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1

Vulnerable Plaque  

MedlinePLUS

... pH of plaque. Can vulnerable plaque be prevented? Patients can lower their C-reactive protein levels in the same ways that they can cut their heart attack risk: take aspirin, eat a proper diet, quit smoking, and begin an exercise program. Researchers also think that obesity and diabetes ...

2

Assessing vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is in the shantytowns and rural villages of the Third World that floods and droughts strike hardest and deepest. Vulnerability to the vagaries of climate depends not only on location, but, crucially, on the capacity of the victims to cope with the impacts of extreme weather. So, where are the people most at risk from the effects of climate

M. Hellmuth; P. Kabat

2003-01-01

3

[Aging and becoming vulnerable].  

PubMed

"The vulnerable are those whose autonomy, dignity and integrity are capable of being threatened". Based on this ethical definition of vulnerability, four risk factors of vulnerability might be identified among elderly persons, and are described in this article: the functional limitation, the loss of autonomy, the social precariousness and the restriction of access to medical care. A clinical case of elderly abuse is presented to illustrate vulnerability. Finally, some recommendations to lower the risk of vulnerability in elderly persons are proposed. PMID:20052868

Monod, Stéfanie; Sautebin, Annelore

2009-11-18

4

Software Vulnerability Taxonomy Consolidation  

SciTech Connect

In today's environment, computers and networks are increasing exposed to a number of software vulnerabilities. Information about these vulnerabilities is collected and disseminated via various large publicly available databases such as BugTraq, OSVDB and ICAT. Each of these databases, individually, do not cover all aspects of a vulnerability and lack a standard format among them, making it difficult for end-users to easily compare various vulnerabilities. A central database of vulnerabilities has not been available until today for a number of reasons, such as the non-uniform methods by which current vulnerability database providers receive information, disagreement over which features of a particular vulnerability are important and how best to present them, and the non-utility of the information presented in many databases. The goal of this software vulnerability taxonomy consolidation project is to address the need for a universally accepted vulnerability taxonomy that classifies vulnerabilities in an unambiguous manner. A consolidated vulnerability database (CVDB) was implemented that coalesces and organizes vulnerability data from disparate data sources. Based on the work done in this paper, there is strong evidence that a consolidated taxonomy encompassing and organizing all relevant data can be achieved. However, three primary obstacles remain: lack of referencing a common ''primary key'', un-structured and free-form descriptions of necessary vulnerability data, and lack of data on all aspects of a vulnerability. This work has only considered data that can be unambiguously extracted from various data sources by straightforward parsers. It is felt that even with the use of more advanced, information mining tools, which can wade through the sea of unstructured vulnerability data, this current integration methodology would still provide repeatable, unambiguous, and exhaustive results. Though the goal of coalescing all available data, which would be of use to system administrators, software developers and vulnerability researchers is not yet achieved, this work has resulted in the most exhaustive collection of vulnerability data to date.

Polepeddi, S

2004-12-08

5

What Does Vulnerability Mean?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Protection of those deemed vulnerable has received increasing attention since 2000. This article reports on care staff views of vulnerability using original data from a research study (Parley. "Vulnerability and abuse: an exploration of views of care staff working with people who have learning disabilities," PhD Thesis, 2007) in which care staff…

Parley, Fiona F

2011-01-01

6

VULNERABILITY College students are particularly vulnerable  

E-print Network

. SEX OFFENSES Sexual assault may include rape, forced sodomy, forcible compulsion and forcible touching from home for the first time. New freedoms and peer pressures, coming at an age when sex- ual impulses are very strong, contribute to this vulnerability. Research suggests that sexual activity may be forced

Salama, Khaled

7

Energy vulnerability relationships  

SciTech Connect

The US consumption of crude oil resources has been a steadily growing indicator of the vitality and strength of the US economy. At the same time import diversity has also been a rapidly developing dimension of the import picture. In the early 1970`s, embargoes of crude oil from Organization of Producing and Exporting Countries (OPEC) created economic and political havoc due to a significant lack of diversity and a unique set of economic, political and domestic regulatory circumstances. The continued rise of imports has again led to concerns over the security of our crude oil resource but threats to this system must be considered in light of the diversity and current setting of imported oil. This report develops several important issues concerning vulnerability to the disruption of oil imports: (1) The Middle East is not the major supplier of oil to the United States, (2) The US is not vulnerable to having its entire import stream disrupted, (3) Even in stable countries, there exist vulnerabilities to disruption of the export stream of oil, (4) Vulnerability reduction requires a focus on international solutions, and (5) DOE program and policy development must reflect the requirements of the diverse supply. Does this increasing proportion of imported oil create a {open_quotes}dependence{close_quotes}? Does this increasing proportion of imported oil present a vulnerability to {open_quotes}price shocks{close_quotes} and the tremendous dislocations experienced during the 1970`s? Finally, what is the vulnerability of supply disruptions from the current sources of imported oil? If oil is considered to be a finite, rapidly depleting resource, then the answers to these questions must be {open_quotes}yes.{close_quotes} However, if the supply of oil is expanding, and not limited, then dependence is relative to regional supply sources.

Shaw, B.R.; Boesen, J.L.

1998-02-01

8

Vulnerability of dynamic systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Directed graphs are associated with dynamic systems in order to determine in any given system if each state can be reached by at least one input (input reachability), or can each state reach at least one output (output reachability). Then, the structural perturbations of a dynamic system are identified as lines or points removals from the corresponding digraph, and a system is considered vulnerable at those lines or points of the digraph whose removal destroys its input or output reachability. A suitable framework is formulated for resolving the problems of reachability and vulnerability which applies to both linear and nonlinear systems alike.

Siljak, D. D.

1976-01-01

9

Vulnerability of labeled networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a metric for vulnerability of labeled graphs that has the following two properties: (1) when the labeled graph is considered as an unlabeled one, the metric reduces to the corresponding metric for an unlabeled graph; and (2) the metric has the same value for differently labeled fully connected graphs, reflecting the notion that any arbitrarily labeled fully connected

Daniel Trpevski; Daniel Smilkov; Igor Mishkovski; Ljupco Kocarev

2010-01-01

10

Human Subjects Research with Vulnerable Populationswith Vulnerable Populations  

E-print Network

Vulnerable Populations "May I never see in the patient anything but a fellowMay I never see in the patient anything be harmful toNever perform an experiment which might be harmful to the patient even though highly Research (risks) and benefits #12;Wh i l bl ?Who is vulnerable? · Pregnant women · Racial minorities

Illinois at Chicago, University of

11

Sepsis in vulnerable populations.  

PubMed

Despite the acquisition of a large body of evidence, there are many unanswered questions about sepsis. The definition of this disease is plagued by the lack of a simple pathophysiological description linking cause to effect and the activation of host immune responses that hinders disease progression at the same time producing multiorgan dysfunction. A plethora of inconsistent clinical features has served to obfuscate rather than illuminate. The Surviving Sepsis Guidelines (SSG) are a major advance because it comprehensively interrogates all aspects of care for the critically ill. For vulnerable populations living in low- and middle-income countries, this guideline is ineffectual because of the lack of region-specific data, differences in etiology of sepsis and burden of disease, limited human capacity and infrastructure, as well as socioeconomic realities. Appropriate care must be guided by common sense guidelines that are sensitive to local realities and adapted as relevant data are acquired. PMID:25667179

Bhagwanjee, Satish; Ugarte, Sebastian

2014-09-01

12

Common Control System Vulnerability  

SciTech Connect

The Control Systems Security Program and other programs within the Idaho National Laboratory have discovered a vulnerability common to control systems in all sectors that allows an attacker to penetrate most control systems, spoof the operator, and gain full control of targeted system elements. This vulnerability has been identified on several systems that have been evaluated at INL, and in each case a 100% success rate of completing the attack paths that lead to full system compromise was observed. Since these systems are employed in multiple critical infrastructure sectors, this vulnerability is deemed common to control systems in all sectors. Modern control systems architectures can be considered analogous to today's information networks, and as such are usually approached by attackers using a common attack methodology to penetrate deeper and deeper into the network. This approach often is composed of several phases, including gaining access to the control network, reconnaissance, profiling of vulnerabilities, launching attacks, escalating privilege, maintaining access, and obscuring or removing information that indicates that an intruder was on the system. With irrefutable proof that an external attack can lead to a compromise of a computing resource on the organization's business local area network (LAN), access to the control network is usually considered the first phase in the attack plan. Once the attacker gains access to the control network through direct connections and/or the business LAN, the second phase of reconnaissance begins with traffic analysis within the control domain. Thus, the communications between the workstations and the field device controllers can be monitored and evaluated, allowing an attacker to capture, analyze, and evaluate the commands sent among the control equipment. Through manipulation of the communication protocols of control systems (a process generally referred to as ''reverse engineering''), an attacker can then map out the control system processes and functions. With the detailed knowledge of how the control data functions, as well as what computers and devices communicate using this data, the attacker can use a well known Man-in-the-Middle attack to perform malicious operations virtually undetected. The control systems assessment teams have used this method to gather enough information about the system to craft an attack that intercepts and changes the information flow between the end devices (controllers) and the human machine interface (HMI and/or workstation). Using this attack, the cyber assessment team has been able to demonstrate complete manipulation of devices in control systems while simultaneously modifying the data flowing back to the operator's console to give false information of the state of the system (known as ''spoofing''). This is a very effective technique for a control system attack because it allows the attacker to manipulate the system and the operator's situational awareness of the perceived system status. The three main elements of this attack technique are: (1) network reconnaissance and data gathering, (2) reverse engineering, and (3) the Man-in-the-Middle attack. The details of this attack technique and the mitigation techniques are discussed.

Trent Nelson

2005-12-01

13

Vulnerabilities in Biometric Encryption Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biometric encryption systems embed a secret code within a biometric image in a way that it can be decrypted with an image from the enrolled individual. We describe a potential vulnerability in biometric encryption systems that allows a less than brute force regeneration of both the secret code and an estimate of the enrolled image. This vulnerability requires the biometric

Andy Adler

2005-01-01

14

Vulnerability due to Nocturnal Tornadoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the human vulnerability caused by tornadoes that occurred between sunset and sunrise from 1880 to 2007. Nocturnal tornadoes are theorized to enhance vulnerability because they are difficult to spot and occur when the public tends to be asleep and in weak building structures. Results illustrate that the nocturnal tornado death rate over the past century has not

Walker S. Ashley; Andrew J. Krmenec; Rick Schwantes

2008-01-01

15

Vulnerability to mental contamination.  

PubMed

Mental contamination refers to feelings of contamination that arise without physical contact with a contaminant. Mental contamination has been documented among sexual assault victims, some of whom report feeling dirty and wanting to wash in response to memories of the assault. This study examined variables associated with increased vulnerability to mental contamination. Female undergraduates (n=100) filled out a series of questionnaires and listened to an audiotape that instructed them to imagine experiencing a forced kiss by an undesirable male. Controls (n=20) imagined a consensual kiss by a desirable male. Women in the non-consensual condition reported stronger feelings of dirtiness and urge to wash than those in the consensual condition. Twenty-seven women in the non-consensual condition spontaneously rinsed in order to alleviate physical sensations evoked by the tape. Regression analyses revealed that significant predictors of dirtiness included contact contamination fear and disgust sensitivity, and there was a trend for anxiety sensitivity to predict dirtiness. Contact contamination fear was also a significant predictor of urge to wash. Prior experience with unwanted sexual contact was a significant predictor of rinsing, and there was a trend for fear of negative evaluation to predict rinsing. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings for our understanding of mental contamination. PMID:17765866

Herba, Joanna K; Rachman, S

2007-11-01

16

Multiscale vulnerability of complex networks.  

PubMed

We present a novel approach to quantify the vulnerability of a complex network, i.e., the capacity of a graph to maintain its functional performance under random damages or malicious attacks. The proposed measure represents a multiscale evaluation of vulnerability, and makes use of combined powers of the links' betweenness. We show that the proposed approach is able to properly describe some cases for which earlier measures of vulnerability fail. The relevant applications of our method for technological network design are outlined. PMID:18163774

Boccaletti, Stefano; Buldú, Javier; Criado, Regino; Flores, Julio; Latora, Vito; Pello, Javier; Romance, Miguel

2007-12-01

17

Identifying Frailty Among Vulnerable Populations  

PubMed Central

Frailty is a significant public health issue which is experienced by homeless and other vulnerable adults; to date, a frailty framework has not been proposed to guide researchers who study this hard-to-reach population. The Frailty Framework among Homeless and other Vulnerable Populations (FFHVP) has been developed from empirical research and consultation with frailty experts in an effort to characterize antecedents, i.e. situational, health-related, behavioral, resource, biological, and environmental factors which contribute to physical, psychological and social frailty domains and impact adverse outcomes. As vulnerable populations continue to age, a greater understanding of frailty will enable the development of nursing interventions. PMID:24469090

Salem, Benissa E.; Nyamathi, Adeline; Phillips, Linda R.; Mentes, Janet; Sarkisian, Catherine; Brecht, Lynn

2014-01-01

18

MAPPING CLIMATE CHANGE EXPOSURES, VULNERABILITIES,  

E-print Network

MAPPING CLIMATE CHANGE EXPOSURES, VULNERABILITIES, AND ADAPTATION TO PUBLIC HEALTH RISKS's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012041 Prepared for: California Energy Commission of California. #12; ii ABSTRACT This study reviewed first available frameworks for climate change adaptation

19

Are Vulnerability Disclosure Deadlines Justified?  

SciTech Connect

Vulnerability research organizations Rapid7, Google Security team, and Zero Day Initiative recently imposed grace periods for public disclosure of vulnerabilities. The grace periods ranged from 45 to 182 days, after which disclosure might occur with or without an effective mitigation from the affected software vendor. At this time there is indirect evidence that the shorter grace periods of 45 and 60 days may not be practical. However, there is strong evidence that the recently announced Zero Day Initiative grace period of 182 days yields benefit in speeding up the patch creation process, and may be practical for many software products. Unfortunately, there is also evidence that the 182 day grace period results in more vulnerability announcements without an available patch.

Miles McQueen; Jason L. Wright; Lawrence Wellman

2011-09-01

20

Food Chain Security and Vulnerability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our contemporary societies, the food chain could be defined as a macro-technical system, which depends on a wide variety of actors and risks analysis methods. In this contribution, risks related to the food chain are defined in terms of "modern risks" (Beck 1992). The whole national economic sector of food production/distribution is vulnerable to a local accident, which can affect the functioning of food chain, the export programs and even the political system. Such a complex socio-technical environment is undoubtedly vulnerable to intentional act such as terrorism.

Brunet, Sébastien; Delvenne, Pierre; Claisse, Frédéric

21

The Vulnerability of Science and the Science of Vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The events of September 11th shocked the nation and painfully illustrated our vulnerability to international terrorist attacks. Despite some of the most sophisticated models, monitoring systems, and science in the world, officials were unable to anticipate and predict these cascading events. The collective scientific ability to geographically represent environmental threats, map exposures, and map consequences is relatively straightforward when the

Susan L. Cutter

2003-01-01

22

Assessing vulnerability to cascading outages  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the testing and implementation of a fast process for sequential contingency simulation in order to identify potential cascading modes due to thermal overloads. It also presents computation of the vulnerability index of cascading, based on the estimated likelihood and consequences of cascading outages. The approach described in this paper offers a unique capability to automatically identify initiating

N. Bhatt; S. Sarawgi; R. O'Keefe; P. Duggan; M. Koenig; M. Leschuk; S. Lee; K. Sun; V. Kolluri; S. Mandal; M. Peterson; D. Brotzman; S. Hedden; E. Litvinov; S. Maslennikov; X. Luo; E. Uzunovic; B. Fardanesh; L. Hopkins; A. Mander; K. Carman; M. Y. Vaiman; M. M. Vaiman; M. Povolotskiy

2009-01-01

23

Transgender Youth: Invisible and Vulnerable  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY. This study used three focus groups to explore factors that affect the experiences of youth (ages 15 to 21) who identify as trans- gender. The focus groups were designed to probe transgender youths' experiences of vulnerability in the areas of health and mental health. This involved their exposure to risks, discrimination, marginalization, and their access to supportive resources. Three

Arnold H. Grossman; Anthony R. D'Augelli

24

REGIONAL VULNERABILITY: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK  

EPA Science Inventory

Regional vulnerability assessment, or ReVA, is an approach to place-based ecological risk assessment that is currently under development by the Office of Research and Development of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The assessment is done at the scale of EPA region...

25

CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS, VULNERABILITIES, AND  

E-print Network

CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS, VULNERABILITIES, AND ADAPTATION IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012071 Prepared for: California Energy, as well as projections of future changes in climate based on modeling studies using various plausible

26

US Vulnerability to Natural Disasters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural disasters result from the coincidence of natural events with the built environment. Our nation's infrastructure is growing at an exponential rate in many areas of high risk, and the Federal government's liability is increasing proportionally. By superimposing population density with predicted ground motion from earthquakes, historical hurricane tracks, historical tornado locations, and areas within the flood plain, we are able to identify locations of high vulnerability within the United States. We present a comprehensive map of disaster risk for the United States that is being produced for the Senate Natural Hazards Caucus. The map allows for the geographic comparison of natural disaster risk with past disaster declarations, the expenditure of Federal dollars for disaster relief, population increase, and variations of GDP. Every state is vulnerable to natural disasters. Although their frequency varies considerably, the annualized losses for disaster relief from hurricanes, earthquakes, and floods are approximately equivalent. While fast-growing states such as California and Florida remain highly vulnerable, changes in the occurrence of natural events combined with population increases are making areas such as Texas, North Carolina, and the East Coast increasingly vulnerable.

van der Vink, G.; Apgar, S.; Batchelor, A.; Carter, C.; Gail, D.; Jarrett, A.; Levine, N.; Morgan, W.; Orlikowski, M.; Pray, T.; Raymar, M.; Siebert, A.; Shawa, T. W.; Wallace, C.

2002-05-01

27

MID-ATLANTIC REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

ORD's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (REVA) Program is developing and demonstrating approaches to assess current and future environmental vulnerabilities so that risk management activities can be targeted. The sister program to EMA.P (Environmental Monitoring Assessment Progr...

28

APPROACHES TO VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Vulnerability to the impacts of future climate change remains a critical issue in the interaction of society with global environmental change. While adaptation to evolving climate patterns can and does occur, sections of society already vulnerable to present climate variability could find this vulnerability exacerbated by the changing incidence of extreme climate events such as droughts and floods. Present

W. Neil Adger

29

Safeguarding Children and Vulnerable Adults 1. Introduction  

E-print Network

1 Safeguarding Children and Vulnerable Adults 1. Introduction 2. Definition & Legislation 3. Scope are likely to be a) vulnerable adults or b) children. The welfare and protection from abuse of vulnerable adults and children is paramount and central to this policy. A multi-agency approach is recommended

Anderson, Jim

30

NV: Nessus Vulnerability Visualization for the Web  

SciTech Connect

Network vulnerability is a critical component of network se- curity. Yet vulnerability analysis has received relatively lit- tle attention from the security visualization community. In this paper we describe nv, a web-based Nessus vulnerability visualization. Nv utilizes treemaps and linked histograms to allow system administrators to discover, analyze, and man- age vulnerabilities on their networks. In addition to visual- izing single Nessus scans, nv supports the analysis of sequen- tial scans by showing which vulnerabilities have been fixed, remain open, or are newly discovered. Nv was also designed to operate completely in-browser, to avoid sending sensitive data to outside servers. We discuss the design of nv, as well as provide case studies demonstrating vulnerability analysis workflows which include a multiple-node testbed and data from the 2011 VAST Challenge.

Harrison, Lane [University of North Carolina, Charlotte] [University of North Carolina, Charlotte; Spahn, Riley B [ORNL] [ORNL; Iannacone, Michael D [ORNL] [ORNL; Downing, Evan P [ORNL] [ORNL; Goodall, John R [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01

31

Assessing the Security Vulnerabilities of Correctional Facilities  

SciTech Connect

The National Institute of Justice has tasked their Satellite Facility at Sandia National Laboratories and their Southeast Regional Technology Center in Charleston, South Carolina to devise new procedures and tools for helping correctional facilities to assess their security vulnerabilities. Thus, a team is visiting selected correctional facilities and performing vulnerability assessments. A vulnerability assessment helps to identi~ the easiest paths for inmate escape, for introduction of contraband such as drugs or weapons, for unexpected intrusion fi-om outside of the facility, and for the perpetration of violent acts on other inmates and correctional employees, In addition, the vulnerability assessment helps to quantify the security risks for the facility. From these initial assessments will come better procedures for performing vulnerability assessments in general at other correctional facilities, as well as the development of tools to assist with the performance of such vulnerability assessments.

Morrison, G.S.; Spencer, D.S.

1998-10-27

32

Scenarios for coastal vulnerability assessment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coastal vulnerability assessments tend to focus mainly on climate change and especially on sea-level rise. Assessment of the influence of nonclimatic environmental change or socioeconomic change is less well developed and these drivers are often completely ignored. Given that the most profound coastal changes of the twentieth century due to nonclimate drivers are likely to continue through the twenty-first century, this is a major omission. It may result in not only overstating the importance of climate change but also overlooking significant interactions of climate change and other drivers. To support the development of policies relating to climate change and coastal management, integrated assessments of climatic change in coastal areas are required, including the effects of all the relevant drivers. This chapter explores the development of scenarios (or "plausible futures") of relevant climate and nonclimate drivers that can be used for coastal analysis, with an emphasis on the nonclimate drivers. It shows the importance of analyzing the impacts of climate change and sea-level rise in a broader context of coastal change and all its drivers. This will improve the analysis of impacts, key vulnerabilities, and adaptation needs and, hence, inform climate and coastal policy. Stakeholder engagement is important in the development of scenarios, and the underlying assumptions need to be explicit, transparent, and open to scientific debate concerning their uncertainties/realism and likelihood.

Nicholls, Robert J.; Woodroffe, Colin D.; Burkett, Virginia; Hay, John; Wong, Poh Poh; Nurse, Leonard

2011-01-01

33

Dynamics of immune system vulnerabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adaptive immune system can be viewed as a complex system, which adapts, over time, to reflect the history of infections experienced by the organism. Understanding its operation requires viewing it in terms of tradeoffs under constraints and evolutionary history. It typically displays "robust, yet fragile" behavior, meaning common tasks are robust to small changes but novel threats or changes in environment can have dire consequences. In this dissertation we use mechanistic models to study several biological processes: the immune response, the homeostasis of cells in the lymphatic system, and the process that normally prevents autoreactive cells from entering the lymphatic system. Using these models we then study the effects of these processes interacting. We show that the mechanisms that regulate the numbers of cells in the immune system, in conjunction with the immune response, can act to suppress autoreactive cells from proliferating, thus showing quantitatively how pathogenic infections can suppress autoimmune disease. We also show that over long periods of time this same effect can thin the repertoire of cells that defend against novel threats, leading to an age correlated vulnerability. This vulnerability is shown to be a consequence of system dynamics, not due to degradation of immune system components with age. Finally, modeling a specific tolerance mechanism that normally prevents autoimmune disease, in conjunction with models of the immune response and homeostasis we look at the consequences of the immune system mistakenly incorporating pathogenic molecules into its tolerizing mechanisms. The signature of this dynamic matches closely that of the dengue virus system.

Stromberg, Sean P.

