository, stipulating which attributes modelers must provide so that their vulnerability or fragility functions can be queried appropriately by the vulnerability database. An important objective is to provide users guidance on limitations and applicability by providing the associated modeling assumptions and applicability of each vulnerability or fragility function.

  11. NV: Nessus Vulnerability Visualization for the Web

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Lane; Spahn, Riley B; Iannacone, Michael D; Downing, Evan P; Goodall, John R

    2012-01-01

    Network vulnerability is a critical component of network se- curity. Yet vulnerability analysis has received relatively lit- tle attention from the security visualization community. In this paper we describe nv, a web-based Nessus vulnerability visualization. Nv utilizes treemaps and linked histograms to allow system administrators to discover, analyze, and man- age vulnerabilities on their networks. In addition to visual- izing single Nessus scans, nv supports the analysis of sequen- tial scans by showing which vulnerabilities have been fixed, remain open, or are newly discovered. Nv was also designed to operate completely in-browser, to avoid sending sensitive data to outside servers. We discuss the design of nv, as well as provide case studies demonstrating vulnerability analysis workflows which include a multiple-node testbed and data from the 2011 VAST Challenge.

  12. Assessing the Security Vulnerabilities of Correctional Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, G.S.; Spencer, D.S.

    1998-10-27

    The National Institute of Justice has tasked their Satellite Facility at Sandia National Laboratories and their Southeast Regional Technology Center in Charleston, South Carolina to devise new procedures and tools for helping correctional facilities to assess their security vulnerabilities. Thus, a team is visiting selected correctional facilities and performing vulnerability assessments. A vulnerability assessment helps to identi~ the easiest paths for inmate escape, for introduction of contraband such as drugs or weapons, for unexpected intrusion fi-om outside of the facility, and for the perpetration of violent acts on other inmates and correctional employees, In addition, the vulnerability assessment helps to quantify the security risks for the facility. From these initial assessments will come better procedures for performing vulnerability assessments in general at other correctional facilities, as well as the development of tools to assist with the performance of such vulnerability assessments.

  13. Scenarios for coastal vulnerability assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicholls, Robert J.; Woodroffe, Colin D.; Burkett, Virginia; Hay, John; Wong, Poh Poh; Nurse, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    Coastal vulnerability assessments tend to focus mainly on climate change and especially on sea-level rise. Assessment of the influence of nonclimatic environmental change or socioeconomic change is less well developed and these drivers are often completely ignored. Given that the most profound coastal changes of the twentieth century due to nonclimate drivers are likely to continue through the twenty-first century, this is a major omission. It may result in not only overstating the importance of climate change but also overlooking significant interactions of climate change and other drivers. To support the development of policies relating to climate change and coastal management, integrated assessments of climatic change in coastal areas are required, including the effects of all the relevant drivers. This chapter explores the development of scenarios (or "plausible futures") of relevant climate and nonclimate drivers that can be used for coastal analysis, with an emphasis on the nonclimate drivers. It shows the importance of analyzing the impacts of climate change and sea-level rise in a broader context of coastal change and all its drivers. This will improve the analysis of impacts, key vulnerabilities, and adaptation needs and, hence, inform climate and coastal policy. Stakeholder engagement is important in the development of scenarios, and the underlying assumptions need to be explicit, transparent, and open to scientific debate concerning their uncertainties/realism and likelihood.

  14. Dynamics of immune system vulnerabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stromberg, Sean P.

    The adaptive immune system can be viewed as a complex system, which adapts, over time, to reflect the history of infections experienced by the organism. Understanding its operation requires viewing it in terms of tradeoffs under constraints and evolutionary history. It typically displays "robust, yet fragile" behavior, meaning common tasks are robust to small changes but novel threats or changes in environment can have dire consequences. In this dissertation we use mechanistic models to study several biological processes: the immune response, the homeostasis of cells in the lymphatic system, and the process that normally prevents autoreactive cells from entering the lymphatic system. Using these models we then study the effects of these processes interacting. We show that the mechanisms that regulate the numbers of cells in the immune system, in conjunction with the immune response, can act to suppress autoreactive cells from proliferating, thus showing quantitatively how pathogenic infections can suppress autoimmune disease. We also show that over long periods of time this same effect can thin the repertoire of cells that defend against novel threats, leading to an age correlated vulnerability. This vulnerability is shown to be a consequence of system dynamics, not due to degradation of immune system components with age. Finally, modeling a specific tolerance mechanism that normally prevents autoimmune disease, in conjunction with models of the immune response and homeostasis we look at the consequences of the immune system mistakenly incorporating pathogenic molecules into its tolerizing mechanisms. The signature of this dynamic matches closely that of the dengue virus system.

  15. Vulnerability of network of networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havlin, S.; Kenett, D. Y.; Bashan, A.; Gao, J.; Stanley, H. E.

    2014-10-01

    Our dependence on networks - be they infrastructure, economic, social or others - leaves us prone to crises caused by the vulnerabilities of these networks. There is a great need to develop new methods to protect infrastructure networks and prevent cascade of failures (especially in cases of coupled networks). Terrorist attacks on transportation networks have traumatized modern societies. With a single blast, it has become possible to paralyze airline traffic, electric power supply, ground transportation or Internet communication. How, and at which cost can one restructure the network such that it will become more robust against malicious attacks? The gradual increase in attacks on the networks society depends on - Internet, mobile phone, transportation, air travel, banking, etc. - emphasize the need to develop new strategies to protect and defend these crucial networks of communication and infrastructure networks. One example is the threat of liquid explosives a few years ago, which completely shut down air travel for days, and has created extreme changes in regulations. Such threats and dangers warrant the need for new tools and strategies to defend critical infrastructure. In this paper we review recent advances in the theoretical understanding of the vulnerabilities of interdependent networks with and without spatial embedding, attack strategies and their affect on such networks of networks as well as recently developed strategies to optimize and repair failures caused by such attacks.

  16. Mining Bug Databases for Unidentified Software Vulnerabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Dumidu Wijayasekara; Milos Manic; Jason Wright; Miles McQueen

    2012-06-01

    Identifying software vulnerabilities is becoming more important as critical and sensitive systems increasingly rely on complex software systems. It has been suggested in previous work that some bugs are only identified as vulnerabilities long after the bug has been made public. These vulnerabilities are known as hidden impact vulnerabilities. This paper discusses the feasibility and necessity to mine common publicly available bug databases for vulnerabilities that are yet to be identified. We present bug database analysis of two well known and frequently used software packages, namely Linux kernel and MySQL. It is shown that for both Linux and MySQL, a significant portion of vulnerabilities that were discovered for the time period from January 2006 to April 2011 were hidden impact vulnerabilities. It is also shown that the percentage of hidden impact vulnerabilities has increased in the last two years, for both software packages. We then propose an improved hidden impact vulnerability identification methodology based on text mining bug databases, and conclude by discussing a few potential problems faced by such a classifier.

  17. Assessing human vulnerability: Daytime residential distribution as a vulnerability indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokesch, Karin; Promper, Catrin; Papathoma-Köhle, Maria; Glade, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Natural hazard risk management is based on detailed information on potential impacts of natural hazards. Especially concerning fast onset hazards such as flash floods, earthquakes but also debris flows and landslides, knowing potential hotspots of impact to both, assets and human lives is essential. This information is important for emergency management and decision making in the response phase of the disaster management cycle. Emergency managers are in need of information regarding not only the number of humans being potentially affected but also the respective vulnerability of the group affected based on characteristics such as age, income, health condition, mobility, etc. regarding a certain hazard. The analysis presented focuses on the distribution of the population, assuming a certain pattern of people in a certain radius of action. The method applied is based on a regular pattern of movement of different groups of people and a pattern of presence in certain units, e.g. schools, businesses or residential buildings. The distribution is calculated on a minimum of available data including the average household size, as well as information on building types. The study area is located in the Southwest of Lower Austria, Austria. The city of Waidhofen/Ybbs can be regarded as a regional center providing basic infrastructure, shops and schools. The high concentration of buildings combining shops and residential units leads to a high damage potential throughout the whole study area. The presented results indicate the population distribution within the study area on an average working day. It is clear that explicitly high numbers of people are located in specific buildings (e.g. schools and hospitals) which also include highly vulnerable groups especially to fast onset hazards. The results provide emergency services with the information that they need in order to intervene directly where large numbers of victims or people that need to be evacuated are located. In this way, emergency services can focus and prioritize their actions in order to save lives and reduce the number of potential victims.

  18. Proliferation Vulnerability Red Team report

    SciTech Connect

    Hinton, J.P.; Barnard, R.W.; Bennett, D.E.

    1996-10-01

    This report is the product of a four-month independent technical assessment of potential proliferation vulnerabilities associated with the plutonium disposition alternatives currently under review by DOE/MD. The scope of this MD-chartered/Sandia-led study was limited to technical considerations that could reduce proliferation resistance during various stages of the disposition processes below the Stored Weapon/Spent Fuel standards. Both overt and covert threats from host nation and unauthorized parties were considered. The results of this study will be integrated with complementary work by others into an overall Nonproliferation and Arms Control Assessment in support of a Secretarial Record of Decision later this year for disposition of surplus U.S. weapons plutonium.

  19. Saudis awaken to their vulnerability

    SciTech Connect

    Tinnin, D.B.

    1980-03-10

    Saudi Arabia is becoming aware that it is vulnerable to internal and external pressures which threaten its security. The strains of rapid modernization and threats from hostile neighbors are undermining the consensus which has held the widely diverse country together in a system of open communication. Influence by the Bedouin (ruling) and the ulama (religious) groups has predominated a traditional society determined to modernize and still remain conservative. Members of the ruling class are seeking to profit from the modernization process, but the common Saudi resists becoming an industrial laborer. Recent events in Mecca, Afghanistan and elsewhere illustrate how political pressures are affecting the country's leadership in the threat of armed conflicts over its oil supplies. (DCK)

  20. Vulnerable Youth and Transitions to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Rongbing; Sen, Bisakha; Foster, E. Michael

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on vulnerable youth, the challenges they face during their transitions to adulthood, and the adverse effects of limited support systems on those transitions. The authors offer recommendations on how adult educators can help facilitate smooth transitions into adulthood for vulnerable youth.

  1. SPATIAL CLIMATE CHANGE VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENTS: A REVIEW

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), Earth Institute at Columbia University, throughSPATIAL CLIMATE CHANGE VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENTS: A REVIEW OF DATA, METHODS, AND ISSUES AUGUST 2014: A Review of Data, Methods, and Issues i SPATIAL CLIMATE CHANGE VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENTS: A REVIEW OF DATA

  2. Design Vulnerability Assessments for Safeguards Sealing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brockman, Linda; Johnston, Roger; Kravtchenko, Victor; Undem, Halvor A.; Wishard, Bernard

    2010-08-11

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (the "Agency") engages in a rigorous equipment authorization process prior to deploying Safeguards instrumentation, including Safeguards sealing systems, for world-wide use. A positive result from a vulnerability assessment is one of the many requirements that must be met prior to instrumentation deployment. Given the long time period in the Safeguards instrumentation development cycle, the substantial Member State investments made, and the significant Agency staff time required, a negative result for the vulnerability assessment can result in the loss of time, considerable additional expense, or even the failure to deploy an instrument or sealing system at all. First suggested in 1998 by the General Physics Institute in Moscow, an approach that incorporates a design vulnerability assessment minimizes the risk of deployment failure by teaming a public sector vulnerability assessment team with the instrument or sealing system design team in order to identify, at the earliest possible design stage, inherent vulnerabilities. Involving the vulnerability assessors early and often in the design and development process avoids many of the problems inherent in evaluating security vulnerabilities only after the design is finalized. The disadvantages include increased costs and time to deployment. An improved pressure-sensitive adhesive label seal, called the "VOID-3 seal" was developed for the Agency using this design vulnerability assessment process.

  3. The Naïve nurse: revisiting vulnerability for nursing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nurses in the Western world have given considerable attention to the concept of vulnerability in recent decades. However, nurses have tended to view vulnerability from an individualistic perspective, and have rarely taken into account structural or collective dimensions of the concept. As the need grows for health workers to engage in the global health agenda, nurses must broaden earlier works on vulnerability, noting that conventional conceptualizations and practical applications on the notion of vulnerability warrant extension to include more collective conceptualizations thereby making a more complete understanding of vulnerability in nursing discourse. Discussion The purpose of this paper is to examine nursing contributions to the concept of vulnerability and consider how a broader perspective that includes socio-political dimensions may assist nurses to reach beyond the immediate milieu of the patient into the dominant social, political, and economic structures that produce and sustain vulnerability. Summary By broadening nurse’s conceptualization of vulnerability, nurses can obtain the consciousness needed to move beyond a peripheral role of nursing that has been dominantly situated within institutional settings to contribute in the larger arena of social, economic, political and global affairs. PMID:22520841

  4. Infrastructure Vulnerability Assessment Model (I-VAM).

    PubMed

    Ezell, Barry Charles

    2007-06-01

    Quantifying vulnerability to critical infrastructure has not been adequately addressed in the literature. Thus, the purpose of this article is to present a model that quantifies vulnerability. Vulnerability is defined as a measure of system susceptibility to threat scenarios. This article asserts that vulnerability is a condition of the system and it can be quantified using the Infrastructure Vulnerability Assessment Model (I-VAM). The model is presented and then applied to a medium-sized clean water system. The model requires subject matter experts (SMEs) to establish value functions and weights, and to assess protection measures of the system. Simulation is used to account for uncertainty in measurement, aggregate expert assessment, and to yield a vulnerability (Omega) density function. Results demonstrate that I-VAM is useful to decisionmakers who prefer quantification to qualitative treatment of vulnerability. I-VAM can be used to quantify vulnerability to other infrastructures, supervisory control and data acquisition systems (SCADA), and distributed control systems (DCS). PMID:17640208

  5. Ecosystem Services and Emergent Vulnerability in Managed

    E-print Network

    Vermont, University of

    Ecosystem Services and Emergent Vulnerability in Managed Ecosystems: A Geospatial Decision ecosystems experience vulnerabilities when ecological resilience declines and key flows of ecosystem services at relevant scales and in locally meaningful ways to provide decision-support for adaptive management efforts

  6. Predicting Vulnerability Risks Using Software Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roumani, Yaman

    2012-01-01

    Software vulnerabilities have been regarded as one of the key reasons for computer security breaches that have resulted in billions of dollars in losses per year (Telang and Wattal 2005). With the growth of the software industry and the Internet, the number of vulnerability attacks and the ease with which an attack can be made have increased. From…

  7. Practical Automated Vulnerability Monitoring Using Program State Invariants Cristiano Giuffrida

    E-print Network

    Tanenbaum, Andrew S.

    Practical Automated Vulnerability Monitoring Using Program State Invariants Cristiano Giuffrida escape testing and plague production applications with security vulnerabilities. We present RCORE, an effi- cient dynamic program monitoring infrastructure to perform automated security vulnerability

  8. Towards Practical Automatic Generation of Multipath Vulnerability Signatures

    E-print Network

    Towards Practical Automatic Generation of Multipath Vulnerability Signatures David Brumley, Zhenkai are one of the most popular architectures for defending against exploits of vulnerabilities. At the heart present the first practical approach for automatically creating vulnerability signatures which recognize

  9. Advanced Vulnerability Analysis and Intrusion Detection Through Predictive Attack Graphs

    E-print Network

    Noel, Steven

    Advanced Vulnerability Analysis and Intrusion Detection Through Predictive Attack Graphs Steven for maintaining a well informed and proactive defense posture. Vulnerabilities are usually assessed in isolation graphs for advanced vulnerability analysis and intrusion detection. Attack graphs map paths

  10. Chemical facility vulnerability assessment project.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Calvin D

    2003-11-14

    Sandia National Laboratories, under the direction of the Office of Science and Technology, National Institute of Justice, conducted the chemical facility vulnerability assessment (CFVA) project. The primary objective of this project was to develop, test and validate a vulnerability assessment methodology (VAM) for determining the security of chemical facilities against terrorist or criminal attacks (VAM-CF). The project also included a report to the Department of Justice for Congress that in addition to describing the VAM-CF also addressed general observations related to security practices, threats and risks at chemical facilities and chemical transport. In the development of the VAM-CF Sandia leveraged the experience gained from the use and development of VAs in other areas and the input from the chemical industry and Federal agencies. The VAM-CF is a systematic, risk-based approach where risk is a function of the severity of consequences of an undesired event, the attack potential, and the likelihood of adversary success in causing the undesired event. For the purpose of the VAM-CF analyses Risk is a function of S, L(A), and L(AS), where S is the severity of consequence of an event, L(A) is the attack potential and L(AS) likelihood of adversary success in causing a catastrophic event. The VAM-CF consists of 13 basic steps. It involves an initial screening step, which helps to identify and prioritize facilities for further analysis. This step is similar to the prioritization approach developed by the American Chemistry Council (ACC). Other steps help to determine the components of the risk equation and ultimately the risk. The VAM-CF process involves identifying the hazardous chemicals and processes at a chemical facility. It helps chemical facilities to focus their attention on the most critical areas. The VAM-CF is not a quantitative analysis but, rather, compares relative security risks. If the risks are deemed too high, recommendations are developed for measures to reduce the risk. This paper will briefly discuss the CFVA project and VAM-CF process. PMID:14602410

  11. Vulnerability, Health Agency and Capability to Health.

    PubMed

    Straehle, Christine

    2016-01-01

    One of the defining features of the capability approach (CA) to health, as developed in Venkatapuram's book Health Justice, is its aim to enable individual health agency. Furthermore, the CA to health hopes to provide a strong guideline for assessing the health-enabling content of social and political conditions. In this article, I employ the recent literature on the liberal concept of vulnerability to assess the CA. I distinguish two kinds of vulnerability. Considering circumstantial vulnerability, I argue that liberal accounts of vulnerability concerned with individual autonomy, align with the CA to health. Individuals should, as far as possible, be able to make health-enabling decisions about their lives, and their capability to do so should certainly not be hindered by public policy. The CA to health and a vulnerability-based analysis then work alongside to define moral responsibilities and designate those who hold them. Both approaches demand social policy to address circumstances that hinder individuals from taking health-enabling decisions. A background condition of vulnerability, on the other hand, even though it hampers the capability for health, does not warrant the strong moral claim proposed by the CA to health to define health as a meta-capability that should guide social policy. Nothing in our designing social policy could change the challenge to health agency when we deal with background conditions of vulnerability. PMID:26686329

  12. Determining Vulnerability Importance in Environmental Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Toro, Javier; Duarte, Oscar; Requena, Ignacio; Zamorano, Montserrat

    2012-01-15

    The concept of vulnerability has been used to describe the susceptibility of physical, biotic, and social systems to harm or hazard. In this sense, it is a tool that reduces the uncertainties of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) since it does not depend exclusively on the value assessments of the evaluator, but rather is based on the environmental state indicators of the site where the projects or activities are being carried out. The concept of vulnerability thus reduces the possibility that evaluators will subjectively interpret results, and be influenced by outside interests and pressures during projects. However, up until now, EIA has been hindered by a lack of effective methods. This research study analyzes the concept of vulnerability, defines Vulnerability Importance and proposes its inclusion in qualitative EIA methodology. The method used to quantify Vulnerability Importance is based on a set of environmental factors and indicators that provide a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. The results obtained in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method since there is a direct relation between this value and the environmental state of the departments analyzed. - Research Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The concept of vulnerability could be considered defining Vulnerability Importance included in qualitative EIA methodology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The use of the concept of environmental vulnerability could reduce the subjectivity of qualitative methods of EIA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method to quantify the Vulnerability Importance proposed provides a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method.

  13. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: cell vulnerability or system vulnerability?

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a complex neurodegenerative disease with clinical, pathological and genetic overlap with frontotemporal dementia (FTD). No longer viewed as one disease with a single unified cause, ALS is now considered to be a clinicopathological syndrome resulting from a complex convergence of genetic susceptibility, age-related loss of cellular homeostasis, and possible environmental influences. The rapid increase in recent years of the number of genes in which mutations have been associated with ALS has led to in vitro and in vivo models that have generated a wealth of data indicating disruption of specific biochemical pathways and sub-cellular compartments. Data implicating pathways including protein misfolding, mRNA splicing, oxidative stress, proteosome and mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of ALS reinforce a disease model based on selective age-dependent vulnerability of a specific population of cells. To the clinical neurologist, however, ALS presents as a disease of focal onset and contiguous spread. Characteristic regional patterns of involvement and progression suggest that the disease does not proceed randomly but via a restricted number of anatomical pathways. These clinical observations combined with electrophysiological and brain-imaging studies underpin the concept of ALS at the macroscopic level as a ‘system degeneration’. This dichotomy between cellular and systems neurobiology raises the fundamental questions of what initiates the disease process in a specific anatomical site and how the disease is propagated. Is the essence of ALS a cell-to-cell transmission of pathology with, for example, a ‘prion-like’ mechanism, or does the cellular pathology follow degeneration of specific synaptic networks? Elucidating the interaction between cellular degeneration and system level degeneration will aid modeling of the disease in the earliest phases, improve the development of sensitive markers of disease progression and response to therapy, and expand our understanding of the biological basis of clinical and pathological heterogeneity. PMID:24010870

  14. Understanding the Code: safeguarding vulnerable adults.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Under the provisions of the Nursing and Midwifery Council's revised Code (2015) , all district and community nurses have a professional duty to safeguard vulnerable adults from abuse. With adult abuse continuing to increase, all members of the district and community nursing teams are well placed to identify and take action to safeguard the vulnerable. In this article, Richard Griffith explains how the Care Act 2014 seeks to improve the safeguarding of vulnerable adults and the role of district and community nurses in that process. PMID:26551387

  15. ICBM vulnerability: Calculations, predictions, and error bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobson, Art

    1988-09-01

    The theory of intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) silo vulnerability is reviewed, and the present and probable future (mid-1990s) vulnerability of US silos is analyzed. The analysis emphasizes methodology, sources of information, and uncertainties. US ICBMs might still be survivable today but they will certainly be vulnerable to ICBM attack, and perhaps even to submarine-launched ballistic missile attack, by the mid-1990s. These calculations are presented not only for their immediate importance but also to introduce other physicists to some of the quantitative methods that can be used to analyze international security topics.

  16. Salt vulnerability assessment methodology for urban streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, A. R.; Gharabaghi, B.; McBean, E. A.

    2014-09-01

    De-icing agents such as road salts while used for winter road maintenance can cause negative effects on urban stream water quality and drinking water supplies. A new methodology using readily available spatial data to identify Salt Vulnerable Areas (SVAs) for urban streams is used to prioritize implementation of best management practices. The methodology calculates the probable chloride concentration statistics at specified points in the urban stream network and compares the results with known aquatic species exposure tolerance limits to characterize the vulnerability scores. The approach prioritizes implementation of best management practices to areas identified as vulnerable to road salt. The vulnerability assessment is performed on seven sites in four watersheds in the Greater Toronto Area and validated using the Hanlon Creek watershed in Guelph. The mean annual in-stream chloride concentration equation uses readily available spatial data - with province-wide coverage - that can be easily used in any urban watershed.

  17. Measuring and Incorporating Vulnerability into Conservation Planning

    E-print Network

    Queensland, University of

    and categorize methods for assessing the vulnerability of areas and the features they contain and identify background rate in the absence of humans (Pimm and others 1995). The processes driving these losses

  18. Managing risk with climate vulnerability science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Paul C.; Ebi, Kristie L.; Leichenko, Robin; Olson, Richard Stuart; Steinbruner, John D.; Lempert, Robert

    2013-07-01

    Climate information alone cannot be sufficient for anticipating and reducing climate impacts. Enhanced vulnerability science is needed, including local to global monitoring, to support effective anticipatory efforts to increase societal resilience to potentially disruptive events.

  19. Housing concerns of vulnerable older Canadians.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Lori E; LeBlanc, Kristal

    2010-09-01

    Preparing for the future housing needs of older adults is imperative in countries with an aging population, but little is known about these issues among vulnerable older adults. This study used a qualitative approach to identify key housing concerns in this group. A total of 84 vulnerable older adults including Aboriginal elders, those with various disabilities, and ethnic minorities participated in 10 focus groups. The Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation's (CMHC's) standards of core housing need provided a framework for data analysis, along with the identification of additional key housing themes across and within groups of vulnerable older adults. The results provide insight into preferred housing characteristics, regardless of housing form. Additionally, the results provide insight into how to support vulnerable older adults who choose to remain in their homes and communities and how to help ensure that appropriate housing is developed that meets the needs of this diverse population. PMID:20712917

  20. [Aged woman's vulnerability related to AIDS].

    PubMed

    Silva, Carla Marins; Lopes, Fernanda Maria do Valle Martins; Vargens, Octavio Muniz da Costa

    2010-09-01

    This article is a systhematic literature review including the period from 1994 to 2009, whose objective was to discuss the aged woman's vulnerability in relation to Acquired Imunodeficiency Syndrome (Aids). The search for scientific texts was accomplished in the following databases: Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, Scientific Eletronic Library Online (SciELO), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE). The descriptors used were vulnerability, woman and Aids. Eighteen texts were analyzed, including articles in scientific journals, thesis and dissertations. As a conclusion, it was noted that aged women and vulnerability to Aids are directly related, through gender characteristics including submission and that were built historical and socially. We consider as fundamental the development of studies which may generate publications accessible to women, in order to help them see themselves as persons vulnerable to Aids contagion just for being women. PMID:21574329

  1. Cancer Vulnerabilities Unveiled by Genomic Loss

    E-print Network

    Nijhawan, Deepak

    Due to genome instability, most cancers exhibit loss of regions containing tumor suppressor genes and collateral loss of other genes. To identify cancer-specific vulnerabilities that are the result of copy number losses, ...

  2. Global Distributions of Vulnerability to Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Yohe, Gary; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Brenkert, Antoinette L.; Schlesinger, Michael; Meij, Henk; Xiaoshi, Xing

    2006-12-01

    Signatories of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have committed themselves to addressing the “specific needs and special circumstances of developing country parties, especially those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change”.1 The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has since concluded with high confidence that “developing countries will be more vulnerable to climate change than developed countries”.2 In their most recent report, however, the IPCC notes that “current knowledge of adaptation and adaptive capacity is insufficient for reliable prediction of adaptations” 3 because “the capacity to adapt varies considerably among regions, countries and socioeconomic groups and will vary over time”.4 Here, we respond to the apparent contradiction in these two statements by exploring how variation in adaptive capacity and climate impacts combine to influence the global distribution of vulnerability. We find that all countries will be vulnerable to climate change, even if their adaptive capacities are enhanced. Developing nations are most vulnerable to modest climate change. Reducing greenhouse-gas emissions would diminish their vulnerabilities significantly. Developed countries would benefit most from mitigation for moderate climate change. Extreme climate change overwhelms the abilities of all countries to adapt. These findings should inform both ongoing negotiations for the next commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol and emerging plans for implementing UNFCCC-sponsored adaptation funds.

  3. Application of PRA to HEMP vulnerability analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mensing, R.W.

    1985-09-01

    Vulnerability analyses of large systems, e.g., control and communication centers, aircraft, ships, are subject to many uncertainties. A basic source of uncertainty is the random variation inherent in the physical world. Thus, vulnerability is appropriately described by an estimate of the probability of survival (or failure). A second source of uncertainty that also needs to be recognized is the uncertainty associated with the analysis or estimation process itself. This uncertainty, often called modeling uncertainty, has many contributors. There are the approximations introduced by using mathematical models to describe reality. Also, the appropriate values of the model parameters are derived from several sources, e.g., based on experimental or test data, based on expert judgment and opinion. In any case, these values are subject to uncertainty. This uncertainty must be considered in the description of vulnerability. Thus, the estimate of the probability of survival is not a single value but a range of values. Probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) is a methodology which deals with these uncertainty issues. This report discusses the application of PRA to HEMP vulnerability analyses. Vulnerability analysis and PRA are briefly outlined and the need to distinguish between random variation and modeling uncertainty is discussed. Then a sequence of steps appropriate for applying PRA to vulnerability problems is outlined. Finally, methods for handling modeling uncertainty are identified and discussed.

  4. Node Removal Vulnerability of the Largest Component of a Network

    E-print Network

    Hero, Alfred O.

    Node Removal Vulnerability of the Largest Component of a Network Pin-Yu Chen and Alfred O. Hero III theory, topological vulnerability I. INTRODUCTION Networks are vulnerable to selective node removals of the largest component to node removals is one of the most important topological vulnerability measures

  5. Drought vulnerability assesssment and mapping in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imani, Yasmina; Lahlou, Ouiam; Bennasser Alaoui, Si; Naumann, Gustavo; Barbosa, Paulo; Vogt, Juergen

    2014-05-01

    Drought vulnerability assessment and mapping in Morocco Authors: Yasmina Imani 1, Ouiam Lahlou 1, Si Bennasser Alaoui 1 Paulo Barbosa 2, Jurgen Vogt 2, Gustavo Naumann 2 1: Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II (IAV Hassan II), Rabat Morocco. 2: European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Environment and Sustainability (IES), Ispra, Italy. In Morocco, nearly 50% of the population lives in rural areas. They are mostly small subsistent farmers whose production depends almost entirely on rainfall. They are therefore very sensitive to drought episodes that may dramatically affect their incomes. Although, as a consequence of the increasing frequency, length and severity of drought episodes in the late 90's, the Moroccan government decided, to move on from a crisis to a risk management approach, drought management remains in practice mainly reactive and often ineffective. The lack of effectiveness of public policy is in part a consequence of the poor understanding of drought vulnerability at the rural community level, which prevents the development of efficient mitigation actions and adaptation strategies, tailored to the needs and specificities of each rural community. Thus, the aim of this study is to assess and map drought vulnerability at the rural commune level in the Oum Er-Rbia basin which is a very heterogeneous basin, showing a big variability of climates, landscapes, cropping systems and social habits. Agricultural data collected from the provincial and local administrations of Agriculture and socio-economic data from the National Department of Statistics were used to compute a composite vulnerability index (DVI) integrating four different components: (i) the renewable natural capacity, (ii) the economic capacity, (iii) human and civic resources, and (iv) infrastructure and technology. The drought vulnerability maps that were derived from the computation of the DVI shows that except very specific areas, most of the Oum er Rbia basin is highly vulnerable to drought. The mountainous areas present the most favorable annual rainfall. That contributes to explain their low DVI. In the provinces that present the highest vulnerability to drought, spots presenting a lower vulnerability correspond to large irrigated perimeters. Overall, the main output of this study were to show how the DVI can allow detecting the differences in vulnerability in the different rural communes providing, therefore, a tool for more effective drought management practices. The analysis of the 4 dimensions of the DVI showed that at the river basin level, the mean annual rainfall, the percentage of irrigated lands, The Cereal / Fruit trees and market crops ratio, the land status, the farm's sizes, the adult literacy rate and the access to improved drinking water represent the major drivers of vulnerability. They may therefore be targeted in priority by mitigation and adaptation actions.

  6. Camana, Peru, and Tsunami Vulnerability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A tsunami washed over the low-lying coastal resort region near Camana, southern Peru, following a strong earthquake on June 23, 2001. The earthquake was one of the most powerful of the last 35 years and had a magnitude of 8.4. After the initial quake, coastal residents witnessed a sudden drawdown of the ocean and knew a tsunami was imminent. They had less than 20 minutes to reach higher ground before the tsunami hit. Waves as high as 8 m came in four destructive surges reaching as far as 1.2 km inland. The dashed line marks the approximate area of tsunami inundation. Thousands of buildings were destroyed, and the combined earthquake and tsunami killed as many as 139 people. This image (ISS004-ESC-6128) was taken by astronauts onboard the International Space Station on 10 January 2002. It shows some of the reasons that the Camana area was so vulnerable to tsunami damage. The area has a 1 km band of coastal plain that is less than 5 m in elevation. Much of the plain can be seen by the bright green fields of irrigated agriculture that contrast with the light-colored desert high ground. Many of the tsunami-related deaths were workers in the onion fields in the coastal plain that were unwilling to leave their jobs before the end of the shift. A number of lives were spared because the tsunami occurred during the resort off-season, during the daylight when people could see the ocean drawdown, and during one of the lowest tides of the year. Information on the Tsunami that hit Camana can be found in a reports on the visit by the International Tsunami Survey Team and the USC Tsunami Research Lab. Earthquake Epicenter, Peru shows another image of the area. Image provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  7. A knowledge integration approach to flood vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzorana, Bruno; Fuchs, Sven

    2014-05-01

    Understanding, qualifying and quantifying vulnerability is an essential need for implementing effective and efficient flood risk mitigation strategies; in particular if possible synergies between different mitigation alternatives, such as active and passive measures, should be achieved. In order to combine different risk management options it is necessary to take an interdisciplinary approach to vulnerability reduction, and as a result the affected society may be willing to accept a certain degree of self-responsibility. However, due to differing mono-disciplinary approaches and regional foci undertaken until now, different aspects of vulnerability to natural hazards in general and to floods in particular remain uncovered and as a result the developed management options remain sub-optimal. Taking an even more fundamental viewpoint, the empirical vulnerability functions used in risk assessment specifically fail to capture physical principles of the damage-generating mechanisms to the build environment. The aim of this paper is to partially close this gap by discussing a balanced knowledge integration approach which can be used to resolve the multidisciplinary disorder in flood vulnerability research. Modelling techniques such as mathematical-physical modelling of the flood hazard impact to and response from the building envelope affected, and formative scenario analyses of possible consequences in terms of damage and loss are used in synergy to provide an enhanced understanding of vulnerability and to render the derived knowledge into interdisciplinary mitigation strategies. The outlined formal procedure allows for a convincing knowledge alignment of quantified, but partial, information about vulnerability as a result of the application of physical and engineering notions and valuable, but often underspecified, qualitative argumentation strings emerging from the adopted socio-economic viewpoint.

  8. Holographic Vulnerability Studies: Vulnerabilities as Fractures in Interpretation as Information Flows Across

    E-print Network

    Crandall, Jedidiah R.

    of their choosing. Consider also SQL injection [27, 52]. Because the attacker puts escape characters in their inputs, trendy vulnerability type is. First it was time-of-check-to-time-of-use, then buffer overflows, then SQL injection, then cross-site scripting. Vulnerability studies are sup- posed to accomplish two main goals

  9. Vulnerability synthetic indices: a literature integrative review.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Lívia Rejane Miguel Amaral; Schumann, Lívia Amaral; Moura, Leides Baroso Azevedo

    2015-07-01

    The concept of vulnerability is delimited by dynamic social and multigenerational processes involving at least three dimensions: exposure to risk trajectories, internal and external capabilities of reaction and possibilities of adaptation based on both the intensity of risk and the resilience of people. In order to identify and describe the synthetic indices of vulnerability, there was an integrative literature review. We consulted free access articles indexed in the following databases: BioMed, Bireme, PubMed, Reldalyc, SciELO and Web of Science; and we used controlled descriptors in English and Portuguese for all time slots available with selection and analysis of 47 studies that reported results of 23 synthetic indices of vulnerability. The results showed that the synthetic indices of vulnerability address four themes: social determinants of health; environmental and climatic conditions; family and course of life; territories and specific geographic areas. It was concluded that the definition of the components and indicators, as well as the methodologies adopted for the construction of synthetic indices need to be evaluated by means of the limitations and advantages of reporting the vulnerability through summary measures in policy formulation and decision-making aimed at human development. PMID:26132249

  10. Vulnerabilities in snakebites in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bertolozzi, Maria Rita; Scatena, Camila Morato da Conceição; França, Francisco Oscar de Siqueira

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe elements of vulnerability of victims of snakebite. METHODS This qualitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study had, as theoretical framework, the concept of vulnerability in individual, social, and programmatic dimensions. We interviewed 21 patients admitted into a hospital specialized in the care of accidents caused by venomous animals. The interviews were analyzed according to a discourse analysis technique. RESULTS Patients were mainly young men, living in remote countryside areas, where health services frequently have limited resources. We found social and individual conditions of vulnerability, such as precarious schooling, low professional qualification, housing without access to piped water, no sewage treated, and no regular garbage collection, and lack of knowledge on this health problem. Regarding the programmatic dimension, we found limited accessibility to the health services that could affect the prognosis and the frequency of sequelae and deaths. CONCLUSIONS Considering such vulnerabilities evoke the need to improve the program for control the Accidents by Venomous Animals and the training of health workers, we highlight the potential use of the concept of vulnerability, which may amplify the understanding and the recommendations for the practice and education related to snakebites. PMID:26603351

  11. Vulnerabilities in snakebites in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bertolozzi, Maria Rita; Scatena, Camila Morato da Conceição; França, Francisco Oscar de Siqueira

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe elements of vulnerability of victims of snakebite. METHODS This qualitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study had, as theoretical framework, the concept of vulnerability in individual, social, and programmatic dimensions. We interviewed 21 patients admitted into a hospital specialized in the care of accidents caused by venomous animals. The interviews were analyzed according to a discourse analysis technique. RESULTS Patients were mainly young men, living in remote countryside areas, where health services frequently have limited resources. We found social and individual conditions of vulnerability, such as precarious schooling, low professional qualification, housing without access to piped water, no sewage treated, and no regular garbage collection, and lack of knowledge on this health problem. Regarding the programmatic dimension, we found limited accessibility to the health services that could affect the prognosis and the frequency of sequelae and deaths. CONCLUSIONS Considering such vulnerabilities evoke the need to improve the program for control the Accidents by Venomous Animals and the training of health workers, we highlight the potential use of the concept of vulnerability, which may amplify the understanding and the recommendations for the practice and education related to snakebites. PMID:26603351

  12. Assessing species vulnerability to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacifici, Michela; Foden, Wendy B.; Visconti, Piero; Watson, James E. M.; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Kovacs, Kit M.; Scheffers, Brett R.; Hole, David G.; Martin, Tara G.; Akçakaya, H. Resit; Corlett, Richard T.; Huntley, Brian; Bickford, David; Carr, Jamie A.; Hoffmann, Ary A.; Midgley, Guy F.; Pearce-Kelly, Paul; Pearson, Richard G.; Williams, Stephen E.; Willis, Stephen G.; Young, Bruce; Rondinini, Carlo

    2015-03-01

    The effects of climate change on biodiversity are increasingly well documented, and many methods have been developed to assess species' vulnerability to climatic changes, both ongoing and projected in the coming decades. To minimize global biodiversity losses, conservationists need to identify those species that are likely to be most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. In this Review, we summarize different currencies used for assessing species' climate change vulnerability. We describe three main approaches used to derive these currencies (correlative, mechanistic and trait-based), and their associated data requirements, spatial and temporal scales of application and modelling methods. We identify strengths and weaknesses of the approaches and highlight the sources of uncertainty inherent in each method that limit projection reliability. Finally, we provide guidance for conservation practitioners in selecting the most appropriate approach(es) for their planning needs and highlight priority areas for further assessments.

  13. Nuclear Molecular Imaging for Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaques

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo Jin

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease as well as a lipid disorder. Atherosclerotic plaque formed in vessel walls may cause ischemia, and the rupture of vulnerable plaque may result in fatal events, like myocardial infarction or stroke. Because morphological imaging has limitations in diagnosing vulnerable plaque, molecular imaging has been developed, in particular, the use of nuclear imaging probes. Molecular imaging targets various aspects of vulnerable plaque, such as inflammatory cell accumulation, endothelial activation, proteolysis, neoangiogenesis, hypoxia, apoptosis, and calcification. Many preclinical and clinical studies have been conducted with various imaging probes and some of them have exhibited promising results. Despite some limitations in imaging technology, molecular imaging is expected to be used both in the research and clinical fields as imaging instruments become more advanced. PMID:26357491

  14. Neurochemical markers of alcoholism vulnerability in humans.

    PubMed

    Ratsma, Joelle E; Van Der Stelt, Odin; Gunning, W Boudewijn

    2002-01-01

    This review considers several neurochemical characteristics or trait markers that may be related to a genetic vulnerability to alcoholism. These potential neurochemical markers of alcoholism vulnerability include indices of activity of five neurotransmitter systems, namely gamma-aminobutyric acid, serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline and beta-endorphin. This review evaluates whether potential abnormalities in these neurochemical indices, as assessed in alcoholics and in the children of alcoholics, meet three criteria for the identification of a vulnerability marker of alcoholism: (1). heritable; (2). associated with alcoholism in the general population; (3). state independent. It is concluded that, at present, indices of increased baseline activity of the serotonin transporter in platelets and of increased responsiveness of the pituitary beta-endorphin system may fulfil each of these three criteria. Additional research efforts should be devoted to the evaluation of trait marker properties of neurochemical indices in individuals at high risk for alcoholism. PMID:12414542

  15. A framework for modeling rail transport vulnerability

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Steven K; Church, Richard L.

    2008-01-01

    Railroads represent one of the most efficient methods of long-haul transport for bulk commodities, from coal to agricultural products. Over the past fifty years, the rail network has contracted while tonnage has increased. Service, geographically, has been abandoned along short haul routes and increased along major long haul routes, resulting in a network that is more streamlined. The current rail network may be very vulnerable to disruptions, like the failure of a trestle. This paper proposes a framework to model rail network vulnerability and gives an application of this modeling framework in analyzing rail network vulnerability for the State of Washington. It concludes with a number of policy related issues that need to be addressed in order to identify, plan, and mitigate the risks associated with the sudden loss of a bridge or trestle.

  16. [Concepts of vulnerability of psychiatric diseases].

    PubMed

    Stamm, R; Bühler, K E

    2001-07-01

    Despite intensive research in recent decades, the search for the aetiopathogenesis of psychiatric diseases is just as relevant as ever. In recent years, ideas of the aetiopathogenesis of psychotic diseases based on the concept of "vulnerability" in its diverse variations and developments have been gained increasingly ground. The publications of Zubin and associates above all have contributed to a "vulnerability model". According to this descriptive model, schizophrenic disturbances develop as a result of stimuli/irritants or stress factors under modulation of the social and physical environment as well as dependent on the premorbid personality. The increased vulnerability which gives rise to this is perceived as a threshold descensus of the individual towards stimuli/irritants (with a deficit counter--irritants impulses). Apart from that, multi-causality of vulnerability is assumed as the starting point, whereby there is the possibility of several therapy approaches. Moreover, contrary to the prevailing pessimistic view that schizophrenia is a process-type progressive disease, an episodic nature of schizophrenic psychoses is postulated with a prognosis that is indeed positive in the long term. In recent years, although often not explicitly stated, Zubin's concept of vulnerability was also indubitably subjected to various further developments (the vulnerability stress model by Nuechterlein and associates as also the integrative psycho-biological schizophrenia model by Ciompi may serve as examples). Worth mentioning are also various new concepts from system sciences (such as those from cybernetics, synergetics, the chaos theory, the communication theory, structure determinism etc.), which endeavour to clarify the problem of psychosis. The evaluation of central neurophysiological function deviations with schizophrenics and their relations has so far been oriented above all towards the vulnerability model of Zubin and Nuechterlein, which differentiates temporarily relatively stable trait markers with generally unaltered expressivity at the pre-, intra-, and post-psychotic stages as well as episode markers and intermediate markers. However, specific factors contributing to the pathogenesis of schizophrenic disturbances have not as yet been found, in addition, there is still a multitude of methodological problems and distinctive features to fulfill the expectation of a comprehensive concept with which the whole complexity of the occurrence, the progress, and the outcome of psychoses can be explained. Reintroduction of the concept of vulnerability experienced, as Schmidt-Degenhardt put it, "a renaissance in use that appeared almost inflationary and a completely dubious popularisation ... without reference to its historical implications...". Consequently, a critical view of the use of this term would appear to be necessary. PMID:11488245

  17. Microbiological Food Safety for Vulnerable People

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Barbara M.

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne pathogens are more likely to cause infection and to result in serious consequences in vulnerable people than in healthy adults. People with some increase in susceptibility may form nearly 20% of the population in the UK and the USA. Conditions leading to increased susceptibility are listed. The main factors leading to foodborne disease caused by major pathogens are outlined and examples are given of outbreaks resulting from these factors. Measures to prevent foodborne disease include procedures based on Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point principles and prerequisite programmes and, especially for vulnerable people, the use of lower-risk foods in place of higher-risk products. PMID:26308030

  18. Assessment of Chemical and Radiological Vulnerabilities

    SciTech Connect

    SETH, S.S.

    2000-05-17

    Following the May 14, 1997 chemical explosion at Hanford's Plutonium Reclamation Facility, the Department of Energy Richland Operations Office and its prime contractor, Fluor Hanford, Inc., completed an extensive assessment to identify and address chemical and radiological safety vulnerabilities at all facilities under the Project Hanford Management Contract. This was a challenging undertaking because of the immense size of the problem, unique technical issues, and competing priorities. This paper focuses on the assessment process, including the criteria and methodology for data collection, evaluation, and risk-based scoring. It does not provide details on the facility-specific results and corrective actions, but discusses the approach taken to address the identified vulnerabilities.

  19. La república de Caín: La dramaturgia solitaria de Julio Planchart

    E-print Network

    Azparren Gimé nez, Leonardo

    1994-10-01

    , reacciona con ira contra el dolor, no puede escribir suavidades en los míseros tiempos de Venezuela" (13). En varios aspectos, La República de Caín es un texto patriota, pero no exaltador. Todo lo contrario. Expresa un pesimismo histórico, doloroso y...: Esaú: Mi bribonada abona, a lo que infiero, un tratado bribón de dos bribones, que no sería ni siquiera un lazo si no moviera a hacer acciones. (35) y poco después: FALL 1994 73 Esau: Yo soy un orador muy estimable... Es la oratoria el arte...

  20. Overactive bladder in the vulnerable elderly.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Gillian F; Kuchel, George A; Smith, Phillip P

    2014-01-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a common problem that may occur in individuals of all ages. It has a considerable impact on patient quality of life, and although moderately effective management strategies do exist, this condition often remains undiagnosed and untreated. OAB needs to be viewed as a symptom complex. Its presentation and management are complicated in the vulnerable elderly by the presence of baseline frailty and multiple coexisting chronic conditions. Furthermore, and beyond a simple understanding of symptomatology, providers must address patient goals and motivations as well as the expectations of caretakers. These multiple levels of perception, function, expectations, and treatment efficacy/risks must be tailored to the individual patient. While the vulnerable elderly patient may often have evidence of urinary tract dysfunction, OAB and urge urinary incontinence in this population must be understood as a multifactorial geriatric syndrome and viewed in the context of medical and functional baseline and precipitating risk factors. Expectations and goals must be tailored to the resources of vulnerable elderly patients and their caregivers, and care must be coordinated with other medical care providers. The management of OAB in the vulnerable elderly often poses significant management challenges. Nonetheless, with a thoughtful approach and an aim towards future research specifically for this population, significant reductions in morbidity and mortality long with enhancement in health-related quality of life are possible. PMID:25328867

  1. Security Vulnerabilities and Solutions for Packet Sampling

    E-print Network

    Rexford, Jennifer

    Security Vulnerabilities and Solutions for Packet Sampling Sharon Goldberg and Jennifer Rexford Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA 08544 {goldbe, jrex}@princeton.edu Abstract-- Packet sampling for billing purposes or for intrusion detection, and monitoring end-to-end data-path quality. However, packet-sampling

  2. DEMONSTRATING APPLICATIONS OF REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This task is designed to respond to 2 Congressional earmarks of $1,000,000 to the Canaan Valley Institute (CVI) to work in close coordination with the Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) initiative to develop research and educational tools using integrative technologies to p...

  3. Chapter 5 PotentiallyVulnerable Species: Plants

    E-print Network

    or endangered (table 5.1) and thus legally protected under the fed- eral Endangered Species Act. Two additional223 Chapter 5 Chapter 5 ­ PotentiallyVulnerable Species: Plants The earth never tires: The earth beautiful than words can tell. -- Walt Whitman (1856) KeyQuestions · Which plant species are rare or at risk

  4. A physical approach on flood risk vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzorana, Bruno; Fuchs, Sven; Keiler, Margreth

    2013-04-01

    The design of efficient flood risk mitigation strategies and their subsequent implementation relies on a careful vulnerability analysis of the elements exposed to flood hazard. Recently, extensive research efforts were undertaken to develop and refine empirical relationships linking the structural vulnerability of buildings to the intensity of the impacting water-related hazard processes. These empirical vulnerability functions allow for an estimation of the expected direct losses as a result of the hazard scenario on the basis of a spatially explicit representation of the process patterns and the elements at risk, and improve both risk assessments and cost-benefit analyses of planned mitigation strategies. However, due to the underlying empiricism of such vulnerability functions, the physics of the damage generating mechanisms remain unveiled, and, as such, the applicability of the empirical approach for planning hazard-proof residential buildings is rather limited. Therefore, we propose a conceptual assessment scheme to close this gap. This assessment scheme comprises distinct analytical steps: (a) modelling the process intensity and (b) the impact on the element at risk exposed, (c) the physical response of the building envelope, (d) the damage accounting and (f) the economic damage valuation. This dynamic assessment supports all relevant planning activities with respect to a minimisation of flood hazard losses, and can be implemented in the operational risk assessment procedure.

