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1

Contact and ingestion toxicities of plant extracts to Thaumetopoea solitaria Frey. (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thaumetopoea solitaria is a serious pest of pistachio throughout the Mediterranean and the surrounding region. In this study, contact and ingestion\\u000a toxicities of Bifora radians,\\u000a Fumaria officinalis,\\u000a Humulus lupulus and Rhododendron ponticum extracts against T. solitaria larvae were examined under laboratory conditions. Dimethoate was used as a positive control. In the contact toxicity bioassays\\u000a B. radians extract was the most

Mehmet Kubilay Er; Ayhan Gökçe; Mark Edward Whalon

2009-01-01

2

Vulnerability Bazaar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pure vulnerability market is one in which each discrete vulnerability is a unit of trade with a price assigned to it by the buyer, seller, and demand. In such a market, exclusivity of knowledge is a key factor in overall value, thus when a vulnerability becomes public knowledge, it loses its value. Other factors also come into play, such

David Mckinney

2007-01-01

3

Graced Vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since all humankind was created to be vulnerable, persons with disabilities no more need saving from limitations or vulnerabilities than does anyone else. A careful interpretation of Genesis 2 helps us see that people are created dependent upon God; that dependence is good and fitting; and that human sinfulness, not disabled bodies, renders vulnerability problematic.

Barbara J. Blodgett

1995-01-01

4

Transforming vulnerability.  

PubMed

Asian American immigrant women engaged in filial caregiving are at special risk for health problems due to complex contextual factors related to immigration, cultural traditions, and role transition. This study examines the experience of two groups of immigrant Asian American women who are caring for older parents. A total of 41 women (22 Chinese American and 19 Filipino American) were interviewed in a study based on Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory methodology. The women were determined to be loyal to their traditional culture, which included strong filial values, while adapting to a new culture. Through the struggle of meeting role expectations and coping with paradox, the women mobilized personal and family resources to transform vulnerability into strength and well-being. PMID:14596182

Jones, Patricia S; Zhang, Xinwei Esther; Meleis, Afaf I

2003-11-01

5

VULNERABILITY College students are particularly vulnerable  

E-print Network

VULNERABILITY College students are particularly vulnerable to victimization. Many are living away on as many as 25 percent of all college females. Most of the assaults are committed by someone known, but does not guaran- tee it. "Gang rape" happens in spite of the presence of others because the group col

Salama, Khaled

6

Software Vulnerability Taxonomy Consolidation  

SciTech Connect

In today's environment, computers and networks are increasing exposed to a number of software vulnerabilities. Information about these vulnerabilities is collected and disseminated via various large publicly available databases such as BugTraq, OSVDB and ICAT. Each of these databases, individually, do not cover all aspects of a vulnerability and lack a standard format among them, making it difficult for end-users to easily compare various vulnerabilities. A central database of vulnerabilities has not been available until today for a number of reasons, such as the non-uniform methods by which current vulnerability database providers receive information, disagreement over which features of a particular vulnerability are important and how best to present them, and the non-utility of the information presented in many databases. The goal of this software vulnerability taxonomy consolidation project is to address the need for a universally accepted vulnerability taxonomy that classifies vulnerabilities in an unambiguous manner. A consolidated vulnerability database (CVDB) was implemented that coalesces and organizes vulnerability data from disparate data sources. Based on the work done in this paper, there is strong evidence that a consolidated taxonomy encompassing and organizing all relevant data can be achieved. However, three primary obstacles remain: lack of referencing a common ''primary key'', un-structured and free-form descriptions of necessary vulnerability data, and lack of data on all aspects of a vulnerability. This work has only considered data that can be unambiguously extracted from various data sources by straightforward parsers. It is felt that even with the use of more advanced, information mining tools, which can wade through the sea of unstructured vulnerability data, this current integration methodology would still provide repeatable, unambiguous, and exhaustive results. Though the goal of coalescing all available data, which would be of use to system administrators, software developers and vulnerability researchers is not yet achieved, this work has resulted in the most exhaustive collection of vulnerability data to date.

Polepeddi, S

2004-12-08

7

Vulnerability and mental health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vulnerability of children has long been recognized in terms of their development needs and the importance of protecting their physical health. The extent, severity and impact of their mental health problems, including the particular vulnerabilities associated with such problems in both childhood and through to adult life, have been less of a public health priority. Vulnerabilities come in many

Beverley Raphael; Garry Stevens; Keirsten Pedersen

2006-01-01

8

Assessing Vulnerability to Suicide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

American Association of Suicidology members (n=300) assessed vulnerability to suicide of four men (two of whom had committed suicide), recorded levels of confidence in their assessments, and provided information about themselves. Men who committed suicide were rated as less vulnerable to suicide than other two men and as less vulnerable than would…

Furst, Janice; Huffine, Carol L.

1991-01-01

9

Vulnerable Children and Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings from two studies indicate that the nature of Canadian children's environments within their families, schools, neighborhoods, and communities has very strong effects on children's development and the prevalence of childhood vulnerability. Rather than stemming primarily from poverty, childhood vulnerability may arise from the environments…

Willms, J. Douglas

2002-01-01

10

Vulnerability for Depression.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The vulnerability to depression and the antecedents for depression were collected and analyzed for an epidemiological pilot study of depression. Results of one test showed those categorized as 'invulnerables' as having a more positive opinion of their soc...

P. M. Lewinsohn

1980-01-01

11

Software Vulnerabilities in Java.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Java is essentially a safe language with good security features, However there are several Java features and facilities that can compromise safety if they are misused or improperly implemented. This report briefly describes these potential software vulner...

F. Long

2005-01-01

12

Energy vulnerability relationships  

SciTech Connect

The US consumption of crude oil resources has been a steadily growing indicator of the vitality and strength of the US economy. At the same time import diversity has also been a rapidly developing dimension of the import picture. In the early 1970`s, embargoes of crude oil from Organization of Producing and Exporting Countries (OPEC) created economic and political havoc due to a significant lack of diversity and a unique set of economic, political and domestic regulatory circumstances. The continued rise of imports has again led to concerns over the security of our crude oil resource but threats to this system must be considered in light of the diversity and current setting of imported oil. This report develops several important issues concerning vulnerability to the disruption of oil imports: (1) The Middle East is not the major supplier of oil to the United States, (2) The US is not vulnerable to having its entire import stream disrupted, (3) Even in stable countries, there exist vulnerabilities to disruption of the export stream of oil, (4) Vulnerability reduction requires a focus on international solutions, and (5) DOE program and policy development must reflect the requirements of the diverse supply. Does this increasing proportion of imported oil create a {open_quotes}dependence{close_quotes}? Does this increasing proportion of imported oil present a vulnerability to {open_quotes}price shocks{close_quotes} and the tremendous dislocations experienced during the 1970`s? Finally, what is the vulnerability of supply disruptions from the current sources of imported oil? If oil is considered to be a finite, rapidly depleting resource, then the answers to these questions must be {open_quotes}yes.{close_quotes} However, if the supply of oil is expanding, and not limited, then dependence is relative to regional supply sources.

Shaw, B.R.; Boesen, J.L.

1998-02-01

13

Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

Schuckit, Marc A.

1987-01-01

14

Ageing and neuronal vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Everyone ages, but only some will develop a neurodegenerative disorder in the process. Disease might occur when cells fail to respond adaptively to age-related increases in oxidative, metabolic and ionic stress, thereby resulting in the accumulation of damaged proteins, DNA and membranes. Determinants of neuronal vulnerability might include cell size and location, metabolism of disease-specific proteins and a repertoire of

Tim Magnus; Mark P. Mattson

2006-01-01

15

Um Mtodo de Reconhecimento Sinttico de Caracteres para Identificao de Placas de Veculos  

E-print Network

­ 220 Goiânia, GO, Brasil dibio@eee.ufg.br Abstract. This paper proposes an automatic method system the preprocessing methods, necessary for solving the problem, are given here. The results present high quality alfanuméricos que compõem a placa de um veículo [Polidório e Borges (1996)], [Cowell (1995)] e [Nijhuis at al

16

Um Mtodo de Reconhecimento Sinttico de Caracteres para Identificao de Placas de Veculos  

E-print Network

- 220 Goiânia, GO, Brasil dibio@eee.ufg.br Abstract. This paper proposes an automatic method system the preprocessing methods, necessary for solving the problem, are given here. The results present high quality alfanuméricos que compõem a placa de um veículo [Polidório e Borges (1996)], [Cowell (1995)] e [Nijhuis at al

17

Markers of vulnerability in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Vulnerability in schizophrenia is an integrative concept, which tries to explain the development of schizophrenia as an interaction between different individual susceptibility factors and environmental risk factors. Vulnerability markers used in genetic studies include biochemical indicators, neuroanatomical, neurophysiologic, and cognitive abnormalities. Among those, the most extensive studied markers were: evoked potentials, smooth pursuit eye movements, and attentional deficits. Some of the potential indicators presented in this paper satisfy most of the criteria necessary for a vulnerability marker, but none meets all of them. Nevertheless, they represent important markers of risk to schizophrenia. Key words: vulnerability, evoked potentials, eye movements, attentional deficits PMID:20108534

Prelipceanu, D

2009-01-01

18

Common Control System Vulnerability  

SciTech Connect

The Control Systems Security Program and other programs within the Idaho National Laboratory have discovered a vulnerability common to control systems in all sectors that allows an attacker to penetrate most control systems, spoof the operator, and gain full control of targeted system elements. This vulnerability has been identified on several systems that have been evaluated at INL, and in each case a 100% success rate of completing the attack paths that lead to full system compromise was observed. Since these systems are employed in multiple critical infrastructure sectors, this vulnerability is deemed common to control systems in all sectors. Modern control systems architectures can be considered analogous to today's information networks, and as such are usually approached by attackers using a common attack methodology to penetrate deeper and deeper into the network. This approach often is composed of several phases, including gaining access to the control network, reconnaissance, profiling of vulnerabilities, launching attacks, escalating privilege, maintaining access, and obscuring or removing information that indicates that an intruder was on the system. With irrefutable proof that an external attack can lead to a compromise of a computing resource on the organization's business local area network (LAN), access to the control network is usually considered the first phase in the attack plan. Once the attacker gains access to the control network through direct connections and/or the business LAN, the second phase of reconnaissance begins with traffic analysis within the control domain. Thus, the communications between the workstations and the field device controllers can be monitored and evaluated, allowing an attacker to capture, analyze, and evaluate the commands sent among the control equipment. Through manipulation of the communication protocols of control systems (a process generally referred to as ''reverse engineering''), an attacker can then map out the control system processes and functions. With the detailed knowledge of how the control data functions, as well as what computers and devices communicate using this data, the attacker can use a well known Man-in-the-Middle attack to perform malicious operations virtually undetected. The control systems assessment teams have used this method to gather enough information about the system to craft an attack that intercepts and changes the information flow between the end devices (controllers) and the human machine interface (HMI and/or workstation). Using this attack, the cyber assessment team has been able to demonstrate complete manipulation of devices in control systems while simultaneously modifying the data flowing back to the operator's console to give false information of the state of the system (known as ''spoofing''). This is a very effective technique for a control system attack because it allows the attacker to manipulate the system and the operator's situational awareness of the perceived system status. The three main elements of this attack technique are: (1) network reconnaissance and data gathering, (2) reverse engineering, and (3) the Man-in-the-Middle attack. The details of this attack technique and the mitigation techniques are discussed.

Trent Nelson

2005-12-01

19

Social Vulnerability to Environmental Hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

County-level socioeconomic and demographic data were used to construct an index of social vulnerability to environmental hazards, called the Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for the United States based on 1990 data. Copyright (c) 2003 by the Southwestern Social Science Association.

Susan L. Cutter; Bryan J. Boruff; W. Lynn Shirley

2003-01-01

20

Bug Auctions: Vulnerability Markets Reconsidered  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measuring software security is dicult and inexact; as a result, the market for secure software has been compared to a 'market of lemons.' Schechter has proposed a vulnerability market in which software producers oer a time-variable reward to free-market testers who identify vulnera- bilities. This vulnerability market can be used to improve testing and to create a relative metric of

Andy Ozment

2004-01-01

21

Research with vulnerable human beings.  

PubMed

Some categories of human beings are particularly vulnerable vis-à-vis medical research. Vulnerability could be considered as the liability to be harmed, exploited, deceived, cheated, wronged, or otherwise unfairly treated, in roughly that descending order of importance. Vulnerable human beings obviously include the incompetent (minors and mentally handicapped adults), the desperately poor, ill or ignorant, prisoners, refugees, pregnant women, subordinates in highly authoritarian systems, etc. Vulnerability in itself does not imply that no research whatsoever should be carried out with such categories of humans but only that it should be carried out only under very special conditions. In this paper I treat of vulnerability in research of particularly developing world populations; of the types of research which exploit such vulnerability, and of why and how research subjects should be protected. The aim in this paper is to stimulate practical reflection on the possible vulnerabilities of potential research subjects that researchers or investigators need to avoid exploiting rather than on an adequate theoretical treatment of the issue. PMID:19699174

Tangwa, Godfrey B

2009-11-01

22

Cultural vulnerability and professional narratives.  

PubMed

In this article the author draws upon research with palliative care professionals in the United Kingdom to discuss the value of a stance of cultural vulnerability in intercultural care. Cultural vulnerability recognizes the reality, but also the ethical value of uncertainty and not-knowing in care. Attentiveness to professional narratives is advocated as vital in the development of greater understanding of cultural vulnerability and its effects. The role of cultural identifications and the politics of racism in social work narratives is given specific attention. PMID:22150178

Gunaratnam, Yasmin

2011-01-01

23

The SAVI vulnerability assessment model  

SciTech Connect

The assessment model ''Systematic Analysis of Vulnerability to Intrusion'' (SAVI) presented in this report is a PC-based path analysis model. It can provide estimates of protection system effectiveness (or vulnerability) against a spectrum of outsider threats including collusion with an insider adversary. It calculates one measure of system effectiveness, the probability of interruption P(I), for all potential adversary paths. SAVI can perform both theft and sabotage vulnerability analyses. For theft, the analysis is based on the assumption that adversaries should be interrupted either before they can accomplish removal of the target material from its normal location or removal from the site boundary. For sabotage, the analysis is based on the assumption that adversaries should be interrupted before completion of their sabotage task.

Winblad, A.E.

1987-07-01

24

Are Vulnerability Disclosure Deadlines Justified?  

SciTech Connect

Vulnerability research organizations Rapid7, Google Security team, and Zero Day Initiative recently imposed grace periods for public disclosure of vulnerabilities. The grace periods ranged from 45 to 182 days, after which disclosure might occur with or without an effective mitigation from the affected software vendor. At this time there is indirect evidence that the shorter grace periods of 45 and 60 days may not be practical. However, there is strong evidence that the recently announced Zero Day Initiative grace period of 182 days yields benefit in speeding up the patch creation process, and may be practical for many software products. Unfortunately, there is also evidence that the 182 day grace period results in more vulnerability announcements without an available patch.

Miles McQueen; Jason L. Wright; Lawrence Wellman

2011-09-01

25

Molecular imaging of plaque vulnerability.  

PubMed

Over the past decade, significant progress has been made in the development of novel imaging strategies focusing on the biology of the vessel wall for identification of vulnerable plaques. While the majority of these studies are still in the pre-clinical stage, few techniques (e.g., (18)F-FDG and (18)F-NaF PET imaging) have already been evaluated in clinical studies with promising results. Here, we will briefly review the pathobiology of atherosclerosis and discuss molecular imaging strategies that have been developed to target these events, with an emphasis on mechanisms that are associated with atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability. PMID:25124827

Tavakoli, Sina; Vashist, Aseem; Sadeghi, Mehran M

2014-12-01

26

Vulnerabilities of highly gifted children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the unique vulnerabilities of children with extraordinarily advanced intellectual skills, and highlights the differences between highly gifted and moderately gifted children. Problems of uneven development, perfectionism, adult expectations, intense sensitivity, self?definition, alienation, inappropriate environments, and role conflict are explored.

Wendy C. Roedell

1984-01-01

27

Measuring Vulnerability to Stereotype Threat  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: In this study, we examined the psychometric properties of an instrument intended to measure vulnerability to stereotype threat. Method: We revised the instrument through assessing score reliability and then examined a domain specific model using confirmatory factor analyses. After examining the responses of the total sample…

Barnard, Lucy; Burley, Hansel; Olivarez, Arturo; Crooks, Steven

2008-01-01

28

Transgender Youth: Invisible and Vulnerable  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY. This study used three focus groups to explore factors that affect the experiences of youth (ages 15 to 21) who identify as trans- gender. The focus groups were designed to probe transgender youths' experiences of vulnerability in the areas of health and mental health. This involved their exposure to risks, discrimination, marginalization, and their access to supportive resources. Three

Arnold H. Grossman; Anthony R. D'Augelli

29

CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS, VULNERABILITIES, AND  

E-print Network

CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS, VULNERABILITIES, AND ADAPTATION IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012071 Prepared for: California Energy, as well as projections of future changes in climate based on modeling studies using various plausible

30

Assessing European wild fire vulnerability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wild fire vulnerability is a measure of potential socio-economic damage caused by a fire in a specific area. As such it is an important component of long-term fire risk management, helping policy-makers take informed decisions about adequate expenditures for fire prevention and suppression, and to target those regions at highest risk. This paper presents a first approach to assess wild fire vulnerability at the European level. A conservative approach was chosen that assesses the cost of restoring the previous land cover after a potential fire. Based on the CORINE Land Cover, a restoration cost was established for each land cover class at country level, and an average restoration time was assigned according to the recovery capacity of the land cover. The damage caused by fire was then assessed by discounting the cost of restoring the previous land cover over the restoration period. Three different vulnerability scenarios were considered assuming low, medium and high fire severity causing different levels of damage. Over Europe, the potential damage of wild land fires ranges from 10 - 13, 732 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for low fire severity, 32 - 45,772 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for medium fire severity and 54 - 77,812 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for high fire severity. The least vulnerable are natural grasslands, moors and heathland and sclerophyllous vegetation, while the highest cost occurs for restoring broad-leaved forest. Preliminary validation comparing these estimates with official damage assessments for past fires shows reasonable results. The restoration cost approach allows for a straightforward, data extensive assessment of fire vulnerability at European level. A disadvantage is the inherent simplification of the evaluation procedure with the underestimation of non-markets goods and services. Thus, a second approach has been developed, valuing individual wild land goods and services and assessing their annual flow which is lost for a certain period of time in case of a fire event. However, due to limitations in data availability, this approach of environmental accounting is not fully implemented yet. Keywords: fire vulnerability, damage assessment, land cover restoration, long-term fire risk, European scale

Oehler, F.; Oliveira, S.; Barredo, J. I.; Camia, A.; Ayanz, J. San Miguel; Pettenella, D.; Mavsar, R.

2012-04-01

31

A comparative analysis of several vulnerability concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative analysis of six vulnerability models aims to identify differences and similarities between several approaches\\u000a towards understanding vulnerability. The analysis yields a set of characteristics for explaining the condition of vulnerability\\u000a (multiple contexts, multiple dimensions, temporal variability, multiple scales and scale-interdependency). In addition, ‘adaptation’\\u000a and ‘adaptive capacity’ are identified as key elements of vulnerability. The results of the analysis

Gabi Hufschmidt

2011-01-01

32

Safeguarding Children and Vulnerable Adults 1. Introduction  

E-print Network

1 Safeguarding Children and Vulnerable Adults 1. Introduction 2. Definition & Legislation 3. Scope are likely to be a) vulnerable adults or b) children. The welfare and protection from abuse of vulnerable adults and children is paramount and central to this policy. A multi-agency approach is recommended

Anderson, Jim

33

Internet Security, Vulnerability Disclosure and Software Provision  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we examine how software vulnerabilities affect firms that license software and consumers that purchase software. In particular, we model three decisions of the firm: (i) an upfront investment in the quality of the software to reduce potential vulnerabilities; (ii) a policy decision whether to announce vulnerabilities; and (iii) a price for the software. We also model two

Jay-Pil Choi; Chaim Fershtman; Neil Gandal

2005-01-01

34

SOCIAL VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN CALIFORNIA  

E-print Network

SOCIAL VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN CALIFORNIA A White Paper the population exposed to these impacts will be affected, social vulnerability ­ defined as the susceptibility to indicate the social vulnerability of a region's population to climaterelated harm. The index combines 19

35

Small Business - A Cyber Resilience Vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small business in Australia comprise 95% of businesses. As a group this means that they contain increasing volumes of personal and business data. This creates escalating vulnerabilities as information is aggregated by various agencies. These vulnerabilities include identity theft and fraud. The threat environment of small business is extensive with both technical and human vulnerabilities. The problem is that the

Patricia A H Williams; Rachel J Manheke

2010-01-01

36

Spatial differences in drought vulnerability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drought causes the highest economic losses among all hydro-meteorological events in Croatia. It is the most frequent hazard, which produces the highest damages in the agricultural sector. The climate assessment in Croatia according to the aridity index (defined as the ratio of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration) shows that the susceptibility to desertification is present in the warm part of the year and it is mostly pronounced in the Adriatic region and the eastern Croatia lowland. The evidence of more frequent extreme drought events in the last decade is apparent. These facts were motivation to study the drought risk assessment in Croatia. One step in this issue is the construction of the vulnerability map. This map is a complex combination of the geomorphologic and climatological inputs (maps) that are presumed to be natural factors which modify the amount of moisture in the soil. In this study, the first version of the vulnerability map is followed by the updated one that additionally includes the soil types and the land use classes. The first input considered is the geomorphologic slope angle calculated from the digital elevation model (DEM). The SRTM DEM of 100 m resolution is used. The steeper slopes are more likely to lose water and to become dryer. The second climatological parameter, the solar irradiation map, gives for the territory of Croatia the maximum irradiation on the coast. The next meteorological parameter that influences the drought vulnerability is precipitation which is in this assessment included through the precipitation variability expressed by the coefficient of variation. Larger precipitation variability is related with the higher drought vulnerability. The preliminary results for Croatia, according to the recommended procedure in the framework of Drought Management Centre for Southeastern Europe (DMCSEE project), show the most sensitive areas to drought in the southern Adriatic coast and eastern continental lowland.

Per?ec Tadi?, M.; Cindi?, K.; Gaji?-?apka, M.; Zaninovi?, K.

2012-04-01

37

Simulation with PLACA/DPLACA of thermal and mechanical phenomena in monolithic and dispersed fuel plates  

SciTech Connect

The codes PLACA and DPLACA simulate the irradiation behavior of fuels for research reactors under normal operation conditions. They represent, respectively, plate-type fuels of the monolithic and dispersed types. Both codes contain about thirty interconnected and mutually dependent models structured in a modular scheme. This characteristic gives to the codes a large versatility. To simulate U-Mo/Al dispersion fuels, where the growth of an interaction layer can provoke uncontrolled swelling, a diffusion model with two moving boundaries has been developed. It assumes that the kinetics of both layer boundaries is determined by diffusion of U and Al through the layer. The codes make possible a detailed simulation of the evolution of the more relevant physical parameters of a fuel plate during its permanence within a reactor. Both codes were applied to simulate irradiation histories for which experimental data are available. The good quality of the codes predictions reveals the correct performance of the models involved and the appropriate coupling of the ensemble. (author)

Soba, Alejandro [Departamento Combustibles Nucleares, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. del Libertador 8250, 1429 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Denis, Alicia [Departamento Combustibles Nucleares, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. del Libertador 8250, 1429 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de General San Martin, M. de Irigoyen 3100, 1650 Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2008-07-15

38

Metadata for selecting or submitting generic seismic vulnerability functions via GEM's vulnerability database  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This memo lays out a procedure for the GEM software to offer an available vulnerability function for any acceptable set of attributes that the user specifies for a particular building category. The memo also provides general guidelines on how to submit the vulnerability or fragility functions to the GEM vulnerability repository, stipulating which attributes modelers must provide so that their vulnerability or fragility functions can be queried appropriately by the vulnerability database. An important objective is to provide users guidance on limitations and applicability by providing the associated modeling assumptions and applicability of each vulnerability or fragility function.

Jaiswal, Kishor

2013-01-01

39

Vulnerability of network of networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our dependence on networks - be they infrastructure, economic, social or others - leaves us prone to crises caused by the vulnerabilities of these networks. There is a great need to develop new methods to protect infrastructure networks and prevent cascade of failures (especially in cases of coupled networks). Terrorist attacks on transportation networks have traumatized modern societies. With a single blast, it has become possible to paralyze airline traffic, electric power supply, ground transportation or Internet communication. How, and at which cost can one restructure the network such that it will become more robust against malicious attacks? The gradual increase in attacks on the networks society depends on - Internet, mobile phone, transportation, air travel, banking, etc. - emphasize the need to develop new strategies to protect and defend these crucial networks of communication and infrastructure networks. One example is the threat of liquid explosives a few years ago, which completely shut down air travel for days, and has created extreme changes in regulations. Such threats and dangers warrant the need for new tools and strategies to defend critical infrastructure. In this paper we review recent advances in the theoretical understanding of the vulnerabilities of interdependent networks with and without spatial embedding, attack strategies and their affect on such networks of networks as well as recently developed strategies to optimize and repair failures caused by such attacks.

Havlin, S.; Kenett, D. Y.; Bashan, A.; Gao, J.; Stanley, H. E.

2014-10-01

40

Scenarios for coastal vulnerability assessment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coastal vulnerability assessments tend to focus mainly on climate change and especially on sea-level rise. Assessment of the influence of nonclimatic environmental change or socioeconomic change is less well developed and these drivers are often completely ignored. Given that the most profound coastal changes of the twentieth century due to nonclimate drivers are likely to continue through the twenty-first century, this is a major omission. It may result in not only overstating the importance of climate change but also overlooking significant interactions of climate change and other drivers. To support the development of policies relating to climate change and coastal management, integrated assessments of climatic change in coastal areas are required, including the effects of all the relevant drivers. This chapter explores the development of scenarios (or "plausible futures") of relevant climate and nonclimate drivers that can be used for coastal analysis, with an emphasis on the nonclimate drivers. It shows the importance of analyzing the impacts of climate change and sea-level rise in a broader context of coastal change and all its drivers. This will improve the analysis of impacts, key vulnerabilities, and adaptation needs and, hence, inform climate and coastal policy. Stakeholder engagement is important in the development of scenarios, and the underlying assumptions need to be explicit, transparent, and open to scientific debate concerning their uncertainties/realism and likelihood.

Nicholls, Robert J.; Woodroffe, Colin D.; Burkett, Virginia; Hay, John; Wong, Poh Poh; Nurse, Leonard

2011-01-01

41

Dynamics of immune system vulnerabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adaptive immune system can be viewed as a complex system, which adapts, over time, to reflect the history of infections experienced by the organism. Understanding its operation requires viewing it in terms of tradeoffs under constraints and evolutionary history. It typically displays "robust, yet fragile" behavior, meaning common tasks are robust to small changes but novel threats or changes in environment can have dire consequences. In this dissertation we use mechanistic models to study several biological processes: the immune response, the homeostasis of cells in the lymphatic system, and the process that normally prevents autoreactive cells from entering the lymphatic system. Using these models we then study the effects of these processes interacting. We show that the mechanisms that regulate the numbers of cells in the immune system, in conjunction with the immune response, can act to suppress autoreactive cells from proliferating, thus showing quantitatively how pathogenic infections can suppress autoimmune disease. We also show that over long periods of time this same effect can thin the repertoire of cells that defend against novel threats, leading to an age correlated vulnerability. This vulnerability is shown to be a consequence of system dynamics, not due to degradation of immune system components with age. Finally, modeling a specific tolerance mechanism that normally prevents autoimmune disease, in conjunction with models of the immune response and homeostasis we look at the consequences of the immune system mistakenly incorporating pathogenic molecules into its tolerizing mechanisms. The signature of this dynamic matches closely that of the dengue virus system.

Stromberg, Sean P.

42

Vulnerable Groups Living with Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

There is considerable variation in rehabilitation outcomes within the population of spinal cord–injured individuals across racial and socioeconomic groups. This suggests that the long-term health following spinal cord injury (SCI) is determined, at least in part, by group differences in exposure to advantages and disadvantages among persons living in the community. This article conceptualizes the nature of vulnerability and how increased vulnerability leads to disparities in SCI outcomes. Demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic determinants of adverse outcomes among vulnerable groups are discussed. Finally, a research model that outlines potential processes that elicit vulnerability following SCI and clinical implications is reviewed. PMID:23966760

Fyffe, Denise C.; Botticello, Amanda L.; Myaskovsky, Larissa

2013-01-01

43

Mining Bug Databases for Unidentified Software Vulnerabilities  

SciTech Connect

Identifying software vulnerabilities is becoming more important as critical and sensitive systems increasingly rely on complex software systems. It has been suggested in previous work that some bugs are only identified as vulnerabilities long after the bug has been made public. These vulnerabilities are known as hidden impact vulnerabilities. This paper discusses the feasibility and necessity to mine common publicly available bug databases for vulnerabilities that are yet to be identified. We present bug database analysis of two well known and frequently used software packages, namely Linux kernel and MySQL. It is shown that for both Linux and MySQL, a significant portion of vulnerabilities that were discovered for the time period from January 2006 to April 2011 were hidden impact vulnerabilities. It is also shown that the percentage of hidden impact vulnerabilities has increased in the last two years, for both software packages. We then propose an improved hidden impact vulnerability identification methodology based on text mining bug databases, and conclude by discussing a few potential problems faced by such a classifier.

Dumidu Wijayasekara; Milos Manic; Jason Wright; Miles McQueen

2012-06-01

44

Proliferation Vulnerability Red Team report  

SciTech Connect

This report is the product of a four-month independent technical assessment of potential proliferation vulnerabilities associated with the plutonium disposition alternatives currently under review by DOE/MD. The scope of this MD-chartered/Sandia-led study was limited to technical considerations that could reduce proliferation resistance during various stages of the disposition processes below the Stored Weapon/Spent Fuel standards. Both overt and covert threats from host nation and unauthorized parties were considered. The results of this study will be integrated with complementary work by others into an overall Nonproliferation and Arms Control Assessment in support of a Secretarial Record of Decision later this year for disposition of surplus U.S. weapons plutonium.

Hinton, J.P.; Barnard, R.W.; Bennett, D.E. [and others

1996-10-01

45

Saudis awaken to their vulnerability  

SciTech Connect

Saudi Arabia is becoming aware that it is vulnerable to internal and external pressures which threaten its security. The strains of rapid modernization and threats from hostile neighbors are undermining the consensus which has held the widely diverse country together in a system of open communication. Influence by the Bedouin (ruling) and the ulama (religious) groups has predominated a traditional society determined to modernize and still remain conservative. Members of the ruling class are seeking to profit from the modernization process, but the common Saudi resists becoming an industrial laborer. Recent events in Mecca, Afghanistan and elsewhere illustrate how political pressures are affecting the country's leadership in the threat of armed conflicts over its oil supplies. (DCK)

Tinnin, D.B.

1980-03-10

46

Vulnerable Voices: An Examination of the Concept of Vulnerability in Relation to Student Voice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vulnerable student voices are a matter for concern in contemporary higher education, but that concern is directed more towards identifying vulnerable groups, and seeking to widen their participation in higher education. It is less to do with the vulnerability of certain modes of voice when students are there. The concept of student voice may be…

Batchelor, Denise Claire

2006-01-01

47

Modelling farm vulnerability to flooding: towards the appraisal of vulnerability mitigation policies  

E-print Network

1 Modelling farm vulnerability to flooding: towards the appraisal of vulnerability mitigation) In France, two new kinds of flood management policies are promoted: floodplain restoration and vulnerability mitigation. Few experience feedback exist on these policies but they may have strong impacts on farms. Flood

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

48

learning security QA from the vulnerability researchers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every day, vulnerability researchers find and publicly disclose new vulnera- bilities for software products. Many of these products are made by vendors who assure us that they know how to create secure software. What makes it possible for a vulnerability researcher, who usually doesn't have access to design documentation or source code, to find these problems? He would seem to

Chris Wysopal

2003-01-01

49

Opportunistic Interruptions: Interactional Vulnerabilities Deriving from Linearization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speaking involves "linearizing" a message into a string of words. This process leaves us vulnerable to being interrupted in such a way that the aborted turn is a misrepresentation of the intended message. Further, because we linearize our messages in standard ways, we are recurrently vulnerable to interruptions at particular turn-construction…

Gibson, David R.

2005-01-01

50

Statically Detecting Likely Buffer Overflow Vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buffer overflow attacks may be today's single most important security threat. This paper presents a new approach to mitigating buffer overflow vulnerabilities by detecting likely vulnerabilities through an analysis of the program source code. Our approach exploits information provided in semantic comments and uses lightweight and efficient static analyses. This paper describes an implementation of our approach that extends the

David Larochelle; David Evans

2001-01-01

51

Modeling the emergence of insider threat vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present insights generated by modeling the emergence of insider threat vulnerabilities in organiza- tions. In our model, we integrate concepts from social judgment theory, signal detection theory, and the cognitive psychology of memory and belief formation. With this model, we investigate the emergence of vulnerabilities (es- pecially that are insider-driven) in complex systems char- acterized by

Ignacio J. Martinez-moyano; Eliot H. Rich; Stephen H. Conrad; David F. Andersen

2006-01-01

52

Modeling the Emergence of Insider Threat Vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present insights generated by modeling the emergence of insider threat vulnerabilities in organizations. In our model, we integrate concepts from social judgment theory, signal detection theory, and the cognitive psychology of memory and belief formation. With this model, we investigate the emergence of vulnerabilities (especially that are insider-driven) in complex systems characterized by high levels of

Ignacio J. Martinez-Moyano; S. H. Conrad; E. H. Rich; David F. Andersen

2006-01-01

53

Vulnerable Youth and Transitions to Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter focuses on vulnerable youth, the challenges they face during their transitions to adulthood, and the adverse effects of limited support systems on those transitions. The authors offer recommendations on how adult educators can help facilitate smooth transitions into adulthood for vulnerable youth.

Xie, Rongbing; Sen, Bisakha; Foster, E. Michael

2014-01-01

54

Addressing vulnerability through an integrated approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review current theoretical approaches in disaster studies and put forward a model of vulnerability that incorporates physical science, engineering, and social science research. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A comprehensive model of vulnerability is proposed, which includes both liabilities and capabilities from the physical and social environments. The model is related to risk, susceptibility,

David McEntire; Colleen Gilmore Crocker MPH; Ekong Peters

2010-01-01

55

GUNNISON BASIN CLIMATE CHANGE VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT  

E-print Network

, develop effective adaptation strategies, and build resilience in the face of climate change. Vulnerability is collaborating with the Southwest Climate Change Initiative (SWCCI), whose aim is to provide climate adaptationGUNNISON BASIN CLIMATE CHANGE VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT For the Gunnison Climate Working Group

Neff, Jason

56

Airport vulnerability assessment-an analytical approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Airport Vulnerability Assessment Project (AVAP), is the direct result of congressional funding of recommendation 3.13 of the White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security. This project takes a new approach to the assessment of US commercial airports. AVAP uses automation analytical methods and tools to evaluate vulnerability and risk, and to analyze cost\\/benefits in a more quantitative manner.

R. Lazarick

1998-01-01

57

Regional tsunami vulnerability analysis through ASTER imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of vulnerability to natural hazards is a key issue of prevention measures within ICZM. Knowledge of susceptibility to damage and how this is distributed along the coast allows to optimize possible prevention and mitigation actions. The present study focuses on tsunami vulnerability of a large extension of coastline: the entire westerly Thailand's coast. The work is a follow up

Filippo Dall'Osso; Alessandra Cavalletti; Francesco Immordino; Marco Gonella

2010-01-01

58

Issues in conducting research with vulnerable families.  

PubMed

This article explores methodological and ethical issues in the conduct of research with vulnerable families. Some methodological and ethical issues are common to all family research, regardless of the families' vulnerability; however, many research issues are more problematic in vulnerable families, and a few issues are relatively unique to vulnerable families. Vulnerable families are defined as families that are susceptible to harm because of their socioeconomic status, their minority status, or other stigmatizing status. Methodological issues include definition of family; recruitment and retention of participants; reliability and validity of instruments; and racism, classism, and sexism. Ethical issues include confidentiality, reporting abuse and neglect, conflict of research ethics and personal ethics, identifying problems nobody can fix, balancing demands and benefits, and interpretation of data. Examples of methodological and ethical issues are drawn from several research studies in which the primary author was or is currently involved. PMID:7732685

Demi, A S; Warren, N A

1995-04-01

59

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: cell vulnerability or system vulnerability?  

PubMed

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a complex neurodegenerative disease with clinical, pathological and genetic overlap with frontotemporal dementia (FTD). No longer viewed as one disease with a single unified cause, ALS is now considered to be a clinicopathological syndrome resulting from a complex convergence of genetic susceptibility, age-related loss of cellular homeostasis, and possible environmental influences. The rapid increase in recent years of the number of genes in which mutations have been associated with ALS has led to in vitro and in vivo models that have generated a wealth of data indicating disruption of specific biochemical pathways and sub-cellular compartments. Data implicating pathways including protein misfolding, mRNA splicing, oxidative stress, proteosome and mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of ALS reinforce a disease model based on selective age-dependent vulnerability of a specific population of cells. To the clinical neurologist, however, ALS presents as a disease of focal onset and contiguous spread. Characteristic regional patterns of involvement and progression suggest that the disease does not proceed randomly but via a restricted number of anatomical pathways. These clinical observations combined with electrophysiological and brain-imaging studies underpin the concept of ALS at the macroscopic level as a 'system degeneration'. This dichotomy between cellular and systems neurobiology raises the fundamental questions of what initiates the disease process in a specific anatomical site and how the disease is propagated. Is the essence of ALS a cell-to-cell transmission of pathology with, for example, a 'prion-like' mechanism, or does the cellular pathology follow degeneration of specific synaptic networks? Elucidating the interaction between cellular degeneration and system level degeneration will aid modeling of the disease in the earliest phases, improve the development of sensitive markers of disease progression and response to therapy, and expand our understanding of the biological basis of clinical and pathological heterogeneity. PMID:24010870

Talbot, Kevin

2014-01-01

60

Collaborative Remediation of Configuration Vulnerabilities in Autonomic Networks and Systems  

E-print Network

Collaborative Remediation of Configuration Vulnerabilities in Autonomic Networks and Systems Mart vulnerabilities in autonomic networks and systems. We put forward a mathematical formulation of vulnerability systems capable of managing themselves in an autonomous manner [17], [16]. Nevertheless, when self

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

61

Spatial scan statistics in vulnerability assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the European Alps the concept of risk has increasingly been applied in order to reduce the susceptibility of society to mountain hazards. Risk is defined as a function of the magnitude and frequency of a hazard process times consequences; the latter being quantified by the value of elements at risk exposed and their vulnerability. Vulnerability means the degree of loss to a given element at risk resulting from the impact of a natural hazard. Recent empirical studies suggested a dependency of the degree of loss on the hazard impact, and respective vulnerability (or damage-loss) functions were developed. However, until now only little information is available on the spatial characteristics of vulnerability on a local scale; considerable ranges in the loss ratio for medium process intensities only provide a hint that there might me mutual reasons for lower or higher loss rates. In this paper we therefore focus on the spatial dimension of vulnerability by searching for spatial clusters in the damage ratio of elements at risk exposed. By using the software SaTScan, we applied an ordinal data model and a normal data model in order to detect spatial distribution patterns of five individual torrent events in Austria. For both models, we detected some significant clusters of high damage ratios, and consequently high vulnerability. Moreover, secondary clusters of high and low values were found. Based on our results, the assumption that lower process intensities result in lower damage ratios, and therefore in lower vulnerability, and vice versa, has to be partly rejected. The spatial distribution of vulnerability is not only dependent on the process intensities but also on the overall land use pattern and the individual constructive characteristics of the buildings exposed. Generally we suggest the use of a normal data model for test sites exceeding a minimum of 30 elements at risk exposed. As such, the study enhanced our understanding of spatial vulnerability patterns on a local scale.

Fuchs, Sven; Ornetsmüller, Christine

2013-04-01

62

ICBM vulnerability: Calculations, predictions, and error bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theory of intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) silo vulnerability is reviewed, and the present and probable future (mid-1990s) vulnerability of US silos is analyzed. The analysis emphasizes methodology, sources of information, and uncertainties. US ICBMs might still be survivable today but they will certainly be vulnerable to ICBM attack, and perhaps even to submarine-launched ballistic missile attack, by the mid-1990s. These calculations are presented not only for their immediate importance but also to introduce other physicists to some of the quantitative methods that can be used to analyze international security topics.

Hobson, Art

1988-09-01

63

Child development: vulnerability and resilience.  

PubMed

Many of the challenges facing children now are a function of changing times, including increase in urbanization, political violence, changing family forms, and in some areas decreased supplies of adequate food. This review focuses particularly on those changes in which children are the victims and which induce new threats for them, rather than on problems such as child disability or mental illness. The outcome variables of interest in this paper are dimensions of children's psychosocial development, including cognitive development, psychological adjustment and aggression, whereas the companion paper in this issue (Caldwell P., Child survival: vulnerability and resilience in adversity in the European past and the contemporary Third World, Soc. Sci. Med.) [1] focuses on physical aspects of children's development. The risks that are hurdles in the process of development of a young child begin from conception and carry on into later life. To address them all would be impossible; thus, in order to do justice to the issues at hand, we have chosen those risks that, in our view, are important in a child's psychosocial development in developing countries. This paper will thus provide a discussion of the concepts of risk and resilience, then apply these concepts to the analysis of three examples of risk faced by children today: nutritional threats (e.g. malnutrition due to decline in breastfeeding); family dynamics and types of family forms (e.g. child fostering and non-traditional families); and experiences of violence (domestic or political). In each case, the same four questions will be addressed: what are the consequences of the risk factor for children, what are the etiologies and conditions of risk, are there any children who seem to cope with the risk factor successfully and what are some of the protective factors, and what interventions or programs would help support these children? PMID:8870128

Engle, P L; Castle, S; Menon, P

1996-09-01

64

Measuring and Incorporating Vulnerability into Conservation Planning  

E-print Network

FORUM Measuring and Incorporating Vulnerability into Conservation Planning KERRIE WILSON / Conservation planning is the process of locating and designing conservation areas to promote the persistence, measuring and incorporating vul- nerability into conservation planning have been problematic. We develop

Queensland, University of

65

Chimpanzees as vulnerable subjects in research.  

PubMed

Using an approach developed in the context of human bioethics, we argue that chimpanzees in research can be regarded as vulnerable subjects. This vulnerability is primarily due to communication barriers and situational factors-confinement and dependency-that make chimpanzees particularly susceptible to risks of harm and exploitation in experimental settings. In human research, individuals who are deemed vulnerable are accorded special protections. Using conceptual and moral resources developed in the context of research with vulnerable humans, we show how chimpanzees warrant additional safeguards against harm and exploitation paralleling those for human subjects. These safeguards should include empowering third parties to act as surrogate decision makers for chimpanzees, ensuring participant "assent," and avoiding recruitment of animal subjects based merely on convenience. PMID:24610230

Johnson, Jane; Barnard, Neal D

2014-04-01

66

CLIMATE VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTATION STUDY FOR  

E-print Network

CLIMATE VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTATION STUDY FOR CALIFORNIA Legal Analysis of Barriers's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012019 Prepared for: California Energy Commission to that framework that would facilitate adaptation to climate change. Since such changes may be difficult

67

Extinction vulnerability of coral reef fishes  

PubMed Central

With rapidly increasing rates of contemporary extinction, predicting extinction vulnerability and identifying how multiple stressors drive non-random species loss have become key challenges in ecology. These assessments are crucial for avoiding the loss of key functional groups that sustain ecosystem processes and services. We developed a novel predictive framework of species extinction vulnerability and applied it to coral reef fishes. Although relatively few coral reef fishes are at risk of global extinction from climate disturbances, a negative convex relationship between fish species locally vulnerable to climate change vs. fisheries exploitation indicates that the entire community is vulnerable on the many reefs where both stressors co-occur. Fishes involved in maintaining key ecosystem functions are more at risk from fishing than climate disturbances. This finding is encouraging as local and regional commitment to fisheries management action can maintain reef ecosystem functions pending progress towards the more complex global problem of stabilizing the climate. PMID:21320260

Graham, Nicholas A J; Chabanet, Pascale; Evans, Richard D; Jennings, Simon; Letourneur, Yves; Aaron MacNeil, M; McClanahan, Tim R; Ohman, Marcus C; Polunin, Nicholas V C; Wilson, Shaun K

2011-01-01

68

Airport vulnerability assessment: an analytical approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Airport Vulnerability Assessment Project (AVAP) is the direct result of congressional funding of recommendation 3.13 of the White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security. This project takes a new approach to the assessment of U.S. commercial airports. AVAP uses automation, analytical methods and tools to evaluate vulnerability and risk, and to analyze cost\\/benefits in a more quantitative manner.

Richard T. Lazarick

1998-01-01

69

Global Distributions of Vulnerability to Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

Signatories of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have committed themselves to addressing the “specific needs and special circumstances of developing country parties, especially those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change”.1 The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has since concluded with high confidence that “developing countries will be more vulnerable to climate change than developed countries”.2 In their most recent report, however, the IPCC notes that “current knowledge of adaptation and adaptive capacity is insufficient for reliable prediction of adaptations” 3 because “the capacity to adapt varies considerably among regions, countries and socioeconomic groups and will vary over time”.4 Here, we respond to the apparent contradiction in these two statements by exploring how variation in adaptive capacity and climate impacts combine to influence the global distribution of vulnerability. We find that all countries will be vulnerable to climate change, even if their adaptive capacities are enhanced. Developing nations are most vulnerable to modest climate change. Reducing greenhouse-gas emissions would diminish their vulnerabilities significantly. Developed countries would benefit most from mitigation for moderate climate change. Extreme climate change overwhelms the abilities of all countries to adapt. These findings should inform both ongoing negotiations for the next commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol and emerging plans for implementing UNFCCC-sponsored adaptation funds.