34

Vulnerability of network of networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our dependence on networks - be they infrastructure, economic, social or others - leaves us prone to crises caused by the vulnerabilities of these networks. There is a great need to develop new methods to protect infrastructure networks and prevent cascade of failures (especially in cases of coupled networks). Terrorist attacks on transportation networks have traumatized modern societies. With a single blast, it has become possible to paralyze airline traffic, electric power supply, ground transportation or Internet communication. How, and at which cost can one restructure the network such that it will become more robust against malicious attacks? The gradual increase in attacks on the networks society depends on - Internet, mobile phone, transportation, air travel, banking, etc. - emphasize the need to develop new strategies to protect and defend these crucial networks of communication and infrastructure networks. One example is the threat of liquid explosives a few years ago, which completely shut down air travel for days, and has created extreme changes in regulations. Such threats and dangers warrant the need for new tools and strategies to defend critical infrastructure. In this paper we review recent advances in the theoretical understanding of the vulnerabilities of interdependent networks with and without spatial embedding, attack strategies and their affect on such networks of networks as well as recently developed strategies to optimize and repair failures caused by such attacks.

Havlin, S.; Kenett, D. Y.; Bashan, A.; Gao, J.; Stanley, H. E.

2014-10-01

35

Flood vulnerability indices at varying spatial scales.  

PubMed

Populations around the world are vulnerable to natural disasters. Such disasters are occurring with increased frequency as a consequence of socio-economic and land-use developments and due to increased climate variability. This paper describes a methodology for using indicators to compute a Flood Vulnerability Index which is aimed at assessing the conditions which influence flood damage at various spatial scales: river basin, sub-catchment and urban area. The methodology developed distinguishes different characteristics at each identified spatial scale, thus allowing a more in-depth analysis and interpretation of local indicators. This also pinpoints local hotspots of flood vulnerability. The final results are presented by means of a standardised number, ranging from 0 to 1, which symbolises comparatively low or high flood vulnerability between the various spatial scales. The Flood Vulnerability Index can be used by international river basin organisations to identify and develop action plans to deal with floods and flooding or on smaller scales to improve local decision-making processes by selecting measures to reduce vulnerability at local and regional levels. In this work the methodology has been applied to various case studies at different spatial scales. This leads to some interesting observations on how flood vulnerability can be reflected by quantifiable indicators across scales, e.g. the relationship between the flood vulnerability of a sub-catchment with its river basin or the weak relation between the flood vulnerability of an urban area with the sub-catchment or river basin which it belongs to. PMID:19923763

Balica, S F; Douben, N; Wright, N G

2009-01-01

36

Mining Bug Databases for Unidentified Software Vulnerabilities  

SciTech Connect

Identifying software vulnerabilities is becoming more important as critical and sensitive systems increasingly rely on complex software systems. It has been suggested in previous work that some bugs are only identified as vulnerabilities long after the bug has been made public. These vulnerabilities are known as hidden impact vulnerabilities. This paper discusses the feasibility and necessity to mine common publicly available bug databases for vulnerabilities that are yet to be identified. We present bug database analysis of two well known and frequently used software packages, namely Linux kernel and MySQL. It is shown that for both Linux and MySQL, a significant portion of vulnerabilities that were discovered for the time period from January 2006 to April 2011 were hidden impact vulnerabilities. It is also shown that the percentage of hidden impact vulnerabilities has increased in the last two years, for both software packages. We then propose an improved hidden impact vulnerability identification methodology based on text mining bug databases, and conclude by discussing a few potential problems faced by such a classifier.

Dumidu Wijayasekara; Milos Manic; Jason Wright; Miles McQueen

2012-06-01

37

Assessing human vulnerability: Daytime residential distribution as a vulnerability indicator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural hazard risk management is based on detailed information on potential impacts of natural hazards. Especially concerning fast onset hazards such as flash floods, earthquakes but also debris flows and landslides, knowing potential hotspots of impact to both, assets and human lives is essential. This information is important for emergency management and decision making in the response phase of the disaster management cycle. Emergency managers are in need of information regarding not only the number of humans being potentially affected but also the respective vulnerability of the group affected based on characteristics such as age, income, health condition, mobility, etc. regarding a certain hazard. The analysis presented focuses on the distribution of the population, assuming a certain pattern of people in a certain radius of action. The method applied is based on a regular pattern of movement of different groups of people and a pattern of presence in certain units, e.g. schools, businesses or residential buildings. The distribution is calculated on a minimum of available data including the average household size, as well as information on building types. The study area is located in the Southwest of Lower Austria, Austria. The city of Waidhofen/Ybbs can be regarded as a regional center providing basic infrastructure, shops and schools. The high concentration of buildings combining shops and residential units leads to a high damage potential throughout the whole study area. The presented results indicate the population distribution within the study area on an average working day. It is clear that explicitly high numbers of people are located in specific buildings (e.g. schools and hospitals) which also include highly vulnerable groups especially to fast onset hazards. The results provide emergency services with the information that they need in order to intervene directly where large numbers of victims or people that need to be evacuated are located. In this way, emergency services can focus and prioritize their actions in order to save lives and reduce the number of potential victims.

Gokesch, Karin; Promper, Catrin; Papathoma-Köhle, Maria; Glade, Thomas

2014-05-01

38

Cizelj, Koncar, Leskovar: Vulnerability of a partially flooded.... Vulnerability of a partially flooded  

E-print Network

Cizelj, Koncar, Leskovar: Vulnerability of a partially flooded.... Vulnerability of a partially flooded PWR reactor cavity to a steam explosion Leon Cizelj, Bostjan Koncar, Matjaz Leskovar "Jozef StefanCavity-Final.doc 27.10.2005 1/26 #12;Cizelj, Koncar, Leskovar: Vulnerability of a partially flooded.... 1 Introduction

Cizelj, Leon

39

Proliferation Vulnerability Red Team report  

SciTech Connect

This report is the product of a four-month independent technical assessment of potential proliferation vulnerabilities associated with the plutonium disposition alternatives currently under review by DOE/MD. The scope of this MD-chartered/Sandia-led study was limited to technical considerations that could reduce proliferation resistance during various stages of the disposition processes below the Stored Weapon/Spent Fuel standards. Both overt and covert threats from host nation and unauthorized parties were considered. The results of this study will be integrated with complementary work by others into an overall Nonproliferation and Arms Control Assessment in support of a Secretarial Record of Decision later this year for disposition of surplus U.S. weapons plutonium.

Hinton, J.P.; Barnard, R.W.; Bennett, D.E. [and others

1996-10-01

40

Rethinking Vulnerability on the Colorado River  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the Colorado River (as elsewhere), severe drought is useful for illuminating sources of water supply vulnerability, focusing attention on deficiencies in water allocation and management. A major drought study in the early 1990s, and experience with real drought a decade later, both have been useful in understanding vulnerability as a function of several factors working in consort with drought,

Doug Kenney; Andrea Ray; Ben Harding; Roger Pulwarty; Brad Udall

41

Predicting Vulnerability Risks Using Software Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Software vulnerabilities have been regarded as one of the key reasons for computer security breaches that have resulted in billions of dollars in losses per year (Telang and Wattal 2005). With the growth of the software industry and the Internet, the number of vulnerability attacks and the ease with which an attack can be made have increased. From…

Roumani, Yaman

2012-01-01

42

Health care service use among vulnerable adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the patterns of health care service use among a cohort of vulnerable adolescents with a history of homelessness and uses the Expanded Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations to examine factors associated with use of ambulatory and emergent care. We incorporated a health care interview into an existing longitudinal study of newly homeless adolescents, at their 24-month assessment

M. Rosa Solorio; Norweeta G. Milburn; Ronald M. Andersen; Sharone Trifskin; Lillian Gelberg

2006-01-01

43

The Naïve nurse: revisiting vulnerability for nursing  

PubMed Central

Background Nurses in the Western world have given considerable attention to the concept of vulnerability in recent decades. However, nurses have tended to view vulnerability from an individualistic perspective, and have rarely taken into account structural or collective dimensions of the concept. As the need grows for health workers to engage in the global health agenda, nurses must broaden earlier works on vulnerability, noting that conventional conceptualizations and practical applications on the notion of vulnerability warrant extension to include more collective conceptualizations thereby making a more complete understanding of vulnerability in nursing discourse. Discussion The purpose of this paper is to examine nursing contributions to the concept of vulnerability and consider how a broader perspective that includes socio-political dimensions may assist nurses to reach beyond the immediate milieu of the patient into the dominant social, political, and economic structures that produce and sustain vulnerability. Summary By broadening nurse’s conceptualization of vulnerability, nurses can obtain the consciousness needed to move beyond a peripheral role of nursing that has been dominantly situated within institutional settings to contribute in the larger arena of social, economic, political and global affairs. PMID:22520841

2012-01-01

44

WATER AND ENERGY SECTOR VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE  

E-print Network

WATER AND ENERGY SECTOR VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE WARMING IN THE SIERRA NEVADA: Simulating warming mediated losses. Keywords: water energy nexus, water management, climate change, non of California, Davis). 2012. Water-Energy Sector Vulnerability to Climate Warming in the Sierra Nevada

45

Our Changing Climate 2012 Vulnerability & Adaptation  

E-print Network

Our Changing Climate 2012 Vulnerability & Adaptation to the Increasing Risks from Climate Change Climate Change Center to lead this effort. The 2009 Adaptation Strategy prepared by the California Natural Resources Agency also called for a statewide vulnerability and adaptation study. This report summarizes

46

Intravascular probe for detection of vulnerable plaque  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coronary angiography is unable to define the status of the atheroma, and only measures the luminal dimensions of the blood vessel, without providing information about plaque content. Up to 70% of heart attacks are caused by minimally obstructive vulnerable plaques, which are too small to be detected adequately by angiography. We have developed an intravascular imaging detector to identify vulnerable

Bradley E. Patt; Jan S. Iwanczyk; Lawrence R. MacDonald; Yuko Yamaguchi; Carolyn R. Tull; Martin Janecek; Edward J. Hoffman; H. William Strauss; Ross Tsugita; Vartan Ghazarossian

2001-01-01

47

Network Security Vulnerabilities in SCADA and EMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power system deregulation brings broader reliance on information systems and telecommunication network to share the critical and non-critical data. In par with the network system expansion in power system, network security vulnerabilities have increased tremendously. Utilities are currently more vulnerable for external attacks due to integration of cooperate network and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system at modern utilities.

M. T. O. Amanullah; A. Kalam; A. Zayegh

2005-01-01

48

Infrastructure Vulnerability Assessment Model (I-VAM).  

PubMed

Quantifying vulnerability to critical infrastructure has not been adequately addressed in the literature. Thus, the purpose of this article is to present a model that quantifies vulnerability. Vulnerability is defined as a measure of system susceptibility to threat scenarios. This article asserts that vulnerability is a condition of the system and it can be quantified using the Infrastructure Vulnerability Assessment Model (I-VAM). The model is presented and then applied to a medium-sized clean water system. The model requires subject matter experts (SMEs) to establish value functions and weights, and to assess protection measures of the system. Simulation is used to account for uncertainty in measurement, aggregate expert assessment, and to yield a vulnerability (Omega) density function. Results demonstrate that I-VAM is useful to decisionmakers who prefer quantification to qualitative treatment of vulnerability. I-VAM can be used to quantify vulnerability to other infrastructures, supervisory control and data acquisition systems (SCADA), and distributed control systems (DCS). PMID:17640208

Ezell, Barry Charles

2007-06-01

49

082911v1Vulnerability Management Policy Page 1 Policy Version  

E-print Network

associated with unpatched vulnerabilities. Audience It is imperative that all System or Application082911v1Vulnerability Management Policy Page 1 Policy Version: Responsible University Officer Chief Information Officer Responsible Office Information Technology Services Vulnerability Management Policy Policy

Whitton, Mary C.

50

Vulnerability indicators of sea water intrusion.  

PubMed

In this paper, simple indicators of the propensity for sea water intrusion (SWI) to occur (referred to as "SWI vulnerability indicators") are devised. The analysis is based on an existing analytical solution for the steady-state position of a sharp fresh water-salt water interface. Interface characteristics, that is, the wedge toe location and sea water volume, are used in quantifying SWI in both confined and unconfined aquifers. Rates-of-change (partial derivatives of the analytical solution) in the wedge toe or sea water volume are used to quantify the aquifer vulnerability to various stress situations, including (1) sea-level rise; (2) change in recharge (e.g., due to climate change); and (3) change in seaward discharge. A selection of coastal aquifer cases is used to apply the SWI vulnerability indicators, and the proposed methodology produces interpretations of SWI vulnerability that are broadly consistent with more comprehensive investigations. Several inferences regarding SWI vulnerability arise from the analysis, including: (1) sea-level rise impacts are more extensive in aquifers with head-controlled rather than flux-controlled inland boundaries, whereas the opposite is true for recharge change impacts; (2) sea-level rise does not induce SWI in constant-discharge confined aquifers; (3) SWI vulnerability varies depending on the causal factor, and therefore vulnerability composites are needed that differentiate vulnerability to such threats as sea-level rise, climate change, and changes in seaward groundwater discharge. We contend that the approach is an improvement over existing methods for characterizing SWI vulnerability, because the method has theoretical underpinnings and yet calculations are simple, although the coastal aquifer conceptualization is highly idealized. PMID:21434909

Werner, Adrian D; Ward, James D; Morgan, Leanne K; Simmons, Craig T; Robinson, Neville I; Teubner, Michael D

2012-01-01

51

Salt vulnerability assessment methodology for urban streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

De-icing agents such as road salts while used for winter road maintenance can cause negative effects on urban stream water quality and drinking water supplies. A new methodology using readily available spatial data to identify Salt Vulnerable Areas (SVAs) for urban streams is used to prioritize implementation of best management practices. The methodology calculates the probable chloride concentration statistics at specified points in the urban stream network and compares the results with known aquatic species exposure tolerance limits to characterize the vulnerability scores. The approach prioritizes implementation of best management practices to areas identified as vulnerable to road salt. The vulnerability assessment is performed on seven sites in four watersheds in the Greater Toronto Area and validated using the Hanlon Creek watershed in Guelph. The mean annual in-stream chloride concentration equation uses readily available spatial data - with province-wide coverage - that can be easily used in any urban watershed.

Betts, A. R.; Gharabaghi, B.; McBean, E. A.

2014-09-01

52

CLIMATE VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTATION STUDY FOR  

E-print Network

CLIMATE VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTATION STUDY FOR CALIFORNIA Legal Analysis of Barriers's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012019 Prepared for: California Energy Commission to that framework that would facilitate adaptation to climate change. Since such changes may be difficult

53

Extinction vulnerability of coral reef fishes.  

PubMed

With rapidly increasing rates of contemporary extinction, predicting extinction vulnerability and identifying how multiple stressors drive non-random species loss have become key challenges in ecology. These assessments are crucial for avoiding the loss of key functional groups that sustain ecosystem processes and services. We developed a novel predictive framework of species extinction vulnerability and applied it to coral reef fishes. Although relatively few coral reef fishes are at risk of global extinction from climate disturbances, a negative convex relationship between fish species locally vulnerable to climate change vs. fisheries exploitation indicates that the entire community is vulnerable on the many reefs where both stressors co-occur. Fishes involved in maintaining key ecosystem functions are more at risk from fishing than climate disturbances. This finding is encouraging as local and regional commitment to fisheries management action can maintain reef ecosystem functions pending progress towards the more complex global problem of stabilizing the climate. PMID:21320260

Graham, Nicholas A J; Chabanet, Pascale; Evans, Richard D; Jennings, Simon; Letourneur, Yves; Aaron Macneil, M; McClanahan, Tim R; Ohman, Marcus C; Polunin, Nicholas V C; Wilson, Shaun K

2011-04-01

54

Global health, vulnerable populations, and law.  

PubMed

Given the fragility of individual and population wellbeing in an interdependent world threatened by many overlapping crises, the suggestion is made that new legal mechanisms have the robust potential to reduce human vulnerability locally and globally. PMID:23581656

Benatar, Solomon R

2013-01-01

55

Culturally safe research with vulnerable populations.  

PubMed

Culturally safe research processes, methodologies, and mutually aligned research endeavours are a fundamental right of those being researched. Vulnerable populations are at risk of experiencing inequalities in health experiences and health outcomes, and research beneficial to those being researched is crucial to address disparities. Often vulnerable populations are exposed to research that is driven by dominant epistemologies, research methodologies, and socio-cultural lenses that can exacerbate their vulnerability, negating their socio-cultural reality. In this paper it is contended that researchers should review the way in which research is constructed and developed by creating a culturally safe space for research to occur with those who are vulnerable. A framework based on partnership, participation, protection, and power is presented as a way of creating culturally safe research. PMID:19715497

Wilson, Denise; Neville, Stephen

2009-08-01

56

Extinction vulnerability of coral reef fishes  

PubMed Central

With rapidly increasing rates of contemporary extinction, predicting extinction vulnerability and identifying how multiple stressors drive non-random species loss have become key challenges in ecology. These assessments are crucial for avoiding the loss of key functional groups that sustain ecosystem processes and services. We developed a novel predictive framework of species extinction vulnerability and applied it to coral reef fishes. Although relatively few coral reef fishes are at risk of global extinction from climate disturbances, a negative convex relationship between fish species locally vulnerable to climate change vs. fisheries exploitation indicates that the entire community is vulnerable on the many reefs where both stressors co-occur. Fishes involved in maintaining key ecosystem functions are more at risk from fishing than climate disturbances. This finding is encouraging as local and regional commitment to fisheries management action can maintain reef ecosystem functions pending progress towards the more complex global problem of stabilizing the climate. PMID:21320260

Graham, Nicholas A J; Chabanet, Pascale; Evans, Richard D; Jennings, Simon; Letourneur, Yves; Aaron MacNeil, M; McClanahan, Tim R; Öhman, Marcus C; Polunin, Nicholas V C; Wilson, Shaun K

2011-01-01

57

Managing risk with climate vulnerability science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate information alone cannot be sufficient for anticipating and reducing climate impacts. Enhanced vulnerability science is needed, including local to global monitoring, to support effective anticipatory efforts to increase societal resilience to potentially disruptive events.

Stern, Paul C.; Ebi, Kristie L.; Leichenko, Robin; Olson, Richard Stuart; Steinbruner, John D.; Lempert, Robert

2013-07-01

58

Cancer Vulnerabilities Unveiled by Genomic Loss  

E-print Network

Due to genome instability, most cancers exhibit loss of regions containing tumor suppressor genes and collateral loss of other genes. To identify cancer-specific vulnerabilities that are the result of copy number losses, ...

Nijhawan, Deepak

59

Vulnerability assessment of mining subsidence hazards.  

PubMed

Between 1996 and 1999, five mining subsidence events occurred in the iron-ore field in Lorraine, France, and damaged several hundred buildings. Because of the thousand hectares of undermined areas, an assessment of the vulnerability of buildings and land is necessary for risk management. Risk assessment methods changed from initial risk management decisions that took place immediately after the mining subsidence to the risk assessment studies that are currently under consideration. These changes reveal much about the complexity of the vulnerability concept and about difficulties in developing simple and relevant methods for its assessment. The objective of this article is to present this process, suggest improvements on the basis of theoretical definitions of the vulnerability, and give an operational example of vulnerability assessment in the seismic field. The vulnerability is divided into three components: weakness, stakes value, and resilience. Final improvements take into account these three components and constitute an original method of assessing the vulnerability of a city to subsidence. PMID:19473313

Deck, Olivier; Verdel, Thierry; Salmon, Romuald

2009-10-01

60

Global Distributions of Vulnerability to Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

Signatories of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have committed themselves to addressing the “specific needs and special circumstances of developing country parties, especially those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change”.1 The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has since concluded with high confidence that “developing countries will be more vulnerable to climate change than developed countries”.2 In their most recent report, however, the IPCC notes that “current knowledge of adaptation and adaptive capacity is insufficient for reliable prediction of adaptations” 3 because “the capacity to adapt varies considerably among regions, countries and socioeconomic groups and will vary over time”.4 Here, we respond to the apparent contradiction in these two statements by exploring how variation in adaptive capacity and climate impacts combine to influence the global distribution of vulnerability. We find that all countries will be vulnerable to climate change, even if their adaptive capacities are enhanced. Developing nations are most vulnerable to modest climate change. Reducing greenhouse-gas emissions would diminish their vulnerabilities significantly. Developed countries would benefit most from mitigation for moderate climate change. Extreme climate change overwhelms the abilities of all countries to adapt. These findings should inform both ongoing negotiations for the next commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol and emerging plans for implementing UNFCCC-sponsored adaptation funds.

Yohe, Gary; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Brenkert, Antoinette L.; Schlesinger, Michael; Meij, Henk; Xiaoshi, Xing

2006-12-01

61

Constructing vulnerability maps of material and energy pathways in deltas  

E-print Network

.5834 Steady Flux Distribution 0 8 #12;Vulnerability to change Wax Lake Delta (Louisiana Coast, USA) Niger 10 #12;Vulnerability Maps Niger Delta H M L 0 11 #12;· Does vulnerability relate to the topology => Vulnerability? 12 #12;Colville Yukon Mossy WaxLake Parana Niger Irrawaddy 13 #12;10 km Yukon 10 km Niger

Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

62

Camana, Peru, and Tsunami Vulnerability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A tsunami washed over the low-lying coastal resort region near Camana, southern Peru, following a strong earthquake on June 23, 2001. The earthquake was one of the most powerful of the last 35 years and had a magnitude of 8.4. After the initial quake, coastal residents witnessed a sudden drawdown of the ocean and knew a tsunami was imminent. They had less than 20 minutes to reach higher ground before the tsunami hit. Waves as high as 8 m came in four destructive surges reaching as far as 1.2 km inland. The dashed line marks the approximate area of tsunami inundation. Thousands of buildings were destroyed, and the combined earthquake and tsunami killed as many as 139 people. This image (ISS004-ESC-6128) was taken by astronauts onboard the International Space Station on 10 January 2002. It shows some of the reasons that the Camana area was so vulnerable to tsunami damage. The area has a 1 km band of coastal plain that is less than 5 m in elevation. Much of the plain can be seen by the bright green fields of irrigated agriculture that contrast with the light-colored desert high ground. Many of the tsunami-related deaths were workers in the onion fields in the coastal plain that were unwilling to leave their jobs before the end of the shift. A number of lives were spared because the tsunami occurred during the resort off-season, during the daylight when people could see the ocean drawdown, and during one of the lowest tides of the year. Information on the Tsunami that hit Camana can be found in a reports on the visit by the International Tsunami Survey Team and the USC Tsunami Research Lab. Earthquake Epicenter, Peru shows another image of the area. Image provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

2002-01-01

63

Vulnerability: what kind of principle is it?  