  5. Vulnerable plaque intervention: State of the art.

    PubMed

    Young, John J; Phillips, Harry R; Marso, Steven P; Granada, Juan F; McPherson, John A; Waksman, Ron; Steinhubl, Steven R; Schwartz, Robert S; Stone, Gregg W

    2008-02-15

    Progressive atherosclerotic disease is responsible for many of the late adverse clinical events that detract from the high procedural and clinical success of percutaneous coronary intervention. Despite recent advances in catheter based technology for the treatment of obstructive coronary artery disease, the greater risk to the patient over time may in fact come from the significant rate of acute coronary events triggered by nonculprit and/or nonobstructive coronary artery lesions. These areas of vulnerability within the epicardial coronary tree have generated a great deal of interest surrounding the concepts of vulnerable plaque (VP), vulnerable blood and the vulnerable patient. This 'state of the art' review discusses the limitations of coronary angiography alone in providing risk assessment; reviews the underlying biological concepts of VP; discusses evolving noninvasive and invasive imaging technologies for the detection of VP; and finally provides a futuristic look at how the field of interventional cardiology may transcend the traditional angiogram and move toward a more comprehensive treatment approach that benefits the patients' overall coronary health. PMID:18288729

  6. Criminal injuries compensation: Protecting vulnerable applicants.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Each year large numbers of persons sustain injury as a consequence of criminal behaviour. All Australian jurisdictions provide State-funded compensation to those harmed in this way. In the case of vulnerable applicants, the Assessor must consider not simply the appropriate and fair amount of compensation, but also how a person will be affected by the payment of compensation. Often a vulnerable applicant will apply through a guardian or a public trustee, although many apply in person. This article examines the use of legislative provisions, rules, regulations and practices in the various Australian jurisdictions in relation to how vulnerable applicants may be protected and supported once an award of compensation is made in their favour. Most jurisdictions provide for a mechanism by which compensation may be held in trust where the Assessor considers that the applicant may be unable to manage his or her financial affairs in his or her best interests. This article explores what factors are taken into account by Assessors in the absence of and pursuant to legislative directions. It considers how the approach may vary across jurisdictions and creative approaches to financial protection of vulnerable applicants. PMID:26554206

  7. Who's Vulnerable in Infant Child Care Centers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Earline D.; Moukaddem, Virginia E.

    1992-01-01

    Maintains that infants and toddlers, parents, and child caregivers are vulnerable to a variety of infectious diseases from infant-toddler child care centers. These diseases include infectious diarrhea; rubella; cytomeglovirus; hepatitis A, and haemophilus influenza type B. Suggests ways to prevent the spread of such diseases. (BB)

  8. Perceived Vulnerability to Disease Predicts Environmental Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Kubiatko, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Investigating predictors of environmental attitudes may bring valuable benefits in terms of improving public awareness about biodiversity degradation and increased pro-environmental behaviour. Here we used an evolutionary approach to study environmental attitudes based on disease-threat model. We hypothesized that people vulnerable to diseases may…

  9. Defining and Measuring Vulnerability in Young People

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Shilpa Khanna; Shah, Dheeraj; Chaturvedi, Sanjay; Gupta, Piyush

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents and youth, together addressed as “young people”, form the future building blocks of any society. They being most energetic and dynamic, tend to get involved in high-risk behaviors making themselves susceptible to criminal offences, accidents, physical injuries, emotional trauma, and medical problems — some of them extremely serious like transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The concept of vulnerability is applicable to all the people who are more exposed to risks than their peers like the young people. In order to deal with social evils like criminal offences, domestic violence, sexual abuse, HIV, etc. we need to define vulnerability and understand the factors that influence it. This review also attempts to summarize the indicators of vulnerability and the data currently available to estimate its burden in India. Measuring the magnitude of vulnerability by means of certain indicators/variables might help us in devising tools to assess this poorly defined entity. This may also evolve a conceptual framework on which targeted remedial interventions can be devised and implemented. PMID:26170545

  10. CYBER/PHYSICAL SECURITY VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT INTEGRATION

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, Douglas G.; Key, Brad; Clements, Samuel L.; Hutton, William J.; Craig, Philip A.; Patrick, Scott W.; Crawford, Cary E.

    2011-07-17

    This internally funded Laboratory-Directed R&D project by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in conjunction with QinetiQ North America, is intended to identify and properly assess areas of overlap (and interaction) in the vulnerability assessment process between cyber security and physical protection. Existing vulnerability analysis (VA) processes and software tools exist, and these are heavily utilized in the determination of predicted vulnerability within the physical and cyber security domains. These determinations are normally performed independently of one another, and only interact on a superficial level. Both physical and cyber security subject matter experts have come to realize that though the various interactive elements exist, they are not currently quantified in most periodic security assessments. This endeavor aims to evaluate both physical and cyber VA techniques and provide a strategic approach to integrate the interdependent relationships of each into a single VA capability. This effort will also transform the existing suite of software currently utilized in the physical protection world to more accurately quantify the risk associated with a blended attack scenario. Performance databases will be created to support the characterization of the cyber security elements, and roll them into prototype software tools. This new methodology and software capability will enable analysts to better identify and assess the overall risk during a vulnerability analysis.

  11. Cosmopolitan Sensitivities, Vulnerability, and Global Englishes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Ushma Chauhan

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the outcome of an afterthought that assembles connections between three elements: the ambitions of cultivating cosmopolitan sensitivities that circulate vibrantly in connection with the internationalization of higher education, a course on Global Englishes at a Danish university and the sensation of vulnerability. It discusses the…

  12. Consumer Vulnerability to Fraud: Influencing Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jinkook; Soberon-Ferrer, Horacio

    1997-01-01

    A questionnaire on market knowledge and awareness of unfair business practices was completed by 464 adults aged 18-64 and by 493 over 64. Consumers were more susceptible to fraud if they were older, poor, less educated, and/or living without spouses. Gender and race were not significant predictors of vulnerability. (SK)

  13. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This report marks the culmination of a 4-month review conducted to identify chemical safety vulnerabilities existing at DOE facilities. This review is an integral part of DOE's efforts to raise its commitment to chemical safety to the same level as that for nuclear safety.

  14. Overactive bladder in the vulnerable elderly

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Gillian F; Kuchel, George A; Smith, Phillip P

    2014-01-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a common problem that may occur in individuals of all ages. It has a considerable impact on patient quality of life, and although moderately effective management strategies do exist, this condition often remains undiagnosed and untreated. OAB needs to be viewed as a symptom complex. Its presentation and management are complicated in the vulnerable elderly by the presence of baseline frailty and multiple coexisting chronic conditions. Furthermore, and beyond a simple understanding of symptomatology, providers must address patient goals and motivations as well as the expectations of caretakers. These multiple levels of perception, function, expectations, and treatment efficacy/risks must be tailored to the individual patient. While the vulnerable elderly patient may often have evidence of urinary tract dysfunction, OAB and urge urinary incontinence in this population must be understood as a multifactorial geriatric syndrome and viewed in the context of medical and functional baseline and precipitating risk factors. Expectations and goals must be tailored to the resources of vulnerable elderly patients and their caregivers, and care must be coordinated with other medical care providers. The management of OAB in the vulnerable elderly often poses significant management challenges. Nonetheless, with a thoughtful approach and an aim towards future research specifically for this population, significant reductions in morbidity and mortality long with enhancement in health-related quality of life are possible. PMID:25328867

  15. Retrieval from Memory: Vulnerable or Inviolable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dylan M.; Marsh, John E.; Hughes, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    We show that retrieval from semantic memory is vulnerable even to the mere presence of speech. Irrelevant speech impairs semantic fluency--namely, lexical retrieval cued by a semantic category name--but only if it is meaningful (forward speech compared to reversed speech or words compared to nonwords). Moreover, speech related semantically to the…

  16. Privacy Vulnerability of Published Anonymous Mobility Traces

    E-print Network

    Yip, Aaron Nung Kwan

    Privacy Vulnerability of Published Anonymous Mobility Traces Chris Y. T. Ma David K. Y. Yau Nung. Although the published traces are often made anonymous in that the true identities of nodes are replaced infer an extended view of the where- abouts of a victim node appearing in an anonymous trace. Our

  17. Health sector approach to vulnerability reduction and emergency preparedness.

    PubMed

    Ben Yahmed, S; Koob, P

    1996-01-01

    Vulnerability is increasing year by year. Statistics show that not only are the human and economic costs of emergencies and disasters increasing, but that the cost of relief assistance has increased 10-fold in the last 11 years. Relief assistance alone can lead to increased vulnerability, by reducing development assistance and leading to further social crises The concept of vulnerability consist of two aspects, susceptibility and resilience; vulnerability reduction aims to reduce susceptibility to hazards and increase community resilience to emergencies. Vulnerability reduction involves vulnerability assessment, hazard prevention and mitigation, and emergency preparedness. Vulnerability reduction aims to decrease community susceptibility and increase community resilience, and can focus on emergencies thus preventing many disasters. Vulnerability reduction protects human development, and prepared communities can maintain and improve their level of development. Vulnerability reduction is the responsibility of all, including the health sector, and all sectors at all levels must assist communities to participate in reducing vulnerability. The health sector work in vulnerability reduction requires coordination at all levels within a country. WHO has been assisting in this work at the international, regional and country levels for many years. There is a need for statistical indicators of vulnerability and the harm caused by major emergencies. Data from these indicators will assist in monitoring and evaluating vulnerability reduction, and targeting communities at risk. PMID:9170230

  18. Seismic vulnerability assessments in risk analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolova, Nina; Larionov, Valery; Bonnin, Jean; Ugarov, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    The assessment of seismic vulnerability is a critical issue within natural and technological risk analysis. In general, there are three common types of methods used for development of vulnerability functions of different elements at risk: empirical, analytical and expert estimations. The paper addresses the empirical methods for seismic vulnerability estimation for residential buildings and industrial facilities. The results of engineering analysis of past earthquake consequences, as well as the statistical data on buildings behavior during strong earthquakes presented in the different seismic intensity scales, are used to verify the regional parameters of mathematical models in order to simulate physical and economic vulnerability for different building types classified according to seismic scale MMSK-86. Verified procedure has been used to estimate the physical and economic vulnerability of buildings and constructions against earthquakes for the Northern Caucasus Federal region of the Russian Federation and Krasnodar area, which are characterized by rather high level of seismic activity and high population density. In order to estimate expected damage states to buildings and constructions in the case of the earthquakes according to the OSR-97B (return period T=1,000 years) within big cities and towns, they were divided into unit sites and their coordinates were presented as dots located in the centers of unit sites. Then the indexes obtained for each unit site were summed up. The maps of physical vulnerability zoning for Northern Caucasus Federal region of the Russian Federation and Krasnodar area includes two elements: percent of different damage states for settlements with number of inhabitants less than 1,000 and vulnerability for cities and towns with number of inhabitants more than 1,000. The hypsometric scale is used to represent both elements on the maps. Taking into account the size of oil pipe line systems located in the highly active seismic zones in the Russian Federation the corresponding procedures have been developed. They are based on mathematical modeling of the system elements' interaction: the oil pipe line and ground, in the case of seismic loads. As a result the dependence-ships between the probability of oil pipe line system to be damaged, and the intensity of shaking in grades of seismic scales have been obtained. The following three damage states for oil pipe line systems have been considered: light damage - elastic deformation of the linear part; localized plastic deformation without breaching the pipeline; average damage - significant plastic deformation of the linear part; fistulas in some areas; complete destruction - large horizontal and vertical displacements of the linear part; mass fistulas, cracks; "guillotine break" of pipe line in some areas.

  19. Differences in ergot vulnerability among sorghum genotypes and the relationship between stigma receptivity and ergot vulnerability 

    E-print Network

    Moran Maradiaga, Jorge Luis

    2000-01-01

    if there are differences in ergot vulnerability between and among types of sorghum germplasms, and determining the reasons for such differences, researchers might be able to develop more effective ergot control strategies, such as ergot resistant germplasm for the future...

  20. 77 FR 28894 - Maritime Vulnerability Self-Assessment Tool

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ...Transportation Security Administration Maritime Vulnerability Self-Assessment Tool...ACTION: Notice of removal of TSA's maritime vulnerability self- assessment tool...Administration (TSA) announces that the TSA Maritime Self-Assessment Risk Module...

  1. Photo: Gerard Kuster Human Vulnerability and Global Environmental

    E-print Network

    disasters increasing? Driving forces: climate change Vulnerability changes: population growth of human populations to climate change based on ecological and demographic models. The regions in redPhoto: Gerard Kuster Human Vulnerability and Global Environmental `Climate' Change Freek van der

  2. Predicting organismal vulnerability to climate warming: roles of behaviour,

    E-print Network

    Huey, Raymond B.

    temperatures) that are often available for some groups. Several proxies for ectotherms are promising that ectotherms sharing vulnerability traits seem concentrated in lowland tropical forests. Their vulnerability, the prospects for tropical forest ectotherms appear grim. Keywords: climate change; ectotherms; endotherms

  3. Psychological Vulnerability to Completed Suicide: A Review of Empirical Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Kenneth R.; Duberstein, Paul R.; Conwell, Yeates; Seidlitz, Larry; Caine, Eric D.

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews empirical literature on psychological vulnerability to completed suicide. Five constructs have been consistently associated with completed suicide: impulsivity/aggression; depression; anxiety; hopelessness; and self-consciousness/social disengagement. Current knowledge of psychological vulnerability could inform social…

  4. 6 CFR 27.400 - Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information...SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Other § 27.400 Chemical-terrorism vulnerability...

  5. 6 CFR 27.400 - Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information...SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Other § 27.400 Chemical-terrorism vulnerability...

  6. Empirical Estimates and Observations of 0Day Vulnerabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Miles A. McQueen; Trevor A. McQueen; Wayne F. Boyer; May R. Chaffin

    2009-01-01

    We define a 0Day vulnerability to be any vulnerability, in deployed software, that has been discovered by at least one person but has not yet been publicly announced or patched. These 0Day vulnerabilities are of particular interest when assessing the risk to a system from exploit of vulnerabilities which are not generally known to the public or, most importantly, to the owners of the system. Using the 0Day definition given above, we analyzed the 0Day lifespans of 491 vulnerabilities and conservatively estimated that in the worst year there were on average 2500 0Day vulnerabilities in existence on any given day. Then using a small but intriguing set of 15 0Day vulnerability lifespans representing the time from actual discovery to public disclosure, we made a more aggressive estimate. In this case, we estimated that in the worst year there were, on average, 4500 0Day vulnerabilities in existence on any given day.

  7. On the Library and Information Literacy Education of Vulnerable Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Tian-hui

    2009-01-01

    This paper defines and classifies vulnerable groups, elaborates the necessity of information literacy education of vulnerable groups, analyzes the feasibility for the library to carry out the education, and then discusses specific measures taken by the library to fulfill it.

  8. Aircraft vulnerability analysis by modeling and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willers, Cornelius J.; Willers, Maria S.; de Waal, Alta

    2014-10-01

    Infrared missiles pose a significant threat to civilian and military aviation. ManPADS missiles are especially dangerous in the hands of rogue and undisciplined forces. Yet, not all the launched missiles hit their targets; the miss being either attributable to misuse of the weapon or to missile performance restrictions. This paper analyses some of the factors affecting aircraft vulnerability and demonstrates a structured analysis of the risk and aircraft vulnerability problem. The aircraft-missile engagement is a complex series of events, many of which are only partially understood. Aircraft and missile designers focus on the optimal design and performance of their respective systems, often testing only in a limited set of scenarios. Most missiles react to the contrast intensity, but the variability of the background is rarely considered. Finally, the vulnerability of the aircraft depends jointly on the missile's performance and the doctrine governing the missile's launch. These factors are considered in a holistic investigation. The view direction, altitude, time of day, sun position, latitude/longitude and terrain determine the background against which the aircraft is observed. Especially high gradients in sky radiance occur around the sun and on the horizon. This paper considers uncluttered background scenes (uniform terrain and clear sky) and presents examples of background radiance at all view angles across a sphere around the sensor. A detailed geometrical and spatially distributed radiometric model is used to model the aircraft. This model provides the signature at all possible view angles across the sphere around the aircraft. The signature is determined in absolute terms (no background) and in contrast terms (with background). It is shown that the background significantly affects the contrast signature as observed by the missile sensor. A simplified missile model is constructed by defining the thrust and mass profiles, maximum seeker tracking rate, maximum guidance acceleration and seeker sensitivity. For the purpose of this investigation the aircraft is equipped with conventional pyrotechnic decoy flares and the missile has no counter-countermeasure means (security restrictions on open publication). This complete simulation is used to calculate the missile miss distance, when the missile is launched from different locations around the aircraft. The miss distance data is then graphically presented showing miss distance (aircraft vulnerability) as a function of launch direction and range. The aircraft vulnerability graph accounts for aircraft and missile characteristics, but does not account for missile deployment doctrine. A Bayesian network is constructed to fuse the doctrinal rules with the aircraft vulnerability data. The Bayesian network now provides the capability to evaluate the combined risk of missile launch and aircraft vulnerability. It is shown in this paper that it is indeed possible to predict the aircraft vulnerability to missile attack in a comprehensive modelling and a holistic process. By using the appropriate real-world models, this approach is used to evaluate the effectiveness of specific countermeasure techniques against specific missile threats. The use of a Bayesian network provides the means to fuse simulated performance data with more abstract doctrinal rules to provide a realistic assessment of the aircraft vulnerability.

  9. Modelling farm vulnerability to flooding: A step toward vulnerability mitigation policies appraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brémond, P.; Abrami, G.; Blanc, C.; Grelot, F.

    2009-04-01

    Recent catastrophic flood events such as Elbe in 2002 or Rhône in 2003 have shown limits of flood management policies relying on dykes protection: worsening of flood impacts downstream, increased damage by dykes rupture. Those events, among others, contributes to radical changes on the philosophy of flood prevention, with the promotion of new orientations for mitigating flood exposition. Two new trends may have a significant impact on rural areas: floodplain restoration and vulnerability mitigation. The Rhône River program, which is an contract of objectives signed between French Government and local collectivites, is highly illustrative of these new trends and their impact on agricultural sector. In this program, it appears that areas to be concerned by floodplain restoration are agricultural ones, because their supposed vulnerability to flood is expected to be less important to urban areas. As a consequence, agricultural sector is particularly concerned by planned actions on mitigation of assets vulnerability, an important part of the program (financial support of European Union of 7.5 Million euros). Mitigation of agricultural assets vulnerability reveals particularly interesting for two following reasons. Firstly, it is a way to maintain agricultural activities in floodplains yet existing, without promoting flood protection. Secondly, in case of floodplain restoration, vulnerability mitigation is a way for local authorities to compensate over-flooding impacts. In practice, local authorities may financially support farmers for implementing measures to mitigate their farm vulnerability. On the Rhône River, an important work has already been done to identify farm vulnerability to flooding, and propose measures to mitigate it. More than 3 000 farms exposed to flood risk have been identified representing 88 690 ha of agricultural areas which is estimated to generate damage between 400 and 800 Million euros depending on the season of occurrence for a catastrophic flood. In the case of farm activities, vulnerability mitigation consists in implementing measures which can be: physical (equipment or electric power system elevation), organizational (emergency or recovery plan) or financial (insurance). These measures aim at decreasing the total damage incurred by farmers in case of flooding. For instance, if equipment is elevated, it will not suffer direct damage such as degradation. As a consequence, equipment will be available to continue production or recovery tasks, thus, avoiding indirect damage such as delays, indebtednessâ?¦ The effects of these policies on farms, in particular vulnerability mitigation cannot be appraised using current methodologies mainly because they do not consider farm as a whole and focus on direct damage at the land plot scale (loss of yield). Moreover, since vulnerability mitigation policies are quite recent, few examples of implementation exist and no feedback experience can be processed. Meanwhile, decision makers and financial actors require more justification of the efficiency of public fund by economic appraisal of the projects. On the Rhône River, decision makers asked for an economic evaluation of the program of farm vulnerability mitigation they plan to implement. This implies to identify the effects of the measures to mitigate farm vulnerability, and to classify them by comparing their efficacy (avoided damage) and their cost of implementation. In this presentation, we propose and discuss a conceptual model of vulnerability at the farm scale. The modelling, in Unified Modelling Language, enabled to represent the ties between spatial, organizational and temporal dimensions, which are central to understanding of farm vulnerability and resilience to flooding. Through this modelling, we encompass three goals: To improve the comprehension of farm vulnerability and create a framework that allow discussion with experts of different disciplines as well as with local farmers; To identify data which are needed to implement the model and to collect them, specifically using the focus group

  10. An Empirical Measure of Computer Security Strength for Vulnerability Remediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villegas, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Remediating all vulnerabilities on computer systems in a timely and cost effective manner is difficult given that the window of time between the announcement of a new vulnerability and an automated attack has decreased. Hence, organizations need to prioritize the vulnerability remediation process on their computer systems. The goal of this…

  11. COMMUNICATION VULNERABILITIES AND MITIGATIONS IN WIND POWER SCADA SYSTEMS

    E-print Network

    1 COMMUNICATION VULNERABILITIES AND MITIGATIONS IN WIND POWER SCADA SYSTEMS American Wind Energy/ Abstract This paper focuses on securing wind power Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems security vulnerabilities. To address these new vulnerabilities in wind power SCADA systems, we apply

  12. FAST ABSTRACT: Seasonality in Vulnerability Discovery in Major Software Systems

    E-print Network

    Malaiya, Yashwant K.

    FAST ABSTRACT: Seasonality in Vulnerability Discovery in Major Software Systems HyunChul Joh discovered. An examination of the vulnerability data suggests a seasonal behavior that has not been modeled by the recently proposed vulnerability discovery models. This seasonality has not been identified or examined so

  13. Network Vulnerability to Single, Multiple, and Probabilistic Physical Attacks

    E-print Network

    Zussman, Gil

    Network Vulnerability to Single, Multiple, and Probabilistic Physical Attacks Pankaj K. Agarwal, vulnerable to natural disasters, such as earthquakes or floods, as well as to physical attacks around its epicenter, and provide efficient algorithms to find vulnerable points within the network

  14. Assessing the Vulnerability of the Fiber Infrastructure to Disasters

    E-print Network

    Zussman, Gil

    Assessing the Vulnerability of the Fiber Infrastructure to Disasters Sebastian Neumayer Electrical--Communication networks are vulnerable to natural disasters, such as earthquakes or floods, as well as to physical attacks of such events on the network's connectivity. In this paper, we focus on assessing the vulnerability

  15. 6 CFR 27.215 - Security vulnerability assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Security vulnerability assessments. 27.215... FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Chemical Facility Security Program § 27.215 Security vulnerability...-risk, the facility must complete a Security Vulnerability Assessment. A Security...

  16. Security Vulnerability in Processor-Interconnect Router Design

    E-print Network

    Cortes, Corinna

    Security Vulnerability in Processor-Interconnect Router Design WonJun Song, John Kim KAIST Daejeon programmability) of the routing tables, we show that it can result in security vulnerability. We describe degraded. Based on this vulnerability, we propose alternative solutions that provide various trade

  17. 6 CFR 27.215 - Security vulnerability assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Security vulnerability assessments. 27.215... FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Chemical Facility Security Program § 27.215 Security vulnerability...-risk, the facility must complete a Security Vulnerability Assessment. A Security...

  18. Livelihoods, Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in the

    E-print Network

    Bateman, Ian J.

    Livelihoods, Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in the Morogoro Region, Tanzania By Jouni Paavola CSERGE Working Paper EDM 04-12 #12;Livelihoods, Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate. Efforts to reduce vulnerability to increased climate variability in the region would need to safeguard

  19. UNCORRECTEDPROOF Diet, resource partitioning and gear vulnerability of

    E-print Network

    Sorin, Eric J.

    UNCORRECTEDPROOF Diet, resource partitioning and gear vulnerability of Hawaiian jacks captured. ignobilis captured. Differential vulnerability to trolling may be related to interspeci®c differences tournaments can provide synoptic data on diet and gear vulnerability that would otherwise be very dif

  20. United States Department of Agriculture Forest Ecosystem Vulnerability Assessment

    E-print Network

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Ecosystem Vulnerability Assessment and Synthesis a changing climate over the 21st century. This assessment evaluates the vulnerability of forest ecosystems and land managers familiar with the forests of this region to assess ecosystem vulnerability through

  1. 6 CFR 27.215 - Security vulnerability assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Security vulnerability assessments. 27.215... FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Chemical Facility Security Program § 27.215 Security vulnerability...-risk, the facility must complete a Security Vulnerability Assessment. A Security...

  2. Vulnerability Assessment In Cloud Computing Srujan Kotikela1,a

    E-print Network

    Kavi, Krishna

    Vulnerability Assessment In Cloud Computing Srujan Kotikela1,a , Krishna Kavi2,a , and Mahadevan Abstract-- As vulnerabilities keep increasing exponentially every year, the need to efficiently classify, manage, and analyse them also increases. Many of the previous attempts at managing vulnerabilities have

  3. Special Section Vulnerability and Resilience of Tropical Forest

    E-print Network

    Miller, Scott

    Special Section Vulnerability and Resilience of Tropical Forest Species to Land-Use Change NIGEL E analysis of what makes tropical forest species vulnerable to extinction. Several traits have been important. Traits that make some species more vulnerable to extinction are consistent across time scales

  4. TALC: Using Desktop Graffiti to Fight Software Vulnerability

    E-print Network

    Edwards, Keith

    TALC: Using Desktop Graffiti to Fight Software Vulnerability Kandha Sankarapandian, Travis Little and more important that home users keep their computers secure from known software vulnerabilities, a system to encourage and help home users patch vulnerable software. TALC increases home users' awareness

  5. DIAGNOSING VULNERABILITY, EMERGENT PHENOMENA, and VOLATILITY in MANMADE NETWORKS

    E-print Network

    Arrowsmith, David

    DIAGNOSING VULNERABILITY, EMERGENT PHENOMENA, and VOLATILITY in MANMADE NETWORKS MANMADEMANMADE networks UCTE: 4200 vertices 5305 edges NORDEL: 526 vertices 638 edges #12;Vulnerability Criticality of the component Vulnerability of the system The more critical the component the more severe is the damage

  6. 6 CFR 27.215 - Security vulnerability assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security vulnerability assessments. 27.215... FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Chemical Facility Security Program § 27.215 Security vulnerability...-risk, the facility must complete a Security Vulnerability Assessment. A Security...

  7. 6 CFR 27.215 - Security vulnerability assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Security vulnerability assessments. 27.215... FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Chemical Facility Security Program § 27.215 Security vulnerability...-risk, the facility must complete a Security Vulnerability Assessment. A Security...

  8. Reconceptualizing Vulnerability in Personal Narrative Writing with Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Through a student/teacher classroom conflict, the author explores ways adults produce student writers as vulnerable. Drawing on post-structural concepts of adolescence, identity production, interrogation, and vulnerability, the author details how an English teacher invited students to perform vulnerability in personal narratives about issues like…

  9. Exploring a Controls-Based Assessment of Infrastructure Vulnerability

    E-print Network

    Murawski, Andrzej

    Exploring a Controls-Based Assessment of Infrastructure Vulnerability Oliver J. Farnan and Jason R.lastname@cs.ox.ac.uk Abstract. Assessing the vulnerability of an enterprise's infrastructure is an important step in judging- rently, low-level infrastructure vulnerability is often judged in an ad hoc manner, based on the criteria

  10. DIAGNOSING VULNERABILITY, EMERGENT PHENOMENA, and VOLATILITY in MANMADE NETWORKS

    E-print Network

    Arrowsmith, David

    DIAGNOSING VULNERABILITY, EMERGENT PHENOMENA, and VOLATILITY in MANMADE NETWORKS Project sponsored and correction of current network data sets inter-network coupling (e.g. vulnerability of interconnected networks rates? what can be said of the vulnerability of the whole network? Manmade documents on network data

  11. Vendor System Vulnerability Testing Test Plan

    SciTech Connect

    James R. Davidson

    2005-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) prepared this generic test plan to provide clients (vendors, end users, program sponsors, etc.) with a sense of the scope and depth of vulnerability testing performed at the INL’s Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Test Bed and to serve as an example of such a plan. Although this test plan specifically addresses vulnerability testing of systems applied to the energy sector (electric/power transmission and distribution and oil and gas systems), it is generic enough to be applied to control systems used in other critical infrastructures such as the transportation sector, water/waste water sector, or hazardous chemical production facilities. The SCADA Test Bed is established at the INL as a testing environment to evaluate the security vulnerabilities of SCADA systems, energy management systems (EMS), and distributed control systems. It now supports multiple programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, other government agencies, and private sector clients. This particular test plan applies to testing conducted on a SCADA/EMS provided by a vendor. Before performing detailed vulnerability testing of a SCADA/EMS, an as delivered baseline examination of the system is conducted, to establish a starting point for all-subsequent testing. The series of baseline tests document factory delivered defaults, system configuration, and potential configuration changes to aid in the development of a security plan for in depth vulnerability testing. The baseline test document is provided to the System Provider,a who evaluates the baseline report and provides recommendations to the system configuration to enhance the security profile of the baseline system. Vulnerability testing is then conducted at the SCADA Test Bed, which provides an in-depth security analysis of the Vendor’s system.b a. The term System Provider replaces the name of the company/organization providing the system being evaluated. This can be the system manufacturer, a system user, or a third party organization such as a government agency. b. The term Vendor (or Vendor’s) System replaces the name of the specific SCADA/EMS being tested.

  12. Topological Vulnerability Analysis: A Powerful New Approach For Network Attack Prevention, Detection, and Response

    E-print Network

    Noel, Steven

    1 Topological Vulnerability Analysis: A Powerful New Approach For Network Attack Prevention to such attacks. We describe our Topological Vulnerability Analysis (TVA) system, which analyzes vulnerability vulnerabilities are commonplace. Moreover, network security concerns are highly interdependent, so that a machine

  13. Information systems vulnerability: A systems analysis perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Wyss, G.D.; Daniel, S.L.; Schriner, H.K.; Gaylor, T.R.

    1996-07-01

    Vulnerability analyses for information systems are complicated because the systems are often geographically distributed. Sandia National Laboratories has assembled an interdisciplinary team to explore the applicability of probabilistic logic modeling (PLM) techniques (including vulnerability and vital area analysis) to examine the risks associated with networked information systems. The authors have found that the reliability and failure modes of many network technologies can be effectively assessed using fault trees and other PLM methods. The results of these models are compatible with an expanded set of vital area analysis techniques that can model both physical locations and virtual (logical) locations to identify both categories of vital areas simultaneously. These results can also be used with optimization techniques to direct the analyst toward the most cost-effective security solution.

  14. Space Station Program threat and vulnerability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Meter, Steven D.; Veatch, John D.

    1987-01-01

    An examination has been made of the physical security of the Space Station Program at the Kennedy Space Center in a peacetime environment, in order to furnish facility personnel with threat/vulnerability information. A risk-management approach is used to prioritize threat-target combinations that are characterized in terms of 'insiders' and 'outsiders'. Potential targets were identified and analyzed with a view to their attractiveness to an adversary, as well as to the consequentiality of the resulting damage.

  15. Seaside, Oregon, Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Varner, J.

    2006-12-01

    The results of a pilot study to assess the risk from tsunamis for the Seaside-Gearhart, Oregon region will be presented. To determine the risk from tsunamis, it is first necessary to establish the hazard or probability that a tsunami of a particular magnitude will occur within a certain period of time. Tsunami inundation maps that provide 100-year and 500-year probabilistic tsunami wave height contours for the Seaside-Gearhart, Oregon, region were developed as part of an interagency Tsunami Pilot Study(1). These maps provided the probability of the tsunami hazard. The next step in determining risk is to determine the vulnerability or degree of loss resulting from the occurrence of tsunamis due to exposure and fragility. The tsunami vulnerability assessment methodology used in this study was developed by M. Papathoma and others(2). This model incorporates multiple factors (e.g. parameters related to the natural and built environments and socio-demographics) that contribute to tsunami vulnerability. Data provided with FEMA's HAZUS loss estimation software and Clatsop County, Oregon, tax assessment data were used as input to the model. The results, presented within a geographic information system, reveal the percentage of buildings in need of reinforcement and the population density in different inundation depth zones. These results can be used for tsunami mitigation, local planning, and for determining post-tsunami disaster response by emergency services. (1)Tsunami Pilot Study Working Group, Seaside, Oregon Tsunami Pilot Study--Modernization of FEMA Flood Hazard Maps, Joint NOAA/USGS/FEMA Special Report, U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2006, Final Draft. (2)Papathoma, M., D. Dominey-Howes, D.,Y. Zong, D. Smith, Assessing Tsunami Vulnerability, an example from Herakleio, Crete, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 3, 2003, p. 377-389.

  16. NASA's Research in Aircraft Vulnerability Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Cheryl L.

    2005-01-01

    Since its inception in 1958, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) role in civil aeronautics has been to develop high-risk, high-payoff technologies to meet critical national aviation challenges. Following the events of Sept. 11, 2001, NASA recognized that it now shared the responsibility for improving homeland security. The NASA Strategic Plan was modified to include requirements to enable a more secure air transportation system by investing in technologies and collaborating with other agencies, industry, and academia. NASA is conducting research to develop and advance innovative and commercially viable technologies that will reduce the vulnerability of aircraft to threats or hostile actions, and identify and inform users of potential vulnerabilities in a timely manner. Presented in this paper are research plans and preliminary status for mitigating the effects of damage due to direct attacks on civil transport aircraft. The NASA approach to mitigation includes: preventing loss of an aircraft due to a hit from man-portable air defense systems; developing fuel system technologies that prevent or minimize in-flight vulnerability to small arms or other projectiles; providing protection from electromagnetic energy attacks by detecting directed energy threats to aircraft and on/off-board systems; and minimizing the damage due to high-energy attacks (explosions and fire) by developing advanced lightweight, damage-resistant composites and structural concepts. An approach to preventing aircraft from being used as weapons of mass destruction will also be discussed.

  17. Network vulnerability assessment using Bayesian networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Man, Hong

    2005-03-01

    While computer vulnerabilities have been continually reported in laundry-list format by most commercial scanners, a comprehensive network vulnerability assessment has been an increasing challenge to security analysts. Researchers have proposed a variety of methods to build attack trees with chains of exploits, based on which post-graph vulnerability analysis can be performed. The most recent approaches attempt to build attack trees by enumerating all potential attack paths, which are space consuming and result in poor scalability. This paper presents an approach to use Bayesian network to model potential attack paths. We call such graph as "Bayesian attack graph". It provides a more compact representation of attack paths than conventional methods. Bayesian inference methods can be conveniently used for probabilistic analysis. In particular, we use the Bucket Elimination algorithm for belief updating, and we use Maximum Probability Explanation algorithm to compute an optimal subset of attack paths relative to prior knowledge on attackers and attack mechanisms. We tested our model on an experimental network. Test results demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  18. Assessment of Groundwater Vulnerability in Changwon, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, J.; Bae, G.; Lee, K.; Suk, H.

    2005-12-01

    In Book-Myeon and Daesan-Myeon in Changwon city, South Korea, riverbank filtration and groundwater pumping plants have been constructed and pumping wells have been operated to extract water from the subsurface. To keep the quality of water that is extracted from those pumping wells to a proper level, contaminant discharge from the background area is needed to be controlled. Knowing the vulnerability of groundwater to contaminants is important for this. The adjoint backward equation of advection dispersion equation is applied in assessing the vulnerability of groundwater. The location and travel time probability of contaminants to a pumping well is derived from the adjoint backward equation. The backward probability model has an advantage that it is physically based on the process of contaminant transport. It can be used to predict the impact of contamination event to a well. With the backward probability model one can have information about the travel time and location of the contaminant discharged at any point in the field site to the pumping well. This method is applied to Book-Myeon and Daesan-Myeon to assess the vulnerability of groundwater from pumping wells to contaminant. From the result of the backward probability model, the information about the location of high risk and the acceptable quantity of contaminant discharge from the background area are given. This information can be useful in setting the better management plan to protect the water quality of the water supply plants.

  19. Not the usual suspects: addressing layers of vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Luna, Florencia; Vanderpoel, Sheryl

    2013-07-01

    This paper challenges the traditional account of vulnerability in healthcare which conceptualizes vulnerability as a list of identifiable subpopulations. This list of 'usual suspects', focusing on groups from lower resource settings, is a narrow account of vulnerability. In this article we argue that in certain circumstances middle-class individuals can be also rendered vulnerable. We propose a relational and layered account of vulnerability and explore this concept using the case study of cord blood (CB) banking. In the first section, two different approaches to 'vulnerability' are contrasted: categorical versus layered. In the second section, we describe CB banking and present a case study of CB banking in Argentina. We examine the types of pressure that middle-class pregnant women feel when considering CB collection and storage. In section three, we use the CB banking case study to critique the categorical approach to vulnerability: this model is unable to account for the ways in which these women are vulnerable. A layered account of vulnerability identifies several ways in which middle-class women are vulnerable. Finally, by utilizing the layered approach, this paper suggests how public health policies could be designed to overcome vulnerabilities. PMID:23718852

  20. Technological solution for vulnerable communities: How does its approach matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sianipar, C. P. M.; Dowaki, K.; Yudoko, G.

    2014-06-01

    Vulnerability is an emerging term for both scientific communities and practitioners. Vulnerabilities attributed to a particular community are then aggregated to state it as a vulnerable community. Vulnerability-related study is recognized as an interdisciplinary one due to the complex characteristics of vulnerabilities in each contextual situation. In common understandings, technology is recognized as an interdisciplinary solution, making it possible for supporting any activity in eradicating vulnerability. This study aims to observe such possibilities. Literature survey is taken to investigate the interconnection between vulnerability eradication and technology. Brief comparison between several developing countries and particular focus on Indonesia become a medium of further investigation to reveal issues surrounding technology-related efforts for vulnerability eradication in vulnerable communities. The study reveals that developing countries, particularly Indonesia, tend to adopt approaches from Northern hemisphere, including transferring technologies from developed countries without proper propagation. It means that local knowledge and power are largely ignored in the pursuit of local problem solving for vulnerability eradication. These facts become a signpost to emphasize that approach in implementing technological solution for such purpose is the critical mechanism to ensure the success in every contextual situation. Then, looking at the results of this brief study, its emphasis indicates further requirements to shift the paradigm of typical community development to contextual community empowerment in order to ensure the continuity of every technological solution for a consistent eradication of local vulnerabilities, including possible changes of required approach alongside the shift.

  1. Cultural knowledge and local vulnerability in African American communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller Hesed, Christine D.; Paolisso, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Policymakers need to know what factors are most important in determining local vulnerability to facilitate effective adaptation to climate change. Quantitative vulnerability indices are helpful in this endeavour but are limited in their ability to capture subtle yet important aspects of vulnerability such as social networks, knowledge and access to resources. Working with three African American communities on Maryland’s Eastern Shore, we systematically elicit local cultural knowledge on climate change and connect it with a scientific vulnerability framework. The results of this study show that: a given social-ecological factor can substantially differ in the way in which it affects local vulnerability, even among communities with similar demographics and climate-related risks; and social and political isolation inhibits access to sources of adaptive capacity, thereby exacerbating local vulnerability. These results show that employing methods for analysing cultural knowledge can yield new insights to complement those generated by quantitative vulnerability indices.

  2. Evaluating regional vulnerability to climate change: purposes and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, Elizabeth L.; Engle, Nathan L.

    2011-03-15

    As the emphasis in climate change research, international negotiations, and developing-country activities has shifted from mitigation to adaptation, vulnerability has emerged as a bridge between impacts on one side and the need for adaptive changes on the other. Still, the term vulnerability remains abstract, its meaning changing with the scale, focus, and purpose of each assessment. Understanding regional vulnerability has advanced over the past several decades, with studies using a combination of indicators, case studies and analogues, stakeholder-driven processes, and scenario-building methodologies. As regions become increasingly relevant scales of inquiry for bridging the aggregate and local, for every analysis, it is perhaps most appropriate to ask three “what” questions: “What/who is vulnerable?,” “What is vulnerability?,” and “Vulnerable to what?” The answers to these questions will yield different definitions of vulnerability as well as different methods for assessing it.

  3. 16 Apr 2104 ShoreZone Coastal Vulnerability Indices Page 1 The ShoreZone Coastal Vulnerability Indices 16 Apr 2014

    E-print Network

    16 Apr 2104 ShoreZone Coastal Vulnerability Indices Page 1 The ShoreZone Coastal Vulnerability. Coastal Vulnerability Indices (CVI) were developed to address this concern and these are incorporated) to rank the relative sensitivity to flooding. Coastal Vulnerability Indices Coastal Vulnerability Indices

  4. Earthquakes, vulnerability and disaster risk: Georgia case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsereteli, Nino; Varazanashvili, Otar; Askan, Aysegul

    2015-04-01

    The Republic of Georgia, located on the East coast of the Black Sea, is prone to multiple natural hazards, the most dangerous and devastating of which are strong earthquakes. This work issues a call for advance planning and action to reduce natural disaster risks, notably seismic risk through the investigation of vulnerability and seismic hazard for Georgia. Ground motion prediction equations are essential for several purposes ranging from seismic design and analysis to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment. Seismic hazard maps were calculated based on modern approach of selecting and ranking global and regional ground motion prediction equation for region. We have also applied the host-to-target method in two regions in Georgia with different source mechanisms. According to the tectonic regime of the target areas, two different regions are chosen as host regions. One of them is the North Anatolian Fault zone in Turkey with the dominant strike-slip source mechanism while the other is Tabas in Iran with mostly events of reverse mechanism. We performed stochastic finite-fault simulations in both host and target areas and employed the hybrid-empirical method as introduced and outlined in Campbell (2003). An initial hybrid empirical ground motion model is developed for PGA and SA at selected periods for Georgia. An application of these coefficients for ground motion models have been used in probabilistic seismic hazard assessment. Intensity based vulnerability study were completed for Georgian buildings. Finally, Probabilistic seismic risk assessment in terms of structural damage and casualties were calculated. This methodology gave prediction of damage and casualty for a given probability of recurrence, based on a probabilistic seismic hazard model, population distribution, inventory, and vulnerability of buildings

  5. Ruptures of vulnerability: Linda Stein's Knight Series.

    PubMed

    Bible, Ann Vollmann

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on the work of Monique Wittig, this article understands Linda Stein's Knight Series as a lacunary writing communicating both her challenges to come to representation and her creative registration of subjectivity. The argument is grounded in an exploration of the rich interplay of power and vulnerability across the series as against the discourse of escapist fashion. Specifically, Stein's critical contradictions of inside and outside, conflated temporality, disjunctions between decoration and abstraction, and fluidity of sex and gender are examined. The discussion is elaborated through consideration of the work of Julia Kristeva, Elizabeth Grosz, and Hayao Miyazaki. PMID:20408009

  6. Social vulnerability assessment: a growing practice in Europe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapsell, S.; McC arthy, S.

    2012-04-01

    This paper builds upon work on social vulnerability from the CapHaz-Net consortium, an ongoing research project funded by the European Commission in its 7th Framework Programme. The project focuses on the social dimensions of natural hazards, as well as on regional practices of risk prevention and management, and aims at improving the resilience of European societies to natural hazards, paying particular attention to social capacity building. The topic of social vulnerability is one of seven themes being addressed in the project. There are various rationales for examining the relevance of social vulnerability to natural hazards. Vulnerability assessment has now been accepted as a requirement for the effective development of emergency management capability, and assessment of social vulnerability has been recognised as being integral to understanding the risk to natural hazards. The aim of our research was to examine social vulnerability, how it might be understood in the context of natural hazards in Europe, and how social vulnerability can be addressed to increase social capacity. The work comprised a review of research on social vulnerability to different natural hazards within Europe and included concepts and definitions of social vulnerability (and related concepts), the purpose of vulnerability assessment and who decides who is vulnerable, different approaches to assessing or measuring social vulnerability (such as the use of 'classical' quantitative vulnerability indicators and qualitative community-based approaches, along with the advantages and disadvantages of both), conceptual frameworks for assessing social vulnerability and three case studies of social vulnerability studies within Europe: flash floods in the Italian Alps, fluvial flooding in Germany and heat waves in Spain. The review reveals variable application of social vulnerability analysis across Europe and there are indications why this might be the case. Reasons could range from the scale of country policy and the particular risk management focus to the smaller scale risk management perceptions of the analysis techniques employed being to resource expensive, difficult to interpret or to operationalise. This paper will provide a context with some empirical examples to perhaps explain the growing popularity of concepts such as resilience and capacity building which lie more comfortably with policy makers and risk managers as concepts which focus on the solution rather than identifying a problem by assessing social vulnerability.

  7. Social vulnerability indicators as a sustainable planning tool

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yung-Jaan

    2014-01-15

    In the face of global warming and environmental change, the conventional strategy of resource centralization will not be able to cope with a future of increasingly extreme climate events and related disasters. It may even contribute to inter-regional disparities as a result of these events. To promote sustainable development, this study offers a case study of developmental planning in Chiayi, Taiwan and a review of the relevant literature to propose a framework of social vulnerability indicators at the township level. The proposed framework can not only be used to measure the social vulnerability of individual townships in Chiayi, but also be used to capture the spatial developmental of Chiayi. Seventeen social vulnerability indicators provide information in five dimensions. Owing to limited access to relevant data, the values of only 13 indicators were calculated. By simply summarizing indicators without using weightings and by using zero-mean normalization to standardize the indicators, this study calculates social vulnerability scores for each township. To make social vulnerability indicators more useful, this study performs an overlay analysis of social vulnerability and patterns of risk associated with national disasters. The social vulnerability analysis draws on secondary data for 2012 from Taiwan's National Geographic Information System. The second layer of analysis consists of the flood potential ratings of the Taiwan Water Resources Agency as an index of biophysical vulnerability. The third layer consists of township-level administrative boundaries. Analytical results reveal that four out of the 18 townships in Chiayi not only are vulnerable to large-scale flooding during serious flood events, but also have the highest degree of social vulnerability. Administrative boundaries, on which social vulnerability is based, do not correspond precisely to “cross-administrative boundaries,” which are characteristics of the natural environment. This study adopts an exploratory approach that provides Chiayi and other government agencies with a foundation for sustainable strategic planning for environmental change. The final section offers four suggestions concerning the implications of social vulnerability for local development planning. -- Highlights: • This study proposes a framework of social vulnerability indicators at the township level in Chiayi County, Taiwan. • Seventeen social vulnerability indicators are categorized into four dimensions. • This study performs a three-layer overlay analysis of social vulnerability and natural disaster risk patterns. • 4 out of the 18 townships not only have potential for large-scale flooding, but also high degree of social vulnerability. • This study provides a foundation for sustainable strategic planning to deal with environmental change. • Four suggestions are proposed regarding the implications of social vulnerability for local development planning.

  8. Prediction of individualized therapeutic vulnerabilities in cancer from genomic profiles

    Cancer.gov

    Based on homozygous deletions affecting metabolic enzymes in 16 TCGA cancer studies and 972 cancer cell lines, we identified 4104 candidate metabolic vulnerabilities present in 1019 tumor samples and 482 cell lines. Up to 44% of these vulnerabilities can be targeted with at least one Food and Drug Administration-approved drug. We suggest focused experiments to test these vulnerabilities and clinical trials based on personalized genomic profiles of those that pass preclinical filters.

  9. Cyber Security Vulnerability Impact on I&C Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Mark D.; McBride, Justin B.

    2006-11-01

    We present a discussion of the cyber security vulnerability impact on instrument and control reliability. In the discussion we demonstrate the likely vector of attack and vulnerabilities associated with commodity hardware, protocols and communication media. The current fleet of nuclear power plants in the United States utilizes aging analog instrument and control systems which are more frequently suffering from obsolescence and failure. The commodity equipment available now and in the near future incorporates features from information technology systems which compound cyber vulnerabilities.

  10. Market mechanisms protect the vulnerable brain

    PubMed Central

    Ramchandran, Kanchna; Nayakankuppam, Dhananjay; Berg, Joyce; Tranel, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Markets are mechanisms of social exchange, intended to facilitate trading. However, the question remains as to whether markets would help or hurt individuals with decision-makings deficits, as is frequently encountered in the case of cognitive aging. Essential for predicting future gains and losses in monetary and social domains, the striatal nuclei in the brain undergo structural, neurochemical, and functional decline with age. We correlated the efficacy of market mechanisms with dorsal striatal decline in an aging population, by using market based trading in the context of the 2008 U.S Presidential Elections (primary cycle). Impaired decision-makers displayed higher prediction error (difference between their prediction and actual outcome). Lower in vivo caudate volume was also associated with higher prediction error. Importantly, market-based trading protected older adults with lower caudate volume to a greater extent from their own poorly calibrated predictions. Counterintuitive to the traditional public perception of the market as a fickle, risky proposition where vulnerable traders are most surely to be burned, we suggest that market-based mechanisms protect individuals with brain-based decision-making vulnerabilities. PMID:21600226

  11. Airport vulnerability assessment: an analytical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarick, Richard T.

    1998-12-01

    The Airport Vulnerability Assessment Project (AVAP) is the direct result of congressional funding of recommendation 3.13 of the White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security. This project takes a new approach to the assessment of U.S. commercial airports. AVAP uses automation, analytical methods and tools to evaluate vulnerability and risk, and to analyze cost/benefits in a more quantitative manner. This paper addresses both the process used to conduct this program, as well as a generalized look at the results, which have been achieved for the initial airport assessments. The process description covers the acquisition approach, the project structure, and a review of the various methodologies and tools being used by the sever performing organizations (Abacus Technology, Battelle, CTI, Lockwood Greene, Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, SAIC, and Science & Engineering Associates). The tools described include ASSESS, SAM, RiskWatch, CASRAP, and AVAT. Included in the process is the utilization of an advisory panel made up predominantly of experts from the National Laboratories 9Sandia, Oak Ridge, Argonne and Brookhaven). The results portion addresses the findings and products resulting from the initial airport assessments. High level (unrestricted) summaries of the results are presented, along with initial trends in commonly recommended security improvements (countermeasures). Opportunities for the application of optics technology are identified.