Yohe, Gary; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Brenkert, Antoinette L.; Schlesinger, Michael; Meij, Henk; Xiaoshi, Xing

2006-12-01

70

Application of PRA to HEMP vulnerability analysis  

SciTech Connect

Vulnerability analyses of large systems, e.g., control and communication centers, aircraft, ships, are subject to many uncertainties. A basic source of uncertainty is the random variation inherent in the physical world. Thus, vulnerability is appropriately described by an estimate of the probability of survival (or failure). A second source of uncertainty that also needs to be recognized is the uncertainty associated with the analysis or estimation process itself. This uncertainty, often called modeling uncertainty, has many contributors. There are the approximations introduced by using mathematical models to describe reality. Also, the appropriate values of the model parameters are derived from several sources, e.g., based on experimental or test data, based on expert judgment and opinion. In any case, these values are subject to uncertainty. This uncertainty must be considered in the description of vulnerability. Thus, the estimate of the probability of survival is not a single value but a range of values. Probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) is a methodology which deals with these uncertainty issues. This report discusses the application of PRA to HEMP vulnerability analyses. Vulnerability analysis and PRA are briefly outlined and the need to distinguish between random variation and modeling uncertainty is discussed. Then a sequence of steps appropriate for applying PRA to vulnerability problems is outlined. Finally, methods for handling modeling uncertainty are identified and discussed.

Mensing, R.W.

1985-09-01

71

Camana, Peru, and Tsunami Vulnerability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A tsunami washed over the low-lying coastal resort region near Camana, southern Peru, following a strong earthquake on June 23, 2001. The earthquake was one of the most powerful of the last 35 years and had a magnitude of 8.4. After the initial quake, coastal residents witnessed a sudden drawdown of the ocean and knew a tsunami was imminent. They had less than 20 minutes to reach higher ground before the tsunami hit. Waves as high as 8 m came in four destructive surges reaching as far as 1.2 km inland. The dashed line marks the approximate area of tsunami inundation. Thousands of buildings were destroyed, and the combined earthquake and tsunami killed as many as 139 people. This image (ISS004-ESC-6128) was taken by astronauts onboard the International Space Station on 10 January 2002. It shows some of the reasons that the Camana area was so vulnerable to tsunami damage. The area has a 1 km band of coastal plain that is less than 5 m in elevation. Much of the plain can be seen by the bright green fields of irrigated agriculture that contrast with the light-colored desert high ground. Many of the tsunami-related deaths were workers in the onion fields in the coastal plain that were unwilling to leave their jobs before the end of the shift. A number of lives were spared because the tsunami occurred during the resort off-season, during the daylight when people could see the ocean drawdown, and during one of the lowest tides of the year. Information on the Tsunami that hit Camana can be found in a reports on the visit by the International Tsunami Survey Team and the USC Tsunami Research Lab. Earthquake Epicenter, Peru shows another image of the area. Image provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

2002-01-01

72

Towards Automatic Generation of Vulnerability-Based Signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we explore the problem of creating vulner- ability signatures. A vulnerability signature matches all ex- ploits of a given vulnerability, even polymorphic or meta- morphic variants. Our work departs from previous ap- proaches by focusing on the semantics of the program and vulnerability exercised by a sample exploit instead of the semantics or syntax of the exploit

David Brumley; James Newsome; Dawn Xiaodong Song; Hao Wang; Somesh Jha

2006-01-01

73

La república de Caín: La dramaturgia solitaria de Julio Planchart  

E-print Network

conformaciones psicológicos. Están identificados con nombres tales como Callock Caifas, Hallack Ananias, Qrtiaz, y con otros genéricos como Maacha la Verdulera, el Poeta, El Arriero, el Cínico, o Pericles. Ambos tipos de nombres, con sus connotaciones... del contorno social. Degradación ambiental. Caín es electo Jefe Civil, a pesar del discurso de Pericles sobre la libertad y el progreso. Algunos personajes interrumpen la acción para glosaría, creándole referencias narrativas e históricas a la...

Azparren Gimé nez, Leonardo

1994-10-01

74

Reactions to research participation in vulnerable subgroups.  

PubMed

This paper describes the extent to which vulnerable individuals (defined by economic, social, psychological, physical health, and child maltreatment status) react to research participation. As part of an ongoing longitudinal study, participants (N=896) completed a lengthy and intrusive in-person interview and provided a small amount of blood through finger pricks. At the end of the interview, participants were asked eight questions about their reactions to the research experience. Vulnerable individuals in general agreed more strongly about having an emotional reaction, but were not less willing to continue to participate. In addition, psychologically vulnerable individuals more strongly agreed they would continue to participate, were treated with respect and dignity, and found their participation meaningful. Compared to whites, nonwhites reported stronger agreement about the meaningfulness of the research and the belief that their responses would be kept private. Like others, individuals vulnerable by virtue of their prisoner status or homelessness (past or current) agreed more strongly about having an emotional reaction to the interview, but otherwise did not differ in their reactions. These results suggest that researchers and institutional review boards should not be deterred from conducting research on sensitive topics with potentially vulnerable populations. PMID:16220625

Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally J

2005-01-01

75

Using Assessing Care of Vulnerable Elders Quality Indicators to Measure Quality of Hospital Care for Vulnerable Elders  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To assess the quality of care for hospital- ized vulnerable elders using measures based on Assessing Care of Vulnerable Elders (ACOVE) quality indicators (QIs). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Single academic medical center. PARTICIPANTS: Subjects aged 65 and older hospitalized on the University of Chicago general medicine inpatient service who were defined as vulnerable using the Vulnerable Elder Survey-13

Vineet M. Arora; Martha Johnson; Jared Olson; Paula M. Podrazik; Stacie Levine; Catherine E. DuBeau; Greg A. Sachs; David O. Meltzer

2007-01-01

76

Neurochemical markers of alcoholism vulnerability in humans.  

PubMed

This review considers several neurochemical characteristics or trait markers that may be related to a genetic vulnerability to alcoholism. These potential neurochemical markers of alcoholism vulnerability include indices of activity of five neurotransmitter systems, namely gamma-aminobutyric acid, serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline and beta-endorphin. This review evaluates whether potential abnormalities in these neurochemical indices, as assessed in alcoholics and in the children of alcoholics, meet three criteria for the identification of a vulnerability marker of alcoholism: (1). heritable; (2). associated with alcoholism in the general population; (3). state independent. It is concluded that, at present, indices of increased baseline activity of the serotonin transporter in platelets and of increased responsiveness of the pituitary beta-endorphin system may fulfil each of these three criteria. Additional research efforts should be devoted to the evaluation of trait marker properties of neurochemical indices in individuals at high risk for alcoholism. PMID:12414542

Ratsma, Joelle E; Van Der Stelt, Odin; Gunning, W Boudewijn

2002-01-01

77

An Independent Validation of Vulnerability Discovery Models  

E-print Network

Having a precise vulnerability discovery model (VDM) would provide a useful quantitative insight to assess software security. Thus far, several models have been proposed with some evidence supporting their goodness-of-fit. In this work we describe an independent validation of the applicability of six existing VDMs in seventeen releases of the three popular browsers Firefox, Google Chrome and Internet Explorer. We have collected five different kinds of data sets based on different definitions of a vulnerability. We introduce two quantitative metrics, goodness-of-fit entropy and goodness-of-fit quality, to analyze the impact of vulnerability data sets to the stability as well as quality of VDMs in the software life cycles. The experiment result shows that the "confirmed-by-vendors' advisories" data sets apparently yields more stable and better results for VDMs. And the performance of the s-shape logistic model (AML) seems to be superior performance in overall. Meanwhile, Anderson thermodynamic model (AT) is ind...

Nguyen, Viet Hung

2012-01-01

78

A framework for modeling rail transport vulnerability  

SciTech Connect

Railroads represent one of the most efficient methods of long-haul transport for bulk commodities, from coal to agricultural products. Over the past fifty years, the rail network has contracted while tonnage has increased. Service, geographically, has been abandoned along short haul routes and increased along major long haul routes, resulting in a network that is more streamlined. The current rail network may be very vulnerable to disruptions, like the failure of a trestle. This paper proposes a framework to model rail network vulnerability and gives an application of this modeling framework in analyzing rail network vulnerability for the State of Washington. It concludes with a number of policy related issues that need to be addressed in order to identify, plan, and mitigate the risks associated with the sudden loss of a bridge or trestle.

Peterson, Steven K [ORNL; Church, Richard L. [University of California, Santa Barbara

2008-01-01

79

Vulnerabilities in similarity search based systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Similarity based queries are common in several modern database applications, such as multimedia, scientific, and biomedical databases. In most of these systems, database responds with the tuple with the closest match according to some metric. In this paper we investigate some important security issues related to similarity search in databases. We investigate the vulnerability of such systems against users who

Ali Saman Tosun; Hakan Ferhatosmanoglu

2002-01-01

80

CYBER/PHYSICAL SECURITY VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT INTEGRATION  

SciTech Connect

This internally funded Laboratory-Directed R&D project by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in conjunction with QinetiQ North America, is intended to identify and properly assess areas of overlap (and interaction) in the vulnerability assessment process between cyber security and physical protection. Existing vulnerability analysis (VA) processes and software tools exist, and these are heavily utilized in the determination of predicted vulnerability within the physical and cyber security domains. These determinations are normally performed independently of one another, and only interact on a superficial level. Both physical and cyber security subject matter experts have come to realize that though the various interactive elements exist, they are not currently quantified in most periodic security assessments. This endeavor aims to evaluate both physical and cyber VA techniques and provide a strategic approach to integrate the interdependent relationships of each into a single VA capability. This effort will also transform the existing suite of software currently utilized in the physical protection world to more accurately quantify the risk associated with a blended attack scenario. Performance databases will be created to support the characterization of the cyber security elements, and roll them into prototype software tools. This new methodology and software capability will enable analysts to better identify and assess the overall risk during a vulnerability analysis.

MacDonald, Douglas G.; Key, Brad; Clements, Samuel L.; Hutton, William J.; Craig, Philip A.; Patrick, Scott W.; Crawford, Cary E.

2011-07-17

81

Who's Vulnerable in Infant Child Care Centers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that infants and toddlers, parents, and child caregivers are vulnerable to a variety of infectious diseases from infant-toddler child care centers. These diseases include infectious diarrhea; rubella; cytomeglovirus; hepatitis A, and haemophilus influenza type B. Suggests ways to prevent the spread of such diseases. (BB)

Kendall, Earline D.; Moukaddem, Virginia E.

1992-01-01

82

CITY OF SANTA BARBARA SEALEVEL RISE VULNERABILITY  

E-print Network

CITY OF SANTA BARBARA SEALEVEL RISE VULNERABILITY STUDY A White Paper from: California Energy Commission Prepared by: University of California, Santa Cruz #12;i DISCLAIMER of California, Santa Cruz #12;ii ABSTRACT Cliff and bluff erosion, flooding of lowlying areas, and damage

83

WATER AND ENERGY SECTOR VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE  

E-print Network

WATER AND ENERGY SECTOR VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE WARMING IN THE SIERRA NEVADA: Simulating is expected to affect the beneficial uses of water in the Sierra Nevada, impacting nearly every resident of California. This paper describes the development and results from an integrated water resource management

84

DEMONSTRATING APPLICATIONS OF REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This task is designed to respond to 2 Congressional earmarks of $1,000,000 to the Canaan Valley Institute (CVI) to work in close coordination with the Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) initiative to develop research and educational tools using integrative technologies to p...

85

Our Changing Climate 2012 Vulnerability & Adaptation  

E-print Network

understanding of climate change. A solid body of vital data is available to assist state and local leadersOur Changing Climate 2012 Vulnerability & Adaptation to the Increasing Risks from Climate Change in California A Summary Report on the Third Assessment from the California Climate Change Center #12;1 OUR

86

Fragile Networks: Identifying Vulnerabilities and Synergies  

E-print Network

be integrated or not); whether specific mergers and acquisitions should take place, and even to assess Measurement, and Vulnerability Analysis · Module II: Applications and Extensions · ModuIe III: Mergers and Acquisitions, Network Integration, and Synergies #12;Module I #12;Why Study Fragile Networks? Networks provide

Nagurney, Anna

87

Fragile Networks: Identifying Vulnerabilities and Synergies  

E-print Network

, and Vulnerability Analysis · Part II: Applications and Extensions · Part III: Mergers and Acquisitions, NetworkBev. #12;According to Kusstatscher and Cooper (2005) there were five major waves of of Merger & Acquisition;A survey of 600 executives involved in their companies' mergers and acquisitions (M&A) conducted

Nagurney, Anna

88

Educational and Vocational Exploration in Vulnerable Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Though numerous studies indicate that youth and young adults who are involved in one or more social service systems have poor educational and employment outcomes, little is known about the pathways to employment and education in this population. In this qualitative study of educational and employment exploration in vulnerable youth, 11 individuals…

Taylor, Sarah

2011-01-01

89

Power Grid Vulnerability to Geographically Correlated Failures  

E-print Network

University, New York, NY 10027 §School of Engineering and Computer Science, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904, Israel Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 andrey such as telecommunications networks [14]. The power grid is vulnerable to natural disasters, such as earthquakes, hurricanes

Shepard, Kenneth

90

WATER AND ENERGY SECTOR VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE  

E-print Network

falls to consumptive users and water exporters. This case study illustrates how water policy WATER AND ENERGY SECTOR VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE WARMING IN THE SIERRA NEVADA: Water Year explores the sensitivity of water indexing methods to climate change scenarios to better understand how

91

Perceived Vulnerability to Disease Predicts Environmental Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigating predictors of environmental attitudes may bring valuable benefits in terms of improving public awareness about biodiversity degradation and increased pro-environmental behaviour. Here we used an evolutionary approach to study environmental attitudes based on disease-threat model. We hypothesized that people vulnerable to diseases may…

Prokop, Pavol; Kubiatko, Milan

2014-01-01

92

Reactions to Research Participation in Vulnerable Subgroups  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the extent to which vulnerable individuals (defined by economic, social, psychological, physical health, and child maltreatment status) react to research participation. As part of an ongoing longitudinal study, participants (N = 896) completed a lengthy and intrusive in-person interview and provided a small amount of blood through finger pricks. At the end of the interview, participants were

CATHY SPATZ WIDOM; SALLY J. CZAJA

2005-01-01

93

Network Vulnerability Assessment and Risk Mitigation  

E-print Network

Hacking materials, as well as supplemental materials delivered online. These resources: · Describe the methodology used to assess the vulnerability of an organization connected to the Internet to compile new tools and use such applications as vi and nmap. · Explain why hackers hack (their motivations

94

Internet Explorer Vulnerabilities ECE578 Project  

E-print Network

Internet Explorer Vulnerabilities ECE578 Project Spring Term 2000 Charu Chandiram #12;Table" seems to have died down with the number of Microsoft Internet Explorer users exceeding those of other a security issue that was discovered and a patch that is available for it. Besides, you read of more hacking

95

Valuing Vulnerability: New Definitions of Courage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a dominant, Western culture that celebrates strength in separation and holds unrealistic expectations for independent, autonomous functioning, vulnerability is seen as a handicap. This system creates the illusion of an invulnerable and separate self, and uses individualistic standards to measure a person's worth. Since these unrealistic expectations cannot be humanly attained, these controlling images become the source of shame

Judith V. Jordan

2008-01-01

96

Interpersonal Analysis of Grandiose and Vulnerable Narcissism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the validity of grandiose and vulnerable subtypes of narcissistic character styles through an analysis of personality disorder criteria, interpersonal problems, and adult attachment styles in a nonclinical population. The grandiose personalities in this sample were rated high in the dramatic traits associated with narcissistic, antisocial, and histrionic personality disorders based on a diagnostic interview, and they reported

Kelly A. Dickinson; Aaron L. Pincus

2003-01-01

97

Adult attachment style and vulnerability to depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the role of adult attachment styles in differentiating ‘depressed’ and ‘non-depressed’ college students, and the association between attachment styles and the depressive personality vulnerabilities, sociotropy and autonomy. High scores on the fearful and, to a lesser extent, preoccupied attachment scales were associated with higher levels of depression, highlighting negative self-representation as a key factor in depression.

Barbara Murphy; Glen W. Bates

1997-01-01

98

Network Setup Vulnerability of Wireless Home Networks  

E-print Network

hacking tools Wireless home networks are a growing trend in today's world 802.11 a/b/g/n has been usedNetwork Setup Vulnerability of Wireless Home Networks Hacking into WPA Stephen G. Calvert (sgcalver tools can capture the authentication requests and use a dictionary attack to find the passphrase

Zhang, Junshan

99

Chapter 4 PotentiallyVulnerable Species: Animals  

E-print Network

111 Chapter 4 Chapter 4 ­ PotentiallyVulnerable Species: Animals The last word in ignorance is the man who says of an animal or plant: `What good is it?' If the land mechanism as a whole is good every cog and wheel is the first precaution of intelligent tinkering. --Aldo Leopold (1953) Key

Standiford, Richard B.

100

African agriculture especially vulnerable to warming climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Malnourishment across Africa could jump 40% by 2050 due to climate change, according to the Africa Agriculture Status Report 2014 (AASR), released on 2 September. With temperatures predicted to rise 1.5°C-2.5°C by midcentury, African smallholder farms, which are generally run by one family, are more vulnerable than ever, the report finds.

Wendel, JoAnna

2014-09-01

101

Vulnerability--A New View of Schizophrenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although descriptive and etiological approaches to psychopathology have made notable advances, they seem to have reached a plateau. After reviewing the six approaches to etiology that now preempt the field--ecological, developmental, learning, genetic, internal environment, and neurophysiological models--a second-order model, vulnerability, is…

Zubin, Joseph; Spring, Bonnie

1977-01-01

102

ECE 578 Project Linux Securities and Vulnerabilities  

E-print Network

ECE 578 Project Linux Securities and Vulnerabilities Haluk Tanik and Seung Yoo Department of Computer Science Oregon State University #12;1. INTRODUCTION Linux® is a UNIX®-like operating system created in the early nineties by Linus Torvalds. Linux is publicly available for download on the Internet

103

Overactive bladder in the vulnerable elderly  

PubMed Central

Overactive bladder (OAB) is a common problem that may occur in individuals of all ages. It has a considerable impact on patient quality of life, and although moderately effective management strategies do exist, this condition often remains undiagnosed and untreated. OAB needs to be viewed as a symptom complex. Its presentation and management are complicated in the vulnerable elderly by the presence of baseline frailty and multiple coexisting chronic conditions. Furthermore, and beyond a simple understanding of symptomatology, providers must address patient goals and motivations as well as the expectations of caretakers. These multiple levels of perception, function, expectations, and treatment efficacy/risks must be tailored to the individual patient. While the vulnerable elderly patient may often have evidence of urinary tract dysfunction, OAB and urge urinary incontinence in this population must be understood as a multifactorial geriatric syndrome and viewed in the context of medical and functional baseline and precipitating risk factors. Expectations and goals must be tailored to the resources of vulnerable elderly patients and their caregivers, and care must be coordinated with other medical care providers. The management of OAB in the vulnerable elderly often poses significant management challenges. Nonetheless, with a thoughtful approach and an aim towards future research specifically for this population, significant reductions in morbidity and mortality long with enhancement in health-related quality of life are possible. PMID:25328867

Wolff, Gillian F; Kuchel, George A; Smith, Phillip P

2014-01-01

104

Airport vulnerability assessment-a methodology evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an evaluation of several different approaches to conducting quantitative airport vulnerability and risk assessment. Field tests of seven methodologies applied to a total of thirteen major US domestic airports provided the results and reports used to evaluate the various methodologies. The process of evaluation used a rigorous decision technology approach, which involves evaluation criteria,

R. Lazarick

1999-01-01

105

VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN  

E-print Network

VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN CALIFORNIA AGRICULTURE A White Paper from the California Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012031 Commissioner), Chuck Dudley (President of the Yolo County Farm Bureau), John MottSmith (Yolo County Climate

106

Seismic vulnerability assessments in risk analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The assessment of seismic vulnerability is a critical issue within natural and technological risk analysis. In general, there are three common types of methods used for development of vulnerability functions of different elements at risk: empirical, analytical and expert estimations. The paper addresses the empirical methods for seismic vulnerability estimation for residential buildings and industrial facilities. The results of engineering analysis of past earthquake consequences, as well as the statistical data on buildings behavior during strong earthquakes presented in the different seismic intensity scales, are used to verify the regional parameters of mathematical models in order to simulate physical and economic vulnerability for different building types classified according to seismic scale MMSK-86. Verified procedure has been used to estimate the physical and economic vulnerability of buildings and constructions against earthquakes for the Northern Caucasus Federal region of the Russian Federation and Krasnodar area, which are characterized by rather high level of seismic activity and high population density. In order to estimate expected damage states to buildings and constructions in the case of the earthquakes according to the OSR-97B (return period T=1,000 years) within big cities and towns, they were divided into unit sites and their coordinates were presented as dots located in the centers of unit sites. Then the indexes obtained for each unit site were summed up. The maps of physical vulnerability zoning for Northern Caucasus Federal region of the Russian Federation and Krasnodar area includes two elements: percent of different damage states for settlements with number of inhabitants less than 1,000 and vulnerability for cities and towns with number of inhabitants more than 1,000. The hypsometric scale is used to represent both elements on the maps. Taking into account the size of oil pipe line systems located in the highly active seismic zones in the Russian Federation the corresponding procedures have been developed. They are based on mathematical modeling of the system elements' interaction: the oil pipe line and ground, in the case of seismic loads. As a result the dependence-ships between the probability of oil pipe line system to be damaged, and the intensity of shaking in grades of seismic scales have been obtained. The following three damage states for oil pipe line systems have been considered: light damage - elastic deformation of the linear part; localized plastic deformation without breaching the pipeline; average damage - significant plastic deformation of the linear part; fistulas in some areas; complete destruction - large horizontal and vertical displacements of the linear part; mass fistulas, cracks; "guillotine break" of pipe line in some areas.

Frolova, Nina; Larionov, Valery; Bonnin, Jean; Ugarov, Alexander

2013-04-01

107

SOCIAL VULNERABILITY, ENVIRONMENTAL INEQUALITY, AND CHILDHOOD ASTHMA IN PHOENIX,  

E-print Network

. Undocumented immigrant children without health insurance emerged as extremely vulnerable to asthma for parents. Children on government health insurance were less vulnerable to asthma-related problems Yusin, Physician & Director Phoenix Children's Hospital Judy Harris, Nurse Practitioner & Director

Hall, Sharon J.

108

Vulnerability assessment of water supply systems for insufficient fire flows  

E-print Network

supply systems are vulnerable to many forms of terrorist acts, most of the vulnerability analysis studies on these systems have been for chemical and biological threats. Because of the interdependency of water supply infrastructure and emergency fire...

Kanta, Lufthansa Rahman

2009-05-15

109

Vendor System Vulnerability Testing Test Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) prepared this generic test plan to provide clients (vendors, end users, program sponsors, etc.) with a sense of the scope and depth of vulnerability testing performed at the INL’s Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Test Bed and to serve as an example of such a plan. Although this test plan specifically addresses vulnerability testing of systems applied to the energy sector (electric/power transmission and distribution and oil and gas systems), it is generic enough to be applied to control systems used in other critical infrastructures such as the transportation sector, water/waste water sector, or hazardous chemical production facilities. The SCADA Test Bed is established at the INL as a testing environment to evaluate the security vulnerabilities of SCADA systems, energy management systems (EMS), and distributed control systems. It now supports multiple programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, other government agencies, and private sector clients. This particular test plan applies to testing conducted on a SCADA/EMS provided by a vendor. Before performing detailed vulnerability testing of a SCADA/EMS, an as delivered baseline examination of the system is conducted, to establish a starting point for all-subsequent testing. The series of baseline tests document factory delivered defaults, system configuration, and potential configuration changes to aid in the development of a security plan for in depth vulnerability testing. The baseline test document is provided to the System Provider,a who evaluates the baseline report and provides recommendations to the system configuration to enhance the security profile of the baseline system. Vulnerability testing is then conducted at the SCADA Test Bed, which provides an in-depth security analysis of the Vendor’s system.b a. The term System Provider replaces the name of the company/organization providing the system being evaluated. This can be the system manufacturer, a system user, or a third party organization such as a government agency. b. The term Vendor (or Vendor’s) System replaces the name of the specific SCADA/EMS being tested.

James R. Davidson

2005-01-01

110

AN ANALYSIS OF THE VULNERABILITY DISCOVERY PROCESS IN WEB BROWSERS  

E-print Network

AN ANALYSIS OF THE VULNERABILITY DISCOVERY PROCESS IN WEB BROWSERS Sung-Whan Woo, Omar H. Alhazmi.S.A woo|omar|malaiya@cs.colostate.edu ABSTRACT New vulnerabilities discovered in a web browser put that the popularity of a browser itself leads to a higher discovery rate. KEY WORDS Vulnerability, Web Browser

Malaiya, Yashwant K.

111

Hierarchical statistical modeling of xylem vulnerability to cavitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary • Cavitation of xylem elements diminishes the water transport capacity of plants, and quantifying xylem vulnerability to cavitation is important to understanding plant function. Current approaches to analyzing hydraulic conductivity (K) data to infer vulnerability to cavitation suffer from problems such as the use of potentially unre- alistic vulnerability curves, difficulty interpreting parameters in these curves, a statis- tical

Kiona Ogle; Jarrett J. Barber; Cynthia Willson; Brenda Thompson

2009-01-01

112

Why different interpretations of vulnerability matter in climate change discourses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we discuss how two interpretations of vulnerability in the climate change literature are manifestations of different discourses and framings of the climate change problem. The two differing interpretations, conceptualized here as ‘outcome vulnerability’ and ‘contextual vulnerability’, are linked respectively to a scientific framing and a human-security framing. Each framing prioritizes the production of different types of knowledge,

KAREN OBRIEN; SIRI ERIKSEN; LYNN P. NYGAARD; ANE SCHJOLDEN

2007-01-01

113

An Empirical Measure of Computer Security Strength for Vulnerability Remediation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Remediating all vulnerabilities on computer systems in a timely and cost effective manner is difficult given that the window of time between the announcement of a new vulnerability and an automated attack has decreased. Hence, organizations need to prioritize the vulnerability remediation process on their computer systems. The goal of this…

Villegas, Rafael

2010-01-01

114

FAST ABSTRACT: Seasonality in Vulnerability Discovery in Major Software Systems  

E-print Network

FAST ABSTRACT: Seasonality in Vulnerability Discovery in Major Software Systems HyunChul Joh discovered. An examination of the vulnerability data suggests a seasonal behavior that has not been modeled by the recently proposed vulnerability discovery models. This seasonality has not been identified or examined so

Malaiya, Yashwant K.

115

Reconceptualizing Vulnerability in Personal Narrative Writing with Youths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through a student/teacher classroom conflict, the author explores ways adults produce student writers as vulnerable. Drawing on post-structural concepts of adolescence, identity production, interrogation, and vulnerability, the author details how an English teacher invited students to perform vulnerability in personal narratives about issues like…

Johnson, Elisabeth

2014-01-01

116

Contributions of Serotonin in Addiction Vulnerability  

PubMed Central

The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) system has long been associated with mood and its dysregulation implicated in the pathophysiology of mood and anxiety disorders. While modulation of 5-HT neurotransmission by drugs of abuse is also recognized, its role in drug addiction and vulnerability to drug relapse is a more recent focus of investigation. First, we review preclinical data supporting the serotonergic raphe nuclei and their forebrain projections as targets of drugs of abuse, with emphasis on the effects of psychostimulants, opioids and ethanol. Next, we examine the role of 5-HT receptors in impulsivity, a core behavior that contributes to the vulnerability to addiction and relapse. Finally, we discuss evidence for serotonergic dysregulation in comorbid mood and addictive disorders and suggest novel serotonergic targets for the treatment of addiction and the prevention of drug relapse. PMID:21466815

Kirby, LG; Zeeb, FD; Winstanley, CA

2011-01-01

117

Attentional biases and vulnerability to depression.  

PubMed

This study was designed to examine selective processing of emotional information in depression. It focuses on possible attentional biases in depression, and whether such biases constitute a cognitive vulnerability factor to suffer from the disorder or, on the contrary, they reflect a feature associated exclusively with the clinical level of depression. 81 participants were included in the study: 15 with a diagnosis of Major Depression; 17 were diagnosed as Dysthymia; 11 participants scored over 18 in the Beck Depression Inventory (Beck, Rush, Shaw, & Emery, 1979); 15 participants, in whom a sad mood state was induced by an experimental mood induction (Velten technique + music, or biographical recall + music); and 23 participants as a normal-control group. All participants were presented with the emotional Stroop task. The data indicated that attentional bias was only present in the group of patients with Major Depression, so it does not seem to be a cognitive vulnerability factor for this disorder. PMID:11757256

Gallardo Pérez, M; Baños Rivera, R M; Belloch Fuster, A; Ruipérez Rodríguez, M A

1999-05-01

118

Neural mechanisms of stress resilience and vulnerability.  

PubMed

Exposure to stressful events can be differently perceived by individuals and can have persistent sequelae depending on the level of stress resilience or vulnerability of each person. The neural processes that underlie such clinically and socially important differences reside in the anatomical, functional, and molecular connectivity of the brain. Recent work has provided novel insight into some of the involved biological mechanisms that promises to help prevent and treat stress-related disorders. In this review, we focus on causal and mechanistic evidence implicating altered functions and connectivity of the neuroendocrine system, and of hippocampal, cortical, reward, and serotonergic circuits in the establishment and the maintenance of stress resilience and vulnerability. We also touch upon recent findings suggesting a role for epigenetic mechanisms and neurogenesis in these processes and briefly discuss promising avenues of future investigation. PMID:22958817

Franklin, Tamara B; Saab, Bechara J; Mansuy, Isabelle M

2012-09-01

119

Seaside, Oregon, Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment Pilot Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of a pilot study to assess the risk from tsunamis for the Seaside-Gearhart, Oregon region will be presented. To determine the risk from tsunamis, it is first necessary to establish the hazard or probability that a tsunami of a particular magnitude will occur within a certain period of time. Tsunami inundation maps that provide 100-year and 500-year probabilistic tsunami wave height contours for the Seaside-Gearhart, Oregon, region were developed as part of an interagency Tsunami Pilot Study(1). These maps provided the probability of the tsunami hazard. The next step in determining risk is to determine the vulnerability or degree of loss resulting from the occurrence of tsunamis due to exposure and fragility. The tsunami vulnerability assessment methodology used in this study was developed by M. Papathoma and others(2). This model incorporates multiple factors (e.g. parameters related to the natural and built environments and socio-demographics) that contribute to tsunami vulnerability. Data provided with FEMA's HAZUS loss estimation software and Clatsop County, Oregon, tax assessment data were used as input to the model. The results, presented within a geographic information system, reveal the percentage of buildings in need of reinforcement and the population density in different inundation depth zones. These results can be used for tsunami mitigation, local planning, and for determining post-tsunami disaster response by emergency services. (1)Tsunami Pilot Study Working Group, Seaside, Oregon Tsunami Pilot Study--Modernization of FEMA Flood Hazard Maps, Joint NOAA/USGS/FEMA Special Report, U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2006, Final Draft. (2)Papathoma, M., D. Dominey-Howes, D.,Y. Zong, D. Smith, Assessing Tsunami Vulnerability, an example from Herakleio, Crete, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 3, 2003, p. 377-389.

Dunbar, P. K.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Varner, J.

2006-12-01

120

SEAMOUNT INVERTEBRATES: COMPOSITION AND VULNERABILITY TO FISHING  

Microsoft Academic Search

To describe the invertebrate communities found on seamounts and their vulnerability to fishing, a global review of seamount data was conducted. Using data from SeamountsOnline (http:\\/\\/seamounts.sdsc.edu), data from 1771 kinds of organisms on 171 seamounts were evaluated, representing the largest global synthesis of seamount data to date. The data clearly indicate that seamount communities differ from those found in other

Karen Stocks

121

[Minor neurological signs and pediatric psychiatric vulnerability].  

PubMed

In the present study we investigate the quantity of Neurologic Soft Signs in connection with the type of Psychiatric Disorders in a sample of thirty boys and thirty girls of age between four and fifteen years. The results shaw that the Neurologic Soft Signs mentioned are present in a significant quantity with regard to the gravity of the psychiatric disorders. Likewise, their evaluation can be very useful to determine the child's neuro-maturational condition and psychiatry vulnerability. PMID:1699394

Díaz Atienza, J; Blánquez Rodríguez, M P

1990-01-01

122

Space Station Program threat and vulnerability analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An examination has been made of the physical security of the Space Station Program at the Kennedy Space Center in a peacetime environment, in order to furnish facility personnel with threat/vulnerability information. A risk-management approach is used to prioritize threat-target combinations that are characterized in terms of 'insiders' and 'outsiders'. Potential targets were identified and analyzed with a view to their attractiveness to an adversary, as well as to the consequentiality of the resulting damage.

Van Meter, Steven D.; Veatch, John D.

1987-01-01

123

Vulnerability assessment using two complementary analysis tools  

SciTech Connect

To analyze the vulnerability of nuclear materials to theft or sabotage, Department of Energy facilities have been using, since 1989, a computer program called ASSESS, Analytic System and Software for Evaluation of Safeguards and Security. During the past year Sandia National Laboratories has begun using an additional program, SEES, Security Exercise Evaluation Simulation, enhancing the picture of vulnerability beyond what either program achieves alone. Assess analyzes all possible paths of attack on a target and, assuming that an attack occurs, ranks them by the probability that a response force of adequate size can interrupt the attack before theft or sabotage is accomplished. A Neutralization module pits, collectively, a security force against the interrupted adversary force in a fire fight and calculates the probability that the adversaries are defeated. SEES examines a single scenario and simulates in detail the interactions among all combatants. its output includes shots fired between shooter and target, and the hits and kills. Whereas ASSESS gives breadth of analysis, expressed statistically and performed relatively quickly, SEES adds depth of detail, modeling tactical behavior. ASSESS finds scenarios that exploit the greatest weakness of a facility. SEES explores these scenarios to demonstrate in detail how various tactics to nullify the attack might work out. Without ASSESS to find the facility weakness, it is difficult to focus SEES objectively on scenarios worth analyzing. Without SEES to simulate the details of response vs. adversary interaction, it is not possible to test tactical assumptions and hypotheses. Using both programs together, vulnerability analyses achieve both breadth and depth.

Paulus, W.K.

1993-07-01

124

Not the usual suspects: addressing layers of vulnerability.  

PubMed

This paper challenges the traditional account of vulnerability in healthcare which conceptualizes vulnerability as a list of identifiable subpopulations. This list of 'usual suspects', focusing on groups from lower resource settings, is a narrow account of vulnerability. In this article we argue that in certain circumstances middle-class individuals can be also rendered vulnerable. We propose a relational and layered account of vulnerability and explore this concept using the case study of cord blood (CB) banking. In the first section, two different approaches to 'vulnerability' are contrasted: categorical versus layered. In the second section, we describe CB banking and present a case study of CB banking in Argentina. We examine the types of pressure that middle-class pregnant women feel when considering CB collection and storage. In section three, we use the CB banking case study to critique the categorical approach to vulnerability: this model is unable to account for the ways in which these women are vulnerable. A layered account of vulnerability identifies several ways in which middle-class women are vulnerable. Finally, by utilizing the layered approach, this paper suggests how public health policies could be designed to overcome vulnerabilities. PMID:23718852

Luna, Florencia; Vanderpoel, Sheryl

2013-07-01

125

Resolving the conflict: clarifying 'vulnerability' in health care ethics.  

PubMed

Vulnerability has been extensively discussed in medical research, but less so in health care. Thus, who the vulnerable in this domain are still remains an open question. One difficulty in their identification is due to the general criticism that vulnerability is not a property of only some, but rather of everyone. By presenting a philosophical analysis of the conditions of vulnerability ascription, we show that these seemingly irreconcilable understandings of vulnerability are not contradictory. Rather, they are interdependent: they refer to the same concept with different likelihoods of manifestation. We argue that the general vulnerability of living beings relies on their having certain types of interests. In health care, those individuals are particularly vulnerable who are more likely to have these interests unjustly considered. They should be afforded special protection in order to receive what is due to everyone, but which they are likely to fail to receive. PMID:24783324

Martin, Angela K; Tavaglione, Nicolas; Hurst, Samia

2014-03-01

126

Systemic vulnerability model for coastal erosion processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many coastal areas constitute an extraordinary environmental worth and economic value resource continuously exposed to an unceasing transformation due to climatic and anthropic factors. The pressure factor overloads carry out an amplification of environmental degradation and economic rent decrease of these territories producing a disruption of normal and anticipated community growth. This paper copes with coastal erosion problem by a systemic vulnerability model application and environmental indicators approach. Through the definition of an original indicator depending on the observed annual rate of coastal erosion and wave climate parameters, such an approach allow scenario generation and it is useful and powerful planning and management tool. The model has been applied on the test case of Ionian Coast of Basilicata Region located in the southern part of Italy, in the middle of Mediterranean basin. The littoral area is constituted of sandy shores of about 50 km length and 5 river deltas take place. Looking at the shoreline in terms of displacements, a shift of a coastal part is a function of grain size characteristics of the shore sands and of the wave climate. Therefore the selected index taking into account the energy stress affecting the shore area, characterizing the territorial system state and finalized to vulnerability estimation, is defined through the maximum annual erosion,tE, and the surface-wave parameters (H,T) corresponding to the wave-generated bottom orbital velocities higher than critical velocity matches with the bottom incipient transport condition. The resulting coefficient ? (? = tE? ? gH2-?T) is obviously dimensionless and represents the part of the available power in the seas, dissipated by erosion processes. If ? increases, the system integrity decreases and the system vulnerability increases. Available data, in terms of topographic/bathymetric information referred to the period 1873-2008, were utilized to derive tE by the use of a GIS-CAD "comb model" developed at the University of Basilicata, in which the full shoreline length was divided in 92 segments corresponding to 500 m for each one. Wave climate data were estimated from wind data by use of a hindcasting method for the observation period 1987-2010. Grain size characteristic of the shore sands were acquired by a in situ measurement campaigns. The ? index gives a synthetic representation of the coastal erosion and progress processes exclusively due to climatic actions and the information derived in terms of vulnerability is distributed on the coastal territory. Results show heterogeneous trends, with relevant difference in vulnerability response among the morphological elements. In particular, the river deltas represent a critical location with significant exposition. By the analyses performed, the southern part of the coast, located near the delta of Sinni river, seems to be more sensible to the vulnerability respect to the other part of the test area.

Greco, M.; Martino, G.; Guariglia, A.

2010-09-01

127

Disaster planning for vulnerable populations: mental health.  

PubMed

Psychological responses to a disaster are well established; however, little is known regarding how individuals with established psychiatric and mental health needs respond to a disaster. Further research is needed to provide a better understanding as well as to provide data and information that would assist in the provision of timely and adequate intervention and treatment. Addressing the psychological and psychiatric needs of this vulnerable population would assist in the provision of adequate and appropriate psychiatric mental health care in a timely and an effective manner. PMID:21095557

Mendez, Thomas B

2010-12-01

128

Children of Darfur: a vulnerable population.  

PubMed

Four years of intense war in Darfur has created an entire generation of children who might never recover. Children in this region are particularly vulnerable and suffer from issues including physical and psychological illness, malnutrition, rape and unlawful military recruitment. This international crisis is among the most important public health issues in the world. The responsibility of the international community to these children is significant and required to break this cycle. This paper will discuss the concerns surrounding these children, how current strategies are failing and proposed public health nursing interventions. PMID:18190487

Chaikin, Jennifer

2008-02-01

129

Territorial vulnerability evaluation in tiber watershed.  

PubMed

By now it has become a widespread, consistent practice in the European Union to consider very carefully and to regard as fundamental the basic needs of man, such as health and safety, in relation to all productive activities which may be regarded as a possible source of environmental deterioration. At the national legislative level, factors and elements regarding the environment (water, atmosphere, soil, subsoil, landscape, etc.) have been pointed out which require the state of quality to be characterised and vulnerability to the pressures caused by man's activities to be evaluated.This has brought about an evolution in the concept itself of environmental quality, which is understood more and more as actual satisfying of man's needs through the proper use of resources and the maintaining of an environmental equilibrium.Environmental quality can be pursued, therefore, by studying the most appropriate usage of the territory and by considering quality no longer as a hindrance, rule or imposition, but as a goal shared by all in improving the quality of life.In this study a few instruments are proposed for evaluating the overall capacity of a given environmental element or group of elements to withstand deterioration caused by outside pressure, which in this specific case is pollution from farming and livestock waste and sewage.Territorial vulnerability can thus be evaluated through a decision support tool (fuzzy logic), which allows different categories of people (researchers, politicians, planning technicians, citizens, etc.) to be involved in the evaluation process.For this study, the vulnerability evaluation was applied to a complex, homogenous territorial system, the Tiber watershed, where there are environmental resources which are particularly sensitive, owing both to their intrinsic characteristics as well as to the pressures stemming from livestock production activities, which is one of the major pollution risks along the regional drainage pattern.The use of GIS software has allowed the method of analysis and prioritising to be applied to environmental factors (weighting) as well as the rapid management of initial territorial data, also of differing types (qualitative and quantitative).The resulting product is a vulnerability map where the territory is classified on the basis of the evaluations of the degree of response to stresses induced by the livestock production activities. PMID:24193313

Mennella, V G; Borghi, P; Macellari, E; Porceddu, P R

1996-06-01

130

Perspectives on plant vulnerabilities & other plant and containment improvements  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of the Individual Plant Examination (IPE) Program was for licensees to identify plant-unique vulnerabilities and actions to address these vulnerabilities. A review of these vulnerabilities and plant improvements that were identified in the IPEs was performed as part of the IPE Insights Program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The purpose of this effort was to characterize the identified vulnerabilities and the impact of suggested plant improvements. No specific definition for {open_quotes}vulnerability{close_quotes} was provided in NRC Generic Letter 88-20 or in the subsequent NRC IPE submittal guidance documented in NUREG-1335. Thus licensees were left to use their own definitions. Only 20% of the plants explicitly stated that they had vulnerabilities. However, most licensees identified other plant improvements to address issues not explicitly classified as vulnerabilities, but pertaining to areas in which overall plant safety could potentially be increased. The various definitions of {open_quotes}vulnerability{close_quotes} used by the licensees, explicitly identified vulnerabilities, proposed plant improvements to address these vulnerabilities, and other plant improvements are summarized and discussed.

LaChance, J.; Kolaczkowski, A.; Kahn, J. [and others

1996-01-01

131

Searching for a vulnerable dark triad: comparing Factor 2 psychopathy, vulnerable narcissism, and borderline personality disorder.  

PubMed

Paulhus and Williams (2002) identified a "Dark Triad" comprising the following related personality styles: narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism. The heterogeneity found in narcissism and psychopathy raises the possibility of a second triad made up of emotional vulnerability and dark traits (i.e., the vulnerable dark triad; VDT). Along with vulnerable narcissism and Factor 2 psychopathy, the third member of the hypothesized VDT is borderline personality disorder (BPD). Using a sample of 361 undergraduates, we examine the relations between these constructs and their relations with criterion variables, including personality, environmental etiological factors (e.g., abuse), and current functioning (e.g., psychopathology, affect). The results suggest that the VDT constructs are significantly related to one another and manifest similar nomological networks, particularly vulnerable narcissism and BPD. Although the VDT members are related to negative emotionality and antagonistic interpersonal styles, they are also related to introversion and disinhibition. Ultimately, it seems there is a "dark continuum" of pathological personality traits that differ primarily in relation to negative and positive emotionality and disinhibition. PMID:20663024

Miller, Joshua D; Dir, Ally; Gentile, Brittany; Wilson, Lauren; Pryor, Lauren R; Campbell, W Keith

2010-10-01

132

Evaluating intensity parameters for debris flow vulnerability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In mountain regions natural hazard processes such as debris flows or hyper-concentrated flows repeatedly lead to high damages. After an event, detailed documentation of the meteorological, hydrological and geomorphological indicators are standardized, and additional data on debris covering run out areas, indicators for processes velocity and transported volumes are gathered. Information on deposition height of debris is an important parameter to estimate the intensity of the process impacting the buildings and infrastructure and hence to establish vulnerability curves. However, the deposition height of mobilized material in settlements and on infrastructure is mostly not directly evaluated because recovery work starts immediately or even during the event leading to a removal of accumulated material. Different approaches exist to reconstruct deposition heights after torrent events, such as mind mapping, comparison of LIDAR-based DEM before and after the event as well as the reconstruction by using photo documentation and the estimation of deposition heights according to standardised elements at buildings and infrastructure. In our study, these different approaches to estimate deposition height and the spatial distribution of the accumulated material are applied and compared against each other by using the case study of the debris flow event in Brienz (Switzerland) which occurred during the serve flood events of August 2005 in the Alps. Within the analysis, different factors including overall costs and time consumption (manpower, equipment), accuracy and preciseness are compared and evaluated to establish optimal maps of the extent and deposition depth after torrent events and to integrate this information in the vulnerability analysis.

Keiler, Margreth

2014-05-01

133

Evaluating operating system vulnerability to memory errors.  

SciTech Connect

Reliability is of great concern to the scalability of extreme-scale systems. Of particular concern are soft errors in main memory, which are a leading cause of failures on current systems and are predicted to be the leading cause on future systems. While great effort has gone into designing algorithms and applications that can continue to make progress in the presence of these errors without restarting, the most critical software running on a node, the operating system (OS), is currently left relatively unprotected. OS resiliency is of particular importance because, though this software typically represents a small footprint of a compute node's physical memory, recent studies show more memory errors in this region of memory than the remainder of the system. In this paper, we investigate the soft error vulnerability of two operating systems used in current and future high-performance computing systems: Kitten, the lightweight kernel developed at Sandia National Laboratories, and CLE, a high-performance Linux-based operating system developed by Cray. For each of these platforms, we outline major structures and subsystems that are vulnerable to soft errors and describe methods that could be used to reconstruct damaged state. Our results show the Kitten lightweight operating system may be an easier target to harden against memory errors due to its smaller memory footprint, largely deterministic state, and simpler system structure.

Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Bridges, Patrick G. (University of New Mexico); Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Mueller, Frank (North Carolina State University); Fiala, David (North Carolina State University); Brightwell, Ronald Brian

2012-05-01

134

Reducing societal vulnerability to drought: A methodology  

SciTech Connect

Given worldwide experience with drought during the past several decades and the magnitude of associated impacts, it is apparent that vulnerability to extended periods of water shortage is escalating. Developing a national or provincial drought policy and preparedness plan is a complicated but essential first step toward reducing societal vulnerability. Until recently, nations had devoted little effort to drought preparedness, preferring instead the reactive or crisis management approach. Presently, an increasing number of nations are pursuing a more proactive approach that emphasizes the principles of risk management and sustainable development. Because of the multitude of impacts associated with drought and the numerous governmental agencies that have responsibility for some aspect of monitoring, assessment, mitigation, and planning, developing a policy and plan must be an integrated process within and between levels of government. This paper outlines a generic process that can be adopted by governments that desire to develop a more comprehensive and long-term approach to drought management and planning. Countries and states or provincial authorities that have adopted this approach is presented as case studies. This process is timely, given the declaration of the 1990s as the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction and the recent International Convention to Combat Desertification and Drought (June, 1994), an offshoot of deliberations at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development.

Wilhite, D.A. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). International Drought Information Center

1995-12-31

135

Vulnerability analysis methods for road networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Road networks rank among the most important lifelines of modern society. They can be damaged by either random or intentional events. Roads are also often affected by natural hazards, the impacts of which are both direct and indirect. Whereas direct impacts (e.g. roads damaged by a landslide or due to flooding) are localized in close proximity to the natural hazard occurrence, the indirect impacts can entail widespread service disabilities and considerable travel delays. The change in flows in the network may affect the population living far from the places originally impacted by the natural disaster. These effects are primarily possible due to the intrinsic nature of this system. The consequences and extent of the indirect costs also depend on the set of road links which were damaged, because the road links differ in terms of their importance. The more robust (interconnected) the road network is, the less time is usually needed to secure the serviceability of an area hit by a disaster. These kinds of networks also demonstrate a higher degree of resilience. Evaluating road network structures is therefore essential in any type of vulnerability and resilience analysis. There are a range of approaches used for evaluation of the vulnerability of a network and for identification of the weakest road links. Only few of them are, however, capable of simulating the impacts of the simultaneous closure of numerous links, which often occurs during a disaster. The primary problem is that in the case of a disaster, which usually has a large regional extent, the road network may remain disconnected. The majority of the commonly used indices use direct computation of the shortest paths or time between OD (origin - destination) pairs and therefore cannot be applied when the network breaks up into two or more components. Since extensive break-ups often occur in cases of major disasters, it is important to study the network vulnerability in these cases as well, so that appropriate steps can be taken in order to make it more resilient. Performing such an analysis of network break-ups requires consideration of the network as a whole, ideally identifying all the cases generated by simultaneous closure of multiple links and evaluating them using various criteria. The spatial distribution of settlements, important companies and the overall population in the nodes of the network are several factors, apart from the topology of the network which could be taken into account when computing vulnerability indices and identifying the weakest links and/or weakest link combinations. However, even for small networks (i.e., hundreds of nodes and links), the problem of break-up identification becomes extremely difficult to resolve. The naive approaches of the brute force examination consequently fail and more elaborated algorithms have to be applied. We address the problem of evaluating the vulnerability of road networks in our work by simulating the impacts of the simultaneous closure of multiple roads/links. We present an ongoing work on a sophisticated algorithm focused on the identification of network break-ups and evaluating them by various criteria.

Bíl, Michal; Vodák, Rostislav; Kube?ek, Jan; Rebok, Tomáš; Svoboda, Tomáš

2014-05-01

136

Vulnerability of housing buildings in Bucharest, Romania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author participates to the World Housing Encyclopedia project (www.world-housing.net), an internet based database of housing buildings in earthquake prone areas of the world. This is a voluntary project run by the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, Oakland, California and the International Association of Earthquake Engineering, financial means being available only for the website where the information is shared. For broader dissemination in 2004 a summary publication of the reports to date was published. The database can be querried for various parameters and browsed after geographic distribution. Participation is open to any housing experts. Between 2003 and 2006 the author was also member of the editorial board. The author contributed numerous reports about building types in Romania, and each one about building types in Germany and Switzerland. This presentation will be about the contributed reports on building types in Romania. To the Encyclopedia eight reports on building types from Bucharest were contributed, while in further research of the author one more was similarly described regarding the vulnerability and the seismic retrofit. The selection of these types was done considering the historic development of the built substance in Bucharest from 1850 on, time from which a representative amount of housing buildings which can be classified in typologies can be found in Bucharest. While the structural types are not necessarily characteristic for the style, since the style has other time limits, often appearing before the type became common and then remaining being practiced also after another style gained ground, a historic succession can be seen also in this case. The nine types considered can be grouped in seven time categories: - the time 1850-1880, for a vernacular housing type with masonry load bearing walls and timber floors, - the time 1880-1920, for the type of two storey or multi-storey house with masonry walls and timber floors (in which stylistically the "national style" flourished), - the time 1920-1940 for the type with reinforced concrete skeleton for gravitational loads only (in which the "interwar style" or Romanian Modernism flourished), - the time immediately after 1940 (when a strong earthquake struck Bucharest), somehow 1940-1947, when the former structural type was continued, but with some improvements, for which a type with reinforced concrete diagonals was considered, - the time 1947-1977, before the strong earthquake from 1977, when cast-in-situ reinforced concrete structural wall buildings were spread. Two types are considered, one which displayed low earthquake vulnerability and one which displayed high earthquake vulnerability, - the time 1977-1989, after the strong earthquake from 1977 and before the fall on the communist regime, when taking as a reason the strong earthquake the regime started to implement another type of buildings, which structurally often were still reinforced concrete structural wall type, but prefabricated, - the time after 1989, when for more flexibility moment resisting frame was built, and also some of the unfinished moment resisting frame buildings were completed. To have such a complete description of all the building type in a country is not common for the World Housing Encyclopedia, and having them for Romania was due to a particular effort of the author. At the same time the database allows finding similar types in other parts of the world. Broadly speaking, each report included two sections, the first one more extended, on the vulnerability of buildings and the second on the seismic retrofit. The reports contain completed check lists, descriptions of the structural system, photographs and drawings. The accent in this presentation will be on the identification of seismic deficiencies and earthquake resilient features, and the connected typical damages, which all describe the vulnerability.

Bostenaru, M.

2009-04-01

137

Cyber Security Vulnerability Impact on I&C Reliability  

SciTech Connect

We present a discussion of the cyber security vulnerability impact on instrument and control reliability. In the discussion we demonstrate the likely vector of attack and vulnerabilities associated with commodity hardware, protocols and communication media. The current fleet of nuclear power plants in the United States utilizes aging analog instrument and control systems which are more frequently suffering from obsolescence and failure. The commodity equipment available now and in the near future incorporates features from information technology systems which compound cyber vulnerabilities.

Hadley, Mark D.; McBride, Justin B.

2006-11-01

138

Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: An Evolution of Conceptual Thinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vulnerability is an emerging concept for climate science and policy. Over the past decade, efforts to assess vulnerability\\u000a to climate change triggered a process of theory development and assessment practice, which is reflected in the reports of\\u000a the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). This paper reviews the historical development of the conceptual ideas\\u000a underpinning assessments of vulnerability to climate

Hans-Martin Füssel; Richard J. T. Klein

2006-01-01

139

Global analysis of urban surface water supply vulnerability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents a global analysis of urban water supply vulnerability in 71 surface-water supplied cities, with populations exceeding 750 000 and lacking source water diversity. Vulnerability represents the failure of an urban supply-basin to simultaneously meet demands from human, environmental and agricultural users. We assess a baseline (2010) condition and a future scenario (2040) that considers increased demand from urban population growth and projected agricultural demand. We do not account for climate change, which can potentially exacerbate or reduce urban supply vulnerability. In 2010, 35% of large cities are vulnerable as they compete with agricultural users. By 2040, without additional measures 45% of cities are vulnerable due to increased agricultural and urban demands. Of the vulnerable cities in 2040, the majority are river-supplied with mean flows so low (1200 liters per person per day, l/p/d) that the cities experience ‘chronic water scarcity’ (1370 l/p/d). Reservoirs supply the majority of cities facing individual future threats, revealing that constructed storage potentially provides tenuous water security. In 2040, of the 32 vulnerable cities, 14 would reduce their vulnerability via reallocating water by reducing environmental flows, and 16 would similarly benefit by transferring water from irrigated agriculture. Approximately half remain vulnerable under either potential remedy.

Padowski, Julie C.; Gorelick, Steven M.

2014-10-01

140

Multimodal spectroscopy detects features of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque  

E-print Network

Early detection and treatment of rupture-prone vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is critical to reducing patient mortality associated with cardiovascular disease. The combination of reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman ...

Scepanovic, Obrad R.

141

Empirical Estimates of 0Day Vulnerabilities in Control Systems  

SciTech Connect

We define a 0Day vulnerability to be any vulnerability, in deployed software, which has been discovered by at least one person but has not yet been publicly announced or patched. These 0Day vulnerabilities are of particular interest when assessing the risk to well managed control systems which have already effectively mitigated the publicly known vulnerabilities. In these well managed systems the risk contribution from 0Days will have proportionally increased. To aid understanding of how great a risk 0Days may pose to control systems, an estimate of how many are in existence is needed. Consequently, using the 0Day definition given above, we developed and applied a method for estimating how many 0Day vulnerabilities are in existence on any given day. The estimate is made by: empirically characterizing the distribution of the lifespans, measured in days, of 0Day vulnerabilities; determining the number of vulnerabilities publicly announced each day; and applying a novel method for estimating the number of 0Day vulnerabilities in existence on any given day using the number of vulnerabilities publicly announced each day and the previously derived distribution of 0Day lifespans. The method was first applied to a general set of software applications by analyzing the 0Day lifespans of 491 software vulnerabilities and using the daily rate of vulnerability announcements in the National Vulnerability Database. This led to a conservative estimate that in the worst year there were, on average, 2500 0Day software related vulnerabilities in existence on any given day. Using a smaller but intriguing set of 15 0Day software vulnerability lifespans representing the actual time from discovery to public disclosure, we then made a more aggressive estimate. In this case, we estimated that in the worst year there were, on average, 4500 0Day software vulnerabilities in existence on any given day. We then proceeded to identify the subset of software applications likely to be used in some control systems, analyzed the associated subset of vulnerabilities, and characterized their lifespans. Using the previously developed method of analysis, we very conservatively estimated 250 control system related 0Day vulnerabilities in existence on any given day. While reasonable, this first order estimate for control systems is probably far more conservative than those made for general software systems since the estimate did not include vulnerabilities unique to control system specific components. These control system specific vulnerabilities were unable to be included in the estimate for a variety of reasons with the most problematic being that the public announcement of unique control system vulnerabilities is very sparse. Consequently, with the intent to improve the above 0Day estimate for control systems, we first identified the additional, unique to control systems, vulnerability estimation constraints and then investigated new mechanisms which may be useful for estimating the number of unique 0Day software vulnerabilities found in control system components. We proceeded to identify a number of new mechanisms and approaches for estimating and incorporating control system specific vulnerabilities into an improved 0Day estimation method. These new mechanisms and approaches appear promising and will be more rigorously evaluated during the course of the next year.

Miles A. McQueen; Wayne F. Boyer; Sean M. McBride; Trevor A. McQueen

2009-01-01

142

Homelessness and our most vulnerable patients.  

PubMed

The scope of homelessness among children is broad and growing, and its affect on physical and mental health is extensive. It may seem daunting for individual providers to make an impact on the challenges faced by these most vulnerable of patients. However, healthcare providers who care for homeless children can improve more than just their physical health by understanding barriers specific to this population, and addressing them through minor changes in standard practice; education of self, staff, and colleagues; and advocacy. By collaborating with parents and local agencies, clinicians can make tangible progress in improving the health of their homeless patients and can provide parents with the information and support they need to prioritize a child's health needs appropriately. Ultimately, providers should strive to make their practices a true medical home, as it may be the only home a child knows. PMID:19186593

Olszyk, Mark D; Goodell, Melly

2008-01-01

143

Health Insurance Coverage for Vulnerable Populations  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the role that population vulnerabilities play in insurance coverage for a representative sample of Latinos and Asians in the U.S. Using data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), these analyses compare coverage differences among and within ethnic subgroups, across states and regions, among types of occupation and among those with or without English language proficiency. Extensive differences exist in coverage between Latinos and Asians, with Latinos more likely to be uninsured. Potential explanations include the type of occupations available to Latinos and Asians, reforms in immigration laws, length of time in the U.S., and regional differences in safety net coverage. Policy implications are discussed. PMID:17176967

Alegria, Margarita; Cao, Zhun; McGuire, Thomas G.; Ojeda, Victoria D.; Sribney, Bill; Woo, Meghan; Takeuchi, David

2009-01-01

144

Vulnerability Analysis of PAP for RFID Tags  

E-print Network

In this paper, we analyze the security of an RFID authentication protocol proposed by Liu and Bailey [1], called Privacy and Authentication Protocol (PAP), and show its vulnerabilities and faulty assumptions. PAP is a privacy and authentication protocol designed for passive tags. The authors claim that the protocol, being resistant to commonly assumed attacks, requires little computation and provides privacy protection and authentication. Nevertheless, we propose two traceability attacks and an impersonation attack, in which the revealing of secret information (i.e., secret key and static identifier) shared between the tag and the reader is unnecessary. Moreover, we review all basic assumptions on which the design of the protocol resides, and show how many of them are incorrect and are contrary to the common assumptions in RFID systems.

Naser, Mu'awya; Rafie, Mohammd; van der Lubbe, Jan

2010-01-01

145

Vulnerability of unconfined aquifers to virus contamination.  

PubMed

An empirical formula was developed for determining the vulnerability of unconfined sandy aquifers to virus contamination, expressed as a dimensionless setback distance r(s)(*). The formula can be used to calculate the setback distance required for the protection of drinking water production wells against virus contamination. This empirical formula takes into account the intrinsic properties of the virus and the unconfined sandy aquifer. Virus removal is described by a rate coefficient that accounts for virus inactivation and attachment to sand grains. The formula also includes pumping rate, saturated thickness of the aquifer, depth of the screen of the pumping well, and anisotropy of the aquifer. This means that it accounts also for dilution effects as well as horizontal and vertical virus transport. Because the empirical model includes virus source concentration it can be used as an integral part of a quantitative viral risk assessment. PMID:20110099

Schijven, J F; Hassanizadeh, S Majid; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

2010-02-01

146

Neuronal vulnerability, pathogenesis and Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Although there have been significant advances, pathogenesis in Parkinson’s disease (PD) is still poorly understood. Potential clues about pathogenesis that have not been systematically pursued are suggested by the restricted pattern of neuronal pathology in the disease. In addition to dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), a significant number of other central and peripheral neuronal populations exhibit Lewy pathology (LP), phenotypic dysregulation or frank degeneration in PD patients. Drawing on this literature, there appears to be a small number of risk factors contributing to vulnerability. These include autonomous activity, broad action potentials, low intrinsic calcium buffering capacity, poorly myelinated long highly branched axons and terminal fields, and use of a monoamine neurotransmitter, often with the catecholamine-derived neuromelanin pigment. Of these phenotypic traits, only the physiological ones appear to provide a reachable therapeutic target at present. PMID:22791686

Sulzer, David; Surmeier, D. James

2012-01-01

147

Shield: vulnerability-driven network filters for preventing known vulnerability exploits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software patching has not been effective as a first-line defense against large-scale worm attacks, even when patches have long been available for their corresponding vulnerabilities. Generally, people have been reluctant to patch their systems immediately, because patches are perceived to be unreliable and disruptive to apply. To address this problem, we propose a first-line worm defense in the network stack,

Helen J. Wang; Chuanxiong Guo; Daniel R. Simon; Alf Zugenmaier

2004-01-01

148

[Identification of vulnerable individuals in the area surrounding a university hospital: connecting vulnerability, solidarity and healthcare].  

PubMed

In the area around a university hospital in the interior of São Paulo state people are found sleeping, eating or resting on the lawns and surrounding areas, and they linger in such sites for hours. This study sought to identify and characterize vulnerable individuals in the area around the hospital by offering help. Data were collected from November 2007 to October 2008, on a weekly basis and on randomly selected days and times. The people found in these places were identified, and 52 subjects were interviewed. The individuals were, predominantly, females (67.3%), white (51.9%), married (59.6%), had attended school for up to four years (44.2%) and did not have a defined profession (84.6%). Most of them were waiting for bus transportation provided by their hometown administration; the mean waiting time was approximately 90 minutes and most of the subjects had certain needs during the waiting period. Help was offered to 15 individuals who reported specific needs at the moment of the interview. It was concluded that these individuals were in a situation of individual, social and systematic vulnerability, especially in terms of socio-economic vulnerability. They showed reduced self-determination ability and submitted themselves to unfavorable conditions due to their dependence on public services. PMID:21808903

Sthal, Hellen Cristina; Berti, Heloisa Wey

2011-07-01

149

Vulnerability Assessment of Cyber Security in Power Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyber system plays an important role in supervising and controlling power system. Besides its contribution of much convenience to power industry, the cyber system brings some potential danger because of its inherent vulnerability. It is significant to assess the vulnerability of cyber system, determine its risk to power industry, find out the weak parts, set appropriate response to the probable

Yu Jiaxi; Mao Anjia; Guo Zhizhong

2006-01-01

150

Automatic Discovery of API-Level Vulnerabilities Vinod Ganapathy  

E-print Network

Automatic Discovery of API-Level Vulnerabilities Vinod Ganapathy , Sanjit A. Seshia , Somesh Jha-MADISON COMPUTER SCIENCES TECHNICAL REPORT: UW-CS-TR-1512, JULY 2004. Abstract A system is vulnerable to an API-level attack if its security can be compromised by invoking an allowed sequence of operations from its API. We

Ganapathy, Vinod

151

The asset vulnerability framework: Reassessing urban poverty reduction strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying what the poor have, rather than what they do not have, focuses on their assets. This paper contributes to the extensive vulnerability\\/assets literature, by categorizing the assets of the urban poor in terms of an “asset vulnerability framework.” These include both tangible assets, such as labor and human capital, less familiar productive assets, such as housing, as well as

Caroline O. N. Moser

1998-01-01

152

An Identical Twin High-Risk Study of Biobehavioral Vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed study begins with the assumption that individuals differ in their vulnerability to develop drug abuse. Therefore, a crucial step in developing prevention and treatment programs for drug abuse is the identification of the biobehavioral basis of the vulnerability. The proposed study is a type of high-risk study using only identical (monozygotic, MZ) twins, rather than a conventional twin

Ming T. Tsuang; Michael J. Lyons

153

Development and Demography of Perceived Vulnerability in Youngsters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to assess children's perceived vulnerability to health problems, a longitudinal study was designed to observe third and seventh graders at five intervals over a 2-year period. The hypotheses tested concerned relationships between perceived vulnerability to health problems and age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Data were obtained from a…

Gochman, David S.

154

Social Vulnerability Scale for older adults: Validation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Social Vulnerability Scale (SVS), an informant-report of social vulnerability for older adults, was piloted in a sample of 167 undergraduate students (63 male, 104 female) from the University of Queensland. Participants aged 18 - 53 (M ¼ 25.53 years, SD ¼ 7.83 years) completed the SVS by rating a relative or friend aged ? 50 years (M ¼ 71.65

DONNA M. PINSKER; Valerie Stone; Nancy Pachana; Stephen Greenspan

2006-01-01

155

Flooding of Industrial Facilities -Vulnerability Reduction in Practice  

E-print Network

Flooding of Industrial Facilities - Vulnerability Reduction in Practice Agnès Vallée*a , Christophe show that floods accounted for more than half of disasters registered for the 1990-2001 period facilities are structurally exposed to flooding. Past events witnessed industrial vulnerability to flooding

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

156

The Na?ve nurse: revisiting vulnerability for nursing  

PubMed Central

Background Nurses in the Western world have given considerable attention to the concept of vulnerability in recent decades. However, nurses have tended to view vulnerability from an individualistic perspective, and have rarely taken into account structural or collective dimensions of the concept. As the need grows for health workers to engage in the global health agenda, nurses must broaden earlier works on vulnerability, noting that conventional conceptualizations and practical applications on the notion of vulnerability warrant extension to include more collective conceptualizations thereby making a more complete understanding of vulnerability in nursing discourse. Discussion The purpose of this paper is to examine nursing contributions to the concept of vulnerability and consider how a broader perspective that includes socio-political dimensions may assist nurses to reach beyond the immediate milieu of the patient into the dominant social, political, and economic structures that produce and sustain vulnerability. Summary By broadening nurse’s conceptualization of vulnerability, nurses can obtain the consciousness needed to move beyond a peripheral role of nursing that has been dominantly situated within institutional settings to contribute in the larger arena of social, economic, political and global affairs. PMID:22520841

2012-01-01

157

PointGuardTM: Protecting Pointers From Buffer Overflow Vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite numerous security technologies crafted to resist buffer overflow vulnerabilities, buffer overflows continue to be the dominant form of software security vulnerability. This is because most buffer overflow defenses provide only partial coverage, and the attacks have adapted to exploit problems that are not well-defended, such as heap over- flows. This paper presents PointGuard, a compiler technique to defend against

Crispin Cowan; Steve Beattie; John Johansen; Perry Wagle

2003-01-01

158

Temporal and spatial changes in social vulnerability to natural hazards  

PubMed Central

During the past four decades (1960–2000), the United States experienced major transformations in population size, development patterns, economic conditions, and social characteristics. These social, economic, and built-environment changes altered the American hazardscape in profound ways, with more people living in high-hazard areas than ever before. To improve emergency management, it is important to recognize the variability in the vulnerable populations exposed to hazards and to develop place-based emergency plans accordingly. The concept of social vulnerability identifies sensitive populations that may be less likely to respond to, cope with, and recover from a natural disaster. Social vulnerability is complex and dynamic, changing over space and through time. This paper presents empirical evidence on the spatial and temporal patterns in social vulnerability in the United States from 1960 to the present. Using counties as our study unit, we found that those components that consistently increased social vulnerability for all time periods were density (urban), race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. The spatial patterning of social vulnerability, although initially concentrated in certain geographic regions, has become more dispersed over time. The national trend shows a steady reduction in social vulnerability, but there is considerable regional variability, with many counties increasing in social vulnerability during the past five decades. PMID:18268336

Cutter, Susan L.; Finch, Christina

2008-01-01

159

TALC: Using Desktop Graffiti to Fight Software Vulnerability  

E-print Network

TALC: Using Desktop Graffiti to Fight Software Vulnerability Kandha Sankarapandian, Travis Little software and then drawing graffiti on their computer's background wallpaper image to denote potential vulnerabilities. Users can "clean up" the graffiti by applying necessary patches, which TALC makes possible

Edwards, Keith

160

Consumption, Vulnerability, and Shocks in Rural Ethiopia, 1999-2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improving our understanding of risk and vulnerability is an issue of increasing importance for Ethiopia as it is for much of Africa. A small, but growing, body of evidence, points to the role that risk, shocks and vulnerability in perpetuating poverty. Specifically, uninsured shocks ¿ adverse events that are costly to individuals and households in terms of lost income, reduced

S. Dercon; J. Hodinnott; T. Woldehanna

2006-01-01

161

On automated prepared statement generation to remove SQL injection vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 2002, over 10% of total cyber vulnerabilities were SQL injection vulnerabilities (SQLIVs). This paper presents an algorithm of prepared statement replacement for removing SQLIVs by replacing SQL state- ments with prepared statements. Prepared statements have a static structure, which prevents SQL injec- tion attacks from changing the logical structure of a prepared statement. We created a prepared statement replacement

Stephen Thomas; Laurie Williams; Tao Xie

2009-01-01

162

Vulnerability assessment and emergency response for booster chlorination systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the cumulative distribution curves of consumed contaminated water, the concept of average vulnerability considering influence coefficient of each node was proposed to evaluate the overall risk of water distribution system when contaminations broke out. Optimization model for booster chlorination had been combined with contaminant intrusion model, and the new model was used to assess the vulnerability of booster

Zhang Yan; Zhang Nian-qing

2010-01-01

163

Vulnerability, Adaptation and Climate Disasters: A Conceptual Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

* (MDGs) and to secure fairer trade as part of the Doha Development Agenda will also be strengthened in 2005. After the media headlines have faded, what impact will these frameworks have on the lives of the poor and others vulnerable to climate impacts? Will climate vulnerabilities be integrated in all these frameworks with lasting benefits? Will the interests and

Farhana Yamin; Atiq Rahman; Saleemul Huq

2005-01-01

164

Vulnerable people, precarious housing, and regional resilience: an exploratory analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article has two purposes. First, it explores the ideas of vulnerability, precariousness, and resilience as they apply to people, housing, neighborhoods, and metropolitan areas. People might be more vulnerable to shocks or strains, we propose, if they are members of racial\\/ethnic minorities, recent immigrants, non-high school graduates, are children or over 75 years old, disabled, recent veterans, living in

Rolf Pendall; Brett Theodos; Kaitlin Franks

2012-01-01

165

Relational vulnerabilities of incarcerated and reentry mothers: therapeutic implications.  

PubMed

A qualitative study involving a follow-up interview with 10 incarcerated and reentry mothers in rural southwest and central Virginia was conducted to explore the influence that women's close relationships have on their reentry experiences with their families. The Vulnerability Conceptual Model (VCM) was used to sensitize an examination of how incarcerated and reentry mothers negotiate relational vulnerabilities in the context of varying situational vulnerability. Grounded theory analysis revealed three themes that characterized relational vulnerabilities. Given our focus on close relationships and the potential of the VCM to identify opportunities for resilience and vulnerability, we highlighted the influence of ambiguous and ambivalent relationships and unresolved loss and grief due to relationship dissolution or the death of a parent, sibling, child, or intimate partner in the reentry process. The data revealed two types of reentry mothers with divergent trajectories for social reintegration. Implications of these types for therapeutic treatment approaches for reentry women are discussed. PMID:23847275

Few-Demo, April L; Arditti, Joyce A

2014-11-01

166

A comparison of supply chain vulnerability indices for different categories of firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the high vulnerability of today's supply chains to disruptions, measuring and managing supply chain vulnerability has become critical. In the attempt to support practice in reducing supply chain vulnerability, we (1) discuss and define the concept of supply chain vulnerability and (2) measure and compare supply chain vulnerability for various categories of firms. Normal Accident Theory and High Reliability

Stephan M. Wagner; Nikrouz Neshat

2012-01-01

167

A comparison of supply chain vulnerability indices for different categories of firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the high vulnerability of today's supply chains to disruptions, measuring and managing supply chain vulnerability has become critical. In the attempt to support practice in reducing supply chain vulnerability, we (1) discuss and define the concept of supply chain vulnerability and (2) measure and compare supply chain vulnerability for various categories of firms. Normal Accident Theory and High Reliability

Stephan M. Wagner; Nikrouz Neshat

2011-01-01

168

The vulnerability of Australian rural communities to climate variability and change: Part I—Conceptualising and measuring vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vulnerability is a term frequently used to describe the potential threat to rural communities posed by climate variability and change. Despite growing use of the term, analytical measures of vulnerability that are useful for prioritising and evaluating policy responses are yet to evolve. Demand for research capable of prioritising adaptation responses has evolved rapidly with an increasing awareness of climate

R. Nelson; P. Kokic; S. Crimp; H. Meinke; S. M. Howden

2010-01-01

169

Transplanting Supersites of HIV-1 Vulnerability  

PubMed Central

One strategy for isolating or eliciting antibodies against a specific target region on the envelope glycoprotein trimer (Env) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) involves the creation of site transplants, which present the target region on a heterologous protein scaffold with preserved antibody-binding properties. If the target region is a supersite of HIV-1 vulnerability, recognized by a collection of broadly neutralizing antibodies, this strategy affords the creation of “supersite transplants”, capable of binding (and potentially eliciting) antibodies similar to the template collection of effective antibodies. Here we transplant three supersites of HIV-1 vulnerability, each targeted by effective neutralizing antibodies from multiple donors. To implement our strategy, we chose a single representative antibody against each of the target supersites: antibody 10E8, which recognizes the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) on the HIV-1 gp41 glycoprotein; antibody PG9, which recognizes variable regions one and two (V1V2) on the HIV-1 gp120 glycoprotein; and antibody PGT128 which recognizes a glycopeptide supersite in variable region 3 (glycan V3) on gp120. We used a structural alignment algorithm to identify suitable acceptor proteins, and then designed, expressed, and tested antigenically over 100-supersite transplants in a 96-well microtiter-plate format. The majority of the supersite transplants failed to maintain the antigenic properties of their respective template supersite. However, seven of the glycan V3-supersite transplants exhibited nanomolar affinity to effective neutralizing antibodies from at least three donors and recapitulated the mannose9-N-linked glycan requirement of the template supersite. The binding of these transplants could be further enhanced by placement into self-assembling nanoparticles. Essential elements of the glycan V3 supersite, embodied by as few as 3 N-linked glycans and ?25 Env residues, can be segregated into acceptor scaffolds away from the immune-evading capabilities of the rest of HIV-1 Env, thereby providing a means to focus the immune response on the scaffolded supersite. PMID:24992528

Yang, Yongping; Gorman, Jason; Ofek, Gilad; Srivatsan, Sanjay; Druz, Aliaksandr; Lees, Christopher R.; Lu, Gabriel; Soto, Cinque; Stuckey, Jonathan; Burton, Dennis R.; Koff, Wayne C.; Connors, Mark; Kwon, Peter D.

2014-01-01

170

Tracking Nile Delta vulnerability to Holocene change.  

PubMed

Understanding deltaic resilience in the face of Holocene climate change and human impacts is an important challenge for the earth sciences in characterizing the full range of present and future wetland responses to global warming. Here, we report an 8000-year mass balance record from the Nile Delta to reconstruct when and how this sedimentary basin has responded to past hydrological shifts. In a global Holocene context, the long-term decrease in Nile Delta accretion rates is consistent with insolation-driven changes in the 'monsoon pacemaker', attested throughout the mid-latitude tropics. Following the early to mid-Holocene growth of the Nile's deltaic plain, sediment losses and pronounced erosion are first recorded after ~4000 years ago, the corollaries of falling sediment supply and an intensification of anthropogenic impacts from the Pharaonic period onwards. Against the backcloth of the Saharan 'depeopling', reduced river flow underpinned by a weakening of monsoonal precipitation appears to have been particularly conducive to the expansion of human activities on the delta by exposing productive floodplain lands for occupation and irrigation agriculture. The reconstruction suggests that the Nile Delta has a particularly long history of vulnerability to extreme events (e.g. floods and storms) and sea-level rise, although the present sediment-starved system does not have a direct Holocene analogue. This study highlights the importance of the world's deltas as sensitive archives to investigate Holocene geosystem responses to climate change, risks and hazards, and societal interaction. PMID:23922692

Marriner, Nick; Flaux, Clément; Morhange, Christophe; Stanley, Jean-Daniel

2013-01-01

171

Environmental deterioration increases tadpole vulnerability to predation.  

PubMed

Human-induced environmental change is occurring at an unprecedented rate and scale. Many freshwater habitats, in particular, have been degraded as a result of increased salinity. Little is known about the effects of anthropogenic salinization on freshwater organisms, especially at sublethal concentrations, where subtle behavioural changes can have potentially drastic fitness consequences. Using a species of Australian frog (Litoria ewingii), we experimentally examined the effects of salinization on tadpole behaviour and their vulnerability to a predatory dragonfly nymph (Hemianax papuensis). We found that tadpoles exposed to an ecologically relevant concentration of salt (15% seawater, SW) were less active than those in our freshwater control (0.4% SW). Tadpoles in elevated salinity also experienced a higher risk of predation, even though the strike rate of the predator did not differ between salt and freshwater treatments. In a separate experiment testing the burst-speed performance of tadpoles, we found that tadpoles in saltwater were slower than those in freshwater. Thus, it would appear that salt compromised the anti-predator response of tadpoles and made them more susceptible to being captured. Our results demonstrate that environmentally relevant concentrations of aquatic contaminants can, even at sublethal levels, severely undermine the fitness of exposed organisms. PMID:18492650

Squires, Zoe E; Bailey, Paul C E; Reina, Richard D; Wong, Bob B M

2008-08-23

172

Vulnerability of streams to legacy nitrate sources.  

PubMed

The influence of hydrogeologic setting on the susceptibility of streams to legacy nitrate was examined at seven study sites having a wide range of base flow index (BFI) values. BFI is the ratio of base flow to total streamflow volume. The portion of annual stream nitrate loads from base flow was strongly correlated with BFI. Furthermore, dissolved oxygen concentrations in streambed pore water were significantly higher in high BFI watersheds than in low BFI watersheds suggesting that geochemical conditions favor nitrate transport through the bed when BFI is high. Results from a groundwater-surface water interaction study at a high BFI watershed indicate that decades old nitrate-laden water is discharging to this stream. These findings indicate that high nitrate levels in this stream may be sustained for decades to come regardless of current practices. It is hypothesized that a first approximation of stream vulnerability to legacy nutrients may be made by geospatial analysis of watersheds with high nitrogen inputs and a strong connection to groundwater (e.g., high BFI). PMID:23530900

Tesoriero, Anthony J; Duff, John H; Saad, David A; Spahr, Norman E; Wolock, David M

2013-04-16

173

Bridging the Digital Divide: Reaching Vulnerable Populations  

PubMed Central

The AMIA 2003 Spring Congress entitled “Bridging the Digital Divide: Informatics and Vulnerable Populations” convened 178 experts including medical informaticians, health care professionals, government leaders, policy makers, researchers, health care industry leaders, consumer advocates, and others specializing in health care provision to underserved populations. The primary objective of this working congress was to develop a framework for a national agenda in information and communication technology to enhance the health and health care of underserved populations. Discussions during four tracks addressed issues and trends in information and communication technologies for underserved populations, strategies learned from successful programs, evaluation methodologies for measuring the impact of informatics, and dissemination of information for replication of successful programs. Each track addressed current status, ideal state, barriers, strategies, and recommendations. Recommendations of the breakout sessions were summarized under the overarching themes of Policy, Funding, Research, and Education and Training. The general recommendations emphasized four key themes: revision in payment and reimbursement policies, integration of health care standards, partnerships as the key to success, and broad dissemination of findings including specific feedback to target populations and other key stakeholders. PMID:15299002

Chang, Betty L.; Bakken, Suzanne; Brown, S. Scott; Houston, Thomas K.; Kreps, Gary L.; Kukafka, Rita; Safran, Charles; Stavri, P. Zoe

2004-01-01

174

Tracking Nile Delta Vulnerability to Holocene Change  

PubMed Central

Understanding deltaic resilience in the face of Holocene climate change and human impacts is an important challenge for the earth sciences in characterizing the full range of present and future wetland responses to global warming. Here, we report an 8000-year mass balance record from the Nile Delta to reconstruct when and how this sedimentary basin has responded to past hydrological shifts. In a global Holocene context, the long-term decrease in Nile Delta accretion rates is consistent with insolation-driven changes in the ‘monsoon pacemaker’, attested throughout the mid-latitude tropics. Following the early to mid-Holocene growth of the Nile’s deltaic plain, sediment losses and pronounced erosion are first recorded after ~4000 years ago, the corollaries of falling sediment supply and an intensification of anthropogenic impacts from the Pharaonic period onwards. Against the backcloth of the Saharan ‘depeopling’, reduced river flow underpinned by a weakening of monsoonal precipitation appears to have been particularly conducive to the expansion of human activities on the delta by exposing productive floodplain lands for occupation and irrigation agriculture. The reconstruction suggests that the Nile Delta has a particularly long history of vulnerability to extreme events (e.g. floods and storms) and sea-level rise, although the present sediment-starved system does not have a direct Holocene analogue. This study highlights the importance of the world’s deltas as sensitive archives to investigate Holocene geosystem responses to climate change, risks and hazards, and societal interaction. PMID:23922692

Marriner, Nick; Flaux, Clement; Morhange, Christophe; Stanley, Jean-Daniel

2013-01-01

175

Quantum key distribution: vulnerable if imperfectly implemented  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report several vulnerabilities found in Clavis2, the flagship quantum key distribution (QKD) system from ID Quantique. We show the hacking of a calibration sequence run by Clavis2 to synchronize the Alice and Bob devices before performing the secret key exchange. This hack induces a temporal detection efficiency mismatch in Bob that can allow Eve to break the security of the cryptosystem using faked states. We also experimentally investigate the superlinear behaviour in the single-photon detectors (SPDs) used by Bob. Due to this superlinearity, the SPDs feature an actual multi-photon detection probability which is generally higher than the theoretically-modelled value. We show how this increases the risk of detector control attacks on QKD systems (including Clavis2) employing such SPDs. Finally, we review the experimental feasibility of Trojan-horse attacks. In the case of Clavis2, the objective is to read Bob's phase modulator to acquire knowledge of his basis choice as this information suffices for constructing the raw key in the Scarani-Acin-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 (SARG04) protocol. We work in close collaboration with ID Quantique and for all these loopholes, we notified them in advance. Wherever possible, we or ID Quantique proposed countermeasures and they implemented suitable patches and upgrade their systems.

Leuchs, G.

2013-10-01

176

Functional genomics to explore cancer cell vulnerabilities.  

PubMed

Our understanding of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common form of primary brain cancer, has been significantly advanced by recent efforts to characterize the cancer genome using unbiased high-throughput sequencing analyses. While these studies have documented hundreds of mutations, gene copy alterations, and chromosomal abnormalities, only a subset of these alterations are likely to impact tumor initiation or maintenance. Furthermore, genes that are not altered at the genomic level may play essential roles in tumor initiation and maintenance. Identification of these genes is critical for therapeutic development and investigative methodologies that afford insight into biological function. This requirement has largely been fulfilled with the emergence of RNA interference (RNAi) and high-throughput screening technology. In this article, the authors discuss the application of genome-wide, high-throughput RNAi-based genetic screening as a powerful tool for the rapid and cost-effective identification of genes essential for cancer proliferation and survival. They describe how these technologies have been used to identify genes that are themselves selectively lethal to cancer cells, or synthetically lethal with other oncogenic mutations. The article is intended to provide a platform for how RNAi libraries might contribute to uncovering glioma cell vulnerabilities and provide information that is highly complementary to the structural characterization of the glioblastoma genome. The authors emphasize that unbiased, systems-level structural and functional genetic approaches are complementary efforts that should facilitate the identification of genes involved in the pathogenesis of GBM and permit the identification of novel drug targets. PMID:20043720

Kahle, Kristopher T; Kozono, David; Ng, Kimberly; Hsieh, Grace; Zinn, Pascal O; Nitta, Masayuki; Chen, Clark C

2010-01-01

177

Physiological Phenotype and Vulnerability in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

This review will focus on the principles underlying the hypothesis that neuronal physiological phenotype—how a neuron generates and regulates action potentials—makes a significant contribution to its vulnerability in Parkinson's disease (PD) and aging. A cornerstone of this hypothesis is that the maintenance of ionic gradients underlying excitability can pose a significant energetic burden for neurons, particularly those that have sustained residence times at depolarized membrane potentials, broad action potentials, prominent Ca2+ entry, and modest intrinsic Ca2+ buffering capacity. This energetic burden is shouldered in neurons primarily by mitochondria, the sites of cellular respiration. Mitochondrial respiration increases the production of damaging superoxide and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) that have widely been postulated to contribute to cellular aging and PD. Many of the genetic mutations and toxins associated with PD compromise mitochondrial function, providing a mechanistic linkage between known risk factors and cellular physiology that could explain the pattern of pathology in PD. Because much of the mitochondrial burden created by this at-risk phenotype is created by Ca2+ entry through L-type voltage-dependent channels for which there are antagonists approved for human use, a neuroprotective strategy to reduce this burden is feasible. PMID:22762023

Surmeier, D. James; Guzman, Jaime N.; Sanchez, Javier; Schumacker, Paul T.

2012-01-01

178

Can Fault Prediction Models and Metrics be Used for Vulnerability Prediction? Yonghee Shin and Laurie Williams  

E-print Network

Can Fault Prediction Models and Metrics be Used for Vulnerability Prediction? Yonghee Shin general faults in software - thinking like an attacker. Therefore, security engineers looking security vulnerabilities rather than faults. At the same time, faults and vulnerabilities have

Young, R. Michael

179

Fear-Conditioning Mechanisms Associated with Trait Vulnerability to Anxiety in Humans  

E-print Network

Neuron Article Fear-Conditioning Mechanisms Associated with Trait Vulnerability to Anxiety dimensions such as trait anxiety act through these mechanisms to confer vulnerability to anxiety disorders independent dimensions of neurocognitive function associated with trait vulnerability to anxiety. The first

Bishop, Sonia

180

Rural Nevada and climate change: vulnerability, beliefs, and risk perception.  

PubMed

In this article, we present the results of a study investigating the influence of vulnerability to climate change as a function of physical vulnerability, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity on climate change risk perception. In 2008/2009, we surveyed Nevada ranchers and farmers to assess their climate change-related beliefs, and risk perceptions, political orientations, and socioeconomic characteristics. Ranchers' and farmers' sensitivity to climate change was measured through estimating the proportion of their household income originating from highly scarce water-dependent agriculture to the total income. Adaptive capacity was measured as a combination of the Social Status Index and the Poverty Index. Utilizing water availability and use, and population distribution GIS databases; we assessed water resource vulnerability in Nevada by zip code as an indicator of physical vulnerability to climate change. We performed correlation tests and multiple regression analyses to examine the impact of vulnerability and its three distinct components on risk perception. We find that vulnerability is not a significant determinant of risk perception. Physical vulnerability alone also does not impact risk perception. Both sensitivity and adaptive capacity increase risk perception. While age is not a significant determinant of it, gender plays an important role in shaping risk perception. Yet, general beliefs such as political orientations and climate change-specific beliefs such as believing in the anthropogenic causes of climate change and connecting the locally observed impacts (in this case drought) to climate change are the most prominent determinants of risk perception. PMID:22583075

Safi, Ahmad Saleh; Smith, William James; Liu, Zhnongwei

2012-06-01

181

Predicting vulnerability to sleep deprivation using diffusion model parameters.  

PubMed

We used diffusion modelling to predict vulnerability to decline in psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) performance following a night of total sleep deprivation (SD). A total of 135 healthy young adults (69 women, age = 21.9 ± 1.7 years) participated in several within-subject cross-over design studies that incorporated the PVT. Participants were classified as vulnerable (lower tertile) or non-vulnerable (upper tertile) according to their change in lapse rate [lapse = reaction time (RT) ? 500 ms] between the evening before (ESD) and the morning after SD. RT data were fitted using Ratcliff's diffusion model. Although both groups showed significant change in RT during SD, there was no significant group difference in RT during the ESD session. In contrast, during ESD, the mean diffusion drift of vulnerable subjects was significantly lower than for non-vulnerable subjects. Mean drift and non-decision times were both adversely affected by sleep deprivation. Both mean drift and non-decision time showed significant state × vulnerability interaction. Diffusion modelling appears to have promise in predicting vulnerability to vigilance decline induced by a night of total sleep deprivation. PMID:24861212

Patanaik, Amiya; Zagorodnov, Vitali; Kwoh, Chee Keong; Chee, Michael W L

2014-10-01

182

Vulnerability analysis of interdependent infrastructure systems: A methodological framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrastructure systems such as power and water supplies make up the cornerstone of modern society which is essential for the functioning of a society and its economy. They become more and more interconnected and interdependent with the development of scientific technology and social economy. Risk and vulnerability analysis of interdependent infrastructures for security considerations has become an important subject, and some achievements have been made in this area. Since different infrastructure systems have different structural and functional properties, there is no universal all-encompassing ‘silver bullet solution’ to the problem of analyzing the vulnerability associated with interdependent infrastructure systems. So a framework of analysis is required. This paper takes the power and water systems of a major city in China as an example and develops a framework for the analysis of the vulnerability of interdependent infrastructure systems. Four interface design strategies based on distance, betweenness, degree, and clustering coefficient are constructed. Then two types of vulnerability (long-term vulnerability and focused vulnerability) are illustrated and analyzed. Finally, a method for ranking critical components in interdependent infrastructures is given for protection purposes. It is concluded that the framework proposed here is useful for vulnerability analysis of interdependent systems and it will be helpful for the system owners to make better decisions on infrastructure design and protection.

Wang, Shuliang; Hong, Liu; Chen, Xueguang

2012-06-01

183

Assessing the vulnerability of buildings to tsunami in Sydney  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Australia is vulnerable to the impacts of tsunamis and exposure along the SE coast of New South Wales is especially high. Significantly, this is the same area reported to have been affected by repeated large magnitude tsunamis during the Holocene. Efforts are under way to complete probabilistic risk assessments for the region but local government planners and emergency risk managers need information now about building vulnerability in order to develop appropriate risk management strategies. We use the newly revised PTVA-3 Model (Dall'Osso et al., 2009) to assess the relative vulnerability of buildings to damage from a "worst case tsunami" defined by our latest understanding of regional risk - something never before undertaken in Australia. We present selected results from an investigation of building vulnerability within the local government area of Manly - an iconic coastal area of Sydney. We show that a significant proportion of buildings (in particular, residential structures) are classified as having "High" and "Very High" Relative Vulnerability Index scores. Furthermore, other important buildings (e.g., schools, nursing homes and transport structures) are also vulnerable to damage. Our results have serious implications for immediate emergency risk management, longer-term land-use zoning and development, and building design and construction standards. Based on the work undertaken here, we recommend further detailed assessment of the vulnerability of coastal buildings in at risk areas, development of appropriate risk management strategies and a detailed program of community engagement to increase overall resilience.