PubMed

The so-called European principles of bioethics are a welcome enrichment of principlist bioethics. Nevertheless, vulnerability, dignity and integrity can perhaps be more accurately understood as anthropological descriptions of the human condition. They may inspire a normative language, but they do not contain it primarily lest a naturalistic fallacy be committed. These anthropological features strongly suggest the need to develop deontic arguments in support of the protection such essential attributes of humanity require. Protection is to be universalized, since all human beings share vulnerability, integrity and dignity, thus fundamenting a mandate requiring justice and respect for fundamental human rights. Being a feature of all humanity, vulnerability is improperly extended to designate destitute individuals and populations. Rather, they are in a state of fallen vulnerability, for they already are harmed in some way, and have become deprived of their range of capabilities. These individuals are destitute and are no longer in command of their fundamental human rights. They have lost the status of unharmed vulnerability; identifying them as susceptible--vulnerated and no longer only vulnerable--stresses the point that bioethics demands specific social action to palliate or remove their distress. When harm does occur--in the form of disease, for example-, individuals are no longer vulnerable--for they have ceased to be intact -, they become susceptible to additional deprivations and sickness; integrity is demeaned and dignity is offended, leading to states of dysfunction that require specific remedial social practices, aimed at treating and removing injuries. The main point this paper addresses is that vulnerability--as well as dignity and integrity--are descriptive characteristics of human beings qua humans, which are not normative in themselves, but fundamental enough to inspire bioethical requirements of protection and respect for human rights in the wake of social justice. A clear distinction must be made in regard to human beings who are injured by poverty, sickness, discriminating deprivations or suffer other destitutions, having ceased to be only vulnerable for they are no longer intact. These individuals and populations require more than protection, their needs must be met by specific care and remedial measures to be identified and instigated by bioethics qua applied ethics. PMID:15679020

Kottow, Michael H

2004-01-01

64

Drought vulnerability assesssment and mapping in Morocco  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drought vulnerability assessment and mapping in Morocco Authors: Yasmina Imani 1, Ouiam Lahlou 1, Si Bennasser Alaoui 1 Paulo Barbosa 2, Jurgen Vogt 2, Gustavo Naumann 2 1: Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II (IAV Hassan II), Rabat Morocco. 2: European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Environment and Sustainability (IES), Ispra, Italy. In Morocco, nearly 50% of the population lives in rural areas. They are mostly small subsistent farmers whose production depends almost entirely on rainfall. They are therefore very sensitive to drought episodes that may dramatically affect their incomes. Although, as a consequence of the increasing frequency, length and severity of drought episodes in the late 90's, the Moroccan government decided, to move on from a crisis to a risk management approach, drought management remains in practice mainly reactive and often ineffective. The lack of effectiveness of public policy is in part a consequence of the poor understanding of drought vulnerability at the rural community level, which prevents the development of efficient mitigation actions and adaptation strategies, tailored to the needs and specificities of each rural community. Thus, the aim of this study is to assess and map drought vulnerability at the rural commune level in the Oum Er-Rbia basin which is a very heterogeneous basin, showing a big variability of climates, landscapes, cropping systems and social habits. Agricultural data collected from the provincial and local administrations of Agriculture and socio-economic data from the National Department of Statistics were used to compute a composite vulnerability index (DVI) integrating four different components: (i) the renewable natural capacity, (ii) the economic capacity, (iii) human and civic resources, and (iv) infrastructure and technology. The drought vulnerability maps that were derived from the computation of the DVI shows that except very specific areas, most of the Oum er Rbia basin is highly vulnerable to drought. The mountainous areas present the most favorable annual rainfall. That contributes to explain their low DVI. In the provinces that present the highest vulnerability to drought, spots presenting a lower vulnerability correspond to large irrigated perimeters. Overall, the main output of this study were to show how the DVI can allow detecting the differences in vulnerability in the different rural communes providing, therefore, a tool for more effective drought management practices. The analysis of the 4 dimensions of the DVI showed that at the river basin level, the mean annual rainfall, the percentage of irrigated lands, The Cereal / Fruit trees and market crops ratio, the land status, the farm's sizes, the adult literacy rate and the access to improved drinking water represent the major drivers of vulnerability. They may therefore be targeted in priority by mitigation and adaptation actions.

Imani, Yasmina; Lahlou, Ouiam; Bennasser Alaoui, Si; Naumann, Gustavo; Barbosa, Paulo; Vogt, Juergen

2014-05-01

65

A knowledge integration approach to flood vulnerability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding, qualifying and quantifying vulnerability is an essential need for implementing effective and efficient flood risk mitigation strategies; in particular if possible synergies between different mitigation alternatives, such as active and passive measures, should be achieved. In order to combine different risk management options it is necessary to take an interdisciplinary approach to vulnerability reduction, and as a result the affected society may be willing to accept a certain degree of self-responsibility. However, due to differing mono-disciplinary approaches and regional foci undertaken until now, different aspects of vulnerability to natural hazards in general and to floods in particular remain uncovered and as a result the developed management options remain sub-optimal. Taking an even more fundamental viewpoint, the empirical vulnerability functions used in risk assessment specifically fail to capture physical principles of the damage-generating mechanisms to the build environment. The aim of this paper is to partially close this gap by discussing a balanced knowledge integration approach which can be used to resolve the multidisciplinary disorder in flood vulnerability research. Modelling techniques such as mathematical-physical modelling of the flood hazard impact to and response from the building envelope affected, and formative scenario analyses of possible consequences in terms of damage and loss are used in synergy to provide an enhanced understanding of vulnerability and to render the derived knowledge into interdisciplinary mitigation strategies. The outlined formal procedure allows for a convincing knowledge alignment of quantified, but partial, information about vulnerability as a result of the application of physical and engineering notions and valuable, but often underspecified, qualitative argumentation strings emerging from the adopted socio-economic viewpoint.

Mazzorana, Bruno; Fuchs, Sven

2014-05-01

66

A framework for modeling rail transport vulnerability  

SciTech Connect

Railroads represent one of the most efficient methods of long-haul transport for bulk commodities, from coal to agricultural products. Over the past fifty years, the rail network has contracted while tonnage has increased. Service, geographically, has been abandoned along short haul routes and increased along major long haul routes, resulting in a network that is more streamlined. The current rail network may be very vulnerable to disruptions, like the failure of a trestle. This paper proposes a framework to model rail network vulnerability and gives an application of this modeling framework in analyzing rail network vulnerability for the State of Washington. It concludes with a number of policy related issues that need to be addressed in order to identify, plan, and mitigate the risks associated with the sudden loss of a bridge or trestle.

Peterson, Steven K [ORNL; Church, Richard L. [University of California, Santa Barbara

2008-01-01

67

Creativity and psychopathology: a shared vulnerability model.  

PubMed

Creativity is considered a positive personal trait. However, highly creative people have demonstrated elevated risk for certain forms of psychopathology, including mood disorders, schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and alcoholism. A model of shared vulnerability explains the relation between creativity and psychopathology. This model, supported by recent findings from neuroscience and molecular genetics, suggests that the biological determinants conferring risk for psychopathology interact with protective cognitive factors to enhance creative ideation. Elements of shared vulnerability include cognitive disinhibition (which allows more stimuli into conscious awareness), an attentional style driven by novelty salience, and neural hyperconnectivity that may increase associations among disparate stimuli. These vulnerabilities interact with superior meta-cognitive protective factors, such as high IQ, increased working memory capacity, and enhanced cognitive flexibility, to enlarge the range and depth of stimuli available in conscious awareness to be manipulated and combined to form novel and original ideas. PMID:21443821

Carson, Shelley H

2011-03-01

68

Narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability in psychotherapy.  

PubMed

This article briefly summarizes the empirical and clinical literature underlying a contemporary clinical model of pathological narcissism. Unlike the DSM Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD), this clinical model identifies and differentiates between two phenotypic themes of dysfunction-narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability-that can be expressed both overtly and covertly in patients' ways of thinking, feeling, behaving, and participating in treatment. Clinical recognition that narcissistic patients can and often do present for psychotherapy in vulnerable states of depression, anxiety, shame, and even suicidality increases the likelihood of accurate diagnosis and effective treatment planning. This article provides case examples derived from psychotherapies with narcissistic patients to demonstrate how narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability concurrently present in patients who seek treatment. PMID:24446581

Pincus, Aaron L; Cain, Nicole M; Wright, Aidan G C

2014-10-01

69

Assessing species vulnerability to climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of climate change on biodiversity are increasingly well documented, and many methods have been developed to assess species' vulnerability to climatic changes, both ongoing and projected in the coming decades. To minimize global biodiversity losses, conservationists need to identify those species that are likely to be most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. In this Review, we summarize different currencies used for assessing species' climate change vulnerability. We describe three main approaches used to derive these currencies (correlative, mechanistic and trait-based), and their associated data requirements, spatial and temporal scales of application and modelling methods. We identify strengths and weaknesses of the approaches and highlight the sources of uncertainty inherent in each method that limit projection reliability. Finally, we provide guidance for conservation practitioners in selecting the most appropriate approach(es) for their planning needs and highlight priority areas for further assessments.

Pacifici, Michela; Foden, Wendy B.; Visconti, Piero; Watson, James E. M.; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Kovacs, Kit M.; Scheffers, Brett R.; Hole, David G.; Martin, Tara G.; Akçakaya, H. Resit; Corlett, Richard T.; Huntley, Brian; Bickford, David; Carr, Jamie A.; Hoffmann, Ary A.; Midgley, Guy F.; Pearce-Kelly, Paul; Pearson, Richard G.; Williams, Stephen E.; Willis, Stephen G.; Young, Bruce; Rondinini, Carlo

2015-03-01

70

Assessment of Chemical and Radiological Vulnerabilities  

SciTech Connect

Following the May 14, 1997 chemical explosion at Hanford's Plutonium Reclamation Facility, the Department of Energy Richland Operations Office and its prime contractor, Fluor Hanford, Inc., completed an extensive assessment to identify and address chemical and radiological safety vulnerabilities at all facilities under the Project Hanford Management Contract. This was a challenging undertaking because of the immense size of the problem, unique technical issues, and competing priorities. This paper focuses on the assessment process, including the criteria and methodology for data collection, evaluation, and risk-based scoring. It does not provide details on the facility-specific results and corrective actions, but discusses the approach taken to address the identified vulnerabilities.

SETH, S.S.

2000-05-17

71

The earthquake vulnerability of a utility system  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a method to assess the earthquake vulnerability of a utility system and presents an example application. First, the seismic hazard of the system is modeled. Next, the damage and operational disruption to the facilities are estimated. The approach described herein formulates the problem so that the best documented and judgmental information on the earthquake performance of a utility's components can be utilized. finally, the activities and estimates of the time necessary to restore the system to different levels of service are developed. This method of analysis provides a realistic picture of the resiliency of utility service, not just vulnerabilities of various types of equipment.

Burhenn, T.A.; Hawkins, H.G.; Ostrom, D.K.; Richau, E.M. (Southern California Edison, Rosemead, CA (US))

1992-01-01

72

Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group Report  

SciTech Connect

This report marks the culmination of a 4-month review conducted to identify chemical safety vulnerabilities existing at DOE facilities. This review is an integral part of DOE's efforts to raise its commitment to chemical safety to the same level as that for nuclear safety.

Not Available

1994-09-01

73

VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN  

E-print Network

VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN CALIFORNIA AGRICULTURE A White Paper from the California Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012031 Commissioner), Chuck Dudley (President of the Yolo County Farm Bureau), John MottSmith (Yolo County Climate

74

Disaster response: risk, vulnerability and resilience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assumption of an automatic link between disaster exposure and pathological outcomes is increasingly being questioned. Recognition of the possibility of positive reactions and growth outcomes in this context necessitates the development of alternative models and, in particular, the accommodation of the resilience construct in research and intervention agenda. Reviews possible vulnerability and resilience factors and adopts a risk management

Douglas Paton; Leigh Smith; John Violanti

2000-01-01

75

Educational and Vocational Exploration in Vulnerable Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Though numerous studies indicate that youth and young adults who are involved in one or more social service systems have poor educational and employment outcomes, little is known about the pathways to employment and education in this population. In this qualitative study of educational and employment exploration in vulnerable youth, 11 individuals…

Taylor, Sarah

2011-01-01

76

Modelling Community Evacuation Vulnerability Using GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method for systematically identifying neighbourhoods that may face transportation di Yculties during an evacuation. A classi® cation of this nature o Vers a unique approach to assessing community vulnerability in regions subject to fast-moving hazards of uncertain spatial impact (e.g., urban ® restorms and toxic spills on highways). The approach is founded on an integer programming (IP)

Thomas J. Cova; Richard L. Church

1997-01-01

77

African agriculture especially vulnerable to warming climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Malnourishment across Africa could jump 40% by 2050 due to climate change, according to the Africa Agriculture Status Report 2014 (AASR), released on 2 September. With temperatures predicted to rise 1.5°C-2.5°C by midcentury, African smallholder farms, which are generally run by one family, are more vulnerable than ever, the report finds.

Wendel, JoAnna

2014-09-01

78

GUNNISON BASIN CLIMATE CHANGE VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT  

E-print Network

of climate change on land and water resources to help inform management and conservation activities Basin, Colorado, are likely to be most at risk to projected climatic changes and why they are likelyGUNNISON BASIN CLIMATE CHANGE VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT For the Gunnison Climate Working Group

Neff, Jason

79

Vaccinating to Protect a Vulnerable Subpopulation  

E-print Network

in the elderly population, and current US vaccination policy gives highest priority to vaccination of personsVaccinating to Protect a Vulnerable Subpopulation Jonathan Dushoff1,2* , Joshua B. Plotkin3 Citation: Dushoff J, Plotkin JB, Viboud C, Simonsen L, Miller M, et al. (2007) Vaccinating to protect

Plotkin, Joshua B.

80

Evaluating Youth Work with Vulnerable Young People.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the results of an 18-month research project that studied the effectiveness of youth work with vulnerable young people. The research, representing six distinct geographical areas of Scotland characterized by disadvantage, focused on young people aged 13 to 16. In each neighborhood, the project examined the experiences of young…

Furlong, Andy; Cartmel, Fred; Powney, Janet; Hall, Stuart

81

Vulnerability Assessment of Regional Water Distribution Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vulnerability assessment model for regional water distribution system (VAMRWDS) is presented. The model takes into account the impact of residual chlorine and water age, as well as the uncertainty and probabilistic characteristic of the distribution systems. Monte-Carlo stochastic simulation is adopted in the model to randomly generate bulk and wall reaction coefficients. Employing the EPANET toolkit as the hydraulic

Baoyu Zhuang; Xinhua Zhao; Yuan Zhao

2009-01-01

82

A physical approach on flood risk vulnerability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of efficient flood risk mitigation strategies and their subsequent implementation relies on a careful vulnerability analysis of the elements exposed to flood hazard. Recently, extensive research efforts were undertaken to develop and refine empirical relationships linking the structural vulnerability of buildings to the intensity of the impacting water-related hazard processes. These empirical vulnerability functions allow for an estimation of the expected direct losses as a result of the hazard scenario on the basis of a spatially explicit representation of the process patterns and the elements at risk, and improve both risk assessments and cost-benefit analyses of planned mitigation strategies. However, due to the underlying empiricism of such vulnerability functions, the physics of the damage generating mechanisms remain unveiled, and, as such, the applicability of the empirical approach for planning hazard-proof residential buildings is rather limited. Therefore, we propose a conceptual assessment scheme to close this gap. This assessment scheme comprises distinct analytical steps: (a) modelling the process intensity and (b) the impact on the element at risk exposed, (c) the physical response of the building envelope, (d) the damage accounting and (f) the economic damage valuation. This dynamic assessment supports all relevant planning activities with respect to a minimisation of flood hazard losses, and can be implemented in the operational risk assessment procedure.

Mazzorana, Bruno; Fuchs, Sven; Keiler, Margreth

2013-04-01

83

USMLE Step 1 Examination: Legal Vulnerability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1994 the Federation of State Medical Boards and the National Board of Medical Examiners instituted a three-step U.S. Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE). Step one of the USMLE may be vulnerable to legal challenge on the basis of minority group bias and lack of construct validity. (SLD)

Templeton, Bryce

1996-01-01

84

Overactive bladder in the vulnerable elderly  

PubMed Central

Overactive bladder (OAB) is a common problem that may occur in individuals of all ages. It has a considerable impact on patient quality of life, and although moderately effective management strategies do exist, this condition often remains undiagnosed and untreated. OAB needs to be viewed as a symptom complex. Its presentation and management are complicated in the vulnerable elderly by the presence of baseline frailty and multiple coexisting chronic conditions. Furthermore, and beyond a simple understanding of symptomatology, providers must address patient goals and motivations as well as the expectations of caretakers. These multiple levels of perception, function, expectations, and treatment efficacy/risks must be tailored to the individual patient. While the vulnerable elderly patient may often have evidence of urinary tract dysfunction, OAB and urge urinary incontinence in this population must be understood as a multifactorial geriatric syndrome and viewed in the context of medical and functional baseline and precipitating risk factors. Expectations and goals must be tailored to the resources of vulnerable elderly patients and their caregivers, and care must be coordinated with other medical care providers. The management of OAB in the vulnerable elderly often poses significant management challenges. Nonetheless, with a thoughtful approach and an aim towards future research specifically for this population, significant reductions in morbidity and mortality long with enhancement in health-related quality of life are possible. PMID:25328867

Wolff, Gillian F; Kuchel, George A; Smith, Phillip P

2014-01-01

85

Vulnerability to Climate Change in Rural Nicaragua  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While there is a growing recognition of the impact that climate change may have on human development, there has been a shift in focus from an impacts-led assessment approach towards a vulnerability-led assessment approach. This research operationalizes the IPCC's definition of vulnerability in a sub-national assessment to understand how different factors that shape vulnerability to climate change vary spatially across rural Nicaragua. The research utilizes the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations' (FAO UN) CropWat model to evaluate how the annual yield of two of Nicaragua's staple crops may change under projected changes in temperature and precipitation. This analysis of agricultural sensitivity under exposure to climate change is then overlain with an indicator-based assessment of adaptive capacity in rural Nicaraguan farming households. Adaptive capacity was evaluated using household survey data from the 2001 National Household Survey on Living Standards Measurement, which was provided to us by the FAO UN. The result is a map representing current vulnerability to future climate change, and can serve as a basis for targeting policy interventions in rural Nicaragua.

Byrne, T. R.; Townshend, I.; Byrne, J. M.; McDaniel, S. A.

2013-12-01

86

Who's Vulnerable in Infant Child Care Centers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that infants and toddlers, parents, and child caregivers are vulnerable to a variety of infectious diseases from infant-toddler child care centers. These diseases include infectious diarrhea; rubella; cytomeglovirus; hepatitis A, and haemophilus influenza type B. Suggests ways to prevent the spread of such diseases. (BB)

Kendall, Earline D.; Moukaddem, Virginia E.

1992-01-01

87

Network Setup Vulnerability of Wireless Home Networks  

E-print Network

Network Setup Vulnerability of Wireless Home Networks Hacking into WPA Stephen G. Calvert (sgcalver hacking tools Wireless home networks are a growing trend in today's world 802.11 a/b/g/n has been used mechanisms. Open Authentication WEP: Wireless Equivalent Privacy. WPA/WPA2: Wi-fi Protected Access. 802

Zhang, Junshan

88

Cancer Vulnerabilities Unveiled by Genomic Loss  

E-print Network

Cancer Vulnerabilities Unveiled by Genomic Loss Deepak Nijhawan,1,2,7,9,10 Travis I. Zack,1 02139, USA 7Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA *Correspondence: rameen

Bhatia, Sangeeta

89

Vulnerability of Tropical Pacific Fisheries and Aquaculture  

E-print Network

3 Vulnerability of Tropical Pacific Fisheries and Aquaculture to Climate Change Edited by Johann D and Aquaculture to Climate Change Edited by Johann D Bell, Johanna E Johnson and Alistair J Hobday #12;ii of Tropical Pacific Fisheries and Aquaculture to Climate Change 1. Fishery management ­ Oceania. 2. Marine

90

Central Hardwoods Ecosystem Vulnerability Assessment and Synthesis  

E-print Network

Forest Service Central Hardwoods Ecosystem Vulnerability Assessment and Synthesis: A Report from the Central Hardwoods Climate Change Response Framework Project United States Department of Agriculture://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/ Published by: For additional copies, contact: USDA FOREST SERVICE USDA Forest Service 11 CAMPUS BLVD., SUITE

Fried, Jeremy S.

91

Interpersonal Analysis of Grandiose and Vulnerable Narcissism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the validity of grandiose and vulnerable subtypes of narcissistic character styles through an analysis of personality disorder criteria, interpersonal problems, and adult attachment styles in a nonclinical population. The grandiose personalities in this sample were rated high in the dramatic traits associated with narcissistic, antisocial, and histrionic personality disorders based on a diagnostic interview, and they reported

Kelly A. Dickinson; Aaron L. Pincus

2003-01-01

92

Human Carotid Plaque Calcification and Vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Inflammation is a key mechanism in human atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability and disruption. The objective was to determine the differential gene expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory factors in the fibrous cap and shoulder region of noncalcified and calcified carotid endarterectomy plaques. Methods: Thirty carotid endarterectomy plaques were classified as type Va (noncalcified, n = 15) and type Vb (calcified, n

Carl-Magnus Wahlgren; Wei Zheng; Wael Shaalan; Jun Tang; Hisham S. Bassiouny

2009-01-01

93

Retrieval from Memory: Vulnerable or Inviolable?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We show that retrieval from semantic memory is vulnerable even to the mere presence of speech. Irrelevant speech impairs semantic fluency--namely, lexical retrieval cued by a semantic category name--but only if it is meaningful (forward speech compared to reversed speech or words compared to nonwords). Moreover, speech related semantically to the…

Jones, Dylan M.; Marsh, John E.; Hughes, Robert W.

2012-01-01

94

WATER AND ENERGY SECTOR VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE  

E-print Network

WATER AND ENERGY SECTOR VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE WARMING IN THE SIERRA NEVADA: Water Year explores the sensitivity of water indexing methods to climate change scenarios to better understand how water management decisions and allocations will be affected by climate change. Many water management

95

REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT: A CONCEPTUAL APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (REVA) project is developing and testing an approach to conducting comparative ecological risk assessments at the regional scale. I't seeks an objective and quantifiable answer to answer the question, "What are the greatest threaten accompa...

96

Climatic variability and vegetation vulnerability in Amazônia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models of climate change predict close coupling between increases in aridity and conversion of Amazonian forests to savanna. Here we assess the vulnerability and resilience of Amazonian vegetation to climate change by analyzing observed climate-vegetation relationships using climate data, observed vegetation distributions, and evapotranspiration rates inferred from eddy flux data. We found that drought frequency is an excellent predictor of

L. R. Hutyra; J. W. Munger; C. A. Nobre; S. R. Saleska; S. A. Vieira; S. C. Wofsy

2005-01-01

97

Vulnerability Assessment of Cybersecurity for SCADA Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vulnerability assessment is a requirement of NERC's cybersecurity standards for electric power systems. The purpose is to study the impact of a cyber attack on supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. Compliance of the requirement to meet the standard has become increasingly challenging as the system becomes more dispersed in wide areas. Interdependencies between computer communication system and the

Chee-Wooi Ten; Chen-Ching Liu; Govindarasu Manimaran

2008-01-01

98

Perceived Vulnerability to Disease Predicts Environmental Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigating predictors of environmental attitudes may bring valuable benefits in terms of improving public awareness about biodiversity degradation and increased pro-environmental behaviour. Here we used an evolutionary approach to study environmental attitudes based on disease-threat model. We hypothesized that people vulnerable to diseases may…

Prokop, Pavol; Kubiatko, Milan

2014-01-01

99

DEMONSTRATING APPLICATIONS OF REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This task is designed to respond to 2 Congressional earmarks of $1,000,000 to the Canaan Valley Institute (CVI) to work in close coordination with the Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) initiative to develop research and educational tools using integrative technologies to p...