  12. [Neuroethics and Human Vulnerability in Philosophical Perspective].

    PubMed

    Marcos, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    This article tries to assess the potentials and limits of neuroethics. It argues that neuroscience and ethics should collaborate each other with mutual respect and preservation of their respective identities, scientific in the first case and philosophical in the second one ( neuroethics as cooperation). The text develops also a criticism in front of any attempt to replace the philosophical ethics by the neurosciences ( neuroethics as substitution). Consequently, the most appropriate ontological and anthropological foundations are explored to develop a cooperative neuroethics. These foundations refer to the Aristotelian hylomorphic conception of the substances. On such foundations it is possible to develop a collaborative neuroethics which includes two aspects: on the one hand, we have an ethics of neuroscience and, on the other one, a neuroscience of ethics. The first one shows us how to conduct neuroscience while preserving human dignity. The second one teaches us about the neurobiological basis of our moral agency. These bases enable our moral behavior without determining it. By studying them our vulnerability as moral agents emerges as evidence. This vulnerability, which is rooted in the very human nature, must be, as it is argued along the last pages of the text, recognized as well as mitigated. PMID:26546795

  13. Neighborhood microclimates and vulnerability to heat stress.

    PubMed

    Harlan, Sharon L; Brazel, Anthony J; Prashad, Lela; Stefanov, William L; Larsen, Larissa

    2006-12-01

    Human exposure to excessively warm weather, especially in cities, is an increasingly important public health problem. This study examined heat-related health inequalities within one city in order to understand the relationships between the microclimates of urban neighborhoods, population characteristics, thermal environments that regulate microclimates, and the resources people possess to cope with climatic conditions. A simulation model was used to estimate an outdoor human thermal comfort index (HTCI) as a function of local climate variables collected in 8 diverse city neighborhoods during the summer of 2003 in Phoenix, USA. HTCI is an indicator of heat stress, a condition that can cause illness and death. There were statistically significant differences in temperatures and HTCI between the neighborhoods during the entire summer, which increased during a heat wave period. Lower socioeconomic and ethnic minority groups were more likely to live in warmer neighborhoods with greater exposure to heat stress. High settlement density, sparse vegetation, and having no open space in the neighborhood were significantly correlated with higher temperatures and HTCI. People in warmer neighborhoods were more vulnerable to heat exposure because they had fewer social and material resources to cope with extreme heat. Urban heat island reduction policies should specifically target vulnerable residential areas and take into account equitable distribution and preservation of environmental resources. PMID:16996668

  14. Reducing societal vulnerability to drought: A methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhite, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    Given worldwide experience with drought during the past several decades and the magnitude of associated impacts, it is apparent that vulnerability to extended periods of water shortage is escalating. Developing a national or provincial drought policy and preparedness plan is a complicated but essential first step toward reducing societal vulnerability. Until recently, nations had devoted little effort to drought preparedness, preferring instead the reactive or crisis management approach. Presently, an increasing number of nations are pursuing a more proactive approach that emphasizes the principles of risk management and sustainable development. Because of the multitude of impacts associated with drought and the numerous governmental agencies that have responsibility for some aspect of monitoring, assessment, mitigation, and planning, developing a policy and plan must be an integrated process within and between levels of government. This paper outlines a generic process that can be adopted by governments that desire to develop a more comprehensive and long-term approach to drought management and planning. Countries and states or provincial authorities that have adopted this approach is presented as case studies. This process is timely, given the declaration of the 1990s as the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction and the recent International Convention to Combat Desertification and Drought (June, 1994), an offshoot of deliberations at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development.

  15. Evaluating operating system vulnerability to memory errors.

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Bridges, Patrick G.; Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Mueller, Frank; Fiala, David; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2012-05-01

    Reliability is of great concern to the scalability of extreme-scale systems. Of particular concern are soft errors in main memory, which are a leading cause of failures on current systems and are predicted to be the leading cause on future systems. While great effort has gone into designing algorithms and applications that can continue to make progress in the presence of these errors without restarting, the most critical software running on a node, the operating system (OS), is currently left relatively unprotected. OS resiliency is of particular importance because, though this software typically represents a small footprint of a compute node's physical memory, recent studies show more memory errors in this region of memory than the remainder of the system. In this paper, we investigate the soft error vulnerability of two operating systems used in current and future high-performance computing systems: Kitten, the lightweight kernel developed at Sandia National Laboratories, and CLE, a high-performance Linux-based operating system developed by Cray. For each of these platforms, we outline major structures and subsystems that are vulnerable to soft errors and describe methods that could be used to reconstruct damaged state. Our results show the Kitten lightweight operating system may be an easier target to harden against memory errors due to its smaller memory footprint, largely deterministic state, and simpler system structure.

  16. Evaluating intensity parameters for debris flow vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiler, Margreth

    2014-05-01

    In mountain regions natural hazard processes such as debris flows or hyper-concentrated flows repeatedly lead to high damages. After an event, detailed documentation of the meteorological, hydrological and geomorphological indicators are standardized, and additional data on debris covering run out areas, indicators for processes velocity and transported volumes are gathered. Information on deposition height of debris is an important parameter to estimate the intensity of the process impacting the buildings and infrastructure and hence to establish vulnerability curves. However, the deposition height of mobilized material in settlements and on infrastructure is mostly not directly evaluated because recovery work starts immediately or even during the event leading to a removal of accumulated material. Different approaches exist to reconstruct deposition heights after torrent events, such as mind mapping, comparison of LIDAR-based DEM before and after the event as well as the reconstruction by using photo documentation and the estimation of deposition heights according to standardised elements at buildings and infrastructure. In our study, these different approaches to estimate deposition height and the spatial distribution of the accumulated material are applied and compared against each other by using the case study of the debris flow event in Brienz (Switzerland) which occurred during the serve flood events of August 2005 in the Alps. Within the analysis, different factors including overall costs and time consumption (manpower, equipment), accuracy and preciseness are compared and evaluated to establish optimal maps of the extent and deposition depth after torrent events and to integrate this information in the vulnerability analysis.

  17. Multimodal spectroscopy detects features of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque

    E-print Network

    Scepanovic, Obrad R.

    Early detection and treatment of rupture-prone vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is critical to reducing patient mortality associated with cardiovascular disease. The combination of reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman ...

  18. Assessing Vulnerability to Drought on a pan-European scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urquijo, Julia; De Stefano, Lucia; González-Tánago, Itziar; Blauhut, Veit; Stahl, Kerstin

    2014-05-01

    During the past decade, a number of theoretical frameworks have been defined within the Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change communities to assess drought vulnerability at different scales, sectors, socio-political contexts, and geo-climatic conditions. However, there is still little consensus around the criteria, dimensions and factors used in these assessments; and none of them has been applied at a pan-European scale. This is due to a triple complexity. Firstly, drought as a natural hazard is a complex phenomenon due to the difficulty of determining its onset and its multiscale, multifaceted and dynamic nature. Secondly, there is an on-going debate regarding the concept of vulnerability and its constitutive elements, together with an important diversity of theoretical approaches to assess it. Finally, Europe's diversity in bioclimatic conditions, national water use practice and water use policies adds a challenging characteristic for working on pan-European scale. This work addresses the challenge of defining a methodological approach to the assessment of vulnerability factors to drought at a pan-European scale. For this purpose, we first review existing conceptual frameworks as well as of past initiatives for drought vulnerability assessment. The literature review showed that the high complexity of drought vulnerability assessment requires a clear definition of the concept of vulnerability and the associated terms, and that, before undertaking any assessment, it is necessary to clearly define the "vulnerable unit" i.e. replying to the questions 'whose vulnerability is being assessed?' and 'vulnerability to what type of impact?'. In this context, this work proposes the application of a factor-based approach, consisting in the analysis of significant factors that influence vulnerability in the context of specific situations of potential vulnerability. Those situations are framed within the specific drought characteristics of four different geoclimatic macro -regions in Europe (Southern Europe; Central Europe; Eastern Europe; Northern Europe), to allow for comparison among similar vulnerability units within each region. These 'situations' are proposed as a suitable way to delimit vulnerability conditions, as they make explicit under which assumptions are we operating when undertaking the assessment. Vulnerability factors were determined based on literature review and expert-based validation while the vulnerability situations were derived from a database of registered drought impacts by sectors (European Drought Impact Report Inventory, EDII). The resulting picture is both informative and diagnostic: it provides guidance for the identification of areas and sectors where drought impact needs to be mitigated, and allows for the identification of issues (e.g. adaptive capacity features) that should be addressed to achieve that mitigation of drought impact. The approach is being tested for drought vulnerability assessment on a pan-European scale.

  19. Empirical Estimates of 0Day Vulnerabilities in Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Miles A. McQueen; Wayne F. Boyer; Sean M. McBride; Trevor A. McQueen

    2009-01-01

    We define a 0Day vulnerability to be any vulnerability, in deployed software, which has been discovered by at least one person but has not yet been publicly announced or patched. These 0Day vulnerabilities are of particular interest when assessing the risk to well managed control systems which have already effectively mitigated the publicly known vulnerabilities. In these well managed systems the risk contribution from 0Days will have proportionally increased. To aid understanding of how great a risk 0Days may pose to control systems, an estimate of how many are in existence is needed. Consequently, using the 0Day definition given above, we developed and applied a method for estimating how many 0Day vulnerabilities are in existence on any given day. The estimate is made by: empirically characterizing the distribution of the lifespans, measured in days, of 0Day vulnerabilities; determining the number of vulnerabilities publicly announced each day; and applying a novel method for estimating the number of 0Day vulnerabilities in existence on any given day using the number of vulnerabilities publicly announced each day and the previously derived distribution of 0Day lifespans. The method was first applied to a general set of software applications by analyzing the 0Day lifespans of 491 software vulnerabilities and using the daily rate of vulnerability announcements in the National Vulnerability Database. This led to a conservative estimate that in the worst year there were, on average, 2500 0Day software related vulnerabilities in existence on any given day. Using a smaller but intriguing set of 15 0Day software vulnerability lifespans representing the actual time from discovery to public disclosure, we then made a more aggressive estimate. In this case, we estimated that in the worst year there were, on average, 4500 0Day software vulnerabilities in existence on any given day. We then proceeded to identify the subset of software applications likely to be used in some control systems, analyzed the associated subset of vulnerabilities, and characterized their lifespans. Using the previously developed method of analysis, we very conservatively estimated 250 control system related 0Day vulnerabilities in existence on any given day. While reasonable, this first order estimate for control systems is probably far more conservative than those made for general software systems since the estimate did not include vulnerabilities unique to control system specific components. These control system specific vulnerabilities were unable to be included in the estimate for a variety of reasons with the most problematic being that the public announcement of unique control system vulnerabilities is very sparse. Consequently, with the intent to improve the above 0Day estimate for control systems, we first identified the additional, unique to control systems, vulnerability estimation constraints and then investigated new mechanisms which may be useful for estimating the number of unique 0Day software vulnerabilities found in control system components. We proceeded to identify a number of new mechanisms and approaches for estimating and incorporating control system specific vulnerabilities into an improved 0Day estimation method. These new mechanisms and approaches appear promising and will be more rigorously evaluated during the course of the next year.

  20. Intravascular probe for detection of vulnerable plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patt, Bradley E.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; MacDonald, Lawrence R.; Yamaguchi, Yuko; Tull, Carolyn R.; Janecek, Martin; Hoffman, Edward J.; Strauss, H. William; Tsugita, Ross; Ghazarossian, Vartan

    2001-12-01

    Coronary angiography is unable to define the status of the atheroma, and only measures the luminal dimensions of the blood vessel, without providing information about plaque content. Up to 70% of heart attacks are caused by minimally obstructive vulnerable plaques, which are too small to be detected adequately by angiography. We have developed an intravascular imaging detector to identify vulnerable coronary artery plaques. The detector works by sensing beta or conversion electron radiotracer emissions from plaque-binding radiotracers. The device overcomes the technical constraints of size, sensitivity and conformance to the intravascular environment. The detector at the distal end of the catheter uses six 7mm long by 0.5mm diameter scintillation fibers coupled to 1.5m long plastic fibers. The fibers are offset from each other longitudinally by 6mm and arranged spirally around a guide wire in the catheter. At the proximal end of the catheter the optical fibers are coupled to an interface box with a snap on connector. The interface box contains a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT) to decode the individual fibers. The whole detector assembly fits into an 8-French (2.7 mm in diameter) catheter. The PSPMT image is further decoded with software to give a linear image, the total instantaneous count rate and an audio output whose tone corresponds to the count rate. The device was tested with F-18 and Tl-204 sources. Spectrometric response, spatial resolution, sensitivity and beta to background ratio were measured. System resolution is 6 mm and the sensitivity is >500 cps / micrometers Ci when the source is 1 mm from the detector. The beta to background ratio was 11.2 for F-18 measured on a single fiber. The current device will lead to a system allowing imaging of labeled vulnerable plaque in coronary arteries. This type of signature is expected to enable targeted and cost effective therapies to prevent acute coronary artery diseases such as: unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.

  1. Social Vulnerability and Ebola Virus Disease in Rural Liberia.

    PubMed

    Stanturf, John A; Goodrick, Scott L; Warren, Melvin L; Charnley, Susan; Stegall, Christie M

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic that has stricken thousands of people in the three West African countries of Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea highlights the lack of adaptive capacity in post-conflict countries. The scarcity of health services in particular renders these populations vulnerable to multiple interacting stressors including food insecurity, climate change, and the cascading effects of disease epidemics such as EVD. However, the spatial distribution of vulnerable rural populations and the individual stressors contributing to their vulnerability are unknown. We developed a Social Vulnerability Classification using census indicators and mapped it at the district scale for Liberia. According to the Classification, we estimate that districts having the highest social vulnerability lie in the north and west of Liberia in Lofa, Bong, Grand Cape Mount, and Bomi Counties. Three of these counties together with the capital Monrovia and surrounding Montserrado and Margibi counties experienced the highest levels of EVD infections in Liberia. Vulnerability has multiple dimensions and a classification developed from multiple variables provides a more holistic view of vulnerability than single indicators such as food insecurity or scarcity of health care facilities. Few rural Liberians are food secure and many cannot reach a medical clinic in <80 minutes. Our results illustrate how census and household survey data, when displayed spatially at a sub-county level, may help highlight the location of the most vulnerable households and populations. Our results can be used to identify vulnerability hotspots where development strategies and allocation of resources to address the underlying causes of vulnerability in Liberia may be warranted. We demonstrate how social vulnerability index approaches can be applied in the context of disease outbreaks, and our methods are relevant elsewhere. PMID:26325519

  2. Social Vulnerability and Ebola Virus Disease in Rural Liberia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic that has stricken thousands of people in the three West African countries of Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea highlights the lack of adaptive capacity in post-conflict countries. The scarcity of health services in particular renders these populations vulnerable to multiple interacting stressors including food insecurity, climate change, and the cascading effects of disease epidemics such as EVD. However, the spatial distribution of vulnerable rural populations and the individual stressors contributing to their vulnerability are unknown. We developed a Social Vulnerability Classification using census indicators and mapped it at the district scale for Liberia. According to the Classification, we estimate that districts having the highest social vulnerability lie in the north and west of Liberia in Lofa, Bong, Grand Cape Mount, and Bomi Counties. Three of these counties together with the capital Monrovia and surrounding Montserrado and Margibi counties experienced the highest levels of EVD infections in Liberia. Vulnerability has multiple dimensions and a classification developed from multiple variables provides a more holistic view of vulnerability than single indicators such as food insecurity or scarcity of health care facilities. Few rural Liberians are food secure and many cannot reach a medical clinic in <80 minutes. Our results illustrate how census and household survey data, when displayed spatially at a sub-county level, may help highlight the location of the most vulnerable households and populations. Our results can be used to identify vulnerability hotspots where development strategies and allocation of resources to address the underlying causes of vulnerability in Liberia may be warranted. We demonstrate how social vulnerability index approaches can be applied in the context of disease outbreaks, and our methods are relevant elsewhere. PMID:26325519

  3. Modeling groundwater vulnerability to pollution using Optimized DRASTIC model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogaji, Kehinde Anthony; San Lim, Hwee; Abdullar, Khiruddin

    2014-06-01

    The prediction accuracy of the conventional DRASTIC model (CDM) algorithm for groundwater vulnerability assessment is severely limited by the inherent subjectivity and uncertainty in the integration of data obtained from various sources. This study attempts to overcome these problems by exploring the potential of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) technique as a decision support model to optimize the CDM algorithm. The AHP technique was utilized to compute the normalized weights for the seven parameters of the CDM to generate an optimized DRASTIC model (ODM) algorithm. The DRASTIC parameters integrated with the ODM algorithm predicted which among the study areas is more likely to become contaminated as a result of activities at or near the land surface potential. Five vulnerability zones, namely: no vulnerable(NV), very low vulnerable (VLV), low vulnerable (LV), moderate vulnerable (MV) and high vulnerable (HV) were identified based on the vulnerability index values estimated with the ODM algorithm. Results show that more than 50% of the area belongs to both moderate and high vulnerable zones on the account of the spatial analysis of the produced ODM-based groundwater vulnerability prediction map (GVPM).The prediction accuracy of the ODM-based - GVPM with the groundwater pH and manganese (Mn) concentrations established correlation factors (CRs) result of 90 % and 86 % compared to the CRs result of 62 % and 50 % obtained for the validation accuracy of the CDM - based GVPM. The comparative results, indicated that the ODM-based produced GVPM is more reliable than the CDM - based produced GVPM in the study area. The study established the efficacy of AHP as a spatial decision support technique in enhancing environmental decision making with particular reference to future groundwater vulnerability assessment.

  4. Homelessness and our most vulnerable patients.

    PubMed

    Olszyk, Mark D; Goodell, Melly

    2008-01-01

    The scope of homelessness among children is broad and growing, and its affect on physical and mental health is extensive. It may seem daunting for individual providers to make an impact on the challenges faced by these most vulnerable of patients. However, healthcare providers who care for homeless children can improve more than just their physical health by understanding barriers specific to this population, and addressing them through minor changes in standard practice; education of self, staff, and colleagues; and advocacy. By collaborating with parents and local agencies, clinicians can make tangible progress in improving the health of their homeless patients and can provide parents with the information and support they need to prioritize a child's health needs appropriately. Ultimately, providers should strive to make their practices a true medical home, as it may be the only home a child knows. PMID:19186593

  5. Vulnerability Analysis of PAP for RFID Tags

    E-print Network

    Naser, Mu'awya; Rafie, Mohammd; van der Lubbe, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the security of an RFID authentication protocol proposed by Liu and Bailey [1], called Privacy and Authentication Protocol (PAP), and show its vulnerabilities and faulty assumptions. PAP is a privacy and authentication protocol designed for passive tags. The authors claim that the protocol, being resistant to commonly assumed attacks, requires little computation and provides privacy protection and authentication. Nevertheless, we propose two traceability attacks and an impersonation attack, in which the revealing of secret information (i.e., secret key and static identifier) shared between the tag and the reader is unnecessary. Moreover, we review all basic assumptions on which the design of the protocol resides, and show how many of them are incorrect and are contrary to the common assumptions in RFID systems.

  6. Gastrointestinal and other vulnerabilities for geriatric globetrotters.

    PubMed

    Gordon, M E

    1991-05-01

    An awareness of the journey's destination and the consequential events along the way will better enhance our diagnoses and in turn sustain our elder "homo turisticus," no longer an endangered species but worthy of our continued compassionate care while enjoying their longevity. All potential treacheries must be assessed by each elderly traveler. It may be the first of many trips or the last opportunity to view and relate to the sequoia's longevity, hike the Scottish highlands, view the game of the Serengeti, explore the Nordic fjords, indulge in the Patagonian scenes of the Iguazú falls, seek the habitats of the Galápagos tortoise, partake of the photograph opportunities of Papua-New Guinea, or finalize that "last" business contract in the Orient. With consideration of these many vulnerabilities and potential hazards, why then undertake the journey? Perhaps our geriatric globetrotters give credence to the age-old saying (of unknown origin) "Running water never freezes." PMID:1855161

  7. MODELING UNDERGROUND STRUCTURE VULNERABILITY IN JOINTED ROCK

    SciTech Connect

    R. SWIFT; D. STEEDMAN

    2001-02-01

    The vulnerability of underground structures and openings in deep jointed rock to ground shock attack is of chief concern to military planning and security. Damage and/or loss of stability to a structure in jointed rock, often manifested as brittle failure and accompanied with block movement, can depend significantly on jointed properties, such as spacing, orientation, strength, and block character. We apply a hybrid Discrete Element Method combined with the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics approach to simulate the MIGHTY NORTH event, a definitive high-explosive test performed on an aluminum lined cylindrical opening in jointed Salem limestone. Representing limestone with discrete elements having elastic-equivalence and explicit brittle tensile behavior and the liner as an elastic-plastic continuum provides good agreement with the experiment and damage obtained with finite-element simulations. Extending the approach to parameter variations shows damage is substantially altered by differences in joint geometry and liner properties.

  8. The Vulnerable Indian One Rupee Coin

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Arvind; Ramshankar, Vijayalakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Coins are the most commonly ingested foreign body encountered in the pediatric population, with a peak incidence between 6 months and 3 years of age. Although some ingested coins may be aspirated, most coins pass through the alimentary tract without causing any complications. Coins in the esophagus causing symptoms require immediate removal. The management of asymptomatic coins has been a perplexing problem to the clinicians for decades. We recently managed an interesting case of an impacted Indian one rupee coin in the esophagus of a 13-year-old girl, by performing a simple yet novel technique, by using a conventional flexible endoscopic biopsy forceps. Further, reviewing the literature we inferred that the rounded, stainless steel Indian one rupee coin with a diameter of 25 mm, by itself seems to be vulnerable for impaction in the esophagus and therefore needs to be promptly addressed even if asymptomatic.

  9. Method and tool for network vulnerability analysis

    DOEpatents

    Swiler, Laura Painton (Albuquerque, NM); Phillips, Cynthia A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-03-14

    A computer system analysis tool and method that will allow for qualitative and quantitative assessment of security attributes and vulnerabilities in systems including computer networks. The invention is based on generation of attack graphs wherein each node represents a possible attack state and each edge represents a change in state caused by a single action taken by an attacker or unwitting assistant. Edges are weighted using metrics such as attacker effort, likelihood of attack success, or time to succeed. Generation of an attack graph is accomplished by matching information about attack requirements (specified in "attack templates") to information about computer system configuration (contained in a configuration file that can be updated to reflect system changes occurring during the course of an attack) and assumed attacker capabilities (reflected in "attacker profiles"). High risk attack paths, which correspond to those considered suited to application of attack countermeasures given limited resources for applying countermeasures, are identified by finding "epsilon optimal paths."

  10. Costs of strikes between vulnerable missile forces

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-02-01

    This note derives the first and second strike magnitudes and costs for strikes between vulnerable missile forces with multiple warheads. The extension to mixes with invulnerable missiles is performed in a companion note. Stability increases as the number of weapons per missile is reduced. The optimal allocation of weapons between missiles and value is significant in predicting the stability impact of the reduction of the number of weapons per missile at large numbers of missiles, less significant in reducing the number of missiles for fixed weapons per missile. At low numbers of missiles, the stability indices for singlet and triplet configurations are comparable, as are the number of weapons each would deliver on value targets.

  11. Benjamin Livshits and Monica S. Lam 1. PHPList Admin Page SQL Injection Vulnerability

    E-print Network

    Livshits, Ben

    Vulnerability 15. MySQL Eventum Multiple Cross-Site Scripting Vulnerabilities 16. MySQL Eventum Multiple SQL_opt_add Heap-Based Buffer Overflow Vulnerability 15. MySQL Eventum Multiple Cross-Site Scripting Vulnerabilities 16. MySQL Eventum Multiple SQL Injection Vulnerabilities 17. AderSoftware CFBB Index.CFM Cross

  12. Ecosystems Vulnerability Challenge and Prize Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. H.; Frame, M. T.; Ferriter, O.; Recker, J.

    2014-12-01

    Stimulating innovation and private sector entrepreneurship is an important way to advance the preparedness of communities, businesses and individuals for the impacts of climate change on certain aspects of ecosystems, such as: fire regimes; water availability; carbon sequestration; biodiversity conservation; weather-related hazards, and the spread of invasive species. The creation of tools is critical to help communities and natural resource managers better understand the impacts of climate change on ecosystems and the potential resulting implications for ecosystem services and conservation efforts. The Department of the Interior is leading an interagency effort to develop the Ecosystems Vulnerability theme as part of the President's Climate Action Plan. This effort will provide seamless access to relevant datasets that can help address such issues as: risk of wildfires to local communities and federal lands; water sensitivity to climate change; and understanding the role of ecosystems in a changing climate. This session will provide an overview of the proposed Ecosystem Vulnerability Challenge and Prize Competition, outlining the intended audience, scope, goals, and overall timeline. The session will provide an opportunity for participants to offer new ideas. Through the Challenge, access will be made available to critical datasets for software developers, engineers, scientists, students, and researchers to develop and submit applications addressing critical science issues facing our Nation today. Application submission criteria and guidelines will also be discussed. The Challenge will be open to all sectors and organizations (i.e. federal, non-federal, private sector, non-profits, and universities) within the United States. It is anticipated the Challenge will run from early January 2015 until spring of 2015.

  13. Cellular/Molecular ERMitochondrial Calcium Flow Underlies Vulnerability of

    E-print Network

    Rubel, Edwin

    to many ototoxins, drugs known to cause hearing loss by killing inner ear hair cells of mammals includingCellular/Molecular ER­Mitochondrial Calcium Flow Underlies Vulnerability of Mechanosensory Hair, Seattle, Washington 98195 Mechanosensory hair cells are vulnerable to environmental insult, resulting

  14. Development and Demography of Perceived Vulnerability in Youngsters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gochman, David S.

    In order to assess children's perceived vulnerability to health problems, a longitudinal study was designed to observe third and seventh graders at five intervals over a 2-year period. The hypotheses tested concerned relationships between perceived vulnerability to health problems and age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Data were obtained from a…

  15. CHEX: Statically Vetting Android Apps for Component Hijacking Vulnerabilities

    E-print Network

    Lee, Wenke

    CHEX: Statically Vetting Android Apps for Component Hijacking Vulnerabilities Long Lu Zhichun Li analysis method to automatically vet Android apps for component hijacking vulnerabilities. Mod- eling vetting and testing scenarios. Categories and Subject Descriptors D.2.4 [Software Engineering]: Software

  16. International Space Station: Meteoroid/Orbital Debris Survivability and Vulnerability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Russell

    2000-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the surviability and vulnerability of the International Space Station (ISS) from the threat posed by meteoroid and orbital debris. The topics include: (1) Space station natural and induced environments (2) Meteoroid and orbital debris threat definition (3) Requirement definition (4) Assessment methods (5) Shield development and (6) Component vulnerability

  17. 7 CFR 1730.27 - Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA). 1730.27... Requirements § 1730.27 Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA). (a) Each borrower with an approved RUS electric... destroyed would cause significant risk to the safety and health of the public; (3) Critical assets...

  18. Assessing the Vulnerability of the Fiber Infrastructure to Disasters

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Reuven

    Abstract--Communication networks are vulnerable to natural disasters, such as earthquakes or floods the efforts to mitigate the effects of regional disasters. There are several works on the topology1 Assessing the Vulnerability of the Fiber Infrastructure to Disasters Sebastian Neumayer Student

  19. A quantitative vulnerability function for fluvial sediment transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totschnig, Reinhold; Sedlacek, Walter; Fuchs, Sven

    2010-05-01

    In quantitative risk assessment, risk is expressed as a function of hazard, elements at risk exposed, and the vulnerability. From a natural sciences perspective, vulnerability is defined as the expected degree of loss for an element at risk as a consequence of a certain event. The resulting value is dependent on the impacting process intensity and the susceptibility of the elements at risk, and ranges from 0 (no damage) to 1 (complete destruction). With respect to torrent processes, i.e. fluvial sediment transport, the concept of vulnerability - though widely acknowledged - did not result in any sound quantitative relationship between process intensities and vulnerability values so far, even if considerable loss occurred during recent years. To close this gap and establish this relationship, data from three well-documented torrent events in the Austrian Alps was used to derive a quantitative vulnerability function applicable to residential buildings located on torrent fans. The method applied followed a spatial approach, and was based on process intensities, the spatial characteristics of elements at risk, and average reconstruction values on a local scale. The results suggest a modified Weibull function to fit best to the observed damage pattern if vulnerability is quantified in absolute values, and a modified Frechet function if vulnerability is quantified relatively in relation to the individual building height. The vulnerability relationship obtained is applicable to a mixed type of construction used in European mountain regions, composed from brick masonry and concrete, a typical design in post-1950s building craft in alpine countries.

  20. 7 CFR 1730.27 - Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA). 1730.27 Section 1730.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES... Requirements § 1730.27 Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA). (a) Each borrower with an approved RUS...

  1. 7 CFR 1730.27 - Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA). 1730.27 Section 1730.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES... Requirements § 1730.27 Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA). (a) Each borrower with an approved RUS...

  2. 7 CFR 1730.27 - Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA). 1730.27 Section 1730.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES... Requirements § 1730.27 Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA). (a) Each borrower with an approved RUS...

  3. 7 CFR 1730.27 - Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA). 1730.27 Section 1730.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES... Requirements § 1730.27 Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA). (a) Each borrower with an approved RUS...

  4. Automatic Discovery of API-Level Vulnerabilities Vinod Ganapathy

    E-print Network

    Miller, Barton P.

    Automatic Discovery of API-Level Vulnerabilities Vinod Ganapathy , Sanjit A. Seshia , Somesh Jha-MADISON COMPUTER SCIENCES TECHNICAL REPORT: UW-CS-TR-1512, JULY 2004. Abstract A system is vulnerable to an API-level attack if its security can be compromised by invoking an allowed sequence of operations from its API. We

  5. Fear the EAR: Discovering and Mitigating Execution After Redirect Vulnerabilities

    E-print Network

    Kruegel, Christopher

    Fear the EAR: Discovering and Mitigating Execution After Redirect Vulnerabilities Adam Doupé, Bryce we call Execution After Redirect, or EAR. A web application de- veloper can introduce an EAR written in nine web frameworks are to EAR vulnerabilities. We then discuss the results from the EAR

  6. Importance-Scanning Worm Using Vulnerable-Host Distribution

    E-print Network

    Ji, Chuanyi

    Importance-Scanning Worm Using Vulnerable-Host Distribution Zesheng Chen School of Electrical: 404-385-3011 Chuanyi Ji School of Electrical & Computer Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology scanning. The distribution of vulnerable hosts on the Internet, however, is highly non- uniform over the IP

  7. Analyses Of Two End-User Software Vulnerability Exposure Metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Jason L. Wright; Miles McQueen; Lawrence Wellman

    2012-08-01

    The risk due to software vulnerabilities will not be completely resolved in the near future. Instead, putting reliable vulnerability measures into the hands of end-users so that informed decisions can be made regarding the relative security exposure incurred by choosing one software package over another is of importance. To that end, we propose two new security metrics, average active vulnerabilities (AAV) and vulnerability free days (VFD). These metrics capture both the speed with which new vulnerabilities are reported to vendors and the rate at which software vendors fix them. We then examine how the metrics are computed using currently available datasets and demonstrate their estimation in a simulation experiment using four different browsers as a case study. Finally, we discuss how the metrics may be used by the various stakeholders of software and to software usage decisions.

  8. Relational vulnerabilities of incarcerated and reentry mothers: therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Few-Demo, April L; Arditti, Joyce A

    2014-11-01

    A qualitative study involving a follow-up interview with 10 incarcerated and reentry mothers in rural southwest and central Virginia was conducted to explore the influence that women's close relationships have on their reentry experiences with their families. The Vulnerability Conceptual Model (VCM) was used to sensitize an examination of how incarcerated and reentry mothers negotiate relational vulnerabilities in the context of varying situational vulnerability. Grounded theory analysis revealed three themes that characterized relational vulnerabilities. Given our focus on close relationships and the potential of the VCM to identify opportunities for resilience and vulnerability, we highlighted the influence of ambiguous and ambivalent relationships and unresolved loss and grief due to relationship dissolution or the death of a parent, sibling, child, or intimate partner in the reentry process. The data revealed two types of reentry mothers with divergent trajectories for social reintegration. Implications of these types for therapeutic treatment approaches for reentry women are discussed. PMID:23847275

  9. Nutritional Vulnerability in Older Adults: A Continuum of Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N.; McDonald, Shelley R.; Bales, Connie W.

    2015-01-01

    A nutritionally vulnerable older adult has a reduced physical reserve that limits the ability to mount a vigorous recovery in the face of an acute health threat or stressor. Often this vulnerability contributes to more medical complications, longer hospital stays, and increased likelihood of nursing home admission. We have characterized in this review the etiology of nutritional vulnerability across the continuum of the community, hospital, and long term care settings. Frail older adults may become less vulnerable with strong, consistent, and individualized nutritional care. Interventions for the vulnerable older adult must take their nutritional needs into account to optimize resiliency in the face of the acute and/or chronic health challenges they will surely face in their life course. PMID:26042189

  10. Vulnerability assessment for the Gaza Strip, Palestine using DRASTIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baalousha, H.

    2006-06-01

    The main usefulness of groundwater vulnerability assessment maps is their ability to be an effective preliminary tool for planning, policy, and operational levels of decision-making. DRASTIC is one such assessment method. The DRASTIC index is made up of a calculated sum of products rating and weights for seven hydrogeological parameters that contribute to aquifer vulnerability. With the help of GIS, and based on the available data, maps of DRASTIC parameters were prepared for the Gaza Strip area in a case study. Each map was given a proper rate and a special weight factor developed. The final vulnerability map was obtained as a summation of the seven maps after multiplying each one with the appropriate weight. The vulnerability map was checked against the actual pollution potential in the area and nitrate concentration. The obtained vulnerability map is strongly correlated to known pollution values in the area.

  11. Vulnerable subjects? The case of nonhuman animals in experimentation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jane

    2013-12-01

    The concept of vulnerability is deployed in bioethics to, amongst other things, identify and remedy harms to participants in research, yet although nonhuman animals in experimentation seem intuitively to be vulnerable, this concept and its attendant protections are rarely applied to research animals. I want to argue, however, that this concept is applicable to nonhuman animals and that a new taxonomy of vulnerability developed in the context of human bioethics can be applied to research animals. This taxonomy does useful explanatory work, helping to pinpoint the limitations of the 3Rs/welfare approach currently adopted in the context of animal experimentation. On this account, the 3Rs/welfare approach fails to deliver for nonhuman animals in experimentation because it effectively addresses only one element of their vulnerability (inherent) and paradoxically through the institution of Animal Ethics Committees intended to protect experimental animals in fact generates new vulnerabilities that exacerbate their already precarious situation. PMID:24197931

  12. NCSU CSC TR 2008-4 1 Abstract--Since 2002, over half of reported cyber vulnerabilities are caused by input validation vulnerabilities . Over

    E-print Network

    Young, R. Michael

    -site scripting and SQL injection vulnerabilities in 2006, based on the (US) National Vulnerability Database. Techniques to mitigate cross-site scripting and SQL injection vulnerabilities have been proposed. However a foundation for comparison among techniques to detect cross- site scripting and SQL injection vulnerabilities

  13. Can Fault Prediction Models and Metrics be Used for Vulnerability Prediction? Yonghee Shin and Laurie Williams

    E-print Network

    Young, R. Michael

    Can Fault Prediction Models and Metrics be Used for Vulnerability Prediction? Yonghee Shin general faults in software - thinking like an attacker. Therefore, security engineers looking security vulnerabilities rather than faults. At the same time, faults and vulnerabilities have

  14. Assessing vulnerability exploitability risk using software Awad Younis1 Yashwant K. Malaiya1 Indrajit Ray1

    E-print Network

    Malaiya, Yashwant K.

    Assessing vulnerability exploitability risk using software properties Awad Younis1 · Yashwant K systems are now attracting increased attention. While the current trends in software vulnerability discovery indicate that the number of newly dis- covered vulnerabilities continues to be significant

  15. Vulnerability Discovery in Multi-Version Software Systems Jinyoo Kim, Yashwant K. Malaiya, Indrakshi Ray

    E-print Network

    Ray, Indrakshi

    Vulnerability Discovery in Multi-Version Software Systems Jinyoo Kim, Yashwant K. Malaiya, malaiya, iray]@cs.colostate.edu ¡£¢¥¤§¦ ¨©¥¦ -- The vulnerability discovery process for a program describes the rate at which the security vulnerabilities are discovered. Being able to predict

  16. Cognitive vulnerability to depression: A dual process model Christopher G. Beevers

    E-print Network

    Beevers, Christopher

    Cognitive vulnerability to depression: A dual process model Christopher G. Beevers Department of cognitive vulnerability to unipolar depression. According to dual process theories, humans possess two modes are violated and sufficient cognitive resources are available to respond. A cognitive vulnerability

  17. Assessing the vulnerability of wild rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) stocks to overfishing in the

    E-print Network

    Assessing the vulnerability of wild rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) stocks to overfishing of Project: Assessing the vulnerability of wild rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) stocks to overfishing in British Columbia's Southern Interior lakes are vulnerable to over- harvest from recreational anglers

  18. Transplanting Supersites of HIV-1 Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yongping; Gorman, Jason; Ofek, Gilad; Srivatsan, Sanjay; Druz, Aliaksandr; Lees, Christopher R.; Lu, Gabriel; Soto, Cinque; Stuckey, Jonathan; Burton, Dennis R.; Koff, Wayne C.; Connors, Mark; Kwon, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    One strategy for isolating or eliciting antibodies against a specific target region on the envelope glycoprotein trimer (Env) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) involves the creation of site transplants, which present the target region on a heterologous protein scaffold with preserved antibody-binding properties. If the target region is a supersite of HIV-1 vulnerability, recognized by a collection of broadly neutralizing antibodies, this strategy affords the creation of “supersite transplants”, capable of binding (and potentially eliciting) antibodies similar to the template collection of effective antibodies. Here we transplant three supersites of HIV-1 vulnerability, each targeted by effective neutralizing antibodies from multiple donors. To implement our strategy, we chose a single representative antibody against each of the target supersites: antibody 10E8, which recognizes the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) on the HIV-1 gp41 glycoprotein; antibody PG9, which recognizes variable regions one and two (V1V2) on the HIV-1 gp120 glycoprotein; and antibody PGT128 which recognizes a glycopeptide supersite in variable region 3 (glycan V3) on gp120. We used a structural alignment algorithm to identify suitable acceptor proteins, and then designed, expressed, and tested antigenically over 100-supersite transplants in a 96-well microtiter-plate format. The majority of the supersite transplants failed to maintain the antigenic properties of their respective template supersite. However, seven of the glycan V3-supersite transplants exhibited nanomolar affinity to effective neutralizing antibodies from at least three donors and recapitulated the mannose9-N-linked glycan requirement of the template supersite. The binding of these transplants could be further enhanced by placement into self-assembling nanoparticles. Essential elements of the glycan V3 supersite, embodied by as few as 3 N-linked glycans and ?25 Env residues, can be segregated into acceptor scaffolds away from the immune-evading capabilities of the rest of HIV-1 Env, thereby providing a means to focus the immune response on the scaffolded supersite. PMID:24992528

  19. Regional vulnerability of longitudinal cortical association connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Ceschin, Rafael; Lee, Vince K.; Schmithorst, Vince; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Preterm born children with spastic diplegia type of cerebral palsy and white matter injury or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), are known to have motor, visual and cognitive impairments. Most diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies performed in this group have demonstrated widespread abnormalities using averaged deterministic tractography and voxel-based DTI measurements. Little is known about structural network correlates of white matter topography and reorganization in preterm cerebral palsy, despite the availability of new therapies and the need for brain imaging biomarkers. Here, we combined novel post-processing methodology of probabilistic tractography data in this preterm cohort to improve spatial and regional delineation of longitudinal cortical association tract abnormalities using an along-tract approach, and compared these data to structural DTI cortical network topology analysis. DTI images were acquired on 16 preterm children with cerebral palsy (mean age 5.6 ± 4) and 75 healthy controls (mean age 5.7 ± 3.4). Despite mean tract analysis, Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) demonstrating diffusely reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) reduction in all white matter tracts, the along-tract analysis improved the detection of regional tract vulnerability. The along-tract map-structural network topology correlates revealed two associations: (1) reduced regional posterior–anterior gradient in FA of the longitudinal visual cortical association tracts (inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, optic radiation, posterior thalamic radiation) correlated with reduced posterior–anterior gradient of intra-regional (nodal efficiency) metrics with relative sparing of frontal and temporal regions; and (2) reduced regional FA within frontal–thalamic–striatal white matter pathways (anterior limb/anterior thalamic radiation, superior longitudinal fasciculus and cortical spinal tract) correlated with alteration in eigenvector centrality, clustering coefficient (inter-regional) and participation co-efficient (inter-modular) alterations of frontal–striatal and fronto-limbic nodes suggesting re-organization of these pathways. Both along tract and structural topology network measurements correlated strongly with motor and visual clinical outcome scores. This study shows the value of combining along-tract analysis and structural network topology in depicting not only selective parietal occipital regional vulnerability but also reorganization of frontal–striatal and frontal–limbic pathways in preterm children with cerebral palsy. These finding also support the concept that widespread, but selective posterior–anterior neural network connectivity alterations in preterm children with cerebral palsy likely contribute to the pathogenesis of neurosensory and cognitive impairment in this group. PMID:26509119

  20. Soil compaction vulnerability at Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, Robert H.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Carmichael, Shinji; Esque, Todd C.

    2014-01-01

    Compaction vulnerability of different types of soils by hikers and vehicles is poorly known, particularly for soils of arid and semiarid regions. Engineering analyses have long shown that poorly sorted soils (for example, sandy loams) compact to high densities, whereas well-sorted soils (for example, eolian sand) do not compact, and high gravel content may reduce compaction. Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (ORPI) in southwestern Arizona, is affected greatly by illicit activities associated with the United States–Mexico border, and has many soils that resource managers consider to be highly vulnerable to compaction. Using geospatial soils data for ORPI, compaction vulnerability was estimated qualitatively based on the amount of gravel and the degree of sorting of sand and finer particles. To test this qualitative assessment, soil samples were collected from 48 sites across all soil map units, and undisturbed bulk densities were measured. A scoring system was used to create a vulnerability index for soils on the basis of particle-size sorting, soil properties derived from Proctor compaction analyses, and the field undisturbed bulk densities. The results of the laboratory analyses indicated that the qualitative assessments of soil compaction vulnerability underestimated the area of high vulnerability soils by 73 percent. The results showed that compaction vulnerability of desert soils, such as those at ORPI, can be quantified using laboratory tests and evaluated using geographic information system analyses, providing a management tool that managers potentially could use to inform decisions about activities that reduce this type of soil disruption in protected areas.

  1. Assessing the vulnerability of buildings to tsunami in Sydney

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Osso, F.; Gonella, M.; Gabbianelli, G.; Withycombe, G.; Dominey-Howes, D.

    2009-12-01

    Australia is vulnerable to the impacts of tsunamis and exposure along the SE coast of New South Wales is especially high. Significantly, this is the same area reported to have been affected by repeated large magnitude tsunamis during the Holocene. Efforts are under way to complete probabilistic risk assessments for the region but local government planners and emergency risk managers need information now about building vulnerability in order to develop appropriate risk management strategies. We use the newly revised PTVA-3 Model (Dall'Osso et al., 2009) to assess the relative vulnerability of buildings to damage from a "worst case tsunami" defined by our latest understanding of regional risk - something never before undertaken in Australia. We present selected results from an investigation of building vulnerability within the local government area of Manly - an iconic coastal area of Sydney. We show that a significant proportion of buildings (in particular, residential structures) are classified as having "High" and "Very High" Relative Vulnerability Index scores. Furthermore, other important buildings (e.g., schools, nursing homes and transport structures) are also vulnerable to damage. Our results have serious implications for immediate emergency risk management, longer-term land-use zoning and development, and building design and construction standards. Based on the work undertaken here, we recommend further detailed assessment of the vulnerability of coastal buildings in at risk areas, development of appropriate risk management strategies and a detailed program of community engagement to increase overall resilience.

  2. Risk assessment by dynamic representation of vulnerability, exploitation, and impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cam, Hasan

    2015-05-01

    Assessing and quantifying cyber risk accurately in real-time is essential to providing security and mission assurance in any system and network. This paper presents a modeling and dynamic analysis approach to assessing cyber risk of a network in real-time by representing dynamically its vulnerabilities, exploitations, and impact using integrated Bayesian network and Markov models. Given the set of vulnerabilities detected by a vulnerability scanner in a network, this paper addresses how its risk can be assessed by estimating in real-time the exploit likelihood and impact of vulnerability exploitation on the network, based on real-time observations and measurements over the network. The dynamic representation of the network in terms of its vulnerabilities, sensor measurements, and observations is constructed dynamically using the integrated Bayesian network and Markov models. The transition rates of outgoing and incoming links of states in hidden Markov models are used in determining exploit likelihood and impact of attacks, whereas emission rates help quantify the attack states of vulnerabilities. Simulation results show the quantification and evolving risk scores over time for individual and aggregated vulnerabilities of a network.

  3. Predicting vulnerability to sleep deprivation using diffusion model parameters.

    PubMed

    Patanaik, Amiya; Zagorodnov, Vitali; Kwoh, Chee Keong; Chee, Michael W L

    2014-10-01

    We used diffusion modelling to predict vulnerability to decline in psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) performance following a night of total sleep deprivation (SD). A total of 135 healthy young adults (69 women, age = 21.9 ± 1.7 years) participated in several within-subject cross-over design studies that incorporated the PVT. Participants were classified as vulnerable (lower tertile) or non-vulnerable (upper tertile) according to their change in lapse rate [lapse = reaction time (RT) ? 500 ms] between the evening before (ESD) and the morning after SD. RT data were fitted using Ratcliff's diffusion model. Although both groups showed significant change in RT during SD, there was no significant group difference in RT during the ESD session. In contrast, during ESD, the mean diffusion drift of vulnerable subjects was significantly lower than for non-vulnerable subjects. Mean drift and non-decision times were both adversely affected by sleep deprivation. Both mean drift and non-decision time showed significant state × vulnerability interaction. Diffusion modelling appears to have promise in predicting vulnerability to vigilance decline induced by a night of total sleep deprivation. PMID:24861212

  4. A model for how to disclose physical security vulnerabilities.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R. G.

    2009-01-01

    When security vulnerabilities are discovered, it is often unclear how much public disclosure of the vulnerabilities is prudent. This is especially true for physical security vis a vis cyber security. We never want to help the 'bad guys' more than the 'good guys', but if the good guys aren't made aware of the problems, they are unlikely to fix them. This paper presents a unique semi-quantitative tool, called the 'Vulnerability Disclosure Index' (VDI), to help determine how much disclosure of vulnerabilities is warranted and in what forum. The VDI certainly does not represent the final, definitive answer to this complex issue. It does, however, provide a starting point for thinking about some of the factors that must go into making such a decision. Moreover, anyone using the VDI tool can at least claim to have shown some degree of responsibility in contemplating disclosure issues. The purpose of this paper is to provide a tool to help decide if and how security vulnerabilities should be disclosed. This tool, called the Vulnerability Disclosure Index (VDI), is not presented here as the ultimate, authoritative method for dealing with this complex issue. It is offered instead as a first step, and as a vehicle for thinking about and discussing some of the factors that need to be pondered when vulnerability disclosures are being considered.

  5. An Extreme-Value Approach to Anomaly Vulnerability Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, Chris; Maggio, Gaspare; Groen, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a method for importance analysis in parametric probabilistic modeling where the result of interest is the identification of potential engineering vulnerabilities associated with postulated anomalies in system behavior. In the context of Accident Precursor Analysis (APA), under which this method has been developed, these vulnerabilities, designated as anomaly vulnerabilities, are conditions that produce high risk in the presence of anomalous system behavior. The method defines a parameter-specific Parameter Vulnerability Importance measure (PVI), which identifies anomaly risk-model parameter values that indicate the potential presence of anomaly vulnerabilities, and allows them to be prioritized for further investigation. This entails analyzing each uncertain risk-model parameter over its credible range of values to determine where it produces the maximum risk. A parameter that produces high system risk for a particular range of values suggests that the system is vulnerable to the modeled anomalous conditions, if indeed the true parameter value lies in that range. Thus, PVI analysis provides a means of identifying and prioritizing anomaly-related engineering issues that at the very least warrant improved understanding to reduce uncertainty, such that true vulnerabilities may be identified and proper corrective actions taken.