Dall'Osso, F.; Gonella, M.; Gabbianelli, G.; Withycombe, G.; Dominey-Howes, D.

2009-12-01

184

A model for how to disclose physical security vulnerabilities.  

SciTech Connect

When security vulnerabilities are discovered, it is often unclear how much public disclosure of the vulnerabilities is prudent. This is especially true for physical security vis a vis cyber security. We never want to help the 'bad guys' more than the 'good guys', but if the good guys aren't made aware of the problems, they are unlikely to fix them. This paper presents a unique semi-quantitative tool, called the 'Vulnerability Disclosure Index' (VDI), to help determine how much disclosure of vulnerabilities is warranted and in what forum. The VDI certainly does not represent the final, definitive answer to this complex issue. It does, however, provide a starting point for thinking about some of the factors that must go into making such a decision. Moreover, anyone using the VDI tool can at least claim to have shown some degree of responsibility in contemplating disclosure issues. The purpose of this paper is to provide a tool to help decide if and how security vulnerabilities should be disclosed. This tool, called the Vulnerability Disclosure Index (VDI), is not presented here as the ultimate, authoritative method for dealing with this complex issue. It is offered instead as a first step, and as a vehicle for thinking about and discussing some of the factors that need to be pondered when vulnerability disclosures are being considered.

Johnston, R. G. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2009-01-01

185

Calcium Is a Major Determinant of Xylem Vulnerability to Cavitation  

PubMed Central

Xylem vulnerability to cavitation is a key parameter in the drought tolerance of trees, but little is known about the control mechanisms involved. Cavitation is thought to occur when an air bubble penetrates through a pit wall, and would hence be influenced by the wall's porosity. We first tested the role of wall-bound calcium in vulnerability to cavitation in Fagus sylvatica. Stems perfused with solutions of oxalic acid, EGTA, or sodium phosphate (NaPO4) were found to be more vulnerable to cavitation. The NaPO4-induced increase in vulnerability to cavitation was linked to calcium removal from the wall. In contrast, xylem hydraulic conductance was unaffected by the chemical treatments, demonstrating that the mechanisms controlling vulnerability to cavitation and hydraulic resistance are uncoupled. The NaPO4 solution was then perfused into stems from 13 tree species possessing highly contrasted vulnerability to cavitation. Calcium was found to be a major determinant of between-species differences in vulnerability to cavitation. This was evidenced in angiosperms as well as conifer species, thus supporting the hypothesis of a common mechanism in drought-induced cavitation. PMID:20547703

Herbette, Stephane; Cochard, Herve

2010-01-01

186

Applying spatial scan statistics on vulnerability to mountain hazards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the European Alps the concept of risk has increasingly been applied in order to reduce the susceptibility of society to mountain hazards. Risk is defined as a function of the magnitude and frequency of a hazard process times consequences; the latter being quantified by the value of elements at risk exposed and their vulnerability. Vulnerability means the degree of loss to a given element at risk resulting from the impact of a natural hazard. Recent empirical studies suggested a dependency of the degree of loss on the hazard impact, and respective vulnerability (or damage-loss) functions were developed. However, until now only little information is available on the spatial characteristics of vulnerability on a local scale; considerable ranges in the loss ratio for medium process intensities only provide a hint that there might be mutual reasons for lower or higher loss rates. In this paper we therefore focus on the spatial dimension of vulnerability by searching for spatial clusters in the damage ratio of elements at risk exposed. By using the software SaTScan, we applied an ordinal data model and a normal data model in order to detect spatial distribution patterns of five individual torrent events in Austria. For both models, we detected some significant clusters of high damage ratios, and consequently high vulnerability. Moreover, secondary clusters of high and low values were found. Based on our results, the assumption that lower process intensities result in lower damage ratios, and therefore in lower vulnerability, and vice versa, has to be partly rejected. The spatial distribution of vulnerability is not only dependent on the process intensities but also on the overall land use pattern and the individual constructive characteristics of the buildings exposed. Generally we suggest the use of a normal data model for test sites exceeding a minimum of 30 elements at risk exposed. As such, the study enhanced our understanding of spatial vulnerability patterns on a local scale.

Ornetsmüller, C.; Heidger, C.; Totschnig, R.; Fuchs, S.

2012-04-01

187

EDITORIAL: Groundwater resources, climate and vulnerability Groundwater resources, climate and vulnerability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater is an important component of the freshwater system and its role is becoming even more prominent as the more accessible surface water resources become increasingly exploited to support increasing populations and development. Yet despite its significance, there has been comparatively little research conducted on groundwater relative to surface water resources, particularly in the context of climate change impact assessment. This focus issue has therefore been assembled to expand upon the currently limited knowledge of groundwater systems and their links with climate. Many of the papers included here explore the interrelated issues of groundwater resources, climate-related changes and vulnerabilities at a regional scale in different continents and globally. See the PDF for the full text of the editorial. Focus on Groundwater Resources, Climate and Vulnerability Contents Groundwater: from mystery to management T N Narasimhan Simulated response of groundwater to predicted recharge in a semi-arid region using a scenario of modelled climate change M W Toews and D M Allen Long-term climatic change and sustainable ground water resources management Hugo A Loáiciga Climate change and groundwater: India's opportunities for mitigation and adaptation Tushaar Shah Vulnerability to the impact of climate change on renewable groundwater resources: a global-scale assessment Petra Döll Influence of soil heterogeneity on evapotranspiration under shallow water table conditions: transient, stochastic simulations Stefan J Kollet Nutrient cycling and N2O emissions in a changing climate: the subsurface water system role Georgia Destouni and Amélie Darracq Rainfall intensity and groundwater recharge: empirical evidence from the Upper Nile Basin M Owor, R G Taylor, C Tindimugaya and D Mwesigwa This focus issue is not yet complete, there are still letters at press and in review.

Bovolo, C. Isabella; Parkin, Geoff; Sophocleous, Marios

2009-09-01

188

Visiting relatives and friends (VFR), pregnant, and other vulnerable travelers.  

PubMed

With industrial development and expanding tourism, many people now have an opportunity to travel to many previously unreachable foreign destinations. Travelers with medical or physical conditions or who are vulnerable because of pregnancy or age (pediatric or elderly traveler), require specialist support and advice before traveling. Immigrants who return to their country of birth to visit relatives and friends should be classified as vulnerable travelers, as they have been shown to carry a disproportionate burden of travel-related morbidity. In this article, we explore the major risks to health and the main preventive strategies appropriate to the most vulnerable travelers. PMID:22963774

Matteelli, Alberto; Carvalho, Anna Cristina C; Bigoni, Sara

2012-09-01

189

Development of a frailty framework among vulnerable populations.  

PubMed

Frailty is a public health issue that is experienced by homeless and other vulnerable populations; to date, a frailty framework has not been proposed to guide researchers who study hard-to-reach populations. The Frailty Framework among Vulnerable Populations has been developed from empirical research and consultation with frailty experts in an effort to characterize antecedents, that is, situational, health-related, behavioral, resource, biological, and environmental factors that contribute to physical, psychological, and social frailty domains and impact adverse outcomes. As vulnerable populations continue to age, a greater understanding of frailty will enable the development of nursing interventions. PMID:24469090

Salem, Benissa E; Nyamathi, Adeline; Phillips, Linda R; Mentes, Janet C; Sarkisian, Catherine; Brecht, Mary-Lynn

2014-01-01

190

Automated Vulnerability Detection for Compiled Smart Grid Software  

SciTech Connect

While testing performed with proper experimental controls can provide scientifically quantifiable evidence that software does not contain unintentional vulnerabilities (bugs), it is insufficient to show that intentional vulnerabilities exist, and impractical to certify devices for the expected long lifetimes of use. For both of these needs, rigorous analysis of the software itself is essential. Automated software behavior computation applies rigorous static software analysis methods based on function extraction (FX) to compiled software to detect vulnerabilities, intentional or unintentional, and to verify critical functionality. This analysis is based on the compiled firmware, takes into account machine precision, and does not rely on heuristics or approximations early in the analysis.

Prowell, Stacy J [ORNL; Pleszkoch, Mark G [ORNL; Sayre, Kirk D [ORNL; Linger, Richard C [ORNL

2012-01-01

191

Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city Bruno Barroca1, Damien Serre2 1Laboratory of Urban Engineering, Environment and Building (L G U E H) - Université de Marne-la-Vallée - Pôle Ville, 5, Bd Descartes - Bâtiment Lavoisier - 77454 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 - France 2City of Paris Engineering School, Construction - Environment Department, 15 rue Fénelon, 75010 Paris, France In France, as in Europe and more generally throughout the world, river floods have been increasing in frequency and severity over the last ten years, and there are more instances of rivers bursting their banks, aggravating the impact of the flooding of areas supposedly protected by flood defenses. Despite efforts made to well maintain the flood defense assets, we often observe flood defense failures leading to finally increase flood risk in protected area during major flood events. Furthermore, flood forecasting models, although they benefit continuous improvements, remain partly inaccurate due to uncertainties populated all along data calculation processes. These circumstances obliged stakeholders and the scientific communities to manage flood risk by integrating new concepts like stakes management, vulnerability assessments and more recently urban resilience development. Definitively, the goal is to reduce flood risk by managing of course flood defenses and improving flood forecasting models, but also stakes and vulnerability of flooded areas to achieve urban resilience face to flood events. Vulnerability to flood is essentially concentrated in urban areas. Assessing vulnerability of a city is very difficult. Indeed, urban area is a complex system composed by a sum of technical sub-systems as complex as the urban area itself. Assessing city vulnerability consists in talking into account each sub system vulnerability and integrating all direct and indirect impacts generally depending from city shape and city spatial organization. At this time, although some research activities have been undertaken, there are no specific methods and tools to assess flood vulnerability at the scale of the city. Indeed, by studying literature we can list some vulnerability indicators and a few Geographic Information System (GIS) tools. But generally indicators and GIS are not developed specifically at the city scale: often a regional scale is used. Analyzing vulnerability at this scale needs more accurate and formalized indicators and GIS tools. The second limit of existing GIS is temporal: even if vulnerability could be assessed and localized through GIS, such tools cannot assist city managers in their decision to efficiency recover after a severe flood event. Due to scale and temporal limits, methods and tools available to assess urban vulnerability need large improvements. Talking into account all these considerations and limits, our research is focusing on: • vulnerability indicators design; • recovery scenarios design; • GIS for city vulnerability assessment and recovery scenarios. Dealing with vulnerability indicators, the goal is to design a set of indicators of city sub systems. Sub systems are seen like assets of high value and complex and interdependent infrastructure networks (i.e. power supplies, communications, water, transport etc.). The infrastructure networks are critical for the continuity of economic activities as well as for the people's basic living needs. Their availability is also required for fast and effective recovery after flood disasters. The severity of flood damage therefore largely depends on the degree that both high value assets and critical urban infrastructure are affected, either directly or indirectly. To face the challenge of designing indicators, a functional model of the city system (and sub systems) has to be built to analyze the system response to flood solicitation. Then, a coherent and an efficient set of vulnerability of indicators could be built up. With such methods city stakeholders will be informed on how and how much their systems are vulnerable. It is a first level of inform

Serre, D.; Barroca, B.

2009-04-01

192

Early brain vulnerability in Wolfram syndrome.  

PubMed

Wolfram Syndrome (WFS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, optic nerve atrophy, diabetes insipidus, deafness, and neurological dysfunction leading to death in mid-adulthood. WFS is caused by mutations in the WFS1 gene, which lead to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated cell death. Case studies have found widespread brain atrophy in late stage WFS. However, it is not known when in the disease course these brain abnormalities arise, and whether there is differential vulnerability across brain regions and tissue classes. To address this limitation, we quantified regional brain abnormalities across multiple imaging modalities in a cohort of young patients in relatively early stages of WFS. Children and young adults with WFS were evaluated with neurological, cognitive and structural magnetic resonance imaging measures. Compared to normative data, the WFS group had intact cognition, significant anxiety and depression, and gait abnormalities. Compared to healthy and type 1 diabetic control groups, the WFS group had smaller intracranial volume and preferentially affected gray matter volume and white matter microstructural integrity in the brainstem, cerebellum and optic radiations. Abnormalities were detected in even the youngest patients with mildest symptoms, and some measures did not follow the typical age-dependent developmental trajectory. These results establish that WFS is associated with smaller intracranial volume with specific abnormalities in the brainstem and cerebellum, even at the earliest stage of clinical symptoms. This pattern of abnormalities suggests that WFS has a pronounced impact on early brain development in addition to later neurodegenerative effects, representing a significant new insight into the WFS disease process. Longitudinal studies will be critical for confirming and expanding our understanding of the impact of ER stress dysregulation on brain development. PMID:22792385

Hershey, Tamara; Lugar, Heather M; Shimony, Joshua S; Rutlin, Jerrel; Koller, Jonathan M; Perantie, Dana C; Paciorkowski, Alex R; Eisenstein, Sarah A; Permutt, M Alan

2012-01-01

193

Bone marrow osteoblast vulnerability to chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

Osteoblasts are a major component of the bone marrow microenvironment which provide support for hematopoietic cell development. Functional disruption of any element of the bone marrow niche, including osteoblasts, can potentially impair hematopoiesis. We have studied the effect of two widely used drugs with different mechanisms of action, etoposide (VP16) and melphalan, on murine osteoblasts at distinct stages of maturation. VP16 and melphalan delayed maturation of preosteoblasts and altered CXCL12 protein levels, a key regulator of hematopoietic cell homing to the bone marrow. Sublethal concentrations of VP16 and melphalan also decreased the levels of several transcripts which contribute to the composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) including osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OCN) and collagen 1A1 (Col1a1). The impact of chemotherapy on message and protein levels for some targets was not always aligned, suggesting differential responses at the transcription and translation or protein stability levels. Since one of the main functions of a mature osteoblast is to synthesize ECM of a defined composition, disruption of the ratio of its components may be one mechanism by which chemotherapy affects the ability of osteoblasts to support hematopoietic recovery coincident with altered marrow architecture. Collectively, these observations suggest that the osteoblast compartment of the marrow hematopoietic niche is vulnerable to functional dysregulation by damage imposed by agents frequently used in clinical settings. Understanding the mechanistic underpinning of chemotherapy-induced changes on the hematopoietic support capacity of the marrow microenvironment may contribute to improved strategies to optimize patient recovery post-transplantation. PMID:23551534

Gencheva, Marieta; Hare, Ian; Kurian, Susan; Fortney, Jim; Piktel, Debbie; Wysolmerski, Robert; Gibson, Laura F.

2013-01-01

194

Early Brain Vulnerability in Wolfram Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Wolfram Syndrome (WFS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, optic nerve atrophy, diabetes insipidus, deafness, and neurological dysfunction leading to death in mid-adulthood. WFS is caused by mutations in the WFS1 gene, which lead to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated cell death. Case studies have found widespread brain atrophy in late stage WFS. However, it is not known when in the disease course these brain abnormalities arise, and whether there is differential vulnerability across brain regions and tissue classes. To address this limitation, we quantified regional brain abnormalities across multiple imaging modalities in a cohort of young patients in relatively early stages of WFS. Children and young adults with WFS were evaluated with neurological, cognitive and structural magnetic resonance imaging measures. Compared to normative data, the WFS group had intact cognition, significant anxiety and depression, and gait abnormalities. Compared to healthy and type 1 diabetic control groups, the WFS group had smaller intracranial volume and preferentially affected gray matter volume and white matter microstructural integrity in the brainstem, cerebellum and optic radiations. Abnormalities were detected in even the youngest patients with mildest symptoms, and some measures did not follow the typical age-dependent developmental trajectory. These results establish that WFS is associated with smaller intracranial volume with specific abnormalities in the brainstem and cerebellum, even at the earliest stage of clinical symptoms. This pattern of abnormalities suggests that WFS has a pronounced impact on early brain development in addition to later neurodegenerative effects, representing a significant new insight into the WFS disease process. Longitudinal studies will be critical for confirming and expanding our understanding of the impact of ER stress dysregulation on brain development. PMID:22792385

Hershey, Tamara; Lugar, Heather M.; Shimony, Joshua S.; Rutlin, Jerrel; Koller, Jonathan M.; Perantie, Dana C.; Paciorkowski, Alex R.; Eisenstein, Sarah A.; Permutt, M. Alan

2012-01-01

195

40 CFR 1400.4 - Vulnerable zone indicator system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Vulnerable zone indicator system. 1400.4 Section 1400.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS UNDER THE CLEAN...

2011-07-01

196

40 CFR 1400.4 - Vulnerable zone indicator system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Vulnerable zone indicator system. 1400.4 Section 1400.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS UNDER THE CLEAN...

2012-07-01

197

40 CFR 1400.4 - Vulnerable zone indicator system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Vulnerable zone indicator system. 1400.4 Section 1400.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS UNDER THE CLEAN...

2013-07-01

198

Personal Vulnerability to Victimization of People with Mental Retardation  

Microsoft Academic Search

People with mental retardation are more vulnerable to victimization. This is a con- sequence of cultural, institutional, and other environmental circumstances but may include victim characteristics. To recognize this is not \\

TED NETTELBECK; CARLENE WILSON

2002-01-01

199

Measuring vulnerability to natural hazards: a macro framework.  

PubMed

The measurement of vulnerability--defined here as the asymmetric response of disaster occurrences to hazardous events--signifies a key step towards effective disaster risk reduction and the promotion of a culture of disaster resilience. One of the reasons for not being able to do the same in a wider context is related to conceptual, definitional, and operational issues. This paper presents an operationally feasible framework for conducting this task and measures revealed macro vulnerability as a function of disaster risk and hazard probability. The probabilities of hazard and its perceived disaster risk were obtained from past data and from probability distributions. In this paper, the corresponding analytical framework is constructed using the case study of floods in Assam, India. The proposed indicator will help policymakers to draw on available macro-level data to identify the regions that are vulnerable to disasters, where micro-level disaster vulnerability assessments could be performed in greater detail. PMID:23278301

Joseph, Jacquleen

2013-04-01

200

The Facts HIV Risk Factors for Orphans and Vulnerable Adolescents  

E-print Network

Worldwide, as many as 15 million children and youth have been orphaned or made vulnerable by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. 1 In addition, parental deaths from all causes have left 143 million orphaned children and youth across 93 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin America, including 79 million ages 12 through 17. 1 As orphans approach sexual and physical maturation, they are at increased risk of HIV. Their orphaned and vulnerable status can also leave them more vulnerable to sexual abuse, exploitation, illness, and homelessness. Many engage in risky sexual behaviors in order to survive. 2 Many organizations focus on the protection and care of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC). However, programs have largely overlooked adolescents and neglected the special emphasis and tailored programs needed by this population. Yet, a few programs do provide adolescents with the support and skills they need to survive and to become healthy adults.

unknown authors

201

Managing Landscapes for Vulnerable, Invasive and Disease Species  

E-print Network

27 Managing Landscapes for Vulnerable, Invasive and Disease Species Erika Zavaleta and Jae Ryan, invasive species and threatened species simultaneously. We summarize recommendations from land- scape- nerable species' protection. Many, but not all, broad strategies for controlling invasive and disease

Zavaleta, Erika

202

CAP 6135: Malware and Software Vulnerability Analysis Spring 2012  

E-print Network

, including Internet virus/worm/spam, typical software vulnerabilities (e.g., buffer overflow), software fuzz Howard, David LeBlanc, John Viega 4. Hacking: The Art of Exploitation, 2nd Edition by Jon Erickson Video

Zou, Cliff C.

203

Strategic Discovery and Sharing of Vulnerabilities in Competitive Environments  

E-print Network

Strategic Discovery and Sharing of Vulnerabilities in Competitive Environments MHR. Khouzani, Viet that eliminates firms' concerns on losing competitive advantages. This research provides an understanding telecommunication and finance to energy, healthcare and transportation, increasingly rely on cyberspace

204

Nemesis: Preventing Authentication & Access Control Vulnerabilities in Web Applications  

E-print Network

Nemesis: Preventing Authentication & Access Control Vulnerabilities in Web Applications Michael web applications. Authentication attacks occur when a web application authenticates users unsafely, granting access to web clients that lack the ap- propriate credentials. Access control attacks occur when

Sabatini, David M.

205

Vulnerability Research and the Issue of Primary Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focused upon is a strategy for research on etiology of psychiatric disorder for purposes of ultimate prevention: the study of children who are vulnerable to the development of psychopathology in adulthood. (Author/KW)

Garmezy, Norman

1971-01-01

206

Vulnerability and social risk management in India and Mexico  

E-print Network

The development of effective community, regional and national risk-management strategies, especially for systemic risks, such as natural disasters, entails understanding the determinants of social vulnerability in individuals ...

Flores Ballesteros, Luis

2008-01-01

207

Assessing the Vulnerability of Older Americans to Climate Change  

EPA Science Inventory

This project is comprised of a series of activities ? listening sessions, literature reviews, and an expert elicitation research agenda-setting workshop ? designed to examine and characterize the vulnerability of older adults to climate change and opportunities for adaptation. ...

208

Vulnerabilities and Countermeasures in Context-Aware Social Rating Services  

E-print Network

today learn and make decisions based on social opinions collected from social media systems through userVulnerabilities and Countermeasures in Context- Aware Social Rating Services QINYUAN FENG Peking Peking University ________________________________________________________________________ Social trust

Liu, Ling

209

Vulnerability of Oregon hydrologic landscapes and streamflow to climate change  

EPA Science Inventory

Hydrologic classification systems can provide a basis for broadscale assessments of the hydrologic functions of landscapes and watersheds and their responses to stressors. Such assessments could be particularly useful in determining hydrologic vulnerability from climate change. ...

210

Vulnerability in Climate Change Research: A Comprehensive Conceptual Framework  

E-print Network

Florida’s vulnerability, em- phasizing its low elevation that makes it highly susceptible to sea-level rise,level rise, and hurricanes. Re- garding the temporal reference, an assessment focussing on current risks might regard Florida

Füssel, Hans–Martin

2005-01-01

211

Vulnerability Analysis of the Player Command and Control Protocol.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Player project is an open-source effort providing a control interface specification and software framework for abstracting robot hardware. This research presents five exploits that compromise vulnerabilities in Player's command and control protocol. T...

J. T. Hagen

2012-01-01

212

Vulnerability to sexual coercion among college women: A longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-year panel data on a random sample of 54 college women were used to assess the link between rape supportive attitudes,\\u000a prior experiences with sexual coercion, and vulnerability to sexual coercion while in college. Analysis showed that (1) rape\\u000a supportive attitudes had no effect on vulnerability to physical coercion, rape, or alcohol\\/drug-related nonconsensual sex,\\u000a (2) rape supportive attitudes were not

Linda Kalof

2000-01-01

213

Socioeconomic development and vulnerability to land degradation in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the surface area affected by land degradation (LD) has significantly increased in southern European regions\\u000a where the socioeconomic development has been proposed as a basic factor underlying the degree of vulnerability to LD. This\\u000a paper investigates the correlation between several socioeconomic indicators and the level of vulnerability to LD in Italy,\\u000a expressed as changes (1990–2000) in a

Luca Salvati; Alberto Mancini; Sofia Bajocco; Roberta Gemmiti; Margherita Carlucci

214

Protective and vulnerability factors of depression in normal adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the role of various protective and vulnerability factors in the development of depressive symptoms. A sample of normal adolescents (N=373) completed the Children’s Depression Inventory and measures of a negative attributional style, parental rearing behaviour, coping styles, and perceived self-efficacy. In addition to computing the correlations between depression and these protective and vulnerability factors, the present

Peter Muris; Henk Schmidt; Rebecca Lambrichs; Cor Meesters

2001-01-01

215

Overwash vulnerability assessment based on long-term washover evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated methodology for evaluation of overwash vulnerability is developed with respect to the historical washover evolution\\u000a of a barrier island system. Three different aspects of overwash are addressed in the vulnerability indices developed: overwashed\\u000a shoreline ratio, maximum overwash intrusion recurrence, and complete barrier overwash. The indices were applied to the barriers\\u000a in the Ria Formosa system in Southern Portugal

Tiago GarciaOscar; Óscar Ferreira; Ana Matias; João Alveirinho Dias

2010-01-01

216

Evaluation Of The Seismic Vulnerability of Fortified Structures  

SciTech Connect

In the paper a prompt method to evaluate the seismic vulnerability of an ancient structure has been applied to the seismic vulnerability of the fortified structures in Italy, having as basics the elaboration of rather gross information about the state, the consistency and the history of the considered population of fabrics. The procedure proves to be rather effective and able to produce reliable results, despite the poor initial data.

Baratta, Alessandro; Corbi, Ileana [Department of Structural Engineering, University of Naples 'Federico II', Via Claudio 21, Naples (Italy); Coppari, Sandro [Department of Civil Protection, Ministry Council, Via Vitorchiano 4, 00189 Rome (Italy)

2008-07-08

217

Perceptions of preschoolers' vulnerability by mothers who had delivered preterm.  

PubMed

Assessed mothers who did and did not identify their children as vulnerable on a number of variables including perception of their child's behavior problems and their own sense of parental control. Children were also examined to determine their developmental abilities. Participants included 50 preschoolers who were born prematurely, their mothers, and their medical care providers. The mothers' response to the Vulnerable Child Scale was used to identify children as vulnerable and nonvulnerable. Mothers who perceived their children as vulnerable also rated them on the Child Behavior Checklist 2/3 as having more somatic problems and as being more aggressive, destructive, and poorly socialized. Additionally, these mothers expressed a diminished sense of parental efficacy and less control of their child's behavior as measured by the Parental Locus of Control Scale. However, results from the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities and the medical care provider's questionnaire revealed no differences between the groups of children. Overall findings suggest preschoolers born prematurely whose mothers perceive them as vulnerable are at risk for the Vulnerable Child Syndrome described by Green and Solnit (1964). PMID:7530300

Estroff, D B; Yando, R; Burke, K; Snyder, D

1994-12-01

218

Multimodal spectroscopy detects features of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early detection and treatment of rupture-prone vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is critical to reducing patient mortality associated with cardiovascular disease. The combination of reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopy-termed multimodal spectroscopy (MMS)-provides detailed biochemical information about tissue and can detect vulnerable plaque features: thin fibrous cap (TFC), necrotic core (NC), superficial foam cells (SFC), and thrombus. Ex vivo MMS spectra are collected from 12 patients that underwent carotid endarterectomy or femoral bypass surgery. Data are collected by means of a unitary MMS optical fiber probe and a portable clinical instrument. Blinded histopathological analysis is used to assess the vulnerability of each spectrally evaluated artery lesion. Modeling of the ex vivo MMS spectra produce objective parameters that correlate with the presence of vulnerable plaque features: TFC with fluorescence parameters indicative of collagen presence; NC/SFC with a combination of diffuse reflectance ?-carotene/ceroid absorption and the Raman spectral signature of lipids; and thrombus with its Raman signature. Using these parameters, suspected vulnerable plaques can be detected with a sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 72%. These encouraging results warrant the continued development of MMS as a catheter-based clinical diagnostic technique for early detection of vulnerable plaques.

Š?epanovi?, Obrad R.; Fitzmaurice, Maryann; Miller, Arnold; Kong, Chae-Ryon; Volynskaya, Zoya; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Kramer, John R.; Feld, Michael S.

2011-01-01

219

Latin hypercube approach to estimate uncertainty in ground water vulnerability  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A methodology is proposed to quantify prediction uncertainty associated with ground water vulnerability models that were developed through an approach that coupled multivariate logistic regression with a geographic information system (GIS). This method uses Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) to illustrate the propagation of input error and estimate uncertainty associated with the logistic regression predictions of ground water vulnerability. Central to the proposed method is the assumption that prediction uncertainty in ground water vulnerability models is a function of input error propagation from uncertainty in the estimated logistic regression model coefficients (model error) and the values of explanatory variables represented in the GIS (data error). Input probability distributions that represent both model and data error sources of uncertainty were simultaneously sampled using a Latin hypercube approach with logistic regression calculations of probability of elevated nonpoint source contaminants in ground water. The resulting probability distribution represents the prediction intervals and associated uncertainty of the ground water vulnerability predictions. The method is illustrated through a ground water vulnerability assessment of the High Plains regional aquifer. Results of the LHS simulations reveal significant prediction uncertainties that vary spatially across the regional aquifer. Additionally, the proposed method enables a spatial deconstruction of the prediction uncertainty that can lead to improved prediction of ground water vulnerability. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

Gurdak, J.J.; McCray, J.E.; Thyne, G.; Qi, S.L.

2007-01-01

220

Debating space security: Capabilities and vulnerabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. position in the debate on space security has been that (1) space-based systems could be developed and used to obtain decisive warfighting superiority over an adversary, and (2) these space-based systems, because they might give such an inordinate advantage over any adversary, will be attacked. The Russians and Chinese, in contrast, claim to be threatened by U.S. aspirations in space but deny that they pose a serious threat to U.S. space-based systems. They view the development of advanced military space systems by the United States as evidence of a growing gap of military capabilities limited only by technological—not political—constraints. They argue that U.S. missile defense systems operating in coordination with advanced satellite sensors would weaken their nuclear retaliatory potential. This dissertation argues that the positions held by both of these parties are more extreme than warranted. An analytical evaluation quickly narrows the touted capabilities and assumed vulnerabilities of space systems to a much smaller set of concerns that can be addressed by collaboration. Chapter 2: Operationally Responsive Space (ORS): Is 24/7 Warfighter Support Feasible? demonstrates the infeasibility of dramatically increasing U.S. warfighting superiority by using satellites. Chapter 3: What Can be Achieved by Attacking Satellites? makes the case that although U.S. armed forces rely extensively on its satellite infrastructure, that does not immediately make them desirable targets. The functions performed by military satellites are diffused among large constellations with redundancies. Also, some of the functions performed by these satellites can be substituted for by other terrestrial and aerial systems. Chapter 4: The Limits of Chinese Anti-Satellite Missiles demonstrates that anti-satellite (ASAT) intercepts are very complex under realistic conditions and that a potential adversary with space capabilities comparable to China's has very limited capability to use ASATs in a real-world battle scenario. Finally, in order to evaluate the chief concern raised by the Russians and Chinese, chapter 5: Satellites, Missile Defense and Space Security simulates a boost-phase missile defense system cued by the advanced Space Tracking and Surveillance (STSS) sensors. It demonstrates that even under best case assumptions, the STSS sensors are not good enough for the boost-phase missile defense system to successfully intercept and destroy an ICBM. Together, these chapters aim to narrow the contentions in the debate on space security thereby fostering the international colloboration and data sharing needed to ensure safe operations in space.

Sankaran, Jaganath

221

Coastal vulnerability: climate change and natural hazards perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction Studying coastal zones as a territorial concept (Integrated coastal zone management) is an essential issue for managers, as they have to consider many different topics (natural hazards, resources management, tourism, climate change…). The recent approach in terms of "coastal vulnerability" studies (since the 90's) is the main tool used nowadays to help them in evaluating impacts of natural hazards on coastal zones, specially considering climate change. This present communication aims to highlight the difficulties in integrating this concept in risk analysis as it is usually practiced in natural hazards sciences. 1) Coastal vulnerability as a recent issue The concept of coastal vulnerability mainly appears in the International panel on climate change works of 1992 (IPCC. 2001), where it is presented as essential for climate change adaptation. The concept has been defined by a common methodology which proposes the assessment of seven indicators, in regards to a sea level rise of 1m in 2100: people affected, people at risk, capital value at loss, land at loss, wetland at loss, potential adaptation costs, people at risk assuming this adaptation. Many national assessments have been implemented (Nicholls, et al. 1995) and a global assessment was proposed for three indicators (Nicholls, et al. 1999). The DINAS-Coast project reuses this methodology to produce the DIVA-tool for coastal managers (Vafeidis, et al. 2004). Besides, many other methodologies for national or regional coastal vulnerability assessments have been developed (review by (UNFCCC. 2008). The use of aggregated vulnerability indicators (including geomorphology, hydrodynamics, climate change…) is widespread: the USGS coastal vulnerability index is used worldwide and was completed by a social vulnerability index (Boruff, et al. 2005). Those index-based methods propose a vulnerability mapping which visualise indicators of erosion, submersion and/or socio economic sensibility in coastal zones. This concept is a great tool for policy makers to help managing their action and taking into account climate change (McFadden, et al. 2006). However, in those approaches, vulnerability is the output itself (cost of effective impacts, geomorphologic impacts…), but is not integrated it in a risk analysis. Furthermore, those studies emerged from a climatic perspective, which leads to consider climate change as a hazard or pressure whereas risk studies commonly consider hazards such as erosion and flooding, where climate change modifies the drivers of the hazard. 2) The natural hazards and socio economic perspectives In order to reduce impacts of natural hazards, decision makers need a complete risk assessment (probability of losses). Past studies on natural risks (landslide, earthquake...) highlighted the pertinence of defining risk as a combination of : (1)hazard occurrence and intensity, (2) exposition and (3)vulnerability of assets and population to this hazard (e.g. Douglas. 2007, Sarewitz, et al. 2003). Following the Renn and Klinke risk assessment frame, high uncertainties associated with coastal risks considering climatic and anthropic change highlights the importance of working on that concept of "vulnerability" (Klinke and Renn. 2002). Past studies on vulnerability assessment showed a frequently mentioned gap between "impact based" and "human based" points of view. It is nowadays a great issue for natural risk sciences. Many research efforts in FP7 projects such as MOVE and ENSURE focus on integrating the different dimensions of vulnerability (Turner, et al. 2003, Birkmann. 2006). Coastal risk studies highlight another issue of concern. We previously detailed the different use of the term "vulnerability" in the coastal context, quite different of the "natural risk's" use. Interaction of social, economic and physical sciences is considered within two french research projects (Vulsaco, Miseeva), in order to identify the vulnerability of a system to flooding or erosion (i.e. its characteristics th

Romieu, E.; Vinchon, C.

2009-04-01

222

Vulnerable children, communities and schools: lessons from three HIV\\/AIDS affected areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing number of children made vulnerable by HIV\\/AIDS threatens the achievement of Education for All (EFA) and Millennium Development goals. Policy recommendations assign schools key roles in meeting the needs of vulnerable children, but there is a dearth of evidence about how vulnerable children and schools interact in AIDS affected communities. Case studies of schools and vulnerable children in

Nancy Kendall; Chloe OGara

2007-01-01

223

The Limitations of “Vulnerability” as a Protection for Human Research Participants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vulnerability is one of the least examined concepts in research ethics. Vulnerability was linked in the Belmont Report to questions of justice in the selection of subjects. Regulations and policy documents regarding the ethical conduct of research have focused on vulnerability in terms of limitations of the capacity to provide informed consent. Other interpretations of vulnerability have emphasized unequal power

Carol Levine; Ruth Faden; Christine Grady; Dale Hammerschmidt; Lisa Eckenwiler; Jeremy Sugarman

2004-01-01

224

A Vulnerability Assessment Approach for Dams of Mississippi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of a state-wide effort to characterize the vulnerability of Mississippi's dams, we are developing a new set of vulnerability assessment tools. Our vulnerability assessment methods will consider earlier attempts to develop risk indexing methods for dams, but will be designed to be applied to Mississippi's entire database of over 3,700 dams. Unlike earlier efforts to dams, which emphasized hazards posed by the dams, our methods will be designed to consider intrinsic and extrinsic vulnerability, and consider consequences as well. Intrinsic sources of vulnerability consider such factors as the potential for unstable slopes, piping, and spillway inadequacy. Extrinsic sources of vulnerability will include features such as the potential for intentional or unintentional human acts. Other factors that will be included will be the potential for neglect of maintenance of the dam and susceptibility to interference from wildlife. Consequences will be assessed by considering the downstream population and economic resources that may be at risk due to an uncontrolled release of the reservoir. The analysis of these vulnerabilities and consequences is being calculated using a GIS-based database of all of Mississippi's dams along with population distribution, terrain, and economic resources across the state. Conventional methods of analysis of a dam breach or other uncontrolled release will still be necessary, but the extent to which downstream features and population are affected can be more readily identified. This approach facilitates assessment and decision making on a large dam inventory to permit resources within the state to be directed efficiently to dams that merit attention.

Kuszmaul, J. S.; Gunter, B.; McGregor, G.; Holt, R. M.; Pickens, J.; Holtz, T.; Jones, T.; Phillips, P.

2007-12-01

225

Anxiety vulnerability in women: a two-hit hypothesis.  

PubMed

Females are twice as likely to develop an anxiety disorder compared to males, and thus, are believed to possess an innate vulnerability that increases their susceptibility to develop an anxiety disorder. However, studies using aversive learning paradigms to model anxiety disorders in humans and animals have revealed contradictory results. While females exhibit the ability to rapidly acquire stimulus-response associations, which may result from a greater attentional bias towards threat, females are also capable to readily extinguish these associations. Thus, there is little evidence to suggest that the female sex represents a vulnerability factor of anxiety, per se. However, if females are to possess a second vulnerability factor that increases the inflexibility of stimulus-response associations, then an anxiety disorder may be more likely to develop. Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a vulnerability factor associated with the formation of inflexible stimulus-response associations. In this "two hit" model of anxiety vulnerability, females possessing a BI temperament will rapidly acquire stimulus-response associations that are resistant to extinction, resulting in the development of an anxiety disorder. In this review we explore evidence for a "two-hit" hypothesis underlying anxiety vulnerability in females. We explore the literature for evidence of a sex difference in attentional bias towards threat that may lead to the facilitated acquisition of stimulus-response associations in females. We also provide evidence that BI is associated with inflexible stimulus-response association formation. We conclude with data generated from our laboratory that highlights the additive effect of the female sex and behavioral inhibition vulnerabilities using a model behavior for anxiety disorder-susceptibility, active avoidance. PMID:24518489

Catuzzi, Jennifer E; Beck, Kevin D

2014-09-01

226

Prediction of individualized therapeutic vulnerabilities in cancer from genomic profiles  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Somatic homozygous deletions of chromosomal regions in cancer, while not necessarily oncogenic, may lead to therapeutic vulnerabilities specific to cancer cells compared with normal cells. A recently reported example is the loss of one of the two isoenzymes in glioblastoma cancer cells such that the use of a specific inhibitor selectively inhibited growth of the cancer cells, which had become fully dependent on the second isoenzyme. We have now made use of the unprecedented conjunction of large-scale cancer genomics profiling of tumor samples in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and of tumor-derived cell lines in the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia, as well as the availability of integrated pathway information systems, such as Pathway Commons, to systematically search for a comprehensive set of such epistatic vulnerabilities. Results: Based on homozygous deletions affecting metabolic enzymes in 16 TCGA cancer studies and 972 cancer cell lines, we identified 4104 candidate metabolic vulnerabilities present in 1019 tumor samples and 482 cell lines. Up to 44% of these vulnerabilities can be targeted with at least one Food and Drug Administration-approved drug. We suggest focused experiments to test these vulnerabilities and clinical trials based on personalized genomic profiles of those that pass preclinical filters. We conclude that genomic profiling will in the future provide a promising basis for network pharmacology of epistatic vulnerabilities as a promising therapeutic strategy. Availability and implementation: A web-based tool for exploring all vulnerabilities and their details is available at http://cbio.mskcc.org/cancergenomics/statius/ along with supplemental data files. Contact: statius@cbio.mskcc.org Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24665131

Aksoy, Bulent Arman; Demir, Emek; Babur, Ozgun; Wang, Weiqing; Jing, Xiaohong; Schultz, Nikolaus; Sander, Chris

2014-01-01

227

Coastal Vulnerability to Erosion Processes: Study Cases from Different Countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When natural processes affect or threaten human activities or infrastructures they become a natural hazard. In order to prevent the natural hazards impact and the associated economic and human losses, coastal managers need to know the intrinsic vulnerability of the littoral, using information on the physical and ecological coastal features, human occupation and present and future shoreline trends. The prediction of future coastline positions can be based on the study of coastal changes which have occurred over recent decades. Vertical aerial photographs, satellite imagery and maps are very useful data sources for the reconstruction of coast line changes at long (>60 years) and medium (between 60 and 10 years) temporal and spatial scales. Vulnerability maps have been obtained for several coastal sectors around the world through the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS), computer-assisted multivariate analysis and numerical models. In the USA, "Flood Insurance Rate Maps" have been created by the government and "Coastal Zone Hazard Maps" have been prepared for coastal stretches affected by hurricane Hugo. In Spain, the vulnerability of the Ebro and an Andalusia coastal sector were investigated over different time scales. McLaughlin et al., (2002) developed a GIS based coastal vulnerability index for the Northern Ireland littoral that took into account socio-economic activities and coastal resistance to erosion and energetic characteristics. Lizárraga et al., (2001) combined beach reduction at Rosario (Mexico) with the probability of damage to landward structures, obtaining a vulnerability matrix. In this work several coastal vulnerability maps have also been created by comparing data on coastal erosion/accretion and land use along different coastal sectors in Italy, Morocco and Colombia. Keywords: Hazard, Vulnerability, Coastal Erosion, Italy, Morocco, Colombia.

Anfuso, Giorgio; Martinez Del Pozo, Jose Angel; Rangel-Buitrago, Nelson

2010-05-01

228

Probabilistic seismic vulnerability and risk assessment of stone masonry structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquakes represent major natural hazards that regularly impact the built environment in seismic prone areas worldwide and cause considerable social and economic losses. The high losses incurred following the past destructive earthquakes promoted the need for assessment of the seismic vulnerability and risk of the existing buildings. Many historic buildings in the old urban centers in Eastern Canada such as Old Quebec City are built of stone masonry and represent un-measurable architectural and cultural heritage. These buildings were built to resist gravity loads only and generally offer poor resistance to lateral seismic loads. Seismic vulnerability assessment of stone masonry buildings is therefore the first necessary step in developing seismic retrofitting and pre-disaster mitigation plans. The objective of this study is to develop a set of probability-based analytical tools for efficient seismic vulnerability and uncertainty analysis of stone masonry buildings. A simplified probabilistic analytical methodology for vulnerability modelling of stone masonry building with systematic treatment of uncertainties throughout the modelling process is developed in the first part of this study. Building capacity curves are developed using a simplified mechanical model. A displacement based procedure is used to develop damage state fragility functions in terms of spectral displacement response based on drift thresholds of stone masonry walls. A simplified probabilistic seismic demand analysis is proposed to capture the combined uncertainty in capacity and demand on fragility functions. In the second part, a robust analytical procedure for the development of seismic hazard compatible fragility and vulnerability functions is proposed. The results are given by sets of seismic hazard compatible vulnerability functions in terms of structure-independent intensity measure (e.g. spectral acceleration) that can be used for seismic risk analysis. The procedure is very efficient for conducting rapid vulnerability assessment of stone masonry buildings. With modification of input structural parameters, it can be adapted and applied to any other building class. A sensitivity analysis of the seismic vulnerability modelling is conducted to quantify the uncertainties associated with each of the input parameters. The proposed methodology was validated for a scenario-based seismic risk assessment of existing buildings in Old Quebec City. The procedure for hazard compatible vulnerability modelling was used to develop seismic fragility functions in terms of spectral acceleration representative of the inventoried buildings. A total of 1220 buildings were considered. The assessment was performed for a scenario event of magnitude 6.2 at distance 15km with a probability of exceedance of 2% in 50 years. The study showed that most of the expected damage is concentrated in the old brick and stone masonry buildings.

Abo El Ezz, Ahmad

229

Prey behavior, age-dependent vulnerability, and predation rates.  

PubMed

Variation in the temporal pattern of vulnerability can provide important insights into predator-prey relationships and the evolution of antipredator behavior. We illustrate these points with a system that has coyotes (Canis latrans) as a predator and two species of congeneric deer (Odocoileus spp.) as prey. The deer employ different antipredator tactics (aggressive defense vs. flight) that result in contrasting patterns of age-dependent vulnerability in their probability of being captured when encountered by coyotes. We use long-term survival data and a simple mathematical model to show that (1) species differences in age-dependent vulnerability are reflected in seasonal predation rates and (2) seasonal variation in prey vulnerability and predator hunt activity, which can be associated with the availability of alternative prey, interact to shape seasonal and annual predation rates for each prey species. Shifting hunt activity from summer to winter, or vice versa, alleviated annual mortality on one species and focused it on the other. Our results indicate that seasonal variation in prey vulnerability and hunt activity interact to influence the impact that a predator has on any particular type of prey. Furthermore, these results indicate that seasonal variation in predation pressure is an important selection pressure shaping prey defenses. PMID:18840071

Lingle, Susan; Feldman, Alex; Boyce, Mark S; Wilson, W Finbarr

2008-11-01

230

Assessing groundwater vulnerability to agrichemical contamination in the Midwest US  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Agrichemicals (herbicides and nitrate) are significant sources of diffuse pollution to groundwater. Indirect methods are needed to assess the potential for groundwater contamination by diffuse sources because groundwater monitoring is too costly to adequately define the geographic extent of contamination at a regional or national scale. This paper presents examples of the application of statistical, overlay and index, and process-based modeling methods for groundwater vulnerability assessments to a variety of data from the Midwest U.S. The principles for vulnerability assessment include both intrinsic (pedologic, climatologic, and hydrogeologic factors) and specific (contaminant and other anthropogenic factors) vulnerability of a location. Statistical methods use the frequency of contaminant occurrence, contaminant concentration, or contamination probability as a response variable. Statistical assessments are useful for defining the relations among explanatory and response variables whether they define intrinsic or specific vulnerability. Multivariate statistical analyses are useful for ranking variables critical to estimating water quality responses of interest. Overlay and index methods involve intersecting maps of intrinsic and specific vulnerability properties and indexing the variables by applying appropriate weights. Deterministic models use process-based equations to simulate contaminant transport and are distinguished from the other methods in their potential to predict contaminant transport in both space and time. An example of a one-dimensional leaching model linked to a geographic information system (GIS) to define a regional metamodel for contamination in the Midwest is included.