100

Network Vulnerability Assessment and Risk Mitigation  

E-print Network

-depth as they are applied from the vantage point of an evil hacker. Common vulnerabilities will also be studied. Lab to compile new tools and use such applications as vi and nmap. · Explain why hackers hack (their motivations), the different types of hackers, and some of the history of hackers and their exploits. · Complete an assessment

101

Fragile Networks: Identifying Vulnerabilities and Synergies  

E-print Network

, January 30, 2008; · The Sichuan earthquake on May 12, 2008; · The Haiti earthquake that struck on January and Switzerland; · The Indonesian tsunami (and earthquake), December 26, 20o4; · Hurricane Katrina, August 23 and the vulnerability of network systems #12;#12;www.treehugger.comKoji Sasahara/AP The Haitian and Chilean Earthquakes

Nagurney, Anna

102

Seismic vulnerability assessments in risk analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The assessment of seismic vulnerability is a critical issue within natural and technological risk analysis. In general, there are three common types of methods used for development of vulnerability functions of different elements at risk: empirical, analytical and expert estimations. The paper addresses the empirical methods for seismic vulnerability estimation for residential buildings and industrial facilities. The results of engineering analysis of past earthquake consequences, as well as the statistical data on buildings behavior during strong earthquakes presented in the different seismic intensity scales, are used to verify the regional parameters of mathematical models in order to simulate physical and economic vulnerability for different building types classified according to seismic scale MMSK-86. Verified procedure has been used to estimate the physical and economic vulnerability of buildings and constructions against earthquakes for the Northern Caucasus Federal region of the Russian Federation and Krasnodar area, which are characterized by rather high level of seismic activity and high population density. In order to estimate expected damage states to buildings and constructions in the case of the earthquakes according to the OSR-97B (return period T=1,000 years) within big cities and towns, they were divided into unit sites and their coordinates were presented as dots located in the centers of unit sites. Then the indexes obtained for each unit site were summed up. The maps of physical vulnerability zoning for Northern Caucasus Federal region of the Russian Federation and Krasnodar area includes two elements: percent of different damage states for settlements with number of inhabitants less than 1,000 and vulnerability for cities and towns with number of inhabitants more than 1,000. The hypsometric scale is used to represent both elements on the maps. Taking into account the size of oil pipe line systems located in the highly active seismic zones in the Russian Federation the corresponding procedures have been developed. They are based on mathematical modeling of the system elements' interaction: the oil pipe line and ground, in the case of seismic loads. As a result the dependence-ships between the probability of oil pipe line system to be damaged, and the intensity of shaking in grades of seismic scales have been obtained. The following three damage states for oil pipe line systems have been considered: light damage - elastic deformation of the linear part; localized plastic deformation without breaching the pipeline; average damage - significant plastic deformation of the linear part; fistulas in some areas; complete destruction - large horizontal and vertical displacements of the linear part; mass fistulas, cracks; "guillotine break" of pipe line in some areas.

Frolova, Nina; Larionov, Valery; Bonnin, Jean; Ugarov, Alexander

2013-04-01

103

The specificity of cognitive vulnerabilities to emotional disorders: anxiety sensitivity, looming vulnerability and explanatory style.  

PubMed

Mood and anxiety disorders share considerable phenomenological and diagnostic overlap. Several models have advanced the understanding of the phenomenological overlap of anxiety and depression; however, identification of disorder-specific etiological mechanisms remains elusive. Recently, research has advanced several cognitive vulnerability-stress models proposing that one's characteristic way of attending to, interpreting, and remembering negative events contributes vulnerability to psychopathology. These cognitive vulnerabilities may elucidate specific etiological mechanisms that distinguish mood and anxiety pathology. The present study examines the specificity of three cognitive vulnerability constructs, the looming cognitive style, anxiety sensitivity, and explanatory style, in the prediction of latent anxiety disorder symptoms and latent depression symptoms. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that the looming cognitive style demonstrated specificity predicting only anxiety disorder symptoms whereas anxiety sensitivity and a pessimistic explanatory style predicted both anxiety disorder and mood disorder symptoms. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:17070666

Reardon, John M; Williams, Nathan L

2007-01-01

104

Predicting organismal vulnerability to climate warming: roles of behaviour,  

E-print Network

temperatures) that are often available for some groups. Several proxies for ectotherms are promising that ectotherms sharing vulnerability traits seem concentrated in lowland tropical forests. Their vulnerability, the prospects for tropical forest ectotherms appear grim. Keywords: climate change; ectotherms; endotherms

Huey, Raymond B.

105

77 FR 28894 - Maritime Vulnerability Self-Assessment Tool  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Transportation Security Administration Maritime Vulnerability Self-Assessment Tool...ACTION: Notice of removal of TSA's maritime vulnerability self- assessment tool...Administration (TSA) announces that the TSA Maritime Self-Assessment Risk Module...

2012-05-16

106

6 CFR 27.215 - Security vulnerability assessments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...chemical facility is high-risk, the facility must complete a Security Vulnerability Assessment. A Security Vulnerability...in meeting the applicable Risk-Based Performance Standards; (4) Risk Assessment, including a...

2011-01-01

107

7 CFR 1730.27 - Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA). 1730.27 Section 1730.27 Agriculture...Maintenance Requirements § 1730.27 Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA). (a) Each borrower with an...

2010-01-01

108

6 CFR 27.215 - Security vulnerability assessments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...chemical facility is high-risk, the facility must complete a Security Vulnerability Assessment. A Security Vulnerability...in meeting the applicable Risk-Based Performance Standards; (4) Risk Assessment, including a...

2010-01-01

109

7 CFR 1730.27 - Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA). 1730.27 Section 1730.27 Agriculture...Maintenance Requirements § 1730.27 Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA). (a) Each borrower with an...

2011-01-01

110

6 CFR 27.400 - Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information...SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Other § 27.400 Chemical-terrorism vulnerability...

2010-01-01

111

Selective functional, regional, and neuronal vulnerability in frontotemporal dementia  

E-print Network

Selective functional, regional, and neuronal vulnerability in frontotemporal dementia William W. Seeley Introduction Selective vulnerability defines neurodegenerative disease. In frontotemporal dementia dementia The degenerative dementias represent a heterogeneous class of progressive, treatment

Allman, John M.

112

Empirical Estimates and Observations of 0Day Vulnerabilities  

SciTech Connect

We define a 0Day vulnerability to be any vulnerability, in deployed software, that has been discovered by at least one person but has not yet been publicly announced or patched. These 0Day vulnerabilities are of particular interest when assessing the risk to a system from exploit of vulnerabilities which are not generally known to the public or, most importantly, to the owners of the system. Using the 0Day definition given above, we analyzed the 0Day lifespans of 491 vulnerabilities and conservatively estimated that in the worst year there were on average 2500 0Day vulnerabilities in existence on any given day. Then using a small but intriguing set of 15 0Day vulnerability lifespans representing the time from actual discovery to public disclosure, we made a more aggressive estimate. In this case, we estimated that in the worst year there were, on average, 4500 0Day vulnerabilities in existence on any given day.

Miles A. McQueen; Trevor A. McQueen; Wayne F. Boyer; May R. Chaffin

2009-01-01

113

Aircraft vulnerability analysis by modeling and simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared missiles pose a significant threat to civilian and military aviation. ManPADS missiles are especially dangerous in the hands of rogue and undisciplined forces. Yet, not all the launched missiles hit their targets; the miss being either attributable to misuse of the weapon or to missile performance restrictions. This paper analyses some of the factors affecting aircraft vulnerability and demonstrates a structured analysis of the risk and aircraft vulnerability problem. The aircraft-missile engagement is a complex series of events, many of which are only partially understood. Aircraft and missile designers focus on the optimal design and performance of their respective systems, often testing only in a limited set of scenarios. Most missiles react to the contrast intensity, but the variability of the background is rarely considered. Finally, the vulnerability of the aircraft depends jointly on the missile's performance and the doctrine governing the missile's launch. These factors are considered in a holistic investigation. The view direction, altitude, time of day, sun position, latitude/longitude and terrain determine the background against which the aircraft is observed. Especially high gradients in sky radiance occur around the sun and on the horizon. This paper considers uncluttered background scenes (uniform terrain and clear sky) and presents examples of background radiance at all view angles across a sphere around the sensor. A detailed geometrical and spatially distributed radiometric model is used to model the aircraft. This model provides the signature at all possible view angles across the sphere around the aircraft. The signature is determined in absolute terms (no background) and in contrast terms (with background). It is shown that the background significantly affects the contrast signature as observed by the missile sensor. A simplified missile model is constructed by defining the thrust and mass profiles, maximum seeker tracking rate, maximum guidance acceleration and seeker sensitivity. For the purpose of this investigation the aircraft is equipped with conventional pyrotechnic decoy flares and the missile has no counter-countermeasure means (security restrictions on open publication). This complete simulation is used to calculate the missile miss distance, when the missile is launched from different locations around the aircraft. The miss distance data is then graphically presented showing miss distance (aircraft vulnerability) as a function of launch direction and range. The aircraft vulnerability graph accounts for aircraft and missile characteristics, but does not account for missile deployment doctrine. A Bayesian network is constructed to fuse the doctrinal rules with the aircraft vulnerability data. The Bayesian network now provides the capability to evaluate the combined risk of missile launch and aircraft vulnerability. It is shown in this paper that it is indeed possible to predict the aircraft vulnerability to missile attack in a comprehensive modelling and a holistic process. By using the appropriate real-world models, this approach is used to evaluate the effectiveness of specific countermeasure techniques against specific missile threats. The use of a Bayesian network provides the means to fuse simulated performance data with more abstract doctrinal rules to provide a realistic assessment of the aircraft vulnerability.

Willers, Cornelius J.; Willers, Maria S.; de Waal, Alta

2014-10-01

114

Modelling farm vulnerability to flooding: A step toward vulnerability mitigation policies appraisal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent catastrophic flood events such as Elbe in 2002 or Rhône in 2003 have shown limits of flood management policies relying on dykes protection: worsening of flood impacts downstream, increased damage by dykes rupture. Those events, among others, contributes to radical changes on the philosophy of flood prevention, with the promotion of new orientations for mitigating flood exposition. Two new trends may have a significant impact on rural areas: floodplain restoration and vulnerability mitigation. The Rhône River program, which is an contract of objectives signed between French Government and local collectivites, is highly illustrative of these new trends and their impact on agricultural sector. In this program, it appears that areas to be concerned by floodplain restoration are agricultural ones, because their supposed vulnerability to flood is expected to be less important to urban areas. As a consequence, agricultural sector is particularly concerned by planned actions on mitigation of assets vulnerability, an important part of the program (financial support of European Union of 7.5 Million euros). Mitigation of agricultural assets vulnerability reveals particularly interesting for two following reasons. Firstly, it is a way to maintain agricultural activities in floodplains yet existing, without promoting flood protection. Secondly, in case of floodplain restoration, vulnerability mitigation is a way for local authorities to compensate over-flooding impacts. In practice, local authorities may financially support farmers for implementing measures to mitigate their farm vulnerability. On the Rhône River, an important work has already been done to identify farm vulnerability to flooding, and propose measures to mitigate it. More than 3 000 farms exposed to flood risk have been identified representing 88 690 ha of agricultural areas which is estimated to generate damage between 400 and 800 Million euros depending on the season of occurrence for a catastrophic flood. In the case of farm activities, vulnerability mitigation consists in implementing measures which can be: physical (equipment or electric power system elevation), organizational (emergency or recovery plan) or financial (insurance). These measures aim at decreasing the total damage incurred by farmers in case of flooding. For instance, if equipment is elevated, it will not suffer direct damage such as degradation. As a consequence, equipment will be available to continue production or recovery tasks, thus, avoiding indirect damage such as delays, indebtednessâ?¦ The effects of these policies on farms, in particular vulnerability mitigation cannot be appraised using current methodologies mainly because they do not consider farm as a whole and focus on direct damage at the land plot scale (loss of yield). Moreover, since vulnerability mitigation policies are quite recent, few examples of implementation exist and no feedback experience can be processed. Meanwhile, decision makers and financial actors require more justification of the efficiency of public fund by economic appraisal of the projects. On the Rhône River, decision makers asked for an economic evaluation of the program of farm vulnerability mitigation they plan to implement. This implies to identify the effects of the measures to mitigate farm vulnerability, and to classify them by comparing their efficacy (avoided damage) and their cost of implementation. In this presentation, we propose and discuss a conceptual model of vulnerability at the farm scale. The modelling, in Unified Modelling Language, enabled to represent the ties between spatial, organizational and temporal dimensions, which are central to understanding of farm vulnerability and resilience to flooding. Through this modelling, we encompass three goals: To improve the comprehension of farm vulnerability and create a framework that allow discussion with experts of different disciplines as well as with local farmers; To identify data which are needed to implement the model and to collect them, specifically using the focus group

Brémond, P.; Abrami, G.; Blanc, C.; Grelot, F.

2009-04-01

115

An Empirical Measure of Computer Security Strength for Vulnerability Remediation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Remediating all vulnerabilities on computer systems in a timely and cost effective manner is difficult given that the window of time between the announcement of a new vulnerability and an automated attack has decreased. Hence, organizations need to prioritize the vulnerability remediation process on their computer systems. The goal of this…

Villegas, Rafael

2010-01-01

116

Influence of microcalcifications on vulnerable plaque mechanics using FSI modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudden heart attacks remain one of the primary causes of premature death in the developed world. Asymptomatic vulnerable plaques that rupture are believed to prompt such fatal heart attacks and strokes. The role of microcalcifications in the vulnerable plaque rupture mechanics is still debated. Recent studies suggest the microcalcifications increase the plaque vulnerability. In this manuscript we present a numerical

Danny Bluestein; Yared Alemu; Idit Avrahami; Morteza Gharib; Kris Dumont; John J. Ricotta; Shmuel Einav

117

Influence of microcalcifications on vulnerable plaque mechanics using FSI modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudden heart attacks remain one of the primary causes of premature death in the developed world. Asymptomatic vulnerable plaques that rupture are believed to prompt such fatal heart attacks and strokes. The role of microcalcifications in the vulnerable plaque rupture mechanics is still debated. Recent studies suggest the microcalcifications increase the plaque vulnerability. In this manuscript we present a numerical

Danny Bluestein; Yared Alemu; Idit Avrahami; Morteza Gharib; Kris Dumont; John J. Ricotta; Shmuel Einav

2008-01-01

118

Hierarchical statistical modeling of xylem vulnerability to cavitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary • Cavitation of xylem elements diminishes the water transport capacity of plants, and quantifying xylem vulnerability to cavitation is important to understanding plant function. Current approaches to analyzing hydraulic conductivity (K) data to infer vulnerability to cavitation suffer from problems such as the use of potentially unre- alistic vulnerability curves, difficulty interpreting parameters in these curves, a statis- tical

Kiona Ogle; Jarrett J. Barber; Cynthia Willson; Brenda Thompson

2009-01-01

119

Cross-country truck drivers: A vulnerable population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification of vulnerable populations has received considerable attention in recent years. Truck drivers can be identified as one of these vulnerable populations. Nursing's role in the improvement of the issues that make truck drivers vulnerable includes providing direct services and influencing policy changes through action and research.

Debby A. Renner

1998-01-01

120

The Vulnerability of Global Cities to Climate Hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vulnerability is the degree to which a system or unit is likely to expierence harm due to exposure to perturbations or stress. The vulnerability concept emerged from the recognition that a focus on perturbations alone was insufficient for understanding responses of and impacts on the peoples, ecosystems, and places exposed to such perturbations. With vulnerability, it became clear that the

Andrew Schiller; Alex de Sherbinin; Wen-Hua Hsieh; Alex Pulsipher

2001-01-01

121

Vendor System Vulnerability Testing Test Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) prepared this generic test plan to provide clients (vendors, end users, program sponsors, etc.) with a sense of the scope and depth of vulnerability testing performed at the INL’s Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Test Bed and to serve as an example of such a plan. Although this test plan specifically addresses vulnerability testing of systems applied to the energy sector (electric/power transmission and distribution and oil and gas systems), it is generic enough to be applied to control systems used in other critical infrastructures such as the transportation sector, water/waste water sector, or hazardous chemical production facilities. The SCADA Test Bed is established at the INL as a testing environment to evaluate the security vulnerabilities of SCADA systems, energy management systems (EMS), and distributed control systems. It now supports multiple programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, other government agencies, and private sector clients. This particular test plan applies to testing conducted on a SCADA/EMS provided by a vendor. Before performing detailed vulnerability testing of a SCADA/EMS, an as delivered baseline examination of the system is conducted, to establish a starting point for all-subsequent testing. The series of baseline tests document factory delivered defaults, system configuration, and potential configuration changes to aid in the development of a security plan for in depth vulnerability testing. The baseline test document is provided to the System Provider,a who evaluates the baseline report and provides recommendations to the system configuration to enhance the security profile of the baseline system. Vulnerability testing is then conducted at the SCADA Test Bed, which provides an in-depth security analysis of the Vendor’s system.b a. The term System Provider replaces the name of the company/organization providing the system being evaluated. This can be the system manufacturer, a system user, or a third party organization such as a government agency. b. The term Vendor (or Vendor’s) System replaces the name of the specific SCADA/EMS being tested.

James R. Davidson

2005-01-01

122

Neural mechanisms of stress resilience and vulnerability.  

PubMed

Exposure to stressful events can be differently perceived by individuals and can have persistent sequelae depending on the level of stress resilience or vulnerability of each person. The neural processes that underlie such clinically and socially important differences reside in the anatomical, functional, and molecular connectivity of the brain. Recent work has provided novel insight into some of the involved biological mechanisms that promises to help prevent and treat stress-related disorders. In this review, we focus on causal and mechanistic evidence implicating altered functions and connectivity of the neuroendocrine system, and of hippocampal, cortical, reward, and serotonergic circuits in the establishment and the maintenance of stress resilience and vulnerability. We also touch upon recent findings suggesting a role for epigenetic mechanisms and neurogenesis in these processes and briefly discuss promising avenues of future investigation. PMID:22958817

Franklin, Tamara B; Saab, Bechara J; Mansuy, Isabelle M

2012-09-01

123

Vulnerability to interpretation bias in overweight children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obese children are often liable to weight-related teasing, and in earlier studies this childhood teasing has been found to predict body dissatisfaction. Cognitive theory postulates that negative experiences are the source of interpretation biases, implicating that weight-related teasing might make obese children vulnerable to shape- and weight-related interpretation biases. In the present study, it was tested whether young overweight children

Anita Jansen; Tom Smeets; Brigitte Boon; Chantal Nederkoorn; Anne Roefs; Sandra Mulkens

2007-01-01

124

Intravascular Thermography for Assessing Vulnerable Plaques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atherosclerosis and its cardiovascular complications remain the leading cause of death in developed countries. Current knowledge\\u000a of coronary artery disease progression has significantly evolved and the interest has been focused on the development of new\\u000a imaging techniques for the early detection of vulnerable lesions. Intracoronary thermography is a method that detects local\\u000a plaque inflammation. Clinical studies with intracoronary thermography have

Konstantinos Toutouzas; Maria Drakopoulou; Andreas Synetos; Christodoulos Stefanadis

2010-01-01

125

Individualized preventive psychiatry: syndrome and vulnerability diagnostics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of prevention and treatment strategies of psychiatric disorders will depend on a more profound knowledge of\\u000a the complex relationships between gene-environment interactions, particularly the interplay of vulnerability and resilience\\u000a factors within a person’s biography. In this article, the advantages and limitations of the current psychiatric classification\\u000a systems will be discussed. New directions for a future multiaxial system including

Franz Müller-Spahn

2008-01-01

126

Space Station Program threat and vulnerability analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An examination has been made of the physical security of the Space Station Program at the Kennedy Space Center in a peacetime environment, in order to furnish facility personnel with threat/vulnerability information. A risk-management approach is used to prioritize threat-target combinations that are characterized in terms of 'insiders' and 'outsiders'. Potential targets were identified and analyzed with a view to their attractiveness to an adversary, as well as to the consequentiality of the resulting damage.

Van Meter, Steven D.; Veatch, John D.

1987-01-01

127

Climate change and Australia: key vulnerable regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural ecosystems are generally considered to be one of the most vulnerable sectors to negative impacts from rapid climate\\u000a change. Australia’s rich biodiversity is already under considerable threat from multiple human impacts, and climate change\\u000a will impose additional stress. Opportunities for most Australian species to adapt to climate change by altering their distribution\\u000a will be limited due to a number

Lesley Hughes

2011-01-01

128

NASA's Research in Aircraft Vulnerability Mitigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since its inception in 1958, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) role in civil aeronautics has been to develop high-risk, high-payoff technologies to meet critical national aviation challenges. Following the events of Sept. 11, 2001, NASA recognized that it now shared the responsibility for improving homeland security. The NASA Strategic Plan was modified to include requirements to enable a more secure air transportation system by investing in technologies and collaborating with other agencies, industry, and academia. NASA is conducting research to develop and advance innovative and commercially viable technologies that will reduce the vulnerability of aircraft to threats or hostile actions, and identify and inform users of potential vulnerabilities in a timely manner. Presented in this paper are research plans and preliminary status for mitigating the effects of damage due to direct attacks on civil transport aircraft. The NASA approach to mitigation includes: preventing loss of an aircraft due to a hit from man-portable air defense systems; developing fuel system technologies that prevent or minimize in-flight vulnerability to small arms or other projectiles; providing protection from electromagnetic energy attacks by detecting directed energy threats to aircraft and on/off-board systems; and minimizing the damage due to high-energy attacks (explosions and fire) by developing advanced lightweight, damage-resistant composites and structural concepts. An approach to preventing aircraft from being used as weapons of mass destruction will also be discussed.

Allen, Cheryl L.

2005-01-01

129

Protecting and Respecting the Vulnerable: Existing Regulations or Further Protections?  

PubMed Central

Scholars and policymakers continue to struggle over the meaning of the word “vulnerable” in the context of research ethics. One major reason for the stymied discussions regarding vulnerable populations is that there is no clear distinction between accounts of research vulnerabilities that exist for certain populations and discussions of research vulnerabilities that require special regulations in the context of research ethics policies. I suggest an analytic process by which to ascertain whether particular vulnerable populations should be contenders for additional regulatory protections. I apply this process to two vulnerable populations: the cognitively vulnerable and the economically vulnerable. I conclude that a subset of the cognitively vulnerable require extra protections while the economically vulnerable should be protected by implementing existing regulations more appropriately and rigorously. Unless or until the informed consent process is more adequately implemented and the distributive justice requirement of the Belmont Report is emphasized and operationalized, the economically disadvantaged will remain particularly vulnerable to the harm of exploitation in research. PMID:23329228

Solomon, Stephanie R.

2013-01-01

130

Not the usual suspects: addressing layers of vulnerability.  

PubMed

This paper challenges the traditional account of vulnerability in healthcare which conceptualizes vulnerability as a list of identifiable subpopulations. This list of 'usual suspects', focusing on groups from lower resource settings, is a narrow account of vulnerability. In this article we argue that in certain circumstances middle-class individuals can be also rendered vulnerable. We propose a relational and layered account of vulnerability and explore this concept using the case study of cord blood (CB) banking. In the first section, two different approaches to 'vulnerability' are contrasted: categorical versus layered. In the second section, we describe CB banking and present a case study of CB banking in Argentina. We examine the types of pressure that middle-class pregnant women feel when considering CB collection and storage. In section three, we use the CB banking case study to critique the categorical approach to vulnerability: this model is unable to account for the ways in which these women are vulnerable. A layered account of vulnerability identifies several ways in which middle-class women are vulnerable. Finally, by utilizing the layered approach, this paper suggests how public health policies could be designed to overcome vulnerabilities. PMID:23718852

Luna, Florencia; Vanderpoel, Sheryl

2013-07-01

131

Evaluating regional vulnerability to climate change: purposes and methods  

SciTech Connect

As the emphasis in climate change research, international negotiations, and developing-country activities has shifted from mitigation to adaptation, vulnerability has emerged as a bridge between impacts on one side and the need for adaptive changes on the other. Still, the term vulnerability remains abstract, its meaning changing with the scale, focus, and purpose of each assessment. Understanding regional vulnerability has advanced over the past several decades, with studies using a combination of indicators, case studies and analogues, stakeholder-driven processes, and scenario-building methodologies. As regions become increasingly relevant scales of inquiry for bridging the aggregate and local, for every analysis, it is perhaps most appropriate to ask three “what” questions: “What/who is vulnerable?,” “What is vulnerability?,” and “Vulnerable to what?” The answers to these questions will yield different definitions of vulnerability as well as different methods for assessing it.