  6. Groundwater vulnerability to pollution mapping of Ranchi district using GIS

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, R.; Iqbal, J.; Pathak, G.; Tuluri, F.; Tchounwou, P. B.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater pollution due to anthropogenic activities is one of the major environmental problems in urban and industrial areas. The present study demonstrates the integrated approach with GIS and DRASTIC model to derive a groundwater vulnerability to pollution map. The model considers the seven hydrogeological factors [Depth to water table (D), net recharge (R), aquifer media (A), soil media (S), topography or slope (T), impact of vadose zone (I) and hydraulic Conductivity(C)] for generating the groundwater vulnerability to pollution map. The model was applied for assessing the groundwater vulnerability to pollution in Ranchi district, Jharkhand, India. The model was validated by comparing the model output (vulnerability indices) with the observed nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the study area. The reason behind the selection of nitrate is that the major sources of nitrate in groundwater are anthropogenic in nature. Groundwater samples were collected from 30 wells/tube wells distributed in the study area. The samples were analyzed in the laboratory for measuring the nitrate concentrations in groundwater. A sensitivity analysis of the integrated model was performed to evaluate the influence of single parameters on groundwater vulnerability index. New weights were computed for each input parameters to understand the influence of individual hydrogeological factors in vulnerability indices in the study area. Aquifer vulnerability maps generated in this study can be used for environmental planning and groundwater management. PMID:26557470

  7. Groundwater vulnerability to pollution mapping of Ranchi district using GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, R.; Iqbal, J.; Gorai, A. K.; Pathak, G.; Tuluri, F.; Tchounwou, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater pollution due to anthropogenic activities is one of the major environmental problems in urban and industrial areas. The present study demonstrates the integrated approach with GIS and DRASTIC model to derive a groundwater vulnerability to pollution map. The model considers the seven hydrogeological factors [Depth to water table ( D), net recharge ( R), aquifer media ( A), soil media ( S), topography or slope ( T), impact of vadose zone ( I) and hydraulic Conductivity( C)] for generating the groundwater vulnerability to pollution map. The model was applied for assessing the groundwater vulnerability to pollution in Ranchi district, Jharkhand, India. The model was validated by comparing the model output (vulnerability indices) with the observed nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the study area. The reason behind the selection of nitrate is that the major sources of nitrate in groundwater are anthropogenic in nature. Groundwater samples were collected from 30 wells/tube wells distributed in the study area. The samples were analyzed in the laboratory for measuring the nitrate concentrations in groundwater. A sensitivity analysis of the integrated model was performed to evaluate the influence of single parameters on groundwater vulnerability index. New weights were computed for each input parameters to understand the influence of individual hydrogeological factors in vulnerability indices in the study area. Aquifer vulnerability maps generated in this study can be used for environmental planning and groundwater management.

  8. Children of alcoholics: helping a vulnerable group.

    PubMed

    Woodside, M

    1988-01-01

    There are 28 million children of alcoholics in the United States--1 of every 8 Americans. They are more likely than others to suffer from alcoholism and a wide range of physical, emotional, and mental health problems. It is probable that an inherited predisposition for the disease of alcoholism exists. Most children of alcoholics do not become alcoholic, but they are at increased risk for many other health problems. Records of the use of services provided by health maintenance organizations and of health insurance claims show that children of alcoholics use more medical and hospital services than other children. Children of alcoholics are more likely to have problems in school and to abuse alcohol and other drugs. Their mental and physical health problems persist into adulthood. Clinical findings show that life in an alcoholic family is often characterized by pain, guilt, fear, tension, and insecurity. Children do not know that alcoholism is a disease which they cannot cause, control, or cure. Because alcoholism is a family secret, children rarely seek help, even as adults. Because the children of alcoholics are in many medical and social service systems, greater awareness and understanding by health and human service professionals can lead to identification and help for this vulnerable group. It is critical for family physicians, obstetricians, pediatricians, nurses, social workers, hospital staff, and others to incorporate questions about family alcoholism in routine screening procedures for youth and adults. Recommendations and useful materials are discussed. PMID:3141959

  9. Tracking Nile Delta vulnerability to Holocene change.

    PubMed

    Marriner, Nick; Flaux, Clément; Morhange, Christophe; Stanley, Jean-Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Understanding deltaic resilience in the face of Holocene climate change and human impacts is an important challenge for the earth sciences in characterizing the full range of present and future wetland responses to global warming. Here, we report an 8000-year mass balance record from the Nile Delta to reconstruct when and how this sedimentary basin has responded to past hydrological shifts. In a global Holocene context, the long-term decrease in Nile Delta accretion rates is consistent with insolation-driven changes in the 'monsoon pacemaker', attested throughout the mid-latitude tropics. Following the early to mid-Holocene growth of the Nile's deltaic plain, sediment losses and pronounced erosion are first recorded after ~4000 years ago, the corollaries of falling sediment supply and an intensification of anthropogenic impacts from the Pharaonic period onwards. Against the backcloth of the Saharan 'depeopling', reduced river flow underpinned by a weakening of monsoonal precipitation appears to have been particularly conducive to the expansion of human activities on the delta by exposing productive floodplain lands for occupation and irrigation agriculture. The reconstruction suggests that the Nile Delta has a particularly long history of vulnerability to extreme events (e.g. floods and storms) and sea-level rise, although the present sediment-starved system does not have a direct Holocene analogue. This study highlights the importance of the world's deltas as sensitive archives to investigate Holocene geosystem responses to climate change, risks and hazards, and societal interaction. PMID:23922692

  10. Quantum key distribution: vulnerable if imperfectly implemented

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuchs, G.

    2013-10-01

    We report several vulnerabilities found in Clavis2, the flagship quantum key distribution (QKD) system from ID Quantique. We show the hacking of a calibration sequence run by Clavis2 to synchronize the Alice and Bob devices before performing the secret key exchange. This hack induces a temporal detection efficiency mismatch in Bob that can allow Eve to break the security of the cryptosystem using faked states. We also experimentally investigate the superlinear behaviour in the single-photon detectors (SPDs) used by Bob. Due to this superlinearity, the SPDs feature an actual multi-photon detection probability which is generally higher than the theoretically-modelled value. We show how this increases the risk of detector control attacks on QKD systems (including Clavis2) employing such SPDs. Finally, we review the experimental feasibility of Trojan-horse attacks. In the case of Clavis2, the objective is to read Bob's phase modulator to acquire knowledge of his basis choice as this information suffices for constructing the raw key in the Scarani-Acin-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 (SARG04) protocol. We work in close collaboration with ID Quantique and for all these loopholes, we notified them in advance. Wherever possible, we or ID Quantique proposed countermeasures and they implemented suitable patches and upgrade their systems.

  11. Automated Vulnerability Detection for Compiled Smart Grid Software

    SciTech Connect

    Prowell, Stacy J; Pleszkoch, Mark G; Sayre, Kirk D; Linger, Richard C

    2012-01-01

    While testing performed with proper experimental controls can provide scientifically quantifiable evidence that software does not contain unintentional vulnerabilities (bugs), it is insufficient to show that intentional vulnerabilities exist, and impractical to certify devices for the expected long lifetimes of use. For both of these needs, rigorous analysis of the software itself is essential. Automated software behavior computation applies rigorous static software analysis methods based on function extraction (FX) to compiled software to detect vulnerabilities, intentional or unintentional, and to verify critical functionality. This analysis is based on the compiled firmware, takes into account machine precision, and does not rely on heuristics or approximations early in the analysis.

  12. Early-Life Conditions And Mechanisms Of Population Health Vulnerabilities

    PubMed Central

    Furumoto-Dawson, Alice; Gehlert, Sarah; Sohmer, Dana; Olopade, Olufunmilayo; Sacks, Tina

    2008-01-01

    The social status of groups is key to determining health vulnerability at the population level. The impact of material and psychological stresses imposed by social inequities and marginalization is felt most intensely during perinatal/early childhood and puberty/adolescent periods, when developmental genes are expressed and interact with social-physical environments. The influence of chronic psychosocial stresses on gene expression via neuroendocrine regulatory dysfunction is crucial to understanding the biological bases of adult health vulnerability. Studying childhood biology vulnerabilities to neighborhood environments will aid the crafting of multifaceted, multilevel public policy interventions providing immediate benefits and compounded long-term population health yields. PMID:17848432

  13. Drought vulnerability assessment for prioritising drought warning implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumann, Gustavo; Faneca Sànchez, Marta; Mwangi, Emmah; Barbosa, Paulo; Iglesias, Ana; Garrote, Luis; Werner, Micha

    2014-05-01

    Drought warning provides a potentially efficient approach to mitigation of drought impacts, and should be targeted at areas most vulnerable to being adversely impacted. Assessing drought vulnerability is, however, complex and needs to consider susceptibility to drought impact as well as the capacity to cope with drought. In this paper a Drought Vulnerability Index (DVI) is proposed that considers four primary components that reflect the capacity of society to adapt to drought; the renewable natural capital, the economic capacity, the human and civic resources, and the available infrastructure and technology. The DVI is established as a weighted combination of these four components, each a composite of selected indicators. Constituent indicators are calculated based on national and/or regional census data and statistics, and while the resulting DVI should not be considered an absolute measure of drought vulnerability it does provide for a prioritisation of areas that can be used to target drought warning efforts. Sensitivity analysis of weights applied show the established DVI to be robust. Through the DVI the development of drought forecasting and warning can be targeted at the most vulnerable areas. The proposed DVI is applied at both the continental scale in Africa to assess drought vulnerability of the different nations across Africa, and at the national level in Kenya, allowing for prioritisation of the counties within Kenya to drought vulnerability. Results show the relative vulnerability of countries and counties vulnerable to drought. At the continental scale, Somalia, Burundi, Niger, Ethiopia, Mali and Chad are found to be the countries most vulnerable to drought. At the national level, the relative vulnerability of the counties across Kenya is found, with counties in the North-East of Kenya having the highest values of DVI. At the country level results were compared with drought disaster information from the EM-DAT disaster database, showing a good agreement between recorded drought impact and the established DVI classes. Kenya counties most vulnerable to drought are primarily located in the North-East of the country, showing a reasonable agreement with the spatial distribution of impacts of the 2010/2011 drought, despite the drought itself being more widespread.

  14. Vulnerability Assessment for Cascading Failures in Electric Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Baldick, R.; Chowdhury, Badrul; Dobson, Ian; Dong, Zhao Yang; Gou, Bei; Hawkins, David L.; Huang, Zhenyu; Joung, Manho; Kim, Janghoon; Kirschen, Daniel; Lee, Stephen; Li, Fangxing; Li, Juan; Li, Zuyi; Liu, Chen-Ching; Luo, Xiaochuan; Mili, Lamine; Miller, Stephen; Nakayama, Marvin; Papic, Milorad; Podmore, Robin; Rossmaier, John; Schneider, Kevin P.; Sun, Hongbin; Sun, Kai; Wang, David; Wu, Zhigang; Yao, Liangzhong; Zhang, Pei; Zhang, Wenjie; Zhang, Xiaoping

    2008-09-10

    Cascading failures present severe threats to power grid security, and thus vulnerability assessment of power grids is of significant importance. Focusing on analytic methods, this paper reviews the state of the art of vulnerability assessment methods in the context of cascading failures in three categories: steady-state modeling based analysis; dynamic modeling analysis; and non-traditional modeling approaches. The impact of emerging technologies including phasor technology, high-performance computing techniques, and visualization techniques on the vulnerability assessment of cascading failures is then addressed, and future research directions are presented.

  15. Perfectionism and Depression: Vulnerabilities Nurses Need to Understand

    PubMed Central

    Melrose, Sherri

    2011-01-01

    Striving for excellence is an admirable goal. Adaptive or healthy perfectionism can drive ambition and lead to extraordinary accomplishments. High-achieving people often show signs of perfectionism. However, maladaptive, unhealthy, or neurotic perfectionism, where anything less than perfect is unacceptable, can leave individuals vulnerable to depression. In both personal and professional relationships, nurses need to understand how accepting only perfection in self and others is likely to lead to emotional distress. This paper reviews perfectionism as a personality style, comments on perfectionism and high achievement, discusses vulnerabilities to depression, identifies how to recognize perfectionists, and presents balancing strategies perfectionists can implement to lessen their vulnerability to depression. PMID:21994842

  16. Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serre, D.; Barroca, B.

    2009-04-01

    Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city Bruno Barroca1, Damien Serre2 1Laboratory of Urban Engineering, Environment and Building (L G U E H) - Université de Marne-la-Vallée - Pôle Ville, 5, Bd Descartes - Bâtiment Lavoisier - 77454 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 - France 2City of Paris Engineering School, Construction - Environment Department, 15 rue Fénelon, 75010 Paris, France In France, as in Europe and more generally throughout the world, river floods have been increasing in frequency and severity over the last ten years, and there are more instances of rivers bursting their banks, aggravating the impact of the flooding of areas supposedly protected by flood defenses. Despite efforts made to well maintain the flood defense assets, we often observe flood defense failures leading to finally increase flood risk in protected area during major flood events. Furthermore, flood forecasting models, although they benefit continuous improvements, remain partly inaccurate due to uncertainties populated all along data calculation processes. These circumstances obliged stakeholders and the scientific communities to manage flood risk by integrating new concepts like stakes management, vulnerability assessments and more recently urban resilience development. Definitively, the goal is to reduce flood risk by managing of course flood defenses and improving flood forecasting models, but also stakes and vulnerability of flooded areas to achieve urban resilience face to flood events. Vulnerability to flood is essentially concentrated in urban areas. Assessing vulnerability of a city is very difficult. Indeed, urban area is a complex system composed by a sum of technical sub-systems as complex as the urban area itself. Assessing city vulnerability consists in talking into account each sub system vulnerability and integrating all direct and indirect impacts generally depending from city shape and city spatial organization. At this time, although some research activities have been undertaken, there are no specific methods and tools to assess flood vulnerability at the scale of the city. Indeed, by studying literature we can list some vulnerability indicators and a few Geographic Information System (GIS) tools. But generally indicators and GIS are not developed specifically at the city scale: often a regional scale is used. Analyzing vulnerability at this scale needs more accurate and formalized indicators and GIS tools. The second limit of existing GIS is temporal: even if vulnerability could be assessed and localized through GIS, such tools cannot assist city managers in their decision to efficiency recover after a severe flood event. Due to scale and temporal limits, methods and tools available to assess urban vulnerability need large improvements. Talking into account all these considerations and limits, our research is focusing on: • vulnerability indicators design; • recovery scenarios design; • GIS for city vulnerability assessment and recovery scenarios. Dealing with vulnerability indicators, the goal is to design a set of indicators of city sub systems. Sub systems are seen like assets of high value and complex and interdependent infrastructure networks (i.e. power supplies, communications, water, transport etc.). The infrastructure networks are critical for the continuity of economic activities as well as for the people's basic living needs. Their availability is also required for fast and effective recovery after flood disasters. The severity of flood damage therefore largely depends on the degree that both high value assets and critical urban infrastructure are affected, either directly or indirectly. To face the challenge of designing indicators, a functional model of the city system (and sub systems) has to be built to analyze the system response to flood solicitation. Then, a coherent and an efficient set of vulnerability of indicators could be built up. With such methods city stakeholders will be informed on how and how much their systems are vulnerable. It is a first level of inform

  17. Evaluation of the Vulnerability of Speaker Verification to Synthetic Speech 

    E-print Network

    De Leon, P.L.; Pucher, M.; Yamagishi, Junichi

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the vulnerability of a speaker verification (SV) system to synthetic speech. Although this problem was first examined over a decade ago, dramatic improvements in both SV and speech synthesis ...

  18. Vulnerability Analysis of Complex Networks from Transportation Networks to

    E-print Network

    Nagurney, Anna

    infrastructure systems and emphasis on transportation, will be the focus of this talk. #12;Bus Network Rail Network System Nodes Links Flows Transportation Intersections, Homes, Workplaces, Airports, RailyardsVulnerability Analysis of Complex Networks from Transportation Networks to the Internet

  19. Vulnerability of Oregon hydrologic landscapes and streamflow to climate change

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrologic classification systems can provide a basis for broadscale assessments of the hydrologic functions of landscapes and watersheds and their responses to stressors. Such assessments could be particularly useful in determining hydrologic vulnerability from climate change. ...

  20. SOCIAL COMPETENCE AND PSYCHOLOGICAL VULNERABILITY: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF FLOURISHING.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Recep

    2015-10-01

    This study examined whether flourishing mediated the social competence and psychological vulnerability. Participants were 259 university students (147 women, 112 men; M age = 21.3 yr., SD = 1.7) who completed the Turkish versions of the Perceived Social Competence Scale, the Flourishing Scale, and the Psychological Vulnerability Scale. Mediation models were tested using the bootstrapping method to examine indirect effects. Consistent with the hypotheses, the results indicated a positive relationship between social competence and flourishing, and a negative relationship between social competence and psychological vulnerability. Results of the bootstrapping method revealed that flourishing significantly mediated the relationship between social competence and psychological vulnerability. The significance and limitations of the results were discussed. PMID:26340049

  1. 77 FR 28894 - Maritime Vulnerability Self-Assessment Tool

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ...-1933, email TSA-OSCCommunications@tsa.dhs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On December 5, 2003 (68 FR... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Maritime Vulnerability Self-Assessment Tool AGENCY...- assessment tool. SUMMARY: The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) announces that the TSA...

  2. Nonpoint Source Pollution Assessment: Framework, Vulnerability Analysis, and Modeling

    E-print Network

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    4/22/2015 1 Nonpoint Source Pollution Assessment: Framework, Vulnerability Analysis, and Modeling Nonpoint Sources of Pollution 1970s now Clean Water Act: NPDES Permits Nonpoint Sources of Pollution 1970s now Clean Water Act: NPDES Permits 2000s

  3. Soft Error Vulnerability of Iterative Linear Algebra Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Bronevetsky, G; de Supinski, B

    2008-01-19

    Devices are increasingly vulnerable to soft errors as their feature sizes shrink. Previously, soft error rates were significant primarily in space and high-atmospheric computing. Modern architectures now use features so small at sufficiently low voltages that soft errors are becoming important even at terrestrial altitudes. Due to their large number of components, supercomputers are particularly susceptible to soft errors. Since many large scale parallel scientific applications use iterative linear algebra methods, the soft error vulnerability of these methods constitutes a large fraction of the applications overall vulnerability. Many users consider these methods invulnerable to most soft errors since they converge from an imprecise solution to a precise one. However, we show in this paper that iterative methods are vulnerable to soft errors, exhibiting both silent data corruptions and poor ability to detect errors. Further, we evaluate a variety of soft error detection and tolerance techniques, including checkpointing, linear matrix encodings, and residual tracking techniques.

  4. Voting Systems with Trust Mechanisms in Cyberspace: Vulnerabilities and Defenses

    E-print Network

    Sun, Yan Lindsay

    1 Voting Systems with Trust Mechanisms in Cyberspace: Vulnerabilities and Defenses Qinyuan Feng in cyberspace, there is growing evidence that the current voting systems can be manipulated by fake votes

  5. Firmalice -Automatic Detection of Authentication Bypass Vulnerabilities in Binary Firmware

    E-print Network

    Kruegel, Christopher

    in such environments is challenging, but necessary, if the risks associated with software bugs and vulnerabilities must as electric meters and water meters)3 , as well as increasingly more complex and ubiquitous devices

  6. Tracking Known Security Vulnerabilities in Proprietary Software Systems

    E-print Network

    Visser, Joost

    system the risk of leaking data or loosing control over servers increases. Known vulnerabilities are easy reported that approximately 1 out of 4 Java component downloads from the Maven Central Repository features

  7. [Trust and palliative care, the risk of vulnerability].

    PubMed

    Miniac, Véronique

    2013-10-01

    Patients receiving palliative care experience extreme vulnerability reminding them of the fragility of their human condition. How are they to trust nurses bearing bad news in these crucial moments? Trust is built on team coherence and rigorous support. PMID:24245038

  8. Assessing the vulnerability of the fiber infrastructure to disasters

    E-print Network

    Neumayer, Sebastian James

    Communication networks are vulnerable to natural disasters, such as earthquakes or floods, as well as to physical attacks, such as an Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) attack. Such real- world events happen in specific geographical ...

  9. Vulnerability assessment of water supply systems for insufficient fire flows 

    E-print Network

    Kanta, Lufthansa Rahman

    2009-05-15

    Water supply systems’ vulnerability towards physical, chemical, biological, and cyber threats was recognized and was under study long before September 11, 2001. But greater attention toward security measures for water ...

  10. Aging and the vulnerability of speech to dual task demands

    E-print Network

    Kemper, Susan; Schmalzried, RaLynn Cheri; Hoffman, Lesa; Herman, Ruth

    2010-12-01

    vulnerability to dual task costs: vocabulary provided some protection for sentence length and grammaticality, working memory conferred some protection for grammatical complexity, and processing speed provided some protection for speech rate, propositional...

  11. Assessing the Vulnerability of Older Americans to Climate Change

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project is comprised of a series of activities – listening sessions, literature reviews, and an expert elicitation research agenda-setting workshop – designed to examine and characterize the vulnerability of older adults to climate change and opportunities for adaptation. ...

  12. Vulnerability and social risk management in India and Mexico

    E-print Network

    Flores Ballesteros, Luis

    2008-01-01

    The development of effective community, regional and national risk-management strategies, especially for systemic risks, such as natural disasters, entails understanding the determinants of social vulnerability in individuals ...

  13. Some More Vulnerable to Nicotine Addiction Than Others

    MedlinePLUS

    ... news/fullstory_154877.html Some More Vulnerable to Nicotine Addiction Than Others: Study Finding has implications for ... come into contact with a small amount of nicotine. "When you give people nicotine for the first ...

  14. Ultrasound tissue characterization of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque.

    PubMed

    Picano, Eugenio; Paterni, Marco

    2015-01-01

    A thrombotic occlusion of the vessel fed by ruptured coronary atherosclerotic plaque may result in unstable angina, myocardial infarction or death, whereas embolization from a plaque in carotid arteries may result in transient ischemic attack or stroke. The atherosclerotic plaque prone to such clinical events is termed high-risk or vulnerable plaque, and its identification in humans before it becomes symptomatic has been elusive to date. Ultrasonic tissue characterization of the atherosclerotic plaque is possible with different techniques--such as vascular, transesophageal, and intravascular ultrasound--on a variety of arterial segments, including carotid, aorta, and coronary districts. The image analysis can be based on visual, video-densitometric or radiofrequency methods and identifies three distinct textural patterns: hypo-echoic (corresponding to lipid- and hemorrhage-rich plaque), iso- or moderately hyper-echoic (fibrotic or fibro-fatty plaque), and markedly hyperechoic with shadowing (calcific plaque). Hypoechoic or dishomogeneous plaques, with spotty microcalcification and large plaque burden, with plaque neovascularization and surface irregularities by contrast-enhanced ultrasound, are more prone to clinical complications than hyperechoic, extensively calcified, homogeneous plaques with limited plaque burden, smooth luminal plaque surface and absence of neovascularization. Plaque ultrasound morphology is important, along with plaque geometry, in determining the atherosclerotic prognostic burden in the individual patient. New quantitative methods beyond backscatter (to include speed of sound, attenuation, strain, temperature, and high order statistics) are under development to evaluate vascular tissues. Although not yet ready for widespread clinical use, tissue characterization is listed by the American Society of Echocardiography roadmap to 2020 as one of the most promising fields of application in cardiovascular ultrasound imaging, offering unique opportunities for the early detection and treatment of atherosclerotic disease. PMID:25950760

  15. Rockfall vulnerability assessment for masonry buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavrouli, Olga

    2015-04-01

    The methodologies for the quantitative risk assessment vary in function of the application scale and the available data. For fragmental rockfalls, risk calculation requires data for the expected damage of the exposed elements due to potential rock block impacts with a range of trajectories, magnitudes and intensities. Although the procedures for the quantification of the rock block characteristics in terms of magnitude-frequency relationships are well established, there are few methodologies for the calculation of the vulnerability, and these are usually empirical or judgmental. The response of buildings to rock block impacts using analytical methods has been mainly realised so far for reinforced concrete buildings, and some fragility curves have been calculated with the results, indicating the potential damage for a range of rock block characteristics. Masonry buildings, as a common structural typology in mountainous areas, are in many cases impacted by rock blocks during rockfalls. Their response presents some peculiarities in comparison with reinforced-concrete structures given the non-homogeneity and variability of the compound materials (blocks and mortar), their orthotropy, low strength in tension, the statically indeterminate load-bearing system and the non-monolithic connections. To this purpose, analytical procedures which are specifically adapted to masonry structures should be used for the evaluation of the expected damage due to rock impacts. In this contribution we discuss the application of the analytical approach for the assessment of the expected damage in rockfall prone areas and the simulation assumptions that can be made concerning the materials, geometry, loading and the relevant simplifications. The amount of uncertainties introduced during their analytical simulation is high due to the dispersion of the data for material mechanical properties and the construction techniques and quality and thus a probabilistic assessment is suggested. The random nature of the rockfall as far as it concerns the magnitude and the intensity of the rock blocks can also be introduced using parametric analyses.

  16. Assessing vulnerability to drought: identifying underlying factors across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urquijo, Julia; Gonzalez Tánago, Itziar; Ballesteros, Mario; De Stefano, Lucia

    2015-04-01

    Drought is considered one of the most severe and damaging natural hazards in terms of people and sectors affected and associated losses. Drought is a normal and recurrent climatic phenomenon that occurs worldwide, although its spatial and temporal characteristics vary significantly among climates. In the case of Europe, in the last thirty years, the region has suffered several drought events that have caused estimated economic damages over a €100 billion and have affected almost 20% of its territory and population. In recent years, there has been a growing awareness among experts and authorities of the need to shift from a reactive crisis approach to a drought risk management approach, as well as of the importance of designing and implementing policies, strategies and plans at country and river basin levels to deal with drought. The identification of whom and what is vulnerable to drought is a central aspect of drought risk mitigation and planning and several authors agree that societal vulnerability often determines drought risk more than the actual precipitation shortfalls. The final aim of a drought vulnerability assessment is to identify the underlying sources of drought impact, in order to develop policy options that help to enhance coping capacity and therefore to prevent drought impact. This study identifies and maps factors underlying vulnerability to drought across Europe. The identification of factors influencing vulnerability starts from the analysis of past drought impacts in four European socioeconomic sectors. This analysis, along with an extensive literature review, led to the selection of vulnerability factors that are both relevant and adequate for the European context. Adopting the IPCC model, vulnerability factors were grouped to describe exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. The aggregation of these components has resulted in the mapping of vulnerability to drought across Europe at NUTS02 level. Final results have been compared with data from the European Drought Impact Report Inventory. For specific hotpots vulnerability factors are presented also through spider diagrams in order to allow policy and decision makers to identify underlying sources of vulnerability in the European context. This assessment offers an overall picture at a European level that strives to contribute to enhance the understanding of drought vulnerability across Europe.

  17. The hack attack - Increasing computer system awareness of vulnerability threats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quann, John; Belford, Peter

    1987-01-01

    The paper discusses the issue of electronic vulnerability of computer based systems supporting NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) by unauthorized users. To test the security of the system and increase security awareness, NYMA, Inc. employed computer 'hackers' to attempt to infiltrate the system(s) under controlled conditions. Penetration procedures, methods, and descriptions are detailed in the paper. The procedure increased the security consciousness of GSFC management to the electronic vulnerability of the system(s).

  18. Vulnerability-attention analysis for space-related activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, Donnie; Hays, Dan; Lee, Sung Yong; Wolfsberger, John

    1988-01-01

    Techniques for representing and analyzing trouble spots in structures and processes are discussed. Identification of vulnerable areas usually depends more on particular and often detailed knowledge than on algorithmic or mathematical procedures. In some cases, machine inference can facilitate the identification. The analysis scheme proposed first establishes the geometry of the process, then marks areas that are conditionally vulnerable. This provides a basis for advice on the kinds of human attention or machine sensing and control that can make the risks tolerable.

  19. Evaluation Of The Seismic Vulnerability of Fortified Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Baratta, Alessandro; Corbi, Ileana; Coppari, Sandro

    2008-07-08

    In the paper a prompt method to evaluate the seismic vulnerability of an ancient structure has been applied to the seismic vulnerability of the fortified structures in Italy, having as basics the elaboration of rather gross information about the state, the consistency and the history of the considered population of fabrics. The procedure proves to be rather effective and able to produce reliable results, despite the poor initial data.

  20. Multimodal spectroscopy detects features of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Š?epanovi?, Obrad R.; Fitzmaurice, Maryann; Miller, Arnold; Kong, Chae-Ryon; Volynskaya, Zoya; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Kramer, John R.; Feld, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Early detection and treatment of rupture-prone vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is critical to reducing patient mortality associated with cardiovascular disease. The combination of reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopy-termed multimodal spectroscopy (MMS)-provides detailed biochemical information about tissue and can detect vulnerable plaque features: thin fibrous cap (TFC), necrotic core (NC), superficial foam cells (SFC), and thrombus. Ex vivo MMS spectra are collected from 12 patients that underwent carotid endarterectomy or femoral bypass surgery. Data are collected by means of a unitary MMS optical fiber probe and a portable clinical instrument. Blinded histopathological analysis is used to assess the vulnerability of each spectrally evaluated artery lesion. Modeling of the ex vivo MMS spectra produce objective parameters that correlate with the presence of vulnerable plaque features: TFC with fluorescence parameters indicative of collagen presence; NC/SFC with a combination of diffuse reflectance ?-carotene/ceroid absorption and the Raman spectral signature of lipids; and thrombus with its Raman signature. Using these parameters, suspected vulnerable plaques can be detected with a sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 72%. These encouraging results warrant the continued development of MMS as a catheter-based clinical diagnostic technique for early detection of vulnerable plaques.

  1. Latin hypercube approach to estimate uncertainty in ground water vulnerability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gurdak, J.J.; McCray, J.E.; Thyne, G.; Qi, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    A methodology is proposed to quantify prediction uncertainty associated with ground water vulnerability models that were developed through an approach that coupled multivariate logistic regression with a geographic information system (GIS). This method uses Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) to illustrate the propagation of input error and estimate uncertainty associated with the logistic regression predictions of ground water vulnerability. Central to the proposed method is the assumption that prediction uncertainty in ground water vulnerability models is a function of input error propagation from uncertainty in the estimated logistic regression model coefficients (model error) and the values of explanatory variables represented in the GIS (data error). Input probability distributions that represent both model and data error sources of uncertainty were simultaneously sampled using a Latin hypercube approach with logistic regression calculations of probability of elevated nonpoint source contaminants in ground water. The resulting probability distribution represents the prediction intervals and associated uncertainty of the ground water vulnerability predictions. The method is illustrated through a ground water vulnerability assessment of the High Plains regional aquifer. Results of the LHS simulations reveal significant prediction uncertainties that vary spatially across the regional aquifer. Additionally, the proposed method enables a spatial deconstruction of the prediction uncertainty that can lead to improved prediction of ground water vulnerability. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  2. Coastal vulnerability: climate change and natural hazards perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romieu, E.; Vinchon, C.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction Studying coastal zones as a territorial concept (Integrated coastal zone management) is an essential issue for managers, as they have to consider many different topics (natural hazards, resources management, tourism, climate change…). The recent approach in terms of "coastal vulnerability" studies (since the 90's) is the main tool used nowadays to help them in evaluating impacts of natural hazards on coastal zones, specially considering climate change. This present communication aims to highlight the difficulties in integrating this concept in risk analysis as it is usually practiced in natural hazards sciences. 1) Coastal vulnerability as a recent issue The concept of coastal vulnerability mainly appears in the International panel on climate change works of 1992 (IPCC. 2001), where it is presented as essential for climate change adaptation. The concept has been defined by a common methodology which proposes the assessment of seven indicators, in regards to a sea level rise of 1m in 2100: people affected, people at risk, capital value at loss, land at loss, wetland at loss, potential adaptation costs, people at risk assuming this adaptation. Many national assessments have been implemented (Nicholls, et al. 1995) and a global assessment was proposed for three indicators (Nicholls, et al. 1999). The DINAS-Coast project reuses this methodology to produce the DIVA-tool for coastal managers (Vafeidis, et al. 2004). Besides, many other methodologies for national or regional coastal vulnerability assessments have been developed (review by (UNFCCC. 2008). The use of aggregated vulnerability indicators (including geomorphology, hydrodynamics, climate change…) is widespread: the USGS coastal vulnerability index is used worldwide and was completed by a social vulnerability index (Boruff, et al. 2005). Those index-based methods propose a vulnerability mapping which visualise indicators of erosion, submersion and/or socio economic sensibility in coastal zones. This concept is a great tool for policy makers to help managing their action and taking into account climate change (McFadden, et al. 2006). However, in those approaches, vulnerability is the output itself (cost of effective impacts, geomorphologic impacts…), but is not integrated it in a risk analysis. Furthermore, those studies emerged from a climatic perspective, which leads to consider climate change as a hazard or pressure whereas risk studies commonly consider hazards such as erosion and flooding, where climate change modifies the drivers of the hazard. 2) The natural hazards and socio economic perspectives In order to reduce impacts of natural hazards, decision makers need a complete risk assessment (probability of losses). Past studies on natural risks (landslide, earthquake...) highlighted the pertinence of defining risk as a combination of : (1)hazard occurrence and intensity, (2) exposition and (3)vulnerability of assets and population to this hazard (e.g. Douglas. 2007, Sarewitz, et al. 2003). Following the Renn and Klinke risk assessment frame, high uncertainties associated with coastal risks considering climatic and anthropic change highlights the importance of working on that concept of "vulnerability" (Klinke and Renn. 2002). Past studies on vulnerability assessment showed a frequently mentioned gap between "impact based" and "human based" points of view. It is nowadays a great issue for natural risk sciences. Many research efforts in FP7 projects such as MOVE and ENSURE focus on integrating the different dimensions of vulnerability (Turner, et al. 2003, Birkmann. 2006). Coastal risk studies highlight another issue of concern. We previously detailed the different use of the term "vulnerability" in the coastal context, quite different of the "natural risk's" use. Interaction of social, economic and physical sciences is considered within two french research projects (Vulsaco, Miseeva), in order to identify the vulnerability of a system to flooding or erosion (i.e. its characteristics th

  3. An Empirical Study on Using the National Vulnerability Database to Predict Software

    E-print Network

    Ou, Xinming "Simon"

    be ignored because more and more cyber attacks utilize these unknown security holes. A zero-day vulnerabilityAn Empirical Study on Using the National Vulnerability Database to Predict Software Vulnerabilities,xou}@ksu.edu Abstract. Software vulnerabilities represent a major cause of cyber- security problems. The National

  4. NetKuang A Multi-Host Con guration Vulnerability Checker

    E-print Network

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    NetKuang A Multi-Host Con guration Vulnerability Checker Dan Zerkle and Karl Levitt Department vulnerabilities created by poor system con gu- ration. Vulnerabilities are discovered using a back- wards goal of these security concerns by check- ing networked con gurations forunintended security vulnerabilities. x2 reviews

  5. Automated and Safe Vulnerability Assessment Fanglu Guo Yang Yu Tzi-cker Chiueh

    E-print Network

    Chiueh, Tzi-cker

    Automated and Safe Vulnerability Assessment Fanglu Guo Yang Yu Tzi-cker Chiueh Computer Science}@cs.sunysb.edu Abstract As the number of system vulnerabilities multiplies in re- cent years, vulnerability assessment has emerged as a pow- erful system security administration tool that can identify vulnerabilities in existing

  6. Modeling the Vulnerability Discovery Process O. H. Alhazmi and Y. K. Malaiya

    E-print Network

    Malaiya, Yashwant K.

    1 Modeling the Vulnerability Discovery Process O. H. Alhazmi and Y. K. Malaiya Computer Science vulnerabilities in servers and operating systems are software defects that represent great risks. Both software developers and users are struggling to contain the risk posed by these vulnerabilities. The vulnerabilities

  7. Vulnerability Discovery in Multi-Version Software Systems Jinyoo Kim, Yashwant K. Malaiya, Indrakshi Ray

    E-print Network

    Malaiya, Yashwant K.

    Vulnerability Discovery in Multi-Version Software Systems Jinyoo Kim, Yashwant K. Malaiya, malaiya, iray]@cs.colostate.edu Abstract -- The vulnerability discovery process for a program describes the rate at which the security vulnerabilities are discovered. Being able to predict the vulnerability

  8. Vulnerability-Specific Execution Filtering for Exploit Prevention on Commodity Software

    E-print Network

    Vulnerability-Specific Execution Filtering for Exploit Prevention on Commodity Software James, vulnerability-specific execution fil- tering, VSEF #12;Abstract Exploits for new vulnerabilities, especially when incorporated within a fast spread- ing worm, can compromise nearly all vulnerable hosts within

  9. Vulnerability of Permafrost Carbon Research Coordination Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuur, E. A.; McGuire, A. D.; Canadell, J.; Harden, J. W.; Kuhry, P.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Turetsky, M. R.; Schädel, C.

    2011-12-01

    Approximately 1700 Pg (billion tons) of soil carbon are stored in the northern circumpolar permafrost zone, more than twice as much carbon than currently contained in the atmosphere. Permafrost thaw, and the microbial decomposition of previously frozen organic carbon, is considered one of the most likely positive feedbacks from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere in a warmer world. Yet, the rate and form of release is highly uncertain but crucial for predicting the strength and timing of this carbon cycle feedback this century and beyond. Here we report on the formation of a new research coordination network (RCN) whose objective is to link biological C cycle research with well-developed networks in the physical sciences focused on the thermal state of permafrost. We found that published literature in the Science Citation Index identified with the search terms 'permafrost' and 'carbon' have increased dramatically in the last decade. Of total publications including those keywords, 86% were published since 2000, 65% since 2005, and 36% since 2008. Interconnection through this RCN is designed to produce new knowledge through research synthesis that can be used to quantify the role of permafrost carbon in driving climate change in the 21st century and beyond. An expert elicitation conducted as part of the RCN activities revealed that the total effect of carbon release from permafrost zone soils on climate is expected to be up to 30-46 Pg C over the next three decades, reaching 242-324 Pg C by 2100 and potentially up to 551-710 Pg C over the next several centuries under the strongest warming scenario presented to the group. These values, expressed in billions of tons of C in CO2 equivalents, combine the effect of C released both as CO2 and as CH4 by accounting for the greater heat-trapping capacity of CH4. Much of the actual C release by weight is expected to be in the form of CO2, with only about 3.5% of that in the form of CH4. However, the higher global warming potential of CH4 means that almost half of the effect of future permafrost zone carbon emissions on climate forcing was expected by this group to be a result of CH4 emissions from wetlands, lakes, and other oxygen-limited environments where organic matter will be decomposing. These results demonstrate the vulnerability of organic C stored in near surface permafrost to increasing temperatures. Future activities of this network include synthesizing information in formats that can be assimilated by biospheric and climate models, and that will contribute to future assessments of the IPCC.

  10. Vulnerability of permafrost carbon research coordination network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schädel, C.; Schuur, E. A. G.; McGuire, A. D.; Canadell, J. G.; Harden, J.; Kuhry, P.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Turetsky, M. R.

    2012-04-01

    Approximately 1700 Pg of soil carbon are stored in the northern circumpolar permafrost zone, more than twice as much carbon than currently contained in the atmosphere. Permafrost thaw, and the microbial decomposition of previously frozen organic carbon, is considered one of the most likely positive feedbacks from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere in a warmer world. Yet, the rate and form of release is highly uncertain but crucial for predicting the strength and timing of this carbon cycle feedback this century and beyond. Here we report on the first products of a new research coordination network (RCN) whose objective is to link biological C cycle research with well-developed networks in the physical sciences focused on the thermal state of permafrost. We found that published literature in the Science Citation Index identified with the search terms 'permafrost' and 'carbon' have increased dramatically in the last decade. Of total publications including those keywords, 86% were published since 2000, 65% since 2005, and 36% since 2008. The first RCN activity consisted of an expert elicitation that revealed the total effect of carbon release from permafrost zone soils in climate is expected to be up to 30-46 Pg C over the next three decades, reaching 242-324 Pg C by 2100 and potentially up to 551-710 Pg C over the next several centuries under the strongest warming scenario presented to the group. These values, expressed in billions of tons of C in CO2 equivalents, combine the effect of C released both as CO2 and as CH4 by accounting for the greater heat-trapping capacity of CH4. However, the higher global warming potential of CH4 means that almost half of the effect of future permafrost zone carbon emissions on climate forcing was expected by this group to be a result of CH4 emissions from wetlands, lakes, and other oxygen-limited environments where organic matter will be decomposing. These results demonstrate the vulnerability of organic C stored in near surface permafrost to increasing temperatures. Future activities of this network include synthesizing information in formats that can be assimilated by biospheric and climate models, and that will contribute to future assessments of the IPCC.

  11. Debating space security: Capabilities and vulnerabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankaran, Jaganath

    The U.S. position in the debate on space security has been that (1) space-based systems could be developed and used to obtain decisive warfighting superiority over an adversary, and (2) these space-based systems, because they might give such an inordinate advantage over any adversary, will be attacked. The Russians and Chinese, in contrast, claim to be threatened by U.S. aspirations in space but deny that they pose a serious threat to U.S. space-based systems. They view the development of advanced military space systems by the United States as evidence of a growing gap of military capabilities limited only by technological—not political—constraints. They argue that U.S. missile defense systems operating in coordination with advanced satellite sensors would weaken their nuclear retaliatory potential. This dissertation argues that the positions held by both of these parties are more extreme than warranted. An analytical evaluation quickly narrows the touted capabilities and assumed vulnerabilities of space systems to a much smaller set of concerns that can be addressed by collaboration. Chapter 2: Operationally Responsive Space (ORS): Is 24/7 Warfighter Support Feasible? demonstrates the infeasibility of dramatically increasing U.S. warfighting superiority by using satellites. Chapter 3: What Can be Achieved by Attacking Satellites? makes the case that although U.S. armed forces rely extensively on its satellite infrastructure, that does not immediately make them desirable targets. The functions performed by military satellites are diffused among large constellations with redundancies. Also, some of the functions performed by these satellites can be substituted for by other terrestrial and aerial systems. Chapter 4: The Limits of Chinese Anti-Satellite Missiles demonstrates that anti-satellite (ASAT) intercepts are very complex under realistic conditions and that a potential adversary with space capabilities comparable to China's has very limited capability to use ASATs in a real-world battle scenario. Finally, in order to evaluate the chief concern raised by the Russians and Chinese, chapter 5: Satellites, Missile Defense and Space Security simulates a boost-phase missile defense system cued by the advanced Space Tracking and Surveillance (STSS) sensors. It demonstrates that even under best case assumptions, the STSS sensors are not good enough for the boost-phase missile defense system to successfully intercept and destroy an ICBM. Together, these chapters aim to narrow the contentions in the debate on space security thereby fostering the international colloboration and data sharing needed to ensure safe operations in space.

  12. Defining and Measuring Coastal Vulnerability and Resilience to Natural Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, M. K.; Hoagland, P.

    2014-12-01

    Accounting for an estimated 23 percent of the world's population, coastal communities face many types of natural hazards. In particular, they may be vulnerable to the effects of tropical cyclones, flooding due to tsunamis or storm surges, erosion, saltwater intrusion, and subsidence. These coastal hazards are further exacerbated by population growth and climate change. There is a lack of consensus in the literature about what constitutes vulnerability (negative impacts) and resilience (recovery from negative impacts) and how to measure these phenomena. While some important work has focused on the long-term effects of coastal hazards on economic growth, little has been done to understand, in quantitative terms, the extent to which coastal communities may be vulnerable to such hazards and, if so, whether they can be resilient. We surveyed nine indicators of human well-being in order to determine their potential suitability as measures of coastal vulnerability or resilience. Some measures, such as the Gross Domestic Product, the Human Development Index, and the Gini coefficient, comprise economic or distributional indicators of human welfare; others, such as the Social Vulnerability Index, are more complex and difficult to interpret. We selected per capita personal income as the most viable indicator, due largely to its simplicity and its availability over several decades. We used it to examine human community vulnerability and resilience to a specific coastal hazard—significant storm surges from major coastal hurricanes—in several US coastal metropolitan areas. We compiled data on per capita personal income from the US Bureau of Economic Analysis for 15 to 20 years prior and subsequent to four major hurricanes: Hugo, which hit the Charleston, South Carolina, metropolitan area in 1989; Bob, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, in 1991; Andrew, Miami, Florida, in 1992; and Opal, Pensacola, Florida, in 1995. Intervention analysis using linear regression suggests that these coastal areas exhibited the full range of possible combinations of vulnerability and resilience.

  13. A Vulnerability Assessment Approach for Dams of Mississippi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuszmaul, J. S.; Gunter, B.; McGregor, G.; Holt, R. M.; Pickens, J.; Holtz, T.; Jones, T.; Phillips, P.

    2007-12-01

    As part of a state-wide effort to characterize the vulnerability of Mississippi's dams, we are developing a new set of vulnerability assessment tools. Our vulnerability assessment methods will consider earlier attempts to develop risk indexing methods for dams, but will be designed to be applied to Mississippi's entire database of over 3,700 dams. Unlike earlier efforts to dams, which emphasized hazards posed by the dams, our methods will be designed to consider intrinsic and extrinsic vulnerability, and consider consequences as well. Intrinsic sources of vulnerability consider such factors as the potential for unstable slopes, piping, and spillway inadequacy. Extrinsic sources of vulnerability will include features such as the potential for intentional or unintentional human acts. Other factors that will be included will be the potential for neglect of maintenance of the dam and susceptibility to interference from wildlife. Consequences will be assessed by considering the downstream population and economic resources that may be at risk due to an uncontrolled release of the reservoir. The analysis of these vulnerabilities and consequences is being calculated using a GIS-based database of all of Mississippi's dams along with population distribution, terrain, and economic resources across the state. Conventional methods of analysis of a dam breach or other uncontrolled release will still be necessary, but the extent to which downstream features and population are affected can be more readily identified. This approach facilitates assessment and decision making on a large dam inventory to permit resources within the state to be directed efficiently to dams that merit attention.

  14. Vulnerability to climate change: people, place and exposure to hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutton, C. W.; Kienberger, S.; Amoako Johnson, F.; Allan, A.; Giannini, V.; Allen, R.

    2011-04-01

    The Human Dimension of the Twinning European and South Asian River Basins to Enhance Capacity and Implement Adaptive Management Approaches Project (EC-Project BRAHMATWINN) is aimed at developing socio-economic tools and context for the effective inclusion of the "Human Dimension" or socio-economic vulnerability into the overall assessment of climate risk in the twinned basins of the Upper Brahmaputra River Basin (UBRB), and the Upper Danube River Basin (UDRB) . This work is conducted in the light of stakeholder/actor analysis and the prevailing legal framework. In order to effectively achieve this end, four key research and associated activities were defined: 1. Identifying stakeholders and actors including: implement an approach to ensure a broad spread of appropriate stakeholder input to the assessment of vulnerability undertaken in Asia and Europe within the research activities of the project. 2. Contextualising legal framework: to provide an assessment of the governance framework relating to socio-environmental policy development within the study site administrative areas leading to the specific identification of related policy and legal recommendations. 3. Spatial analysis and mapping of vulnerability: providing a spatial assessment of the variation of vulnerability to pre-determined environmental stressors across the study areas with an additional specific focus on gender. 4. Inclusion of findings with the broader context of the BRAHMATWINN risk of climate change study through scenarios of hazard and vulnerability (subsequent chapters). This study utilises stakeholder inputs to effectively identify and map relative weightings of vulnerability domains, such as health and education in the context of pre-specified hazards such as flood. The process is underpinned by an adaptation of the IPCC (2001) which characterizes Risk as having the components of Hazard (physiographic component) and Vulnerability (socio-economic component).

  15. A Preliminary Tsunami Vulnerability Analysis for Yenikapi Region in Istanbul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceren Cankaya, Zeynep; Suzen, Lutfi; Cevdet Yalciner, Ahmet; Kolat, Cagil; Aytore, Betul; Zaytsev, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    One of the main requirements during post disaster recovery operations is to maintain proper transportation and fluent communication at the disaster areas. Ports and harbors are the main transportation hubs which must work with proper performance at all times especially after the disasters. Resilience of coastal utilities after earthquakes and tsunamis have major importance for efficient and proper rescue and recovery operations soon after the disasters. Istanbul is a mega city with its various coastal utilities located at the north coast of the Sea of Marmara. At Yenikapi region of Istanbul, there are critical coastal utilities and vulnerable coastal structures and critical activities occur daily. Fishery ports, commercial ports, small craft harbors, passenger terminals of intercity maritime transportation, water front commercial and/or recreational structures are some of the examples of coastal utilization which are vulnerable against marine disasters. Therefore their vulnerability under tsunami or any other marine hazard to Yenikapi region of Istanbul is an important issue. In this study, a methodology of vulnerability analysis under tsunami attack is proposed with the applications to Yenikapi region. In the study, high resolution (1m) GIS database of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (IMM) is used and analyzed by using GIS implementation. The bathymetry and topography database and the vector dataset containing all buildings/structures/infrastructures in the study area are obtained for tsunami numerical modeling for the study area. GIS based tsunami vulnerability assessment is conducted by applying the Multi-criteria Decision Making Analysis (MCDA). The tsunami parameters from deterministically defined worst case scenarios are computed from the simulations using tsunami numerical model NAMI DANCE. The vulnerability parameters in the region due to two different classifications i) vulnerability of buildings/structures and ii) vulnerability of (human) evacuation are defined and scored. The risk level is computed using tsunami intensity (level of flow depth from simulations) and vulnerability (structural and human-based) at each node in Yenikapi. The results are presented at high resolution (1m) and discussed. Acknowledgements: Partial support by EU 603839 ASTARTE Project, UDAP-C-12-14 of AFAD of Turkey, 108Y227 and 113M556 of TUBITAK Turkey, RAPSODI (CONCERT_Dis-021) of CONCERT-Japan Joint Call, 2011K140210 of DPT, Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, Japan-Turkey Joint Research Project by JICA on earthquakes and tsunamis in Marmara Region by SATREPS are acknowledged.