Burkart, M. R.; Kolpin, D. W.; James, D. E.

1999-01-01

231

Climate variability and climate change vulnerability and adaptation. Workshop summary  

SciTech Connect

Representatives from fifteen countries met in Prague, Czech Republic, on September 11-15, 1995, to share results from the analysis of vulnerability and adaptation to global climate change. The workshop focused on the issues of global climate change and its impacts on various sectors of a national economy. The U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), which has been signed by more than 150 governments worldwide, calls on signatory parties to develop and communicate measures they are implementing to respond to global climate change. An analysis of a country`s vulnerability to changes in the climate helps it identify suitable adaptation measures. These analyses are designed to determine the extent of the impacts of global climate change on sensitive sectors such as agricultural crops, forests, grasslands and livestock, water resources, and coastal areas. Once it is determined how vulnerable a country may be to climate change, it is possible to identify adaptation measures for ameliorating some or all of the effects.The objectives of the vulnerability and adaptation workshop were to: The objectives of the vulnerability and adaptation workshop were to: Provide an opportunity for countries to describe their study results; Encourage countries to learn from the experience of the more complete assessments and adjust their studies accordingly; Identify issues and analyses that require further investigation; and Summarize results and experiences for governmental and intergovernmental organizations.

Bhatti, N.; Cirillo, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Dixon, R.K. [U.S. Country Studies Program, Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31

232

A unified framework for addiction: Vulnerabilities in the decision process  

PubMed Central

The understanding of decision-making systems has come together in recent years to form a unified theory of decision-making in the mammalian brain as arising from multiple, interacting systems (a planning system, a habit system, and a situation-recognition system). This unified decision-making system has multiple potential access points through which it can be driven to make maladaptive choices, particularly choices that entail seeking of certain drugs or behaviors. We identify 10 key vulnerabilities in the system: (1) moving away from homeostasis, (2) changing allostatic set points, (3) euphorigenic “reward-like” signals, (4) overvaluation in the planning system, (5) incorrect search of situation-action-outcome relationships, (6) misclassification of situations, (7) overvaluation in the habit system, (8) a mismatch in the balance of the two decision systems, (9) over-fast discounting processes, and (10) changed learning rates. These vulnerabilities provide a taxonomy of potential problems with decision-making systems. Although each vulnerability can drive an agent to return to the addictive choice, each vulnerability also implies a characteristic symptomology. Different drugs, different behaviors, and different individuals are likely to access different vulnerabilities. This has implications for an individual’s susceptibility to addiction and the transition to addiction, for the potential for relapse, and for the potential for treatment. PMID:18662461

Redish, A. David; Jensen, Steve; Johnson, Adam

2013-01-01

233

An holistic approach to beach erosion vulnerability assessment.  

PubMed

Erosion is a major threat for coasts worldwide, beaches in particular, which constitute one of the most valuable coastal landforms. Vulnerability assessments related to beach erosion may contribute to planning measures to counteract erosion by identifying, quantifying and ranking vulnerability. Herein, we present a new index, the Beach Vulnerability Index (BVI), which combines simplicity in calculations, easily obtainable data and low processing capacity. This approach provides results not only for different beaches, but also for different sectors of the same beach and enables the identification of the relative significance of the processes involved. It functions through the numerical approximation of indicators that correspond to the mechanisms related to the processes that control beach evolution, such as sediment availability, wave climate, beach morhodynamics and sea level change. The BVI is also intended to be used as a managerial tool for beach sustainability, including resilience to climate change impact on beach erosion. PMID:25123815

Alexandrakis, George; Poulos, Serafim ?

2014-01-01

234

DoD energy vulnerabilities: potential problems and observations  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Defense is almost entirely dependent on civilian energy supplies to meet its needs in both peacetime and periods of heightened conflict. There are a number of potential vulnerabilities to the continual and timely supply of energy to both the civilian and military sectors. These include denial of the energy resources themselves, disruption of critical transportation networks, destruction of storage facilities, and interruption of electrical power. This report briefly reviews the present situation for provision of energy from the civilian sector to the military. General vulnerabilities of the existing energy supply system are identified, along with the potential for armed aggression (including terrorist and sabotage activities) against the energy network. Conclusions and some tentative observations are made as to a proper response to the existing vulnerabilities.

Freiwald, D A; Berger, M E; Roach, J F

1982-08-01

235

Imaging of coronary atherosclerosis and identification of the vulnerable plaque  

PubMed Central

Identification of the vulnerable plaque responsible for the occurrence of acute coronary syndromes and acute coronary death is a prerequisite for the stabilisation of this vulnerable plaque. Comprehensive coronary atherosclerosis imaging in clinical practice should involve visualisation of the entire coronary artery tree and characterisation of the plaque, including the three-dimensional morphology of the plaque, encroachment of the plaque on the vessel lumen, the major tissue components of the plaque, remodelling of the vessel and presence of inflammation. Obviously, no single diagnostic modality is available that provides such comprehensive imaging and unfortunately no diagnostic tool is available that unequivocally identifies the vulnerable plaque. The objective of this article is to discuss experience with currently available diagnostic modalities for coronary atherosclerosis imaging. In addition, a number of evolving techniques will be briefly discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7

de Feyter, P.J.; Serruys, P. W.; Nieman, K.; Mollet, N.; Cademartiri, F.; van Geuns, R. J.; Slager, C.; van der Steen, A.F.W.; Krams, R.; Schaar, J.A.; Wielopolski, P.; Pattynama, P.M.T.; Arampatzis, A.; van der Lugt, A.; Regar, E.; Ligthart, J.; Smits, P.

2003-01-01

236

Psychological Distress and Mortality: Are Women More Vulnerable?*  

PubMed Central

Does psychological distress increase mortality risk? If it does, are women more vulnerable than men to the effect of distress on mortality? Drawing from cumulative disadvantage theory, these questions are addressed with data from a 20-year follow-up of a national sample of adults ages 25?74. Event history analyses were performed to examine mortality from general and specific causes for men and women. Findings reveal that the effect of psychological distress on all-cause mortality was nonlinear for men. Moderate amounts of distress were associated with lower mortality risk, but high levels of distress raised men's mortality risk. Moreover, the curvilinear relationship between distress and mortality varied by cause of death for men and women. Men with high levels of psychological distress were more vulnerable to ischemic heart disease mortality. Women with high levels of distress were more vulnerable to cancer mortality. PMID:17066774

FERRARO, KENNETH F.; NURIDDIN, TARIQAH A.

2009-01-01

237

Physically based groundwater vulnerability assessment using sensitivity analysis methods.  

PubMed

A general physically based method is presented to assess the vulnerability of groundwater to external pressures by numerical simulation of groundwater flow. The concept of groundwater vulnerability assessment considered here is based on the calculation of sensitivity coefficients for a user-defined groundwater state for which we propose several physically based indicators. Two sensitivity analysis methods are presented: the sensitivity equation method and the adjoint operator method. We show how careful selection of a method can significantly minimize the computational effort. An illustration of the general methodology is presented for the Herten aquifer analog (Germany). This application to a simple, yet insightful, case demonstrates the potential use of this general and physically based vulnerability assessment method to complex aquifers. PMID:24236887

Beaujean, Jean; Lemieux, Jean-Michel; Dassargues, Alain; Therrien, René; Brouyère, Serge

2014-11-01

238

Climate volatility deepens poverty vulnerability in developing countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme climate events could influence poverty by affecting agricultural productivity and raising prices of staple foods that are important to poor households in developing countries. With the frequency and intensity of extreme climate events predicted to change in the future, informed policy design and analysis requires an understanding of which countries and groups are going to be most vulnerable to increasing poverty. Using a novel economic-climate analysis framework, we assess the poverty impacts of climate volatility for seven socio-economic groups in 16 developing countries. We find that extremes under present climate volatility increase poverty across our developing country sample—particularly in Bangladesh, Mexico, Indonesia, and Africa—with urban wage earners the most vulnerable group. We also find that global warming exacerbates poverty vulnerability in many nations.

Ahmed, Syud A.; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Hertel, Thomas W.

2009-07-01

239

Global Losses and Declining Vulnerability to Tropical Cyclones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Approach An extreme environmental event may generate different losses for different societies. If the physical exposure to an event is held fixed, then the magnitude of a society's loss defines its vulnerability to that event. Competing hypotheses suggest that social and economic developments could make vulnerability rise or fall over time, but previous studies have been unable to reject either hypothesis because they lacked accurate data on societies' physical exposure to extreme events. We address this problem for a specific type of event by reconstructing the exposure of 233 countries to every tropical cyclone (TC) on the planet between 1950 and 2008 in making use of the Limited Information Cyclone Reconstruction and Integration for Climate and Economics (LICRICE) model [Hsiang, 2010]. By filling a critical data gap, this reconstruction enables us to compare how revenue losses, damages, and deaths from physically similar events change over time. Our approach contrasts with a large literature, which relies almost exclusively on self-reporting data of TC damages compiled by the Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT)[OFDA/CRED, 2009]. Results On a global scale, we find that populations rapidly mitigate certain TC risks, reducing their reported damages from a TC of low intensity by a remarkable 9.4% yr-1 and death rates by 5.1% yr-1 (Figure 1). However, these rapid reductions in vulnerability are not evident for the highest intensity TCs and lost agricultural revenues, which are more difficult to observe than deaths or damages, exhibit non-declining vulnerability for events of all intensities. Because the vulnerability of agriculture has remained high while vulnerability to damages has declined rapidly, our results indicate that lost agricultural revenues have dominated TC losses ever since ˜1990. References Hsiang, S. M. (2010). Temperatures and cyclones strongly associated with economic production in the Caribbean and Central America. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(35):15367-15372. OFDA/CRED (2009). The International Disaster Database.

Narita, D.; Hsiang, S. M.

2011-12-01

240

Vulnerabilities of mutant SWI/SNF complexes in cancer.  

PubMed

Cancer genome sequencing efforts have revealed the novel theme that chromatin modifiers are frequently mutated across a wide spectrum of cancers. Mutations in genes encoding subunits of SWI/SNF (BAF) chromatin remodeling complexes are particularly prevalent, occurring in 20% of all human cancers. As these are typically loss-of-function mutations and not directly therapeutically targetable, central goals have been to elucidate mechanism and identify vulnerabilities created by these mutations. Here, we discuss emerging data that these mutations lead to the formation of aberrant residual SWI/SNF complexes that constitute a specific vulnerability and discuss the potential for exploiting these dependencies in SWI/SNF mutant cancers. PMID:25203320

Helming, Katherine C; Wang, Xiaofeng; Roberts, Charles W M

2014-09-01

241

Vulnerability Analysis Considerations for the Transportation of Special Nuclear Material  

SciTech Connect

The vulnerability analysis methodology developed for fixed nuclear material sites has proven to be extremely effective in assessing associated transportation issues. The basic methods and techniques used are directly applicable to conducting a transportation vulnerability analysis. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that the same physical protection elements (detection, delay, and response) are present, although the response force plays a dominant role in preventing the theft or sabotage of material. Transportation systems are continuously exposed to the general public whereas the fixed site location by its very nature restricts general public access.

Nicholson, Lary G.; Purvis, James W.

1999-07-21

242

ISSO Information Alert Mozilla Vulnerabilities Could Allow Remote Code Execution  

E-print Network

MULTI-STATE INFORMATION SHARING AND ANALYSIS CENTER CYBER SECURITY ADVISORY MS-ISAC ADVISORY NUMBERISSO Information Alert 2/1/2012 Mozilla Vulnerabilities Could Allow Remote Code ExecutionRequest object to read these error messages, allowing user privacy to be eroded. Cross Domain Security Bypass

Dyer, Bill

243

Assessing tsunami vulnerability, an example from Herakleio, Crete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent tsunami have caused massive loss of life, destruction of coastal infrastructures and disruption to economic activity. To date, tsunami hazard studies have concentrated on determining the frequency and magnitude of events and in the production of simplistic flood maps. In general, such maps appear to have assumed a uniform vulnerability of population, infrastructure and business. In reality however, a

M. Papathoma; D. Dominey-Howes; Y. Zong; D. Smith

2003-01-01

244

Tsunami vulnerability functions from field surveys and Monte Carlo simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on tsunami damaged houses, collected and compiled by the Department of Census and Statistics, Sri Lanka, was used to construct vulnerability curves with tsunami height as the demand parameter. A common curve could be used for all administrative divisions where a majority of houses had permanent walling materials, whether these divisions were on the southwest coast or the north

W. P. S. Dias; H. D. Yapa; L. M. N. Peiris

2009-01-01

245

Food Insecurity and Vulnerability in Latin America and the Caribbean  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines how Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) nations have proceeded in addressing the issues of food insecurity and vulnerability in response to the 1996 Rome Declaration on World Food Security. The data suggests that while the food insecurity situation has improved in LAC over the past few years, many nations are worse off in terms of food insecurity

Gustavo Gordillo; Paul C. Winters; Leonardo Corral

2000-01-01

246

Spatial vulnerability of Australian urban populations to extreme heat events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme heat events pose a risk to the health of all individuals, especially the elderly and the chronically ill, and are associated with an increased demand for healthcare services. In order to address this problem, policy makers' need information about temperatures above which mortality and morbidity of the exposed population is likely to increase, where the vulnerable groups in the community are located, and how the risks from extreme heat events are likely to change in the future. This study identified threshold temperatures for all Australian capital cities, developed a spatial index of population vulnerability, and used climate model output to predict changes in the number of days exceeding temperature thresholds in the future, as well as changes in risk related to changes in urban density and an ageing population. The study has shown that daily maximum and minimum temperatures from the Bureau of Meteorology forecasts can be used to calculate temperature thresholds for heat alert days. The key risk factors related to adverse health outcomes were found to be areas with intense urban heat islands, areas with higher proportions of older people, and areas with ethnic communities. Maps of spatial vulnerability have been developed to provide information to assist emergency managers, healthcare professionals, and ancillary services develop heatwave preparedness plans at a local scale that target vulnerable groups and address heat-related health risks. The numbers of days exceeding current heat thresholds are predicted to increase over the next 20 to 40 years in all Australian capital cities.

Loughnan, Margaret; Tapper, Nigel; Phan, Thu; Lynch, Kellie; McInnes, Judith

2013-04-01

247

Research Article Demographic Patterns and Harvest Vulnerability of  

E-print Network

including elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and white-tailed deer (Miller et al. 2000 (Odocoileus virginianus) caused by transmissible protease-resistant prions. Since the discovery of CWD words Chronic wasting disease (CWD), disease prevalence, epidemiology, harvest vulnerability, Odocoileus

Mladenoff, David

248

Vulnerability and resiliency to suicidal behaviours in young people  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. We aimed to examine factors that influence vulnerability\\/resiliency of depressed young people to suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Method. Data were gathered during a 21-year longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1265 New Zealand young people. Measures included : suicide attempt ; suicidal ideation; major depression ; childhood, family, individual and peer factors. Results. Young people who developed

D. M. FERGUSSON; A. L. BEAUTRAIS; L. J. HORWOOD

2003-01-01

249

Protecting the vulnerable: testing times for clinical research ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a number of historical breaches of research ethics. Typically the victims of such breaches belong to vulnerable populations, such as prisoners, mentally disabled people, women and people in developing countries. This article provides a brief introduction to the main ethical approaches in bioethics. Subsequently it looks at a number of currently discussed ethical issues in clinical research

Udo Schüklenk

2000-01-01

250

Livelihoods, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in Morogoro, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines farmers’ livelihood responses and vulnerability to climate variability and other stressors in Morogoro, Tanzania, to understand their implications for adaptation to climate change by agricultural households in developing world more generally. In Morogoro, agricultural households have extended cultivation, intensified agriculture, diversified livelihoods and migrated to gain access to land, markets and employment as a response to climatic

Jouni Paavola

2008-01-01

251

Unfair burden: women's risks and vulnerability to food insecurity  

Microsoft Academic Search

SHERYL HENDRIKS writes that women's lock of entitlement to land, limited access to assets, exhausting labour demands and household responsibilities renders them almost powerless to diversify and expand their livelihood strategies to benefit households. She argues that this increases vulnerability to household food insecurity

SHERYL HENDRICKS

2002-01-01

252

CHEX: Statically Vetting Android Apps for Component Hijacking Vulnerabilities  

E-print Network

of apps have been developed for Android in recent years, making it one of the most popular mobile operatCHEX: Statically Vetting Android Apps for Component Hijacking Vulnerabilities Long Lu Zhichun Li- ing systems. However, the quality of the booming apps can be a concern [4]. Poorly engineered apps may

Lee, Wenke

253

Intergenerational Transmission of Sexual Victimization Vulnerability as Mediated via Parenting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: Previous research suggests that women's early sexual victimization experiences may influence their parenting behaviors and increase the vulnerability of their children to being sexually victimized. The current study considered whether mother's sexual victimization experiences, in childhood and after age 14, were associated with the…

Testa, Maria; Hoffman, Joseph H.; Livingston, Jennifer A.

2011-01-01

254

Reconciling supply chain vulnerability, risk and supply chain management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supply chain vulnerability has become a fashionable area of management research. The purpose of this paper is to provide a critique of the extant canon and to review of the positioning of research in the field, together with literature drawn from several relevant and overlapping fields of research and practice. The aim is to foster a more explicit understanding of

H. Peck

2006-01-01

255

Tsunami Mortality Estimates and Vulnerability Mapping in Aceh, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We aimed to quantify tsunami mortality and compare approaches to mortality assessment in the emergency context in Aceh, Indonesia, where the impact of the 2004 tsunami was greatest. Methods. Mortality was estimated using geographic information systems-based vulnerability models and demographic methods from surveys of tsunami- displaced populations. Results. Tsunami mortality in Aceh as estimated by demographic models was 131

Shannon Doocy; Yuri Gorokhovich; Gilbert Burnham; Deborah Balk; Courtland Robinson

2007-01-01

256

Perceived Vulnerability to Crime, Criminal Victimization Experience, and Television Viewing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of the relationship between undergraduate students' television viewing and their perceptions of personal vulnerability to crime reveals strength and direction of such associations are contingent upon viewer's source of criminal victimization experience, type of prime-time television viewed, and contextual nature of perception of personal…

Weaver, James; Wakshlag, Jacob

1986-01-01

257

Perceived vulnerability to crime, criminal victimization experience, and television viewing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survey data were utilized to examine the relationship between television viewing and perceptions of personal vulnerability to crime. The analyses revealed that the strength and direction of such associations were contingent upon: (a) the viewer's predominant modality or source of criminal victimization experience (mediated, interpersonal, or direct); (b) the type of primetime television program viewed (crime?related or noncrime?related); and (c)

James Weaver; Jacob Wakshlag

1986-01-01

258

The collaborative edge: patient empowerment for vulnerable populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The problems with access to care and the special needs for educational outreach for disadvantage or vulnerable populations of patients require innovation. This paper describes Baby CareLink use of information technology to support communication, consultation, and collaboration among colleagues as well as with patients, their families, and community resources. Methods: In response to the educational, emotional and communication needs

Charles Safran

2003-01-01

259

Stressful Segregation Housing and Psychosocial Vulnerability in Prison Suicide Ideators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychosocially vulnerable prisoners under stressful conditions of confinement are ill prepared to cope and at risk for developing suicide intention. The present study examined the relationships of depression, hopelessness, reasons for living, mental health problem history, suicide attempt lethality history, and stressful segregation housing with…

Bonner, Ronald L.

2006-01-01

260

Embryo stability and vulnerability in an always changing world  

E-print Network

defenses already present in the egg before fertilization. Later in development, adaptive responses vulnerability was reinforced by the real-life example of thalidomide, a drug first administered to women. Instead, they re- lease eggs or embryos into their surround- ings to develop as ``orphans'' in direct

261

Teachers' Professional Vulnerability and Cultural Tradition: A Chinese Paradox  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper explores the issue of teachers' professional vulnerability using a range of messages from an online teachers' community on the Chinese mainland. The study reveals how macro changes at policy level impact on teachers' professional relationships and in turn their professional identities in teacher discussants' perceptions. Furthermore, the…

Gao, Xuesong

2008-01-01

262

Soft error vulnerability of iterative linear algebra methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Devices are increasingly vulnerable to soft errors as their feature sizes shrink. Previously, soft error rates were significant primarily in space and high-atmospheric computing. Modern architectures now use features so small at sufficiently low voltages that soft errors are becoming important even at terrestrial altitudes. Due to their large number of components, supercomputers are particularly susceptible to soft errors. Since

Greg Bronevetsky; Bronis R. De Supinski

2008-01-01

263

Tourism in Small Island States: From Vulnerability to Strengths  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues that the narrow and frequently negative conceptualisations of small island states as environmentally vulnerable and economically dependent are problematic for sustainable tourism development and for economic development, generally. Scenarios presented to date are often incomplete. Narratives suggesting that island peoples are unskilled and lack resources, and that their islands are ‘tiny’ and ‘fragile’, can undermine their pride

Regina Scheyvens; Janet Momsen

2008-01-01

264

Vulnerability factors in depression: The facets of sociotropy and autonomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sociotropy-autonomy (Beck, 1983) describes a set of personality dimensions that relate to an individual's vulnerability to depression. Two recently developed scales, the Sociotropy-Autonomy Scale (Clark & Beck, 1991) and the Personal Style Inventory (Robinset al., 1994), have been developed in order to assess these personality dimensions. Typically, these measures are used in isolation and little published information is available concerning

Toru Sato; Doug McCann

1997-01-01

265

New HANE Fireball Physics: Implications for US Infrastructure Vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vulnerability of the US infrastructure to High altitude Nuclear Explosions (HANEs) continues to be the object of studies by a number of blue-ribbon panels and commissions. In particular, studies suggest an alarming sensitivity of our electronic infrastructure to some types of ElectroMagnetic Pulse (EMP) while other types of EMP threaten our power distribution systems. Equally or perhaps more important

D W Hewett; D J Larson; C Eng; A E Tarwater; S H Brecht

2009-01-01

266

Fuzzing Wi-Fi Drivers to Locate Security Vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless LANs (WLAN) are becoming ubiquitous, as more and more consumer electronic equipments start to support them. This creates new security concerns, since hackers no longer need physical connection to the networks linking the devices, but only need to be in their proximity, to send malicious data to exploit some vulnerability. In this paper we present a fuzzer, called Wdev-Fuzzer,

Manuel Mendonça; Nuno Ferreira Neves

2007-01-01

267

Fuzzing Wi-Fi Drivers to Locate Security Vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless LANs (WLAN) are becoming ubiquitous, as more and more consumer electronic equipments start to support them. This creates new security concerns, since hackers no longer need physical connection to the networks linking the devices, but only need to be in their proximity, to send malicious data to exploit some vulnerability. In this paper we present a fuzzer, called Wdev-Fuzzer,

Manuel Mendonça; Nuno Neves

2008-01-01

268

Guiding Climate Change Adaptation Within Vulnerable Natural Resource Management Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change has the potential to compromise the sustainability of natural resources in Mediterranean climatic systems, such that short-term reactive responses will increasingly be insufficient to ensure effective management. There is a simultaneous need for both the clear articulation of the vulnerabilities of specific management systems to climate risk, and the development of appropriate short- and long-term strategic planning responses

Douglas K. Bardsley; Susan M. Sweeney

2010-01-01

269

Vulnerability of Working Parents: Balancing Work and Home Roles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a study assessing the job-family role strain among employees (N=711) in a large corporation and identified groups in the workplace that were vulnerable to reduced levels of physical and emotional well-being. Findings indicated employed mothers were at greatest risk because they bear a disproportionate share of family responsibilities.…

Googins, Bradley; Burden, Dianne

1987-01-01

270

A Policy-Based Vulnerability Analysis Framework SOPHIE JEAN ENGLE  

E-print Network

an ad hoc approach to provide practicality. This dissertation addresses this conflict by balancing a conflict between repeatability and practicality that is often left unresolved in existing vulnerability is non-secure, and how to mitigate that non-security. iii #12;Acknowledgments I am grateful

Peisert, Sean

271

American Indian Adolescent Girls: Vulnerability to Sex Trafficking, Intervention Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Minnesota Indian Women's Resource Center offers harm reduction programming to at-risk adolescent American Indian girls, including outreach, case management, advocacy, healthy sexuality education, and support groups. To evaluate program impact, participants are assessed at intake and every 6 months afterward for current vulnerability to…

Pierce, Alexandra

2012-01-01

272

Finite-State Modeling, Analysis and Testing of System Vulnerabilities  

E-print Network

, of any such property constitutes a system vulnerability, which can lead to a situation in the form of intended, or unintended, attacks from the system's environment. We view the undesirable system patterns, the relationships between the system and its environment, i.e., the user, the natural environment

Belli, Fevzi

273

Environmental Vulnerability Indicators for Environmental Planning and Decision-Making  

E-print Network

quantification of environmental properties such as vulnerabil- ity, conservation status, and ability to recover for different environments. To assess the state of the art, we describe an independent ongoing project developed-making are based on the quantification of envi- ronmental properties such as vulnerability, status of conservation

Vermont, University of

274

A physical approach on flood risk vulnerability of buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of efficient hydrological risk mitigation strategies and their subsequent implementation relies on a careful vulnerability analysis of the elements exposed. Recently, extensive research efforts were undertaken to develop and refine empirical relationships linking the structural vulnerability of buildings to the impact forces of the hazard processes. These empirical vulnerability functions allow estimating the expected direct losses as a result of the hazard scenario based on spatially explicit representation of the process patterns and the elements at risk classified into defined typological categories. However, due to the underlying empiricism of such vulnerability functions, the physics of the damage generating mechanisms for a well-defined element at risk with its peculiar geometry and structural characteristics remain unveiled, and, as such, the applicability of the empirical approach for planning hazard-proof residential buildings is limited. Therefore, we propose a conceptual assessment scheme to close this gap. This assessment scheme encompasses distinct analytical steps: modelling (a) the process intensity, (b) the impact on the element at risk exposed and (c) the physical response of the building envelope. Furthermore, these results provide the input data for the subsequent damage evaluation and economic damage valuation. This dynamic assessment supports all relevant planning activities with respect to a minimisation of losses, and can be implemented in the operational risk assessment procedure.

Mazzorana, B.; Simoni, S.; Scherer, C.; Gems, B.; Fuchs, S.; Keiler, M.

2014-02-01

275

Extreme seismicity and disaster risks: Hazard versus vulnerability (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the extreme nature of earthquakes has been known for millennia due to the resultant devastation from many of them, the vulnerability of our civilization to extreme seismic events is still growing. It is partly because of the increase in the number of high-risk objects and clustering of populations and infrastructure in the areas prone to seismic hazards. Today an earthquake may affect several hundreds thousand lives and cause significant damage up to hundred billion dollars; it can trigger an ecological catastrophe if occurs in close vicinity to a nuclear power plant. Two types of extreme natural events can be distinguished: (i) large magnitude low probability events, and (ii) the events leading to disasters. Although the first-type events may affect earthquake-prone countries directly or indirectly (as tsunamis, landslides etc.), the second-type events occur mainly in economically less-developed countries where the vulnerability is high and the resilience is low. Although earthquake hazards cannot be reduced, vulnerability to extreme events can be diminished by monitoring human systems and by relevant laws preventing an increase in vulnerability. Significant new knowledge should be gained on extreme seismicity through observations, monitoring, analysis, modeling, comprehensive hazard assessment, prediction, and interpretations to assist in disaster risk analysis. The advanced disaster risk communication skill should be developed to link scientists, emergency management authorities, and the public. Natural, social, economic, and political reasons leading to disasters due to earthquakes will be discussed.

Ismail-Zadeh, A.

2013-12-01

276

VULNERABILITY OF BLUETOOTH TO IMPULSIVE NOISE IN ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSION SUBSTATIONS  

E-print Network

VULNERABILITY OF BLUETOOTH TO IMPULSIVE NOISE IN ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSION SUBSTATIONS S A Bhattil environment of an Electricity transmission substation environment is modelled as a Symmetric Alpha Stable of an electricity transmission substation. I. INTRODUCTION In industrial environments, Supervisor Control and Data

Atkinson, Robert C

277

Mapping vulnerability and conservation adaptation strategies under climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identification of spatial gradients in ecosystem vulnerability to global climate change and local stressors is an important step in the formulation and implementation of appropriate countermeasures. Here we build on recent work to map ecoregional exposure to future climate, using an envelope-based gauge of future climate stability--defined as a measure of how similar the future climate of a region will be to the present climate. We incorporate an assessment of each ecoregion's adaptive capacity, based on spatial analysis of its natural integrity--the proportion of intact natural vegetation--to present a measure of global ecosystem vulnerability. The relationship between intactness (adaptive capacity) and stability (exposure) varies widely across ecoregions, with some of the most vulnerable, according to this measure, located in southern and southeastern Asia, western and central Europe, eastern South America and southern Australia. To ensure the applicability of these findings to conservation, we provide a matrix that highlights the potential implications of this vulnerability assessment for adaptation planning and offers a spatially explicit management guide.

Watson, James E. M.; Iwamura, Takuya; Butt, Nathalie

2013-11-01

278

Vulnerability Assessment of Selected Buildings Designated as Shelters: Dominica.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational facilities in the Caribbean often serve roles as shelters during natural hazards, but they often sustain as much damage as other buildings. This study investigated the physical vulnerability of schools located on Dominica to wind forces, torrential rain, and seismic forces in order to provide relevant local agencies with some of the…

Agency for International Development (IDCA), Washington, DC.

279

Advanced composites: electromagnetic properties, vulnerabilities, and protective measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A measurement and analysis program for assessing the electromagnetic (EM) properties and vulnerabilities of, and protective measures for, advanced composite materials for aerospace vehicles is discussed. The main purpose of the report is to suggest areas of investigation and the kinds of data required to compile a technical data base to accomplish this assessment. Instrumentation and techniques are needed that

Hiebert

1977-01-01

280

Leaf Shrinkage with Dehydration: Coordination with Hydraulic Vulnerability and Drought  

E-print Network

Leaf Shrinkage with Dehydration: Coordination with Hydraulic Vulnerability and Drought Tolerance1[C shrinkage with dehydration has attracted attention for over 100 years, especially as it becomes visibly diverse species, we tested the hypothesis that shrinkage during dehydration (i.e. in whole leaf, cell

Sack, Lawren

281

Policy Forum Protecting Vulnerable Road Users from Injury  

E-print Network

Policy Forum Protecting Vulnerable Road Users from Injury Aymery Constant, Emmanuel Lagarde* Equipe areas, due to environ- mental, economic, and traffic congestion issues. In the United States, the latest by police forces in the aftermath of a crash involving a VRU has been documented using comparisons

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

282

Serotonergic vulnerability and depression: assumptions, experimental evidence and implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the term serotonergic vulnerability (SV) has been used in scientific literature, but so far it has not been explicitly defined. This review article attempts to elucidate the SV concept. SV can be defined as increased sensitivity to natural or experimental alterations of the serotonergic (5-HTergic) system. Several factors that may disrupt the 5-HTergic system and hence contribute

L A W Jans; W J Riedel; C R Markus; A Blokland; LAW Jans

2007-01-01

283

Assessing application vulnerability to radiation-induced SEUs in memory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the goals of the Remote Exploration and Experimentation (REE) project at JPL is to determine how vulnerable applications are to single event upsets (SEUs) when run in low radiation space environments using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components.

Springer, P. L.

2001-01-01

284

Expert assessment of vulnerability of permafrost carbon to climate change  

E-print Network

Expert assessment of vulnerability of permafrost carbon to climate change E. A. G. Schuur & B. W in the northern circumpolar permafrost zone, more than twice as much C than in the atmosphere. The overall amount Research, Canberra, Australia #12;of the permafrost C feedback to climate change. We used a survey

Crosby, Benjamin T.

285

Expert system for laser vulnerability analysis of aerospace structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors discuss the framework of a knowledge-based expert system for studying the survivability of the aerospace structures exposed to high energy lasers using VAASEL (vulnerability analysis of aerospace structures exposed to lasers) software. VAASEL is a synthesis tool built around NASTRAN and ASTROS programs. The knowledge base involves threat characterization, temperature distribution, failure prediction, linear and nonlinear statics, air

Ramana V. Grandhi; Swamy V. L. Chandu; Harini Rajagopalan; David Fautheree

1992-01-01

286

Assessing the Vulnerability of the Fiber Infrastructure to Disasters  

E-print Network

, Columbia University, New York, NY (e-mail: gil@ee.columbia.edu). Reuven Cohen is with the Department Abstract--Communication networks are vulnerable to natural disasters, such as earthquakes or floods networks. Our novel approach provides a promising new direction for network design to avert geographical

Modiano, Eytan

287

Climate Change Vulnerability of the Vermont Ski Tourism Industry (USA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change represents one of the most significant challenges to humanity in the 21st century and is anticipated to have major consequences for the climate?sensitive winter sports tourism sector. This study examined the vulnerability of Vermont's (US A) 18 ski areas. Under the six climate change scenarios examined, shortened ski seasons and increased snowmaking requirements were projected at all ski

Jackie Dawson; Daniel Scott

2007-01-01

288

Vulnerability analysis for complex networks using aggressive abstraction.  

SciTech Connect

Large, complex networks are ubiquitous in nature and society, and there is great interest in developing rigorous, scalable methods for identifying and characterizing their vulnerabilities. This paper presents an approach for analyzing the dynamics of complex networks in which the network of interest is first abstracted to a much simpler, but mathematically equivalent, representation, the required analysis is performed on the abstraction, and analytic conclusions are then mapped back to the original network and interpreted there. We begin by identifying a broad and important class of complex networks which admit vulnerability-preserving, finite state abstractions, and develop efficient algorithms for computing these abstractions. We then propose a vulnerability analysis methodology which combines these finite state abstractions with formal analytics from theoretical computer science to yield a comprehensive vulnerability analysis process for networks of realworld scale and complexity. The potential of the proposed approach is illustrated with a case study involving a realistic electric power grid model and also with brief discussions of biological and social network examples.

Colbaugh, Richard; Glass, Kristin L.

2010-06-01

289

Finding behavioral and network indicators of brain vulnerability  

PubMed Central

Resilience research has usually focused on identifying protective factors associated with specific stress conditions (e.g., war, trauma) or psychopathologies (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD]). Implicit in this research is the concept that resilience is a global construct, invariant to the unfavorable circumstances or the psychopathologies that may develop (i.e., the mechanisms underlying the resilience of an individual in all cases are expected to be similar). Here we contribute to the understanding of resilience—and its counterpart, vulnerability—by employing an approach that makes use of this invariant quality. We outline two main characteristics that we would expect from indicators of a vulnerable state: that they should appear across disorders regardless of specific circumstances, and that they should appear much before the disorder is evident. Next, we identify two sets of factors that exhibit this pattern of association with psychopathological states. The first was a set of “low-level” sensory, motor and regulatory irregularities that have been reported across the clinical literature; we suggest that these can serve as behavioral indicators of a vulnerable state. The second was the set of aberrations in network metrics that have been reported in the field of systems neuroscience; we suggest that these can serve as network indicators of a vulnerable state. Finally, we explore how behavioral indicators may be related to network indicators and discuss the clinical and research-related implications of our work. PMID:22347174

Levit-Binnun, Nava; Golland, Yulia

2011-01-01

290

Enhancing Automated Detection of Vulnerabilities in Java Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Java-based systems are built from components from various providers that are integrated together. Generic coding best practices are gaining momentum, but no tool is availableso far that guarantees that the interactions between these components are performed in a secure manner. We propose the 'Weak Component Analysis' (WCA) tool, which performs static analysis of the component code to identify exploitable vulnerabilities.

Pierre Parrend

2009-01-01

291

Is madagascar becoming increasingly vulnerable to food crises?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical need or status?quo approaches have not provided the appropriate conceptual framework for guiding food aid policies. As a response to this, models based on household or individual behavior are being articulated to explain food vulnerability. However, due to the complexity of these models and their data requirements, they have yet to become operational for the determination of food

M. Mahmud Khan; Nancy B. Mock; Victor Jeannoda; Shawn K. Baker

1993-01-01

292

Our Shared Future: Social Media, Leadership, Vulnerability, and Digital Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social media have challenged us in our journey to support our students. Administrators have entered into new web-based conversations with one another and with their students. Personal branding has created a sense of performativity that conflicts with a growing trend towards online vulnerability. Our leaders have increasingly been engaged in…

Stoller, Eric

2013-01-01

293

The Development and Consequences of Stereotype Vulnerability in Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During adolescence, students become increasingly vulnerable to academic underperformance caused by negative reactions to their awareness of ability impugning stereotypes about one's group, a phenomenon known as stereotype threat. Although stereotype-related underperformance can occur early in development, it is during adolescence that it is seen…

Aronson, Joshua; Good, Catherine

294

Minimizing User Vulnerability and Retaining Social Utility in Social Media  

E-print Network

, Privacy 1. INTRODUCTION Social media has gained popularity in recent years, becom- ing an integral partMinimizing User Vulnerability and Retaining Social Utility in Social Media Pritam Gundecha Computer and security are major concerns for many users of social media. When users share information (e.g., data

Liu, Huan

295

Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment of Casablanca - Morocco, Pilot Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we present a preliminary evaluation of the tsunami vulnerability of Casablanca area (Morocco) and the expected inundation from a tsunami generated in the North East Atlantic area in the Gulf of Cadiz using a combination of numerical modeling and GIS tools. The study area is the intensively occupied area of the Casablanca Harbor, a location that may be considered as one of the most vulnerable areas to tsunami hazard, along Morocco Atlantic coast, due to its location close to the source of moderate and strong magnitude earthquakes, the extension of low flat areas close to the sea and the existence of dwellings characterized by unstructured constructions. To study vulnerability and inundation we considered geomorphologic and artificial elements as well as the existence of defensive constructions. The inundation zone was divided in for sub-zones according to their height above sea level; the buildings were classed according to: building material, number of floors, conditions of foundation soil. The study area presents a large variety of constructions:1 storey buildings of 2- 2.5 m height, houses and stores of the ancient medina and some modern buildings. The results are presented, using GIS and show a preliminary "picture" of built stock behaviour in case of tsunami for Casablanca. The results clearly demonstrate that the vulnerability to tsunami impact is not uniform within the inundation zone. This work was developed in the framework of NEAREST and TRANSFER projects, EU.

Omira, R.; Baptista, M. V.; Miranda, M.; Catita, C.; Toto, E.

2007-12-01

296

Coastal Vulnerability to Erosion Processes: Study Cases from Different Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

When natural processes affect or threaten human activities or infrastructures they become a natural hazard. In order to prevent the natural hazards impact and the associated economic and human losses, coastal managers need to know the intrinsic vulnerability of the littoral, using information on the physical and ecological coastal features, human occupation and present and future shoreline trends. The prediction

Giorgio Anfuso; Jose Angel Martinez Del Pozo; Nelson Rangel-Buitrago

2010-01-01

297

Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city Bruno Barroca1, Damien Serre2 1Laboratory of Urban Engineering, Environment and Building (L G U E H) - Université de Marne-la-Vallée - Pôle Ville, 5, Bd Descartes - Bâtiment Lavoisier - 77454 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 - France 2City of Paris Engineering School, Construction - Environment Department, 15 rue Fénelon,

D. Serre; B. Barroca

2009-01-01

298

Network Vulnerability to Single, Multiple, and Probabilistic Physical Attacks  

E-print Network

, most previous work considered a small Fig. 1. The fiber backbone operated by a major U.S. network, vulnerable to natural disasters, such as earthquakes or floods, as well as to physical attacks that identify potential points where an attack is likely to cause a significant damage. Index Terms

Agarwal, Pankaj K.

299

Paranoid schizophrenia: non-specificity of neuropsychological vulnerability markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

During stages of remission, patients with paranoid schizophrenia seldom show severe attentional or information-processing dysfunctions, except in cases of long-term chronicity. The diagnostic specificity of four putative psychological vulnerability indicators of schizophrenia — the Span of Apprehension, the degraded stimulus Continuous Performance Test (dsCPT), the degraded stimulus visual backward masking task and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) — was

Thomas Suslow; Volker Arolt

1997-01-01

300

Extinction vulnerability in marine populations Nicholas K Dulvy1  

E-print Network

Extinction vulnerability in marine populations Nicholas K Dulvy1 , Yvonne Sadovy2 & John D Reynolds about the extinction of marine taxa.We have compiled133 local, regional and global extinc- tions and the reported date of the extinction at whatever scale this has occurred. Most disappearances (80%) were

Reynolds, John D.

301

Household Poverty and Vulnerability | A Bootstrap-Approa ch  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper we develop an algorithm to measure vulnerability, dened as the propensity that household consumption will fall below a locally dened poverty line. Based on the distinction between chronic and transient consumption found in the literature, we develop a stochastic process model for household consumption, where we distinguish between the chronic and the transient parts of household

Jesper J. Kuhl

302

Intravascular photoacoustic imaging: a new tool for vulnerable plaque identification.  

PubMed

The vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque is believed to be at the root of the majority of acute coronary events. Even though the exact origins of plaque vulnerability remain elusive, the thin-cap fibroatheroma, characterized by a lipid-rich necrotic core covered by a thin fibrous cap, is considered to be the most prominent type of vulnerable plaque. No clinically available imaging technique can characterize atherosclerotic lesions to the extent needed to determine plaque vulnerability prognostically. Intravascular photoacoustic imaging (IVPA) has the potential to take a significant step in that direction by imaging both plaque structure and composition. IVPA is a natural extension of intravascular ultrasound that adds tissue type specificity to the images. IVPA utilizes the optical contrast provided by the differences in the absorption spectra of plaque components to image composition. Its capability to image lipids in human coronary atherosclerosis has been shown extensively ex vivo and has recently been translated to an in vivo animal model. Other disease markers that have been successfully targeted are calcium and inflammatory markers, such as macrophages and matrix metalloproteinase; the latter two through application of exogenous contrast agents. By simultaneously displaying plaque morphology and composition, IVPA can provide a powerful prognostic marker for disease progression, and as such has the potential to transform the current practice in percutaneous coronary intervention. PMID:24631379

Jansen, Krista; van Soest, Gijs; van der Steen, Antonius F W

2014-06-01

303

A physical approach on flood risk vulnerability of buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of efficient hydrological risk mitigation strategies and their subsequent implementation relies on a careful vulnerability analysis of the elements exposed. Recently, extensive research efforts were undertaken to develop and refine empirical relationships linking the structural vulnerability of buildings to the impact forces of the hazard processes. These empirical vulnerability functions allow estimating the expected direct losses as a result of the hazard scenario based on spatially explicit representation of the process patterns and the elements at risk classified into defined typological categories. However, due to the underlying empiricism of such vulnerability functions, the physics of the damage-generating mechanisms for a well-defined element at risk with its peculiar geometry and structural characteristics remain unveiled, and, as such, the applicability of the empirical approach for planning hazard-proof residential buildings is limited. Therefore, we propose a conceptual assessment scheme to close this gap. This assessment scheme encompasses distinct analytical steps: modelling (a) the process intensity, (b) the impact on the element at risk exposed and (c) the physical response of the building envelope. Furthermore, these results provide the input data for the subsequent damage evaluation and economic damage valuation. This dynamic assessment supports all relevant planning activities with respect to a minimisation of losses, and can be implemented in the operational risk assessment procedure.

Mazzorana, B.; Simoni, S.; Scherer, C.; Gems, B.; Fuchs, S.; Keiler, M.

2014-09-01

304

Vulnerability, “innocent” disasters and the imperative of cultural understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to make an argument that there are different types of social construction of disasters. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The focus is on disasters triggered by natural hazards. Findings – It is now widely accepted that disasters are a product of a natural hazard having an impact on a vulnerable population. But the value of

Terry Cannon

2008-01-01

305

Identifying Vulnerabilities and Critical Requirements Using Criminal Court Proceeding  

E-print Network

. In the United States, these violations are documented in court records, such as complaints, indictments, plea case, United States v. Ferrer, that details insider threats to patient medical records involvingIdentifying Vulnerabilities and Critical Requirements Using Criminal Court Proceeding Travis D

Breaux, Travis D.

306

AN OVERVIEW OF EPA'S REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT (REVA) PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) is a, approach to place-based ecological risk assessment that is currently under development by ORD. The pilot assessment will be done for the Mid-Atlantic region and builds on data collected for EMAP. ReVA is being developed to identify t...