Malone, Elizabeth L.; Engle, Nathan L.

2011-03-15

132

HIV vulnerabilities and conflict dynamics. Understanding HIV vulnerabilities in the context of Nepal's conflict.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research is to understand how Nepal's conflict is affecting vulnerabilities to HIV and exposure to the virus among females and males. Data was primarily collected during a three-week exploratory field study of Surkhet district in 2005. Twenty key informants and 35 stakeholders were interviewed, with the results triangulated by six focus groups. Documentary sources complement this data. A sociological model is designed depicting how the impact of the conflict and the responses of those affected have given rise to three different vulnerabilities to HIV: imposed contextual, conditional contextual and internalised. The paper concludes that the majority of those affected by Nepal's conflict are more vulnerable to the disease and that exposure to the virus may be increasing with forced displacement and migration. PMID:18277532

Dang, S

2007-01-01

133

A socioeconomic profile of vulnerable land to desertification in Italy.  

PubMed

Climate changes, soil vulnerability, loss in biodiversity, and growing human pressure are threatening Mediterranean-type ecosystems which are increasingly considered as a desertification hotspot. In this region, land vulnerability to desertification strongly depends on the interplay between natural and anthropogenic factors. The present study proposes a multivariate exploratory analysis of the relationship between the spatial distribution of land vulnerability to desertification and the socioeconomic contexts found in three geographical divisions of Italy (north, center and south) based on statistical indicators. A total of 111 indicators describing different themes (demography, human settlements, labor market and human capital, rural development, income and wealth) were used to discriminate vulnerable from non-vulnerable areas. The resulting socioeconomic profile of vulnerable areas in northern and southern Italy diverged significantly, the importance of demographic and economic indicators being higher in southern Italy than in northern Italy. On the contrary, human settlement indicators were found more important to discriminate vulnerable and non-vulnerable areas in northern Italy, suggesting a role for peri-urbanization in shaping the future vulnerable areas. An in-depth knowledge of the socioeconomic characteristics of vulnerable land may contribute to scenarios' modeling and the development of more effective policies to combat desertification. PMID:23911920

Salvati, Luca

2014-01-01

134

Systemic vulnerability model for coastal erosion processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many coastal areas constitute an extraordinary environmental worth and economic value resource continuously exposed to an unceasing transformation due to climatic and anthropic factors. The pressure factor overloads carry out an amplification of environmental degradation and economic rent decrease of these territories producing a disruption of normal and anticipated community growth. This paper copes with coastal erosion problem by a systemic vulnerability model application and environmental indicators approach. Through the definition of an original indicator depending on the observed annual rate of coastal erosion and wave climate parameters, such an approach allow scenario generation and it is useful and powerful planning and management tool. The model has been applied on the test case of Ionian Coast of Basilicata Region located in the southern part of Italy, in the middle of Mediterranean basin. The littoral area is constituted of sandy shores of about 50 km length and 5 river deltas take place. Looking at the shoreline in terms of displacements, a shift of a coastal part is a function of grain size characteristics of the shore sands and of the wave climate. Therefore the selected index taking into account the energy stress affecting the shore area, characterizing the territorial system state and finalized to vulnerability estimation, is defined through the maximum annual erosion,tE, and the surface-wave parameters (H,T) corresponding to the wave-generated bottom orbital velocities higher than critical velocity matches with the bottom incipient transport condition. The resulting coefficient ? (? = tE? ? gH2-?T) is obviously dimensionless and represents the part of the available power in the seas, dissipated by erosion processes. If ? increases, the system integrity decreases and the system vulnerability increases. Available data, in terms of topographic/bathymetric information referred to the period 1873-2008, were utilized to derive tE by the use of a GIS-CAD "comb model" developed at the University of Basilicata, in which the full shoreline length was divided in 92 segments corresponding to 500 m for each one. Wave climate data were estimated from wind data by use of a hindcasting method for the observation period 1987-2010. Grain size characteristic of the shore sands were acquired by a in situ measurement campaigns. The ? index gives a synthetic representation of the coastal erosion and progress processes exclusively due to climatic actions and the information derived in terms of vulnerability is distributed on the coastal territory. Results show heterogeneous trends, with relevant difference in vulnerability response among the morphological elements. In particular, the river deltas represent a critical location with significant exposition. By the analyses performed, the southern part of the coast, located near the delta of Sinni river, seems to be more sensible to the vulnerability respect to the other part of the test area.

Greco, M.; Martino, G.; Guariglia, A.

2010-09-01

135

Vulnerability of Buildings for Tbilisi City  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The risk always exists when cities are built on. Population growth in cities and urbanization in seismic-prone zones leads to infrastructure expansion. The goal of the society is to construct earthquake resistant infrastructure and minimize the expected losses. Work presented here was initiated by working package wp5 of regional projects EMME (Earthquake Model for Middle East Region). The primary scientific objective of this work was to combine analysis of the contemporary elements at risk inventories, seismicity and vulnerability to assess seismic hazard and seismic risk for the 0capital of Georgia - Tbilisi. Creation data bases (inventory) of elements at risk (building population) in GIS system were the first step of this work. Creation inventory databases are based on two approaches. One is monitoring and second is analyses of photos and aerial photos by expert. During the monitoring were realized that we have many cases of roof types, materials and functionality. For roof type, materials and functionality special program was prepared in GIS that allow manually create these ones in databases and then assigned to the building. Depending the choice of these ones, the program automatically assigned code to the building, finely on the bases of this codes program will be prepared that automatically calculate the taxonomy of the building. The European building taxonomy classification proposed in Giovinazzi (2005) were used for these building and taxonomy classification was done. On the bases of empirical data that was collected for Racha earthquake (Ms = 6.9) on 29 April of 1991 and Tbilisi earthquake (Ms= 4.5) on 25 April of 2002 some intensity based vulnerability study were completed and the regional vulnerability factors were developed for these typologies.

Vepkhvadze, Sopio; Arabidze, Vakhtang; Arevadze, Nika; Mukhadze, Temur; Jangveladze, Shota

2013-04-01

136

Recoverability and Vulnerability of Desert Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

USGS scientists are taking an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the physical and biological processes that influence the vulnerability of the desert ecosystem to disturbance and its ability to recover. They are studying historical information, conducting experimental studies on physical and biological processes, and mapping and modeling the existing landscape. These data can be synthesized into maps and predictive models that show how ecosystem components respond to imposed stress, providing valuable tools for desert land managers. Such tools will help land managers make decisions that sustain the desert even as economic, recreation, and military uses continue. The site includes links to publications, maps, a glossary and links to other materials on Mojave desert ecosystems.

137

Reducing societal vulnerability to drought: A methodology  

SciTech Connect

Given worldwide experience with drought during the past several decades and the magnitude of associated impacts, it is apparent that vulnerability to extended periods of water shortage is escalating. Developing a national or provincial drought policy and preparedness plan is a complicated but essential first step toward reducing societal vulnerability. Until recently, nations had devoted little effort to drought preparedness, preferring instead the reactive or crisis management approach. Presently, an increasing number of nations are pursuing a more proactive approach that emphasizes the principles of risk management and sustainable development. Because of the multitude of impacts associated with drought and the numerous governmental agencies that have responsibility for some aspect of monitoring, assessment, mitigation, and planning, developing a policy and plan must be an integrated process within and between levels of government. This paper outlines a generic process that can be adopted by governments that desire to develop a more comprehensive and long-term approach to drought management and planning. Countries and states or provincial authorities that have adopted this approach is presented as case studies. This process is timely, given the declaration of the 1990s as the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction and the recent International Convention to Combat Desertification and Drought (June, 1994), an offshoot of deliberations at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development.

Wilhite, D.A. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). International Drought Information Center

1995-12-31

138

Evaluating intensity parameters for debris flow vulnerability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In mountain regions natural hazard processes such as debris flows or hyper-concentrated flows repeatedly lead to high damages. After an event, detailed documentation of the meteorological, hydrological and geomorphological indicators are standardized, and additional data on debris covering run out areas, indicators for processes velocity and transported volumes are gathered. Information on deposition height of debris is an important parameter to estimate the intensity of the process impacting the buildings and infrastructure and hence to establish vulnerability curves. However, the deposition height of mobilized material in settlements and on infrastructure is mostly not directly evaluated because recovery work starts immediately or even during the event leading to a removal of accumulated material. Different approaches exist to reconstruct deposition heights after torrent events, such as mind mapping, comparison of LIDAR-based DEM before and after the event as well as the reconstruction by using photo documentation and the estimation of deposition heights according to standardised elements at buildings and infrastructure. In our study, these different approaches to estimate deposition height and the spatial distribution of the accumulated material are applied and compared against each other by using the case study of the debris flow event in Brienz (Switzerland) which occurred during the serve flood events of August 2005 in the Alps. Within the analysis, different factors including overall costs and time consumption (manpower, equipment), accuracy and preciseness are compared and evaluated to establish optimal maps of the extent and deposition depth after torrent events and to integrate this information in the vulnerability analysis.

Keiler, Margreth

2014-05-01

139

Evaluating operating system vulnerability to memory errors.  

SciTech Connect

Reliability is of great concern to the scalability of extreme-scale systems. Of particular concern are soft errors in main memory, which are a leading cause of failures on current systems and are predicted to be the leading cause on future systems. While great effort has gone into designing algorithms and applications that can continue to make progress in the presence of these errors without restarting, the most critical software running on a node, the operating system (OS), is currently left relatively unprotected. OS resiliency is of particular importance because, though this software typically represents a small footprint of a compute node's physical memory, recent studies show more memory errors in this region of memory than the remainder of the system. In this paper, we investigate the soft error vulnerability of two operating systems used in current and future high-performance computing systems: Kitten, the lightweight kernel developed at Sandia National Laboratories, and CLE, a high-performance Linux-based operating system developed by Cray. For each of these platforms, we outline major structures and subsystems that are vulnerable to soft errors and describe methods that could be used to reconstruct damaged state. Our results show the Kitten lightweight operating system may be an easier target to harden against memory errors due to its smaller memory footprint, largely deterministic state, and simpler system structure.

Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Bridges, Patrick G. (University of New Mexico); Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Mueller, Frank (North Carolina State University); Fiala, David (North Carolina State University); Brightwell, Ronald Brian

2012-05-01

140

Passenger Deletions Generate Therapeutic Vulnerabilities in Cancer  

PubMed Central

Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes via homozygous deletion is a prototypic event in the cancer genome, yet such deletions often encompass neighboring genes. We hypothesized that homozygous deletions in such passenger genes can expose cancer-specific therapeutic vulnerabilities in the case where the collaterally deleted gene is a member of a functionally redundant family of genes exercising an essential function. The glycolytic gene Enolase 1 (ENO1) in the 1p36 locus is deleted in Glioblastoma (GBM), which is tolerated by expression of ENO2. We demonstrate that shRNA-mediated extinction of ENO2 selectively inhibits growth, survival, and tumorigenic potential of ENO1-deleted GBM cells and that the enolase inhibitor phosphonoacetohydroxamate (PhAH) is selectively toxic to ENO1-deleted GBM cells relative to ENO1-intact GBM cells or normal astrocytes. The principle of collateral vulnerability should be applicable to other passenger deleted genes encoding functionally-redundant essential activities and provide an effective treatment strategy for cancers harboring such genomic events. PMID:22895339

Muller, Florian L.; Colla, Simona; Aquilanti, Elisa; Manzo, Veronica; Genovese, Giannicola; Lee, Jaclyn; Eisenson, Dan; Narurkar, Rujuta; Deng, Pingna; Nezi, Luigi; Lee, Michelle; Hu, Baoli; Hu, Jian; Sahin, Ergun; Ong, Derrick; Fletcher-Sananikone, Eliot; Ho, Dennis; Kwong, Lawrence; Brennan, Cameron; Wang, Y. Alan; Chin, Lynda; DePinho, Ronald A.

2013-01-01

141

Cyber Security Vulnerability Impact on I&C Reliability  

SciTech Connect

We present a discussion of the cyber security vulnerability impact on instrument and control reliability. In the discussion we demonstrate the likely vector of attack and vulnerabilities associated with commodity hardware, protocols and communication media. The current fleet of nuclear power plants in the United States utilizes aging analog instrument and control systems which are more frequently suffering from obsolescence and failure. The commodity equipment available now and in the near future incorporates features from information technology systems which compound cyber vulnerabilities.

Hadley, Mark D.; McBride, Justin B.

2006-11-01

142

Vulnerability analysis methods for road networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Road networks rank among the most important lifelines of modern society. They can be damaged by either random or intentional events. Roads are also often affected by natural hazards, the impacts of which are both direct and indirect. Whereas direct impacts (e.g. roads damaged by a landslide or due to flooding) are localized in close proximity to the natural hazard occurrence, the indirect impacts can entail widespread service disabilities and considerable travel delays. The change in flows in the network may affect the population living far from the places originally impacted by the natural disaster. These effects are primarily possible due to the intrinsic nature of this system. The consequences and extent of the indirect costs also depend on the set of road links which were damaged, because the road links differ in terms of their importance. The more robust (interconnected) the road network is, the less time is usually needed to secure the serviceability of an area hit by a disaster. These kinds of networks also demonstrate a higher degree of resilience. Evaluating road network structures is therefore essential in any type of vulnerability and resilience analysis. There are a range of approaches used for evaluation of the vulnerability of a network and for identification of the weakest road links. Only few of them are, however, capable of simulating the impacts of the simultaneous closure of numerous links, which often occurs during a disaster. The primary problem is that in the case of a disaster, which usually has a large regional extent, the road network may remain disconnected. The majority of the commonly used indices use direct computation of the shortest paths or time between OD (origin - destination) pairs and therefore cannot be applied when the network breaks up into two or more components. Since extensive break-ups often occur in cases of major disasters, it is important to study the network vulnerability in these cases as well, so that appropriate steps can be taken in order to make it more resilient. Performing such an analysis of network break-ups requires consideration of the network as a whole, ideally identifying all the cases generated by simultaneous closure of multiple links and evaluating them using various criteria. The spatial distribution of settlements, important companies and the overall population in the nodes of the network are several factors, apart from the topology of the network which could be taken into account when computing vulnerability indices and identifying the weakest links and/or weakest link combinations. However, even for small networks (i.e., hundreds of nodes and links), the problem of break-up identification becomes extremely difficult to resolve. The naive approaches of the brute force examination consequently fail and more elaborated algorithms have to be applied. We address the problem of evaluating the vulnerability of road networks in our work by simulating the impacts of the simultaneous closure of multiple roads/links. We present an ongoing work on a sophisticated algorithm focused on the identification of network break-ups and evaluating them by various criteria.

Bíl, Michal; Vodák, Rostislav; Kube?ek, Jan; Rebok, Tomáš; Svoboda, Tomáš

2014-05-01

143

Vulnerability of housing buildings in Bucharest, Romania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author participates to the World Housing Encyclopedia project (www.world-housing.net), an internet based database of housing buildings in earthquake prone areas of the world. This is a voluntary project run by the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, Oakland, California and the International Association of Earthquake Engineering, financial means being available only for the website where the information is shared. For broader dissemination in 2004 a summary publication of the reports to date was published. The database can be querried for various parameters and browsed after geographic distribution. Participation is open to any housing experts. Between 2003 and 2006 the author was also member of the editorial board. The author contributed numerous reports about building types in Romania, and each one about building types in Germany and Switzerland. This presentation will be about the contributed reports on building types in Romania. To the Encyclopedia eight reports on building types from Bucharest were contributed, while in further research of the author one more was similarly described regarding the vulnerability and the seismic retrofit. The selection of these types was done considering the historic development of the built substance in Bucharest from 1850 on, time from which a representative amount of housing buildings which can be classified in typologies can be found in Bucharest. While the structural types are not necessarily characteristic for the style, since the style has other time limits, often appearing before the type became common and then remaining being practiced also after another style gained ground, a historic succession can be seen also in this case. The nine types considered can be grouped in seven time categories: - the time 1850-1880, for a vernacular housing type with masonry load bearing walls and timber floors, - the time 1880-1920, for the type of two storey or multi-storey house with masonry walls and timber floors (in which stylistically the "national style" flourished), - the time 1920-1940 for the type with reinforced concrete skeleton for gravitational loads only (in which the "interwar style" or Romanian Modernism flourished), - the time immediately after 1940 (when a strong earthquake struck Bucharest), somehow 1940-1947, when the former structural type was continued, but with some improvements, for which a type with reinforced concrete diagonals was considered, - the time 1947-1977, before the strong earthquake from 1977, when cast-in-situ reinforced concrete structural wall buildings were spread. Two types are considered, one which displayed low earthquake vulnerability and one which displayed high earthquake vulnerability, - the time 1977-1989, after the strong earthquake from 1977 and before the fall on the communist regime, when taking as a reason the strong earthquake the regime started to implement another type of buildings, which structurally often were still reinforced concrete structural wall type, but prefabricated, - the time after 1989, when for more flexibility moment resisting frame was built, and also some of the unfinished moment resisting frame buildings were completed. To have such a complete description of all the building type in a country is not common for the World Housing Encyclopedia, and having them for Romania was due to a particular effort of the author. At the same time the database allows finding similar types in other parts of the world. Broadly speaking, each report included two sections, the first one more extended, on the vulnerability of buildings and the second on the seismic retrofit. The reports contain completed check lists, descriptions of the structural system, photographs and drawings. The accent in this presentation will be on the identification of seismic deficiencies and earthquake resilient features, and the connected typical damages, which all describe the vulnerability.

Bostenaru, M.

2009-04-01

144

Multimodal spectroscopy detects features of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque  

E-print Network

Early detection and treatment of rupture-prone vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is critical to reducing patient mortality associated with cardiovascular disease. The combination of reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman ...

Scepanovic, Obrad R.

145

Global analysis of urban surface water supply vulnerability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents a global analysis of urban water supply vulnerability in 71 surface-water supplied cities, with populations exceeding 750 000 and lacking source water diversity. Vulnerability represents the failure of an urban supply-basin to simultaneously meet demands from human, environmental and agricultural users. We assess a baseline (2010) condition and a future scenario (2040) that considers increased demand from urban population growth and projected agricultural demand. We do not account for climate change, which can potentially exacerbate or reduce urban supply vulnerability. In 2010, 35% of large cities are vulnerable as they compete with agricultural users. By 2040, without additional measures 45% of cities are vulnerable due to increased agricultural and urban demands. Of the vulnerable cities in 2040, the majority are river-supplied with mean flows so low (1200 liters per person per day, l/p/d) that the cities experience ‘chronic water scarcity’ (1370 l/p/d). Reservoirs supply the majority of cities facing individual future threats, revealing that constructed storage potentially provides tenuous water security. In 2040, of the 32 vulnerable cities, 14 would reduce their vulnerability via reallocating water by reducing environmental flows, and 16 would similarly benefit by transferring water from irrigated agriculture. Approximately half remain vulnerable under either potential remedy.

Padowski, Julie C.; Gorelick, Steven M.

2014-10-01

146

Assessing Vulnerability to Drought on a pan-European scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past decade, a number of theoretical frameworks have been defined within the Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change communities to assess drought vulnerability at different scales, sectors, socio-political contexts, and geo-climatic conditions. However, there is still little consensus around the criteria, dimensions and factors used in these assessments; and none of them has been applied at a pan-European scale. This is due to a triple complexity. Firstly, drought as a natural hazard is a complex phenomenon due to the difficulty of determining its onset and its multiscale, multifaceted and dynamic nature. Secondly, there is an on-going debate regarding the concept of vulnerability and its constitutive elements, together with an important diversity of theoretical approaches to assess it. Finally, Europe's diversity in bioclimatic conditions, national water use practice and water use policies adds a challenging characteristic for working on pan-European scale. This work addresses the challenge of defining a methodological approach to the assessment of vulnerability factors to drought at a pan-European scale. For this purpose, we first review existing conceptual frameworks as well as of past initiatives for drought vulnerability assessment. The literature review showed that the high complexity of drought vulnerability assessment requires a clear definition of the concept of vulnerability and the associated terms, and that, before undertaking any assessment, it is necessary to clearly define the "vulnerable unit" i.e. replying to the questions 'whose vulnerability is being assessed?' and 'vulnerability to what type of impact?'. In this context, this work proposes the application of a factor-based approach, consisting in the analysis of significant factors that influence vulnerability in the context of specific situations of potential vulnerability. Those situations are framed within the specific drought characteristics of four different geoclimatic macro -regions in Europe (Southern Europe; Central Europe; Eastern Europe; Northern Europe), to allow for comparison among similar vulnerability units within each region. These 'situations' are proposed as a suitable way to delimit vulnerability conditions, as they make explicit under which assumptions are we operating when undertaking the assessment. Vulnerability factors were determined based on literature review and expert-based validation while the vulnerability situations were derived from a database of registered drought impacts by sectors (European Drought Impact Report Inventory, EDII). The resulting picture is both informative and diagnostic: it provides guidance for the identification of areas and sectors where drought impact needs to be mitigated, and allows for the identification of issues (e.g. adaptive capacity features) that should be addressed to achieve that mitigation of drought impact. The approach is being tested for drought vulnerability assessment on a pan-European scale.

Urquijo, Julia; De Stefano, Lucia; González-Tánago, Itziar; Blauhut, Veit; Stahl, Kerstin

2014-05-01

147

Empirical Estimates of 0Day Vulnerabilities in Control Systems  

SciTech Connect

We define a 0Day vulnerability to be any vulnerability, in deployed software, which has been discovered by at least one person but has not yet been publicly announced or patched. These 0Day vulnerabilities are of particular interest when assessing the risk to well managed control systems which have already effectively mitigated the publicly known vulnerabilities. In these well managed systems the risk contribution from 0Days will have proportionally increased. To aid understanding of how great a risk 0Days may pose to control systems, an estimate of how many are in existence is needed. Consequently, using the 0Day definition given above, we developed and applied a method for estimating how many 0Day vulnerabilities are in existence on any given day. The estimate is made by: empirically characterizing the distribution of the lifespans, measured in days, of 0Day vulnerabilities; determining the number of vulnerabilities publicly announced each day; and applying a novel method for estimating the number of 0Day vulnerabilities in existence on any given day using the number of vulnerabilities publicly announced each day and the previously derived distribution of 0Day lifespans. The method was first applied to a general set of software applications by analyzing the 0Day lifespans of 491 software vulnerabilities and using the daily rate of vulnerability announcements in the National Vulnerability Database. This led to a conservative estimate that in the worst year there were, on average, 2500 0Day software related vulnerabilities in existence on any given day. Using a smaller but intriguing set of 15 0Day software vulnerability lifespans representing the actual time from discovery to public disclosure, we then made a more aggressive estimate. In this case, we estimated that in the worst year there were, on average, 4500 0Day software vulnerabilities in existence on any given day. We then proceeded to identify the subset of software applications likely to be used in some control systems, analyzed the associated subset of vulnerabilities, and characterized their lifespans. Using the previously developed method of analysis, we very conservatively estimated 250 control system related 0Day vulnerabilities in existence on any given day. While reasonable, this first order estimate for control systems is probably far more conservative than those made for general software systems since the estimate did not include vulnerabilities unique to control system specific components. These control system specific vulnerabilities were unable to be included in the estimate for a variety of reasons with the most problematic being that the public announcement of unique control system vulnerabilities is very sparse. Consequently, with the intent to improve the above 0Day estimate for control systems, we first identified the additional, unique to control systems, vulnerability estimation constraints and then investigated new mechanisms which may be useful for estimating the number of unique 0Day software vulnerabilities found in control system components. We proceeded to identify a number of new mechanisms and approaches for estimating and incorporating control system specific vulnerabilities into an improved 0Day estimation method. These new mechanisms and approaches appear promising and will be more rigorously evaluated during the course of the next year.