  16. A Heat Vulnerability Index and Adaptation Solutions for Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Kathryn; Abrahams, Leslie; Hegglin, Miriam; Klima, Kelly

    2015-10-01

    With increasing evidence of global warming, many cities have focused attention on response plans to address their populations' vulnerabilities. Despite expected increased frequency and intensity of heat waves, the health impacts of such events in urban areas can be minimized with careful policy and economic investments. We focus on Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and ask two questions. First, what are the top factors contributing to heat vulnerability and how do these characteristics manifest geospatially throughout Pittsburgh? Second, assuming the City wishes to deploy additional cooling centers, what placement will optimally address the vulnerability of the at risk populations? We use national census data, ArcGIS geospatial modeling, and statistical analysis to determine a range of heat vulnerability indices and optimal cooling center placement. We find that while different studies use different data and statistical calculations, all methods tested locate additional cooling centers at the confluence of the three rivers (Downtown), the northeast side of Pittsburgh (Shadyside/Highland Park), and the southeast side of Pittsburgh (Squirrel Hill). This suggests that for Pittsburgh, a researcher could apply the same factor analysis procedure to compare data sets for different locations and times; factor analyses for heat vulnerability are more robust than previously thought. PMID:26333158

  17. Defining Resilience and Vulnerability Based on Ontology Engineering Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumazawa, T.; Matsui, T.; Endo, A.

    2014-12-01

    It is necessary to reflect the concepts of resilience and vulnerability into the assessment framework of "Human-Environmental Security", but it is also in difficulty to identify the linkage between both concepts because of the difference of the academic community which has discussed each concept. The authors have been developing the ontology which deals with the sustainability of the social-ecological systems (SESs). Resilience and vulnerability are also the concepts in the target world which this ontology covers. Based on this point, this paper aims at explicating the semantic relationship between the concepts of resilience and vulnerability based on ontology engineering approach. For this purpose, we first examine the definitions of resilience and vulnerability which the existing literatures proposed. Second, we incorporate the definitions in the ontology dealing with sustainability of SESs. Finally, we focus on the "Water-Energy-Food Nexus Index" to assess Human-Environmental Security, and clarify how the concepts of resilience and vulnerability are linked semantically through the concepts included in these index items.

  18. A unified framework for addiction: Vulnerabilities in the decision process

    PubMed Central

    Redish, A. David; Jensen, Steve; Johnson, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The understanding of decision-making systems has come together in recent years to form a unified theory of decision-making in the mammalian brain as arising from multiple, interacting systems (a planning system, a habit system, and a situation-recognition system). This unified decision-making system has multiple potential access points through which it can be driven to make maladaptive choices, particularly choices that entail seeking of certain drugs or behaviors. We identify 10 key vulnerabilities in the system: (1) moving away from homeostasis, (2) changing allostatic set points, (3) euphorigenic “reward-like” signals, (4) overvaluation in the planning system, (5) incorrect search of situation-action-outcome relationships, (6) misclassification of situations, (7) overvaluation in the habit system, (8) a mismatch in the balance of the two decision systems, (9) over-fast discounting processes, and (10) changed learning rates. These vulnerabilities provide a taxonomy of potential problems with decision-making systems. Although each vulnerability can drive an agent to return to the addictive choice, each vulnerability also implies a characteristic symptomology. Different drugs, different behaviors, and different individuals are likely to access different vulnerabilities. This has implications for an individual’s susceptibility to addiction and the transition to addiction, for the potential for relapse, and for the potential for treatment. PMID:18662461

  19. The influence of transport network vulnerability for maritime ports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusc?, F.; Ro?ca, E.; Rusca, A.; Ro?ca, M.; Burciu, S.

    2015-11-01

    The concepts of reliability and vulnerability are quite important in assessing the ability of transport networks from land to provide continuity in operation tacking in consideration the relation with seaports. Transport infrastructure modernizing and extension according to land use and sustainable development requirements still represents a challenging issue among policy makers, regional/local communities and scientists. The interest for the researches reliability and vulnerability for transport networks who connect maritime ports with interior city's is generate by the natural disasters, the terrorist acts, unconventional war, etc.. Transport network modelling enable the development of mathematical models used in evaluating the reliability and vulnerability. Nodes or link disruption could have an important impact over transport network users. In our paper we investigates the Romanian road network vulnerability related to Danube crossing versus maritime ports (Constanta and Mangalia) and its mitigation by improving network topology. We use Visum software to promote a methodology to assess road transport network vulnerability versus Romanian seaports and we propose some solutions to reduce probability of road transport network to fail.

  20. Climate variability and climate change vulnerability and adaptation. Workshop summary

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatti, N.; Cirillo, R.R.; Dixon, R.K.

    1995-12-31

    Representatives from fifteen countries met in Prague, Czech Republic, on September 11-15, 1995, to share results from the analysis of vulnerability and adaptation to global climate change. The workshop focused on the issues of global climate change and its impacts on various sectors of a national economy. The U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), which has been signed by more than 150 governments worldwide, calls on signatory parties to develop and communicate measures they are implementing to respond to global climate change. An analysis of a country`s vulnerability to changes in the climate helps it identify suitable adaptation measures. These analyses are designed to determine the extent of the impacts of global climate change on sensitive sectors such as agricultural crops, forests, grasslands and livestock, water resources, and coastal areas. Once it is determined how vulnerable a country may be to climate change, it is possible to identify adaptation measures for ameliorating some or all of the effects.The objectives of the vulnerability and adaptation workshop were to: The objectives of the vulnerability and adaptation workshop were to: Provide an opportunity for countries to describe their study results; Encourage countries to learn from the experience of the more complete assessments and adjust their studies accordingly; Identify issues and analyses that require further investigation; and Summarize results and experiences for governmental and intergovernmental organizations.

  1. Soft Error Vulnerability of Iterative Linear Algebra Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Bronevetsky, G; de Supinski, B

    2007-12-15

    Devices become increasingly vulnerable to soft errors as their feature sizes shrink. Previously, soft errors primarily caused problems for space and high-atmospheric computing applications. Modern architectures now use features so small at sufficiently low voltages that soft errors are becoming significant even at terrestrial altitudes. The soft error vulnerability of iterative linear algebra methods, which many scientific applications use, is a critical aspect of the overall application vulnerability. These methods are often considered invulnerable to many soft errors because they converge from an imprecise solution to a precise one. However, we show that iterative methods can be vulnerable to soft errors, with a high rate of silent data corruptions. We quantify this vulnerability, with algorithms generating up to 8.5% erroneous results when subjected to a single bit-flip. Further, we show that detecting soft errors in an iterative method depends on its detailed convergence properties and requires more complex mechanisms than simply checking the residual. Finally, we explore inexpensive techniques to tolerate soft errors in these methods.

  2. Assessing groundwater vulnerability to agrichemical contamination in the Midwest US

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkart, M.R.; Kolpin, D.W.; James, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    Agrichemicals (herbicides and nitrate) are significant sources of diffuse pollution to groundwater. Indirect methods are needed to assess the potential for groundwater contamination by diffuse sources because groundwater monitoring is too costly to adequately define the geographic extent of contamination at a regional or national scale. This paper presents examples of the application of statistical, overlay and index, and process-based modeling methods for groundwater vulnerability assessments to a variety of data from the Midwest U.S. The principles for vulnerability assessment include both intrinsic (pedologic, climatologic, and hydrogeologic factors) and specific (contaminant and other anthropogenic factors) vulnerability of a location. Statistical methods use the frequency of contaminant occurrence, contaminant concentration, or contamination probability as a response variable. Statistical assessments are useful for defining the relations among explanatory and response variables whether they define intrinsic or specific vulnerability. Multivariate statistical analyses are useful for ranking variables critical to estimating water quality responses of interest. Overlay and index methods involve intersecting maps of intrinsic and specific vulnerability properties and indexing the variables by applying appropriate weights. Deterministic models use process-based equations to simulate contaminant transport and are distinguished from the other methods in their potential to predict contaminant transport in both space and time. An example of a one-dimensional leaching model linked to a geographic information system (GIS) to define a regional metamodel for contamination in the Midwest is included.

  3. Detecting Network Vulnerabilities Through Graph TheoreticalMethods

    SciTech Connect

    Cesarz, Patrick; Pomann, Gina-Maria; Torre, Luis de la; Villarosa, Greta; Flournoy, Tamara; Pinar, Ali; Meza Juan

    2007-09-30

    Identifying vulnerabilities in power networks is an important problem, as even a small number of vulnerable connections can cause billions of dollars in damage to a network. In this paper, we investigate a graph theoretical formulation for identifying vulnerabilities of a network. We first try to find the most critical components in a network by finding an optimal solution for each possible cutsize constraint for the relaxed version of the inhibiting bisection problem, which aims to find loosely coupled subgraphs with significant demand/supply mismatch. Then we investigate finding critical components by finding a flow assignment that minimizes the maximum among flow assignments on all edges. We also report experiments on IEEE 30, IEEE 118, and WSCC 179 benchmark power networks.

  4. Modelling the elements of country vulnerability to earthquake disasters.

    PubMed

    Asef, M R

    2008-09-01

    Earthquakes have probably been the most deadly form of natural disaster in the past century. Diversity of earthquake specifications in terms of magnitude, intensity and frequency at the semicontinental scale has initiated various kinds of disasters at a regional scale. Additionally, diverse characteristics of countries in terms of population size, disaster preparedness, economic strength and building construction development often causes an earthquake of a certain characteristic to have different impacts on the affected region. This research focuses on the appropriate criteria for identifying the severity of major earthquake disasters based on some key observed symptoms. Accordingly, the article presents a methodology for identification and relative quantification of severity of earthquake disasters. This has led to an earthquake disaster vulnerability model at the country scale. Data analysis based on this model suggested a quantitative, comparative and meaningful interpretation of the vulnerability of concerned countries, and successfully explained which countries are more vulnerable to major disasters. PMID:18958916

  5. Physically based groundwater vulnerability assessment using sensitivity analysis methods.

    PubMed

    Beaujean, Jean; Lemieux, Jean-Michel; Dassargues, Alain; Therrien, René; Brouyère, Serge

    2014-01-01

    A general physically based method is presented to assess the vulnerability of groundwater to external pressures by numerical simulation of groundwater flow. The concept of groundwater vulnerability assessment considered here is based on the calculation of sensitivity coefficients for a user-defined groundwater state for which we propose several physically based indicators. Two sensitivity analysis methods are presented: the sensitivity equation method and the adjoint operator method. We show how careful selection of a method can significantly minimize the computational effort. An illustration of the general methodology is presented for the Herten aquifer analog (Germany). This application to a simple, yet insightful, case demonstrates the potential use of this general and physically based vulnerability assessment method to complex aquifers. PMID:24236887

  6. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains the Executive summary; Introduction; Summary of vulnerabilities; Management systems weaknesses; Commendable practices; Summary of management response plan; Conclusions; and a Glossary of chemical terms.

  7. Vulnerability of coastal livelihoods to shrimp farming: Insights from Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Blythe, Jessica; Flaherty, Mark; Murray, Grant

    2015-05-01

    Millions of people around the world depend on shrimp aquaculture for their livelihoods. Yet, the phenomenal growth of shrimp farming has often given rise to considerable environmental and social damage. This article examines the impacts of commercial, export-oriented shrimp aquaculture on local livelihood vulnerability by comparing the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of shrimp farm employees with non-farm employees in rural Mozambique. Exposure to stressors was similar between the two groups. Shrimp farm employees had higher assets and higher adaptive capacity than non-farm employees. However, because their income is heavily dependent on a single commodity, shrimp farm employees were highly susceptible to the boom crop nature of intensive shrimp farming. The implications for aquaculture policy and vulnerability research are discussed. The article argues that coastal vulnerability is dynamic, variable, and influenced by multiple processes operating at multiple scales. PMID:25391555

  8. Climate volatility deepens poverty vulnerability in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Syud A.; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Hertel, Thomas W.

    2009-07-01

    Extreme climate events could influence poverty by affecting agricultural productivity and raising prices of staple foods that are important to poor households in developing countries. With the frequency and intensity of extreme climate events predicted to change in the future, informed policy design and analysis requires an understanding of which countries and groups are going to be most vulnerable to increasing poverty. Using a novel economic-climate analysis framework, we assess the poverty impacts of climate volatility for seven socio-economic groups in 16 developing countries. We find that extremes under present climate volatility increase poverty across our developing country sample—particularly in Bangladesh, Mexico, Indonesia, and Africa—with urban wage earners the most vulnerable group. We also find that global warming exacerbates poverty vulnerability in many nations.

  9. Mechanical vulnerability explains size-dependent mortality of reef corals

    PubMed Central

    Madin, Joshua S; Baird, Andrew H; Dornelas, Maria; Connolly, Sean R

    2014-01-01

    Understanding life history and demographic variation among species within communities is a central ecological goal. Mortality schedules are especially important in ecosystems where disturbance plays a major role in structuring communities, such as coral reefs. Here, we test whether a trait-based, mechanistic model of mechanical vulnerability in corals can explain mortality schedules. Specifically, we ask whether species that become increasingly vulnerable to hydrodynamic dislodgment as they grow have bathtub-shaped mortality curves, whereas species that remain mechanically stable have decreasing mortality rates with size, as predicted by classical life history theory for reef corals. We find that size-dependent mortality is highly consistent between species with the same growth form and that the shape of size-dependent mortality for each growth form can be explained by mechanical vulnerability. Our findings highlight the feasibility of predicting assemblage-scale mortality patterns on coral reefs with trait-based approaches. PMID:24894390

  10. Flood hazard, vulnerability, and risk assessment for human life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, T.; Chang, T.; Lai, J.; Hsieh, M.; Tan, Y.; Lin, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Flood risk assessment is an important issue for the countries suffering tropical cyclones and monsoon. Taiwan is located in the hot zone of typhoon tracks in the Western Pacific. There are three to five typhoons landing Taiwan every year. Typhoons and heavy rainfalls often cause inundation disaster rising with the increase of population and the development of social economy. The purpose of this study is to carry out the flood hazard, vulnerability and risk in term of human life. Based on the concept that flood risk is composed by flood hazard and vulnerability, a inundation simulation is performed to evaluate the factors of flood hazard for human life according to base flood (100-year return period). The flood depth, velocity and rising ratio are the three factors of flood hazards. Furthermore, the factors of flood vulnerability are identified in terms of human life that are classified into two main factors, residents and environment. The sub factors related to residents are the density of population and the density of vulnerable people including elders, youngers and disabled persons. The sub factors related to environment include the the number of building floors, the locations of buildings, the and distance to rescue center. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is adopted to determine the weights of these factors. The risk matrix is applied to show the risk from low to high based on the evaluation of flood hazards and vulnerabilities. The Tseng-Wen River watershed is selected as the case study because a serious flood was induced by Typhoon Morakot in 2009, which produced a record-breaking rainfall of 2.361mm in 48 hours in the last 50 years. The results of assessing the flood hazard, vulnerability and risk in term of human life could improve the emergency operation for flood disaster to prepare enough relief goods and materials during typhoon landing.

  11. Global Losses and Declining Vulnerability to Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narita, D.; Hsiang, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    Approach An extreme environmental event may generate different losses for different societies. If the physical exposure to an event is held fixed, then the magnitude of a society's loss defines its vulnerability to that event. Competing hypotheses suggest that social and economic developments could make vulnerability rise or fall over time, but previous studies have been unable to reject either hypothesis because they lacked accurate data on societies' physical exposure to extreme events. We address this problem for a specific type of event by reconstructing the exposure of 233 countries to every tropical cyclone (TC) on the planet between 1950 and 2008 in making use of the Limited Information Cyclone Reconstruction and Integration for Climate and Economics (LICRICE) model [Hsiang, 2010]. By filling a critical data gap, this reconstruction enables us to compare how revenue losses, damages, and deaths from physically similar events change over time. Our approach contrasts with a large literature, which relies almost exclusively on self-reporting data of TC damages compiled by the Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT)[OFDA/CRED, 2009]. Results On a global scale, we find that populations rapidly mitigate certain TC risks, reducing their reported damages from a TC of low intensity by a remarkable 9.4% yr-1 and death rates by 5.1% yr-1 (Figure 1). However, these rapid reductions in vulnerability are not evident for the highest intensity TCs and lost agricultural revenues, which are more difficult to observe than deaths or damages, exhibit non-declining vulnerability for events of all intensities. Because the vulnerability of agriculture has remained high while vulnerability to damages has declined rapidly, our results indicate that lost agricultural revenues have dominated TC losses ever since ˜1990. References Hsiang, S. M. (2010). Temperatures and cyclones strongly associated with economic production in the Caribbean and Central America. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(35):15367-15372. OFDA/CRED (2009). The International Disaster Database.

  12. Improvements to the DRASTIC ground-water vulnerability mapping method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, Michael G.

    1999-01-01

    Ground-water vulnerability maps are designed to show areas of greatest potential for ground-water contamination on the basis of hydrogeologic and anthropogenic (human) factors. The maps are developed by using computer mapping hardware and software called a geographic information system (GIS) to combine data layers such as land use, soils, and depth to water. Usually, ground-water vulnerability is determined by assigning point ratings to the individual data layers and then adding the point ratings together when those layers are combined into a vulnerability map. Probably the most widely used ground-water vulnerability mapping method is DRASTIC, named for the seven factors considered in the method: Depth to water, net Recharge, Aquifer media, Soil media, Topography, Impact of vadose zone media, and hydraulic Conductivity of the aquifer (Aller and others, 1985, p. iv). The DRASTIC method has been used to develop ground-water vulnerability maps in many parts of the Nation; however, the effectiveness of the method has met with mixed success (Koterba and others, 1993, p. 513; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1993; Barbash and Resek, 1996; Rupert, 1997). DRASTIC maps usually are not calibrated to measured contaminant concentrations. The DRASTIC ground-water vulnerability mapping method was improved by calibrating the point rating scheme to measured nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen (NO2+NO3–N) concentrations in ground water on the basis of statistical correlations between NO2+NO3–N concentrations and land use, soils, and depth to water (Rupert, 1997). This report describes the calibration method developed by Rupert and summarizes the improvements in results of this method over those of the uncalibrated DRASTIC method applied by Rupert and others (1991) in the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho.

  13. Research on vulnerability assessments of the Huanghe (Yellow River) delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    qiao, shuqing; shi, xuefa

    2014-05-01

    Coastal zone located at the juncture of the sea, river and land, and under the influence of both land and ocean (including atmosphere), especially the sea-level rise and human activities, are vulnerable to environment and ecology. At highest risk are coastal zone of South, Southeast and East Asia with dense populations, low elevations and inadequate adaptive capacity. In China, more than 40% of the population live on the 15% of the land in coastal area and more than 70% cities located around the coastal area. The Chinese coastal region, especially river delta area has been experienced erosion, seawater intrusion and decrease in biodiversity under the combined influence of sea-level rise, tectonic subsidence and flooding. Furthermore, some kinds of human activity, such as land use, building, dam construction, reclamation from the sea and waste dumping strengthen the vulnerability of environment and ecosystem in coastal region. The coastal hazards (e.g. coastal erosion, seawater intrusion, land subsidence) and vulnerability of the Huanghe (Yelllow River) delta area are studied during the past several years. A systematic coastal assessment index is built and an evaluation model is developed using the development platform of Visual studio.Net 2005. The assessment index system includes two parts, inherent (sea level rise rate, elevation, morphology, water and sediment discharge, mean tidal range, mean wave height etc) and specific vulnerability index (population density, GDP, land utilization, protection structures etc). The assessment index are determined the weight using Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method. Based on the research results, we better understand the current status and future change of coastal vulnerability and hazards, discuss the impact of the natural possess and human activities. Furthermore, we provide defending strategies for coastal zone vulnerability and typical coastal hazards.

  14. Detection of Vulnerable Plaque in Patients with Cryptogenic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Bayer-Karpinska, Anna; Schindler, Andreas; Saam, Tobias

    2016-02-01

    In up to 40% of ischemic stroke cases the etiology remains unknown. A substantial proportion of these patients has non- or only mildly stenosing carotid artery plaques not fulfilling common criteria for large artery stroke, but beeing suspicious for arterio-arteriell embolism. Several imaging techniques allow the non-invasive analysis of plaque features. Nevertheless, carotid MRI might be best suited to assess the key features of vulnerable plaques. This review article discusses potential causes of cryptogenic stroke, the role of plaque imaging in non-stenosing plaques and the association of vulnerable plaques and specific plaque features with stroke risk and stroke recurrence. PMID:26610663

  15. Low vulnerability explosives (LOVEX) for mass-use warheads

    SciTech Connect

    Pruneda, C.; Jessop, E.; McGuire, R.

    1990-03-13

    There is an ongoing effort at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to develop explosives with a significantly lower vulnerability to battlefield environments (bullets, fragments, sympathetic detonation) than current explosives (TNT and Comp B) without sacrificing performance or increasing costs. The approach taken is to develop a composite explosive which is comprised of inexpensive fillers such as RDX, NaNO{sub 3}, Al and a low modulus binder system. The binder system uses nitroglycerin/triacetin as an energetic plasticizer. This paper discusses the experimental results to date in vulnerability, performance and processing. 7 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Ten questions for evolutionary studies of disease vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Nesse, Randolph M

    2011-01-01

    Many evolutionary applications in medicine rely on well-established methods, such as population genetics, phylogenetic analysis, and observing pathogen evolution. Approaches to evolutionary questions about traits that leave bodies vulnerable to disease are less well developed. Strategies for formulating questions and hypotheses remain unsettled, and methods for testing evolutionary hypotheses are unfamiliar to many in medicine. This article uses recent examples to illustrate successful strategies and some common challenges. Ten questions arise in the course of considering hypotheses about traits that leave bodies vulnerable to disease. Addressing them systematically can help minimize confusion and errors. PMID:25567972

  17. Integrating Science and Engineering to Reduce Vulnerability to Climate Extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Mari R.; Holland, Greg J.; Done, James M.

    2013-12-01

    How does our built environment make society vulnerable to climate extremes such as flooding? What knowledge is required by engineering designers and risk managers to address the associated risks? How can engineering/scientific approaches be adapted to reduce vulnerability to weather and climate extremes? These were some of the key questions posed during a recent workshop at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), which was attended by climate scientists, civil engineering practitioners, and governmental departments. Engineering design encompasses a broad range of applications; to focus discussions, this workshop targeted the specific theme of water resources.

  18. Vulnerability Analysis Considerations for the Transportation of Special Nuclear Material

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, Lary G.; Purvis, James W.

    1999-07-21

    The vulnerability analysis methodology developed for fixed nuclear material sites has proven to be extremely effective in assessing associated transportation issues. The basic methods and techniques used are directly applicable to conducting a transportation vulnerability analysis. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that the same physical protection elements (detection, delay, and response) are present, although the response force plays a dominant role in preventing the theft or sabotage of material. Transportation systems are continuously exposed to the general public whereas the fixed site location by its very nature restricts general public access.

  19. Assessing environmental vulnerability in EIA-The content and context of the vulnerability concept in an alternative approach to standard EIA procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Kvaerner, Jens . E-mail: jens.kvarner@bioforsk.no; Swensen, Grete . E-mail: grete.swensen@niku.no; Erikstad, Lars . E-mail: lars.erikstad@nina.no

    2006-07-15

    In the traditional EIA procedure environmental vulnerability is only considered to a minor extent in the early stages when project alternatives are worked out. In Norway, an alternative approach to EIA, an integrated vulnerability model (IVM), emphasising environmental vulnerability and alternatives development in the early stages of EIA, has been tried out in a few pilot cases. This paper examines the content and use of the vulnerability concept in the IVM approach, and discusses the concept in an EIA context. The vulnerability concept is best suited to overview analyses and large scale spatial considerations. The concept is particularly useful in the early stages of EIA when alternatives are designed and screened. By introducing analyses of environmental vulnerability at the start of the EIA process, the environment can be a more decisive issue for the creation of project alternatives as well as improving the basis for scoping. Vulnerability and value aspects should be considered as separate dimensions. There is a need to operate with a specification between general and specific vulnerability. The concept of environmental vulnerability has proven useful in a wide range of disciplines. Different disciplines have different lengths of experience regarding vulnerability. In disciplines such as landscape planning and hydrogeology we find elements suitable as cornerstones in the further development of an interdisciplinary methodology. Further development of vulnerability criteria in different disciplines and increased public involvement in the early stages of EIA are recommended.

  20. Validating vulnerability functions for buildings exposed to Alpine torrent processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totschnig, R.; Fuchs, S.

    2012-04-01

    Vulnerability assessment is generally seen as an important component in the framework of risk assessment. Focusing on the physical vulnerability and following a natural science perspective, vulnerability functions can be used to quantify vulnerability by setting up a mathematical relationship between the degree of loss of an element at risk exposed and the corresponding intensity of the hazardous process. The examined elements at risk were defined as those buildings that were firstly located on the torrent fans of individual Austrian test sites and secondly characterised by mixed types of construction composed from brick masonry and concrete, however used for different purposes (private residential and commercial accommodation buildings). The degree of loss was calculated as the ratio between the damage and the reconstruction value of the corresponding building. The damage was quantitatively registered in terms of monetary loss after the event by professional damage appraisers. The reconstruction values were calculated based on an insurance approach using unit prices per m2. The intensity of the process (fluvial sediment transport and debris flow) was proxied for each individual building in terms of deposition height. Additionally, a relative intensity, composed from a ratio between the deposition height and the height of the affected building, was used to compensate the influence of different building heights on the degree of loss at a given process intensity. The determination of the degree of loss as well as the corresponding intensity yields a scatterplot of vulnerability values for each individual building; illustrating both the degree of loss (ordinate) and the process intensity (abscissa). Nonlinear regression approaches in terms of cumulative distribution functions were applied to derive the mathematical relation between process intensities and degrees of loss. The corresponding parameters were estimated by using a sequential quadratic programming algorithm based on a nonlinear least squares estimation. Based on first results published for fluvial sediment transport in torrents, this study pursued the following aims: (1) testing the possibility to merge the data based on different processes or building types to derive an overall vulnerability function for torrent processes; and (2) validating the final functions to show their practical applicability in Alpine areas outside of Austria. The conducted statistical tests confirmed that in case of absolute intensity a pooling of the vulnerability values for fluvial sediment transport and debris flows as well as for the two building types and the calculation of a joint vulnerability function is justifiable. In the case of relative intensity, commercial accommodation buildings showed higher vulnerability values than private residential buildings considering low intensity values of process intensities. Therefore, based on relative intensity, individual vulnerability functions are proposed for private residential and commercial accommodation buildings. Using data from an Italian validation test site, the broader applicability of the proposed vulnerability functions was confirmed.

  1. Respect for Human Vulnerability: The Emergence of a New Principle in Bioethics.

    PubMed

    Ten Have, Henk

    2015-09-01

    Vulnerability has become a popular though controversial topic in bioethics, notably since 2000. As a result, a common body of knowledge has emerged (1) distinguishing between different types of vulnerability, (2) criticizing the categorization of populations as vulnerable, and (3) questioning the practical implications. It is argued that two perspectives on vulnerability, i.e., the philosophical and political, pose challenges to contemporary bioethics discourse: they re-examine the significance of human agency, the primacy of the individual person, and the negativity of vulnerability. As a phenomenon of globalization, vulnerability can only be properly addressed in a global bioethics that takes the social dimension of human existence seriously. PMID:26160601

  2. Language use of depressed and depression-vulnerable college students

    E-print Network

    Hirschberg, Julia

    ) have speculated, in addition, that depressed individuals think a great deal about themselvesLanguage use of depressed and depression-vulnerable college students Stephanie S. Rude, Eva-Maria Gortner, and James W. Pennebaker University of Texas at Austin, USA Essays written by currently-depressed

  3. Elevated Luteinizing Hormone Expression Colocalizes With Neurons Vulnerable to

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Elevated Luteinizing Hormone Expression Colocalizes With Neurons Vulnerable to Alzheimer's Disease hormone (LH), and follicle stimulating hormone compared to age-matched con- trols. Whether this plays; luteinizing hormone; neuron; neuropathol- ogy; neurofibrillary tangles A number of lines of evidence indicate

  4. Avoiding Serialization Vulnerabilities through the Use of Synchronization Contracts

    E-print Network

    Dillon, Laura K.

    vulnerabilities, which pose serious security risks and which are very difficult to detect. In practice, however process performs the operation. For example, operations in asynchronous processes might check that a bank and when they do, the errors are not systematically flagged. Synchronization contracts can guard against

  5. Leaf Shrinkage with Dehydration: Coordination with Hydraulic Vulnerability and Drought

    E-print Network

    Sack, Lawren

    Leaf Shrinkage with Dehydration: Coordination with Hydraulic Vulnerability and Drought Tolerance1[C and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (C.S., C.V., S.D., L extreme during drought. However, little has been known of its correlation with physiology. Computer

  6. Early Markers of Vulnerable Language Skill Development in Galactosaemia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Fiona M.; Coman, David J.; Syrmis, Maryanne

    2014-01-01

    There are no known biomedical or genetic markers to identify which infants with galactosaemia (GAL) are most at risk of poor language skill development, yet pre-linguistic communicative "red flag" behaviours are recognised as early identifiers of heightened vulnerability to impaired language development. We report on pre-linguistic…

  7. Unipolar Depression, Life Context Vulnerabilities, and Drinking to Cope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holahan, Charles J.; Moos, Rudolf H.; Holahan, Carole K.; Cronkite, Ruth C.; Randall, Patrick K.

    2004-01-01

    This study followed baseline samples of 424 unipolar depressed patients and 424 community controls across 10 years to investigate the association between depression and alcohol-related coping and to examine how life context vulnerabilities underlie the risk for depressed individuals to rely on drinking to cope. Findings supported all hypotheses.…

  8. Spatial vulnerability of Australian urban populations to extreme heat events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughnan, Margaret; Tapper, Nigel; Phan, Thu; Lynch, Kellie; McInnes, Judith

    2013-04-01

    Extreme heat events pose a risk to the health of all individuals, especially the elderly and the chronically ill, and are associated with an increased demand for healthcare services. In order to address this problem, policy makers' need information about temperatures above which mortality and morbidity of the exposed population is likely to increase, where the vulnerable groups in the community are located, and how the risks from extreme heat events are likely to change in the future. This study identified threshold temperatures for all Australian capital cities, developed a spatial index of population vulnerability, and used climate model output to predict changes in the number of days exceeding temperature thresholds in the future, as well as changes in risk related to changes in urban density and an ageing population. The study has shown that daily maximum and minimum temperatures from the Bureau of Meteorology forecasts can be used to calculate temperature thresholds for heat alert days. The key risk factors related to adverse health outcomes were found to be areas with intense urban heat islands, areas with higher proportions of older people, and areas with ethnic communities. Maps of spatial vulnerability have been developed to provide information to assist emergency managers, healthcare professionals, and ancillary services develop heatwave preparedness plans at a local scale that target vulnerable groups and address heat-related health risks. The numbers of days exceeding current heat thresholds are predicted to increase over the next 20 to 40 years in all Australian capital cities.

  9. Autobiographical Memory as a Predictor of Depression Vulnerability in Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipwell, Alison E.; Sapotichne, Brenna; Klostermann, Susan; Battista, Deena; Keenan, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (AM), the tendency to recall categories of events when asked to provide specific instances from one's life, is purported to be a marker of depression vulnerability that develops in childhood. Although early adolescence is a period of risk for depression onset especially among girls, prospective examination of…

  10. Reflecting on a Difficult Life: Narrative Construction in Vulnerable Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Kate C.; Wood, Becky; Breen, Andrea V.

    2013-01-01

    We examined narrative processes of identity development as they related to desistance from delinquent behavior in a sample of vulnerable adolescents. Building on a robust theoretical and empirical foundation in the field of narrative identity, we examined processes of meaning-making and agency in relation to desistance. Thirty-one adolescents were…

  11. Finding behavioral and network indicators of brain vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Levit-Binnun, Nava; Golland, Yulia

    2011-01-01

    Resilience research has usually focused on identifying protective factors associated with specific stress conditions (e.g., war, trauma) or psychopathologies (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD]). Implicit in this research is the concept that resilience is a global construct, invariant to the unfavorable circumstances or the psychopathologies that may develop (i.e., the mechanisms underlying the resilience of an individual in all cases are expected to be similar). Here we contribute to the understanding of resilience—and its counterpart, vulnerability—by employing an approach that makes use of this invariant quality. We outline two main characteristics that we would expect from indicators of a vulnerable state: that they should appear across disorders regardless of specific circumstances, and that they should appear much before the disorder is evident. Next, we identify two sets of factors that exhibit this pattern of association with psychopathological states. The first was a set of “low-level” sensory, motor and regulatory irregularities that have been reported across the clinical literature; we suggest that these can serve as behavioral indicators of a vulnerable state. The second was the set of aberrations in network metrics that have been reported in the field of systems neuroscience; we suggest that these can serve as network indicators of a vulnerable state. Finally, we explore how behavioral indicators may be related to network indicators and discuss the clinical and research-related implications of our work. PMID:22347174

  12. Vulnerability of Network Mechanisms to Sophisticated DDoS Attacks

    E-print Network

    Bremler-Barr, Anat

    1 Vulnerability of Network Mechanisms to Sophisticated DDoS Attacks Udi Ben-Porat, Student Member, IEEE, Anat Bremler-Barr, Member, IEEE, and Hanoch Levy, Member, IEEE. Abstract--In recent years we have of complicated requests to the system. While it requires more sophistication U. Ben-Porat is with the Computer

  13. Early Detection Monitoring for Vulnerable Great Lakes Coastal Ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes harbors/embayments are vulnerable to introduction of aquatic invasive species. Monitoring is needed to inform on new introductions, as well as to track success of prevention programs intended to limit spread. We have completed a pilot field case study in the Duluth-...

  14. Cross comparison of five popular groundwater pollution vulnerability index approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brindha, K.; Elango, L.

    2015-05-01

    Identification of a suitable overlay and index method to map vulnerable zones for pollution in weathered rock aquifers was carried out in this study. DRASTIC and four models derived from it, namely Pesticide DRASTIC, modified DRASTIC, modified Pesticide DRASTIC and Susceptibility Index (SI) were compared by applying them to a weathered rock aquifer in southern India. The results were validated with the measured geochemical data. This study also introduces the use of temporal variation in the groundwater level and nitrate concentration in groundwater as input and for validation respectively to obtain more reliable and meaningful results. Sensitivity analysis of the vulnerability index maps highlight the importance of one parameter over another for a given hydrogeological setting, which will help to plan the field investigations based on the most or the least influential parameter. It is recommended to use modified Pesticide DRASTIC for weathered rock regions with irrigation practises and shallow aquifers (<20 m bgl). The crucial input due to land use should not be neglected and to be considered in any hydrogeological setting. It is better to estimate the specific vulnerability wherever possible rather than the intrinsic vulnerability as overlay and index methods are more suited for this purpose. It is also necessary to consider the maximum and minimum values of input parameters measured during a normal year in the models used for decision making.

  15. Dyadic Vulnerability and Risk Profiling for Elder Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulmer, Terry; Paveza, Gregory; VandeWeerd, Carla; Fairchild, Susan; Guadagno, Lisa; Bolton-Blatt, Marguarette; Norman, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Neglect of older adults accounts for 60% to 70% of all elder-mistreatment reports made to adult protective services. The purpose of this article is to report data from research, using a risk-and-vulnerability model, that captures the independent contributions of both the elder and the caregiver as they relate to the outcome of neglect.…

  16. Policy Research Working Paper 5280 Vulnerability of Bangladesh to Cyclones

    E-print Network

    Gertz, Michael

    Policy Research Working Paper 5280 Vulnerability of Bangladesh to Cyclones in a Changing Climate storm surges and another 5,500 cyclone shelters (each with the capacity of 1,600 people) to safeguard multi-purpose cyclone shelters, cyclone-resistant private housing, and further strengthening

  17. A physical approach on flood risk vulnerability of buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzorana, B.; Simoni, S.; Scherer, C.; Gems, B.; Fuchs, S.; Keiler, M.

    2014-02-01

    The design of efficient hydrological risk mitigation strategies and their subsequent implementation relies on a careful vulnerability analysis of the elements exposed. Recently, extensive research efforts were undertaken to develop and refine empirical relationships linking the structural vulnerability of buildings to the impact forces of the hazard processes. These empirical vulnerability functions allow estimating the expected direct losses as a result of the hazard scenario based on spatially explicit representation of the process patterns and the elements at risk classified into defined typological categories. However, due to the underlying empiricism of such vulnerability functions, the physics of the damage generating mechanisms for a well-defined element at risk with its peculiar geometry and structural characteristics remain unveiled, and, as such, the applicability of the empirical approach for planning hazard-proof residential buildings is limited. Therefore, we propose a conceptual assessment scheme to close this gap. This assessment scheme encompasses distinct analytical steps: modelling (a) the process intensity, (b) the impact on the element at risk exposed and (c) the physical response of the building envelope. Furthermore, these results provide the input data for the subsequent damage evaluation and economic damage valuation. This dynamic assessment supports all relevant planning activities with respect to a minimisation of losses, and can be implemented in the operational risk assessment procedure.

  18. A physical approach on flood risk vulnerability of buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzorana, B.; Simoni, S.; Scherer, C.; Gems, B.; Fuchs, S.; Keiler, M.

    2014-09-01

    The design of efficient hydrological risk mitigation strategies and their subsequent implementation relies on a careful vulnerability analysis of the elements exposed. Recently, extensive research efforts were undertaken to develop and refine empirical relationships linking the structural vulnerability of buildings to the impact forces of the hazard processes. These empirical vulnerability functions allow estimating the expected direct losses as a result of the hazard scenario based on spatially explicit representation of the process patterns and the elements at risk classified into defined typological categories. However, due to the underlying empiricism of such vulnerability functions, the physics of the damage-generating mechanisms for a well-defined element at risk with its peculiar geometry and structural characteristics remain unveiled, and, as such, the applicability of the empirical approach for planning hazard-proof residential buildings is limited. Therefore, we propose a conceptual assessment scheme to close this gap. This assessment scheme encompasses distinct analytical steps: modelling (a) the process intensity, (b) the impact on the element at risk exposed and (c) the physical response of the building envelope. Furthermore, these results provide the input data for the subsequent damage evaluation and economic damage valuation. This dynamic assessment supports all relevant planning activities with respect to a minimisation of losses, and can be implemented in the operational risk assessment procedure.

  19. Vulnerability Assessment of Selected Buildings Designated as Shelters: Dominica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (IDCA), Washington, DC.

    Educational facilities in the Caribbean often serve roles as shelters during natural hazards, but they often sustain as much damage as other buildings. This study investigated the physical vulnerability of schools located on Dominica to wind forces, torrential rain, and seismic forces in order to provide relevant local agencies with some of the…

  20. Psychological Distress and Mortality: Are Women More Vulnerable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferraro, Kenneth F.; Nuriddin, Tariqah A.

    2006-01-01

    Does psychological distress increase mortality risk? If it does, are women more vulnerable than men to the effect of distress on mortality? Drawing from cumulative disadvantage theory, these questions are addressed with data from a 20-year follow-up of a national sample of adults ages 25-74. Event history analyses were performed to examine…

  1. Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression in Canadian and Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Randy P.; Eberhart, Nicole K.; Abela, John R. Z.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to compare diathesis-stress and transactional models of cognitive vulnerability to depression in samples of Canadian (n = 118) and Chinese (n = 405) adolescents. We utilized a six-month multi-wave, longitudinal design in order to examine whether (a) perceived control moderated the association between the…

  2. Attacker-defender models and road network vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Bell, M G H; Kanturska, U; Schmöcker, J-D; Fonzone, A

    2008-06-13

    The reliability of road networks depends directly on their vulnerability to disruptive incidents, ranging in severity from minor disruptions to terrorist attacks. This paper presents a game theoretic approach to the analysis of road network vulnerability. The approach posits predefined disruption, attack or failure scenarios and then considers how to use the road network so as to minimize the maximum expected loss in the event of one of these scenarios coming to fruition. A mixed route strategy is adopted, meaning that the use of the road network is determined by the worst scenario probabilities. This is equivalent to risk-averse route choice. A solution algorithm suitable for use with standard traffic assignment software is presented, thereby enabling the use of electronic road navigation networks. A variant of this algorithm suitable for risk-averse assignment is developed. A numerical example relating to the central London road network is presented. The results highlight points of vulnerability in the road network. Applications of this form of network vulnerability analysis together with improved solution methods are discussed. PMID:18325875

  3. Extinction vulnerability in marine populations Nicholas K Dulvy1

    E-print Network

    Reynolds, John D.

    Extinction vulnerability in marine populations Nicholas K Dulvy1 , Yvonne Sadovy2 & John D Reynolds about the extinction of marine taxa.We have compiled133 local, regional and global extinc- tions and the reported date of the extinction at whatever scale this has occurred. Most disappearances (80%) were

  4. IST-044-RWS-007 -1 Vulnerabilities in biometric encryption systems

    E-print Network

    Adler, Andy

    ). Typically, biometric authentication systems are integrated into sophisticated security systems, in whichIST-044-RWS-007 - 1 Vulnerabilities in biometric encryption systems Andy Adler School@site.uOttawa.ca ABSTRACT Biometric encryption systems embed a secret code within a biometric image in a way that it can

  5. Vulnerability of the US to future sea level rise

    SciTech Connect

    Gornitz, V. . Goddard Inst. for Space Studies); White, T.W.; Cushman, R.M. )

    1991-01-01

    The differential vulnerability of the conterminous United States to future sea level rise from greenhouse climate warming is assessed, using a coastal hazards data base. This data contains information on seven variables relating to inundation and erosion risks. High risk shorelines are characterized by low relief, erodible substrate, subsidence, shoreline retreat, and high wave/tide energies. Very high risk shorelines on the Atlantic Coast (Coastal Vulnerability Index {ge}33.0) include the outer coast of the Delmarva Peninsula, northern Cape Hatteras, and segments of New Jersey, Georgia and South Carolina. Louisiana and sections of Texas are potentially the most vulnerable, due to anomalously high relative sea level rise and erosion, coupled with low elevation and mobile sediments. Although the Pacific Coast is generally the least vulnerable, because of its rugged relief and erosion-resistant substrate, the high geographic variability leads to several exceptions, such as the San Joaquin-Sacramento Delta area, the barrier beaches of Oregon and Washington, and parts of the Puget Sound Lowlands. 31 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Selective Prevention: Addressing Vulnerability to Problem Drug Use in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Gregor; Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Bo, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Following the 2003 publication of the European Union (EU) Council Recommendations and the 2005-2008 and 2009-2012 EU Drugs Action Plans, increasing attention has been given in EU member states' drug policies to populations that are vulnerable to problem drug use (PDU). Monitoring data reported to the EMCDDA by designated agencies from 30 countries…

  7. Vulnerability Assessment of Selected Buildings Designated as Shelters: Anguilla.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Tony

    Educational facilities in the Caribbean often serve roles as shelters during natural hazards, but they often sustain as much damage as other buildings. This study investigated the physical vulnerability of schools located on Anguilla to wind forces, torrential rain, and seismic forces in order to provide relevant local agencies with some of the…

  8. The Linneweil Affair: A Study in Adolescent Vulnerability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isser, Natalie

    1984-01-01

    Details the case of Elizabeth Linneweil, a Jewish child who was persuaded by her guardians to convert to Catholicism. The motives of the emotionally vulnerable adolescent--desire to conform, to please guardians, and to cement social bonding in the community--are discussed. (JAC)

  9. RESEARCH ARTICLE On the vulnerability of oasis forest to changing

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Qi-Bin

    Abstract In water-limited regions, oases are impor- tant localities for maintaining ecological biodiversity and supporting social and economic development. For oases situated by the side of rivers, variability of streamflow is often considered as a dominant factor influencing the vulnerability of oases forest, whereas

  10. Stressful Segregation Housing and Psychosocial Vulnerability in Prison Suicide Ideators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, Ronald L.

    2006-01-01

    Psychosocially vulnerable prisoners under stressful conditions of confinement are ill prepared to cope and at risk for developing suicide intention. The present study examined the relationships of depression, hopelessness, reasons for living, mental health problem history, suicide attempt lethality history, and stressful segregation housing with…

  11. Critiquing War in the Classroom: Professor Positionality, Vulnerability, and Possibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an analytic autoethnographical research study focusing on my experiences developing, delivering, and evaluating course content critiquing war from a feminist anti-militarist perspective as a pre-tenured faculty member. Themes include: professional vulnerability, student resistance, pedagogical possibility, and scholarly…

  12. Experimental Studies of Microwave Interference Vulnerabilities in IC

    E-print Network

    Anlage, Steven

    Experimental Studies of Microwave Interference Vulnerabilities in IC Devices Agis A. Iliadis the effects of high power microwave interference on the fundamental components of integrated circuits (IC;Introduction · EMI can couple into electronic modules intentionally or unintentionally from high power

  13. Intergenerational Transmission of Sexual Victimization Vulnerability as Mediated via Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, Maria; Hoffman, Joseph H.; Livingston, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Previous research suggests that women's early sexual victimization experiences may influence their parenting behaviors and increase the vulnerability of their children to being sexually victimized. The current study considered whether mother's sexual victimization experiences, in childhood and after age 14, were associated with the…

  14. Doubly Vulnerable: The Paradox of Disability and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    Parker Palmer's comment that teaching is a "daily exercise in vulnerability" might just as easily be said about living with a disability. As much as the person with a disability might want to hide his or her differences, it is often difficult to do so. Something as commonplace as walking through a grocery store without being stared at is often…

  15. Vulnerability analysis for complex networks using aggressive abstraction.

    SciTech Connect

    Colbaugh, Richard; Glass, Kristin L.

    2010-06-01

    Large, complex networks are ubiquitous in nature and society, and there is great interest in developing rigorous, scalable methods for identifying and characterizing their vulnerabilities. This paper presents an approach for analyzing the dynamics of complex networks in which the network of interest is first abstracted to a much simpler, but mathematically equivalent, representation, the required analysis is performed on the abstraction, and analytic conclusions are then mapped back to the original network and interpreted there. We begin by identifying a broad and important class of complex networks which admit vulnerability-preserving, finite state abstractions, and develop efficient algorithms for computing these abstractions. We then propose a vulnerability analysis methodology which combines these finite state abstractions with formal analytics from theoretical computer science to yield a comprehensive vulnerability analysis process for networks of realworld scale and complexity. The potential of the proposed approach is illustrated with a case study involving a realistic electric power grid model and also with brief discussions of biological and social network examples.

  16. American Indian Adolescent Girls: Vulnerability to Sex Trafficking, Intervention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    The Minnesota Indian Women's Resource Center offers harm reduction programming to at-risk adolescent American Indian girls, including outreach, case management, advocacy, healthy sexuality education, and support groups. To evaluate program impact, participants are assessed at intake and every 6 months afterward for current vulnerability to…

  17. The Vulnerable Researcher: Some Unanticipated Challenges of Doctoral Fieldwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballamingie, Patricia; Johnson, Sherrill

    2011-01-01

    This paper draws explicitly on the field experiences of two doctoral researchers in geography to elucidate some of the challenges and issues related to researcher vulnerability that are especially acute for graduate students. In spite of significant differences in context, both researchers experienced an unanticipated degree of professional…

  18. International Student-Workers in Australia: A New Vulnerable Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyland, Chris; Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Marginson, Simon; Ramia, Gaby; Sawir, Erlenawati; Smith, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    In the period immediately preceding the 2007 Australian election, much attention was accorded to the impact of the nation's labour laws on vulnerable employees. This debate centred on specific groups including women, youth, migrants and workers on individual employment contracts. International students, by contrast, were ignored in the debate.…

  19. Opening Pathways for Vulnerable Young People in Patagonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Mary Agnes; Hamilton, Stephen F.; Bianchi, Lucia; Bran, Jacqui

    2013-01-01

    New and improved institutions are needed to support the transition to adulthood of vulnerable young people. Existing institutions that should provide that support demonstrate structural lag: they have not adapted to changing circumstances. Action research was conducted in Por un Manana, an employment training program for low-income youth and young…

  20. Embryo stability and vulnerability in an always changing world

    E-print Network

    Embryo stability and vulnerability in an always changing world Amro Hamdoun and David Epel Hopkins to the view that embryos and larvae are the most fragile stages of life, development is stable under real-world conditions. Early cleavage embryos are prepared for environmental vagaries by having high levels of cellular

  1. 6 CFR 27.400 - Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... record contains Chemical-terrorism Vulnerability Information controlled by 6 CFR 27.400. Do not disclose to persons without a “need to know” in accordance with 6 CFR 27.400(e). Unauthorized release may... shall be treated as classified information in accordance with 6 CFR 27.400(h) and (i). (4) Other...

  2. 6 CFR 27.400 - Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... record contains Chemical-terrorism Vulnerability Information controlled by 6 CFR 27.400. Do not disclose to persons without a “need to know” in accordance with 6 CFR 27.400(e). Unauthorized release may... shall be treated as classified information in accordance with 6 CFR 27.400(h) and (i). (4) Other...

  3. 6 CFR 27.400 - Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... record contains Chemical-terrorism Vulnerability Information controlled by 6 CFR 27.400. Do not disclose to persons without a “need to know” in accordance with 6 CFR 27.400(e). Unauthorized release may... shall be treated as classified information in accordance with 6 CFR 27.400(h) and (i). (4) Other...

  4. 6 CFR 27.400 - Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... record contains Chemical-terrorism Vulnerability Information controlled by 6 CFR 27.400. Do not disclose to persons without a “need to know” in accordance with 6 CFR 27.400(e). Unauthorized release may... shall be treated as classified information in accordance with 6 CFR 27.400(h) and (i). (4) Other...