307

Opening Pathways for Vulnerable Young People in Patagonia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New and improved institutions are needed to support the transition to adulthood of vulnerable young people. Existing institutions that should provide that support demonstrate structural lag: they have not adapted to changing circumstances. Action research was conducted in Por un Manana, an employment training program for low-income youth and young…

Hamilton, Mary Agnes; Hamilton, Stephen F.; Bianchi, Lucia; Bran, Jacqui

2013-01-01

308

Climate Change: Conflict, Security and Vulnerability Professor of Climate Change  

E-print Network

Climate Change: Conflict, Security and Vulnerability Mike Hulme Professor of Climate Change Science, Society and Sustainability Group School of Environmental Sciences Rethinking Climate Change, Conflict security" "increase risk of conflicts among and within nations" #12;· from `climatic change' to `climate-change

Hulme, Mike

309

Vulnerability Analysis of Complex Networks from Transportation Networks to  

E-print Network

Vulnerability Analysis of Complex Networks from Transportation Networks to the Internet or as equilibrium problems and even dynamic network problems. Complex network problems, with a focus on critical-scale nature and complexity of network topology; · congestion; · the interactions among networks themselves

Nagurney, Anna

310

On automated prepared statement generation to remove SQL injection vulnerabilities  

E-print Network

and 10% of total cyber vulnerabilities between 2002 and 2007 [25]. SQLIVs can lead to data theft and data injection Prepared statement Fix automation a b s t r a c t Since 2002, over 10% of total cyber for the University of Missouri, causing theft of information for 22,000 students in 2007 [17]. Structured query

Xie, Tao

311

Perceptions about prenatal care: views of urban vulnerable groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In the United States, infant mortality rates remain more than twice as high for African Americans as compared to other racial groups. Lack of adherence to prenatal care schedules in vulnerable, hard to reach, urban, poor women is associated with high infant mortality, particularly for women who abuse substances, are homeless, or live in communities having high poverty and

Renee Milligan; Barbara K Wingrove; Leslie Richards; Margaret Rodan; Lillie Monroe-Lord; Velishie Jackson; Barbara Hatcher; Cynthia Harris; Cassandra Henderson; Allan A Johnson

2002-01-01

312

Golden Rule for Buttressing Vulnerable Soluble Proteins Ariel Fernandez*,  

E-print Network

in turn is not fully stabilized through burial within a hydrophobic environment. The result that these structural deficiencies, the unburied backbone hydrogen bonds, are compensated in natural proteins a statistical correlation between structural strengths and vulnerabilities of natural proteins and polypeptides

Berry, R. Stephen

313

Voting Systems with Trust Mechanisms in Cyberspace: Vulnerabilities and Defenses  

E-print Network

1 Voting Systems with Trust Mechanisms in Cyberspace: Vulnerabilities and Defenses Qinyuan Feng, Yan Lindsay Sun, Ling Liu, Yafei Yang, Yafei Dai Abstract--With the popularity of voting systems in cyberspace, there is growing evidence that the current voting systems can be manipulated by fake votes

Sun, Yan Lindsay

314

Vulnerability of northern lake ecosystems to climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this brief review we examine three perspectives on northern aquatic ecosystems in the context of vulnerability to climate change. Firstly, many of these waters are responsive to small changes in their physical, chemical or biological environment that can result in major shifts in their limnological properties. Rather than slow, deterministic changes through time accompanying the gradual shift in air

Warwick F. Vincent; Reinhard Pienitz

2006-01-01

315

Automated detection of vulnerabilities in privileged programs by execution monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a method for detecting exploitations of vulnerabilities in privileged programs by monitoring their execution using audit trails, where the monitoring is with respect to specifications of the security-relevant behavior of the programs. Our work is motivated by the intrusion detection paradigm, but is an attempt to avoid ad hoc approaches to codifying misuse behavior. Our approach is based on

Calvin Ko; George Fink; Karl Levitt

1994-01-01

316

Selective Prevention: Addressing Vulnerability to Problem Drug Use in Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following the 2003 publication of the European Union (EU) Council Recommendations and the 2005-2008 and 2009-2012 EU Drugs Action Plans, increasing attention has been given in EU member states' drug policies to populations that are vulnerable to problem drug use (PDU). Monitoring data reported to the EMCDDA by designated agencies from 30 countries…

Burkhart, Gregor; Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Bo, Alessandra

2011-01-01

317

Language use of depressed and depression-vulnerable college students  

E-print Network

Language use of depressed and depression-vulnerable college students Stephanie S. Rude, Eva-depressed, formerly-depressed, and never-depressed college students were examined for differences in language with depression is Emil Durkheim's (1951) social integration/disengagement model of suicide. This model posits

Pillow, Jonathan

318

Vulnerability analysis for a drought Early Warning System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early Warning Systems (EWS) for drought are often based on risk models that do not, or marginally, take into account the vulnerability factor. The multifaceted nature of drought (hydrological, meteorological, and agricultural) is source of coexistence for different ways to measure this phenomenon and its effects. The latter, together with the complexity of impacts generated by this hazard, causes the current underdevelopment of drought EWS compared to other hazards. In Least Developed Countries, where drought events causes the highest numbers of affected people, the importance of correct monitoring and forecasting is considered essential. Existing early warning and monitoring systems for drought produced at different geographic levels, provide only in a few cases an actual spatial model that tries to describe the cause-effect link between where the hazard is detected and where impacts occur. Integrate vulnerability information in such systems would permit to better estimate affected zones and livelihoods, improving the effectiveness of produced hazard-related datasets and maps. In fact, the need of simplification and, in general, of a direct applicability of scientific outputs is still a matter of concern for field experts and early warning products end-users. Even if the surplus of hazard related information produced right after catastrophic events has, in some cases, led to the creation of specific data-sharing platforms, the conveyed meaning and usefulness of each product has not yet been addressed. The present work is an attempt to fill this gap which is still an open issue for the scientific community as well as for the humanitarian aid world. The study aims at conceiving a simplified vulnerability model to embed into an existing EWS for drought, which is based on the monitoring of vegetation phenological parameters and the Standardized Precipitation Index, both produced using free satellite derived datasets. The proposed vulnerability model includes (i) a pure agricultural vulnerability and (ii) a systemic vulnerability. The first considers the agricultural potential of terrains, the diversity of cultivated crops and the percentage of irrigated area as main driving factors. The second vulnerability aspect consists of geographic units in which a set of socio-economic factors are modeled geographically on the basis of the physical accessibility to market centers in one case, and according to a spatial gravity model of market areas in another case. Results of the model applied to a case study (Niger) and evaluated with food insecurity data, are presented.

Angeluccetti, Irene; Demarchi, Alessandro; Perez, Francesca

2014-05-01

319

Calibration of the DRASTIC ground water vulnerability mapping method  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground water vulnerability maps developed using the DRASTIC method have been produced in many parts of the world. Comparisons of those maps with actual ground water quality data have shown that the DRASTIC method is typically a poor predictor of ground water contamination. This study significantly improved the effectiveness of a modified DRASTIC ground water vulnerability map by calibrating the point rating schemes to actual ground water quality data by using nonparametric statistical techniques and a geographic information system. Calibration was performed by comparing data on nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen (NO2 + NO3-N) concentrations in ground water to land-use, soils, and depth to first-encountered ground water data. These comparisons showed clear statistical differences between NO2 + NO3-N concentrations and the various categories. Ground water probability point ratings for NO2 + NO3-N contamination were developed from the results of these comparisons, and a probability map was produced. This ground water probability map was then correlated with an independent set of NO2 + NO3-N data to demonstrate its effectiveness in predicting elevated NO2 + NO3-N concentrations in ground water. This correlation demonstrated that the probability map was effective, but a vulnerability map produced with the uncalibrated DRASTIC method in the same area and using the same data layers was not effective. Considerable time and expense have been outlaid to develop ground water vulnerability maps with the DRASTIC method. This study demonstrates a cost-effective method to improve and verify the effectiveness of ground water vulnerability maps.

Rupert, M. G.

2001-01-01

320

Do the Most Vulnerable People Live in the Worst Slums? A Spatial Analysis of Accra, Ghana  

PubMed Central

Slums are examples of localized communities within third world urban systems representing a range of vulnerabilities and adaptive capacities. This study examines vulnerability in relation to flooding, environmental degradation, social-status, demographics, and health in the slums of Accra, Ghana by utilizing a place-based approach informed by fieldwork, remote sensing, census data, and geographically weighted regression. The study objectives are threefold: (1) to move slums from a dichotomous into a continuous classification and examine the spatial patterns of the gradient, (2) develop measures of vulnerability for a developing world city and model the relationship between slums and vulnerability, and (3) to assess if the most vulnerable individuals live in the worst slums. A previously developed slum index is utilized, and four new measures of vulnerability are developed through principle components analysis, including a novel component of health vulnerability based on child mortality. Visualizations of the vulnerability measures assess spatial patterns of vulnerability in Accra. Ordinary least squares, spatial, and geographically weighted regression model the ability of the slum index to predict the four vulnerability measures. The slum index performs well for three of the four vulnerability measures, but is least able to predict health vulnerability underscoring the complex relationship between slums and child mortality in Accra. Finally, quintile analysis demonstrates the elevated prevalence of high vulnerability in places with high slum index scores. PMID:22379509

Jankowska, Marta M.; Weeks, John R.; Engstrom, Ryan

2011-01-01

321

Free and Open Source Software for land degradation vulnerability assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays the role of FOSS software in scientific research is becoming increasingly important. Besides the important issues of reduced costs for licences, legality and security there are many other reasons that make FOSS software attractive. Firstly, making the code opened is a warranty of quality permitting to thousands of developers around the world to check the code and fix bugs rather than rely on vendors claims. FOSS communities are usually enthusiastic about helping other users for solving problems and expand or customize software (flexibility). Most important for this study, the interoperability allows to combine the user-friendly QGIS with the powerful GRASS-GIS and the richness of statistical methods of R in order to process remote sensing data and to perform geo-statistical analysis in one only environment. This study is focused on the land degradation (i.e. the reduction in the capacity of the land to provide ecosystem goods and services and assure its functions) and in particular on the estimation of the vulnerability levels in order to suggest appropriate policy actions to reduce/halt land degradation impacts, using the above mentioned software. The area investigated is the Basilicata Region (Southern Italy) where large natural areas are mixed with anthropized areas. To identify different levels of vulnerability we adopted the Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAs) model, based on the combination of indicators related to soil, climate, vegetation and anthropic stress. Such indicators were estimated by using the following data-sources: - Basilicata Region Geoportal to assess soil vulnerability; - DESERTNET2 project to evaluate potential vegetation vulnerability and climate vulnerability; - NDVI-MODIS satellite time series (2000-2010) with 250m resolution, available as 16-day composite from the NASA LP DAAC to characterize the dynamic component of vegetation; - Agricultural Census data 2010, Corine Land Cover 2006 and morphological information to assess the vulnerability to anthropic factors mainly connected with agricultural and grazing management. To achieve the final ESAs Index depicting the overall vulnerability to degradation of the investigated area we applied the geometric mean to cross normalized indices related to each examined component. In this context QGIS was used to display data and to perform basic GIS calculations, whereas GRASS was used for map-algebra operations and image processing. Finally R was used for computing statistical analysis (Principal Component Analysis) aimed to determine the relative importance of each adopted indicator. Our results show that GRASS, QGIS and R software are suitable to map land degradation vulnerability and identify highly vulnerable areas in which rehabilitation/recovery interventions are urgent. In addition they allow us to put into evidence the most important drivers of degradation thus supplying basic information for the setting up of intervention strategies. Ultimately, Free Open Source Software deliver a fair chance for geoscientific investigations thanks to their high interoperability and flexibility enabling to preserve the accuracy of the data and to reduce processing time. Moreover, the presence of several communities that steadily support users allows for achieving high quality results, making free open source software a valuable and easy alternative to conventional commercial software.

Imbrenda, Vito; Calamita, Giuseppe; Coluzzi, Rosa; D'Emilio, Mariagrazia; Lanfredi, Maria Teresa; Perrone, Angela; Ragosta, Maria; Simoniello, Tiziana

2013-04-01

322

ITL BULLETIN FOR DECEMBER 2013 THE NATIONAL VULNERABILITY DATABASE (NVD): OVERVIEW  

E-print Network

ITL BULLETIN FOR DECEMBER 2013 THE NATIONAL VULNERABILITY DATABASE (NVD): OVERVIEW Harold Booth Institute of Standards and Technology U.S. Department of Commerce The National Vulnerability Database (NVD provide a baseline analysis of the potential sev

323

A case study of social vulnerability mapping: issues of scale and aggregation  

E-print Network

This study uses geographic information systems to determine if the aggregation of census block data are better than census block group data for analyzing social vulnerability. This was done by applying a social vulnerability method that used census...

Burns, Gabriel Ryan

2009-05-15

324

State Vulnerability to Disaster: a BioQUEST Summer Workshop Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using the paper Katrina and Vulnerability: the Geography of Stress (Curtis, Mills, Leitner, 2010), we explored vulnerability using multiple stress factors in order to make an assessment of the impact of disaster.

Stacey Kiser (Lane Community College;Biology); Joyce Cadwallader (Saint-Mary-of-the-Woods College;Biology)

2010-06-18

325

77 FR 6548 - Notice of Availability of Ballistic Survivability, Lethality and Vulnerability Analyses  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...lethality and vulnerability (SLV) analyses. ARL/SLAD conducts SLV analyses, using the MUVES-S2 vulnerability...of ground and air vehicles. These analyses are used to support production, design, trade and evaluation...

2012-02-08

326

Vulnerability assessment at a national level in Georgia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vulnerability assessment at a national level in Georgia Nino Tsereteli, Vakhtang Arabidze, Otar Varazanashvili, Tengiz Gugeshashvili The risk always exists when cities are built on. Population growth in cities and urbanization in natural hazard-prone zones leads to infrastructure expansion. The goal of the society is to construct natural hazards resistant infrastructure and minimize the expected losses. This is a complicated task as there is always knowledge deficiency on real seismic hazard and vulnerability. Assessment of vulnerability is vital in risk analysis, as vulnerability is defined in many different ways. Work presented here mostly deals with assessment of infrastructure's and population vulnerability at national level in Georgia. This work was initiated by NATO SFP project "seismic Hazard and Risk Assessment for Southern Caucasus - Eastern Turkey Energy Corridors" and the two work packages WP4 (seismic risk) and WP5 (city scenarios) of risk module of EMME (Earthquake Model of the Middle East Region) project. First step was creation databases (inventory) of elements at risk in GIS. Element at risk were the buildings, population, pipelines. The inventories was studied and Created in GIS for the following categories: Building material, number of stories, number of entrances, condition of building, building period. For pipelines pipe tipe (continous or segmented), material, pipe diameter. Very important is to estimate the initial cost of building for assessment of economic losses. From this purpose the attempt was done and the algorithm of this estimation were prepared taking into account obtained the inventory. Build quality, reliability and durability are of special importance to corresponding state agencies and include different aesthetic, engineering, practical, social, technological and economical aspects. The necessity that all of these aspects satisfy existing normative requirements becomes evident as the building and structures come into exploitation. The long term usage of building is very complex. It relates to the reliability and durability of buildings. The long term usage and durability of a building is determined by the concept of depreciation. Depreciation of an entire building is calculated by summing the products of individual construction unit' depreciation rates and the corresponding value of these units within the building. This method of calculation is based on an assumption that depreciation is proportional to the building's (constructions) useful life. We used this methodology to create a matrix, which provides a way to evaluate the depreciation rates of buildings with different type and construction period and to determine their corresponding value. Finely some attempt was done to investigate how these structures were damaged by various hazards. In other words vulnerability curves were constrained on the basis on the relation between various hazard intensities and damage data.

Tsereteli, N.; Arabidze, V.; Varazanashvili, O.; Gugeshashvili, T.

2012-04-01

327

VuWiki: An Ontology-Based Semantic Wiki for Vulnerability Assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of vulnerability, as well as its implementation in vulnerability assessments, is used in various disciplines and contexts ranging from disaster management and reduction to ecology, public health or climate change and adaptation, and a corresponding multitude of ideas about how to conceptualize and measure vulnerability exists. Three decades of research in vulnerability have generated a complex and growing body of knowledge that challenges newcomers, practitioners and even experienced researchers. To provide a structured representation of the knowledge field "vulnerability assessment", we have set up an ontology-based semantic wiki for reviewing and representing vulnerability assessments: VuWiki, www.vuwiki.org. Based on a survey of 55 vulnerability assessment studies, we first developed an ontology as an explicit reference system for describing vulnerability assessments. We developed the ontology in a theoretically controlled manner based on general systems theory and guided by principles for ontology development in the field of earth and environment (Raskin and Pan 2005). Four key questions form the first level "branches" or categories of the developed ontology: (1) Vulnerability of what? (2) Vulnerability to what? (3) What reference framework was used in the vulnerability assessment?, and (4) What methodological approach was used in the vulnerability assessment? These questions correspond to the basic, abstract structure of the knowledge domain of vulnerability assessments and have been deduced from theories and concepts of various disciplines. The ontology was then implemented in a semantic wiki which allows for the classification and annotation of vulnerability assessments. As a semantic wiki, VuWiki does not aim at "synthesizing" a holistic and overarching model of vulnerability. Instead, it provides both scientists and practitioners with a uniform ontology as a reference system and offers easy and structured access to the knowledge field of vulnerability assessments with the possibility for any user to retrieve assessments using specific research criteria. Furthermore, Vuwiki can serve as a collaborative knowledge platform that allows for the active participation of those generating and using the knowledge represented in the wiki.

Khazai, Bijan; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Büscher, Christian; Wegner, Antje

2014-05-01

328

Integrating your information security vulnerability management capabilities through industry standards (CVE&OVAL)  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are important changes to the cyber-security industry, being fostered by the Common Vulnerability Exposures (CVE®) and Open Vulnerability Assessment Language (OVAL™) Initiatives, a pair of international, community-based effort amongst industry, government, and academia. These changes will transform the way your enterprise deals with vulnerabilities in the commercial and open source components of your enterprise infrastructure and mission systems. With

Robert A. Martin

2003-01-01

329

Tsunami damages assessment: vulnerability functions on buildings based on field and earth observation survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assessment of damages caused by tsunami scenarios on coastal buildings requires using vulnerability matrixes or functions to carry out a relation between the magnitude of the phenomena and the damage expected. These functions represent the probability for a building belonging to a class of vulnerability to suffer from a mean damage level. The physical vulnerability of buildings depends on

A. L. Gauraz; N. Valencia; M. Koscielny; R. Guillande; A. Gardi; F. Leone; T. Salaun

2009-01-01

330

Hotep's Story: Exploring the Wounds of Health Vulnerability in the US  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide variety of forms of domination hasresulted in a highly heterogeneous health riskcategory, ``the vulnerable.'' The study of healthinequities sheds light on forces thatgenerate, sustain, and alter vulnerabilities toillness, injury, suffering and death. Thispaper analyzes the case of a high-risk teenfrom a Boston ghetto that illuminatesintersections between ``race'' and class in theconstruction of vulnerability in the US.Exploration of his

Ken Fox

2002-01-01

331

Wary managers: Unfavorable environments, perceived vulnerability, and the development of trust in foreign enterprises in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vulnerability is salient among international managers, who tend to be wary when operating in transition economies like China. Systematic research is lacking, though, on how the local environment influences foreign managers’ perception of vulnerability, and how foreign managers can develop trust even when their perceived vulnerability is high. We conducted in-depth case studies of two foreign-controlled enterprises in China, and

Lai Si Tsui-Auch; Guido Möllering

2008-01-01

332

Extreme Vulnerability of Migrants: The Cases of the United States and Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the notion of vulnerability of migrants, with respect to the realities of two countries, the United States and Mexico. The vulnerability of migrants is understood as a heterogeneously imposed condition of powerlessness. This is based on the premise that migrants are inherently vulnerable as subjects of human rights from the point of their departure as they

Jorge A. Bustamante

2010-01-01

333

Genomic and biochemical approaches in the discovery of mechanisms for selective neuronal vulnerability to oxidative stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress (OS) is an important factor in brain aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Certain neurons in different brain regions exhibit selective vulnerability to OS. Currently little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this selective neuronal vulnerability. The purpose of this study was to identify endogenous factors that predispose vulnerable neurons to OS by employing genomic and biochemical approaches.

Xinkun Wang; Asma Zaidi; Ranu Pal; Alexander S Garrett; Rogelio Braceras; Xue-wen Chen; Mary L Michaelis; Elias K Michaelis

2009-01-01

334

Seasonal Variation in the Vulnerability Discovery Process HyunChul Joh and Yashwant K. Malaiya  

E-print Network

Seasonal Variation in the Vulnerability Discovery Process HyunChul Joh and Yashwant K. Malaiya for handling vulnerabilities discovered. Seasonal behaviors of the vulnerability discovery process for a multi operating systems, web servers and web browsers suggests presence of a seasonal behavior

Malaiya, Yashwant K.

335

HIV Vulnerability and Condom Use Among Migrant Women Factory Workers in Puebla, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

International migration is associated with increased HIV vulnerability, but little is known about the vulnerability of internal migrants. This qualitative study explored perceptions of HIV and condom use among Mexican migrant female factory workers. Migration and male sexual infidelity contributed to increased HIV vulnerability and unprotected sex was ubiquitous. The dominant cultural discourse that dichotomizes “good” (monogamous) and “bad” (sexually

Tamil Kendall; Blanca Estela Pelcastre

2010-01-01

336

GMO, CONSUMPTION AND CONSUMER VULNERABILITY IN BRAZILIAN CONSUMER LAW: THE RIGHT TO BE  

E-print Network

GMO, CONSUMPTION AND CONSUMER VULNERABILITY IN BRAZILIAN CONSUMER LAW: THE RIGHT TO BE DULY genetically modified organisms. Key words: Consumer. Vulnerability. Lacking of resources. GMO Résumé - Le : France (2010)" #12;GMO, consumption and consumer vulnerability in Brazilian Consumer Law: the right

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

337

Linux kernel vulnerabilities: State-of-the-art defenses and open problems  

E-print Network

Linux kernel vulnerabilities: State-of-the-art defenses and open problems Haogang Chen Yandong Mao-of-the-art with respect to kernel protection techniques, by presenting two case studies of Linux kernel vulnerabilities. First, this paper presents data on 141 Linux kernel vulnerabilities discovered from January 2010

Sabatini, David M.

338

Study on evaluation method and its application of reservoir earth dam overtopping vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The definition and quantitative expression of the overtopping vulnerability were introduced based on the natural disasters risk evaluation mode recommended by the Humanitarian Affairs Department of United Nations. In the study, the assessment model of the property index and population index reflect vulnerability was explicitly given. Divide the interval of overtopping vulnerability on a scale of 0 to 1 by

Chong-Xun Mo; Qun-Chao Du; Xin-Yi Fan; Wen-Jin Tian

2010-01-01

339

EVMAT: an OVAL and NVD based enterprise vulnerability modeling and assessment tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterprise-wide vulnerability assessment is one of the key processes of Enterprise Risk Management. However, due to the complexity of IT systems, it requires extremely time-consuming effort for information security professionals to evaluate enterprise vulnerability scores and security status on a regular basis. Security administrators are seeking for an automated tool that helps monitor and evaluate the overall vulnerability of an

Bin Wu; Andy Ju An Wang

2011-01-01

340

Climate Change Vulnerability of Native and Alien Freshwater Fishes of California: A Systematic Assessment  

E-print Network

Climate Change Vulnerability of Native and Alien Freshwater Fishes of California: A Systematic and climate change vulnerability scores were derived for 121 native and 43 alien fish species. The two scores baseline and greater climate change vulnerability than did alien species. Fifty percent of California

341

Copper pathology in vulnerable brain regions in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Synchrotron-based x-ray fluorescence microscopy, immunofluorescence, and Western blotting were used to investigate changes in copper (Cu) and Cu-associated pathways in the vulnerable substantia nigra (SN) and locus coeruleus (LC) and in nondegenerating brain regions in cases of Parkinson's disease (PD) and appropriate healthy and disease controls. In PD and incidental Lewy body disease, levels of Cu and Cu transporter protein 1, were significantly reduced in surviving neurons in the SN and LC. Specific activity of the cuproprotein superoxide dismutase 1 was unchanged in the SN in PD but was enhanced in the parkinsonian anterior cingulate cortex, a region with ?-synuclein pathology, normal Cu, and limited cell loss. These data suggest that regions affected by ?-synuclein pathology may display enhanced vulnerability and cell loss if Cu-dependent protective mechanisms are compromised. Additional investigation of copper pathology in PD may identify novel targets for the development of protective therapies for this disorder. PMID:24176624

Davies, Katherine M; Bohic, Sylvain; Carmona, Asunción; Ortega, Richard; Cottam, Veronica; Hare, Dominic J; Finberg, John P M; Reyes, Stefanie; Halliday, Glenda M; Mercer, Julian F B; Double, Kay L

2014-04-01

342

Vulnerability, Sensitivity, and Coping/Adaptive Capacity Worldwide  

SciTech Connect

Research and analyses have repeatedly shown that impacts of climate change will be unevenly distributed and will affect various societies in various ways. The severity of impacts will depend in part on ability to cope in the short term and adapt in the longer term. However, it has been difficult to find a comparative basis on which to assess differential impacts of climate change. This chapter describes the Vulnerability-Resilience Indicator Model that uses 18 proxy indicators, grouped into 8 elements, to assess on a quantitative basis the comparative potential vulnerability and resilience of countries to climate change. The model integrates socioeconomic and environmental information such as land use, crop production, water availability, per capita GDP, inequality, and health status. Comparative results for 160 countries are presented and analyzed.

Malone, Elizabeth L.; Brenkert, Antoinette L.

2009-10-01

343

Vulnerability of a killer whale social network to disease outbreaks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emerging infectious diseases are among the main threats to conservation of biological diversity. A crucial task facing epidemiologists is to predict the vulnerability of populations of endangered animals to disease outbreaks. In this context, the network structure of social interactions within animal populations may affect disease spreading. However, endangered animal populations are often small and to investigate the dynamics of small networks is a difficult task. Using network theory, we show that the social structure of an endangered population of mammal-eating killer whales is vulnerable to disease outbreaks. This feature was found to be a consequence of the combined effects of the topology and strength of social links among individuals. Our results uncover a serious challenge for conservation of the species and its ecosystem. In addition, this study shows that the network approach can be useful to study dynamical processes in very small networks.

Guimarães, Paulo R., Jr.; de Menezes, Márcio Argollo; Baird, Robin W.; Lusseau, David; Guimarães, Paulo; Dos Reis, Sérgio F.

2007-10-01

344

Existential vulnerability: toward a psychopathology of limit situations.  

PubMed

Jaspers' concept of limit situations seems particularly appropriate not only to elucidate outstanding existential situations in general, but also basic preconditions for the occurrence of mental disorders. For this purpose, the concept is first explained in Jaspers' sense and then related to an 'existential vulnerability' of mentally ill persons that makes them experience even inconspicuous events as distressing limit situations. In such situations, an otherwise hidden fundamental condition of existence becomes manifest for them, e.g. the fragility of one's own body, the inevitability of freedom, or the finiteness of life. This fundamental condition is found unbearable and, as a reaction, gives rise to mental illness. This concept of existential vulnerability is illustrated by some psychopathological examples. PMID:23860487

Fuchs, Thomas

2013-01-01

345

Impact of HMO Withdrawals on Vulnerable Medicare Beneficiaries  

PubMed Central

The Medicare+Choice (M+C) program has faced successive waves of plan withdrawals since 1999. We collected data from 1,055 beneficiaries who were involuntarily disenrolled from a health maintenance organization (HMO) that withdrew from six large markets in 1999 to investigate how they were impacted by the forced change in coverage. Administrative data from this HMO were used to oversample beneficiaries who were perceived to be vulnerable based on their poor health status in the period before the HMO withdrawal. Although most beneficiaries dealt with the withdrawals without major problems, appreciable numbers of beneficiaries did report adverse impacts. These negative impacts were more likely to occur for low-education, low-income, minority beneficiaries. We found little evidence, however, that beneficiaries who were vulnerable due to their poorer health experienced more adverse effects. PMID:17290625

Schoenman, Julie A.; Parente, Stephen T.; Feldman, Jacob J.; Shah, Mona M.; Evans, William N.; Finch, Michael D.

2005-01-01

346

Cognitive vulnerabilities as mediators between emotional abuse and depressive symptoms.  

PubMed

This study tested whether childhood parental emotional abuse and peer emotional bullying serve as antecedents of depression in adolescence and identified the cognitive mechanisms involved in this process. It was hypothesized that the experience of emotional abuse would predict depressive symptoms via development of rumination and negative inferences. A 3-wave longitudinal study was carried out with 998 adolescents (471 girls and 526 boys) between 13 and 17 years of age. Results showed that emotional abuse by parents and peers at Time 1 predicted a worsening of several cognitive vulnerabilities at Time 2. In addition, brooding mediated between the experiences of abuse and the increase of depressive symptoms at Time 3. Thus, findings suggest that the experiences of childhood emotional abuse by parents and peers serve as antecedents to develop a negative cognitive style, vulnerability that, once developed, is a risk factor for the onset of depressive symptoms in adolescence. PMID:24292965

Padilla Paredes, Patricia; Calvete, Esther

2014-07-01

347

Reducing vulnerability to drought and famine: developmental approaches to relief.  

PubMed

In this paper we present salient lessons learned through the International Relief/Development Project about the relationships between disasters and development. We discuss approaches to famine response and prevention, including the impact of global food distribution efforts on the capacities of people affected by famine and offer criteria for planning famine relief so that it will promote systemic, long term development of these capacities. We first describe a collaborative research project which showed that it is possible for international famine assistance either to promote the capacities of people who suffer from famine so that they are better able to handle future food crises, or to leave those it purports to help worse off and even more vulnerable to subsequent disasters. We then illustrate alternative strategies for promoting development in the midst of crisis by presenting information about a number of famine response programs and analyzing their impact on capacities and vulnerabilities. PMID:20958714

Anderson, M B; Woodrow, P J

1991-03-01

348

Effective health risk communication about pandemic influenza for vulnerable populations.  

PubMed

The consequences of pandemic influenza for vulnerable populations will depend partly on the effectiveness of health risk communications. Strategic planning should fully consider how life circumstances, cultural values, and perspectives on risk influence behavior during a pandemic. We summarize recent scientific evidence on communication challenges and examine how sociocultural, economic, psychological, and health factors can jeopardize or facilitate public health interventions that require a cooperative public. If ignored, current communication gaps for vulnerable populations could result in unequal protection across society during an influenza pandemic. We offer insights on communication preparedness gleaned from scientific studies and the deliberations of public health experts at a meeting convened by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, May 1 and 2, 2008. PMID:19797744

Vaughan, Elaine; Tinker, Timothy

2009-10-01

349

Human donor milk for the vulnerable infant: a Canadian perspective  

PubMed Central

Breast milk is the normal way to feed infants and is accepted worldwide as the optimal first source of nutrition. Though the majority intend to breastfeed, many mothers of sick, hospitalized newborns, particularly those of very low birth weight, are unable to provide a full volume of milk due to numerous physical and emotional barriers to breastfeeding. This vulnerable population of infants may benefit most from receiving breast milk nutrition and thus pasteurized donor milk should be the first consideration for supplementation when there is an inadequate supply of mother’s own milk. This commentary will briefly review the history of milk banking in Canada, as well as the best available evidence for donor milk use in the very low birth weight population, including available economic analyses, with a view to advocate for its use in these vulnerable infants. PMID:24742283

2014-01-01

350

Comprehensive care for vulnerable elderly veterans during disasters.  

PubMed

Despite problematic evacuation and sheltering of nursing home residents during Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, an exploration of the experiences of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) nursing homes (VANHs) is necessary for a comprehensive examination of the healthcare community's response to these disasters. VANH evacuations during these hurricanes have not been widely studied. This exploratory project aimed to provide information about the evacuation experiences and characteristics of vulnerable nursing home residents. Interviews with key informants from VHA facilities with nursing home staff and representatives revealed that physical harm, psychological distress, cognitive decline and increased social isolation were areas that deserved special attention for this vulnerable population. Moreover, physical, psychological and social needs were interconnected in that each influenced the others. Findings contribute to the general conversation about meeting the biopsychosocial needs of nursing home residents in an integrated healthcare delivery system and more broadly, the role of long-term care facilities in general in planning for future disasters. PMID:22901664

Claver, Maria; Dobalian, Aram; Fickel, Jacqueline J; Ricci, Karen A; Mallers, Melanie Horn

2013-01-01

351

Vulnerability and Resilience: A Study of High-Risk Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Factors that allow children to maintain socially competent behaviors despite stress were examined among 144 inner-city ninth-grade students with a mean age of 15.3 years. Stress was operationalized by scores on a negative life events scale, and definitions of social competence were based on peer ratings, teacher ratings, and school grades. Moderator variables examined included intelligence, internal locus of control, social skills, ego development, and positive life events. Following theoretical models by Garmezy and Rutter, distinctions were made between compensatory factors (which are directly related to competence) and protective/vulnerability factors (which interact with stress in influencing competence). Ego development was found to be compensatory against stress. Internality and social skills proved to be protective factors, while intelligence and positive events were involved in vulnerability processes. This study also revealed that children labeled as resilient were significantly more depressed and anxious than were competent children from low stress backgrounds. PMID:1914628

Luthar, Suniya S.

2014-01-01

352

[Human vulnerability under cosmetic surgery. A bioethic analysis].  

PubMed

Cosmetic surgery is one of the best examples of the current health empowerment. Aesthetic surgical interventions have been criticized because they expose the healthy individual to an unnecessary risk. In modern society the body has turned into a beauty depository with a commercial value. In published bioethics papers, analyses of the cosmetic problem pointed their attention on the freedom, autonomy and distributive justice. Mexico occupies fifth place in the world of cosmetic surgeries. Vulnerability is an inherent condition of man's existence and marks the limit of human dignity. UNESCO agrees that some populations are more inclined to vulnerability. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that those who wish to make a physical change had given up to social coercion and psychological problems. PMID:22768823

Ramos-Rocha de Viesca, Mariablanca

2012-01-01

353

Perceptions of Quality of Life Effects of Diabetes Treatments Among Vulnerable and Non-Vulnerable Older Patients Running title: Perceptions of Diabetes Treatments  

PubMed Central

Objectives Geriatric diabetes care guidelines recommend that treatment intensity be based on patient preferences and clinical criteria such as limited life expectancy and functional decline (i.e., vulnerability). We assessed whether patient perceptions of diabetes treatments differed by vulnerability. Design Cross-sectional survey Setting Clinics affiliated with two Chicago-area hospitals Participants Patients 65 and over, living with type 2 diabetes (N=332). Measurements We assessed utilities, preference ratings on a scale from 0 to 1, for nine treatment states using time trade-off questions and queried patients about specific concerns regarding medications. Vulnerability was defined by the Vulnerable Elders Scale. Results One third (36%) of patients were vulnerable. Vulnerable patients were older (77 vs. 73 years of age) and had a longer duration of diabetes (13 vs. 10 years) (p’s < 0.05). Vulnerable patients reported lower utilities than non-vulnerable patients for most individual treatment states (e.g., Intensive Glucose Control, mean 0.61 vs. 0.72, p<0.01) but within group variation was large for both groups (e.g., standard deviations >0.25). While mean individual state utilities differed across groups, we found no significant differences in how vulnerable and non-vulnerable patients compared intensive and conventional treatment states (e.g., Intensive versus Conventional Glucose Control). In multivariable analyses, the association between vulnerability and individual treatment state utilities became non-significant except for the cholesterol pill. Conclusions Older patients’ preferences for diabetes treatment intensity vary widely and are not closely associated with vulnerability. This observation underscores the importance of involving older patients in diabetes treatment decisions, irrespective of clinical status. PMID:18492034

Brown, Sydney E.S.; Meltzer, David O.; Chin, Marshall H.

2008-01-01

354

Quantifying water vulnerability: a multi-dimensional approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In today’s uncertain world, vulnerability of water supplies is of increasing concern. A number of factors influence this,\\u000a ranging from physical conditions through to human management capacities. Across the Orange River Basin in southern Africa,\\u000a these threats arise from overpopulation and farming pressure, with agrochemical and industrial runoff as well as harsh weather\\u000a conditions giving rise to severe problems of

Caroline A. Sullivan

2011-01-01

355

BrowserShield: Vulnerability-Driven Filtering of Dynamic HTML  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vulnerability-driven filtering of network data can offer a fast and easy-to-deploy alternative or intermediary to software patching, as exemplified in Shield (43). In this paper, we take Shield's vision to a new domain, inspect- ing and cleansing not just static content, but also dy- namic content. The dynamic content we target is the dynamic HTML in web pages, which have

Charles Reis; John Dunagany; Helen J. Wangy Opher

356

Vulnerability and Gambling Addiction: Psychosocial Benchmarks and Avenues for Intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defined by researchers as “a silent epidemic” the gambling phenomenon is a social problem that has a negative impact on individuals,\\u000a families and communities. Among these effects, there is exasperating evidence of comprised community networks, a deterioration\\u000a of family and social ties, psychiatric co-morbidity, suicides and more recently, homelessness. In this context, individual,\\u000a structural and social vulnerabilities become important markers

Amnon Jacob Suissa

2011-01-01

357

A vulnerability function for Mediterranean flash flood risk assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood risk is a major type of environmental hazard jeopardizing human development, and is usually defined as a functional relation between the hazard, such as the physical and statistical aspects of flooding (e.g. return period of a certain flow height, spatial extend of inundation), and the associated vulnerability, i.e. the exposure of people and assets to floods and the susceptibility of the elements at risk to suffer from flood damage. The assessment of vulnerability -from the quantitative point of view- expresses vulnerability as the expected degree of loss for a given element at risk as a consequence of a certain event. It is ranges on a scale from 0 (no damage) to 1 (complete destruction) and focuses on direct flood loss which is estimated by damage or loss functions. A methodology for the development of a vulnerability curve for Mediterranean flash flood risk assessment is presented. This curve is based on a relationship between the intensity of the process and the associated degree of loss of elements at risk. The computation procedure is based on a method combining spatially explicit loss data, data on the value of exposed elements at risk and data on flood intensities on an individual building scale (local scale). The developed methodology is applied for the district of East Attica in Greece, a Mediterranean region influenced by mountain and coastal characteristics of land development. The aim of the study is to provide a valuable tool for the local authorities and the decision makers, a necessary implementation of flood risk management emerging from the requirements laid down in the European Flood Directive, as well as for an assessment of potential costs emerging from future flood events in order to protect individual households.

Karagiorgos, Konstantinos; Hübl, Johannes; Thaler, Thomas; Fuchs, Sven

2014-05-01

358

Identifying vulnerabilities in communication in the emergency department  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Communication in the emergency department (ED) is a complex process where failure can lead to poor patient care, loss of information, delays and inefficiency.Aim:To describe the investigation of the communication processes within the ED, identify points of vulnerability and guide improvement strategies.Methods:The Failure Mode Effects Analysis (FMEA) technique was used to examine the process of communication between healthcare professionals involved

E Redfern; R Brown; C A Vincent

2009-01-01

359

Homeless Youth in Toronto Are Nutritionally Vulnerable1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to characterize nutritional vulnerability among a sample of homeless youth in downtown Toronto. Interviews were conducted with 261 homeless youth (149 male, 112 female), recruited from drop-in centers and outdoor locations. Information about current living circumstances, nutrition and health- related behaviors, and 24-h dietary intake recalls were collected, and height, weight, triceps skinfold thickness, and mid-upper

Valerie Tarasuk; Naomi Dachner; Jinguang Li

360

BrowserShield: Vulnerability-Driven Filtering of Dynamic HTML  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vulnerability-driven filtering of network data can offer a fast and easy-to-deploy alternative or intermediary to software patching, as exemplified in Shield (43). In this paper, we take Shield's vision to a new domain, inspect- ing and cleansing not just static content, but also dy- namic content. The dynamic content we target is the dynamic HTML in web pages, which have

Charles Reis; John Dunagan; Helen J. Wang; Opher Dubrovsky; Saher Esmeir

2006-01-01

361

BrowserShield: Vulnerability-driven filtering of dynamic HTML  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Vulnerability-driven filtering of network data can offer a fast and easy-to-deploy alternative or intermediary to software patching, as exemplified in Shield [43]. In this paper, we take Shield’s vision to a new domain, inspect- ing and cleansing not just static content, but also dy- namic,content. The dynamic,content we target is the dynamic HTML in web pages, which have become

Charles Reis; John Dunagan; Helen J. Wang; Opher Dubrovsky; Saher Esmeir

2007-01-01

362

Vulnerability Assessments of Colorado Ground Water to Nitrate Contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrate (NO3-N) contamination of ground water aquifers is an important problem in the United States and throughout the world, particularly as ground water resources become increasingly relied upon to support human needs. Cost effective methodologies are needed to facilitate decision-making for ground water protection. To aid ground water protection organizations, we designed two tools to assess aquifer vulnerability to NO3-N

Z. L. Ceplecha; R. M. Waskom; T. A. Bauder; J. L. Sharkoff; R. Khosla

2004-01-01

363

Guiding Climate Change Adaptation Within Vulnerable Natural Resource Management Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change has the potential to compromise the sustainability of natural resources in Mediterranean climatic systems,\\u000a such that short-term reactive responses will increasingly be insufficient to ensure effective management. There is a simultaneous\\u000a need for both the clear articulation of the vulnerabilities of specific management systems to climate risk, and the development\\u000a of appropriate short- and long-term strategic planning responses

Douglas K. Bardsley; Susan M. Sweeney

2010-01-01

364

Chapter 2 Vulnerability of Marine Turtles to Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine turtles are generally viewed as vulnerable to climate change because of the role that temperature plays in the sex determination of embryos, their long life history, long age-to-maturity and their highly migratory nature. Extant species of marine turtles probably arose during the mid–late Jurassic period (180–150 Mya) so have survived past shifts in climate, including glacial periods and warm

Elvira S. Poloczanska; Colin J. Limpus; Graeme C. Hays

2009-01-01

365

Spectral CT imaging of vulnerable plaque with two independent biomarkers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of a novel four-material decomposition technique for assessing the vulnerability of plaque with two contrast materials spectral computer tomography (CT) using two independent markers: plaque's inflammation and spotty calcification. A simulation study was conducted using an energy-sensitive photon-counting detector for k-edge imaging of the coronary arteries. In addition to detecting

Pavlo Baturin; Yahya Alivov; Sabee Molloi

2012-01-01

366

Working towards sustainable urban water management: the vulnerability blind spot.  

PubMed

The unprecedented water scarcity in Australia coincides with the adoption of a new urban water rhetoric. The 'Security through Diversity' strategy has been adopted in a number of Australian cities as a new and innovative approach to urban water management. Although this strategy offers a more holistic approach to urban water management, in practice, the Security through Diversity strategy is largely being interpreted and implemented in a way that maintains the historical dependence on large scale, centralised water infrastructure and therefore perpetuates existing urban water vulnerabilities. This research explores the implementation of Security through Diversity as the new water scarcity response strategy in the cities of Perth and Melbourne. Through a qualitative study with over sixty-five urban water practitioners, the results reveal that the practitioners have absorbed the new Security through Diversity language whilst maintaining the existing problem and solution framework for urban water management. This can be explained in terms of an entrenched technological path dependency and cognitive lock-in that is preventing practitioners from more comprehensively engaging with the complexities of the Security through Diversity strategy, which is ultimately perpetuating the existing vulnerability of our cities. This paper suggests that greater engagement with the underlying purpose of the security though diversity strategy is a necessary first step to overcome the constraints of the traditional technological paradigm and more effectively reduce the continued vulnerability of Australian cities. PMID:22170828

Werbeloff, L; Brown, R

2011-01-01

367

Vulnerabilities and Attacks Targeting Social Networks and Industrial Control Systems  

E-print Network

Vulnerability is a weakness, shortcoming or flaw in the system or network infrastructure which can be used by an attacker to harm the system, disrupt its normal operation and use it for his financial, competitive or other motives or just for cyber escapades. In this paper, we re-examined the various types of attacks on industrial control systems as well as on social networking users. We have listed which all vulnerabilities were exploited for executing these attacks and their effects on these systems and social networks. The focus will be mainly on the vulnerabilities that are used in OSNs as the convertors which convert the social network into antisocial network and these networks can be further used for the network attacks on the users associated with the victim user whereby creating a consecutive chain of attacks on increasing number of social networking users. Another type of attack, Stuxnet Attack which was originally designed to attack Iran's nuclear facilities is also discussed here which harms the sys...

Singh, Dharmendra; Songara, Pawan; Rathi, Dr Rakesh

2014-01-01

368

Rapid Assessment of Seismic Vulnerability in Palestinian Refugee Camps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of historical and recorded earthquakes in Palestine demonstrate that damaging earthquakes are occurring frequently along the Dead Sea Transform: Earthquake of 11 July 1927 (ML 6.2), Earthquake of 11 February 2004 (ML 5.2). In order to reduce seismic vulnerability of buildings, losses in lives, properties and infrastructures, an attempt was made to estimate the percentage of damage degrees and losses at selected refugee camps: Al Ama`ri, Balata and Dhaishe. Assessing the vulnerability classes of building structures was carried out according to the European Macro-Seismic Scale 1998 (EMS-98) and the Fedral Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The rapid assessment results showed that very heavy structural and non structural damages will occur in the common buildings of the investigated Refugee Camps (many buildings will suffer from damages grades 4 and 5). Bad quality of buildings in terms of design and construction, lack of uniformity, absence of spaces between the building and the limited width of roads will definitely increase the seismic vulnerability under the influence of moderate-strong (M 6-7) earthquakes in the future.

Al-Dabbeek, Jalal N.; El-Kelani, Radwan J.

369

Trophic factors differentiate dopamine neurons vulnerable to Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Recent studies suggest a variety of factors characterize substantia nigra neurons vulnerable to Parkinson's disease, including the transcription factors pituitary homeobox 3 (Pitx3) and orthodenticle homeobox 2 (Otx2) and the trophic factor receptor deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC), but there is limited information on their expression and localization in adult humans. Pitx3, Otx2, and DCC were immunohistochemically localized in the upper brainstem of adult humans and mice and protein expression assessed using relative intensity measures and online microarray data. Pitx3 was present and highly expressed in most dopamine neurons. Surprisingly, in our elderly subjects no Otx2 immunoreactivity was detected in dopamine neurons, although Otx2 gene expression was found in younger cases. Enhanced DCC gene expression occurred in the substantia nigra, and higher amounts of DCC protein characterized vulnerable ventral nigral dopamine neurons. Our data show that, at the age when Parkinson's disease typically occurs, there are no significant differences in the expression of transcription factors in brainstem dopamine neurons, but those most vulnerable to Parkinson's disease rely more on the trophic factor receptor DCC than other brainstem dopamine neurons. PMID:22926168

Reyes, Stefanie; Fu, Yuhong; Double, Kay L; Cottam, Veronica; Thompson, Lachlan H; Kirik, Deniz; Paxinos, George; Watson, Charles; Cooper, Helen M; Halliday, Glenda M

2013-03-01

370

Hierarchical statistical modeling of xylem vulnerability to cavitation.  