Miles A. McQueen; Wayne F. Boyer; Sean M. McBride; Trevor A. McQueen

2009-01-01

148

An Integrated Approach for Urban Earthquake Vulnerability Analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The earthquake risk for an urban area has increased over the years due to the increasing complexities in urban environments. The main reasons are the location of major cities in hazard prone areas, growth in urbanization and population and rising wealth measures. In recent years physical examples of these factors are observed through the growing costs of major disasters in urban areas which have stimulated a demand for in-depth evaluation of possible strategies to manage the large scale damaging effects of earthquakes. Understanding and formulation of urban earthquake risk requires consideration of a wide range of risk aspects, which can be handled by developing an integrated approach. In such an integrated approach, an interdisciplinary view should be incorporated into the risk assessment. Risk assessment for an urban area requires prediction of vulnerabilities related to elements at risk in the urban area and integration of individual vulnerability assessments. However, due to complex nature of an urban environment, estimating vulnerabilities and integrating them necessities development of integrated approaches in which vulnerabilities of social, economical, structural (building stock and infrastructure), cultural and historical heritage are estimated for a given urban area over a given time period. In this study an integrated urban earthquake vulnerability assessment framework, which considers vulnerability of urban environment in a holistic manner and performs the vulnerability assessment for the smallest administrative unit, namely at neighborhood scale, is proposed. The main motivation behind this approach is the inability to implement existing vulnerability assessment methodologies for countries like Turkey, where the required data are usually missing or inadequate and decision makers seek for prioritization of their limited resources in risk reduction in the administrative districts from which they are responsible. The methodology integrates socio-economical, structural, coastal, ground condition, organizational vulnerabilities, as well as accessibility to critical services within the framework. The proposed framework has the following eight components: Seismic hazard analysis, soil response analysis, tsunami inundation analysis, structural vulnerability analysis, socio-economic vulnerability analysis, accessibility to critical services, GIS-based integrated vulnerability assessment, and visualization of vulnerabilities in 3D virtual city model The integrated model for various vulnerabilities obtained for the urban area is developed in GIS environment by using individual vulnerability assessments for considered elements at risk and serve for establishing the backbone of the spatial decision support system. The stages followed in the model are: Determination of a common mapping unit for each aspect of urban earthquake vulnerability, formation of a geo-database for the vulnerabilities, evaluation of urban vulnerability based on multi attribute utility theory with various weighting algorithms, mapping of the evaluated integrated earthquake risk in geographic information systems (GIS) in the neighborhood scale. The framework is also applicable to larger geographical mapping scales, for example, the building scale. When illustrating the results in building scale, 3-D visualizations with remote sensing data is used so that decision-makers can easily interpret the outputs. The proposed vulnerability assessment framework is flexible and can easily be applied to urban environments at various geographical scales with different mapping units. The obtained total vulnerability maps for the urban area provide a baseline for the development of risk reduction strategies for the decision makers. Moreover, as several aspects of elements at risk for an urban area is considered through vulnerability analyses, effect on changes in vulnerability conditions on the total can easily be determined. The developed approach also enables decision makers to monitor temporal and spatial changes in the urban environment due to implementation of

Düzgün, H. S.; Yücemen, M. S.; Kalaycioglu, H. S.

2009-04-01

149

Intravascular probe for detection of vulnerable plaque  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coronary angiography is unable to define the status of the atheroma, and only measures the luminal dimensions of the blood vessel, without providing information about plaque content. Up to 70% of heart attacks are caused by minimally obstructive vulnerable plaques, which are too small to be detected adequately by angiography. We have developed an intravascular imaging detector to identify vulnerable coronary artery plaques. The detector works by sensing beta or conversion electron radiotracer emissions from plaque-binding radiotracers. The device overcomes the technical constraints of size, sensitivity and conformance to the intravascular environment. The detector at the distal end of the catheter uses six 7mm long by 0.5mm diameter scintillation fibers coupled to 1.5m long plastic fibers. The fibers are offset from each other longitudinally by 6mm and arranged spirally around a guide wire in the catheter. At the proximal end of the catheter the optical fibers are coupled to an interface box with a snap on connector. The interface box contains a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT) to decode the individual fibers. The whole detector assembly fits into an 8-French (2.7 mm in diameter) catheter. The PSPMT image is further decoded with software to give a linear image, the total instantaneous count rate and an audio output whose tone corresponds to the count rate. The device was tested with F-18 and Tl-204 sources. Spectrometric response, spatial resolution, sensitivity and beta to background ratio were measured. System resolution is 6 mm and the sensitivity is >500 cps / micrometers Ci when the source is 1 mm from the detector. The beta to background ratio was 11.2 for F-18 measured on a single fiber. The current device will lead to a system allowing imaging of labeled vulnerable plaque in coronary arteries. This type of signature is expected to enable targeted and cost effective therapies to prevent acute coronary artery diseases such as: unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.

Patt, Bradley E.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; MacDonald, Lawrence R.; Yamaguchi, Yuko; Tull, Carolyn R.; Janecek, Martin; Hoffman, Edward J.; Strauss, H. William; Tsugita, Ross; Ghazarossian, Vartan

2001-12-01

150

Building vulnerability assessment based on cloud model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims at building a general framework for estimating building vulnerability to blast-fragmentation warhead of a missile. Considering the fuzziness and randomness existing in the damage criterion rules, cloud models are applied to represent the qualitative concepts. On the basis of building geometric description, element criticality analysis, blast wave and fragment movement description, and meeting analysis of fragments and target, kill probabilities of the components are estimated by the shot line method. The damage state of the whole building given the threat is obtained by cloud model based uncertainty reasoning and the proposed similarity measure, enabling both randomness of probability reasoning and the fuzziness of the traditional fuzzy logic to be considered. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can provide useful reference for optimizing warhead design and mission efficiency evaluation.

Sun, Xixia; Cai, Chao

2013-10-01

151

Method and tool for network vulnerability analysis  

DOEpatents

A computer system analysis tool and method that will allow for qualitative and quantitative assessment of security attributes and vulnerabilities in systems including computer networks. The invention is based on generation of attack graphs wherein each node represents a possible attack state and each edge represents a change in state caused by a single action taken by an attacker or unwitting assistant. Edges are weighted using metrics such as attacker effort, likelihood of attack success, or time to succeed. Generation of an attack graph is accomplished by matching information about attack requirements (specified in "attack templates") to information about computer system configuration (contained in a configuration file that can be updated to reflect system changes occurring during the course of an attack) and assumed attacker capabilities (reflected in "attacker profiles"). High risk attack paths, which correspond to those considered suited to application of attack countermeasures given limited resources for applying countermeasures, are identified by finding "epsilon optimal paths."

Swiler, Laura Painton (Albuquerque, NM); Phillips, Cynthia A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-03-14

152

An integrated approach to vulnerability assessment.  

SciTech Connect

How might the quality of a city's delivered water be compromised through natural or malevolent causes? What are the consequences of a contamination event? What water utility assets are at greatest risk to compromise? Utility managers have been scrambling to find answers to these questions since the events of 9/11. However, even before this date utility mangers were concerned with the potential for system contamination through natural or accidental causes. Unfortunately, an integrated tool for assessing both the threat of attack/failure and the subsequent consequence is lacking. To help with this problem we combine Markov Latent Effects modeling for performing threat assessment calculations with the widely used pipe hydraulics/transport code, EPANET, for consequences analysis. Together information from these models defines the risk posed to the public due to natural or malevolent contamination of a water utility system. Here, this risk assessment framework is introduced and demonstrated within the context of vulnerability assessment for water distribution systems.

Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Jurado, Sariah Ruth (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Silva, Consuelo Juanita

2005-03-01

153

Clinical research Schizophrenia: vulnerability versus disease  

E-print Network

One of the most important trends in the treatment of schizophrenia involves its early diagnosis and intervention. The ultimate goal of research is the prevention of the disorder. A major impediment to the development of prevention strategies, however, is that we do not yet know what the liability for schizophrenia is before the onset of psychosis. Consequently, early treatment attempts are focused on the “prodrome,” which involves the early symptoms of psychosis. In a companion paper, we recently suggested that prevention work should focus not only on the prodrome, but also on “schizotaxia, ” which is a clinically meaningful condition that may reflect the vulnerability to schizophrenia in the absence of psychosis. Because schizotaxia can be assessed prior to the prodrome, studies of

Ming T. Tsuang; William S. Stone; Phd Stephen; V. Faraone

154

Vulnerability Analysis of PAP for RFID Tags  

E-print Network

In this paper, we analyze the security of an RFID authentication protocol proposed by Liu and Bailey [1], called Privacy and Authentication Protocol (PAP), and show its vulnerabilities and faulty assumptions. PAP is a privacy and authentication protocol designed for passive tags. The authors claim that the protocol, being resistant to commonly assumed attacks, requires little computation and provides privacy protection and authentication. Nevertheless, we propose two traceability attacks and an impersonation attack, in which the revealing of secret information (i.e., secret key and static identifier) shared between the tag and the reader is unnecessary. Moreover, we review all basic assumptions on which the design of the protocol resides, and show how many of them are incorrect and are contrary to the common assumptions in RFID systems.

Naser, Mu'awya; Rafie, Mohammd; van der Lubbe, Jan

2010-01-01

155

A comparison of supply chain vulnerability indices for different categories of firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the high vulnerability of today's supply chains to disruptions, measuring and managing supply chain vulnerability has become critical. In the attempt to support practice in reducing supply chain vulnerability, we (1) discuss and define the concept of supply chain vulnerability and (2) measure and compare supply chain vulnerability for various categories of firms. Normal Accident Theory and High Reliability

Stephan M. Wagner; Nikrouz Neshat

2011-01-01

156

A comparison of supply chain vulnerability indices for different categories of firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the high vulnerability of today's supply chains to disruptions, measuring and managing supply chain vulnerability has become critical. In the attempt to support practice in reducing supply chain vulnerability, we (1) discuss and define the concept of supply chain vulnerability and (2) measure and compare supply chain vulnerability for various categories of firms. Normal Accident Theory and High Reliability

Stephan M. Wagner; Nikrouz Neshat

2012-01-01

157

Quantitative assessment of intrinsic groundwater vulnerability to contamination using numerical simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intrinsic vulnerability assessment to groundwater contamination is part of groundwater management in many areas of the world. However, popular assessment methods estimate vulnerability only qualitatively. To enhance vulnerability assessment, an approach for quantitative vulnerability assessment using numerical simulation of water flow and solute transport with transient boundary conditions and new vulnerability indicators are presented in this work. Based on a

Christoph Neukum; Rafig Azzam

2009-01-01

158

The Beauty and the Beast: Vulnerabilities in Red Hat's Packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show in an empirical study of 3241 Red Hat packages that software vulnerabilities correlate with dependencies between packages. With formal concept analysis and statistical hypothesis testing, we identify dependencies that decrease the risk of vulnerabilities (beauties) or increase the risk (beasts). Using support vector machines on dependency data, our prediction models successfully and consistently catch about two thirds of

Stephan Neuhaus; Thomas Zimmermann

2009-01-01

159

VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF CIVIL INFRASTRUCTURE SYSTEMS: A NETWORK APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable work has been carried out in recent years on vulnerability assessment of Critical Infrastructure Systems (CIS). Recent man-introduced hazard, including the 9\\/11 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) in New York highlighted critical need to assess and evaluate the vulnerably of CIS with a focus on providing well coordinated and integrated strategies for public safety and property

O. Moselhi; A. Hammad; S. Alkass; M. Debbabi

2005-01-01

160

Mapping social vulnerability to enhance housing and neighborhood resilience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social factors influence the ability of coastal communities and their populations to anticipate, respond, resist, and recover from disasters. Galveston, TX, offers aunique opportunity to test the efficacy of social vulnerability mapping to identify inequalities in the ways that different parts of the community may react to a disaster. We describe spatial patterns of social vulnerability prior to 2008's Hurricane

Shannon Van Zandt; Walter Gillis Peacock; Dustin W. Henry; Himanshu Grover; Wesley E. Highfield; Samuel D. Brody

2012-01-01

161

Fear the EAR: Discovering and Mitigating Execution After Redirect Vulnerabilities  

E-print Network

Fear the EAR: Discovering and Mitigating Execution After Redirect Vulnerabilities Adam Doupé, Bryce Execution After Redirect, or EAR. A web application de- veloper can introduce an EAR by calling a redirect web frameworks are to EAR vulnerabilities. We then discuss the results from the EAR challenge

California at Santa Barbara, University of

162

IST-044-RWS-007 -1 Vulnerabilities in biometric encryption systems  

E-print Network

IST-044-RWS-007 - 1 Vulnerabilities in biometric encryption systems Andy Adler School readers. Another important application of #12;Vulnerabilities of biometric encryption systems - 2 IST-044@site.uOttawa.ca ABSTRACT Biometric encryption systems embed a secret code within a biometric image in a way that it can

Adler, Andy

163

From the Iriscode to the Iris: A New Vulnerability  

E-print Network

vulnerabilities · Competitions: · Standards: 5/43 #12;2. Biometrics #12;Biometric systems 7/43 #12;BiometricFrom the Iriscode to the Iris: A New Vulnerability Of Iris Recognition Systems Javier Galbally to bypass 8/43 #12;Attacks to Biometric Systems · Possible points of attack to a biometric system. Sensor

Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

164

Precise alias analysis for static detection of web application vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number and the importance of web applications have increased rapidly over the last years. At the same time, the quantity and impact of security vulnerabilities in such applications have grown as well. Since manual code reviews are time-consuming, error- prone and costly, the need for automated solutions has become evident. In this paper, we address the problem of vulnerable

Nenad Jovanovic; Christopher Kruegel; Engin Kirda

2006-01-01

165

Vulnerability assessment for the Gaza Strip, Palestine using DRASTIC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main usefulness of groundwater vulnerability assessment maps is their ability to be an effective preliminary tool for planning, policy, and operational levels of decision-making. DRASTIC is one such assessment method. The DRASTIC index is made up of a calculated sum of products rating and weights for seven hydrogeological parameters that contribute to aquifer vulnerability. With the help of GIS,

H. Baalousha

2006-01-01

166

Fear of crime among vulnerable populations: Homeless women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Are the factors associated with the fear of crime in the general population the same as those operating with especially vulnerable subgroups? If not, how and why are they different? Previous studies concerning the fear of crime have identified certain vulnerability factors as being associated with higher levels of fear. These include, for instance, being female, living in certain ghetto

Charisse T. M. Coston; James O. Finckenauer

1993-01-01

167

Development of nursing theory and science in vulnerable populations research.  

PubMed

Inequalities with respect to the distribution of societal resources can predispose people to vulnerability, which has led to a growing concern across America. The Federal Government has taken a leadership role and has launched several initiatives to combat health inequalities experienced by vulnerable populations. The National Institute of Health and all of its institutes, including the National Institute of Nursing Research, have written strategic plans to reduce, and ultimately, eliminate such health disparities. Nursing research has been conducted in the setting of vulnerable populations; several theoretical models for studying vulnerability have been created; and interventional studies designed to reduce health disparities have been implemented. This introduction includes the following: (a) a definition of the concept of vulnerability and health disparities; (b) a discussion of the conceptual models of vulnerability and health disparity and their applications; (c) a description of the impact of federal funding on vulnerable populations research; (d) a synopsis of the contributions made by nurse researchers in the field of vulnerable populations research; and (e) an overview of the volume. PMID:17958287

Nyamathi, Adeline; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Greengold, Barbara Ann

2007-01-01

168

Looming vulnerability to spreading contamination in subclinical OCD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the hypothesis, stimulated by the looming vulnerability model of anxiety (Riskind, in press, Behaviour Research and Therapy), that subclinical OCD is associated with a subjective sense of looming vulnerability. One-hundred and four undergraduates rated vignettes of common, everday situations involving exposure to possible dirt, germs, or contamination. Participants in a subclinical obsessional group had a far

John H. Riskind; Karim Abreu; Mike Strauss; Robert Holt

1997-01-01

169

Special Section Vulnerability and Resilience of Tropical Forest  

E-print Network

supervivencia de especies. Los atributos que hacen que algunas especies sean m´as vulnerables a la extinci. PERES, SEAN SLOAN, AND KATHY WILLIS Department of Resource Management and Geography, University lo que hace que las especies de bosques tropicales sean vulnerables a la extinci´on. Varios atributos

Mathis, Wayne N.

170

Health Care of Vulnerable Populations Covered by Medicare and Medicaid  

PubMed Central

This overview discusses articles published in this issue of the Health Care Financing Review, entitled “Health Care Needs of Vulnerable Populations.” Articles cover the following vulnerable population subgroups: pregnant women and children, persons with AIDS, the disabled, and the elderly. Issues covered in this collection include: expenditures, demographic factors, Medicaid and Medicare policy, service use, medical procedures, and data collection. PMID:25371984

Hirsch, Marilyn B.

1994-01-01

171

Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression and Axis II Personality Dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of common vulnerabilities to depression and personality disturbance is important given that depression and Axis II personality disorders exhibit high rates of comorbidity and comorbid personality dysfunction is associated with longer duration of depressive episodes, increased risk of relapse, and poorer outcome. Further, it has been demonstrated that a relationship exists between cognitive vulnerabilities to depression, such as

Jeannette M. Smith; Louisa D. Grandin; Lauren B. Alloy; Lyn Y. Abramson

2006-01-01

172

Social Vulnerability to Climate Change and Extremes in Coastal Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

A framework for analyzing social vulnerability is outlined, an aspect largely underemphasized in assessments of the impacts of climate change and climate extremes. Vulnerability is defined in this paper as the exposure of individuals or collective groups to livelihood stress as a result of the impacts of such environmental change. It is constituted by individual and collective aspects which can

W. Neil Adger

1999-01-01

173

Ethical Issues in Research with "Vulnerable" and "HardtoReach"  

E-print Network

(Subpart D) · mentally disabled persons · economically disadvantaged personspersons · educationally of Looking at Vulnerability2 Ways of Looking at Vulnerability · A characteristic inherent to an individual orA characteristic inherent to an individual or group · A characteristic inherent in a situation #12;KEY RESEARCH

Illinois at Chicago, University of

174

European information on climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vulnerability to natural and technological disasters is increasing due to a combination of intensifying land use, increasing industrial development, further urban expansion and expanding infrastructure and also climate change. At EU level the European Commission's White Paper on adaptation to climate change (published in 2009) highlights that adaptation actions should be focused on the most vulnerable areas and communities in

A. Jol; S. Isoard

2010-01-01

175

Vulnerability and adaptation to water scarcity in the European Alps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Environment Agency (EEA) has recently undertaken a project addressing vulnerability and adaptation to water availability in the European Alps. Mountains are indeed one of the most vulnerable regions to climate change in Europe (EEA 2008, IPCC 2007).The Alps, in particular, can be presented as the `water towers' of Europe (the amount of water delivered by the Alps allocates

Stephane Isoard; S. McCallum; A. Prutsch; B. Benno Hain; I. Schauser

2009-01-01

176

International Space Station: Meteoroid/Orbital Debris Survivability and Vulnerability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the surviability and vulnerability of the International Space Station (ISS) from the threat posed by meteoroid and orbital debris. The topics include: (1) Space station natural and induced environments (2) Meteoroid and orbital debris threat definition (3) Requirement definition (4) Assessment methods (5) Shield development and (6) Component vulnerability

Graves, Russell

2000-01-01

177

The Vulnerable Child. Caring for Children, Number Five.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The booklet addresses the problems of vulnerable children with suggestions child care center workers may use both for recognizing signs of handicaps in children and helping children overcome existing handicaps. The vulnerable child is defined as a child who may be overwhelmed by physical and/or emotional handicaps and thus is at risk of later…

Murphy, Lois B.; Leeper, Ethel M.

178

Development and Demography of Perceived Vulnerability in Youngsters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to assess children's perceived vulnerability to health problems, a longitudinal study was designed to observe third and seventh graders at five intervals over a 2-year period. The hypotheses tested concerned relationships between perceived vulnerability to health problems and age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Data were obtained from a…

Gochman, David S.

179

A framework for understanding old-age vulnerabilities  

PubMed Central

Identifying vulnerable older people and understanding the causes and consequences of their vulnerability is of human concern and an essential task of social policy. To date, vulnerability in old age has mainly been approached by identifying high risk groups, like the poor, childless, frail or isolated. Yet vulnerability is the outcome of complex interactions of discrete risks, namely of being exposed to a threat, of a threat materialising, and of lacking the defences or resources to deal with a threat. In this article, we review approaches to vulnerability in various disciplines in order to develop a systematic framework for approaching vulnerability. This framework distinguishes and examines the interactions among the domains of exposure, threats, coping capacities and outcomes. Drawing on European and Asian gerontological literature, we discuss what might be meant by these domains and their place in the understanding of vulnerability in old age. Two case studies are presented - one on homelessness in Britain, the other on familial care provision in Indonesia - to illustrate the ways in which specific vulnerabilities are created and distributed over the lifecourse. PMID:23750062

SCHRÖDER-BUTTERFILL, ELISABETH; MARIANTI, RULY

2007-01-01

180

Flooding of Industrial Facilities -Vulnerability Reduction in Practice  

E-print Network

Flooding of Industrial Facilities - Vulnerability Reduction in Practice Agnès Vallée*a , Christophe show that floods accounted for more than half of disasters registered for the 1990-2001 period facilities are structurally exposed to flooding. Past events witnessed industrial vulnerability to flooding

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

181

Pathology of Vulnerability Caused by High-Risk (Vulnerable) Arteries and Plaques  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Atherosclerosis is a slowly progressing systemic (multifocal) arterial disease with focal manifestations caused by one or\\u000a relatively few stenotic and\\/or thrombosis-prone (vulnerable) plaques. The coronary arteries, carotid arteries, ilio-femoral\\u000a arteries, and aorta are especially susceptible to atherosclerosis. The most devastating consequences of atherosclerosis, such\\u000a as heart attack and stroke, are usually caused by thrombosis precipitated by plaque rupture. Although the

Troels Thim; Mette Kallestrup Hagensen; Jacob Fog Bentzon; Erling Falk

182

A framework for vulnerability analysis in sustainability science  

PubMed Central

Global environmental change and sustainability science increasingly recognize the need to address the consequences of changes taking place in the structure and function of the biosphere. These changes raise questions such as: Who and what are vulnerable to the multiple environmental changes underway, and where? Research demonstrates that vulnerability is registered not by exposure to hazards (perturbations and stresses) alone but also resides in the sensitivity and resilience of the system experiencing such hazards. This recognition requires revisions and enlargements in the basic design of vulnerability assessments, including the capacity to treat coupled human–environment systems and those linkages within and without the systems that affect their vulnerability. A vulnerability framework for the assessment of coupled human–environment systems is presented. PMID:12792023

Turner, B. L.; Kasperson, Roger E.; Matson, Pamela A.; McCarthy, James J.; Corell, Robert W.; Christensen, Lindsey; Eckley, Noelle; Kasperson, Jeanne X.; Luers, Amy; Martello, Marybeth L.; Polsky, Colin; Pulsipher, Alexander; Schiller, Andrew

2003-01-01

183

Analyses Of Two End-User Software Vulnerability Exposure Metrics  

SciTech Connect

The risk due to software vulnerabilities will not be completely resolved in the near future. Instead, putting reliable vulnerability measures into the hands of end-users so that informed decisions can be made regarding the relative security exposure incurred by choosing one software package over another is of importance. To that end, we propose two new security metrics, average active vulnerabilities (AAV) and vulnerability free days (VFD). These metrics capture both the speed with which new vulnerabilities are reported to vendors and the rate at which software vendors fix them. We then examine how the metrics are computed using currently available datasets and demonstrate their estimation in a simulation experiment using four different browsers as a case study. Finally, we discuss how the metrics may be used by the various stakeholders of software and to software usage decisions.