  5. 6 CFR 27.400 - Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... record contains Chemical-terrorism Vulnerability Information controlled by 6 CFR 27.400. Do not disclose to persons without a “need to know” in accordance with 6 CFR 27.400(e). Unauthorized release may... shall be treated as classified information in accordance with 6 CFR 27.400(h) and (i). (4) Other...

  6. SIZESPECIFIC VULNERABILITY OF NORTHERN ANCHOVY, ENGRAULIS MORDAX, LARVAE TO

    E-print Network

    cause of mortality during the egg and yolk-sac stages (Hunter 1984), and incidence of starving jack ARILD FOLKVORDI AND JOHN R. HUNTER2 ABSTRACf Vulnerability oflarval northern anchovy (6-33 mm SL thereafter (Hunter 1984; Smith 1985). Variation in the relatively low mortality rates of older larval

  7. The vulnerability index calculation for determination of groundwater quality

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, D.A.; Parizek, R.R.

    1995-12-01

    Non-point source pollutants, such as pesticides, enter groundwater systems in a variety of means at wide-ranging concentrations. Risks in using groundwater in human consumption vary depending on the amounts of contaminants, the type of groundwater aquifer, and various use factors. We have devised a method of determining the vulnerability of an aquifer towards contamination with the Vulnerability Index. The Index can be used either as a comparative or an absolute index (comparative with a pure water source or aquifer spring or without comparison, assuming no peaks in the compared sample). Data for the calculation is obtained by extraction of a given water sample followed by analysis with a nitrogen/phosphorus detector on gas chromatography. The calculation uses the sum of peak heights as its determination. An additional peak number factor is added to emphasize higher numbers of compounds found in a given sample. Karst aquifers are considered to be highly vulnerable due to the large solution openings in its structure. Examples will be given of Vulnerability Indices taken from springs emanating from karst, intermediate, and diffuse flow aquifers taken at various times of the 1992 sampling year and compared with rainfall during that time. Comparisons will be made of the Index vs. rainfall events and vs. pesticide application data. The risk of using contaminated drinking water sources can be evaluated with the use of this index.

  8. Introduction Karst aquifers are vulnerable to contamination because

    E-print Network

    Toran, Laura

    Introduction Karst aquifers are vulnerable to contamination because of the rapid recharge through to define protection areas for karst aquifers. Long-term geochemical monitoring is helping to unravel contaminant in agricultural karst areas. A number of studies have looked at the variation in nitrate

  9. REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT: CREATING A CONTEXT FOR EVALUATING STREAM ACIDIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    USEPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) program is designed to identify ecosystems that are likely to vary beyond the range of natural variability and thereby experience reduced ecological integrity as a result of natural and human-induced stressors. ReVA makes use of r...

  10. Extreme seismicity and disaster risks: Hazard versus vulnerability (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.

    2013-12-01

    Although the extreme nature of earthquakes has been known for millennia due to the resultant devastation from many of them, the vulnerability of our civilization to extreme seismic events is still growing. It is partly because of the increase in the number of high-risk objects and clustering of populations and infrastructure in the areas prone to seismic hazards. Today an earthquake may affect several hundreds thousand lives and cause significant damage up to hundred billion dollars; it can trigger an ecological catastrophe if occurs in close vicinity to a nuclear power plant. Two types of extreme natural events can be distinguished: (i) large magnitude low probability events, and (ii) the events leading to disasters. Although the first-type events may affect earthquake-prone countries directly or indirectly (as tsunamis, landslides etc.), the second-type events occur mainly in economically less-developed countries where the vulnerability is high and the resilience is low. Although earthquake hazards cannot be reduced, vulnerability to extreme events can be diminished by monitoring human systems and by relevant laws preventing an increase in vulnerability. Significant new knowledge should be gained on extreme seismicity through observations, monitoring, analysis, modeling, comprehensive hazard assessment, prediction, and interpretations to assist in disaster risk analysis. The advanced disaster risk communication skill should be developed to link scientists, emergency management authorities, and the public. Natural, social, economic, and political reasons leading to disasters due to earthquakes will be discussed.

  11. Runtime Protection and Recovery from Web Application Vulnerabilities

    E-print Network

    Livshits, Ben

    overruns are now far outnumbered by Web application vulnerabilities such as SQL injections and cross. Manipulate applications using malicious data. Common methods used include: · SQL injection: pass input that parameter tampering, SQL injection, and cross-site scripting attacks account for more than a third of all

  12. Toward Automated Detection of Logic Vulnerabilities in Web Applications

    E-print Network

    Vigna, Giovanni

    applications have mostly focused on input validation flaws, such as cross- site scripting and SQL injection (XSS) [20] and SQL injection vulnerabilities [3, 32]. With XSS, an application sends to a client output is then executed on the client's browser. In the case of SQL injection, an attacker provides malicious input

  13. Network Vulnerability to Single, Multiple, and Probabilistic Physical Attacks

    E-print Network

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.

    , vulnerable to natural disasters, such as earthquakes or floods, as well as to physical attacks, such as an Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) attack, as well as natural disasters, such as earth- quakes, hurricanes or floods [1, such as an Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) attack. Large- scale disasters are likely to destroy network equipment and to severely

  14. Assessing application vulnerability to radiation-induced SEUs in memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, P. L.

    2001-01-01

    One of the goals of the Remote Exploration and Experimentation (REE) project at JPL is to determine how vulnerable applications are to single event upsets (SEUs) when run in low radiation space environments using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components.

  15. 40 CFR 1400.4 - Vulnerable zone indicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vulnerable zone indicator system. 1400.4 Section 1400.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS UNDER THE CLEAN AIR ACT SECTION...

  16. 40 CFR 1400.4 - Vulnerable zone indicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vulnerable zone indicator system. 1400.4 Section 1400.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS UNDER THE CLEAN AIR ACT SECTION...

  17. Exploiting MMS Vulnerabilities to Stealthily Exhaust Mobile Phone's Battery

    E-print Network

    Chen, Hao

    ­ ful, cellular companies are rapidly deploying broadband data services, such as High­Speed Downlink@cs.ucdavis.edu Hao Chen University of California, Davis hchen@cs.ucdavis.edu Abstract--- As cellular data services vulnerabilities in cellu­ lar networks, mobile devices, and the interaction between cellular data networks

  18. Exploiting MMS Vulnerabilities to Stealthily Exhaust Mobile Phone's Battery

    E-print Network

    Chen, Hao

    - ful, cellular companies are rapidly deploying broadband data services, such as High-Speed Downlink@cs.ucdavis.edu Hao Chen University of California, Davis hchen@cs.ucdavis.edu Abstract-- As cellular data services vulnerabilities in cellu- lar networks, mobile devices, and the interaction between cellular data networks

  19. Vulnerabilities of children admitted to a pediatric inpatient care unit?

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Larissa Natacha; Breigeiron, Márcia Koja; Hallmann, Sofia; Witkowski, Maria Carolina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the vulnerabilities of children admitted to a pediatric inpatient unit of a university hospital. METHODS: Cross-sectional, descriptive study from April to September 2013 with36 children aged 30 days to 12 years old, admitted to medical-surgical pediatric inpatient units of a university hospital and their caregivers. Data concerning sociocultural, socioeconomic and clinical context of children and their families were collected by interview with the child caregiver and from patients, records, and analyzed by descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Of the total sample, 97.1% (n=132) of children had at least one type of vulnerability, the majority related to the caregiver's level of education, followed by caregiver's financial situation, health history of the child, caregiver's family situation, use of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs by the caregiver, family's living conditions, caregiver's schooling, and bonding between the caregiver and the child. Only 2.9% (n=4) of the children did not show any criteria to be classified in a category of vulnerability. CONCLUSIONS: Most children were classified has having a social vulnerability. It is imperative to create networks of support between the hospital and the primary healthcare service to promote healthcare practices directed to the needs of the child and family. PMID:25511001

  20. EPA'S REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT PROGRAM (REVA) DEMONSTRATING RESULTS THROUGH PARTNERSHIPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) program, a regional-scale comparative risk research effort, has been under development since 1998 with a pilot study focused on the Mid- Atlantic region. ReVA is part of the interagency Integrated Science for Ecosystem Challenges ini...

  1. Flood Vulnerability and Flood Protection North and Baltic Seas

    E-print Network

    Vries, Hans de

    G G G G Flood Vulnerability and Flood Protection North and Baltic Seas Meteorological Forcings NorthSea/BalticSeaMeteorologicalForcingsforDCSM28April2009 1 #12;G G G G Overview GLAMEPS Harmonie G G G G NorthSea/BalticSeaMeteorologicalForcingsforDCSM28April2009 2 #12;G G G G DCSM and Hirlam History

  2. Predicting Cancer-Specific Vulnerability via Data-Driven

    E-print Network

    Ruppin, Eytan

    Resource Predicting Cancer-Specific Vulnerability via Data-Driven Detection of Synthetic LethalityCancer Research UK, The Beatson Institute for Cancer Research, Switchback Road, Glasgow G61 1BD, Scotland the inhibition of each single gene is not. It can be harnessed to selectively treat cancer by identifying

  3. Our Shared Future: Social Media, Leadership, Vulnerability, and Digital Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoller, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Social media have challenged us in our journey to support our students. Administrators have entered into new web-based conversations with one another and with their students. Personal branding has created a sense of performativity that conflicts with a growing trend towards online vulnerability. Our leaders have increasingly been engaged in…

  4. Predation Vulnerability and Trophic Interactions of Pallid Sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus

    E-print Network

    Predation Vulnerability and Trophic Interactions of Pallid Sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus By William Trophic Interactions of Pallid Sturgeon Scaphirhynchus a/bus This thesis is approved as a creditable! Abstract Trophic Interactions of Pallid Sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus William E. French May 8, 2010

  5. Development of hazard-compatible building fragility and vulnerability models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karaca, E.; Luco, N.

    2008-01-01

    We present a methodology for transforming the structural and non-structural fragility functions in HAZUS into a format that is compatible with conventional seismic hazard analysis information. The methodology makes use of the building capacity (or pushover) curves and related building parameters provided in HAZUS. Instead of the capacity spectrum method applied in HAZUS, building response is estimated by inelastic response history analysis of corresponding single-degree-of-freedom systems under a large number of earthquake records. Statistics of the building response are used with the damage state definitions from HAZUS to derive fragility models conditioned on spectral acceleration values. Using the developed fragility models for structural and nonstructural building components, with corresponding damage state loss ratios from HAZUS, we also derive building vulnerability models relating spectral acceleration to repair costs. Whereas in HAZUS the structural and nonstructural damage states are treated as if they are independent, our vulnerability models are derived assuming "complete" nonstructural damage whenever the structural damage state is complete. We show the effects of considering this dependence on the final vulnerability models. The use of spectral acceleration (at selected vibration periods) as the ground motion intensity parameter, coupled with the careful treatment of uncertainty, makes the new fragility and vulnerability models compatible with conventional seismic hazard curves and hence useful for extensions to probabilistic damage and loss assessment.

  6. VIRAL TRANSPORT AND FATE MODELS FOR GROUND WATER VULNERABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this project is to develop a model to assess the vulnerability of public water systems to pathogens. It is focused on the sources, fate and transport of viruses in aquifer systems in specific hydrologic settings. It's intended to be used by resource managers or r...

  7. Do the Most Vulnerable People Live in the Worst Slums? A Spatial Analysis of Accra, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Jankowska, Marta M.; Weeks, John R.; Engstrom, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Slums are examples of localized communities within third world urban systems representing a range of vulnerabilities and adaptive capacities. This study examines vulnerability in relation to flooding, environmental degradation, social-status, demographics, and health in the slums of Accra, Ghana by utilizing a place-based approach informed by fieldwork, remote sensing, census data, and geographically weighted regression. The study objectives are threefold: (1) to move slums from a dichotomous into a continuous classification and examine the spatial patterns of the gradient, (2) develop measures of vulnerability for a developing world city and model the relationship between slums and vulnerability, and (3) to assess if the most vulnerable individuals live in the worst slums. A previously developed slum index is utilized, and four new measures of vulnerability are developed through principle components analysis, including a novel component of health vulnerability based on child mortality. Visualizations of the vulnerability measures assess spatial patterns of vulnerability in Accra. Ordinary least squares, spatial, and geographically weighted regression model the ability of the slum index to predict the four vulnerability measures. The slum index performs well for three of the four vulnerability measures, but is least able to predict health vulnerability underscoring the complex relationship between slums and child mortality in Accra. Finally, quintile analysis demonstrates the elevated prevalence of high vulnerability in places with high slum index scores. PMID:22379509

  8. Vulnerability analysis for a drought Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeluccetti, Irene; Demarchi, Alessandro; Perez, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    Early Warning Systems (EWS) for drought are often based on risk models that do not, or marginally, take into account the vulnerability factor. The multifaceted nature of drought (hydrological, meteorological, and agricultural) is source of coexistence for different ways to measure this phenomenon and its effects. The latter, together with the complexity of impacts generated by this hazard, causes the current underdevelopment of drought EWS compared to other hazards. In Least Developed Countries, where drought events causes the highest numbers of affected people, the importance of correct monitoring and forecasting is considered essential. Existing early warning and monitoring systems for drought produced at different geographic levels, provide only in a few cases an actual spatial model that tries to describe the cause-effect link between where the hazard is detected and where impacts occur. Integrate vulnerability information in such systems would permit to better estimate affected zones and livelihoods, improving the effectiveness of produced hazard-related datasets and maps. In fact, the need of simplification and, in general, of a direct applicability of scientific outputs is still a matter of concern for field experts and early warning products end-users. Even if the surplus of hazard related information produced right after catastrophic events has, in some cases, led to the creation of specific data-sharing platforms, the conveyed meaning and usefulness of each product has not yet been addressed. The present work is an attempt to fill this gap which is still an open issue for the scientific community as well as for the humanitarian aid world. The study aims at conceiving a simplified vulnerability model to embed into an existing EWS for drought, which is based on the monitoring of vegetation phenological parameters and the Standardized Precipitation Index, both produced using free satellite derived datasets. The proposed vulnerability model includes (i) a pure agricultural vulnerability and (ii) a systemic vulnerability. The first considers the agricultural potential of terrains, the diversity of cultivated crops and the percentage of irrigated area as main driving factors. The second vulnerability aspect consists of geographic units in which a set of socio-economic factors are modeled geographically on the basis of the physical accessibility to market centers in one case, and according to a spatial gravity model of market areas in another case. Results of the model applied to a case study (Niger) and evaluated with food insecurity data, are presented.

  9. Patterns of Freshwater Species Richness, Endemism, and Vulnerability in California.

    PubMed

    Howard, Jeanette K; Klausmeyer, Kirk R; Fesenmyer, Kurt A; Furnish, Joseph; Gardali, Thomas; Grantham, Ted; Katz, Jacob V E; Kupferberg, Sarah; McIntyre, Patrick; Moyle, Peter B; Ode, Peter R; Peek, Ryan; Quiñones, Rebecca M; Rehn, Andrew C; Santos, Nick; Schoenig, Steve; Serpa, Larry; Shedd, Jackson D; Slusark, Joe; Viers, Joshua H; Wright, Amber; Morrison, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    The ranges and abundances of species that depend on freshwater habitats are declining worldwide. Efforts to counteract those trends are often hampered by a lack of information about species distribution and conservation status and are often strongly biased toward a few well-studied groups. We identified the 3,906 vascular plants, macroinvertebrates, and vertebrates native to California, USA, that depend on fresh water for at least one stage of their life history. We evaluated the conservation status for these taxa using existing government and non-governmental organization assessments (e.g., endangered species act, NatureServe), created a spatial database of locality observations or distribution information from ~400 data sources, and mapped patterns of richness, endemism, and vulnerability. Although nearly half of all taxa with conservation status (n = 1,939) are vulnerable to extinction, only 114 (6%) of those vulnerable taxa have a legal mandate for protection in the form of formal inclusion on a state or federal endangered species list. Endemic taxa are at greater risk than non-endemics, with 90% of the 927 endemic taxa vulnerable to extinction. Records with spatial data were available for a total of 2,276 species (61%). The patterns of species richness differ depending on the taxonomic group analyzed, but are similar across taxonomic level. No particular taxonomic group represents an umbrella for all species, but hotspots of high richness for listed species cover 40% of the hotspots for all other species and 58% of the hotspots for vulnerable freshwater species. By mapping freshwater species hotspots we show locations that represent the top priority for conservation action in the state. This study identifies opportunities to fill gaps in the evaluation of conservation status for freshwater taxa in California, to address the lack of occurrence information for nearly 40% of freshwater taxa and nearly 40% of watersheds in the state, and to implement adequate protections for freshwater taxa where they are currently lacking. PMID:26147215

  10. Patterns of Freshwater Species Richness, Endemism, and Vulnerability in California

    PubMed Central

    Furnish, Joseph; Gardali, Thomas; Grantham, Ted; Katz, Jacob V. E.; Kupferberg, Sarah; McIntyre, Patrick; Moyle, Peter B.; Ode, Peter R.; Peek, Ryan; Quiñones, Rebecca M.; Rehn, Andrew C.; Santos, Nick; Schoenig, Steve; Serpa, Larry; Shedd, Jackson D.; Slusark, Joe; Viers, Joshua H.; Wright, Amber; Morrison, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    The ranges and abundances of species that depend on freshwater habitats are declining worldwide. Efforts to counteract those trends are often hampered by a lack of information about species distribution and conservation status and are often strongly biased toward a few well-studied groups. We identified the 3,906 vascular plants, macroinvertebrates, and vertebrates native to California, USA, that depend on fresh water for at least one stage of their life history. We evaluated the conservation status for these taxa using existing government and non-governmental organization assessments (e.g., endangered species act, NatureServe), created a spatial database of locality observations or distribution information from ~400 data sources, and mapped patterns of richness, endemism, and vulnerability. Although nearly half of all taxa with conservation status (n = 1,939) are vulnerable to extinction, only 114 (6%) of those vulnerable taxa have a legal mandate for protection in the form of formal inclusion on a state or federal endangered species list. Endemic taxa are at greater risk than non-endemics, with 90% of the 927 endemic taxa vulnerable to extinction. Records with spatial data were available for a total of 2,276 species (61%). The patterns of species richness differ depending on the taxonomic group analyzed, but are similar across taxonomic level. No particular taxonomic group represents an umbrella for all species, but hotspots of high richness for listed species cover 40% of the hotspots for all other species and 58% of the hotspots for vulnerable freshwater species. By mapping freshwater species hotspots we show locations that represent the top priority for conservation action in the state. This study identifies opportunities to fill gaps in the evaluation of conservation status for freshwater taxa in California, to address the lack of occurrence information for nearly 40% of freshwater taxa and nearly 40% of watersheds in the state, and to implement adequate protections for freshwater taxa where they are currently lacking. PMID:26147215

  11. Calibration of the DRASTIC ground water vulnerability mapping method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, M.G.

    2001-01-01

    Ground water vulnerability maps developed using the DRASTIC method have been produced in many parts of the world. Comparisons of those maps with actual ground water quality data have shown that the DRASTIC method is typically a poor predictor of ground water contamination. This study significantly improved the effectiveness of a modified DRASTIC ground water vulnerability map by calibrating the point rating schemes to actual ground water quality data by using nonparametric statistical techniques and a geographic information system. Calibration was performed by comparing data on nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen (NO2 + NO3-N) concentrations in ground water to land-use, soils, and depth to first-encountered ground water data. These comparisons showed clear statistical differences between NO2 + NO3-N concentrations and the various categories. Ground water probability point ratings for NO2 + NO3-N contamination were developed from the results of these comparisons, and a probability map was produced. This ground water probability map was then correlated with an independent set of NO2 + NO3-N data to demonstrate its effectiveness in predicting elevated NO2 + NO3-N concentrations in ground water. This correlation demonstrated that the probability map was effective, but a vulnerability map produced with the uncalibrated DRASTIC method in the same area and using the same data layers was not effective. Considerable time and expense have been outlaid to develop ground water vulnerability maps with the DRASTIC method. This study demonstrates a cost-effective method to improve and verify the effectiveness of ground water vulnerability maps.

  12. Repeated Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Mechanisms of Cerebral Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Daya; Giza, Christopher C.; Hovda, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Among the 3.5 million annual new head injury cases is a subpopulation of children and young adults who experience repeated traumatic brain injury (TBI). The duration of vulnerability after a single TBI remains unknown, and biomarkers have yet to be determined. Decreases in glucose metabolism (cerebral metabolic rate of glucose [CMRglc]) are consistently observed after experimental and human TBI. In the current study, it is hypothesized that the duration of vulnerability is related to the duration of decreased CMRglc and that a single mild TBI (mTBI) increases the brain's vulnerability to a second insult for a period, during which a subsequent mTBI will worsen the outcome. Postnatal day 35 rats were given sham, single mTBI, or two mTBI at 24-h or 120-h intervals. 14C-2-deoxy-D-glucose autoradiography was conducted at 1 or 3 days post-injury to calculate CMRglc. At 24?h after a single mTBI, CMRglc is decreased by 19% in both the parietal cortex and hippocampus, but approached sham levels by 3 days post-injury. When a second mTBI is introduced during the CMRglc depression of the first injury, the consequent CMRglc is depressed (36.5%) at 24?h and remains depressed (25%) at 3 days. In contrast, when the second mTBI is introduced after the metabolic recovery of the first injury, the consequent CMRglc depression is similar to that seen with a single injury. Results suggest that the duration of metabolic depression reflects the time-course of vulnerability to second injury in the juvenile brain and could serve as a valuable biomarker in establishing window of vulnerability guidelines. PMID:23025820

  13. Cell Age–Specific Vulnerability of Neurons to Anesthetic Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Hofacer, Rylon D.; Deng, Meng; Ward, Christopher G.; Joseph, Bernadin; Hughes, Elizabeth A.; Jiang, Connie; Danzer, Steve C.; Loepke, Andreas W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Anesthetics have been linked to widespread neuronal cell death in neonatal animals. Epidemiological human studies have associated early childhood anesthesia with long-term neurobehavioral abnormalities, raising substantial concerns that anesthetics may cause similar cell death in young children. However, key aspects of the phenomenon remain unclear, such as why certain neurons die, whereas immediately adjacent neurons are seemingly unaffected, and why the immature brain is exquisitely vulnerable, whereas the mature brain seems resistant. Elucidating these questions is critical for assessing the phenomenon’s applicability to humans, defining the susceptible age, predicting vulnerable neuronal populations, and devising mitigating strategies. Methods This study examines the effects of anesthetic exposure on late- and adult-generated neurons in newborn, juvenile, and adult mice, and characterizes vulnerable cells using birth-dating and immunohistochemical techniques. Results We identify a critical period of cellular developmental during which neurons are susceptible to anesthesia-induced apoptosis. Importantly, we demonstrate that anesthetic neurotoxicity can extend into adulthood in brain regions with ongoing neurogenesis, such as dentate gyrus and olfactory bulb. Interpretation Our findings suggest that anesthetic vulnerability reflects the age of the neuron, not the age of the organism, and therefore may potentially not only be relevant to children but also to adults undergoing anesthesia. This observation further predicts differential heightened regional vulnerability to anesthetic neuroapoptosis to closely follow the distinct regional peaks in neurogenesis. This knowledge may help guide neurocognitive testing of specific neurological domains in humans following exposure to anesthesia, dependent on the individual’s age during exposure. PMID:23526697

  14. Systematic identification of molecular subtype-selective vulnerabilities in non-small-cell lung cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Published on Office of Cancer Genomics (http://ocg.cancer.gov) Home > Systematic identification of molecular subtype-selective vulnerabilities in non-small-cell lung cancer Systematic identification of molecular subtype-selective vulnerabilities in non-small-cell

  15. Systematic identification of molecular subtype-selective vulnerabilities in non-small-cell lung cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Published on Office of Cancer Genomics (https://ocg.cancer.gov) Home > Systematic identification of molecular subtype-selective vulnerabilities in non-small-cell lung cancer Systematic identification of molecular subtype-selective vulnerabilities in

  16. 77 FR 6548 - Notice of Availability of Ballistic Survivability, Lethality and Vulnerability Analyses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ...vulnerability (SLV) analyses. ARL/SLAD conducts SLV analyses, using the MUVES-S2...vulnerability model, to quantify system, subsystem and/or...air vehicles. These analyses are used to support production, design, trade and...

  17. MINIMIZING THE VULNERABILITY OF WATER SUPPLIES TO NATURAL AND TERRORIST THREATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is increasing concern that drinking water utilities may be vulnerable to attacks by terrorists. In the US the President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection has concluded the US drinking water utilities are vulnerable to physical, cyber and biological terroris...

  18. 77 FR 74685 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical-Terrorism Vulnerability Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... (IFR), implementing this statutory mandate at 72 FR 17688. Section 550 of the Homeland Security... SECURITY Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical- Terrorism Vulnerability Information... financial information, Chemical-terrorism Vulnerability Information (CVI), Sensitive Security...

  19. McAfee, Inc. McAfee Vulnerability Manager CryptographicModule

    E-print Network

    McAfee, Inc. McAfee Vulnerability Manager CryptographicModule Software Version: 1.0 FIPS 140-2 Non................................................................................................................................................................3 1.2 REFERENCES.............................................................................................................................................................4 2.1.1 Vulnerability Manager Architecture Overview

  20. Accounting for the Impact of Impermeable Soil Layers on Pesticide Runoff and Leaching in a Landscape Vulnerability Model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A regional-scale model that estimates landscape vulnerability of pesticide leaching and runoff (solution and particle adsorbed) underestimated runoff vulnerability and overestimated leaching vulnerability compared to measured data when applied to a gently rolling landscape in northeast Missouri. Man...

  1. What if quality of damage data is poor: an Entity-Vulnerability approach for flood vulnerability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naso, Susanna; Chen, Albert S.; Djordjevi?, Slobodan; Aronica, Giuseppe T.

    2015-04-01

    The classical approach to flood defence, aimed at reducing the probability of flooding through hard defences, has been substituted by flood risk management approach which accepts the idea of coping with floods and aims at reducing not only the probability of flooding, but also the consequences. In this view, the concept of vulnerability becomes central, such as the (non-structural) measures for its increment. On 22 November 2011, an exceptional rainstorm hit the Longano catchment (North-East part of Sicily, Italy) producing local heavy rainfall, mud-debris flow and flash flooding. The flash flood involved property, buildings, roads and more than 100 commercial estates have suffered severe damages. Some days after the event, the municipality provided people forms to describe the damages that occurred on their properties. Unfortunately, the lack of common guidelines in compiling them, their coarseness and the impossibility to have monetary information on them (such us damage data from previous events), did not allow the implementation of a detailed damage analysis. What we're developing in this work is a method for a qualitative evaluation of the consequences of floods, based on vulnerability curves for structures and classes of entities at risk. The difficulty in deriving the vulnerability curves for different building typologies, as function of the water depth, was due to the lack of quantitative information both on damages caused by previous events and on buildings' value. To solve the problem we submitted a questionnaire to a team of experts asking for an estimation of building damages to different hypothetical inundation depths. What we wanted to obtain was deriving the vulnerability data from technicians' experience, believing in the fundamental importance of the collaboration among research and professional engineers. Through the elaboration and the synthesis of the experts' estimations we derived the vulnerability curves for different building typologies and for inundations of both short and long duration. At the same time we defined the classes of the variable Entity in function of both buildings' asset value and their importance for society. Once the buildings of different typologies are grouped, a GIS-based tool (using hazard information obtained from hydraulic modelling, building parcels, vulnerability curves and entity classes) is used to collocate each element at risk inside an Entity-Vulnerability matrix. The construction of a E-V matrix allow both to understand the actual situation of flood-prone area (and the possible consequences of a flood event) and to study the effectiveness of non-structural measures, just studying how their implementation modifies the distribution of elements at risk inside it. The proposed approach can be useful for authorities responsible for development and periodical review of adaptive flood risk management plans.

  2. VuWiki: An Ontology-Based Semantic Wiki for Vulnerability Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazai, Bijan; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Büscher, Christian; Wegner, Antje

    2014-05-01

    The concept of vulnerability, as well as its implementation in vulnerability assessments, is used in various disciplines and contexts ranging from disaster management and reduction to ecology, public health or climate change and adaptation, and a corresponding multitude of ideas about how to conceptualize and measure vulnerability exists. Three decades of research in vulnerability have generated a complex and growing body of knowledge that challenges newcomers, practitioners and even experienced researchers. To provide a structured representation of the knowledge field "vulnerability assessment", we have set up an ontology-based semantic wiki for reviewing and representing vulnerability assessments: VuWiki, www.vuwiki.org. Based on a survey of 55 vulnerability assessment studies, we first developed an ontology as an explicit reference system for describing vulnerability assessments. We developed the ontology in a theoretically controlled manner based on general systems theory and guided by principles for ontology development in the field of earth and environment (Raskin and Pan 2005). Four key questions form the first level "branches" or categories of the developed ontology: (1) Vulnerability of what? (2) Vulnerability to what? (3) What reference framework was used in the vulnerability assessment?, and (4) What methodological approach was used in the vulnerability assessment? These questions correspond to the basic, abstract structure of the knowledge domain of vulnerability assessments and have been deduced from theories and concepts of various disciplines. The ontology was then implemented in a semantic wiki which allows for the classification and annotation of vulnerability assessments. As a semantic wiki, VuWiki does not aim at "synthesizing" a holistic and overarching model of vulnerability. Instead, it provides both scientists and practitioners with a uniform ontology as a reference system and offers easy and structured access to the knowledge field of vulnerability assessments with the possibility for any user to retrieve assessments using specific research criteria. Furthermore, Vuwiki can serve as a collaborative knowledge platform that allows for the active participation of those generating and using the knowledge represented in the wiki.

  3. Free and Open Source Software for land degradation vulnerability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imbrenda, Vito; Calamita, Giuseppe; Coluzzi, Rosa; D'Emilio, Mariagrazia; Lanfredi, Maria Teresa; Perrone, Angela; Ragosta, Maria; Simoniello, Tiziana

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays the role of FOSS software in scientific research is becoming increasingly important. Besides the important issues of reduced costs for licences, legality and security there are many other reasons that make FOSS software attractive. Firstly, making the code opened is a warranty of quality permitting to thousands of developers around the world to check the code and fix bugs rather than rely on vendors claims. FOSS communities are usually enthusiastic about helping other users for solving problems and expand or customize software (flexibility). Most important for this study, the interoperability allows to combine the user-friendly QGIS with the powerful GRASS-GIS and the richness of statistical methods of R in order to process remote sensing data and to perform geo-statistical analysis in one only environment. This study is focused on the land degradation (i.e. the reduction in the capacity of the land to provide ecosystem goods and services and assure its functions) and in particular on the estimation of the vulnerability levels in order to suggest appropriate policy actions to reduce/halt land degradation impacts, using the above mentioned software. The area investigated is the Basilicata Region (Southern Italy) where large natural areas are mixed with anthropized areas. To identify different levels of vulnerability we adopted the Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAs) model, based on the combination of indicators related to soil, climate, vegetation and anthropic stress. Such indicators were estimated by using the following data-sources: - Basilicata Region Geoportal to assess soil vulnerability; - DESERTNET2 project to evaluate potential vegetation vulnerability and climate vulnerability; - NDVI-MODIS satellite time series (2000-2010) with 250m resolution, available as 16-day composite from the NASA LP DAAC to characterize the dynamic component of vegetation; - Agricultural Census data 2010, Corine Land Cover 2006 and morphological information to assess the vulnerability to anthropic factors mainly connected with agricultural and grazing management. To achieve the final ESAs Index depicting the overall vulnerability to degradation of the investigated area we applied the geometric mean to cross normalized indices related to each examined component. In this context QGIS was used to display data and to perform basic GIS calculations, whereas GRASS was used for map-algebra operations and image processing. Finally R was used for computing statistical analysis (Principal Component Analysis) aimed to determine the relative importance of each adopted indicator. Our results show that GRASS, QGIS and R software are suitable to map land degradation vulnerability and identify highly vulnerable areas in which rehabilitation/recovery interventions are urgent. In addition they allow us to put into evidence the most important drivers of degradation thus supplying basic information for the setting up of intervention strategies. Ultimately, Free Open Source Software deliver a fair chance for geoscientific investigations thanks to their high interoperability and flexibility enabling to preserve the accuracy of the data and to reduce processing time. Moreover, the presence of several communities that steadily support users allows for achieving high quality results, making free open source software a valuable and easy alternative to conventional commercial software.

  4. A Supply Chain Game Theory Framework for Cybersecurity Investments Under Network Vulnerability

    E-print Network

    Nagurney, Anna

    A Supply Chain Game Theory Framework for Cybersecurity Investments Under Network Vulnerability, Philadelphia, PA - (Isenberg School of Management) Cybersecurity and Network Vulnerability Nov 02, 2015 1 / 33) Cybersecurity and Network Vulnerability Nov 02, 2015 2 / 33 #12;Introduction Introduction Complex and globalized

  5. Understanding Young Women's Sexual Relationship Experiences: The Nature and Role of Vulnerability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Claire

    2006-01-01

    This paper seeks to operationalise the concept of social "vulnerability" and explore its usefulness as a framework for understanding sexual relationships. Data from 30 vulnerable and less vulnerable young women in one UK city were collected through in-depth interviews and focus groups. An analysis of differences and similarities in participants'…

  6. 0018-9162/00/$10.00 2000 IEEE52 Computer Vulnerability

    E-print Network

    Arbaugh, William A.

    ,andcompromised--duringitslifetime.Asystem The authors propose a life-cycle model for system vulnerabilities, then apply it to three case studies for security breaches focused on the intrusion trends of specific vulnerabilities.1,2 Here we propose a life-cycle model that describes the states a vulnerability can enter during its lifetime. We then use our

  7. Social vulnerability to climate change in primary producers: A typology approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adaptation in agro-ecological systems will be important for moderating the impacts of climate change. Vulnerability assessments provide the basis for developing strategies to reduce social vulnerability and plan for climate adaptation. Primary industries have been identified as the most vulnerable i...

  8. Assessment of human–natural system characteristics influencing global freshwater supply vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padowski, Julie C.; Gorelick, Steven M.; Thompson, Barton H.; Rozelle, Scott; Fendorf, Scott

    2015-10-01

    Global freshwater vulnerability is a product of environmental and human dimensions, however, it is rarely assessed as such. Our approach identifies freshwater vulnerability using four broad categories: endowment, demand, infrastructure, and institutions, to capture impacts on natural and managed water systems within the coupled human–hydrologic environment. These categories are represented by 19 different endogenous and exogenous characteristics affecting water supply vulnerability. By evaluating 119 lower per capita income countries (<10 725), we find that every nation experiences some form of vulnerability. Institutional vulnerability is experienced most commonly, occurring in 44 nations, and 23 countries suffer deficiencies in all four categories. Of these highly vulnerable countries, Jordan is the most vulnerable, reporting the greatest number of characteristics (5 of 19) at critical vulnerability levels, with Yemen and Djibouti nearly as vulnerable. Surprising similarities in vulnerability were also found among geographically disparate nations such as Vietnam, Sri Lanka, and Guatemala. Determining shared patterns of freshwater vulnerability provides insights into why water supply vulnerabilities are manifested in human–water systems at the national scale.

  9. ShieldGen: Automatic Data Patch Generation for Unknown Vulnerabilities with Informed Probing

    E-print Network

    Locasto, Michael E.

    ShieldGen: Automatic Data Patch Generation for Unknown Vulnerabilities with Informed Probing generating a data patch or a vulnerability signature for an unknown vulnerability, given a zero-day attack. In this paper, we aim to automate this process and enable fast, patch-level pro- tection generation

  10. Perceptions of Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS: A Comparison of Two College Cohorts, 1990 and 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teague, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Theories of preventive health behavior posit that perceived vulnerability to health threats motivates self-protective behavior. Fifteen years after an initial study of college students' perceptions of their vulnerability to HIV, a replication was conducted on the same campus in 2005. Comparisons between cohorts on vulnerability judgements were…

  11. 75 FR 51806 - Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... AGENCY Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices AGENCY...-day public comment period for the draft document titled, ``Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment... utilities to assess their vulnerability to future climate change. The report is intended to illustrate...

  12. Seasonal Variation in the Vulnerability Discovery Process HyunChul Joh and Yashwant K. Malaiya

    E-print Network

    Malaiya, Yashwant K.

    Seasonal Variation in the Vulnerability Discovery Process HyunChul Joh and Yashwant K. Malaiya for handling vulnerabilities discovered. Seasonal behaviors of the vulnerability discovery process for a multi operating systems, web servers and web browsers suggests presence of a seasonal behavior

  13. Use of Productivity and Susceptibility Indices to Determine Stock Vulnerability, with

    E-print Network

    Use of Productivity and Susceptibility Indices to Determine Stock Vulnerability, with Example vulnerability, with example applications to six U.S. fisheries. U.S. Dep. Commer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS) guidelines that govern federal fisheries management in the United States. The term "vulnerability

  14. Emotion Regulation and Vulnerability to Depression: Spontaneous Versus Instructed Use of Emotion Suppression and Reappraisal

    E-print Network

    Gross, James J.

    Emotion Regulation and Vulnerability to Depression: Spontaneous Versus Instructed Use of Emotion Emotion dysregulation has long been thought to be a vulnerability factor for mood disorders. However vulnerability is related to difficulties with emotion regulation by comparing recovered-depressed and never

  15. Vulnerability and household livelihoods in small scale fishing areas in Africa: An asset-based approach

    E-print Network

    Krivobokova, Tatyana

    Vulnerability and household livelihoods in small scale fishing areas in Africa: An asset vulnerability to poverty and livelihood choices in small-scale fishing areas. The use of an asset-based vulnerability framework allows to decompose poverty, and hence identify different poverty profiles

  16. 6 CFR 27.240 - Review and approval of security vulnerability assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review and approval of security vulnerability... of security vulnerability assessments. (a) Review and Approval. The Department will review and approve in writing all Security Vulnerability Assessments that satisfy the requirements of §...

  17. Vulnerability-Specific Execution Filtering for Exploit Prevention on Commodity Software

    E-print Network

    Song, Dawn

    Vulnerability-Specific Execution Filtering for Exploit Prevention on Commodity Software James@cs.cmu.edu Dawn Song Carnegie Mellon University dawnsong@cmu.edu Abstract Exploits for new vulnerabilities, especially when incor- porated within a fast spreading worm, can compromise nearly all vulnerable hosts

  18. Response surfaces of vulnerability to climate change: the Colorado River Basin, the High Plains, and California

    E-print Network

    Ramírez, Jorge A.

    Response surfaces of vulnerability to climate change: the Colorado River Basin, the High Plains # Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014 Abstract We quantify the vulnerability of water supply that incorpo- rates the inherent uncertainties in the drivers of vulnerability. Our analysis indicates

  19. Probabilistic Exposure Risk Assessment with Advective-Dispersive Well Vulnerability Criteria

    E-print Network

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    Probabilistic Exposure Risk Assessment with Advective-Dispersive Well Vulnerability Criteria Rainer vulnerability criteria by Frind et al. [1] into a framework of probabilistic risk assessment. These criteria-dependent breakthrough curves and well vulnerability criteria from the temporal moments by Maximum Entropy reconstruction

  20. Vulnerability to Climate Change in the Tourism Sector An Index Approach

    E-print Network

    Fischlin, Andreas

    Vulnerability to Climate Change in the Tourism Sector An Index Approach Sabine Perch-Nielsen ETH/17 Why Look at Vulnerability? Exposure alone does not determine the impacts, many features of the system climate indices The concept of vulnerability includes this. #12;3rd International Workshop on Climate

  1. Vulnerability of SSL to Chosen-Plaintext Attack Gregory V. Bard

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Vulnerability of SSL to Chosen-Plaintext Attack Gregory V. Bard May 11, 2004 Abstract The Secure that this introduces a vulnerability in SSL which (potentially) enables easy recovery of low-entropy strings-plaintext attacks) is of independent interest. Finally, the fact that the vulnerability is pres

  2. Vulnerability Factors in New Web Applications: Audit Tools, Developer Selection & Languages

    E-print Network

    Boneh, Dan

    Vulnerability Factors in New Web Applications: Audit Tools, Developer Selection & Languages Jason--We develop a web application vulnerability metric based on the combined reports of 4 leading commercial black box vulnerability scanners and evaluate this metric using historical benchmarks and our new sample

  3. Climate change vulnerability of forest biodiversity: climate and competition tracking of demographic rates

    E-print Network

    Teskey, Robert O.

    Climate change vulnerability of forest biodiversity: climate and competition tracking and climate and resource tracking identify which species are vulnerable to these risk factors and in what ways are particularly vulnerable to climate variation. However, the effect of competition on growth and mortality risk

  4. 6 CFR 27.240 - Review and approval of security vulnerability assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Review and approval of security vulnerability... of security vulnerability assessments. (a) Review and Approval. The Department will review and approve in writing all Security Vulnerability Assessments that satisfy the requirements of §...

  5. The Attack of the Clones: A Study of the Impact of Shared Code on Vulnerability Patching

    E-print Network

    Daume III, Hal

    The Attack of the Clones: A Study of the Impact of Shared Code on Vulnerability Patching Antonio.nappa@imdea.org, rbjohns8@cs.umd.edu, leylya yumer@symantec.com, juan.caballero@imdea.org, tdumitra@umiacs.umd.edu Abstract--Vulnerability of patches and improvements in software updating mechanisms. Vulnerabilities in client applications (e

  6. 6 CFR 27.240 - Review and approval of security vulnerability assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Review and approval of security vulnerability... of security vulnerability assessments. (a) Review and Approval. The Department will review and approve in writing all Security Vulnerability Assessments that satisfy the requirements of §...

  7. 6 CFR 27.240 - Review and approval of security vulnerability assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Review and approval of security vulnerability... of security vulnerability assessments. (a) Review and Approval. The Department will review and approve in writing all Security Vulnerability Assessments that satisfy the requirements of §...

  8. Why Johnny Can't Pentest: An Analysis of Black-box Web Vulnerability Scanners

    E-print Network

    Vigna, Giovanni

    Why Johnny Can't Pentest: An Analysis of Black-box Web Vulnerability Scanners Adam Doup´e, Marco,marco,vigna}@cs.ucsb.edu Abstract. Black-box web vulnerability scanners are a class of tools that can be used to identify securityScript-generated links, and Flash applications. This paper presents an evaluation of eleven black-box web vulnerability

  9. Model-Based Vulnerability Analysis of Computer Systems C.R. Ramakrishnan R. Sekar

    E-print Network

    Sekar, R.

    Model-Based Vulnerability Analysis of Computer Systems C.R. Ramakrishnan R. Sekar cram of New York Iowa State University Stony Brook, NY 11794. Ames, IA 50011. Abstract Vulnerability analysis their security. Most vulnerabilities arise from unexpected interac- tions between di erent system components

  10. SECURITY VULNERABILITY CATAGORIES IN MAJOR SOFTWARE Omar H. Alhazmi, Sung-Whan Woo, Yashwant K. Malaiya

    E-print Network

    Malaiya, Yashwant K.

    1 SECURITY VULNERABILITY CATAGORIES IN MAJOR SOFTWARE SYSTEMS Omar H. Alhazmi, Sung-Whan Woo vulnerabilities in software systems can be categorized by either the cause or severity. Several software vulnerabilities datasets for major operating systems and web servers are examined. The goal is to identify

  11. Vulnerability of SSL to Chosen-Plaintext Attack Gregory V. Bard

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Vulnerability of SSL to Chosen-Plaintext Attack Gregory V. Bard #3; May 11, 2004 Abstract-preceding message. We show that this introduces a vulnerability in SSL which (potentially) enables easy recovery) is of independent interest. Finally, the fact that the vulnerability is present

  12. Aalborg Universitet Vulnerability Evaluation of Power System Integrated with Large-scale Distributed

    E-print Network

    Bak, Claus Leth

    Aalborg Universitet Vulnerability Evaluation of Power System Integrated with Large for published version (APA): Liu, L., Xu, Q., Chen, Z., & Bak, C. L. (2012). Vulnerability Evaluation of Power from vbn.aau.dk on: juli 07, 2015 #12;Vulnerability Evaluation of Power System Integrated with Large

  13. 6 CFR 27.240 - Review and approval of security vulnerability assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Review and approval of security vulnerability... of security vulnerability assessments. (a) Review and Approval. The Department will review and approve in writing all Security Vulnerability Assessments that satisfy the requirements of §...

  14. Vulnerability of a killer whale social network to disease outbreaks Paulo R. Guimares, Jr.,1,

    E-print Network

    Baird, Robin W.

    Vulnerability of a killer whale social network to disease outbreaks Paulo R. Guimarães, Jr.,1 population of mammal-eating killer whales is vulnerable to disease outbreaks. This feature was found organization of the endangered mammal- eating killer whales 12 and infer their vulnerability to dis- ease

  15. Multi-vulnerability assessment for flash flood risk management in East Attica, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagiorgos, Konstantinos; Thaler, Thomas; Hübl, Johannes; Maris, Fotios; Mallinis, Giorgos; Fuchs, Sven

    2015-04-01

    Vulnerability assessment implies a quantitative evaluation of the individual vulnerability components such as elements at risk, their physical exposure and social characteristics. Current approaches in vulnerability research are driven by a divide between social scientists who tend to view vulnerability as representing a set of socio-economic factors, and scientists who view vulnerability in terms of the degree of loss to an element at risk. To close this gap, a multi-dimensional vulnerability analysis has been undertaken focusing on flash flood hazards in Greece. To represent physical vulnerability, an empirical relation between the process intensity and the degree of loss was established. With respect to social vulnerability, an assessment was undertaken by means of empirical data collection based on a door-to-door survey. In general, both physical and social vulnerability was comparable low, which is interpreted as a result from (a) specific building regulations in Greece as well as general design principles leading to less structural susceptibility of elements at risk exposed, and (b) a relatively low economic loss leading to less social vulnerability of citizens exposed. It is shown that a combination of different perspectives of vulnerability will lead to a better understanding of perceptions of actors regarding their vulnerabilities and capacities.

  16. Children and Vulnerable Adults Safeguarding Policy Reference Number: CAVAS/V2.1

    E-print Network

    1 Children and Vulnerable Adults Safeguarding Policy Policy Reference Number: CAVAS/V2.1 Version the University's policy on preventing and reducing harm to children and vulnerable adults when and prioritise the safety and wellbeing of children and vulnerable adults; Provide assurance to parents, carers

  17. Hippocampal developmental vulnerability to methylmercury extends into prepubescence

    PubMed Central

    Obiorah, Maryann; McCandlish, Elizabeth; Buckley, Brian; DiCicco-Bloom, Emanuel

    2015-01-01

    The developing brain is sensitive to environmental toxicants such as methylmercury (MeHg), to which humans are exposed via contaminated seafood. Prenatal exposure in children is associated with learning, memory and IQ deficits, which can result from hippocampal dysfunction. To explore underlying mechanisms, we have used the postnatal day (P7) rat to model the third trimester of human gestation. We previously showed that a single low exposure (0.6 ?g/gbw) that approaches human exposure reduced hippocampal neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) 24 h later, producing later proliferation and memory deficits in adolescence. Yet, the vulnerable stem cell population and period of developmental vulnerability remain undefined. In this study, we find that P7 exposure of stem cells has long-term consequences for adolescent neurogenesis. It reduced the number of mitotic S-phase cells (BrdU), especially those in the highly proliferative Tbr2+ population, and immature neurons (Doublecortin) in adolescence, suggesting partial depletion of the later stem cell pool. To define developmental vulnerability to MeHg in prepubescent (P14) and adolescent (P21) rats, we examined acute 24 h effects of MeHg exposure on mitosis and apoptosis. We found that low exposure did not adversely impact neurogenesis at either age, but that a higher exposure (5 ?g/gbw) at P14 reduced the total number of neural stem cells (Sox2+) by 23% and BrdU+ cells by 26% in the DG hilus, suggesting that vulnerability diminishes with age. To determine whether these effects reflect changes in MeHg transfer across the blood brain barrier (BBB), we assessed Hg content in the hippocampus after peripheral injection and found that similar levels (~800 ng/gm) were obtained at 24 h at both P14 and P21, declining in parallel, suggesting that changes in vulnerability depend more on local tissue and cellular mechanisms. Together, we show that MeHg vulnerability declines with age, and that early exposure impairs later neurogenesis in older juveniles. PMID:26029035

  18. Vulnerability assessment at a national level in Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsereteli, N.; Arabidze, V.; Varazanashvili, O.; Gugeshashvili, T.