PubMed

Cavitation of xylem elements diminishes the water transport capacity of plants, and quantifying xylem vulnerability to cavitation is important to understanding plant function. Current approaches to analyzing hydraulic conductivity (K) data to infer vulnerability to cavitation suffer from problems such as the use of potentially unrealistic vulnerability curves, difficulty interpreting parameters in these curves, a statistical framework that ignores sampling design, and an overly simplistic view of uncertainty. This study illustrates how two common curves (exponential-sigmoid and Weibull) can be reparameterized in terms of meaningful parameters: maximum conductivity (k(sat)), water potential (-P) at which percentage loss of conductivity (PLC) =X% (P(X)), and the slope of the PLC curve at P(X) (S(X)), a 'sensitivity' index. We provide a hierarchical Bayesian method for fitting the reparameterized curves to K(H) data. We illustrate the method using data for roots and stems of two populations of Juniperus scopulorum and test for differences in k(sat), P(X), and S(X) between different groups. Two important results emerge from this study. First, the Weibull model is preferred because it produces biologically realistic estimates of PLC near P = 0 MPa. Second, stochastic embolisms contribute an important source of uncertainty that should be included in such analyses. PMID:19210723

Ogle, Kiona; Barber, Jarrett J; Willson, Cynthia; Thompson, Brenda

2009-01-01

371

General Vulnerability and Exposure Profile to Tsunami in Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Puerto Rico archipelago, located in the seismically active Caribbean region, has been directly affected by tsunamis in the last two centuries. The M 7.3 tsunamigenic earthquake, which occurred on October 11, 1918, caused $29 million in damage, death of 116 people and 100 residents were reported as missing. Presently, deficiencies on urban planning have induced an increase on the number of vulnerable people living inside the tsunami flood areas. Tsunami-prone areas have been delimited for Puerto Rico based on numerical tsunami modeling. However, the demographic, social and physical (e.g. critical and essential facilities) characteristics of these areas have not been documented in detail. We are conducting a municipality and community-level tsunami vulnerability and exposure study using Geographical Information System (GIS) tool. The results of our study are being integrated into the Puerto Rico Disaster Decision Support Tool (DDST). The DDST is a tool that brings access, at no cost, to a variety of updated geo-referenced information for Puerto Rico. This tool provides internet-based scalable maps that will aid emergency managers and decision-makers on their responsibilities and will improve Puerto Rico communities' resilience against tsunami hazard. This project aims to provide an initial estimate of Puerto Rico vulnerability and exposure to tsunami and brings to the community a technological tool that will help increase their awareness of this hazard and to assist them on their decisions.

Ruiz, R.; Huérfano-Moreno, V.

2012-12-01

372

The vulnerable coronary plaque: update on imaging technologies.  

PubMed

Several studies have been carried out on vulnerable plaque as the main culprit for ischaemic cardiac events. Historically, the most important diagnostic technique for studying coronary atherosclerotic disease was to determine the residual luminal diameter by angiographic measurement of the stenosis. However, it has become clear that vulnerable plaque rupture as well as thrombosis, rather than stenosis, triggers most acute ischaemic events and that the quantification of risk based merely on severity of the arterial stenosis is not sufficient. In the last decades, substantial progresses have been made on optimisation of techniques detecting the arterial wall morphology, plaque composition and inflammation. To date, the use of a single technique is not recommended to precisely identify the progression of the atherosclerotic process in human beings. In contrast, the integration of data that can be derived from multiple methods might improve our knowledge about plaque destabilisation. The aim of this narrative review is to update evidence on the accuracy of the currently available non-invasive and invasive imaging techniques in identifying components and morphologic characteristics associated with coronary plaque vulnerability. PMID:23803753

Rosa, Gian Marco; Bauckneht, Matteo; Masoero, Giovanni; Mach, François; Quercioli, Alessandra; Seitun, Sara; Balbi, Manrico; Brunelli, Claudio; Parodi, Antonello; Nencioni, Alessio; Vuilleumier, Nicolas; Montecucco, Fabrizio

2013-10-01

373

Improving delivery of primary care for vulnerable migrants  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To identify and prioritize innovative strategies to address the health concerns of vulnerable migrant populations. Design Modified Delphi consensus process. Setting Canada. Participants Forty-one primary care practitioners, including family physicians and nurse practitioners, who provided care for migrant populations. Methods We used a modified Delphi consensus process to identify and prioritize innovative strategies that could potentially improve the delivery of primary health care for vulnerable migrants. Forty-one primary care practitioners from various centres across Canada who cared for migrant populations proposed strategies and participated in the consensus process. Main findings The response rate was 93% for the first round. The 3 most highly ranked practice strategies to address delivery challenges for migrants were language interpretation, comprehensive interdisciplinary care, and evidence-based guidelines. Training and mentorship for practitioners, intersectoral collaboration, and immigrant community engagement ranked fourth, fifth, and sixth, respectively, as strategies to address delivery challenges. These strategies aligned with strategies coming out of the United States, Europe, and Australia, with the exception of the proposed evidence-based guidelines. Conclusion Primary health care practices across Canada now need to evolve to address the challenges inherent in caring for vulnerable migrants. The selected strategies provide guidance for practices and health systems interested in improving health care delivery for migrant populations. PMID:24452576

Pottie, Kevin; Batista, Ricardo; Mayhew, Maureen; Mota, Lorena; Grant, Karen

2014-01-01

374

Socioeconomic Factors and Vulnerability to Outbreaks of Leptospirosis in Nicaragua  

PubMed Central

Leptospirosis is an epidemic-prone zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide, with more than 500,000 human cases reported annually. It is influenced by environmental and socioeconomic factors that affect the occurrence of outbreaks and the incidence of the disease. Critical areas and potential drivers for leptospirosis outbreaks have been identified in Nicaragua, where several conditions converge and create an appropriate scenario for the development of leptospirosis. The objectives of this study were to explore possible socioeconomic variables related to leptospirosis critical areas and to construct and validate a vulnerability index based on municipal socioeconomic indicators. Municipalities with lower socioeconomic status (greater unsatisfied basic needs for quality of the household and for sanitary services, and higher extreme poverty and illiteracy rates) were identified with the highest leptospirosis rates. The municipalities with highest local vulnerability index should be the priority for intervention. A distinction between risk given by environmental factors and vulnerability to risk given by socioeconomic conditions was shown as important, which also applies to the “causes of outbreaks” and “causes of cases”. PMID:25153463

Bacallao, Jorge; Schneider, Maria Cristina; Najera, Patricia; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Soto, Aida; Marquino, Wilmer; Saenz, Carlos; Jimenez, Eduardo; Moreno, Gilberto; Chavez, Octavio; Galan, Deise I.; Espinal, Marcos A.

2014-01-01

375

Life histories predict vulnerability to overexploitation in parrotfishes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scarcity of life-history data currently exists for many exploited coral reef fishes, hindering our ability to interpret fishery dynamics and develop sound conservation policies. In particular, parrotfishes (Family Labridae) represent a ubiquitous and ecologically important group that is increasingly prevalent in commercial and artisanal fisheries worldwide. We used both fishery-dependent and fishery-independent data to examine the effect of life histories on vulnerability to overexploitation in parrotfishes. Vulnerability for each species was derived from independent measures associated with both temporal (20-year catch records) and spatial datasets. Most life-history traits examined were significant predictors of vulnerability across species, but their relative utility differed considerably. Length-based traits (e.g., lengths at maturity and sex change, maximum length) were generally superior to age-based traits (e.g., life span), but one age-based trait, age at female maturation, was the best predictor. The results suggest that easily derived metrics such as maximum length can be effective measures of sensitivity to exploitation when applied to phylogenetically related multispecies assemblages, but more holistic and comprehensive age-based demographic data should be sought, especially in data-deficient and heavily impacted regions. Given the increasing prevalence of parrotfishes in the global coral reef harvest, species-specific responses demonstrate the capacity for heavy fishing pressure to alter parrotfish assemblages considerably.

Taylor, Brett M.; Houk, Peter; Russ, Garry R.; Choat, J. Howard

2014-12-01

376

An approach for modeling vulnerability of the network of networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a framework is given to model the network of networks and to investigate the vulnerability of the network of networks subjected to failures. Because there are several redundant systems in infrastructure systems, the dependent intensity between two networks is introduced and adopted to discuss the vulnerability of the interdependent infrastructure networks subjected to failures. Shanghai electrified rail transit network is used to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed framework. Because the rail network is dependent on the power grid and communication network, the corresponding power grid and communication network are also included in this system. Meanwhile the failures to the power grid and communication network are utilized to investigate the vulnerability of the rail network. The results show that the rail network strongly depends on the power grid and weakly depends on the communication network, and the transport functionality loss of the rail network increases with the increase of dependent intensity. Meanwhile the highest betweenness node-based attack to the power grid and the largest degree node-based attack to the communication network can result in the most functionality losses to the rail network. Moreover, the functionality loss of the rail network has the smallest value when the tolerance parameter of the power grid equals 0.75 and the critical nodes of the power grid and communication network can be obtained by simulations.

Zhang, Jianhua; Song, Bo; Zhang, Zhaojun; Liu, Haikuan

2014-10-01

377

Vulnerability to temperature-related mortality in Seoul, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies indicate that the mortality effects of temperature may vary by population and region, although little is known about the vulnerability of subgroups to these risks in Korea. This study examined the relationship between temperature and cause-specific mortality for Seoul, Korea, for the period 2000-7, including whether some subgroups are particularly vulnerable with respect to sex, age, education and place of death. The authors applied time-series models allowing nonlinear relationships for heat- and cold-related mortality, and generated exposure-response curves. Both high and low ambient temperatures were associated with increased risk for daily mortality. Mortality risk was 10.2% (95% confidence interval 7.43, 13.0%) higher at the 90th percentile of daily mean temperatures (25 °C) compared to the 50th percentile (15 °C). Mortality risk was 12.2% (3.69, 21.3%) comparing the 10th (-1 °C) and 50th percentiles of temperature. Cardiovascular deaths showed a higher risk to cold, whereas respiratory deaths showed a higher risk to heat effect, although the differences were not statistically significant. Susceptible populations were identified such as females, the elderly, those with no education, and deaths occurring outside of a hospital for heat- and cold-related total mortality. Our findings provide supportive evidence of a temperature-mortality relationship in Korea and indicate that some subpopulations are particularly vulnerable.

Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jong-Tae; Anderson, G. Brooke; Bell, Michelle L.

2011-07-01

378

Assessment of floodplain vulnerability during extreme mississippi river flood 2011.  

PubMed

Regional change in the variability and magnitude of flooding could be a major consequence of future global climate change. Extreme floods have the capacity to rapidly transform landscapes and expose landscape vulnerabilities through highly variable spatial patterns of inundation, erosion, and deposition. We use the historic activation of the Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway during the Mississippi and Ohio River Flooding of 2011 as a scientifically unique stress experiment to analyze indicators of floodplain vulnerability. We use pre- and postflood airborne Light Detection and Ranging data sets to locate erosional and depositional hotspots over the 540 km(2) agricultural Floodway. While riparian vegetation between the river and the main levee breach likely prevented widespread deposition, localized scour and deposition occurred near the levee breaches. Eroded gullies nearly 1 km in length were observed at a low ridge of a relict meander scar of the Mississippi River. Our flow modeling and spatial mapping analysis attributes this vulnerability to a combination of erodible soils, flow acceleration associated with legacy fluvial landforms, and a lack of woody vegetation to anchor soil and enhance flow resistance. Results from this study could guide future mitigation and adaptation measures in cases of extreme flooding. PMID:24512322

Goodwell, Allison E; Zhu, Zhenduo; Dutta, Debsunder; Greenberg, Jonathan A; Kumar, Praveen; Garcia, Marcelo H; Rhoads, Bruce L; Holmes, Robert R; Parker, Gary; Berretta, David P; Jacobson, Robert B

2014-03-01

379

Hydropower and sustainability: resilience and vulnerability in China's powersheds.  

PubMed

Large dams represent a whole complex of social, economic and ecological processes, perhaps more than any other large infrastructure project. Today, countries with rapidly developing economies are constructing new dams to provide energy and flood control to growing populations in riparian and distant urban communities. If the system is lacking institutional capacity to absorb these physical and institutional changes there is potential for conflict, thereby threatening human security. In this paper, we propose analyzing sustainability (political, socioeconomic, and ecological) in terms of resilience versus vulnerability, framed within the spatial abstraction of a powershed. The powershed framework facilitates multi-scalar and transboundary analysis while remaining focused on the questions of resilience and vulnerability relating to hydropower dams. Focusing on examples from China, this paper describes the complex nature of dams using the sustainability and powershed frameworks. We then analyze the roles of institutions in China to understand the relationships between power, human security and the socio-ecological system. To inform the study of conflicts over dams China is a particularly useful case study because we can examine what happens at the international, national and local scales. The powershed perspective allows us to examine resilience and vulnerability across political boundaries from a dynamic, process-defined analytical scale while remaining focused on a host of questions relating to hydro-development that invoke drivers and impacts on national and sub-national scales. The ability to disaggregate the affects of hydropower dam construction from political boundaries allows for a deeper analysis of resilience and vulnerability. From our analysis we find that reforms in China's hydropower sector since 1996 have been motivated by the need to create stability at the national scale rather than resilient solutions to China's growing demand for energy and water resource control at the local and international scales. Some measures that improved economic development through the market economy and a combination of dam construction and institutional reform may indeed improve hydro-political resilience at a single scale. However, if China does address large-scale hydropower construction's potential to create multi-scale geopolitical tensions, they may be vulnerable to conflict - though not necessarily violent - in domestic and international political arenas. We conclude with a look toward a resilient basin institution for the Nu/Salween River, the site of a proposed large-scale hydropower development effort in China and Myanmar. PMID:19013007

McNally, Amy; Magee, Darrin; Wolf, Aaron T

2009-07-01

380

Trait-Like Vulnerability to Total and Partial Sleep Loss  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the extent to which individual differences in vulnerability to total sleep deprivation also reflect individual differences in vulnerability to multiple nights of sleep restriction. Design: Two sleep loss conditions (order counterbalanced) separated by 2 to 4 weeks: (a) total sleep deprivation (TSD) of 2 nights (63 h continuous wakefulness); (b) sleep restriction (SR) of 7 nights of 3 h nightly time in bed (TIB). Both conditions were preceded by 7 in-laboratory nights with 10 h nightly TIB; and followed by 3 recovery nights with 8 h nightly TIB. Measures of cognitive performance (psychomotor vigilance, working memory [1-Back], and mathematical processing), objective alertness, subjective sleepiness, and mood were obtained at regular intervals under both conditions. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) were computed using outcome metrics averaged over the last day (08:00-20:00) of TSD and SR. Setting: Residential sleep/performance testing facility. Participants: Nineteen healthy adults (ages 18-39; 11 males, 8 females). Interventions: 2 nights of TSD and 7 nights SR (3 h nightly TIB). Results: Volunteers who displayed greater vulnerability to TSD displayed greater vulnerability to SR on cognitive performance tasks (ICC: PVT lapses = 0.89; PVT speed = 0.86; 1-Back = 0.88; mathematical processing = 0.68, Ps < 0.05). In addition, trait-like responsivity to TSD/SR was found for mood variables vigor (ICC = 0.91), fatigue (ICC = 0.73), and happiness (ICC = 0.85) (all Ps < 0.05). Conclusion: Resilience to sleep loss is a trait-like characteristic that reflects an individual's ability to maintain performance during both types of sleep loss (SR and TSD). Whether the findings extend to sleep schedules other than those investigated here (63 h of TSD and 7 nights of 3 h nightly TIB) will be the focus of future studies. Citation: Rupp TL; Wesensten NJ; Balkin TJ. Trait-like vulnerability to total and partial sleep loss. SLEEP 2012;35(8):1163-1172. PMID:22851812

Rupp, Tracy L.; Wesensten, Nancy J.; Balkin, Thomas J.

2012-01-01

381

Spectral CT imaging of vulnerable plaque with two independent biomarkers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of a novel four-material decomposition technique for assessing the vulnerability of plaque with two contrast materials spectral computer tomography (CT) using two independent markers: plaque's inflammation and spotty calcification. A simulation study was conducted using an energy-sensitive photon-counting detector for k-edge imaging of the coronary arteries. In addition to detecting the inflammation status, which is known as a biological marker of a plaque's vulnerability, we use spotty calcium concentration as an independent marker to test a plaque's vulnerability. We have introduced a new method for detecting and quantifying calcium concentrations in the presence of two contrast materials (iodine and gold), calcium and soft tissue background. In this method, four-material decomposition was performed on a pixel-by-pixel basis, assuming there was an arbitrary mixture of materials in the voxel. The concentrations of iodine and gold were determined by the k-edge material decomposition based on the maximum likelihood method. The calibration curves of the attenuation coefficients, with respect to the concentrations of different materials, were used to separate the calcium signal from both contrast materials and different soft tissues in the mixtures. Three different materials (muscle, blood and lipid) were independently used as soft tissue. The simulations included both ideal and more realistic energy resolving detectors to measure the polychromatic photon spectrum in single slice parallel beam geometry. The ideal detector was used together with a 3 cm diameter digital phantom to demonstrate the decomposition method while a more realistic detector and a 33 × 24 cm2 digital chest phantom were simulated to validate the vulnerability assessment technique. A 120 kVp spectrum was generated to produce photon flux sufficient for detecting contrast materials above the k-edges of iodine (33.2 keV) and gold (80.7 keV). By performing simulations on a 3 cm diameter digital phantom, we successfully identified four materials that were simultaneously present in the mixture at different proportions and in multiple locations on the phantom. Quantitative analysis with a chest digital phantom showed that the results for iodine, gold and calcium were highly correlated with the known concentrations. The analysis revealed a potentially powerful technique for assessing a plaque's vulnerability with two independent markers. High correlation and low relative errors between calculated and known materials’ concentrations showed that the method is feasible. This technique can potentially have a high clinical impact.

Baturin, Pavlo; Alivov, Yahya; Molloi, Sabee

2012-07-01

382

Spectral CT imaging of vulnerable plaque with two independent biomarkers.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of a novel four-material decomposition technique for assessing the vulnerability of plaque with two contrast materials spectral computer tomography (CT) using two independent markers: plaque's inflammation and spotty calcification. A simulation study was conducted using an energy-sensitive photon-counting detector for k-edge imaging of the coronary arteries. In addition to detecting the inflammation status, which is known as a biological marker of a plaque's vulnerability, we use spotty calcium concentration as an independent marker to test a plaque's vulnerability. We have introduced a new method for detecting and quantifying calcium concentrations in the presence of two contrast materials (iodine and gold), calcium and soft tissue background. In this method, four-material decomposition was performed on a pixel-by-pixel basis, assuming there was an arbitrary mixture of materials in the voxel. The concentrations of iodine and gold were determined by the k-edge material decomposition based on the maximum likelihood method. The calibration curves of the attenuation coefficients, with respect to the concentrations of different materials, were used to separate the calcium signal from both contrast materials and different soft tissues in the mixtures. Three different materials (muscle, blood and lipid) were independently used as soft tissue. The simulations included both ideal and more realistic energy resolving detectors to measure the polychromatic photon spectrum in single slice parallel beam geometry. The ideal detector was used together with a 3 cm diameter digital phantom to demonstrate the decomposition method while a more realistic detector and a 33 × 24 cm(2) digital chest phantom were simulated to validate the vulnerability assessment technique. A 120 kVp spectrum was generated to produce photon flux sufficient for detecting contrast materials above the k-edges of iodine (33.2 keV) and gold (80.7 keV). By performing simulations on a 3 cm diameter digital phantom, we successfully identified four materials that were simultaneously present in the mixture at different proportions and in multiple locations on the phantom. Quantitative analysis with a chest digital phantom showed that the results for iodine, gold and calcium were highly correlated with the known concentrations. The analysis revealed a potentially powerful technique for assessing a plaque's vulnerability with two independent markers. High correlation and low relative errors between calculated and known materials' concentrations showed that the method is feasible. This technique can potentially have a high clinical impact. PMID:22683885

Baturin, Pavlo; Alivov, Yahya; Molloi, Sabee

2012-07-01

383

Intrinsic vulnerability assessment of Sette Comuni Plateau aquifer (Veneto Region, Italy).  

PubMed

Maps illustrating the different degrees of vulnerability within a given area are integral to environmental protection and management policies. The assessment of the intrinsic vulnerability of karst areas is difficult since the type and stage of karst development and the related underground discharge behavior are difficult to determine and quantify. Geographic Information Systems techniques are applied to the evaluation of the vulnerability of an aquifer in the alpine karst area of the Sette Comuni Plateau, in the Veneto Region of northern Italy. The water resources of the studied aquifer are of particular importance to the local communities. This aquifer must therefore be protected from both inappropriate use as well as possible pollution. The SINTACS and SINTACS P(RO) K(ARST) vulnerability assessment methods have been utilized here to create the vulnerability map. SINTACS P(RO) K(ARST) is an adaptation of the parametric managerial model (SINTACS) to karst hydrostructures. The vulnerability map reveals vast zones (81% of the analyzed areas) with a high degree of vulnerability. The presence of well-developed karst structures in these highly vulnerable areas facilitate water percolation, thereby enhancing the groundwater vulnerability risk. Only 1.5 of the studied aquifer have extremely high-vulnerability levels, however these areas include all of the major springs utilized for human consumption. This vulnerability map of the Sette Comuni Plateau aquifer is an indispensable tool for both the effective management of water resources and as support to environmental planning in the Sette Comuni Plateau area. PMID:17628323

Cucchi, Franco; Franceschini, Giuliana; Zini, Luca; Aurighi, Marina

2008-09-01

384

Differences in Social Vulnerability among Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Williams Syndrome, and Down Syndrome.  

PubMed

Although individuals with disabilities are at increased risk of victimization, few studies examine persons with different disability conditions to determine whether distinctive cognitive-behavioral profiles are associated with different levels of social vulnerability. To determine the differences in social vulnerability and experiences of victimization, caregiver responses to a Social Vulnerability Questionnaire were examined for 103 caregivers of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Williams syndrome (WS), and Down syndrome (DS). Although all three groups experienced similar rates and types of victimization, the specific correlates of social vulnerability differed by disability. Individuals with ASD displayed less risk awareness and had less social protection; those with WS were rated higher on risk factors related to perceived vulnerability and parental independence; and those with DS had less risk awareness and were perceived to be more vulnerable. Safety interventions should be tailored to address each group's specific correlates of social vulnerability. PMID:23745132

Fisher, Marisa H; Moskowitz, Andrew L; Hodapp, Robert M

2013-08-01

385

Assessment Model of Ecoenvironmental Vulnerability Based on Improved Entropy Weight Method  

PubMed Central

Assessment of ecoenvironmental vulnerability plays an important role in the guidance of regional planning, the construction and protection of ecological environment, which requires comprehensive consideration on regional resources, environment, ecology, society and other factors. Based on the driving mechanism and evolution characteristics of ecoenvironmental vulnerability in cold and arid regions of China, a novel evaluation index system on ecoenvironmental vulnerability is proposed in this paper. For the disadvantages of conventional entropy weight method, an improved entropy weight assessment model on ecoenvironmental vulnerability is developed and applied to evaluate the ecoenvironmental vulnerability in western Jilin Province of China. The assessing results indicate that the model is suitable for ecoenvironmental vulnerability assessment, and it shows more reasonable evaluation criterion, more distinct insights and satisfactory results combined with the practical conditions. The model can provide a new method for regional ecoenvironmental vulnerability evaluation. PMID:25133260

Zhang, Xianqi; Wang, Chenbo; Li, Enkuan; Xu, Cundong

2014-01-01

386

Study on the Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment in Sanjiang Plain in Northeast China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sanjiang Plain is located in eastern part of China's Heilongjiang Province.It's total area is 109 000 km2, with cultivated land area being 3.6677 million hm2. It is a major national commodity grain base. Rice planting area in Sanjiang Plain has been increasing year by year. Groundwater exploitation is increasing rapidly as a result of rapid increase of paddy field area. It is necessary to research and analyze spatial diversity of groundwater pollution vulnerability for Sanjiang Plain, so as to fulfill the goal of integrated planning, rational utilization of land and water resource, avoiding or minimizing groundwater contamination, and protecting grain security of China. Based on the commonly used DRASTIC method internationally, and according to hydrogeology, land use and other characteristics of Sanjiang Plain, this paper establishes groundwater vulnerability assessment index system. Since the Sanjiang Plain is an area that gives priority to agriculture, and impact of agricultural land and agricultural activity on groundwater vulnerability can not be ignored. Two indicators of agricultural land use rate (L) and population density (P) are increased in the DRASTC index system, the remaining 5 indicators are groundwater depth (D), aquifer net recharge(R), aquifer media type (A), soil type(S), aquifer hydraulic conductivity (C). Taking ArcGis as a calculation analysis platform to assess groundwater vulnerability of the Sanjiang Plain, by using hierarchical analysis method of the fuzzy mathematics method to calculate each index weigh of evaluation vulnerability. This paper applies 6 levels of assessment standard as follows: vulnerability index DI <2 stands for not vulnerable; 2 vulnerable; 4< DI ? 5 stands for more vulnerable; 5vulnerable; 7vulnerable; DI> 8 stands for extremely vulnerable. Groundwater vulnerably contaminated area is delineated based on the groundwater vulnerability spatial distribution of Sanjiang Plain. Reasonable land use plan should be made, and strictly groundwater protection measures should be taken to reduce the risk of groundwater contamination.

Tang, Y.; Tang, W. K.; Liu, C.

2012-12-01

387

Global convergence in the vulnerability of forests to drought.  

PubMed

Shifts in rainfall patterns and increasing temperatures associated with climate change are likely to cause widespread forest decline in regions where droughts are predicted to increase in duration and severity. One primary cause of productivity loss and plant mortality during drought is hydraulic failure. Drought stress creates trapped gas emboli in the water transport system, which reduces the ability of plants to supply water to leaves for photosynthetic gas exchange and can ultimately result in desiccation and mortality. At present we lack a clear picture of how thresholds to hydraulic failure vary across a broad range of species and environments, despite many individual experiments. Here we draw together published and unpublished data on the vulnerability of the transport system to drought-induced embolism for a large number of woody species, with a view to examining the likely consequences of climate change for forest biomes. We show that 70% of 226 forest species from 81 sites worldwide operate with narrow (<1?megapascal) hydraulic safety margins against injurious levels of drought stress and therefore potentially face long-term reductions in productivity and survival if temperature and aridity increase as predicted for many regions across the globe. Safety margins are largely independent of mean annual precipitation, showing that there is global convergence in the vulnerability of forests to drought, with all forest biomes equally vulnerable to hydraulic failure regardless of their current rainfall environment. These findings provide insight into why drought-induced forest decline is occurring not only in arid regions but also in wet forests not normally considered at drought risk. PMID:23172141

Choat, Brendan; Jansen, Steven; Brodribb, Tim J; Cochard, Hervé; Delzon, Sylvain; Bhaskar, Radika; Bucci, Sandra J; Feild, Taylor S; Gleason, Sean M; Hacke, Uwe G; Jacobsen, Anna L; Lens, Frederic; Maherali, Hafiz; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Mayr, Stefan; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Mitchell, Patrick J; Nardini, Andrea; Pittermann, Jarmila; Pratt, R Brandon; Sperry, John S; Westoby, Mark; Wright, Ian J; Zanne, Amy E

2012-11-29

388

Vulnerability of Mesostriatal Dopaminergic Neurons in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

The term vulnerability was first associated with the midbrain dopaminergic neurons 85 years ago, before they were identified as monoaminergic neurons, when Foix and Nicolesco (1925) reported the loss of neuromelanin containing neurons in the midbrain of patients with post-encephalitic Parkinson's disease (PD). A few years later, Hassler (1938) showed that degeneration is more intense in the ventral tier of the substantia nigra compacta than in its dorsal tier and the ventral tegmental area (VTA), outlining the concept of differential vulnerability of midbrain dopaminergic (DA-) neurons. Nowadays, we know that other neuronal groups degenerate in PD, but the massive loss of nigral DA-cells is its pathological hallmark, having a pivotal position in the pathophysiology of the disease as it is responsible for the motor symptoms. Data from humans as well as cellular and animal models indicate that DA-cell degeneration is a complex process, probably precipitated by the convergence of different risk factors, mediated by oxidative stress, and involving pathogenic factors arising within the DA-neuron (intrinsic factors), and from its environment and distant interconnected brain regions (extrinsic factors). In light of current data, intrinsic factors seem to be preferentially involved in the first steps of the degenerative process, and extrinsic factors in its progression. A controversial issue is the relative weight of the impairment of common cell functions, such as energy metabolism and proteostasis, and specific dopaminergic functions, such as pacemaking activity and DA handling, in the pathogenesis of DA-cell degeneration. Here we will review the current knowledge about the relevance of these factors at the beginning and during the progression of PD, and in the differential vulnerability of midbrain DA-cells. PMID:21079748

González-Hernández, Tomás; Cruz-Muros, Ignacio; Afonso-Oramas, Domingo; Salas-Hernandez, Josmar; Castro-Hernandez, Javier

2010-01-01

389

Vulnerability and mental health in Afghanistan: looking beyond war exposure.  

PubMed

This study examined the prevalence of mental distress among groups in Afghanistan considered to be at risk. Data were drawn from a representative cross-sectional disability survey carried out in Afghanistan including 5,130 households in 171 clusters throughout the 34 provinces of the country. The sample included 838 nondisabled control participants aged above 14, and 675 disabled participants. Results showed that various vulnerable groups (disabled people, the unemployed, the elderly, minority ethnic groups, as well as widowed, divorced or separated women) were at higher risk of experiencing mild to severe mental health problems. The adjusted odds ratio for war-related disability compared to nondisabled was 4.09 (95% confidence interval 2.09 to 7.99) for mild mental distress disorders, and 7.10 (3.45-14.5) and 14.14 (3.38-59.00) for moderate or severe mental distress disorders, respectively. Women with disabilities (whatever the cause of impairment) when compared with nondisabled men, as well as poorer segments of society compared to the richest, had a higher prevalence of mental health problems. Women with non-war-related disabilities compared with nondisabled men were respectively 3.35 (1.27-8.81) and 8.57 (3.03-24.1) times more likely to experience mild or moderate mental distress disorders. People who experience multiple vulnerabilities are more at risk of deteriorating mental health in conflict zones. The study shows that mental health, in times of war, is influenced by a combination of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics linked to social exclusion mechanisms that were in place before the conflict began and that are redefined in relation to the changing social, cultural, and economic contexts. Mental health policies and programmes must prioritise the most vulnerable segments of Afghan society. PMID:23427259

Trani, Jean-François; Bakhshi, Parul

2013-02-01

390

Chemical plants remain vulnerable to terrorists: a call to action.  

PubMed

U.S. chemical plants currently have potentially catastrophic vulnerabilities as terrorist targets. The possible consequences of these vulnerabilities echo from the tragedies of the Bhopal incident in 1984 to the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001 and, most recently, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Findings from a 2004 nationwide participatory research study of 125 local union leaders at sites with very large volumes of highly hazardous chemicals suggest that voluntary efforts to achieve chemical plant security are not succeeding. Study respondents reported that companies had only infrequently taken actions that are most effective in preventing or in preparing to respond to a terrorist threat. In addition, companies reportedly often failed to involve key stakeholders, including workers, local unions, and the surrounding communities, in these efforts. The environmental health community thus has an opportunity to play a key role in advocating for and supporting improvements in prevention of and preparation for terrorist attacks. Policy-level recommendations to redress chemical site vulnerabilities and the related ongoing threats to the nation's security are as follows: a) specify detailed requirements for chemical site assessment and security ; b) mandate audit inspections supported by significant penalties for cases of noncompliance ; c) require progress toward achieving inherently safer processes, including the minimizing of storage of highly hazardous chemicals ; d) examine and require additional effective actions in prevention, emergency preparedness, and response and remediation ; e) mandate and fund the upgrading of emergency communication systems ; and f) involve workers and community members in plan creation and equip and prepare them to prevent and respond effectively to an incident. PMID:16966080

Lippin, Tobi Mae; McQuiston, Thomas H; Bradley-Bull, Kristin; Burns-Johnson, Toshiba; Cook, Linda; Gill, Michael L; Howard, Donna; Seymour, Thomas A; Stephens, Doug; Williams, Brian K

2006-09-01

391

The Safeguards Evaluation Method for evaluating vulnerability to insider threats  

SciTech Connect

As protection of DOE facilities against outsiders increases to acceptable levels, attention is shifting toward achieving comparable protection against insiders. Since threats and protection measures for insiders are substantially different from those for outsiders, new perspectives and approaches are needed. One such approach is the Safeguards Evaluation Method. This method helps in assessing safeguards vulnerabilities to theft or diversion of special nuclear material (SNM) by insiders. The Safeguards Evaluation Method-Insider Threat is a simple model that can be used by safeguards and security planners to evaluate safeguards and proposed upgrades at their own facilities. A discussion of the Safeguards Evaluation Method is presented in this paper.

Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.; Renis, T.A.

1986-01-01

392

A classic collaboration: Michael Davies on plaque vulnerability.  

PubMed

The British Heart Foundation sponsors the Michael Davies Young Investigator Award, and at its presentation in the Spring of 2009 two collaborators of Michael Davies spoke regarding their experiences on the Plaque Vulnerability project with him. This was to provide the winner and other nominees for the award, and colleagues at the meeting, descriptions of collaborating with Michael to sustain more than his name in association with the award. This article is an expansion of the personal reminiscences given at the time as a tribute to him, and to provide an inside story of how collaboration with such a prominent cardiac pathologist worked. PMID:22196149

Born, G V R; Richardson, P D

2012-02-01

393

A Contamination Vulnerability Assessment for the Sacramento Area Groundwater Basin  

SciTech Connect

In response to concerns expressed by the California Legislature and the citizenry of the State of California, the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), implemented a program to assess groundwater quality, and provide a predictive capability for identifying areas that are vulnerable to contamination. The program was initiated in response to concern over public supply well closures due to contamination by chemicals such as MtBE from gasoline, and solvents from industrial operations. As a result of this increased awareness regarding groundwater quality, the Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act mandated the SWRCB to develop a comprehensive ambient groundwater-monitoring plan, and led to the initiation of the Ambient Groundwater Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The primary objective of the GAMA Program is to assess the water quality and to predict the relative susceptibility to contamination of groundwater resources throughout the state of California. Under the GAMA program, scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) collaborate with the SWRCB, the U.S. Geological Survey, the California Department of Health Services (DHS), and the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) to implement the groundwater assessment program in cooperation with local water purveyors. In 2001 and 2002, LLNL carried out this vulnerability study in the groundwater basin of Sacramento suburban area, located to the north of the American River and to the east of the Sacramento River. The goal of the study is to provide a probabilistic assessment of the relative vulnerability of groundwater used for the public water supply to contamination from surface sources. This assessment of relative contamination vulnerability is made based on the results of two types of analyses that are not routinely carried out at public water supply wells: ultra low-level measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and groundwater age dating (using the tritium-helium-3 method). In addition, stable oxygen isotope measurements help determine the recharge water source. Interpreted together, and in the context of existing water quality and hydrogeologic data, these observable parameters help define the flow field of a groundwater basin, and indicate the degree of vertical communication between near-surface sources (or potential sources) of contamination, and deeper groundwater pumped at high capacity production wells.

Moran, J E; Hudson, G B; Eaton, G F; Leif, R

2004-03-10

394

Structual Vulnerability of the Nematode Worm Neural Graph  

E-print Network

The number of connected components and the size of the largest connected component are studied under node and edge removal in the connectivity graph of the C. elegans nervous system. By studying the two subgraphs - the directed graph of chemical synapses and the undirected graph of electrical junctions - we observe that adding a small number of undirected edges dramatically reduces the number of components in the complete graph. Under random node and edge removal, the C. elegans graph displays a remarkable structural robustness. We then compare these results with the vulnerability of a number of canonical graph models.

Rudolph-Lilith, Michelle; Muller, Lyle E

2012-01-01

395

Water vulnerabilities for existing coal-fired power plants.  

SciTech Connect

This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Water consumption by all users in the United States over the 2005-2030 time period is projected to increase by about 7% (from about 108 billion gallons per day [bgd] to about 115 bgd) (Elcock 2010). By contrast, water consumption by coal-fired power plants over this period is projected to increase by about 21% (from about 2.4 to about 2.9 bgd) (NETL 2009b). The high projected demand for water by power plants, which is expected to increase even further as carbon-capture equipment is installed, combined with decreasing freshwater supplies in many areas, suggests that certain coal-fired plants may be particularly vulnerable to potential water demand-supply conflicts. If not addressed, these conflicts could limit power generation and lead to power disruptions or increased consumer costs. The identification of existing coal-fired plants that are vulnerable to water demand and supply concerns, along with an analysis of information about their cooling systems and related characteristics, provides information to help focus future research and development (R&D) efforts to help ensure that coal-fired generation demands are met in a cost-effective manner that supports sustainable water use. This study identified coal-fired power plants that are considered vulnerable to water demand and supply issues by using a geographical information system (GIS) that facilitated the analysis of plant-specific data for more than 500 plants in the NETL's Coal Power Plant Database (CPPDB) (NETL 2007a) simultaneously with 18 indicators of water demand and supply. Two types of demand indicators were evaluated. The first type consisted of geographical areas where specific conditions can generate demand vulnerabilities. These conditions include high projected future water consumption by thermoelectric power plants, high projected future water consumption by all users, high rates of water withdrawal per square mile (mi{sup 2}), high projected population increases, and areas projected to be in a water crisis or conflict by 2025. The second type of demand indicator was plant specific. These indicators were developed for each plant and include annual water consumption and withdrawal rates and intensities, net annual power generation, and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. The supply indictors, which are also area based, include areas with low precipitation, high temperatures, low streamflow, and drought. The indicator data, which were in various formats (e.g., maps, tables, raw numbers) were converted to a GIS format and stored, along with the individual plant data from the CPPDB, in a single GIS database. The GIS database allowed the indicator data and plant data to be analyzed and visualized in any combination. To determine the extent to which a plant would be considered 'vulnerable' to a given demand or supply concern (i.e., that the plant's operations could be affected by water shortages represented by a potential demand or supply indicator), criteria were developed to categorize vulnerability according to one of three types: major, moderate, or not vulnerable. Plants with at least two major demand indicator values and/or at least four moderate demand indicator values were considered vulnerable to demand concerns. By using this approach, 144 plants were identified as being subject to demand concerns only. Plants with at least one major supply indicator value and/or at least two moderate supply indicator values were considered vulnerable to supply concerns. By using this approach, 64 plants were identified as being subject to supply concerns only. In addition, 139 plants were identified as subject to both demand and supply concerns. Therefore, a total of 347 plants were considere

Elcock, D.; Kuiper, J.; Environmental Science Division

2010-08-19

396

Disaster management: vulnerability and resilience in disaster recovery in Thailand.  

PubMed

This project explores disaster management in Thailand with a focus on the vulnerability and resilience of women, children, the elderly, and the disabled population and on the impact of disaster on these subpopulations. The 2 main findings deal with the major models of disaster management in Thailand and building resilience for social recovery. The selected 5 major models currently employed in disaster management in Thailand are the (a) model of royal project and international cooperation on disaster preparedness and response, (b) ASEAN Socio-Cultural Blueprint, (c) rights-based approach, (d) welfare mix model, and (e) knowledge management model. PMID:23679805

Busapathumrong, Pattamaporn

2013-01-01

397

On the vulnerability of electric power to geomagnetic storms  

SciTech Connect

Geomagnetic storms associated with sunspot and solar flare activity can disturb communications and disrupt electric power. A severe geomagnetic storm could cause a major blackout with an economic impact of several billion dollars. The vulnerability of electric power systems in the northeast United States will likely increase during the 1990's due to the trend of wheeling large amounts of power over long distances to meet the electricity demands of this region. A comprehensive research program and a warning satellite to monitor the solar wind are needed to enhance the reliability of electric power systems under the influence of geomagnetic storms. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Barnes, P.R.; Van Dyke, J.W.

1990-05-01

398

Electronic equipment vulnerability to fire released carbon fibers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vulnerability of electronic equipment to damage by carbon fibers released from burning aircraft type structural composite materials was investigated. Tests were conducted on commercially available stereo power amplifiers which showed that the equipment was damaged by fire released carbon fibers but not by the composite resin residue, soot and products of combustion of the fuel associated with burning the carbon fiber composites. Results indicate that the failure rates of the equipment exposed to the fire released fiber were consistent with predictions based on tests using virgin fibers.

Pride, R. A.; Mchatton, A. D.; Musselman, K. A.

1980-01-01

399

Vulnerability Factors for the Psychiatric and Behavioral Effects of Cannabis  

PubMed Central

Cogent evidence shows that cannabis plays a variable role on behavioral regulation and the pathophysiology of most psychiatric conditions. Accordingly, cannabis has been alternatively shown to exacerbate or ameliorate mental symptoms, depending on its composition and route of consumption, as well as specific individual and contextual characteristics. The vulnerability to the psychological effects of cannabis is influenced by a complex constellation of genetic and environmental factors. In the present article, we will review the current evidence on the pharmacological, individual and situational factors that have been documented to affect the behavioral and psychiatric effects of cannabinoids.

Bortolato, Marco; Bini, Valentina; Tambaro, Simone

2010-01-01

400

DNA deletions promote cancer, but collateral damage make it vulnerable  

Cancer.gov

Genomic deletions promote cancer by carving up or eliminating tumor-suppressor genes, but now scientists report in the journal Nature that the collateral damage they inflict on neighboring genes exposes cancer cells to vulnerabilities and new avenues for attack. Working with cell lines of glioblastoma multiforme, the most lethal type of brain tumor, researchers from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute at Harvard Medical School, and some now at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, found that collateral deletion of a gene vital to tumor metabolism allowed them to kill malignant cells by blocking another gene that redundantly performs the same function.

401

A new species of Loxosomatidae (Entoprocta, Solitaria) from the White Sea: Loxosomella unicornis sp. nov.  

PubMed

A new solitary entoproct, Loxosomella unicornis sp. nov., is described. The species was found on the gymnolaemate bryozoans Cribrilina sp. and Electra sp. in Kandalaksha Bay, White Sea. Loxosomella unicornis sp. nov. is a medium-sized species with a total length up to 650 µm, eight tentacles and a conspicuous horn-shaped appendage on the top part of calyx.  PMID:25283409

Borisanova, Anastasiya O; Krylova, Elena M

2014-01-01

402

Psychiatric vulnerability: suggestions from animal models and role of neurotrophins.  

PubMed

Nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are well-studied neurotrophins involved in the neurogenesis, differentiation, growth and maintenance of selected peripheral and central populations of neuronal cells during development and at adulthood. Neurotrophins, in concert to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, play a key role in modulating brain plasticity and behavioral coping, especially during ontogenetic critical periods, when developing brain is particularly sensitive to external stimulations. Indeed, early life events, such psychophysical stress, affect NGF and BDNF levels, and induce dysregulation of the HPA axis. Thus, early life experiences can affect brain development, contributing to shape interindividual differences in vulnerability to stress or psychiatric disorders. At adulthood, intermale aggressive interactions in mice, representing a psychosocial stressful condition, has been shown to markedly alter NGF and BDNF levels both in plasma as well as in selected brain areas, including the hypothalamus and hippocampus. These results have been extended to humans, showing that blood NGF levels are enhanced in psychological contexts mainly associated to anxiety and fear, such as first skydiving experience. Recent studies indicate a role for neurotrophins also in vulnerability and resilience to stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. Overall, these findings suggest a role of neurotrophins as factors mediating both short- and long-term experience effects on brain structure and function. PMID:18824030

Alleva, Enrico; Francia, Nadia

2009-04-01

403

Optical coherence tomography for imaging the vulnerable plaque  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While our understanding of vulnerable coronary plaque is still at an early stage, the concept that certain types of plaques predispose patients to developing an acute myocardial infarction continues to be at the forefront of cardiology research. Intracoronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been developed to both identify and study these lesions due to its distinct resolution advantage over other imaging modalities. We review clinical research conducted at the Massachusetts General Hospital over the past five years to develop, validate, and utilize this technology to improve our understanding of vulnerable plaque. Our results show that intracoronary OCT may be safely conducted in patients and that it provides abundant information regarding plaque microscopic morphology, which is essential to the identification and study of high-risk lesions. Even though many basic biological, clinical, and technological challenges must be addressed prior to widespread use of this technology, the unique capabilities of OCT ensure that it will have a prominent role in shaping the future of cardiology.

Tearney, Guillermo J.; Jang, Ik-Kyung; Bouma, Brett E.

2006-03-01

404

Vulnerability of supply basins to demand from multiple cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humans have appropriated more than half of the world's available water resources, and continued population growth and climate change threaten to put increasing pressure on remaining supplies. Many cities have constructed infrastructure to collect, transport from and store water at distant locations. Supply basins can become vulnerable if there are multiple users depending on the same supply system or network. Basin vulnerability assessments often only report the impacts of local demands on system health, but rarely account future stress from multi-urban demands. This study presents a global assessment of urban impacts on supply basins. Specifically, hydrologic and regulatory information are used to quantify the level of supply basin stress created by demand from multiple cities. The aim is to identify at-risk basins. This study focuses on large urban areas (generally over 1 million people) that use surface water (n=412). The stress on supply water basins by urban demand was based on three parameters: 1) the number of cities using a basin for water supply, 2) the number of alternative urban sources (e.g. lakes, reservoirs, rivers) within the supply basin, and 3) the percent of available surface water in each basin that is required to meet the total of urban and environmental demands. The degree of management within each basin is assessed using information on federal water policies and local basin management plans.

Padowski, J. C.; Gorelick, S.