Jason L. Wright; Miles McQueen; Lawrence Wellman

2012-08-01

184

Vulnerability assessment for the Gaza Strip, Palestine using DRASTIC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main usefulness of groundwater vulnerability assessment maps is their ability to be an effective preliminary tool for planning, policy, and operational levels of decision-making. DRASTIC is one such assessment method. The DRASTIC index is made up of a calculated sum of products rating and weights for seven hydrogeological parameters that contribute to aquifer vulnerability. With the help of GIS, and based on the available data, maps of DRASTIC parameters were prepared for the Gaza Strip area in a case study. Each map was given a proper rate and a special weight factor developed. The final vulnerability map was obtained as a summation of the seven maps after multiplying each one with the appropriate weight. The vulnerability map was checked against the actual pollution potential in the area and nitrate concentration. The obtained vulnerability map is strongly correlated to known pollution values in the area.

Baalousha, H.

2006-06-01

185

Relational vulnerabilities of incarcerated and reentry mothers: therapeutic implications.  

PubMed

A qualitative study involving a follow-up interview with 10 incarcerated and reentry mothers in rural southwest and central Virginia was conducted to explore the influence that women's close relationships have on their reentry experiences with their families. The Vulnerability Conceptual Model (VCM) was used to sensitize an examination of how incarcerated and reentry mothers negotiate relational vulnerabilities in the context of varying situational vulnerability. Grounded theory analysis revealed three themes that characterized relational vulnerabilities. Given our focus on close relationships and the potential of the VCM to identify opportunities for resilience and vulnerability, we highlighted the influence of ambiguous and ambivalent relationships and unresolved loss and grief due to relationship dissolution or the death of a parent, sibling, child, or intimate partner in the reentry process. The data revealed two types of reentry mothers with divergent trajectories for social reintegration. Implications of these types for therapeutic treatment approaches for reentry women are discussed. PMID:23847275

Few-Demo, April L; Arditti, Joyce A

2014-11-01

186

[Assessment of eco-environmental vulnerability of Hainan Island, China].  

PubMed

Based on the assessment method of environmental vulnerability constructed by SOPAC and UNEP, this paper constructed an indicator system from three sub-themes including hazard, resistance, and damage to assess the eco-environmental vulnerability of Hainan Island. The results showed that Hainan Island was suffering a middling level eco-environmental hazard, and the main hazards came from some intensive human activities such as intensive agriculture, mass tourism, mining, and a mass of solid wastes thrown by islanders and tourists. Some geographical characters such as larger land area, larger altitude range, integrated geographical form, and abundant habitat types endowed Hainan Island higher resistance to environmental hazards. However, disturbed by historical accumulative artificial and natural hazards, the Island ecosystem had showed serious ecological damage, such as soil degradation and biodiversity loss. Comprehensively considered hazard, resistance, damage, and degradation, the comprehensive environmental vulnerability of the Island was at a middling level. Some indicators showed lower vulnerability, but some showed higher vulnerability. PMID:19637604

Huang, Bao-rong; Ouyang, Zhi-yun; Zhang, Hui-zhi; Zhang, Li-hua; Zheng, Hua

2009-03-01

187

Factors associated with health care utilization among vulnerable populations: Using Gelberg's and Andersen's behavioral model for vulnerable populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2001 Andersen and Gelberg introduced the Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations which enables the identification of factors that might be particularly relevant to health care utilization among vulnerable populations. This dissertation uses this model along with the Health Services Research Data to conduct secondary data analysis to evaluate the factors that are most likely to influence health utilization outcomes

La Fleur Small

2005-01-01

188

Can Fault Prediction Models and Metrics be Used for Vulnerability Prediction? Yonghee Shin and Laurie Williams  

E-print Network

Can Fault Prediction Models and Metrics be Used for Vulnerability Prediction? Yonghee Shin general faults in software - thinking like an attacker. Therefore, security engineers looking security vulnerabilities rather than faults. At the same time, faults and vulnerabilities have

Young, R. Michael

189

75 FR 51806 - Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...EPA-HQ-ORD-2010-0701] Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment: Four...the draft document titled, ``Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment: Four...their vulnerability to future climate change. The report is intended to...

2010-08-23

190

Transplanting Supersites of HIV-1 Vulnerability  

PubMed Central

One strategy for isolating or eliciting antibodies against a specific target region on the envelope glycoprotein trimer (Env) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) involves the creation of site transplants, which present the target region on a heterologous protein scaffold with preserved antibody-binding properties. If the target region is a supersite of HIV-1 vulnerability, recognized by a collection of broadly neutralizing antibodies, this strategy affords the creation of “supersite transplants”, capable of binding (and potentially eliciting) antibodies similar to the template collection of effective antibodies. Here we transplant three supersites of HIV-1 vulnerability, each targeted by effective neutralizing antibodies from multiple donors. To implement our strategy, we chose a single representative antibody against each of the target supersites: antibody 10E8, which recognizes the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) on the HIV-1 gp41 glycoprotein; antibody PG9, which recognizes variable regions one and two (V1V2) on the HIV-1 gp120 glycoprotein; and antibody PGT128 which recognizes a glycopeptide supersite in variable region 3 (glycan V3) on gp120. We used a structural alignment algorithm to identify suitable acceptor proteins, and then designed, expressed, and tested antigenically over 100-supersite transplants in a 96-well microtiter-plate format. The majority of the supersite transplants failed to maintain the antigenic properties of their respective template supersite. However, seven of the glycan V3-supersite transplants exhibited nanomolar affinity to effective neutralizing antibodies from at least three donors and recapitulated the mannose9-N-linked glycan requirement of the template supersite. The binding of these transplants could be further enhanced by placement into self-assembling nanoparticles. Essential elements of the glycan V3 supersite, embodied by as few as 3 N-linked glycans and ?25 Env residues, can be segregated into acceptor scaffolds away from the immune-evading capabilities of the rest of HIV-1 Env, thereby providing a means to focus the immune response on the scaffolded supersite. PMID:24992528

Yang, Yongping; Gorman, Jason; Ofek, Gilad; Srivatsan, Sanjay; Druz, Aliaksandr; Lees, Christopher R.; Lu, Gabriel; Soto, Cinque; Stuckey, Jonathan; Burton, Dennis R.; Koff, Wayne C.; Connors, Mark; Kwon, Peter D.

2014-01-01

191

Calcium Is a Major Determinant of Xylem Vulnerability to Cavitation  

PubMed Central

Xylem vulnerability to cavitation is a key parameter in the drought tolerance of trees, but little is known about the control mechanisms involved. Cavitation is thought to occur when an air bubble penetrates through a pit wall, and would hence be influenced by the wall's porosity. We first tested the role of wall-bound calcium in vulnerability to cavitation in Fagus sylvatica. Stems perfused with solutions of oxalic acid, EGTA, or sodium phosphate (NaPO4) were found to be more vulnerable to cavitation. The NaPO4-induced increase in vulnerability to cavitation was linked to calcium removal from the wall. In contrast, xylem hydraulic conductance was unaffected by the chemical treatments, demonstrating that the mechanisms controlling vulnerability to cavitation and hydraulic resistance are uncoupled. The NaPO4 solution was then perfused into stems from 13 tree species possessing highly contrasted vulnerability to cavitation. Calcium was found to be a major determinant of between-species differences in vulnerability to cavitation. This was evidenced in angiosperms as well as conifer species, thus supporting the hypothesis of a common mechanism in drought-induced cavitation. PMID:20547703

Herbette, Stephane; Cochard, Herve

2010-01-01

192

An Extreme-Value Approach to Anomaly Vulnerability Identification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this paper is to present a method for importance analysis in parametric probabilistic modeling where the result of interest is the identification of potential engineering vulnerabilities associated with postulated anomalies in system behavior. In the context of Accident Precursor Analysis (APA), under which this method has been developed, these vulnerabilities, designated as anomaly vulnerabilities, are conditions that produce high risk in the presence of anomalous system behavior. The method defines a parameter-specific Parameter Vulnerability Importance measure (PVI), which identifies anomaly risk-model parameter values that indicate the potential presence of anomaly vulnerabilities, and allows them to be prioritized for further investigation. This entails analyzing each uncertain risk-model parameter over its credible range of values to determine where it produces the maximum risk. A parameter that produces high system risk for a particular range of values suggests that the system is vulnerable to the modeled anomalous conditions, if indeed the true parameter value lies in that range. Thus, PVI analysis provides a means of identifying and prioritizing anomaly-related engineering issues that at the very least warrant improved understanding to reduce uncertainty, such that true vulnerabilities may be identified and proper corrective actions taken.

Everett, Chris; Maggio, Gaspare; Groen, Frank

2010-01-01

193

Assessing the vulnerability of buildings to tsunami in Sydney  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Australia is vulnerable to the impacts of tsunamis and exposure along the SE coast of New South Wales is especially high. Significantly, this is the same area reported to have been affected by repeated large magnitude tsunamis during the Holocene. Efforts are under way to complete probabilistic risk assessments for the region but local government planners and emergency risk managers need information now about building vulnerability in order to develop appropriate risk management strategies. We use the newly revised PTVA-3 Model (Dall'Osso et al., 2009) to assess the relative vulnerability of buildings to damage from a "worst case tsunami" defined by our latest understanding of regional risk - something never before undertaken in Australia. We present selected results from an investigation of building vulnerability within the local government area of Manly - an iconic coastal area of Sydney. We show that a significant proportion of buildings (in particular, residential structures) are classified as having "High" and "Very High" Relative Vulnerability Index scores. Furthermore, other important buildings (e.g., schools, nursing homes and transport structures) are also vulnerable to damage. Our results have serious implications for immediate emergency risk management, longer-term land-use zoning and development, and building design and construction standards. Based on the work undertaken here, we recommend further detailed assessment of the vulnerability of coastal buildings in at risk areas, development of appropriate risk management strategies and a detailed program of community engagement to increase overall resilience.

Dall'Osso, F.; Gonella, M.; Gabbianelli, G.; Withycombe, G.; Dominey-Howes, D.

2009-12-01

194

Rural Nevada and climate change: vulnerability, beliefs, and risk perception.  

PubMed

In this article, we present the results of a study investigating the influence of vulnerability to climate change as a function of physical vulnerability, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity on climate change risk perception. In 2008/2009, we surveyed Nevada ranchers and farmers to assess their climate change-related beliefs, and risk perceptions, political orientations, and socioeconomic characteristics. Ranchers' and farmers' sensitivity to climate change was measured through estimating the proportion of their household income originating from highly scarce water-dependent agriculture to the total income. Adaptive capacity was measured as a combination of the Social Status Index and the Poverty Index. Utilizing water availability and use, and population distribution GIS databases; we assessed water resource vulnerability in Nevada by zip code as an indicator of physical vulnerability to climate change. We performed correlation tests and multiple regression analyses to examine the impact of vulnerability and its three distinct components on risk perception. We find that vulnerability is not a significant determinant of risk perception. Physical vulnerability alone also does not impact risk perception. Both sensitivity and adaptive capacity increase risk perception. While age is not a significant determinant of it, gender plays an important role in shaping risk perception. Yet, general beliefs such as political orientations and climate change-specific beliefs such as believing in the anthropogenic causes of climate change and connecting the locally observed impacts (in this case drought) to climate change are the most prominent determinants of risk perception. PMID:22583075

Safi, Ahmad Saleh; Smith, William James; Liu, Zhnongwei

2012-06-01

195

Soil compaction vulnerability at Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Compaction vulnerability of different types of soils by hikers and vehicles is poorly known, particularly for soils of arid and semiarid regions. Engineering analyses have long shown that poorly sorted soils (for example, sandy loams) compact to high densities, whereas well-sorted soils (for example, eolian sand) do not compact, and high gravel content may reduce compaction. Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (ORPI) in southwestern Arizona, is affected greatly by illicit activities associated with the United States–Mexico border, and has many soils that resource managers consider to be highly vulnerable to compaction. Using geospatial soils data for ORPI, compaction vulnerability was estimated qualitatively based on the amount of gravel and the degree of sorting of sand and finer particles. To test this qualitative assessment, soil samples were collected from 48 sites across all soil map units, and undisturbed bulk densities were measured. A scoring system was used to create a vulnerability index for soils on the basis of particle-size sorting, soil properties derived from Proctor compaction analyses, and the field undisturbed bulk densities. The results of the laboratory analyses indicated that the qualitative assessments of soil compaction vulnerability underestimated the area of high vulnerability soils by 73 percent. The results showed that compaction vulnerability of desert soils, such as those at ORPI, can be quantified using laboratory tests and evaluated using geographic information system analyses, providing a management tool that managers potentially could use to inform decisions about activities that reduce this type of soil disruption in protected areas.

Webb, Robert H.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Carmichael, Shinji; Esque, Todd C.

2014-01-01

196

Volcanic risk assessment: Quantifying physical vulnerability in the built environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents structured and cost-effective methods for assessing the physical vulnerability of at-risk communities to the range of volcanic hazards, developed as part of the MIA-VITA project (2009-2012). An initial assessment of building and infrastructure vulnerability has been carried out for a set of broadly defined building types and infrastructure categories, with the likelihood of damage considered separately for projectile impact, ash fall loading, pyroclastic density current dynamic pressure and earthquake ground shaking intensities. In refining these estimates for two case study areas: Kanlaon volcano in the Philippines and Fogo volcano in Cape Verde, we have developed guidelines and methodologies for carrying out physical vulnerability assessments in the field. These include identifying primary building characteristics, such as construction material and method, as well as subsidiary characteristics, for example the size and prevalence of openings, that may be important in assessing eruption impacts. At-risk buildings around Kanlaon were found to be dominated by timber frame buildings that exhibit a high vulnerability to pyroclastic density currents, but a low vulnerability to failure from seismic shaking. Around Fogo, the predominance of unreinforced masonry buildings with reinforced concrete slab roofs suggests a high vulnerability to volcanic earthquake but a low vulnerability to ash fall loading. Given the importance of agriculture for local livelihoods around Kanlaon and Fogo, we discuss the potential impact of infrastructure vulnerability for local agricultural economies, with implications for volcanic areas worldwide. These methodologies and tools go some way towards offering a standardised approach to carrying out future vulnerability assessments for populated volcanic areas.

Jenkins, S. F.; Spence, R. J. S.; Fonseca, J. F. B. D.; Solidum, R. U.; Wilson, T. M.

2014-04-01

197

Quantum key distribution: vulnerable if imperfectly implemented  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report several vulnerabilities found in Clavis2, the flagship quantum key distribution (QKD) system from ID Quantique. We show the hacking of a calibration sequence run by Clavis2 to synchronize the Alice and Bob devices before performing the secret key exchange. This hack induces a temporal detection efficiency mismatch in Bob that can allow Eve to break the security of the cryptosystem using faked states. We also experimentally investigate the superlinear behaviour in the single-photon detectors (SPDs) used by Bob. Due to this superlinearity, the SPDs feature an actual multi-photon detection probability which is generally higher than the theoretically-modelled value. We show how this increases the risk of detector control attacks on QKD systems (including Clavis2) employing such SPDs. Finally, we review the experimental feasibility of Trojan-horse attacks. In the case of Clavis2, the objective is to read Bob's phase modulator to acquire knowledge of his basis choice as this information suffices for constructing the raw key in the Scarani-Acin-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 (SARG04) protocol. We work in close collaboration with ID Quantique and for all these loopholes, we notified them in advance. Wherever possible, we or ID Quantique proposed countermeasures and they implemented suitable patches and upgrade their systems.

Leuchs, G.

2013-10-01

198

Vulnerability of streams to legacy nitrate sources.  

PubMed

The influence of hydrogeologic setting on the susceptibility of streams to legacy nitrate was examined at seven study sites having a wide range of base flow index (BFI) values. BFI is the ratio of base flow to total streamflow volume. The portion of annual stream nitrate loads from base flow was strongly correlated with BFI. Furthermore, dissolved oxygen concentrations in streambed pore water were significantly higher in high BFI watersheds than in low BFI watersheds suggesting that geochemical conditions favor nitrate transport through the bed when BFI is high. Results from a groundwater-surface water interaction study at a high BFI watershed indicate that decades old nitrate-laden water is discharging to this stream. These findings indicate that high nitrate levels in this stream may be sustained for decades to come regardless of current practices. It is hypothesized that a first approximation of stream vulnerability to legacy nutrients may be made by geospatial analysis of watersheds with high nitrogen inputs and a strong connection to groundwater (e.g., high BFI). PMID:23530900

Tesoriero, Anthony J; Duff, John H; Saad, David A; Spahr, Norman E; Wolock, David M

2013-04-16

199

Bridging the Digital Divide: Reaching Vulnerable Populations  

PubMed Central

The AMIA 2003 Spring Congress entitled “Bridging the Digital Divide: Informatics and Vulnerable Populations” convened 178 experts including medical informaticians, health care professionals, government leaders, policy makers, researchers, health care industry leaders, consumer advocates, and others specializing in health care provision to underserved populations. The primary objective of this working congress was to develop a framework for a national agenda in information and communication technology to enhance the health and health care of underserved populations. Discussions during four tracks addressed issues and trends in information and communication technologies for underserved populations, strategies learned from successful programs, evaluation methodologies for measuring the impact of informatics, and dissemination of information for replication of successful programs. Each track addressed current status, ideal state, barriers, strategies, and recommendations. Recommendations of the breakout sessions were summarized under the overarching themes of Policy, Funding, Research, and Education and Training. The general recommendations emphasized four key themes: revision in payment and reimbursement policies, integration of health care standards, partnerships as the key to success, and broad dissemination of findings including specific feedback to target populations and other key stakeholders. PMID:15299002

Chang, Betty L.; Bakken, Suzanne; Brown, S. Scott; Houston, Thomas K.; Kreps, Gary L.; Kukafka, Rita; Safran, Charles; Stavri, P. Zoe

2004-01-01

200

Vulnerability in speed of visuomotor ability.  

PubMed

The aim of this report is to illustrate the utility of neurocognitive testing as an investigative method to establish the presence of persistent effects of concussive brain injury amongst players of a contact sport with high risk of such injury. The report reviews the outcomes of three previously published neuropsychological studies on South African Rugby Union (hereafter 'rugby') from school through to the national adult level. The diagnostic utility of differential effects per se, as well as differential practice effects on visuomotor function, as a means of distinguishing poorer neurocognitive outcome for rugby versus demographically equivalent noncontact sports players, is described. From various methodological angles, at each level of play, the reviewed studies attest to the presence of long-term vulnerability in visuomotor speed in association with participation in rugby, in turn implicating diffuse frontotemporal dysfunction due to repetitive concussive and subconcussive injury amongst rugby players. As visuomotor speed is a prime function called upon for optimal scholastic and occupational performance, the robustly demonstrated decrement is of immediate clinical importance. Of critical heuristic relevance, however, is evidence of residual brain dysfunction in association with rugby as early as school level, which may ultimately be the precursor of chronic traumatic encephalopathy. PMID:24923405

Shuttleworth-Edwards, Ann B; Radloff, Sarah E; Whitefield-Alexander, Victoria J

2014-01-01

201

Tracking Nile Delta vulnerability to Holocene change.  

PubMed

Understanding deltaic resilience in the face of Holocene climate change and human impacts is an important challenge for the earth sciences in characterizing the full range of present and future wetland responses to global warming. Here, we report an 8000-year mass balance record from the Nile Delta to reconstruct when and how this sedimentary basin has responded to past hydrological shifts. In a global Holocene context, the long-term decrease in Nile Delta accretion rates is consistent with insolation-driven changes in the 'monsoon pacemaker', attested throughout the mid-latitude tropics. Following the early to mid-Holocene growth of the Nile's deltaic plain, sediment losses and pronounced erosion are first recorded after ~4000 years ago, the corollaries of falling sediment supply and an intensification of anthropogenic impacts from the Pharaonic period onwards. Against the backcloth of the Saharan 'depeopling', reduced river flow underpinned by a weakening of monsoonal precipitation appears to have been particularly conducive to the expansion of human activities on the delta by exposing productive floodplain lands for occupation and irrigation agriculture. The reconstruction suggests that the Nile Delta has a particularly long history of vulnerability to extreme events (e.g. floods and storms) and sea-level rise, although the present sediment-starved system does not have a direct Holocene analogue. This study highlights the importance of the world's deltas as sensitive archives to investigate Holocene geosystem responses to climate change, risks and hazards, and societal interaction. PMID:23922692

Marriner, Nick; Flaux, Clément; Morhange, Christophe; Stanley, Jean-Daniel

2013-01-01

202

Physiological Phenotype and Vulnerability in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

This review will focus on the principles underlying the hypothesis that neuronal physiological phenotype—how a neuron generates and regulates action potentials—makes a significant contribution to its vulnerability in Parkinson's disease (PD) and aging. A cornerstone of this hypothesis is that the maintenance of ionic gradients underlying excitability can pose a significant energetic burden for neurons, particularly those that have sustained residence times at depolarized membrane potentials, broad action potentials, prominent Ca2+ entry, and modest intrinsic Ca2+ buffering capacity. This energetic burden is shouldered in neurons primarily by mitochondria, the sites of cellular respiration. Mitochondrial respiration increases the production of damaging superoxide and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) that have widely been postulated to contribute to cellular aging and PD. Many of the genetic mutations and toxins associated with PD compromise mitochondrial function, providing a mechanistic linkage between known risk factors and cellular physiology that could explain the pattern of pathology in PD. Because much of the mitochondrial burden created by this at-risk phenotype is created by Ca2+ entry through L-type voltage-dependent channels for which there are antagonists approved for human use, a neuroprotective strategy to reduce this burden is feasible. PMID:22762023

Surmeier, D. James; Guzman, Jaime N.; Sanchez, Javier; Schumacker, Paul T.