    2012-04-01

    Vulnerability assessment at a national level in Georgia Nino Tsereteli, Vakhtang Arabidze, Otar Varazanashvili, Tengiz Gugeshashvili The risk always exists when cities are built on. Population growth in cities and urbanization in natural hazard-prone zones leads to infrastructure expansion. The goal of the society is to construct natural hazards resistant infrastructure and minimize the expected losses. This is a complicated task as there is always knowledge deficiency on real seismic hazard and vulnerability. Assessment of vulnerability is vital in risk analysis, as vulnerability is defined in many different ways. Work presented here mostly deals with assessment of infrastructure's and population vulnerability at national level in Georgia. This work was initiated by NATO SFP project "seismic Hazard and Risk Assessment for Southern Caucasus - Eastern Turkey Energy Corridors" and the two work packages WP4 (seismic risk) and WP5 (city scenarios) of risk module of EMME (Earthquake Model of the Middle East Region) project. First step was creation databases (inventory) of elements at risk in GIS. Element at risk were the buildings, population, pipelines. The inventories was studied and Created in GIS for the following categories: Building material, number of stories, number of entrances, condition of building, building period. For pipelines pipe tipe (continous or segmented), material, pipe diameter. Very important is to estimate the initial cost of building for assessment of economic losses. From this purpose the attempt was done and the algorithm of this estimation were prepared taking into account obtained the inventory. Build quality, reliability and durability are of special importance to corresponding state agencies and include different aesthetic, engineering, practical, social, technological and economical aspects. The necessity that all of these aspects satisfy existing normative requirements becomes evident as the building and structures come into exploitation. The long term usage of building is very complex. It relates to the reliability and durability of buildings. The long term usage and durability of a building is determined by the concept of depreciation. Depreciation of an entire building is calculated by summing the products of individual construction unit' depreciation rates and the corresponding value of these units within the building. This method of calculation is based on an assumption that depreciation is proportional to the building's (constructions) useful life. We used this methodology to create a matrix, which provides a way to evaluate the depreciation rates of buildings with different type and construction period and to determine their corresponding value. Finely some attempt was done to investigate how these structures were damaged by various hazards. In other words vulnerability curves were constrained on the basis on the relation between various hazard intensities and damage data.

  19. Climate Change and Infrastructure, Urban Systems, and Vulnerabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbanks, Thomas J; Fernandez, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    This Technical Report on Climate Change and Infrastructure, Urban Systems, and Vulnerabilities has been prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in support of the U.S. National Climate Assessment (NCA). It is a summary of the currently existing knowledge base on its topic, nested within a broader framing of issues and questions that need further attention in the longer run. The report arrives at a number of assessment findings, each associated with an evaluation of the level of consensus on that issue within the expert community, the volume of evidence available to support that judgment, and the section of the report that provides an explanation for the finding. Cross-sectoral issues related to infrastructures and urban systems have not received a great deal of attention to date in research literatures in general and climate change assessments in particular. As a result, this technical report is breaking new ground as a component of climate change vulnerability and impact assessments in the U.S., which means that some of its assessment findings are rather speculative, more in the nature of propositions for further study than specific conclusions that are offered with a high level of confidence and research support. But it is a start in addressing questions that are of interest to many policymakers and stakeholders. A central theme of the report is that vulnerabilities and impacts are issues beyond physical infrastructures themselves. The concern is with the value of services provided by infrastructures, where the true consequences of impacts and disruptions involve not only the costs associated with the clean-up, repair, and/or replacement of affected infrastructures but also economic, social, and environmental effects as supply chains are disrupted, economic activities are suspended, and/or social well-being is threatened. Current knowledge indicates that vulnerability concerns tend to be focused on extreme weather events associated with climate change that can disrupt infrastructure services, often cascading across infrastructures because of extensive interdependencies threatening health and local economies, especially in areas where human populations and economic activities are concentrated in urban areas. Vulnerabilities are especially large where infrastructures are subject to multiple stresses, beyond climate change alone; when they are located in areas vulnerable to extreme weather events; and if climate change is severe rather than moderate. But the report also notes that there are promising approaches for risk management, based on emerging lessons from a number of innovative initiatives in U.S. cities and other countries, involving both structural and non-structural (e.g., operational) options.

  20. Structural Vulnerability Analysis of Electric Power Distribution Grids

    E-print Network

    Koc, Yakup; Warnier, Martijn; Kumar, Tarun

    2015-01-01

    Power grid outages cause huge economical and societal costs. Disruptions in the power distribution grid are responsible for a significant fraction of electric power unavailability to customers. The impact of extreme weather conditions, continuously increasing demand, and the over-ageing of assets in the grid, deteriorates the safety of electric power delivery in the near future. It is this dependence on electric power that necessitates further research in the power distribution grid security assessment. Thus measures to analyze the robustness characteristics and to identify vulnerabilities as they exist in the grid are of utmost importance. This research investigates exactly those concepts- the vulnerability and robustness of power distribution grids from a topological point of view, and proposes a metric to quantify them with respect to assets in a distribution grid. Real-world data is used to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed metric as a tool to assess the criticality of assets in a distribution...

  1. Comprehensive care for vulnerable elderly veterans during disasters.

    PubMed

    Claver, Maria; Dobalian, Aram; Fickel, Jacqueline J; Ricci, Karen A; Mallers, Melanie Horn

    2013-01-01

    Despite problematic evacuation and sheltering of nursing home residents during Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, an exploration of the experiences of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) nursing homes (VANHs) is necessary for a comprehensive examination of the healthcare community's response to these disasters. VANH evacuations during these hurricanes have not been widely studied. This exploratory project aimed to provide information about the evacuation experiences and characteristics of vulnerable nursing home residents. Interviews with key informants from VHA facilities with nursing home staff and representatives revealed that physical harm, psychological distress, cognitive decline and increased social isolation were areas that deserved special attention for this vulnerable population. Moreover, physical, psychological and social needs were interconnected in that each influenced the others. Findings contribute to the general conversation about meeting the biopsychosocial needs of nursing home residents in an integrated healthcare delivery system and more broadly, the role of long-term care facilities in general in planning for future disasters. PMID:22901664

  2. Vulnerability of complex networks under path-based attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Cun-Lai; Cui, Wei

    2015-02-01

    We investigate vulnerability of complex networks including model networks and real-world networks subject to path-based attacks. Specifically, we remove approximately the longest simple path from a network iteratively until there are no paths left in the network. We propose two algorithms, the random augmenting approach (RPA) and the Hamilton-path based approach (HPA), for finding the approximately longest simple path in a network. Results demonstrate that steps of longest-path attacks increase with network density linearly for random networks, while exponentially increasing for scale-free networks. The more homogeneous the degree distribution is, the more fragile the network, which is different from the previous results of node or edge attacks. HPA is generally more efficient than RPA in the longest-path attacks of complex networks. These findings further help us understand the vulnerability of complex systems, better protect complex systems, and design more tolerant complex systems.

  3. Humanitarian responses to mass violence perpetrated against vulnerable populations.

    PubMed Central

    Gellert, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    This multidisciplinary review links three areas of legitimate inquiry for practitioners of medicine and public health. The first is occurrences of mass violence or genocide perpetrated against vulnerable populations, with a focus on the failure of national and international mechanisms to prevent or predict such violence. The second is evolving concepts of national sovereignty and an emerging framework in which the imperative to assist vulnerable populations supersedes a state's right to self determination. The last is how medical, public health, and other systems of surveillance and rapid assessment of mass violence can accelerate public awareness and facilitate structured, consistent political decision making to prevent mass violence and to provide international humanitarian assistance. Images p1000-a PMID:7580643

  4. Vulnerability, Sensitivity, and Coping/Adaptive Capacity Worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, Elizabeth L.; Brenkert, Antoinette L.

    2009-10-01

    Research and analyses have repeatedly shown that impacts of climate change will be unevenly distributed and will affect various societies in various ways. The severity of impacts will depend in part on ability to cope in the short term and adapt in the longer term. However, it has been difficult to find a comparative basis on which to assess differential impacts of climate change. This chapter describes the Vulnerability-Resilience Indicator Model that uses 18 proxy indicators, grouped into 8 elements, to assess on a quantitative basis the comparative potential vulnerability and resilience of countries to climate change. The model integrates socioeconomic and environmental information such as land use, crop production, water availability, per capita GDP, inequality, and health status. Comparative results for 160 countries are presented and analyzed.

  5. Probabilistic Vulnerability Assessment Based on Power Flow and Voltage Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Jian; Huang, Zhenyu; Wong, Pak C.; Ferryman, Thomas A.

    2010-04-30

    Risk assessment of large scale power systems has been an important problem in power system reliability study. Probabilistic technique provides a powerful tool to solve the task. In this paper, we present the results of a study on probabilistic vulnerability assessment on WECC system. Cumulant based expansion method is applied to obtain the probabilistic distribution function (PDF) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) of power flows on transmission lines and voltage. Overall risk index based on the system vulnerability analysis is calculated using the WECC system. The simulation results based on WECC system is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. The methodology can be applied to the risk analysis on large scale power systems.

  6. Vulnerability and adaptation of US shellfisheries to ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekstrom, Julia A.; Suatoni, Lisa; Cooley, Sarah R.; Pendleton, Linwood H.; Waldbusser, George G.; Cinner, Josh E.; Ritter, Jessica; Langdon, Chris; van Hooidonk, Ruben; Gledhill, Dwight; Wellman, Katharine; Beck, Michael W.; Brander, Luke M.; Rittschof, Dan; Doherty, Carolyn; Edwards, Peter E. T.; Portela, Rosimeiry

    2015-03-01

    Ocean acidification is a global, long-term problem whose ultimate solution requires carbon dioxide reduction at a scope and scale that will take decades to accomplish successfully. Until that is achieved, feasible and locally relevant adaptation and mitigation measures are needed. To help to prioritize societal responses to ocean acidification, we present a spatially explicit, multidisciplinary vulnerability analysis of coastal human communities in the United States. We focus our analysis on shelled mollusc harvests, which are likely to be harmed by ocean acidification. Our results highlight US regions most vulnerable to ocean acidification (and why), important knowledge and information gaps, and opportunities to adapt through local actions. The research illustrates the benefits of integrating natural and social sciences to identify actions and other opportunities while policy, stakeholders and scientists are still in relatively early stages of developing research plans and responses to ocean acidification.

  7. Assessing the Vulnerability of Agriculture to Climate Change in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khresat, Sa'eb; Shraidaeh, Fadi; Maddat, Amer

    2015-04-01

    Climate change represents one of the greatest environmental, social and economic threats facing Jordan. In particular, the combined effects of climate change and water scarcity threaten to affect food and water resources that are critical for livelihoods in Jordan. This is especially true for those communities who live in the dryland area in the country and who rely wholly on rain-fed agriculture. The exact nature and extent of the impact of climate change on temperature and precipitation distribution pattern remain uncertain and it is the poor and vulnerable who will be the most susceptible to climate change adverse effects. A vulnerability assessment of rain fed agriculture to climate change and variability in semi-arid parts of Jordan was conducted in 2014. The purpose of this study is to assess the vulnerability and resilience of the most vulnerable groups where rainfed and irrigated agriculture is practiced. Also, the study focused on quantifying the impacts on agricultural productivity in response to climate change. This will help policymakers and researchers better understand and anticipate the likely impacts of climate change on agriculture and on vulnerable communities in Jordan. Also, it will provide them with tools to identify and implement appropriate adaptation strategies. The data used includes; Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 adopted by the IPCC for its fifth Assessment Report (AR5). Those pathways were used for climate modeling. A decision support system (DSSAT) for agricultural production was used to assess the impact of climate changes on agricultural production. This approach was used for the Identification of climate change risk and their impacts on Agriculture. Outputs from models are used to assess the vulnerability of farmers and crops to climate and socio-economic change by estimating their sensitivity and capacity to adapt to external factors as a means of identifying what causes the differences in their vulnerability. Based on the projection models for the area, average temperature in Jordan is projected to increase between 1.2 and 1.6°C by 2050. These upward temperature trends are projected to continue beyond 2050. Projections for precipitation trends are projected to decrease by 16% by the year 2050. Evaporation is likely to increase due to higher temperatures. This is likely to increase the incidence of drought potential since precipitation is projected to decrease. It is concluded that the Overall vulnerability of agriculture to climate change in Jordan is high, where impacts such as drought and increased temperatures and decreased precipitation will be more pronounced. Major implications on rain fed agriculture are possible shorter growing season, increasing moisture and heat stress to field and horticultural crops and eventually low income and food insecurity. There were different impacts among studied communities, which is related to the: economic capability, local knowledge, physical infrastructure, institutional capacity, modern technology used, age group of farmers and diversification of their income.

  8. CARVE: The Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Charles E.; Dinardo, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    The Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) is a NASA Earth Ventures (EV-1) investigation designed to quantify correlations between atmospheric and surface state variables for the Alaskan terrestrial ecosystems through intensive seasonal aircraft campaigns, ground-based observations, and analysis sustained over a 5-year mission. CARVE bridges critical gaps in our knowledge and understanding of Arctic ecosystems, linkages between the Arctic hydrologic and terrestrial carbon cycles, and the feedbacks from fires and thawing permafrost. CARVE's objectives are to: (1) Directly test hypotheses attributing the mobilization of vulnerable Arctic carbon reservoirs to climate warming; (2) Deliver the first direct measurements and detailed maps of CO2 and CH4 sources on regional scales in the Alaskan Arctic; and (3) Demonstrate new remote sensing and modeling capabilities to quantify feedbacks between carbon fluxes and carbon cycle-climate processes in the Arctic (Figure 1). We describe the investigation design and results from 2011 test flights in Alaska.

  9. Vulnerability of a killer whale social network to disease outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimarães, Paulo R., Jr.; de Menezes, Márcio Argollo; Baird, Robin W.; Lusseau, David; Guimarães, Paulo; Dos Reis, Sérgio F.

    2007-10-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are among the main threats to conservation of biological diversity. A crucial task facing epidemiologists is to predict the vulnerability of populations of endangered animals to disease outbreaks. In this context, the network structure of social interactions within animal populations may affect disease spreading. However, endangered animal populations are often small and to investigate the dynamics of small networks is a difficult task. Using network theory, we show that the social structure of an endangered population of mammal-eating killer whales is vulnerable to disease outbreaks. This feature was found to be a consequence of the combined effects of the topology and strength of social links among individuals. Our results uncover a serious challenge for conservation of the species and its ecosystem. In addition, this study shows that the network approach can be useful to study dynamical processes in very small networks.

  10. Existential vulnerability: toward a psychopathology of limit situations.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Jaspers' concept of limit situations seems particularly appropriate not only to elucidate outstanding existential situations in general, but also basic preconditions for the occurrence of mental disorders. For this purpose, the concept is first explained in Jaspers' sense and then related to an 'existential vulnerability' of mentally ill persons that makes them experience even inconspicuous events as distressing limit situations. In such situations, an otherwise hidden fundamental condition of existence becomes manifest for them, e.g. the fragility of one's own body, the inevitability of freedom, or the finiteness of life. This fundamental condition is found unbearable and, as a reaction, gives rise to mental illness. This concept of existential vulnerability is illustrated by some psychopathological examples. PMID:23860487

  11. A vulnerability function for Mediterranean flash flood risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagiorgos, Konstantinos; Hübl, Johannes; Thaler, Thomas; Fuchs, Sven

    2014-05-01

    Flood risk is a major type of environmental hazard jeopardizing human development, and is usually defined as a functional relation between the hazard, such as the physical and statistical aspects of flooding (e.g. return period of a certain flow height, spatial extend of inundation), and the associated vulnerability, i.e. the exposure of people and assets to floods and the susceptibility of the elements at risk to suffer from flood damage. The assessment of vulnerability -from the quantitative point of view- expresses vulnerability as the expected degree of loss for a given element at risk as a consequence of a certain event. It is ranges on a scale from 0 (no damage) to 1 (complete destruction) and focuses on direct flood loss which is estimated by damage or loss functions. A methodology for the development of a vulnerability curve for Mediterranean flash flood risk assessment is presented. This curve is based on a relationship between the intensity of the process and the associated degree of loss of elements at risk. The computation procedure is based on a method combining spatially explicit loss data, data on the value of exposed elements at risk and data on flood intensities on an individual building scale (local scale). The developed methodology is applied for the district of East Attica in Greece, a Mediterranean region influenced by mountain and coastal characteristics of land development. The aim of the study is to provide a valuable tool for the local authorities and the decision makers, a necessary implementation of flood risk management emerging from the requirements laid down in the European Flood Directive, as well as for an assessment of potential costs emerging from future flood events in order to protect individual households.

  12. Sensitivity of estuaries to sea level rise: Vulnerability indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prandle, David; Lane, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    This study addresses the question of how tidally-dominated estuaries will adapt to rises in mean sea level and changes in river flows associated with global climate change. The aim was to develop generic 'Vulnerability Indices' to provide immediate indications of relative resilience or sensitivity. Four indices indicate the likely impacts on: (1) Mass flow, (2) Energetics, (3) Vertical mixing and (4) Salinity intrusion.

  13. Vulnerable populations: Hurricane Katrina as a case study.

    PubMed

    Zoraster, Richard M

    2010-01-01

    Mitigating disaster impact requires identifying risk factors. The increased vulnerability of the physically fragile is easily understood. Less obvious are the socio-economic risk factors, especially within relatively affluent societies. Hurricane Katrina demonstrated many of these risks within the United States. These factors include poverty, home ownership, poor English language proficiency, ethnic minorities, immigrant status, and high-density housing. These risk factors must be considered when planning for disaster preparation, mitigation, and response. PMID:20405467

  14. Collateral DNA Damage Makes Cancer Vulnerable | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    Genomic deletions promote cancer by disrupting or eliminating tumor-suppressor genes. Based on new results from researchers at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute at Harvard Medical School, it appears that these so-called driver mutations produce collateral damage on neighboring genes that actually exposes cancer cells to vulnerabilities and new avenues for attack.

  15. Martyrdom redefined: self-destructive killers and vulnerable narcissism.

    PubMed

    Bobadilla, Leonardo

    2014-08-01

    Lankford shows that suicide terrorists have much in common with maladjusted persons who die by suicide. However, what differentiates suicidal killers from those who "only" commit suicide? A key element may be vulnerable narcissism. Narcissism has been simultaneously linked to interpersonal aggression, achievement, and depression. These traits may explain the paradoxical picture of a person who may appear "normal" in some aspects, and yet hate himself and others so intensely as to seek mutual destruction. PMID:25162842

  16. Vulnerability to mild predator stress in serotonin transporter knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Adamec, Robert; Burton, Paul; Blundell, Jacqueline; Murphy, Dennis L; Holmes, Andrew

    2006-06-01

    Effect of predator stress on rat and mouse anxiety-like behavior may model aspects of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A single cat exposure of wild type (C57, CFW) mice can produce lasting anxiety-like effects in the elevated plus maze, light/dark box tests and startle. In addition, female but not male C57 mice are made more anxious in the plus maze by exposure to predator odors alone, suggesting differential vulnerability to predator stressors of differing intensity. There is a link between genetic variation in the serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) and anxiety in humans. This prompted the generation of SERT knockout mice [see Holmes A, Murphy DL, Crawley, JN. Biol Psychiatry 2003;54(10):953-9]. Present work used these mice to determine if there was a link between vulnerability to the anxiogenic effects of predator odors and abnormalities of 5-HT transmission induced by a life long reduction in 5-HT reuptake. Wild type (WT, C57 background), heterozygous (SERT +/-, HET) mice and homozygous knockout (SERT -/-, KO) were assigned to handled control groups or groups exposed for 10 min to a large testing room rich in cat odor. One week after handling or room exposure, anxiety testing took place in the dark phase of the light/dark cycle, in red light. Predator odor exposure was selectively anxiogenic in the plus maze and light/dark box tests in SERT -/- mice. Exposure to predator odor did not potentiate startle. Findings suggest a role for abnormalities in 5-HT transmission in vulnerability to some of the lasting anxiogenic effects of species relevant stressors and possibly in vulnerability to PTSD. PMID:16546269

  17. Country Stakes in Climate Change Negotiations. Two Dimensions of Vulnerability

    SciTech Connect

    Buys, P.; Deichmann, U.; Meisner, C.; That, Thao Ton; Wheeler, D.

    2007-08-15

    Using a comprehensive geo-referenced database of indicators relating to global change and energy, the paper assesses countries' likely attitudes with respect to international treaties that regulate carbon emissions. The authors distinguish between source and impact vulnerability and classify countries according to these dimensions. The findings show clear differences in the factors that determine likely negotiating positions. This analysis and the resulting detailed, country level information help to explain the incentives required to make the establishment of such agreements more likely.

  18. Improving delivery of primary care for vulnerable migrants

    PubMed Central

    Pottie, Kevin; Batista, Ricardo; Mayhew, Maureen; Mota, Lorena; Grant, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To identify and prioritize innovative strategies to address the health concerns of vulnerable migrant populations. Design Modified Delphi consensus process. Setting Canada. Participants Forty-one primary care practitioners, including family physicians and nurse practitioners, who provided care for migrant populations. Methods We used a modified Delphi consensus process to identify and prioritize innovative strategies that could potentially improve the delivery of primary health care for vulnerable migrants. Forty-one primary care practitioners from various centres across Canada who cared for migrant populations proposed strategies and participated in the consensus process. Main findings The response rate was 93% for the first round. The 3 most highly ranked practice strategies to address delivery challenges for migrants were language interpretation, comprehensive interdisciplinary care, and evidence-based guidelines. Training and mentorship for practitioners, intersectoral collaboration, and immigrant community engagement ranked fourth, fifth, and sixth, respectively, as strategies to address delivery challenges. These strategies aligned with strategies coming out of the United States, Europe, and Australia, with the exception of the proposed evidence-based guidelines. Conclusion Primary health care practices across Canada now need to evolve to address the challenges inherent in caring for vulnerable migrants. The selected strategies provide guidance for practices and health systems interested in improving health care delivery for migrant populations. PMID:24452576

  19. Socioeconomic Factors and Vulnerability to Outbreaks of Leptospirosis in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Bacallao, Jorge; Schneider, Maria Cristina; Najera, Patricia; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Soto, Aida; Marquiño, Wilmer; Sáenz, Carlos; Jiménez, Eduardo; Moreno, Gilberto; Chávez, Octavio; Galan, Deise I.; Espinal, Marcos A.

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an epidemic-prone zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide, with more than 500,000 human cases reported annually. It is influenced by environmental and socioeconomic factors that affect the occurrence of outbreaks and the incidence of the disease. Critical areas and potential drivers for leptospirosis outbreaks have been identified in Nicaragua, where several conditions converge and create an appropriate scenario for the development of leptospirosis. The objectives of this study were to explore possible socioeconomic variables related to leptospirosis critical areas and to construct and validate a vulnerability index based on municipal socioeconomic indicators. Municipalities with lower socioeconomic status (greater unsatisfied basic needs for quality of the household and for sanitary services, and higher extreme poverty and illiteracy rates) were identified with the highest leptospirosis rates. The municipalities with highest local vulnerability index should be the priority for intervention. A distinction between risk given by environmental factors and vulnerability to risk given by socioeconomic conditions was shown as important, which also applies to the “causes of outbreaks” and “causes of cases”. PMID:25153463

  20. General Vulnerability and Exposure Profile to Tsunami in Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, R.; Huérfano-Moreno, V.

    2012-12-01

    The Puerto Rico archipelago, located in the seismically active Caribbean region, has been directly affected by tsunamis in the last two centuries. The M 7.3 tsunamigenic earthquake, which occurred on October 11, 1918, caused $29 million in damage, death of 116 people and 100 residents were reported as missing. Presently, deficiencies on urban planning have induced an increase on the number of vulnerable people living inside the tsunami flood areas. Tsunami-prone areas have been delimited for Puerto Rico based on numerical tsunami modeling. However, the demographic, social and physical (e.g. critical and essential facilities) characteristics of these areas have not been documented in detail. We are conducting a municipality and community-level tsunami vulnerability and exposure study using Geographical Information System (GIS) tool. The results of our study are being integrated into the Puerto Rico Disaster Decision Support Tool (DDST). The DDST is a tool that brings access, at no cost, to a variety of updated geo-referenced information for Puerto Rico. This tool provides internet-based scalable maps that will aid emergency managers and decision-makers on their responsibilities and will improve Puerto Rico communities' resilience against tsunami hazard. This project aims to provide an initial estimate of Puerto Rico vulnerability and exposure to tsunami and brings to the community a technological tool that will help increase their awareness of this hazard and to assist them on their decisions.

  1. Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment for Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher P. Ischay; Ernest L. Fossum; Polly C. Buotte; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Alexander Peterson

    2014-10-01

    The University of Idaho (UI) was asked to participate in the development of a climate change vulnerability assessment for Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This report describes the outcome of that assessment. The climate change happening now, due in large part to human activities, is expected to continue in the future. UI and INL used a common framework for assessing vulnerability that considers exposure (future climate change), sensitivity (system or component responses to climate), impact (exposure combined with sensitivity), and adaptive capacity (capability of INL to modify operations to minimize climate change impacts) to assess vulnerability. Analyses of climate change (exposure) revealed that warming that is ongoing at INL will continue in the coming decades, with increased warming in later decades and under scenarios of greater greenhouse gas emissions. Projections of precipitation are more uncertain, with multi model means exhibiting somewhat wetter conditions and more wet days per year. Additional impacts relevant to INL include estimates of more burned area and increased evaporation and transpiration, leading to reduced soil moisture and plant growth.

  2. Npas4 deficiency increases vulnerability to juvenile stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Coutellier, Laurence; Gilbert, Valerie; Shepard, Ryan

    2015-12-15

    During specific windows of postnatal brain development, individuals are particularly susceptible to developing mental illnesses in adulthood. Adolescence is such a window during which environmental stress can have long-lasting consequences on social and cognitive functions. In individuals, highly vulnerable to stress, a relatively mild stressful situation can trigger the onset of psychiatric conditions. The genetic factors and mechanisms underlying vulnerability to stress are not well understood. Here, we show that variations in expression of the brain-specific transcription factor Npas4 contributes to the long-term consequences of juvenile stress on cognitive abilities. We observed that transgenic Npas4-deficient mice exposed to chronic mild stress during adolescence (but not during adulthood) develop prefrontal cortex-dependent cognitive deficits in adulthood, while the same stress did not affect Npas4 wild-type mice. These cognitive deficits were accompanied by fewer neuroblasts in the subventricular zone, and reduced ability of these immature neuronal cells to migrate away from this neurogenic zone toward cortical regions. These findings suggest for the first time that the transcription factor Npas4 could play a significant role in coping with juvenile stress. They also suggest that Npas4 could modulate resilience or vulnerability to stress by mediating the effects of stress on neurogenesis. PMID:25911220

  3. Community clusters of tsunami vulnerability in the US Pacific Northwest.

    PubMed

    Wood, Nathan J; Jones, Jeanne; Spielman, Seth; Schmidtlein, Mathew C

    2015-04-28

    Many coastal communities throughout the world are threatened by local (or near-field) tsunamis that could inundate low-lying areas in a matter of minutes after generation. Although the hazard and sustainability literature often frames vulnerability conceptually as a multidimensional issue involving exposure, sensitivity, and resilience to a hazard, assessments often focus on one element or do not recognize the hazard context. We introduce an analytical framework for describing variations in population vulnerability to tsunami hazards that integrates (i) geospatial approaches to identify the number and characteristics of people in hazard zones, (ii) anisotropic path distance models to estimate evacuation travel times to safety, and (iii) cluster analysis to classify communities with similar vulnerability. We demonstrate this approach by classifying 49 incorporated cities, 7 tribal reservations, and 17 counties from northern California to northern Washington that are directly threatened by tsunami waves associated with a Cascadia subduction zone earthquake. Results suggest three primary community groups: (i) relatively low numbers of exposed populations with varied demographic sensitivities, (ii) high numbers of exposed populations but sufficient time to evacuate before wave arrival, and (iii) moderate numbers of exposed populations but insufficient time to evacuate. Results can be used to enhance general hazard-awareness efforts with targeted interventions, such as education and outreach tailored to local demographics, evacuation training, and/or vertical evacuation refuges. PMID:25870283

  4. Trajectory of Adolescent Cannabis Use on Addiction Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Hurd, Yasmin L.; Michaelides, Michael; Miller, Michael L.; Jutras-Aswad, Didier

    2013-01-01

    The adolescent brain is a period of dynamic development making it vulnerable to environmental factors such as drug exposure. Of the illicit drugs, cannabis is most used by teenagers since it is perceived by many to be of little harm. This perception has led to a growing number of states approving its legalization and increased accessibility. Most of the debates and ensuing policies regarding cannabis were done without consideration of its impact on one of the most vulnerable population, namely teens, or without consideration of scientific data. We provide an overview of the endocannabinoid system in relation to adolescent cannabis exposure and provide insights regarding factors such as genetics and behavioral traits that confer risk for subsequent addiction. While it is clear that more systematic scientific studies are needed to understand the long-term impact of adolescent cannabis exposure on brain and behavior, the current evidence suggests that it has a far-reaching influence on adult addictive behaviors particularly for certain subsets of vulnerable individuals. PMID:23954491

  5. Community clusters of tsunami vulnerability in the US Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Nathan J.; Jones, Jeanne M.; Spielman, Seth; Schmidtlein, Mathew C.

    2015-01-01

    Many coastal communities throughout the world are threatened by local (or near-field) tsunamis that could inundate low-lying areas in a matter of minutes after generation. Although the hazard and sustainability literature often frames vulnerability conceptually as a multidimensional issue involving exposure, sensitivity, and resilience to a hazard, assessments often focus on one element or do not recognize the hazard context. We introduce an analytical framework for describing variations in population vulnerability to tsunami hazards that integrates (i) geospatial approaches to identify the number and characteristics of people in hazard zones, (ii) anisotropic path distance models to estimate evacuation travel times to safety, and (iii) cluster analysis to classify communities with similar vulnerability. We demonstrate this approach by classifying 49 incorporated cities, 7 tribal reservations, and 17 counties from northern California to northern Washington that are directly threatened by tsunami waves associated with a Cascadia subduction zone earthquake. Results suggest three primary community groups: (i) relatively low numbers of exposed populations with varied demographic sensitivities, (ii) high numbers of exposed populations but sufficient time to evacuate before wave arrival, and (iii) moderate numbers of exposed populations but insufficient time to evacuate. Results can be used to enhance general hazard-awareness efforts with targeted interventions, such as education and outreach tailored to local demographics, evacuation training, and/or vertical evacuation refuges.

  6. Trajectory of adolescent cannabis use on addiction vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Hurd, Yasmin L; Michaelides, Michael; Miller, Michael L; Jutras-Aswad, Didier

    2014-01-01

    The adolescent brain is a period of dynamic development making it vulnerable to environmental factors such as drug exposure. Of the illicit drugs, cannabis is most used by teenagers since it is perceived by many to be of little harm. This perception has led to a growing number of states approving its legalization and increased accessibility. Most of the debates and ensuing policies regarding cannabis were done without consideration of its impact on one of the most vulnerable population, namely teens, or without consideration of scientific data. We provide an overview of the endocannabinoid system in relation to adolescent cannabis exposure and provide insights regarding factors such as genetics and behavioral traits that confer risk for subsequent addiction. While it is clear that more systematic scientific studies are needed to understand the long-term impact of adolescent cannabis exposure on brain and behavior, the current evidence suggests that it has a far-reaching influence on adult addictive behaviors particularly for certain subsets of vulnerable individuals. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue'. PMID:23954491

  7. Community clusters of tsunami vulnerability in the US Pacific Northwest

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Nathan J.; Jones, Jeanne; Spielman, Seth; Schmidtlein, Mathew C.

    2015-01-01

    Many coastal communities throughout the world are threatened by local (or near-field) tsunamis that could inundate low-lying areas in a matter of minutes after generation. Although the hazard and sustainability literature often frames vulnerability conceptually as a multidimensional issue involving exposure, sensitivity, and resilience to a hazard, assessments often focus on one element or do not recognize the hazard context. We introduce an analytical framework for describing variations in population vulnerability to tsunami hazards that integrates (i) geospatial approaches to identify the number and characteristics of people in hazard zones, (ii) anisotropic path distance models to estimate evacuation travel times to safety, and (iii) cluster analysis to classify communities with similar vulnerability. We demonstrate this approach by classifying 49 incorporated cities, 7 tribal reservations, and 17 counties from northern California to northern Washington that are directly threatened by tsunami waves associated with a Cascadia subduction zone earthquake. Results suggest three primary community groups: (i) relatively low numbers of exposed populations with varied demographic sensitivities, (ii) high numbers of exposed populations but sufficient time to evacuate before wave arrival, and (iii) moderate numbers of exposed populations but insufficient time to evacuate. Results can be used to enhance general hazard-awareness efforts with targeted interventions, such as education and outreach tailored to local demographics, evacuation training, and/or vertical evacuation refuges. PMID:25870283

  8. Rapid Assessment of Seismic Vulnerability in Palestinian Refugee Camps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Dabbeek, Jalal N.; El-Kelani, Radwan J.

    Studies of historical and recorded earthquakes in Palestine demonstrate that damaging earthquakes are occurring frequently along the Dead Sea Transform: Earthquake of 11 July 1927 (ML 6.2), Earthquake of 11 February 2004 (ML 5.2). In order to reduce seismic vulnerability of buildings, losses in lives, properties and infrastructures, an attempt was made to estimate the percentage of damage degrees and losses at selected refugee camps: Al Ama`ri, Balata and Dhaishe. Assessing the vulnerability classes of building structures was carried out according to the European Macro-Seismic Scale 1998 (EMS-98) and the Fedral Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The rapid assessment results showed that very heavy structural and non structural damages will occur in the common buildings of the investigated Refugee Camps (many buildings will suffer from damages grades 4 and 5). Bad quality of buildings in terms of design and construction, lack of uniformity, absence of spaces between the building and the limited width of roads will definitely increase the seismic vulnerability under the influence of moderate-strong (M 6-7) earthquakes in the future.

  9. The hippocampus in aging and disease: From plasticity to vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, T; Wulff, P

    2015-11-19

    The hippocampus has a pivotal role in learning and in the formation and consolidation of memory and is critically involved in the regulation of emotion, fear, anxiety, and stress. Studies of the hippocampus have been central to the study of memory in humans and in recent years, the regional specialization and organization of hippocampal functions have been elucidated in experimental models and in human neurological and psychiatric diseases. The hippocampus has long been considered a classic model for the study of neuroplasticity as many examples of synaptic plasticity such as long-term potentiation and -depression have been identified and demonstrated in hippocampal circuits. Neuroplasticity is the ability to adapt and reorganize the structure or function to internal or external stimuli and occurs at the cellular, population, network or behavioral level and is reflected in the cytological and network architecture as well as in intrinsic properties of hippocampal neurons and circuits. The high degree of hippocampal neuroplasticity might, however, be also negatively reflected in the pronounced vulnerability of the hippocampus to deleterious conditions such as ischemia, epilepsy, chronic stress, neurodegeneration and aging targeting hippocampal structure and function and leading to cognitive deficits. Considering this framework of plasticity and vulnerability, we here review basic principles of hippocampal anatomy and neuroplasticity on various levels as well as recent findings regarding the functional organization of the hippocampus in light of the regional vulnerability in Alzheimer's disease, ischemia, epilepsy, neuroinflammation and aging. PMID:26241337

  10. Assessment of floodplain vulnerability during extreme Mississippi River flood 2011.

    PubMed

    Goodwell, Allison E; Zhu, Zhenduo; Dutta, Debsunder; Greenberg, Jonathan A; Kumar, Praveen; Garcia, Marcelo H; Rhoads, Bruce L; Holmes, Robert R; Parker, Gary; Berretta, David P; Jacobson, Robert B

    2014-01-01

    Regional change in the variability and magnitude of flooding could be a major consequence of future global climate change. Extreme floods have the capacity to rapidly transform landscapes and expose landscape vulnerabilities through highly variable spatial patterns of inundation, erosion, and deposition. We use the historic activation of the Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway during the Mississippi and Ohio River Flooding of 2011 as a scientifically unique stress experiment to analyze indicators of floodplain vulnerability. We use pre- and postflood airborne Light Detection and Ranging data sets to locate erosional and depositional hotspots over the 540 km(2) agricultural Floodway. While riparian vegetation between the river and the main levee breach likely prevented widespread deposition, localized scour and deposition occurred near the levee breaches. Eroded gullies nearly 1 km in length were observed at a low ridge of a relict meander scar of the Mississippi River. Our flow modeling and spatial mapping analysis attributes this vulnerability to a combination of erodible soils, flow acceleration associated with legacy fluvial landforms, and a lack of woody vegetation to anchor soil and enhance flow resistance. Results from this study could guide future mitigation and adaptation measures in cases of extreme flooding. PMID:24512322

  11. Vulnerability to temperature-related mortality in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jong-Tae; Anderson, G. Brooke; Bell, Michelle L.

    2011-07-01

    Studies indicate that the mortality effects of temperature may vary by population and region, although little is known about the vulnerability of subgroups to these risks in Korea. This study examined the relationship between temperature and cause-specific mortality for Seoul, Korea, for the period 2000-7, including whether some subgroups are particularly vulnerable with respect to sex, age, education and place of death. The authors applied time-series models allowing nonlinear relationships for heat- and cold-related mortality, and generated exposure-response curves. Both high and low ambient temperatures were associated with increased risk for daily mortality. Mortality risk was 10.2% (95% confidence interval 7.43, 13.0%) higher at the 90th percentile of daily mean temperatures (25 °C) compared to the 50th percentile (15 °C). Mortality risk was 12.2% (3.69, 21.3%) comparing the 10th (-1 °C) and 50th percentiles of temperature. Cardiovascular deaths showed a higher risk to cold, whereas respiratory deaths showed a higher risk to heat effect, although the differences were not statistically significant. Susceptible populations were identified such as females, the elderly, those with no education, and deaths occurring outside of a hospital for heat- and cold-related total mortality. Our findings provide supportive evidence of a temperature-mortality relationship in Korea and indicate that some subpopulations are particularly vulnerable.

  12. Assessment of floodplain vulnerability during extreme Mississippi River flood 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodwell, Allison E.; Zhu, Zhenduo; Dutta, Debsunder; Greenberg, Jonathan A.; Kumar, Praveen; Garcia, Marcelo H.; Rhoads, Bruce L.; Holmes, Jr., Robert R.; Parker, Gary; Berretta, David P.; Jacobson, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Regional change in the variability and magnitude of flooding could be a major consequence of future global climate change. Extreme floods have the capacity to rapidly transform landscapes and expose landscape vulnerabilities through highly variable spatial patterns of inundation, erosion, and deposition. We use the historic activation of the Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway during the Mississippi and Ohio River Flooding of 2011 as a scientifically unique stress experiment to analyze indicators of floodplain vulnerability. We use pre- and postflood airborne Light Detection and Ranging data sets to locate erosional and depositional hotspots over the 540 km2 agricultural Floodway. While riparian vegetation between the river and the main levee breach likely prevented widespread deposition, localized scour and deposition occurred near the levee breaches. Eroded gullies nearly 1 km in length were observed at a low ridge of a relict meander scar of the Mississippi River. Our flow modeling and spatial mapping analysis attributes this vulnerability to a combination of erodible soils, flow acceleration associated with legacy fluvial landforms, and a lack of woody vegetation to anchor soil and enhance flow resistance. Results from this study could guide future mitigation and adaptation measures in cases of extreme flooding.

  13. Putting vulnerability to climate change on the map: a review of approaches, benefits, and risks

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, Benjamin L

    2011-01-01

    There is growing demand among stakeholders across public and private institutions for spatially-explicit information regarding vulnerability to climate change at the local scale. However, the challenges associated with mapping the geography of climate change vulnerability are non-trivial, both conceptually and technically, suggesting the need for more critical evaluation of this practice. Here, we review climate change vulnerability mapping in the context of four key questions that are fundamental to assessment design. First, what are the goals of the assessment? A review of published assessments yields a range of objective statements that emphasize problem orientation or decision-making about adaptation actions. Second, how is the assessment of vulnerability framed? Assessments vary with respect to what values are assessed (vulnerability of what) and the underlying determinants of vulnerability that are considered (vulnerability to what). The selected frame ultimately influences perceptions of the primary driving forces of vulnerability as well as preferences regarding management alternatives. Third, what are the technical methods by which an assessment is conducted? The integration of vulnerability determinants into a common map remains an emergent and subjective practice associated with a number of methodological challenges. Fourth, who participates in the assessment and how will it be used to facilitate change? Assessments are often conducted under the auspices of benefiting stakeholders, yet many lack direct engagement with stakeholders. Each of these questions is reviewed in turn by drawing on an illustrative set of 45 vulnerability mapping studies appearing in the literature. A number of pathways for placing vulnerability

  14. Assessment Model of Ecoenvironmental Vulnerability Based on Improved Entropy Weight Method

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xianqi; Wang, Chenbo; Li, Enkuan; Xu, Cundong

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of ecoenvironmental vulnerability plays an important role in the guidance of regional planning, the construction and protection of ecological environment, which requires comprehensive consideration on regional resources, environment, ecology, society and other factors. Based on the driving mechanism and evolution characteristics of ecoenvironmental vulnerability in cold and arid regions of China, a novel evaluation index system on ecoenvironmental vulnerability is proposed in this paper. For the disadvantages of conventional entropy weight method, an improved entropy weight assessment model on ecoenvironmental vulnerability is developed and applied to evaluate the ecoenvironmental vulnerability in western Jilin Province of China. The assessing results indicate that the model is suitable for ecoenvironmental vulnerability assessment, and it shows more reasonable evaluation criterion, more distinct insights and satisfactory results combined with the practical conditions. The model can provide a new method for regional ecoenvironmental vulnerability evaluation. PMID:25133260

  15. Spectral CT imaging of vulnerable plaque with two independent biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baturin, Pavlo; Alivov, Yahya; Molloi, Sabee

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of a novel four-material decomposition technique for assessing the vulnerability of plaque with two contrast materials spectral computer tomography (CT) using two independent markers: plaque's inflammation and spotty calcification. A simulation study was conducted using an energy-sensitive photon-counting detector for k-edge imaging of the coronary arteries. In addition to detecting the inflammation status, which is known as a biological marker of a plaque's vulnerability, we use spotty calcium concentration as an independent marker to test a plaque's vulnerability. We have introduced a new method for detecting and quantifying calcium concentrations in the presence of two contrast materials (iodine and gold), calcium and soft tissue background. In this method, four-material decomposition was performed on a pixel-by-pixel basis, assuming there was an arbitrary mixture of materials in the voxel. The concentrations of iodine and gold were determined by the k-edge material decomposition based on the maximum likelihood method. The calibration curves of the attenuation coefficients, with respect to the concentrations of different materials, were used to separate the calcium signal from both contrast materials and different soft tissues in the mixtures. Three different materials (muscle, blood and lipid) were independently used as soft tissue. The simulations included both ideal and more realistic energy resolving detectors to measure the polychromatic photon spectrum in single slice parallel beam geometry. The ideal detector was used together with a 3 cm diameter digital phantom to demonstrate the decomposition method while a more realistic detector and a 33 × 24 cm2 digital chest phantom were simulated to validate the vulnerability assessment technique. A 120 kVp spectrum was generated to produce photon flux sufficient for detecting contrast materials above the k-edges of iodine (33.2 keV) and gold (80.7 keV). By performing simulations on a 3 cm diameter digital phantom, we successfully identified four materials that were simultaneously present in the mixture at different proportions and in multiple locations on the phantom. Quantitative analysis with a chest digital phantom showed that the results for iodine, gold and calcium were highly correlated with the known concentrations. The analysis revealed a potentially powerful technique for assessing a plaque's vulnerability with two independent markers. High correlation and low relative errors between calculated and known materials’ concentrations showed that the method is feasible. This technique can potentially have a high clinical impact.

  16. Hydropower and sustainability: resilience and vulnerability in China's powersheds.

    PubMed

    McNally, Amy; Magee, Darrin; Wolf, Aaron T

    2009-07-01

    Large dams represent a whole complex of social, economic and ecological processes, perhaps more than any other large infrastructure project. Today, countries with rapidly developing economies are constructing new dams to provide energy and flood control to growing populations in riparian and distant urban communities. If the system is lacking institutional capacity to absorb these physical and institutional changes there is potential for conflict, thereby threatening human security. In this paper, we propose analyzing sustainability (political, socioeconomic, and ecological) in terms of resilience versus vulnerability, framed within the spatial abstraction of a powershed. The powershed framework facilitates multi-scalar and transboundary analysis while remaining focused on the questions of resilience and vulnerability relating to hydropower dams. Focusing on examples from China, this paper describes the complex nature of dams using the sustainability and powershed frameworks. We then analyze the roles of institutions in China to understand the relationships between power, human security and the socio-ecological system. To inform the study of conflicts over dams China is a particularly useful case study because we can examine what happens at the international, national and local scales. The powershed perspective allows us to examine resilience and vulnerability across political boundaries from a dynamic, process-defined analytical scale while remaining focused on a host of questions relating to hydro-development that invoke drivers and impacts on national and sub-national scales. The ability to disaggregate the affects of hydropower dam construction from political boundaries allows for a deeper analysis of resilience and vulnerability. From our analysis we find that reforms in China's hydropower sector since 1996 have been motivated by the need to create stability at the national scale rather than resilient solutions to China's growing demand for energy and water resource control at the local and international scales. Some measures that improved economic development through the market economy and a combination of dam construction and institutional reform may indeed improve hydro-political resilience at a single scale. However, if China does address large-scale hydropower construction's potential to create multi-scale geopolitical tensions, they may be vulnerable to conflict - though not necessarily violent - in domestic and international political arenas. We conclude with a look toward a resilient basin institution for the Nu/Salween River, the site of a proposed large-scale hydropower development effort in China and Myanmar. PMID:19013007

  17. European information on climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jol, A.; Isoard, S.

    2010-09-01

    Vulnerability to natural and technological disasters is increasing due to a combination of intensifying land use, increasing industrial development, further urban expansion and expanding infrastructure and also climate change. At EU level the European Commission's White Paper on adaptation to climate change (published in 2009) highlights that adaptation actions should be focused on the most vulnerable areas and communities in Europe (e.g. mountains, coastal areas, river flood prone areas, Mediterranean, Arctic). Mainstreaming of climate change into existing EU policies will be a key policy, including within the Water Framework Directive, Marine Strategy Framework Directive, Nature protection and biodiversity policies, integrated coastal zone management, other (sectoral) policies (agriculture, forestry, energy, transport, health) and disaster risk prevention. 2010 is the international year on biodiversity and the Conference of Parties of the biodiversity convention will meet in autumn 2010 (Japan) to discuss amongst other post-2010 strategies, objectives and indicators. Both within the Biodiversity Convention (CBD) and the Climate Change Convention (UNFCCC) there is increasing recognition of the need for integration of biodiversity conservation into climate change mitigation and adaptation activities. Furthermore a number of European countries and also some regions have started to prepare and/or have adopted national adaptation plans or frameworks. Sharing of good practices on climate change vulnerability methods and adaptation actions is so far limited, but is essential to improve such plans, at national, sub national and local level where much of the adaptation action is already taking place and will be expanding in future, also involving increasingly the business community. The EU Clearinghouse on CC impacts, vulnerability and adaptation should address these needs and it is planned to be operational end of 2011. The EEA is expected to have a role in its development in 2010 and is likely to manage the system after 2011. The European Commission in its Communication in 2009 on disaster risk prevention also calls for improving and better sharing of data on disasters, disaster risk mapping and disaster risk management, in the context of the EU civil protection mechanism. Such information might also be linked to the planned EU Clearinghouse on climate change adaptation. The activities of EEA on climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation (including disaster risk reduction) include indicators of the impacts of climate change; a regularly updated overview of national assessments and adaptation plans on the EEA web site and specific focused reports, e.g. on adaptation to the challenges of changing water resources in the Alps (2009) and on analysis of past trends in natural disasters (due in 2010) and regular expert meetings and workshops with EEA member countries. The ECAC presentation will include the latest developments in the EU Clearinghouse on adaptation and progress in relevant EEA activities.

  18. Trait-Like Vulnerability to Total and Partial Sleep Loss

    PubMed Central

    Rupp, Tracy L.; Wesensten, Nancy J.; Balkin, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the extent to which individual differences in vulnerability to total sleep deprivation also reflect individual differences in vulnerability to multiple nights of sleep restriction. Design: Two sleep loss conditions (order counterbalanced) separated by 2 to 4 weeks: (a) total sleep deprivation (TSD) of 2 nights (63 h continuous wakefulness); (b) sleep restriction (SR) of 7 nights of 3 h nightly time in bed (TIB). Both conditions were preceded by 7 in-laboratory nights with 10 h nightly TIB; and followed by 3 recovery nights with 8 h nightly TIB. Measures of cognitive performance (psychomotor vigilance, working memory [1-Back], and mathematical processing), objective alertness, subjective sleepiness, and mood were obtained at regular intervals under both conditions. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) were computed using outcome metrics averaged over the last day (08:00-20:00) of TSD and SR. Setting: Residential sleep/performance testing facility. Participants: Nineteen healthy adults (ages 18-39; 11 males, 8 females). Interventions: 2 nights of TSD and 7 nights SR (3 h nightly TIB). Results: Volunteers who displayed greater vulnerability to TSD displayed greater vulnerability to SR on cognitive performance tasks (ICC: PVT lapses = 0.89; PVT speed = 0.86; 1-Back = 0.88; mathematical processing = 0.68, Ps < 0.05). In addition, trait-like responsivity to TSD/SR was found for mood variables vigor (ICC = 0.91), fatigue (ICC = 0.73), and happiness (ICC = 0.85) (all Ps < 0.05). Conclusion: Resilience to sleep loss is a trait-like characteristic that reflects an individual's ability to maintain performance during both types of sleep loss (SR and TSD). Whether the findings extend to sleep schedules other than those investigated here (63 h of TSD and 7 nights of 3 h nightly TIB) will be the focus of future studies. Citation: Rupp TL; Wesensten NJ; Balkin TJ. Trait-like vulnerability to total and partial sleep loss. SLEEP 2012;35(8):1163-1172. PMID:22851812

  19. The arctic water resource vulnerability index: An integrated assessment tool for community resilience and vulnerability with respect to freshwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alessa, L.; Kliskey, A.; Lammers, R.; Arp, C.; White, D.; Hinzman, L.; Busey, R.