2013-12-01

405

Assessing mechanical vulnerability in water distribution networks under multiple failures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

mechanical vulnerability of water distribution networks (WDN) is of direct relevance for water utilities since it entails two different purposes. On the one hand, it might support the identification of severe failure scenarios due to external causes (e.g., natural or intentional events) which result into the most critical consequences on WDN supply capacity. On the other hand, it aims at figure out the WDN portions which are more prone to be affected by asset disruptions. The complexity of such analysis stems from the number of possible scenarios with single and multiple simultaneous shutdowns of asset elements leading to modifications of network topology and insufficient water supply to customers. In this work, the search for the most disruptive combinations of multiple asset failure events is formulated and solved as a multiobjective optimization problem. The higher vulnerability failure scenarios are detected as those causing the lower supplied demand due to the lower number of simultaneous failures. The automatic detection of WDN topology, subsequent to the detachments of failed elements, is combined with pressure-driven analysis. The methodology is demonstrated on a real water distribution network. Results show that, besides the failures causing the detachment of reservoirs, tanks, or pumps, there are other different topological modifications which may cause severe WDN service disruptions. Such information is of direct relevance to support planning asset enhancement works and improve the preparedness to extreme events.

Berardi, Luigi; Ugarelli, Rita; Røstum, Jon; Giustolisi, Orazio

2014-03-01

406

The Occurrence and Prevention of Foodborne Disease in Vulnerable People  

PubMed Central

Abstract In developed countries, such as the United Kingdom and the United States, between 15% and 20% of the population show greater susceptibility than the general population to foodborne disease. This proportion includes people with primary immunodeficiency, patients treated with radiation or with immunosuppressive drugs for cancer and diseases of the immune system, those with acquired immune-deficiency syndrome and diabetics, people suffering from liver or kidney disease or with excessive iron in the blood, pregnant women, infants, and the elderly. Malnutrition and use of antacids, particularly proton-pump inhibitors, also increase susceptibility. We review the occurrence of infection by foodborne pathogens in these groups of people and measures to prevent infection. The nature and use of low microbial diets to reduce the risk of foodborne disease in immunocompromised patients are very variable. Diets for vulnerable people in care should exclude higher-risk foods, and vulnerable people in the community should receive clear advice about food safety, in particular avoidance of higher-risk foods and substitution of safer, nutritious foods. PMID:21561383

O'Brien, Sarah J.

2011-01-01

407

Childhood personality types: vulnerability and adaptation over time  

PubMed Central

Background Substantial evidence suggests that a Five-Factor Model (Costa & McCrae, 1992) personality assessment generates a valid description of childhood individual differences and relates to a range of psychological outcomes. Less is known, however, about naturally occurring profiles of personality and their links to psychopathology. The current study explores whether childhood personality characteristics tend to cluster in particular personality profiles that show unique associations with psychopathology and quality of life across time. Methods Latent class analysis was conducted on maternal rated general personality of a Flemish childhood community sample (N= 477; mean age 10.6 years). The associations of latent class membership probability with psychopathology and quality of life two years later were examined, using a multi-informant perspective. Results Four distinguishable latent classes were found, representing a Moderate, a Protected, an Undercontrolled and a Vulnerable childhood personality type. Each of these types showed unique associations with childhood outcomes across raters. Conclusions Four different personality types can be delineated at young age and have a significant value in understanding vulnerability and adaptation over time. PMID:22211435

De Clercq, Barbara; Rettew, David C.; Althoff, Robert R.; De Bolle, Marleen

2011-01-01

408

HIV vulnerabilities of sex-trafficked Indian women and girls  

PubMed Central

Objective To qualitatively explore potential mechanisms that may confer heightened risk for HIV infection among survivors of sex trafficking in India. Methods Case narratives of 61 repatriated women and girls who reported being trafficked into sex work and were receiving services at an NGO in Mysore, India, were reviewed. Narratives were analyzed to examine potential sources of HIV risk related to sex trafficking. Results Participants were aged 14–30 years. Among the 48 women and girls tested for HIV, 45.8% were HIV positive. Narratives described very low levels of autonomy, with control exacted by brothel managers and traffickers. Lack of control appeared to heighten trafficked women and girls’ vulnerability to HIV infection in the following ways: use of violent rape as a means of coercing initiation into sex work, inability to refuse sex, inability to use condoms or negotiate use, substance use as a coping strategy, and inadequate access to health care. Conclusion Sex trafficked women and girls lack autonomy and are rendered vulnerable to HIV infection through several means. Development of HIV prevention strategies specifically designed to deal with lack of autonomy and reach sex-trafficked women and girls is imperative. PMID:19625022

Gupta, Jhumka; Raj, Anita; Decker, Michele R.; Reed, Elizabeth; Silverman, Jay G.

2009-01-01

409

Emotional vulnerability and coping styles for resolving decisional conflict.  

PubMed

This investigation supplements the study by D. Bouckenooghe, K. Vanderheyden, S. Mestdagh, and S. van Laethem (2007) on the role of cognitive dispositions in coping patterns for resolving decisional conflict. Literature suggests emotional vulnerabilities may significantly affect decision making. Thus, the present authors assessed the role of trait anxiety and depression in decision coping styles as specified by I. L. Janis and L. Mann's (1977) conflict-theory model. The participants--100 young adults--completed the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale (J. A. Taylor, 1953), Beck's Depression Inventory (A. T. Beck, R. A. Steer, & G. M. Garbin, 1988), and the Melbourne Decision-Making Questionnaire (L. Mann et al., 1998), which measures 4 coping strategies: vigilance, buck-passing, procrastination, and hypervigilance. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis, controlling for demographic and lifestyle factors, revealed trait anxiety and depression as significant predictors of procrastination and hypervigilance. Depression failed to predict buck-passing but functioned as an important moderator variable whereby trait anxiety better predicted hypervigilance in nondepressed participants. Consistent with past research, emotional dispositions failed to predict vigilance. Overall, these findings implicate emotional vulnerabilities in the quality of decision making but raise important questions about their unique and conditional effects. PMID:21834323

Umeh, Kanayo; Omari-Asor, Lorraine

2011-01-01

410

Field information links permafrost carbon to physical vulnerabilities of thawing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Deep soil profiles containing permafrost (Gelisols) were characterized for organic carbon (C) and total nitrogen (N) stocks to 3m depths. Using the Community Climate System Model (CCSM4) we calculate cumulative probability functions (PDFs) for active layer depths under current and future climates. The difference in PDFs over time was multiplied by C and N contents of soil horizons in Gelisol suborders to calculate newly thawed C and N, Thawing ranged from 147 PgC with 10 PgN by 2050 (representative concentration pathway RCP scenario 4.5) to 436 PgC with 29 PgN by 2100 (RCP 8.5). Organic horizons that thaw are vulnerable to combustion, and all horizon types are vulnerable to shifts in hydrology and decomposition. The rates and extent of such losses are unknown and can be further constrained by linking field and modelling approaches. These changes have the potential for strong additional loading to our atmosphere, water resources, and ecosystems.

Harden, Jennifer W.; Koven, Charles; Ping, Chien-Lu; Hugelius, Gustaf; McGuire, A. David; Camill, P.; Jorgenson, Torre; Kuhry, Peter; Michaelson, Gary; O'Donnell, Jonathan A.; Schuur, Edward A.G.; Tamocai, Charles; Johnson, K.; Grosse, G.

2012-01-01

411

Application of Satellite Gravimetry for Water Resource Vulnerability Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The force of Earth's gravity field varies in proportion to the amount of mass near the surface. Spatial and temporal variations in the gravity field can be measured via their effects on the orbits of satellites. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) is the first satellite mission dedicated to monitoring temporal variations in the gravity field. The monthly gravity anomaly maps that have been delivered by GRACE since 2002 are being used to infer changes in terrestrial water storage (the sum of groundwater, soil moisture, surface waters, and snow and ice), which are the primary source of gravity variability on monthly to decadal timescales after atmospheric and oceanic circulation effects have been removed. Other remote sensing techniques are unable to detect water below the first few centimeters of the land surface. Conventional ground based techniques can be used to monitor terrestrial water storage, but groundwater, soil moisture, and snow observation networks are sparse in most of the world, and the countries that do collect such data rarely are willing to share them. Thus GRACE is unique in its ability to provide global data on variations in the availability of fresh water, which is both vital to life on land and vulnerable to climate variability and mismanagement. This chapter describes the unique and challenging aspects of GRACE terrestrial water storage data, examples of how the data have been used for research and applications related to fresh water vulnerability and change, and prospects for continued contributions of satellite gravimetry to water resources science and policy.

Rodell, Matthew

2012-01-01

412

Does topological information matter for power grid vulnerability?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Power grids, which are playing an important role in supporting the economy of a region as well as the life of its citizens, could be attacked by terrorists or enemies to damage the region. Depending on different levels of power grid information collected by the terrorists, their attack strategies might be different. This paper groups power grid information into four levels: no information, purely topological information (PTI), topological information with generator and load nodes (GLNI), and full information (including component physical properties and flow parameters information), and then identifies possible attack strategies for each information level. Analyzing and comparing power grid vulnerability under these attack strategies from both terrorists' and utility companies' point of view give rise to an approach to quantify the relative values of these three types of information, including PTI, GLNI, and component parameter information (CPI). This approach can provide information regarding the extent to which topological information matters for power system vulnerability decisions. Taking several test systems as examples, results show that for small attacks with p ? 0.1, CPI matters the most; when taking attack cost into consideration and assuming that the terrorists take the optimum cost-efficient attack intensity, then CPI has the largest cost-based information value.

Ouyang, Min; Yang, Kun

2014-12-01

413

Seismic vulnerability and risk assessment of Kolkata City, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The city of Kolkata is one of the most urbanized and densely populated regions in the world, which is a major industrial and commercial hub of the Eastern and Northeastern region of India. In order to classify the seismic risk zones of Kolkata we used seismic hazard exposures on the vulnerability components namely, landuse/landcover, population density, building typology, age and height. We microzoned seismic hazard of the City by integrating seismological, geological and geotechnical themes in GIS which in turn is integrated with the vulnerability components in a logic-tree framework to estimate both the socio-economic and structural risk of the City. In both the risk maps, three broad zones have been demarcated as "severe", "high" and "moderate". There had also been a risk-free zone in the City. The damage distribution in the City due to the 1934 Bihar-Nepal Earthquake of Mw 8.1 well matches with the risk regime. The design horizontal seismic coefficients for the City have been worked out for all the predominant periods which indicate suitability of "A", "B" and "C" type of structures. The cumulative damage probabilities in terms of "slight", "moderate", "extensive" and "complete" have also been assessed for the significant four model building types viz. RM2L, RM2M, URML and URMM for each structural seismic risk zone in the City. Both the Seismic Hazard and Risk maps are expected to play vital roles in the earthquake inflicted disaster mitigation and management of the city of Kolkata.

Nath, S. K.; Adhikari, M. D.; Devaraj, N.; Maiti, S. K.

2014-04-01

414

Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 3  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 3 consists of eleven appendices containing the following: Field verification reports for Idaho National Engineering Lab., Rocky Flats Plant, Brookhaven National Lab., Los Alamos National Lab., and Sandia National Laboratories (NM); Mini-visits to small DOE sites; Working Group meeting, June 7--8, 1994; Commendable practices; Related chemical safety initiatives at DOE; Regulatory framework and industry initiatives related to chemical safety; and Chemical inventory data from field self-evaluation reports.

Not Available

1994-09-01

415

Public Health Consequences on Vulnerable Populations from Acute Chemical Releases  

PubMed Central

Data from a large, multi-state surveillance system on acute chemical releases were analyzed to describe the type of events that are potentially affecting vulnerable populations (children, elderly and hospitalized patients) in order to better prevent and plan for these types of incidents in the future. During 2003–2005, there were 231 events where vulnerable populations were within ¼ mile of the event and the area of impact was greater than 200 feet from the facility/point of release. Most events occurred on a weekday during times when day care centers or schools were likely to be in session. Equipment failure and human error caused a majority of the releases. Agencies involved in preparing for and responding to chemical emergencies should work with hospitals, nursing homes, day care centers, and schools to develop policies and procedures for initiating appropriate protective measures and managing the medical needs of patients. Chemical emergency response drills should involve the entire community to protect those that may be more susceptible to harm. PMID:21572842

Ruckart, Perri Zeitz; Orr, Maureen F.

2008-01-01

416

The Vulnerability of Threatened Species: Adaptive Capability and Adaptation Opportunity  

PubMed Central

Global targets to halt the loss of biodiversity have not been met, and there is now an additional Aichi target for preventing the extinction of known threatened species and improving their conservation status. Climate change increasingly needs to be factored in to these, and thus there is a need to identify the extent to which it could increase species vulnerability. This paper uses the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity framework to assess the vulnerability of a selection of WWF global priority large mammals and marine species to climate change. However, it divides adaptive capacity into adaptive capability and adaptation opportunity, in order to identify whether adaptation is more constrained by the biology of the species or by its environmental setting. Lack of evidence makes it difficult to apply the framework consistently across the species, but it was found that, particularly for the terrestrial mammals, adaptation opportunities seems to be the greater constraint. This framework and analysis could be used by conservationists and those wishing to enhance the resilience of species to climate change. PMID:24833051

Berry, Pam; Ogawa-Onishi, Yuko; McVey, Andrew

2013-01-01

417

Vulnerability, irregular migrants' health-related rights and the European Court of Human Rights.  

PubMed

The protection of irregular migrants' health-related rights brings to the fore the tensions that exist between human rights, citizenship and the sovereign state, and exposes the protection gaps in the international human rights regime. With this in mind, I consider the merits of a vulnerability analysis in international human rights law (IHRL). I posit that, detached from specific groups and reconceptualised as universal, vulnerability can be reclaimed as a foundation and tool of IHRL. I further contend that the deployment of a vulnerability analysis can alleviate the exclusionary dimension of IHRL and extend protections to irregular migrants. On this basis, I investigate the development of a vulnerability analysis in the case law of the European Court of Human Rights. I argue that, in contrast with the Court's vulnerable population approach, a vulnerability analysis can improve protection standards for irregular migrants in the field of health. PMID:25199397

Da Lomba, Sylvie

2014-09-01

418

"Show me the money": vulnerability to gambling moderates the attractiveness of money versus suspense.  

PubMed

Do people take risks to obtain rewards or experience suspense? We hypothesized that people vulnerable to gambling are motivated more by the allure of winning money whereas people less vulnerable to gambling are motivated more by the allure of suspense. Consistent with this hypothesis, participants with high scores on a subscale of the Gambling Attitudes and Beliefs Survey--a measure of vulnerability to gambling--reported more of a motivation to earn money (pilot study), were more likely to accept a certain or near-certain amount of money than to gamble for that same amount (Studies 1-2), and worked harder to earn money (Study 3). People vulnerable to gambling also made more accurate predictions about how much they would gamble. People less vulnerable to gambling, in contrast, gambled more than people vulnerable to gambling, but did not know that they would. PMID:23798372

Hahn, Cheryl; Wilson, Timothy D; McRae, Kaichen; Gilbert, Daniel T

2013-10-01

419

Is There a Universal Understanding of Vulnerability? Experiences with Russian and Romanian Trainees in Research Ethics  

PubMed Central

Vulnerability of participants in research and the provision of special protections for vulnerable research participants are key concepts in research ethics. Despite international consensus requiring special protections for vulnerable research participants, both the concept of vulnerability and the nature and adequacy of strategies to reduce vulnerability remain vague and, consequently, are subject to varying interpretations. We report on observations of the challenges faced in understanding this key concept by 20 Russian and Romanian trainees participating in a one-year M.A. training program in research ethics from 2000 through 2011. We describe how trainees’ understanding of and appreciation for the need for special protections of vulnerable research participants was nurtured. This paper is part of a collection of papers analyzing the Fogarty International Center's International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum Development program. PMID:24384513

Loue, Sana; Loff, Bebe

2014-01-01

420

An improved vulnerability index of complex networks based on fractal dimension  

E-print Network

With an increasing emphasis on network security, much more attention has been attracted to the vulnerability of complex networks. The multi-scale evaluation of vulnerability is widely used since it makes use of combined powers of the links' betweenness and has an effective evaluation to vulnerability. However, how to determine the coefficient in existing multi-scale evaluation model to measure the vulnerability of different networks is still an open issue. In this paper, an improved model based on the fractal dimension of complex networks is proposed to obtain a more reasonable evaluation of vulnerability with more physical significance. Not only the structure and basic physical properties of networks is characterized, but also the covering ability of networks, which is related to the vulnerability of the network, is taken into consideration in our proposed method. The numerical examples and real applications are used to illustrate the efficiency of our proposed method.

Gou, Li; Sadiq, Rehan; Mahadevan, Sankaran; Deng, Yong

2014-01-01

421

Policies for reducing agricultural sector vulnerability to climate change in Mali  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mali agricultural sector and the country's food security are potentially vulnerable to climate change. Policies may be able to mitigate some of the climate change vulnerability. This article investigates several policy changes that may reduce vulnerability, including climate-specific and other policies. The policy set includes migration of cropping patterns, development of high-temperature-resistant cultivars, reduction in soil productivity loss, cropland

Tanveer A. Butt; Bruce A. McCarl; Alpha O. Kergna

2006-01-01

422

Consumers' Perception of Food-System Vulnerability to an Agroterrorist Attack  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses results from a 2004 survey (N=1,010) on consumer attitudes toward agroterrorism and food-system security to investigate heterogeneous attributes affecting vulnerability including risk perceptions and fear. Using 15 separate multinomial PROBIT regressions we distinguish between vulnerability on a number of aspects of food-system security including food type and position in the food-supply chain. Vulnerability is not found to

Calum G. Turvey; Benjamin M. Onyango; William K. Hallman; Sarah C. Condry

2007-01-01

423

Energy Sector Vulnerability to Climate Change: Adaptation Options to Increase Resilience (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy is conducting an assessment of vulnerabilities of the U.S. energy sector to climate change and extreme weather. Emphasizing peer reviewed research, it seeks to quantify vulnerabilities and identify specific knowledge or technology gaps. It draws upon a July 2012 workshop, ?Climate Change and Extreme Weather Vulnerability Assessment of the US Energy Sector?, hosted by the Atlantic Council and sponsored by DOE to solicit industry input.

Newmark, R. L.; Bilello, D.; Macknick, J.; Hallet, K. C.; Anderson, R.; Tidwell, V.; Zamuda, C.

2013-02-01

424

Person-Related Protective and Vulnerability Factors of Psychopathology Symptoms in Non-Clinical Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychopathology in youths is thought to originate from a dynamic interplay of a variety of protective and vulnerability factors.\\u000a In this study, a large multi-ethnic sample of non-clinical adolescents (N = 376) completed questionnaires for measuring a wide range of person-related protective and vulnerability factors as well\\u000a as psychopathology symptoms, in order to explore (a) the relations among various protective and vulnerability

Peter Muris; Birgit Mayer; Eva Reinders; Chériva Wesenhagen

2011-01-01

425

Drought vulnerability assessment: The case of wheat farmers in Western Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drought, as a natural and slow-onset phenomenon, creates numerous damages to agricultural communities. As a drought prone area in the Middle East, Iran has currently launched a crisis management approach to mitigate the harmful impacts of drought. However, thus far studies indicate that effective drought management strategies should be designed based upon vulnerability management which can increase farmers' ability to challenge the impacts. The purpose of this study was to assess drought vulnerability across three drought intensities (very high, extremely high, and critical) areas in Western Iran. Accordingly, a survey study was applied and 370 wheat farmers who all experienced drought during 2007-2009 were selected through a multi-stage stratified random sampling method. Face to face interviews were used to collect data on vulnerability indices from the farmers. Me-Bar and Valdez's vulnerability formula was applied to assess the vulnerability of wheat farmers during drought. Results revealed that the farmers' vulnerability is influenced mainly by economic, socio-cultural, psychological, technical, and infrastructural factors. The results also indicated that the farmers in Sarpole-Zahab township were most vulnerable compared to those in the Kermanshah township as the least vulnerable. Accordingly, some conclusions and recommendations are drawn for both policy-makers and practitioners who often must prioritize limited resources in the design vulnerability-reducing interventions.

Zarafshani, Kiumars; Sharafi, Lida; Azadi, Hossein; Hosseininia, Gholamhossein; De Maeyer, Philippe; Witlox, Frank

2012-12-01

426

AVQS: Attack Route-Based Vulnerability Quantification Scheme for Smart Grid  

PubMed Central

A smart grid is a large, consolidated electrical grid system that includes heterogeneous networks and systems. Based on the data, a smart grid system has a potential security threat in its network connectivity. To solve this problem, we develop and apply a novel scheme to measure the vulnerability in a smart grid domain. Vulnerability quantification can be the first step in security analysis because it can help prioritize the security problems. However, existing vulnerability quantification schemes are not suitable for smart grid because they do not consider network vulnerabilities. We propose a novel attack route-based vulnerability quantification scheme using a network vulnerability score and an end-to-end security score, depending on the specific smart grid network environment to calculate the vulnerability score for a particular attack route. To evaluate the proposed approach, we derive several attack scenarios from the advanced metering infrastructure domain. The experimental results of the proposed approach and the existing common vulnerability scoring system clearly show that we need to consider network connectivity for more optimized vulnerability quantification. PMID:25152923

Lim, Hyunwoo; Lee, Seokjun; Shon, Taeshik

2014-01-01

427

Assessing ecosystem vulnerability to invasive rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus).  

PubMed

Despite the widespread introduction of nonnative species and the heterogeneity of ecosystems in their sensitivity to ecological impacts, few studies have assessed ecosystem vulnerability to the entire invasion process, from arrival to establishment and impacts. Our study addresses this challenge by presenting a probabilistic, spatially explicit approach to predicting ecosystem vulnerability to species invasions. Using the freshwater-rich landscapes of Wisconsin, USA, we model invasive rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) as a function of exposure risk (i.e., likelihood of introduction and establishment of O. rusticus based on a species distribution model) and the sensitivity of the recipient community (i.e., likelihood of impacts on native O. virilis and O. propinquus based on a retrospective analysis of population changes). Artificial neural networks predicted that approximately 10% of 4200 surveyed lakes (n = 388) and approximately 25% of mapped streams (23 523 km total length) are suitable for O. rusticus introduction and establishment. A comparison of repeated surveys before vs. post-1985 revealed that O. virilis was six times as likely and O. propinquus was twice as likely to be extirpated in streams invaded by O. rusticus, compared to streams that were not invaded. Similarly, O. virilis was extirpated in over three-quarters of lakes invaded by O. rusticus compared to half of the uninvaded lakes, whereas no difference was observed for O. propinquus. We identified 115 lakes (approximately 3% of lakes) and approximately 5000 km of streams (approximately 6% of streams) with a 25% chance of introduction, establishment, and extirpation by O. rusticus of either native congener. By identifying highly vulnerable ecosystems, our study offers an effective strategy for prioritizing on-the-ground management action and informing decisions about the most efficient allocation of resources. Moreover, our results provide the flexibility for stakeholders to identify priority sites for prevention efforts given a maximum level of acceptable risk or based on budgetary or time restrictions. To this end, we incorporate the model predictions into a new online mapping tool with the intention of closing the communication gap between academic research and stakeholders that requires information on the prospects of future invasions. PMID:22073646

Olden, Julian D; Vander Zanden, M Jake; Johnson, Pieter T J

2011-10-01

428

Using Remotely Sensed Data to Map Urban Vulnerability to Heat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation defines remote sensing, and presents examples of remote sensing and astronaut photography, which has been a part of many space missions. The presentation then reviews the project aimed at analyzing urban vulnerability to climate change, which is to test the hypotheses that Exposure to excessively warm weather threatens human health in all types of climate regimes; Heat kills and sickens multitudes of people around the globe every year -- directly and indirectly, and Climate change, coupled with urban development, will impact human health. Using Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixing Analysis (MESMA), and the Phoenix urban area as the example, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is calculated, a change detection analysis is shown, and surface temperature is shown.

Stefanov, William L.

2010-01-01

429

Calcium, cellular aging, and selective neuronal vulnerability in Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease in developed countries. The core motor symptoms are attributable to the degeneration of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Why these neurons, and other restricted sets of non-dopamine neuron, succumb in PD is not clear. One potential clue has come from the observation that the engagement of L-type Ca2+ channels during autonomous pacemaking elevates the sensitivity of SNc DA neurons to mitochondrial toxins used to create animal models of PD, suggesting that Ca2+ entry is a factor in their selective vulnerability. Epidemiological data also supports a linkage between L-type Ca2+ channels and the risk of developing PD. This review examines the hypothesis that the primary factor driving neurodegenerative changes in PD is the metabolic stress created by sustained Ca2+ entry, particularly in the face of genetic or environmental factors that compromise oxidative defenses or proteostatic competence. PMID:20053445

Surmeier, D. James; Guzman, Jaime N.; Sanchez-Padilla, Javier

2011-01-01

430

Assessing Vulnerabilities, Risks, and Consequences of Damage to Critical Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

Since the publication of 'Critical Foundations: Protecting America's Infrastructure,' there has been a keen understanding of the complexity, interdependencies, and shared responsibility required to protect the nation's most critical assets that are essential to our way of life. The original 5 sectors defined in 1997 have grown to 18 Critical Infrastructures and Key Resources (CIKR), which are discussed in the 2009 National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) and its supporting sector-specific plans. The NIPP provides the structure for a national program dedicated to enhanced protection and resiliency of the nation's infrastructure. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provides in-depth, multi-disciplinary assessments of threat, vulnerability, and consequence across all 18 sectors at scales ranging from specific facilities to infrastructures spanning multi-state regions, such as the Oil and Natural Gas (ONG) sector. Like many of the CIKR sectors, the ONG sector is comprised of production, processing, distribution, and storage of highly valuable and potentially dangerous commodities. Furthermore, there are significant interdependencies with other sectors, including transportation, communication, finance, and government. Understanding the potentially devastating consequences and collateral damage resulting from a terrorist attack or natural event is an important element of LLNL's infrastructure security programs. Our work began in the energy sector in the late 1990s and quickly expanded other critical infrastructure sectors. We have performed over 600 physical assessments with a particular emphasis on those sectors that utilize, store, or ship potentially hazardous materials and for whom cyber security is important. The success of our approach is based on building awareness of vulnerabilities and risks and working directly with industry partners to collectively advance infrastructure protection. This approach consists of three phases: The Pre-Assessment Phase brings together infrastructure owners and operators to identify critical assets and help the team create a structured information request. During this phase, we gain information about the critical assets from those who are most familiar with operations and interdependencies, making the time we spend on the ground conducting the assessment much more productive and enabling the team to make actionable recommendations. The Assessment Phase analyzes 10 areas: Threat environment, cyber architecture, cyber penetration, physical security, physical penetration, operations security, policies and procedures, interdependencies, consequence analysis, and risk characterization. Each of these individual tasks uses direct and indirect data collection, site inspections, and structured and facilitated workshops to gather data. Because of the importance of understanding the cyber threat, LLNL has built both fixed and mobile cyber penetration, wireless penetration and supporting tools that can be tailored to fit customer needs. The Post-Assessment Phase brings vulnerability and risk assessments to the customer in a format that facilitates implementation of mitigation options. Often the assessment findings and recommendations are briefed and discussed with several levels of management and, if appropriate, across jurisdictional boundaries. The end result is enhanced awareness and informed protective measures. Over the last 15 years, we have continued to refine our methodology and capture lessons learned and best practices. The resulting risk and decision framework thus takes into consideration real-world constraints, including regulatory, operational, and economic realities. In addition to 'on the ground' assessments focused on mitigating vulnerabilities, we have integrated our computational and atmospheric dispersion capability with easy-to-use geo-referenced visualization tools to support emergency planning and response operations. LLNL is home to the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) and the Interagency Modeling and Atmospheric Assessment Center (IMAAC). NA

Suski, N; Wuest, C

2011-02-04

431

Sensory and motor secondary symptoms as indicators of brain vulnerability  

PubMed Central

In addition to the primary symptoms that distinguish one disorder from the next, clinicians have identified, yet largely overlooked, another set of symptoms that appear across many disorders, termed secondary symptoms. In the emerging era of systems neuroscience, which highlights that many disorders share common deficits in global network features, the nonspecific nature of secondary symptoms should attract attention. Herein we provide a scholarly review of the literature on a subset of secondary symptoms––sensory and motor. We demonstrate that their pattern of appearance––across a wide range of psychopathologies, much before the full-blown disorder appears, and in healthy individuals who display a variety of negative symptoms––resembles the pattern of appearance of network abnormalities. We propose that sensory and motor secondary symptoms can be important indicators of underlying network aberrations and thus of vulnerable brain states putting individuals at risk for psychopathology following extreme circumstances. PMID:24063566

2013-01-01

432

Call for research: detecting early vulnerability for psychiatric hospitalization.  

PubMed

This study delineated the extent to which a broad set of risk factors in youth, a period well suited to primary prevention strategies, influences the likelihood and timing of first lifetime psychiatric hospitalizations. Logistic regression was used to delineate early risk factors for psychiatric hospitalization among Americans in a nationally representative survey (NCS-R, Part II, 2001-2003: N?=?5,692). Results suggest that inpatient stay is more common and happens at earlier ages among Americans who report growing up with versus without: (1) depressed parents or caregivers, (2) family members who victimized them, or (3) one of three child mental illnesses (conduct, oppositional defiant, or separation anxiety disorder). In order to prevent inpatient stay, findings call for longitudinal research on early vulnerability for psychiatric hospitalization among families with: (1) depressed parents of children or adolescents, (2) violence against children, and (3) children that have externalizing or separation anxiety disorders. PMID:23160760

Prince, Jonathan D

2013-01-01

433

Vulnerability of networks: Fractional percolation on random graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a theoretical framework for understanding nonbinary, nonindependent percolation on networks with general degree distributions. The model incorporates a partially functional (PF) state of nodes so that both intensity and extensity of error are characterized. Two connected nodes in a PF state cannot sustain the load and therefore break their link. We give exact solutions for the percolation threshold, the fraction of giant cluster, and the mean size of small clusters. The robustness-fragility transition point for scale-free networks with a degree distribution pk?k-? is identified to be ? =3. The analysis reveals that scale-free networks are vulnerable to targeted attack at hubs: a more complete picture of their Achilles' heel turns out to be not only the hubs themselves but also the edges linking them together.

Shang, Yilun

2014-01-01

434

NMDA receptor genotypes associated with the vulnerability to develop dyskinesia  

PubMed Central

Dyskinesias are involuntary muscle movements that occur spontaneously in Huntington's disease (HD) and after long-term treatments for Parkinson's disease (levodopa-induced dyskinesia; LID) or for schizophrenia (tardive dyskinesia, TD). Previous studies suggested that dyskinesias in these three conditions originate from different neuronal pathways that converge on overstimulation of the motor cortex. We hypothesized that the same variants of the N-methyl--aspartate receptor gene that were previously associated with the age of dyskinesia onset in HD were also associated with the vulnerability for TD and not LID. Genotyping patients with LID and TD revealed, however, that these two variants were dose-dependently associated with susceptibility to LID, but not TD. This suggested that LID, TD and HD might arise from the same neuronal pathways, but TD results from a different mechanism. PMID:22832729

Ivanova, S A; Loonen, A J M; Pechlivanoglou, P; Freidin, M B; Al Hadithy, A F Y; Rudikov, E V; Zhukova, I A; Govorin, N V; Sorokina, V A; Fedorenko, O Y; Alifirova, V M; Semke, A V; Brouwers, J R B J; Wilffert, B

2012-01-01

435

Evaluating Common Privacy Vulnerabilities in Internet Service Providers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Privacy in electronic communications receives increased attention in both research and industry forums, stemming from both the users' needs and from legal and regulatory requirements in national or international context. Privacy in internet-based communications heavily relies on the level of security of the Internet Service Providers (ISPs), as well as on the security awareness of the end users. This paper discusses the role of the ISP in the privacy of the communications. Based on real security audits performed in national-wide ISPs, we illustrate privacy-specific threats and vulnerabilities that many providers fail to address when implementing their security policies. We subsequently provide and discuss specific security measures that the ISPs can implement, in order to fine-tune their security policies in the context of privacy protection.

Kotzanikolaou, Panayiotis; Maniatis, Sotirios; Nikolouzou, Eugenia; Stathopoulos, Vassilios

436

SANITARY VULNERABILITY OF A TERRITORIAL SYSTEM IN HIGH SEISMIC AREAS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An evaluation procedure of sanitary vulnerability of a territorial system falling within a high seismic risk area, related to casualty treatment capability of hospitals after an earthquake, is proposed. The goal of the study is aimed at highlighting hospital criticalities for the arrangement of a prevention policy on the basis of territorial, demographic and sanitary type specific analyses of a given area. This is the first step of a procedure of territorial context reading within a damage scenario, addressed to a verification of preparedness level of the territorial system to a sanitary emergency referable both to a natural disaster and anthropic one. The results of carried out surveys are shown, at a different scale, on several sample areas of Messina Province (Italy) territory, evaluating the consistency of damage scenario with the number of casualties, medical doctors, available beds for the implementation of a emergency sanitary circuit.

Teramo, A.; Termini, D.; de Domenico, D.; Marino, A.; Marullo, A.; Saccà, C.; Teramo, M.

2009-12-01

437

Safeguarding vulnerable families: work with refugees and asylum seekers.  

PubMed

This paper will highlight one of the key findings of a qualitative study based on the analysis of in-depth interviews with 14 health visitors describing their experiences working with refugees and asylum seekers. Despite changes in government legislation to improve children's services in order to prevent harm to children, this recent study demonstrated that health visitors were working with the complexities of needs among refugees and asylum seekers related to safeguarding both children and vulnerable women. The health visitors often worked with families and individuals with no support from other professional services, they worked with failed asylum seekers who were unable to access other forms of support and they worked with women and children who were caught in a cycle of domestic abuse due to their immigration status. They were also working with families who would disappear from the systems in place to safeguard children. PMID:21388040

Burchill, John

2011-02-01

438

Vulnerability of Bread-Baskets to Weather Shocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many analyses of food security consider broad trends in food supply (crop production, crop use) and demand (changing diets, population growth.) However, if past shocks to the food system due to weather events (i.e. droughts) were to repeat themselves today, the resulting famines could be far more serious due to increased concentration of grain production in vulnerable bread-baskets, and decreased resilience of global and regional food systems (i.e. lower stocks, dependence on fewer crops). The present research project takes advantage of high-resolution historical weather datasets to assess probabilities of historically observed droughts repeating themselves in one or more of today's bread-basket regions. Using recently developed relationships between weather and crop yield, we consider the likelihood of region-wide crop failures under current conditions, and also under various climate scenarios.

Gerber, J. S.; Ray, D. K.; West, P. C.; Foley, J. A.

2013-12-01

439

HIV education for the deaf, a vulnerable minority.  

PubMed Central

Large numbers of deaf and hard-of-hearing people are in danger of becoming infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The deaf are particularly vulnerable because of language barriers, their unique culture, and the paucity of community services, educational programs, and general information directed to this population. The particular barriers that the deaf must face in learning about HIV protection range from inadequate schooling about human sexuality to the scarcity of locally available education programs outside the cities with high rates of HIV infection. The programs for the deaf in Houston, Los Angeles, and New York City are described as well as the array of national efforts directed to this special population. PMID:8190862

Peinkofer, J R

1994-01-01

440

Motivational orientation, expectancies, and vulnerability for depression in women.  

PubMed

In this study, motivational components in the personal styles of sociotropy and autonomy were examined in a sample of 284 women. One hypothesis was that self-validation needs would account for the vulnerability for depressive symptoms in these personal styles. A second hypothesis was that the association of these personal styles with depressive symptoms would be moderated by expectations and perceptions of how likely these validation needs would be met. As predicted, it was found that validation seeking mediated the association of sociotropy and autonomy with depressive symptoms in these women. Another finding was that expectancies moderated the effects of sociotropy and autonomy to predict depressive symptoms. Negative expectancies in women high on these personal styles together further increased the level of depressive symptoms. These findings are compatible with theories emphasizing the importance of situational factors in the onset and maintenance of depression in women. PMID:19842356

Horvath, Peter; Bissix, Glyn; Sumarah, John; Crouchman, Erin; Bowdrey, Jennifer

2008-01-01

441

Environmental changes and vulnerability in the Gharbi Island (Kerkennah, Tunisia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most reliable models of climatic observation and forecast show that the south of the Mediterranean perimeter is threatened by important variations of environmental conditions. The Gharbi Island that belongs to the Kerkennah archipelago is located 20 km away from the Sfax coast and is likely to undergo the consequences of these regional-scale evolutions. In addition, the socio-economic changes that started in the 80's may have an impact on land use. Indeed, marine conditions changed and overfishing causes the decrease of fish quantity and the leaving of the fisher in favor of agriculture. To enlighten changes of various natures and understand the mechanisms of their origin or development, we performed a comparison of land use on 4 dates over the last 50 years, using photointerpretation on two high resolution images (1963: aerial photography and 2010: Spot image; 2,5m resolution) and remote sensing on two Landsat 5 TM images (1984 and 2011). To support and complete our large scale observations, we also added photographic data gathered during two field campaigns. The first change we observed is a urban extension (stakes) predominantly imputed to the construction of holiday resort for Tunisian citizen, and for a minority to international tourism. We also found that the number of agricultural parcels (stakes) has been multiplied during the past decades in response of changes on agricultural practices, and that an irrigated zone has been created in response to the increase of hydric stress and of farmers. Finally, we describe an enlargement of sebkhas (low, salty and liable to flooding areas (hazard)) that might likely be caused by climatic and environmental evolution like sea level rise and subsidence. We conclude one the one hand that vulnerability and also risks of salinization and loss of farmland around the sebkhas and in the irrigated zone have increase and on the other hand that human infrastructures that are very close or in the sebkhas are vulnerable to sea surges.

Etienne, L.; Bouaziz, R.; Dahech, S.; Daoud, A.; Beltrando, G.

2012-04-01

442

Assessing Natural Hazard Vulnerability Through Marmara Region Using GIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural hazards are natural phenomenon occured in the Earth's system that include geological and meteorological events such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, droughts, fires and tsunamis. The metropolitan cities are vulnerable to natural hazards due to their population densities, industrial facilities and proporties. The urban layout of the megacities are complex since industrial facilities are interference with residential area. The Marmara region is placed in North-western Turkey suffered from natural hazards (earthquakes, floods etc.) for years. After 1999 Kocaeli and Duzce earthquakes and 2009 Istanbul flash floods, dramatic number of casualities and economic losses were reported by the authorities. Geographic information systems (GIS) have substantial capacity in order to develop natural disaster management. As these systems provide more efficient and reliable analysis and evaluation of the data in the management, and also convenient and better solutions for the decision making before during and after the natural hazards. The Earth science data and socio-economic data can be integrated into a GIS as different layers. Additionally, satellite data are used to understand the changes pre and post the natural hazards. GIS is a powerful software for the combination of different type of digital data. A natural hazard database for the Marmara region provides all different types of digital data to the users. All proper data collection processing and analysing are critical to evaluate and identify hazards. The natural hazard database allows users to monitor, analyze and query past and recent disasters in the Marmara Region. The long term aim of this study is to develop geodatabase and identify the natural hazard vulnerabilities of the metropolitan cities.

Sabuncu, A.; Garagon Dogru, A.; Ozener, H.

2013-12-01

443

Vulnerability Assessment, Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Measures in Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In relation to the priority tasks of the climate change measures, the Republic of Slovenia estimates that special attention needs to be devoted to the following sectors in general: - sectors that currently indicate a strong vulnerability for the current climate variability (for instance, agriculture), - sectors where the vulnerability for climate change is increased by current trends (for instance, urban development, use of space), - sectors where the adaptation time is the longest and the subsequent development changes are connected with the highest costs (for instance, use of space, infrastructural objects, forestry, urban development, building stock). Considering the views of Slovenia to the climate change problem in Europe and Slovenia, priority measures and emphasis on future adaptation to climate change, the Republic of Slovenia has especially exposed the following action areas: - sustainable and integrated management of water sources for water power production, prevention of floods, provision of water for the enrichment of low flow rates, and preservation of environmental function as well as provision of water for other needs; - sustainable management of forest ecosystems, adjusted to changes, for the provision of their environmental function as well as being a source of biomass, wood for products for the conservation of carbon, and carbon sinks; - spatial planning as one of the important preventive instruments for the adaptation to climate change through the processes of integral planning of spatial and urban development; - sustainable use and preservation of natural wealth and the preservation of biodiversity as well as ecosystem services with measures and policies that enable an enhanced resistance of ecosystems to climate change, and the role of biological diversity in integral adaptation measures; - informing and awareness on the consequences of climate change and adaptation possibilities. For years, the most endangered sectors have been agriculture and forestry; therefore, they are also the only sectors for which a national adaptation strategy was adopted.

Cegnar, T.

2010-09-01

444

The geography of forest drought vulnerability: Integrating modeling and measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forests are a key provider of ecosystems services throughout the globe. Understanding and ultimately predicting how forest are likely to respond to a changing climate is an active area of interest and research. While some model and empirical studies show increased in forest growth, particularly in temperature limited environments, there are also many studies that show declines in productivity and increased rates of forest mortality in response to greater or more frequent drought stress. Given the importance of water-limitation and drought stress as a control on how forests will respond to a changing climate, models that explicitly link forest productivity with hydrology are essential tools. I will provide an overview of RHESSys, a coupled model of ecosystem biogeochemical cycling and spatially distributed hydrology. RHESSys is an open-source tool that integrates state-of-the art science based understanding of forest structure and function with observational data from multiple sources, including point measures such as streamflow and carbon flux tower data and spatial data from remote sensing products. I will present a number of case studies that use this model to examine the geography of forest drought stress vulnerability. These case studies focus explicitly on eco-hydrologic interactions and demonstrate critical linkages among forest water use, carbon cycling, species-disturbance interactions, local micro-climate patterns and geomorphology. Use of the model provides an integrated systems-oriented perspective on forest drought stress and mortality and allows us to disentangle to relative importance of multiple controls on forest vulnerability. Our case studies also evaluate what management strategies may be most effective at mitigating forest drought stress at stand to watershed scales.

Tague, C.

2012-12-01

445

Aspects of vulnerable patients and informed consent in clinical trials  

PubMed Central

Scope: To discuss the rationale behind informed consent in clinical trials focusing on vulnerable patients from a European and German viewpoint. Methods: Scientific literature search via PubMed, Medline, Google. Results: Voluntary informed consent is the cornerstone of policies regulating clinical trials. To enroll a patient into a clinical trial without having obtained written and signed consent is to be considered as a serious issue in the conduct of a clinical trial. Development of ethical guidance for physicians started before Christ Era with the Hippocratic Oath. Main function of consent, as articulated in all guidelines developed for clinical research, is to facilitate an individual’s freedom of choice, respect autonomy, and thus to ensure welfare of the participants in clinical trials. Minors are unable to provide legally binding informed consent, this issue is addressed through a combination of parental permission and minor’s assent. Illiteracy is a critical problem that affects all corners of our earth; it has no boundaries and exists among every race and ethnicity, age group, and economic class. New strategies to improve communication with patients including the use of videotapes or animated cartoon illustrations could be taught. Finally the time with the potential participant seems to be the best way to improve understanding. Conclusion: Discovery of life saving and life enhancing new treatments requires partnership that is based on good communication and trust between patients and researchers, sponsors, ethics committees, authorities, lawyers and politicians so that vulnerable patients can benefit from the results of well controlled clinical trials. PMID:23346043

Kuthning, Maria; Hundt, Ferdinand

2013-01-01

446

Methods for measuring plant vulnerability to cavitation: a critical review.  

PubMed

Xylem cavitation resistance has profound implications for plant physiology and ecology. This process is characterized by a 'vulnerability curve' (VC) showing the variation of the percentage of cavitation as a function of xylem pressure potential. The shape of this VC varies from 'sigmoidal' to 'exponential'. This review provides a panorama of the techniques that have been used to generate such a curve. The techniques differ by (i) the way cavitation is induced (e.g. bench dehydration, centrifugation, or air injection), and (ii) the way cavitation is measured (e.g. percentage loss of conductivity (PLC) or acoustic emission), and a nomenclature is proposed based on these two methods. A survey of the literature of more than 1200 VCs was used to draw statistics on the usage of these methods and on their reliability and validity. Four methods accounted for more than 96% of all curves produced so far: bench dehydration-PLC, centrifugation-PLC, pressure sleeve-PLC, and Cavitron. How the shape of VCs varies across techniques and species xylem anatomy was also analysed. Strikingly, it was found that the vast majority of curves obtained with the reference bench dehydration-PLC method are 'sigmoidal'. 'Exponential' curves were more typical of the three other methods and were remarkably frequent for species having large xylem conduits (ring-porous), leading to a substantial overestimation of the vulnerability of cavitation for this functional group. We suspect that 'exponential' curves may reflect an open-vessel artefact and call for more precautions with the usage of the pressure sleeve and centrifugation techniques. PMID:23888067

Cochard, Hervé; Badel, Eric; Herbette, Stéphane; Delzon, Sylvain; Choat, Brendan; Jansen, Steven

2013-11-01

447

Socio-economic vulnerability to natural hazards - proposal for an indicator-based model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vulnerability assessment, with respect to natural hazards, is a complex process that must consider multiple dimensions of vulnerability, including both physical and social factors. Physical vulnerability refers to conditions of physical assets, and may be modeled by the intensity and magnitude of the hazard, the degree of physical protection provided by the natural and built environment, and the physical robustness of the exposed elements. Social vulnerability refers to the underlying factors leading to the inability of people, organizations, and societies to withstand impacts from the natural hazards. Social vulnerability models can be used in combination with physical vulnerability models to estimate both direct losses, i.e. losses that occur during and immediately after the impact, as well as indirect losses, i.e. long-term effects of the event. Direct impact of a landslide typically includes casualties and damages to buildings and infrastructure while indirect losses may e.g. include business closures or limitations in public services. The direct losses are often assessed using physical vulnerability indicators (e.g. construction material, height of buildings), while indirect losses are mainly assessed using social indicators (e.g. economical resources, demographic conditions). Within the EC-FP7 SafeLand research project, an indicator-based method was proposed to assess relative socio-economic vulnerability to landslides. The indicators represent the underlying factors which influence a community's ability to prepare for, deal with, and recover from the damage associated with landslides. The pr