    2008-01-01

    People in the Arctic face uncertainty in their daily lives as they contend with environmental changes at a range of scales from local to global. Freshwater is a critical resource to people, and although water resource indicators have been developed that operate from regional to global scales and for midlatitude to equatorial environments, no appropriate index exists for assessing the vulnerability of Arctic communities to changing water resources at the local scale. The Arctic Water Resource Vulnerability Index (AWRVI) is proposed as a tool that Arctic communities can use to assess their relative vulnerability-resilience to changes in their water resources from a variety of biophysical and socioeconomic processes. The AWRVI is based on a social-ecological systems perspective that includes physical and social indicators of change and is demonstrated in three case study communities/watersheds in Alaska. These results highlight the value of communities engaging in the process of using the AWRVI and the diagnostic capability of examining the suite of constituent physical and social scores rather than the total AWRVI score alone. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  20. The arctic water resource vulnerability index: an integrated assessment tool for community resilience and vulnerability with respect to freshwater.

    PubMed

    Alessa, Lilian; Kliskey, Andrew; Lammers, Richard; Arp, Chris; White, Dan; Hinzman, Larry; Busey, Robert

    2008-09-01

    People in the Arctic face uncertainty in their daily lives as they contend with environmental changes at a range of scales from local to global. Freshwater is a critical resource to people, and although water resource indicators have been developed that operate from regional to global scales and for midlatitude to equatorial environments, no appropriate index exists for assessing the vulnerability of Arctic communities to changing water resources at the local scale. The Arctic Water Resource Vulnerability Index (AWRVI) is proposed as a tool that Arctic communities can use to assess their relative vulnerability-resilience to changes in their water resources from a variety of biophysical and socioeconomic processes. The AWRVI is based on a social-ecological systems perspective that includes physical and social indicators of change and is demonstrated in three case study communities/watersheds in Alaska. These results highlight the value of communities engaging in the process of using the AWRVI and the diagnostic capability of examining the suite of constituent physical and social scores rather than the total AWRVI score alone. PMID:18560929

  1. The Arctic Water Resource Vulnerability Index: An Integrated Assessment Tool for Community Resilience and Vulnerability with Respect to Freshwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessa, Lilian; Kliskey, Andrew; Lammers, Richard; Arp, Chris; White, Dan; Hinzman, Larry; Busey, Robert

    2008-09-01

    People in the Arctic face uncertainty in their daily lives as they contend with environmental changes at a range of scales from local to global. Freshwater is a critical resource to people, and although water resource indicators have been developed that operate from regional to global scales and for midlatitude to equatorial environments, no appropriate index exists for assessing the vulnerability of Arctic communities to changing water resources at the local scale. The Arctic Water Resource Vulnerability Index (AWRVI) is proposed as a tool that Arctic communities can use to assess their relative vulnerability-resilience to changes in their water resources from a variety of biophysical and socioeconomic processes. The AWRVI is based on a social-ecological systems perspective that includes physical and social indicators of change and is demonstrated in three case study communities/watersheds in Alaska. These results highlight the value of communities engaging in the process of using the AWRVI and the diagnostic capability of examining the suite of constituent physical and social scores rather than the total AWRVI score alone.

  2. 2005-05-16: JGS-Portal Multiple Cross-Site Scripting and SQL Injection Vulnerabilities 2005-05-16: WoltLab Burning Board Verify_email Function SQL Injection Vulnerability

    E-print Network

    Livshits, Ben

    #12;! " 2005-05-16: JGS-Portal Multiple Cross-Site Scripting and SQL Injection Vulnerabilities 2005-05-16: WoltLab Burning Board Verify_email Function SQL Injection Vulnerability 2005-05-16: Version Cue Local Privilege Escalation Vulnerability 2005-05-16: NPDS THOLD Parameter SQL Injection Vulnerability 2005

  3. Comparison and Evaluation of Global Scale Studies of Vulnerability and Risks to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muccione, Veruska; Allen, Simon K.; Huggel, Christian; Birkmann, Joern

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the present and future distribution of different climate change impacts and vulnerability to climate change is a central subject in the context of climate justice and international climate policy. Commonly, it is claimed that poor countries that contributed little to anthropogenic climate change are those most affected and most vulnerable to climate change. Such statements are backed by a number of global-scale vulnerability studies, which identified poor countries as most vulnerable. However, some studies have challenged this view, likewise highlighting the high vulnerability of richer countries. Overall, no consensus has been reached so far about which concept of vulnerability should be applied and what type of indicators should be considered. Furthermore, there is little agreement which specific countries are most vulnerable. This is a major concern in view of the need to inform international climate policy, all the more if such assessments should contribute to allocate climate adaptation funds as was invoked at some instances. We argue that next to the analysis of who is most vulnerable, it is also important to better understand and compare different vulnerability profiles assessed in present global studies. We perform a systematic literature review of global vulnerability assessments with the scope to highlight vulnerability distribution patterns. We then compare these distributions with global risk distributions in line with revised and adopted concepts by most recent IPCC reports. It emerges that improved differentiation of key drivers of risk and the understanding of different vulnerability profiles are important contributions, which can inform future adaptation policies at the regional and national level. This can change the perspective on, and basis for distributional issues in view of climate burden share, and therefore can have implications for UNFCCC financing instruments (e.g. Green Climate Fund). However, in order to better compare traditional vulnerability distributions with more recent conceptualisation of risks, more research should be devoted to global assessments of climate change risk distributions.

  4. Brain renin-angiotensin system and dopaminergic cell vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Labandeira-García, Jose L.; Garrido-Gil, Pablo; Rodriguez-Pallares, Jannette; Valenzuela, Rita; Borrajo, Ana; Rodríguez-Perez, Ana I.

    2014-01-01

    Although the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) was classically considered as a circulating system that regulates blood pressure, many tissues are now known to have a local RAS. Angiotensin, via type 1 receptors, is a major activator of the NADPH-oxidase complex, which mediates several key events in oxidative stress (OS) and inflammatory processes involved in the pathogenesis of major aging-related diseases. Several studies have demonstrated the presence of RAS components in the basal ganglia, and particularly in the nigrostriatal system. In the nigrostriatal system, RAS hyperactivation, via NADPH-oxidase complex activation, exacerbates OS and the microglial inflammatory response and contributes to progression of dopaminergic degeneration, which is inhibited by angiotensin receptor blockers and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Several factors may induce an increase in RAS activity in the dopaminergic system. A decrease in dopaminergic activity induces compensatory upregulation of local RAS function in both dopaminergic neurons and glia. In addition to its role as an essential neurotransmitter, dopamine may also modulate microglial inflammatory responses and neuronal OS via RAS. Important counterregulatory interactions between angiotensin and dopamine have also been observed in several peripheral tissues. Neurotoxins and proinflammatory factors may also act on astrocytes to induce an increase in RAS activity, either independently of or before the loss of dopamine. Consistent with a major role of RAS in dopaminergic vulnerability, increased RAS activity has been observed in the nigra of animal models of aging, menopause and chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, which also showed higher dopaminergic vulnerability. Manipulation of the brain RAS may constitute an effective neuroprotective strategy against dopaminergic vulnerability and progression of Parkinson’s disease. PMID:25071471

  5. Vulnerability of Mesostriatal Dopaminergic Neurons in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    González-Hernández, Tomás; Cruz-Muros, Ignacio; Afonso-Oramas, Domingo; Salas-Hernandez, Josmar; Castro-Hernandez, Javier

    2010-01-01

    The term vulnerability was first associated with the midbrain dopaminergic neurons 85 years ago, before they were identified as monoaminergic neurons, when Foix and Nicolesco (1925) reported the loss of neuromelanin containing neurons in the midbrain of patients with post-encephalitic Parkinson's disease (PD). A few years later, Hassler (1938) showed that degeneration is more intense in the ventral tier of the substantia nigra compacta than in its dorsal tier and the ventral tegmental area (VTA), outlining the concept of differential vulnerability of midbrain dopaminergic (DA-) neurons. Nowadays, we know that other neuronal groups degenerate in PD, but the massive loss of nigral DA-cells is its pathological hallmark, having a pivotal position in the pathophysiology of the disease as it is responsible for the motor symptoms. Data from humans as well as cellular and animal models indicate that DA-cell degeneration is a complex process, probably precipitated by the convergence of different risk factors, mediated by oxidative stress, and involving pathogenic factors arising within the DA-neuron (intrinsic factors), and from its environment and distant interconnected brain regions (extrinsic factors). In light of current data, intrinsic factors seem to be preferentially involved in the first steps of the degenerative process, and extrinsic factors in its progression. A controversial issue is the relative weight of the impairment of common cell functions, such as energy metabolism and proteostasis, and specific dopaminergic functions, such as pacemaking activity and DA handling, in the pathogenesis of DA-cell degeneration. Here we will review the current knowledge about the relevance of these factors at the beginning and during the progression of PD, and in the differential vulnerability of midbrain DA-cells. PMID:21079748

  6. Chemical plants remain vulnerable to terrorists: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Lippin, Tobi Mae; McQuiston, Thomas H; Bradley-Bull, Kristin; Burns-Johnson, Toshiba; Cook, Linda; Gill, Michael L; Howard, Donna; Seymour, Thomas A; Stephens, Doug; Williams, Brian K

    2006-09-01

    U.S. chemical plants currently have potentially catastrophic vulnerabilities as terrorist targets. The possible consequences of these vulnerabilities echo from the tragedies of the Bhopal incident in 1984 to the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001 and, most recently, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Findings from a 2004 nationwide participatory research study of 125 local union leaders at sites with very large volumes of highly hazardous chemicals suggest that voluntary efforts to achieve chemical plant security are not succeeding. Study respondents reported that companies had only infrequently taken actions that are most effective in preventing or in preparing to respond to a terrorist threat. In addition, companies reportedly often failed to involve key stakeholders, including workers, local unions, and the surrounding communities, in these efforts. The environmental health community thus has an opportunity to play a key role in advocating for and supporting improvements in prevention of and preparation for terrorist attacks. Policy-level recommendations to redress chemical site vulnerabilities and the related ongoing threats to the nation's security are as follows: a) specify detailed requirements for chemical site assessment and security ; b) mandate audit inspections supported by significant penalties for cases of noncompliance ; c) require progress toward achieving inherently safer processes, including the minimizing of storage of highly hazardous chemicals ; d) examine and require additional effective actions in prevention, emergency preparedness, and response and remediation ; e) mandate and fund the upgrading of emergency communication systems ; and f) involve workers and community members in plan creation and equip and prepare them to prevent and respond effectively to an incident. PMID:16966080

  7. Approaches of Seismic Vulnerability Assessments in Near Real Time Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolova, Nina; Larionov, Valery; Bonnin, Jean; Ugarov, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Data on seismic vulnerability of existing building stock and other elements at risk are rather important for near real time earthquake loss estimations by global systems. These data together with information on regional peculiarities of seismic intensity attenuation and other factors contribute greatly to the reliability of strong event consequences estimated in emergency mode. There are different approaches for vulnerability functions' development and the empirical one is most often used. It is based on analysis of engineering consequences of past strong events when well documented descriptions of damage to different building types and other elements at risk are available for the earthquake prone area under consideration. In the case such data do not exist the information from macroseismic scales may be used. Any approach of vulnerability functions' development requires the proper classification of buildings and structures under consideration. According to national and international building codes, as well as macroseismic scales different buildings' classifications exist. As a result the global systems, such as Extremum and PAGER, as well as GEM project make use of the non-unified information on building stock distribution worldwide. The paper addresses the issues of buildings' classification and city models in terms of these classifications. Distribution of different buildings types in Extremum and PAGER/GEM systems is analyzed for earthquake prone countries. The comparison of city models revealed significant differences which influence greatly earthquake loss estimations in emergency mode. The paper describes the practice of city models' development which make use of space images and web technology in social networks. It is proposed to use the G8 country (and other) initiatives related to open data and transparency aimed at improving building stock distribution and global population databases.

  8. Disasters in Africa: old and new hazards and growing vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Loretti, A; Tegegn, Y

    1996-01-01

    Disasters occur when hazards and vulnerability meet. Out of 100 disasters reported worldwide, only 20 occur in Africa, but Africa suffers 60% of all disaster-related deaths. This is probably due to the type of hazards that affect this continent, to under-reporting, and to the fact that under the circumstances prevailing in Africa, it is easy for any disaster to escalate and multiply its impact. Africa's natural hazards are mainly epidemics, endemic diseases, drought, floods, agricultural pests and bush fires, but some areas are also susceptible to earthquakes, cyclones and volcanic eruptions. The natural hazards interact with manmade ones, such as armed conflicts, air, road and railway incidents, other industrial hazards such as mining accidents, chemical spills, etc., and with widespread vulnerability. The context is one of rapid population growth, forced movements of population, environmental degradation, precarious urbanization, food insecurity, poverty, fragile economies, infrastructures and institutions, and cultural and political instability. The 53 countries of the continent are highly susceptible and vulnerable and their 761,390,000 people are exposed to both natural and manmade hazards. Through complex causal chains, disasters affect people directly and indirectly. In the first 6 months of 1996, meningitis had already killed 5,000 people. Throughout Africa, there are 500,000 measles-associated deaths each year; the direct and indirect costs of malaria are estimated at US$ 1.7 billion per year. In June 1996 food emergencies were looming in 14 African countries with 22 million people facing direct food shortages. Since 1980, conflicts have caused at least 3.7 million excess deaths and cost the Region about US$ 13 billion per year. Wars have destroyed 70% of the health network of some countries, and have left behind 30-40 million landmines, making Africa the most mine-infested continent in the world. PMID:9170231

  9. Chemical Plants Remain Vulnerable to Terrorists: A Call to Action

    PubMed Central

    Lippin, Tobi Mae; McQuiston, Thomas H.; Bradley-Bull, Kristin; Burns-Johnson, Toshiba; Cook, Linda; Gill, Michael L.; Howard, Donna; Seymour, Thomas A.; Stephens, Doug; Williams, Brian K.

    2006-01-01

    U.S. chemical plants currently have potentially catastrophic vulnerabilities as terrorist targets. The possible consequences of these vulnerabilities echo from the tragedies of the Bhopal incident in 1984 to the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001 and, most recently, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Findings from a 2004 nationwide participatory research study of 125 local union leaders at sites with very large volumes of highly hazardous chemicals suggest that voluntary efforts to achieve chemical plant security are not succeeding. Study respondents reported that companies had only infrequently taken actions that are most effective in preventing or in preparing to respond to a terrorist threat. In addition, companies reportedly often failed to involve key stakeholders, including workers, local unions, and the surrounding communities, in these efforts. The environmental health community thus has an opportunity to play a key role in advocating for and supporting improvements in prevention of and preparation for terrorist attacks. Policy-level recommendations to redress chemical site vulnerabilities and the related ongoing threats to the nation’s security are as follows: a) specify detailed requirements for chemical site assessment and security; b) mandate audit inspections supported by significant penalties for cases of noncompliance; c) require progress toward achieving inherently safer processes, including the minimizing of storage of highly hazardous chemicals; d) examine and require additional effective actions in prevention, emergency preparedness, and response and remediation; e) mandate and fund the upgrading of emergency communication systems; and f) involve workers and community members in plan creation and equip and prepare them to prevent and respond effectively to an incident. PMID:16966080

  10. Socio-Economic Vulnerability to Climate Change in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heberger, M. G.; Cooley, H.; Moore, E.; Garzon, C.

    2011-12-01

    The western United States faces a range of impacts from global climate change, including increases in extreme heat, wildfires, and coastal flooding and erosion; changes are also likely to occur in air quality, water availability, and the spread of infectious diseases. To date, a great deal of research has been done to forecast the physical effects of climate change, while less attention has been given to the factors make different populations more or less vulnerable to harm from such changes. For example, mortality rates from Hurricane Audrey, which struck the coast of Louisiana in 1957, were more than eight times higher among blacks than among whites. While disaster events may not discriminate, impacts on human populations are shaped by "intervening conditions" that determine the human impact of the flood and the specific needs for preparedness, response, and recovery. In this study, we analyze the potential impacts of climate change by using recent downscaled climate model outputs, creating a variety of statistics and visualizations to communicate potential impacts to community groups and decision makers, after several meetings with these groups to ask, "What types of information are most useful to you for planning?" We relate climate impacts to social vulnerability - defined as the intersection of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of a person or group of people - with a focus on the U.S. state of California. Understanding vulnerability factors and the populations that exhibit these factors are critical for crafting effective climate change policies and response strategies. It is also important to the emerging study of climate justice, which is the concept that no group of people should disproportionately bear the burden of climate impacts or the costs of mitigation and adaptation.

  11. Electronic equipment vulnerability to fire released carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pride, R. A.; Mchatton, A. D.; Musselman, K. A.

    1980-01-01

    The vulnerability of electronic equipment to damage by carbon fibers released from burning aircraft type structural composite materials was investigated. Tests were conducted on commercially available stereo power amplifiers which showed that the equipment was damaged by fire released carbon fibers but not by the composite resin residue, soot and products of combustion of the fuel associated with burning the carbon fiber composites. Results indicate that the failure rates of the equipment exposed to the fire released fiber were consistent with predictions based on tests using virgin fibers.

  12. Multispectral optoacoustic tomography resolves smart probe activation in vulnerable plaques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razansky, Daniel; Harlaar, Niels J.; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Taruttis, Adrian; Herzog, Eva; Zeebregts, Clark; van Dam, Goitzen; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2011-03-01

    In this work, we show, for the first time to our knowledge, that multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) can deliver high resolution images of activatable molecular probe's distribution, sensitive to matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), deep within optically scattering human carotid specimen. It is further demonstrated that this method can be used in order to provide accurate maps of vulnerable plaque formations in atherosclerotic disease. Moreover, optoacoustic images can simultaneously show the underlining plaque morphology for accurate localization of MMP activity in three dimensions. This performance directly relates to small animal screening applications and to clinical potential as well.

  13. Student workshop Risks and the state of crisis and vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gociman, Cristina; Florescu, Tiberiu; Bostenaru Dan, Maria

    2010-05-01

    This contribution presents the purpose and results of a workshop run with students of master II Bologna "Urban design" within the joint framework of two courses: "The state of urban crisis and vulnerability" and "Protection of localities against natural and man-made risks" in February 2010. This is the second workshop of this kind, the first being run within the frame of a CNCSIS (Romanian Authority for Funding Research in Higher Education) project led by Cristina Gociman. The results of the two workshops will also be compared. Now this second workshop serves the purpose of the established Centre for Emergency Architecture.

  14. Vulnerable yet agentic: independent child migrants and opportunity structures.

    PubMed

    Orgocka, Aida

    2012-01-01

    While agency and vulnerability have been central organizing concepts in analyzing independent child migration, studying these in isolation from the opportunity structures that define it provides only a partial picture of its occurrence. In introducing the five contributions to this volume, this chapter argues that agentic capacities emerge and interact across a spectrum of contextual influences that may undermine or promote these. Although most contributions offer insight from forced migration, they illustrate the fluidity of migration processes in general. This chapter also calls to move beyond compartmentalized approaches and oversimplified structural categories such as chronological age to describe independent child migration. PMID:22689520

  15. Structural vulnerability assessment using reliability of slabs in avalanche area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favier, Philomène; Bertrand, David; Eckert, Nicolas; Naaim, Mohamed

    2013-04-01

    Improvement of risk assessment or hazard zoning requires a better understanding of the physical vulnerability of structures. To consider natural hazard issue such as snow avalanches, once the flow is characterized, highlight on the mechanical behaviour of the structure is a decisive step. A challenging approach is to quantify the physical vulnerability of impacted structures according to various avalanche loadings. The main objective of this presentation is to introduce methodology and outcomes regarding the assessment of vulnerability of reinforced concrete buildings using reliability methods. Reinforced concrete has been chosen as it is one of the usual material used to build structures exposed to potential avalanche loadings. In avalanche blue zones, structures have to resist to a pressure up to 30kPa. Thus, by providing systematic fragility relations linked to the global failure of the structure, this method may serve the avalanche risk assessment. To do so, a slab was numerically designed. It represented the avalanche facing wall of a house. Different configuration cases of the element in stake have been treated to quantify numerical aspects of the problem, such as the boundary conditions or the mechanical behaviour of the structure. The structure is analysed according to four different limit states, semi-local and global failures are considered to describe the slab behaviour. The first state is attained when cracks appear in the tensile zone, then the two next states are described consistent with the Eurocode, the final state is the total collapse of the structure characterized by the yield line theory. Failure probability is estimated in accordance to the reliability framework. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to quantify the fragility to different loadings. Sensitivity of models in terms of input distributions were defined with statistical tools such as confidence intervals and Sobol's indexes. Conclusion and discussion of this work are established to well determine contributions, limits and future needs or developments of the research. First of all, this study provides spectrum of fragility curves of reinforced concrete structures which could be used to improve risk assessment. Second, the influence of the failure criterion picked up in this survey are discussed. Then, the weight of the statistical distribution choice is analysed. Finally, the limit between vulnerability and fragility relations is set up to establish the boundary use of our approach.

  16. Disaster management: vulnerability and resilience in disaster recovery in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Busapathumrong, Pattamaporn

    2013-01-01

    This project explores disaster management in Thailand with a focus on the vulnerability and resilience of women, children, the elderly, and the disabled population and on the impact of disaster on these subpopulations. The 2 main findings deal with the major models of disaster management in Thailand and building resilience for social recovery. The selected 5 major models currently employed in disaster management in Thailand are the (a) model of royal project and international cooperation on disaster preparedness and response, (b) ASEAN Socio-Cultural Blueprint, (c) rights-based approach, (d) welfare mix model, and (e) knowledge management model. PMID:23679805

  17. Rare Species Support Vulnerable Functions in High-Diversity Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Mouillot, David; Bellwood, David R.; Baraloto, Christopher; Chave, Jerome; Galzin, Rene; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille; Kulbicki, Michel; Lavergne, Sebastien; Lavorel, Sandra; Mouquet, Nicolas; Paine, C. E. Timothy; Renaud, Julien; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    Around the world, the human-induced collapses of populations and species have triggered a sixth mass extinction crisis, with rare species often being the first to disappear. Although the role of species diversity in the maintenance of ecosystem processes has been widely investigated, the role of rare species remains controversial. A critical issue is whether common species insure against the loss of functions supported by rare species. This issue is even more critical in species-rich ecosystems where high functional redundancy among species is likely and where it is thus often assumed that ecosystem functioning is buffered against species loss. Here, using extensive datasets of species occurrences and functional traits from three highly diverse ecosystems (846 coral reef fishes, 2,979 alpine plants, and 662 tropical trees), we demonstrate that the most distinct combinations of traits are supported predominantly by rare species both in terms of local abundance and regional occupancy. Moreover, species that have low functional redundancy and are likely to support the most vulnerable functions, with no other species carrying similar combinations of traits, are rarer than expected by chance in all three ecosystems. For instance, 63% and 98% of fish species that are likely to support highly vulnerable functions in coral reef ecosystems are locally and regionally rare, respectively. For alpine plants, 32% and 89% of such species are locally and regionally rare, respectively. Remarkably, 47% of fish species and 55% of tropical tree species that are likely to support highly vulnerable functions have only one individual per sample on average. Our results emphasize the importance of rare species conservation, even in highly diverse ecosystems, which are thought to exhibit high functional redundancy. Rare species offer more than aesthetic, cultural, or taxonomic diversity value; they disproportionately increase the potential breadth of functions provided by ecosystems across spatial scales. As such, they are likely to insure against future uncertainty arising from climate change and the ever-increasing anthropogenic pressures on ecosystems. Our results call for a more detailed understanding of the role of rarity and functional vulnerability in ecosystem functioning. PMID:23723735

  18. Water vulnerabilities for existing coal-fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.; Kuiper, J.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-08-19

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Water consumption by all users in the United States over the 2005-2030 time period is projected to increase by about 7% (from about 108 billion gallons per day [bgd] to about 115 bgd) (Elcock 2010). By contrast, water consumption by coal-fired power plants over this period is projected to increase by about 21% (from about 2.4 to about 2.9 bgd) (NETL 2009b). The high projected demand for water by power plants, which is expected to increase even further as carbon-capture equipment is installed, combined with decreasing freshwater supplies in many areas, suggests that certain coal-fired plants may be particularly vulnerable to potential water demand-supply conflicts. If not addressed, these conflicts could limit power generation and lead to power disruptions or increased consumer costs. The identification of existing coal-fired plants that are vulnerable to water demand and supply concerns, along with an analysis of information about their cooling systems and related characteristics, provides information to help focus future research and development (R&D) efforts to help ensure that coal-fired generation demands are met in a cost-effective manner that supports sustainable water use. This study identified coal-fired power plants that are considered vulnerable to water demand and supply issues by using a geographical information system (GIS) that facilitated the analysis of plant-specific data for more than 500 plants in the NETL's Coal Power Plant Database (CPPDB) (NETL 2007a) simultaneously with 18 indicators of water demand and supply. Two types of demand indicators were evaluated. The first type consisted of geographical areas where specific conditions can generate demand vulnerabilities. These conditions include high projected future water consumption by thermoelectric power plants, high projected future water consumption by all users, high rates of water withdrawal per square mile (mi{sup 2}), high projected population increases, and areas projected to be in a water crisis or conflict by 2025. The second type of demand indicator was plant specific. These indicators were developed for each plant and include annual water consumption and withdrawal rates and intensities, net annual power generation, and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. The supply indictors, which are also area based, include areas with low precipitation, high temperatures, low streamflow, and drought. The indicator data, which were in various formats (e.g., maps, tables, raw numbers) were converted to a GIS format and stored, along with the individual plant data from the CPPDB, in a single GIS database. The GIS database allowed the indicator data and plant data to be analyzed and visualized in any combination. To determine the extent to which a plant would be considered 'vulnerable' to a given demand or supply concern (i.e., that the plant's operations could be affected by water shortages represented by a potential demand or supply indicator), criteria were developed to categorize vulnerability according to one of three types: major, moderate, or not vulnerable. Plants with at least two major demand indicator values and/or at least four moderate demand indicator values were considered vulnerable to demand concerns. By using this approach, 144 plants were identified as being subject to demand concerns only. Plants with at least one major supply indicator value and/or at least two moderate supply indicator values were considered vulnerable to supply concerns. By using this approach, 64 plants were identified as being subject to supply concerns only. In addition, 139 plants were identified as subject to both demand and supply concerns. Therefore, a total of 347 plants were considere

  19. Is There a Universal Understanding of Vulnerability? Experiences with Russian and Romanian Trainees in Research Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Loue, Sana; Loff, Bebe

    2014-01-01

    Vulnerability of participants in research and the provision of special protections for vulnerable research participants are key concepts in research ethics. Despite international consensus requiring special protections for vulnerable research participants, both the concept of vulnerability and the nature and adequacy of strategies to reduce vulnerability remain vague and, consequently, are subject to varying interpretations. We report on observations of the challenges faced in understanding this key concept by 20 Russian and Romanian trainees participating in a one-year M.A. training program in research ethics from 2000 through 2011. We describe how trainees’ understanding of and appreciation for the need for special protections of vulnerable research participants was nurtured. This paper is part of a collection of papers analyzing the Fogarty International Center's International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum Development program. PMID:24384513

  20. Applying a Comprehensive Contextual Climate Change Vulnerability Framework to New Zealand's Tourism Industry.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Debbie

    2015-03-01

    Conceptualisations of 'vulnerability' vary amongst scholarly communities, contributing to a wide variety of applications. Research investigating vulnerability to climate change has often excluded non-climatic changes which may contribute to degrees of vulnerability perceived or experienced. This paper introduces a comprehensive contextual vulnerability framework which incorporates physical, social, economic and political factors which could amplify or reduce vulnerability. The framework is applied to New Zealand's tourism industry to explore its value in interpreting a complex, human-natural environment system with multiple competing vulnerabilities. The comprehensive contextual framework can inform government policy and industry decision making, integrating understandings of climate change within the broader context of internal and external social, physical, economic, and institutional stressors. PMID:24805920

  1. Prediction of individualized therapeutic vulnerabilities in cancer from genomic profiles | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Based on homozygous deletions affecting metabolic enzymes in 16 TCGA cancer studies and 972 cancer cell lines, we identified 4104 candidate metabolic vulnerabilities present in 1019 tumor samples and 482 cell lines. Up to 44% of these vulnerabilities can be targeted with at least one Food and Drug Administration-approved drug. We suggest focused experiments to test these vulnerabilities and clinical trials based on personalized genomic profiles of those that pass preclinical filters.

  2. Energy Sector Vulnerability to Climate Change: Adaptation Options to Increase Resilience (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Newmark, R. L.; Bilello, D.; Macknick, J.; Hallet, K. C.; Anderson, R.; Tidwell, V.; Zamuda, C.

    2013-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is conducting an assessment of vulnerabilities of the U.S. energy sector to climate change and extreme weather. Emphasizing peer reviewed research, it seeks to quantify vulnerabilities and identify specific knowledge or technology gaps. It draws upon a July 2012 workshop, ?Climate Change and Extreme Weather Vulnerability Assessment of the US Energy Sector?, hosted by the Atlantic Council and sponsored by DOE to solicit industry input.

  3. Mapping the groundwater vulnerability for pollution at the pan African scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouedraogo, Issoufou; Defourny, Pierre; Vanclooster, Marnik

    2015-04-01

    We mapped the pan-African intrinsic and specific vulnerability of groundwater systems towards pollution. We compiled the most recent continental scale information on soil, land use, geology, hydrogeology and climate in a Geographical Information System (GIS) at the resolution of 15kmx15km and the 1:60,000,000 scale and implemented an indicator vulnerability model based on the DRASTIC method. The intrinsic vulnerability map reveals that groundwater is highly vulnerable in Central, West and some areas of North Africa, where the watertable is very low. The intrinsic vulnerability is very low in the large sedimentary basins of the African deserts where groundwater situates in very deep aquifers. The specific vulnerability is obtained by overlaying the intrinsic vulnerability with current land use. The specific vulnerability is high in North, Central, and West Africa and strongly related to water table depths and development of agricultural activities. Subsequently, we performed a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the relative importance of each indicator parameter on groundwater vulnerability for pollution. The sensitivity analysis indicated that the removal of the vadose zone impact, the depth of the groundwater, the hydraulic conductivity and the net recharge causes a large variation in the vulnerability index. The pan African assessment of groundwater vulnerability presented in this paper is expected to be of particular value for water policy and for designing water resources management programmes. We expect, however, that this assessment can be strongly improved when pan African monitoring data on groundwater pollution will be integrated in the assessment methodology. Keywords: groundwater vulnerability, pan-Africa, DRASTIC method, Sensitivity analysis, GIS

  4. Does inadequate sleep play a role in vulnerability to obesity?

    PubMed Central

    Knutson, Kristen L.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing rapidly worldwide, which is cause for concern because obesity increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes, reduces life expectancy and impairs quality of life. A better understanding of the risk factors for obesity is therefore a critical global health concern and human biologists can play an important role in identifying these risk factors in various populations. The objective of this review is to present the evidence that inadequate sleep may be a novel risk factor associated with increased vulnerability to obesity and associated cardiometabolic disease. Experimental studies have found that short-term sleep restriction is associated with impaired glucose metabolism, dysregulation of appetite and increased blood pressure. Observational studies have observed cross-sectional associations between short sleep duration (generally <6 hours per night) and increased body mass index or obesity, prevalent diabetes and prevalent hypertension. Some studies also reported an association between self-reported long sleep duration (generally >8 hours per night) and cardiometabolic disease. A few prospective studies have found a significant increased risk of weight gain, incident diabetes and incident hypertension associated with inadequate sleep. Given the potential link between inadequate sleep and obesity, a critical next step is to identify the social, cultural and environmental determinants of sleep, which would help to identify vulnerable populations. Future human biology research should consider variation in sleep characteristics among different populations and determine whether the associations between sleep and obesity observed in Western populations persist elsewhere. PMID:22275135

  5. Nanoparticle uptake by macrophages in vulnerable plaques for atherosclerosis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Susanne; Ankri, Rinat; Fixler, Dror; Tarnok, Attila

    2015-11-01

    The composition of atherosclerotic (AS) plaques is crucial concerning rupture, thrombosis and clinical events. Two plaque types are distinguished: stable and vulnerable plaques. Vulnerable plaques are rich in inflammatory cells, mostly only M1 macrophages, and are highly susceptible to rupture. These plaques represent a high risk particularly with the standard invasive diagnosis by coronary angiography. So far there are no non-invasive low-risk clinical approaches available to detect and distinguish AS plaque types in vivo. The perspective review introduces a whole work-flow for a novel approach for non-invasive detection and classification of AS plaques using the diffusion reflection method with gold nanoparticle loaded macrophages in combination with flow and image cytometric analysis for quality assurance. Classical biophotonic methods for AS diagnosis are summarized. Phenotyping of monocytes and macrophages are discussed for specific subset labelling by nanomaterials, as well as existing studies and first experimental proofs of concept for the novel approach are shown. In vitro and in vivo detection of NP loaded macrophages (M?). Different ways of M? labelling include (1) in vitro labelling in suspension (whole blood or buffy coat) or (2) labelling of short-term M? cultures with re-injection of M?-NP into the animal to detect migration of the cells in the plaques and (3) in vivo injection of NP into the organism. PMID:26110589

  6. Application of Satellite Gravimetry for Water Resource Vulnerability Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The force of Earth's gravity field varies in proportion to the amount of mass near the surface. Spatial and temporal variations in the gravity field can be measured via their effects on the orbits of satellites. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) is the first satellite mission dedicated to monitoring temporal variations in the gravity field. The monthly gravity anomaly maps that have been delivered by GRACE since 2002 are being used to infer changes in terrestrial water storage (the sum of groundwater, soil moisture, surface waters, and snow and ice), which are the primary source of gravity variability on monthly to decadal timescales after atmospheric and oceanic circulation effects have been removed. Other remote sensing techniques are unable to detect water below the first few centimeters of the land surface. Conventional ground based techniques can be used to monitor terrestrial water storage, but groundwater, soil moisture, and snow observation networks are sparse in most of the world, and the countries that do collect such data rarely are willing to share them. Thus GRACE is unique in its ability to provide global data on variations in the availability of fresh water, which is both vital to life on land and vulnerable to climate variability and mismanagement. This chapter describes the unique and challenging aspects of GRACE terrestrial water storage data, examples of how the data have been used for research and applications related to fresh water vulnerability and change, and prospects for continued contributions of satellite gravimetry to water resources science and policy.

  7. Assessing vulnerability of marine bird populations to offshore wind farms.

    PubMed

    Furness, Robert W; Wade, Helen M; Masden, Elizabeth A

    2013-04-15

    Offshore wind farms may affect bird populations through collision mortality and displacement. Given the pressures to develop offshore wind farms, there is an urgent need to assess population-level impacts on protected marine birds. Here we refine an approach to assess aspects of their ecology that influence population vulnerability to wind farm impacts, also taking into account the conservation importance of each species. Flight height appears to be a key factor influencing collision mortality risk but improved data on flight heights of marine birds are needed. Collision index calculations identify populations of gulls, white-tailed eagles, northern gannets and skuas as of particularly high concern in Scottish waters. Displacement index calculations identify populations of divers and common scoters as most vulnerable to population-level impacts of displacement, but these are likely to be less evident than impacts of collision mortality. The collision and displacement indices developed here for Scottish marine bird populations could be applied to populations elsewhere, and this approach will help in identifying likely impacts of future offshore wind farms on marine birds and prioritising monitoring programmes, at least until data on macro-avoidance rates become available. PMID:23454414

  8. Distinguishing adaptive plasticity from vulnerability in the aging hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Gray, D T; Barnes, C A

    2015-11-19

    Hippocampal circuits are among the best described networks in the mammalian brain, particularly with regard to the alterations that arise during normal aging. Decades of research indicate multiple points of vulnerability in aging neural circuits, and it has been proposed that each of these changes make a contribution to observed age-related cognitive deficits. Another view has been relatively overlooked - namely that some of these changes arise in adaptive response to protect network function in aged animals. This possibility leads to a rather different view on the biological variation of function in the brain of older individuals. Using the hippocampus as a model neural circuit we discuss how, in normally aged animals, some age-related changes may arise through processes of neural plasticity that serve to enhance network function rather than to hinder it. Conceptually disentangling the initial age-related vulnerabilities from changes that result in adaptive response will be a major challenge for the future research on brain aging. We suggest that a reformulation of how normal aging could be understood from an adaptive perspective will lead to a deeper understanding of the secrets behind successful brain aging and our recent cultural successes in facilitating these processes. PMID:26255677

  9. Field information links permafrost carbon to physical vulnerabilities of thawing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Jennifer W.; Koven, Charles; Ping, Chien-Lu; Hugelius, Gustaf; McGuire, A. David; Camill, P.; Jorgenson, Torre; Kuhry, Peter; Michaelson, Gary; O'Donnell, Jonathan A.; Schuur, Edward A.G.; Tamocai, Charles; Johnson, K.; Grosse, G.

    2012-01-01

    Deep soil profiles containing permafrost (Gelisols) were characterized for organic carbon (C) and total nitrogen (N) stocks to 3m depths. Using the Community Climate System Model (CCSM4) we calculate cumulative probability functions (PDFs) for active layer depths under current and future climates. The difference in PDFs over time was multiplied by C and N contents of soil horizons in Gelisol suborders to calculate newly thawed C and N, Thawing ranged from 147 PgC with 10 PgN by 2050 (representative concentration pathway RCP scenario 4.5) to 436 PgC with 29 PgN by 2100 (RCP 8.5). Organic horizons that thaw are vulnerable to combustion, and all horizon types are vulnerable to shifts in hydrology and decomposition. The rates and extent of such losses are unknown and can be further constrained by linking field and modelling approaches. These changes have the potential for strong additional loading to our atmosphere, water resources, and ecosystems.

  10. Emotional vulnerability and coping styles for resolving decisional conflict.

    PubMed

    Umeh, Kanayo; Omari-Asor, Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    This investigation supplements the study by D. Bouckenooghe, K. Vanderheyden, S. Mestdagh, and S. van Laethem (2007) on the role of cognitive dispositions in coping patterns for resolving decisional conflict. Literature suggests emotional vulnerabilities may significantly affect decision making. Thus, the present authors assessed the role of trait anxiety and depression in decision coping styles as specified by I. L. Janis and L. Mann's (1977) conflict-theory model. The participants--100 young adults--completed the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale (J. A. Taylor, 1953), Beck's Depression Inventory (A. T. Beck, R. A. Steer, & G. M. Garbin, 1988), and the Melbourne Decision-Making Questionnaire (L. Mann et al., 1998), which measures 4 coping strategies: vigilance, buck-passing, procrastination, and hypervigilance. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis, controlling for demographic and lifestyle factors, revealed trait anxiety and depression as significant predictors of procrastination and hypervigilance. Depression failed to predict buck-passing but functioned as an important moderator variable whereby trait anxiety better predicted hypervigilance in nondepressed participants. Consistent with past research, emotional dispositions failed to predict vigilance. Overall, these findings implicate emotional vulnerabilities in the quality of decision making but raise important questions about their unique and conditional effects. PMID:21834323

  11. The Vulnerability of Threatened Species: Adaptive Capability and Adaptation Opportunity

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Pam; Ogawa-Onishi, Yuko; McVey, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Global targets to halt the loss of biodiversity have not been met, and there is now an additional Aichi target for preventing the extinction of known threatened species and improving their conservation status. Climate change increasingly needs to be factored in to these, and thus there is a need to identify the extent to which it could increase species vulnerability. This paper uses the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity framework to assess the vulnerability of a selection of WWF global priority large mammals and marine species to climate change. However, it divides adaptive capacity into adaptive capability and adaptation opportunity, in order to identify whether adaptation is more constrained by the biology of the species or by its environmental setting. Lack of evidence makes it difficult to apply the framework consistently across the species, but it was found that, particularly for the terrestrial mammals, adaptation opportunities seems to be the greater constraint. This framework and analysis could be used by conservationists and those wishing to enhance the resilience of species to climate change. PMID:24833051

  12. Use of Positive Pressures to Establish Vulnerability Curves 1

    PubMed Central

    Cochard, Hervé; Cruiziat, Pierre; Tyree, Melvin T.

    1992-01-01

    Loss of hydraulic conductivity occurs in stems when the water in xylem conduits is subjected to sufficiently negative pressure. According to the air-seeding hypothesis, this loss of conductivity occurs when air bubbles are sucked into water-filled conduits through micropores adjacent to air spaces in the stem. Results in this study showed that loss of hydraulic conductivity occurred in stem segments pressurized in a pressure chamber while the xylem water was under positive pressure. Vulnerability curves can be defined as a plot of percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity versus the pressure difference between xylem water and the outside air inducing the loss of conductivity. Vulnerability curves were similar whether loss of conductivity was induced by lowering the xylem water pressure or by raising the external air pressure. These results are consistent with the air-seeding hypothesis of how embolisms are nucleated, but not with the nucleation of embolisms at hydrophobic cracks because the latter requires negative xylem water pressure. The results also call into question some basic underlying assumptions used in the determination of components of tissue water potential using “pressure-volume” analysis. PMID:16652947

  13. A conceptual model of people's vulnerability to floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanesi, Luca; Pilotti, Marco; Ranzi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic risk maps provide the baseline for land use and emergency planning. Accordingly, they should convey clear information on the potential physical implications of the different hazards to the stakeholders. This paper presents a vulnerability criterion focused on human stability in a flow specifically devised for rapidly evolving floods where life, before than economic values, might be threatened. The human body is conceptualized as a set of cylinders and its stability to slipping and toppling is assessed by forces and moments equilibrium. Moreover, a depth threshold to consider drowning is assumed. In order to widen its scope of application, the model takes the destabilizing effect of local slope (so far disregarded in the literature) and fluid density into account. The resulting vulnerability classification could be naturally subdivided in three levels (low, medium, and high) that are limited by two stability curves for children and adults, respectively. In comparison with the most advanced literature conceptual approaches, the proposed model is weakly parameterized and the computed thresholds fit better the available experimental data sets. A code that implements the proposed algorithm is provided.

  14. Seismic vulnerability study Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF)

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, M.; Goen, L.K.

    1995-12-01

    The Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF), located at TA-53 of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), features an 800 MeV proton accelerator used for nuclear physics and materials science research. As part of the implementation of DOE Order 5480.25 and in preparation for DOE Order 5480.28, a seismic vulnerability study of the structures, systems, and components (SSCs) supporting the beam line from the accelerator building through to the ends of die various beam stops at LAMPF has been performed. The study was accomplished using the SQUG GIP methodology to assess the capability of the various SSCs to resist an evaluation basis earthquake. The evaluation basis earthquake was selected from site specific seismic hazard studies. The goals for the study were as follows: (1) identify SSCs which are vulnerable to seismic loads; and (2) ensure that those SSCs screened during die evaluation met the performance goals required for DOE Order 5480.28. The first goal was obtained by applying the SQUG GIP methodology to those SSCS represented in the experience data base. For those SSCs not represented in the data base, information was gathered and a significant amount of engineering judgment applied to determine whether to screen the SSC or to classify it as an outlier. To assure the performance goals required by DOE Order 5480.28 are met, modifications to the SQUG GIP methodology proposed by Salmon and Kennedy were used. The results of this study ire presented in this paper.

  15. Public Health Consequences on Vulnerable Populations from Acute Chemical Releases

    PubMed Central

    Ruckart, Perri Zeitz; Orr, Maureen F.

    2008-01-01

    Data from a large, multi-state surveillance system on acute chemical releases were analyzed to describe the type of events that are potentially affecting vulnerable populations (children, elderly and hospitalized patients) in order to better prevent and plan for these types of incidents in the future. During 2003–2005, there were 231 events where vulnerable populations were within ¼ mile of the event and the area of impact was greater than 200 feet from the facility/point of release. Most events occurred on a weekday during times when day care centers or schools were likely to be in session. Equipment failure and human error caused a majority of the releases. Agencies involved in preparing for and responding to chemical emergencies should work with hospitals, nursing homes, day care centers, and schools to develop policies and procedures for initiating appropriate protective measures and managing the medical needs of patients. Chemical emergency response drills should involve the entire community to protect those that may be more susceptible to harm. PMID:21572842

  16. Does topological information matter for power grid vulnerability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Min; Yang, Kun

    2014-12-01

    Power grids, which are playing an important role in supporting the economy of a region as well as the life of its citizens, could be attacked by terrorists or enemies to damage the region. Depending on different levels of power grid information collected by the terrorists, their attack strategies might be different. This paper groups power grid information into four levels: no information, purely topological information (PTI), topological information with generator and load nodes (GLNI), and full information (including component physical properties and flow parameters information), and then identifies possible attack strategies for each information level. Analyzing and comparing power grid vulnerability under these attack strategies from both terrorists' and utility companies' point of view give rise to an approach to quantify the relative values of these three types of information, including PTI, GLNI, and component parameter information (CPI). This approach can provide information regarding the extent to which topological information matters for power system vulnerability decisions. Taking several test systems as examples, results show that for small attacks with p ? 0.1, CPI matters the most; when taking attack cost into consideration and assuming that the terrorists take the optimum cost-efficient attack intensity, then CPI has the largest cost-based information value.

  17. Does topological information matter for power grid vulnerability?

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Min; Yang, Kun

    2014-12-01

    Power grids, which are playing an important role in supporting the economy of a region as well as the life of its citizens, could be attacked by terrorists or enemies to damage the region. Depending on different levels of power grid information collected by the terrorists, their attack strategies might be different. This paper groups power grid information into four levels: no information, purely topological information (PTI), topological information with generator and load nodes (GLNI), and full information (including component physical properties and flow parameters information), and then identifies possible attack strategies for each information level. Analyzing and comparing power grid vulnerability under these attack strategies from both terrorists' and utility companies' point of view give rise to an approach to quantify the relative values of these three types of information, including PTI, GLNI, and component parameter information (CPI). This approach can provide information regarding the extent to which topological information matters for power system vulnerability decisions. Taking several test systems as examples, results show that for small attacks with p???0.1, CPI matters the most; when taking attack cost into consideration and assuming that the terrorists take the optimum cost-efficient attack intensity, then CPI has the largest cost-based information value. PMID:25554041

  18. Exposing asymmetric gray matter vulnerability in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Devine, Matthew S.; Pannek, Kerstin; Coulthard, Alan; McCombe, Pamela A.; Rose, Stephen E.; Henderson, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Limb weakness in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is typically asymmetric. Previous studies have identified an effect of limb dominance on onset and spread of weakness, however relative atrophy of dominant and non-dominant brain regions has not been investigated. Our objective was to use voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to explore gray matter (GM) asymmetry in ALS, in the context of limb dominance. 30 ALS subjects were matched with 17 healthy controls. All subjects were right-handed. Each underwent a structural MRI sequence, from which GM segmentations were generated. Patterns of GM atrophy were assessed in ALS subjects with first weakness in a right-sided limb (n = 15) or left-sided limb (n = 15). Within each group, a voxelwise comparison was also performed between native and mirror GM images, to identify regions of hemispheric GM asymmetry. Subjects with ALS showed disproportionate atrophy of the dominant (left) motor cortex hand area, irrespective of the side of first limb weakness (p < 0.01). Asymmetric atrophy of the left somatosensory cortex and temporal gyri was only observed in ALS subjects with right-sided onset of limb weakness. Our VBM protocol, contrasting native and mirror images, was able to more sensitively detect asymmetric GM pathology in a small cohort, compared with standard methods. These findings indicate particular vulnerability of dominant upper limb representation in ALS, supporting previous clinical studies, and with implications for cortical organisation and selective vulnerability. PMID:25844330

  19. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 3 consists of eleven appendices containing the following: Field verification reports for Idaho National Engineering Lab., Rocky Flats Plant, Brookhaven National Lab., Los Alamos National Lab., and Sandia National Laboratories (NM); Mini-visits to small DOE sites; Working Group meeting, June 7--8, 1994; Commendable practices; Related chemical safety initiatives at DOE; Regulatory framework and industry initiatives related to chemical safety; and Chemical inventory data from field self-evaluation reports.

  20. Struggling Between Strength and Vulnerability, a Patients' Counter Story.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, G J; Visse, M A; Abma, T A

    2015-09-01

    Currently, patients are expected to take control over their health and their life and act as independent users and consumers. Simultaneously, health care policy demands patients are expected to self manage their disease. This article critically questions whether this is a realistic expectation. The paper presents the auto-ethnographic narrative of the first author, which spans a period of 27 years, from 1985 to 2012. In total nine episodes were extracted from various notes, conversations and discussions in an iterative process. Each of these episodes was condensed around a 'critical moment' as perceived by the "self". The critical moments in the illness process vary between newly encountered problems with basic needs and mourning, to renewed strength and the desire to grow, embracing new situations. Being confronted with and living with a chronic illness involves periods of anxiety and self centredness alternating with strength and advocating the interests of peer-patients. These episodes of emotion, confusion and refinding a balance have a cyclic pattern. The narrative illustrates the vulnerability and dependency of a patient with a chronic disease. The discussion relates this to mainstream dominant views on patients 'in control of their own life'. The narrative illustrates, that the vulnerability and dependency of the patient are key factors to take into account in health care policy. The narrative provides a counter story, challenging current thinking in terms of strength, selfmanagement, patients' own control and independent role. PMID:23652648