2012-01-01

203

Tracking Nile Delta Vulnerability to Holocene Change  

PubMed Central

Understanding deltaic resilience in the face of Holocene climate change and human impacts is an important challenge for the earth sciences in characterizing the full range of present and future wetland responses to global warming. Here, we report an 8000-year mass balance record from the Nile Delta to reconstruct when and how this sedimentary basin has responded to past hydrological shifts. In a global Holocene context, the long-term decrease in Nile Delta accretion rates is consistent with insolation-driven changes in the ‘monsoon pacemaker’, attested throughout the mid-latitude tropics. Following the early to mid-Holocene growth of the Nile’s deltaic plain, sediment losses and pronounced erosion are first recorded after ~4000 years ago, the corollaries of falling sediment supply and an intensification of anthropogenic impacts from the Pharaonic period onwards. Against the backcloth of the Saharan ‘depeopling’, reduced river flow underpinned by a weakening of monsoonal precipitation appears to have been particularly conducive to the expansion of human activities on the delta by exposing productive floodplain lands for occupation and irrigation agriculture. The reconstruction suggests that the Nile Delta has a particularly long history of vulnerability to extreme events (e.g. floods and storms) and sea-level rise, although the present sediment-starved system does not have a direct Holocene analogue. This study highlights the importance of the world’s deltas as sensitive archives to investigate Holocene geosystem responses to climate change, risks and hazards, and societal interaction. PMID:23922692

Marriner, Nick; Flaux, Clément; Morhange, Christophe; Stanley, Jean-Daniel

2013-01-01

204

Vulnerability of Rural Hospitals to Medicare Outpatient Payment Reform  

PubMed Central

Because the Balanced Budget Act (BBA) of 1997 requires implementation of a Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for hospital outpatient services, the authors evaluated the potential impact of outpatient PPS on rural hospitals. Areas examined include: (1) How dependent are rural hospitals on outpatient revenue? (2) Are they more likely than urban hospitals to be vulnerable to payment reform? (3) What types of rural hospitals will be most vulnerable to reform? Using Medicare cost report data, the authors found that small size and government ownership are more common among rural than urban hospitals and are the most important determinants of vulnerability to payment reform. PMID:11481724

Mohr, Penny E.; Franco, Sheila J.; Blanchfield, Bonnie B.; Cheng, C. Michael; Evans, William N.

1999-01-01

205

Perfectionism and Depression: Vulnerabilities Nurses Need to Understand  

PubMed Central

Striving for excellence is an admirable goal. Adaptive or healthy perfectionism can drive ambition and lead to extraordinary accomplishments. High-achieving people often show signs of perfectionism. However, maladaptive, unhealthy, or neurotic perfectionism, where anything less than perfect is unacceptable, can leave individuals vulnerable to depression. In both personal and professional relationships, nurses need to understand how accepting only perfection in self and others is likely to lead to emotional distress. This paper reviews perfectionism as a personality style, comments on perfectionism and high achievement, discusses vulnerabilities to depression, identifies how to recognize perfectionists, and presents balancing strategies perfectionists can implement to lessen their vulnerability to depression. PMID:21994842

Melrose, Sherri

2011-01-01

206

Visiting relatives and friends (VFR), pregnant, and other vulnerable travelers.  

PubMed

With industrial development and expanding tourism, many people now have an opportunity to travel to many previously unreachable foreign destinations. Travelers with medical or physical conditions or who are vulnerable because of pregnancy or age (pediatric or elderly traveler), require specialist support and advice before traveling. Immigrants who return to their country of birth to visit relatives and friends should be classified as vulnerable travelers, as they have been shown to carry a disproportionate burden of travel-related morbidity. In this article, we explore the major risks to health and the main preventive strategies appropriate to the most vulnerable travelers. PMID:22963774

Matteelli, Alberto; Carvalho, Anna Cristina C; Bigoni, Sara

2012-09-01

207

Automated Vulnerability Detection for Compiled Smart Grid Software  

SciTech Connect

While testing performed with proper experimental controls can provide scientifically quantifiable evidence that software does not contain unintentional vulnerabilities (bugs), it is insufficient to show that intentional vulnerabilities exist, and impractical to certify devices for the expected long lifetimes of use. For both of these needs, rigorous analysis of the software itself is essential. Automated software behavior computation applies rigorous static software analysis methods based on function extraction (FX) to compiled software to detect vulnerabilities, intentional or unintentional, and to verify critical functionality. This analysis is based on the compiled firmware, takes into account machine precision, and does not rely on heuristics or approximations early in the analysis.

Prowell, Stacy J [ORNL; Pleszkoch, Mark G [ORNL; Sayre, Kirk D [ORNL; Linger, Richard C [ORNL

2012-01-01

208

Development of a frailty framework among vulnerable populations.  

PubMed

Frailty is a public health issue that is experienced by homeless and other vulnerable populations; to date, a frailty framework has not been proposed to guide researchers who study hard-to-reach populations. The Frailty Framework among Vulnerable Populations has been developed from empirical research and consultation with frailty experts in an effort to characterize antecedents, that is, situational, health-related, behavioral, resource, biological, and environmental factors that contribute to physical, psychological, and social frailty domains and impact adverse outcomes. As vulnerable populations continue to age, a greater understanding of frailty will enable the development of nursing interventions. PMID:24469090

Salem, Benissa E; Nyamathi, Adeline; Phillips, Linda R; Mentes, Janet C; Sarkisian, Catherine; Brecht, Mary-Lynn

2014-01-01

209

Early-Life Conditions And Mechanisms Of Population Health Vulnerabilities  

PubMed Central

The social status of groups is key to determining health vulnerability at the population level. The impact of material and psychological stresses imposed by social inequities and marginalization is felt most intensely during perinatal/early childhood and puberty/adolescent periods, when developmental genes are expressed and interact with social-physical environments. The influence of chronic psychosocial stresses on gene expression via neuroendocrine regulatory dysfunction is crucial to understanding the biological bases of adult health vulnerability. Studying childhood biology vulnerabilities to neighborhood environments will aid the crafting of multifaceted, multilevel public policy interventions providing immediate benefits and compounded long-term population health yields. PMID:17848432

Furumoto-Dawson, Alice; Gehlert, Sarah; Sohmer, Dana; Olopade, Olufunmilayo; Sacks, Tina

2008-01-01

210

Drought vulnerability assessment for prioritising drought warning implementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drought warning provides a potentially efficient approach to mitigation of drought impacts, and should be targeted at areas most vulnerable to being adversely impacted. Assessing drought vulnerability is, however, complex and needs to consider susceptibility to drought impact as well as the capacity to cope with drought. In this paper a Drought Vulnerability Index (DVI) is proposed that considers four primary components that reflect the capacity of society to adapt to drought; the renewable natural capital, the economic capacity, the human and civic resources, and the available infrastructure and technology. The DVI is established as a weighted combination of these four components, each a composite of selected indicators. Constituent indicators are calculated based on national and/or regional census data and statistics, and while the resulting DVI should not be considered an absolute measure of drought vulnerability it does provide for a prioritisation of areas that can be used to target drought warning efforts. Sensitivity analysis of weights applied show the established DVI to be robust. Through the DVI the development of drought forecasting and warning can be targeted at the most vulnerable areas. The proposed DVI is applied at both the continental scale in Africa to assess drought vulnerability of the different nations across Africa, and at the national level in Kenya, allowing for prioritisation of the counties within Kenya to drought vulnerability. Results show the relative vulnerability of countries and counties vulnerable to drought. At the continental scale, Somalia, Burundi, Niger, Ethiopia, Mali and Chad are found to be the countries most vulnerable to drought. At the national level, the relative vulnerability of the counties across Kenya is found, with counties in the North-East of Kenya having the highest values of DVI. At the country level results were compared with drought disaster information from the EM-DAT disaster database, showing a good agreement between recorded drought impact and the established DVI classes. Kenya counties most vulnerable to drought are primarily located in the North-East of the country, showing a reasonable agreement with the spatial distribution of impacts of the 2010/2011 drought, despite the drought itself being more widespread.

Naumann, Gustavo; Faneca Sànchez, Marta; Mwangi, Emmah; Barbosa, Paulo; Iglesias, Ana; Garrote, Luis; Werner, Micha

2014-05-01

211

Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city Bruno Barroca1, Damien Serre2 1Laboratory of Urban Engineering, Environment and Building (L G U E H) - Université de Marne-la-Vallée - Pôle Ville, 5, Bd Descartes - Bâtiment Lavoisier - 77454 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 - France 2City of Paris Engineering School, Construction - Environment Department, 15 rue Fénelon, 75010 Paris, France In France, as in Europe and more generally throughout the world, river floods have been increasing in frequency and severity over the last ten years, and there are more instances of rivers bursting their banks, aggravating the impact of the flooding of areas supposedly protected by flood defenses. Despite efforts made to well maintain the flood defense assets, we often observe flood defense failures leading to finally increase flood risk in protected area during major flood events. Furthermore, flood forecasting models, although they benefit continuous improvements, remain partly inaccurate due to uncertainties populated all along data calculation processes. These circumstances obliged stakeholders and the scientific communities to manage flood risk by integrating new concepts like stakes management, vulnerability assessments and more recently urban resilience development. Definitively, the goal is to reduce flood risk by managing of course flood defenses and improving flood forecasting models, but also stakes and vulnerability of flooded areas to achieve urban resilience face to flood events. Vulnerability to flood is essentially concentrated in urban areas. Assessing vulnerability of a city is very difficult. Indeed, urban area is a complex system composed by a sum of technical sub-systems as complex as the urban area itself. Assessing city vulnerability consists in talking into account each sub system vulnerability and integrating all direct and indirect impacts generally depending from city shape and city spatial organization. At this time, although some research activities have been undertaken, there are no specific methods and tools to assess flood vulnerability at the scale of the city. Indeed, by studying literature we can list some vulnerability indicators and a few Geographic Information System (GIS) tools. But generally indicators and GIS are not developed specifically at the city scale: often a regional scale is used. Analyzing vulnerability at this scale needs more accurate and formalized indicators and GIS tools. The second limit of existing GIS is temporal: even if vulnerability could be assessed and localized through GIS, such tools cannot assist city managers in their decision to efficiency recover after a severe flood event. Due to scale and temporal limits, methods and tools available to assess urban vulnerability need large improvements. Talking into account all these considerations and limits, our research is focusing on: • vulnerability indicators design; • recovery scenarios design; • GIS for city vulnerability assessment and recovery scenarios. Dealing with vulnerability indicators, the goal is to design a set of indicators of city sub systems. Sub systems are seen like assets of high value and complex and interdependent infrastructure networks (i.e. power supplies, communications, water, transport etc.). The infrastructure networks are critical for the continuity of economic activities as well as for the people's basic living needs. Their availability is also required for fast and effective recovery after flood disasters. The severity of flood damage therefore largely depends on the degree that both high value assets and critical urban infrastructure are affected, either directly or indirectly. To face the challenge of designing indicators, a functional model of the city system (and sub systems) has to be built to analyze the system response to flood solicitation. Then, a coherent and an efficient set of vulnerability of indicators could be built up. With such methods city stakeholders will be informed on how and how much their systems are vulnerable. It is a first level of inform

Serre, D.; Barroca, B.

2009-04-01

212

Vulnerability of Oregon hydrologic landscapes and streamflow to climate change  

EPA Science Inventory

Hydrologic classification systems can provide a basis for broadscale assessments of the hydrologic functions of landscapes and watersheds and their responses to stressors. Such assessments could be particularly useful in determining hydrologic vulnerability from climate change. ...

213

Soft Error Vulnerability of Iterative Linear Algebra Methods  

SciTech Connect

Devices are increasingly vulnerable to soft errors as their feature sizes shrink. Previously, soft error rates were significant primarily in space and high-atmospheric computing. Modern architectures now use features so small at sufficiently low voltages that soft errors are becoming important even at terrestrial altitudes. Due to their large number of components, supercomputers are particularly susceptible to soft errors. Since many large scale parallel scientific applications use iterative linear algebra methods, the soft error vulnerability of these methods constitutes a large fraction of the applications overall vulnerability. Many users consider these methods invulnerable to most soft errors since they converge from an imprecise solution to a precise one. However, we show in this paper that iterative methods are vulnerable to soft errors, exhibiting both silent data corruptions and poor ability to detect errors. Further, we evaluate a variety of soft error detection and tolerance techniques, including checkpointing, linear matrix encodings, and residual tracking techniques.

Bronevetsky, G; de Supinski, B

2008-01-19

214

Vulnerability and social risk management in India and Mexico  

E-print Network

The development of effective community, regional and national risk-management strategies, especially for systemic risks, such as natural disasters, entails understanding the determinants of social vulnerability in individuals ...

Flores Ballesteros, Luis

2008-01-01

215

Assessing the vulnerability of the fiber infrastructure to disasters  

E-print Network

Communication networks are vulnerable to natural disasters, such as earthquakes or floods, as well as to physical attacks, such as an Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) attack. Such real- world events happen in specific geographical ...

Neumayer, Sebastian James

216

The effects of supplier fairness on vulnerable resellers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the role of supplier fairness in developing long-term relationships between relatively smaller, vulnerable resellers and larger powerful suppliers. The author conceptualize two components of fairness \\

Nirmalya Kumar; Lisa K. Scheer; J. B. E. M. Steenkamp

1995-01-01

217

Assessing node risk and vulnerability in epidemics on networks  

E-print Network

Which nodes are most vulnerable to an epidemic spreading through a network, and which carry the highest risk of causing a major outbreak if they are the source of the infection? Here we show how these questions can be answered to good approximation using the cavity method. Several curious properties of node vulnerability and risk are explored: some nodes are more vulnerable than others to weaker infections, yet less vulnerable to stronger ones; a node is always more likely to be caught in an outbreak than it is to start one, except when the disease has a deterministic lifetime; the rank order of node risk depends on the details of the distribution of infectious periods.

Rogers, Tim

2015-01-01

218

Evaluation of the Vulnerability of Speaker Verification to Synthetic Speech   

E-print Network

In this paper, we evaluate the vulnerability of a speaker verification (SV) system to synthetic speech. Although this problem was first examined over a decade ago, dramatic improvements in both SV and speech synthesis ...

De Leon, P.L.; Pucher, M.; Yamagishi, Junichi

2010-01-01

219

Rethinking the Vulnerability of Minority Populations in Research  

PubMed Central

The Belmont Report, produced in 1979 by a United States government commission, includes minority populations among its list of vulnerable research participants. In this article, we consider some previous attempts to understand the vulnerability of minorities in research, and then provide our own account. First we examine the question of the representation of minorities in research. Then we argue that the best understanding of minorities, vulnerability, and research will begin with a broad understanding of the risk of individual members of minority groups to poor health outcomes. We offer a typology of vulnerability to help with this task. Finally, we show how researchers should be guided by this broad analysis in the design and execution of their research. PMID:24134375

Lange, Margaret Meek

2013-01-01

220

Managing Landscapes for Vulnerable, Invasive and Disease Species  

E-print Network

- nerable species' protection. Many, but not all, broad strategies for controlling invasive and disease27 Managing Landscapes for Vulnerable, Invasive and Disease Species Erika Zavaleta and Jae Ryan, invasive species and threatened species simultaneously. We summarize recommendations from land- scape

Zavaleta, Erika

221

Nemesis: Preventing Authentication & Access Control Vulnerabilities in Web Applications  

E-print Network

Nemesis: Preventing Authentication & Access Control Vulnerabilities in Web Applications Michael web applications. Authentication attacks occur when a web application authenticates users unsafely, granting access to web clients that lack the ap- propriate credentials. Access control attacks occur when

Sabatini, David M.

222

Assessing the Vulnerability of Older Americans to Climate Change  

EPA Science Inventory

This project is comprised of a series of activities ? listening sessions, literature reviews, and an expert elicitation research agenda-setting workshop ? designed to examine and characterize the vulnerability of older adults to climate change and opportunities for adaptation. ...

223

Title: GSM security Vulnerability Members: Pacharawit Topark-Ngarm  

E-print Network

Title: GSM security Vulnerability Members: Pacharawit Topark-Ngarm Panupat Poocharoen Abstract Global System for Mobile communications (GSM system) has become the most popular standard for digital cellular communication. The GSM security system depends on encryption

224

Using cyber vulnerability testing techniques to expose undocumented security vulnerabilities in DCS and SCADA equipment  

SciTech Connect

This session starts by providing an overview of typical DCS (Distributed Control Systems) and SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) architectures, and exposes cyber security vulnerabilities that vendors never admit, but are found through a comprehensive cyber testing process. A complete assessment process involves testing all of the layers and components of a SCADA or DCS environment, from the perimeter firewall all the way down to the end devices controlling the process, including what to look for when conducting a vulnerability assessment of real-time control systems. The following systems are discussed: 1. Perimeter (isolation from corporate IT or other non-critical networks) 2. Remote Access (third Party access into SCADA or DCS networks) 3. Network Architecture (switch, router, firewalls, access controls, network design) 4. Network Traffic Analysis (what is running on the network) 5. Host Operating Systems Hardening 6. Applications (how they communicate with other applications and end devices) 7. End Device Testing (PLCs, RTUs, DCS Controllers, Smart Transmitters) a. System Discovery b. Functional Discovery c. Attack Methodology i. DoS Tests (at what point does the device fail) ii. Malformed Packet Tests (packets that can cause equipment failure) iii. Session Hijacking (do anything that the operator can do) iv. Packet Injection (code and inject your own SCADA commands) v. Protocol Exploitation (Protocol Reverse Engineering / Fuzzing) This paper will provide information compiled from over five years of conducting cyber security testing on control systems hardware, software, and systems. (authors)

Pollet, J. [PlantData Technologies, Inc., 1201 Louisiana Street, Houston, TX 77002 (United States)

2006-07-01

225

Understanding the vulnerability of migrants in Shanghai to typhoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

China has experienced considerable migration from inland to coastal areas since the reforms of 1978, with migrants becoming\\u000a an important population in many coastal cities. Compared with non-migrants (long-term residents), migrant vulnerability to\\u000a typhoons is considered high due to limited access to job opportunities, social security, information, and other resources;\\u000a however, there is no research on vulnerability of this population

Ming-Zhu Wang; Marco Amati; Frank Thomalla

226

Evaluation Of The Seismic Vulnerability of Fortified Structures  

SciTech Connect

In the paper a prompt method to evaluate the seismic vulnerability of an ancient structure has been applied to the seismic vulnerability of the fortified structures in Italy, having as basics the elaboration of rather gross information about the state, the consistency and the history of the considered population of fabrics. The procedure proves to be rather effective and able to produce reliable results, despite the poor initial data.

Baratta, Alessandro; Corbi, Ileana [Department of Structural Engineering, University of Naples 'Federico II', Via Claudio 21, Naples (Italy); Coppari, Sandro [Department of Civil Protection, Ministry Council, Via Vitorchiano 4, 00189 Rome (Italy)

2008-07-08

227

The hack attack - Increasing computer system awareness of vulnerability threats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper discusses the issue of electronic vulnerability of computer based systems supporting NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) by unauthorized users. To test the security of the system and increase security awareness, NYMA, Inc. employed computer 'hackers' to attempt to infiltrate the system(s) under controlled conditions. Penetration procedures, methods, and descriptions are detailed in the paper. The procedure increased the security consciousness of GSFC management to the electronic vulnerability of the system(s).

Quann, John; Belford, Peter

1987-01-01

228

Socioeconomic development and vulnerability to land degradation in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the surface area affected by land degradation (LD) has significantly increased in southern European regions\\u000a where the socioeconomic development has been proposed as a basic factor underlying the degree of vulnerability to LD. This\\u000a paper investigates the correlation between several socioeconomic indicators and the level of vulnerability to LD in Italy,\\u000a expressed as changes (1990–2000) in a

Luca Salvati; Alberto Mancini; Sofia Bajocco; Roberta Gemmiti; Margherita Carlucci

229

Protective and vulnerability factors of depression in normal adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the role of various protective and vulnerability factors in the development of depressive symptoms. A sample of normal adolescents (N=373) completed the Children’s Depression Inventory and measures of a negative attributional style, parental rearing behaviour, coping styles, and perceived self-efficacy. In addition to computing the correlations between depression and these protective and vulnerability factors, the present

Peter Muris; Henk Schmidt; Rebecca Lambrichs; Cor Meesters

2001-01-01

230

Vulnerability-attention analysis for space-related activities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques for representing and analyzing trouble spots in structures and processes are discussed. Identification of vulnerable areas usually depends more on particular and often detailed knowledge than on algorithmic or mathematical procedures. In some cases, machine inference can facilitate the identification. The analysis scheme proposed first establishes the geometry of the process, then marks areas that are conditionally vulnerable. This provides a basis for advice on the kinds of human attention or machine sensing and control that can make the risks tolerable.

Ford, Donnie; Hays, Dan; Lee, Sung Yong; Wolfsberger, John

1988-01-01

231

Vulnerability and Vaccination Strategies on realistic complex network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The general understanding of non-equilibrium stochastic processes evolving on complex networks become an important challenge. In the framework of epidemiology, one of the key challenges is the identification and the understanding of the role of critical and vulnerable nodes in the diffusion process. Considering the SIER model evolving on a large realistic complex networks, we present a study of the vulnerability for different viral strength. Our result are used to evaluate the possible vaccination strategies.

Platini, Thierry; Apolloni, Andrea

2012-02-01

232

Understanding vulnerability of coastal communities to climate change related risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

DOLAN, A.H., and WALKER, I.J., 2003. Understanding vulnerability of coastal communities to climate change related risks. Journal of Coastal Research, SI 39 (Proceedings of the 8th International Coastal Symposium), pg - pg. Itajaí, SC - Brazil, ISSN 0749-0208 This paper discusses the concept of vulnerability as characterized in the climate change literature and presents a framework for assessing adaptive capacity.

A. H. Dolan; I. J. Walker

2004-01-01

233

Are small rural banks vulnerable to local economic downturns?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A potentially troubling characteristic of the U.S. banking industry is the geographic concentration of many banks’ offices and operations. Historically, banking laws have prevented U.S. banks from branching into other counties and states. A potential adverse consequence of these regulations was to leave banks—especially small rural banks—vulnerable to local economic downturns. If geographic concentration of bank offices leaves banks vulnerable

Andrew P. Meyer; Timothy J. Yeager

2001-01-01

234

Forest climate change Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment in Himalayas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forests offer an important basis for creating and safeguarding more climate-resilient communities over Hindu Kush Himalayan region. The forest ecosystem vulnerability assessment to climate change and developing knowledge base to identify and support relevant adaptation strategies is realized as an urgent need. The multi scale adaptation strategies portray increasing complexity with the increasing levels in terms of data requirements, vulnerability understanding and decision making to choose a particular adaptation strategy. We present here how such complexities could be addressed and adaptation decisions could be either directly supported by open source remote sensing based forestry products or geospatial analysis and modelled products. The forest vulnerability assessment under climate change scenario coupled with increasing forest social dependence was studied using IPCC Landscape scale Vulnerability framework in Chitwan-Annapurna Landscape (CHAL) situated in Nepal. Around twenty layers of geospatial information on climate, forest biophysical and forest social dependence data was used to assess forest vulnerability and associated adaptation needs using self-learning decision tree based approaches. The increase in forest fires, evapotranspiration and reduction in productivity over changing climate scenario was observed. The adaptation measures on enhancing productivity, improving resilience, reducing or avoiding pressure with spatial specificity are identified to support suitable decision making. The study provides spatial analytical framework to evaluate multitude of parameters to understand vulnerabilities and assess scope for alternative adaptation strategies with spatial explicitness.

Chitale, V. S.; Shrestha, H. L.; Agarwal, N. K.; Choudhurya, D.; Gilani, H.; Dhonju, H. K.; Murthy, M. S. R.

2014-11-01

235

Multimodal spectroscopy detects features of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early detection and treatment of rupture-prone vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is critical to reducing patient mortality associated with cardiovascular disease. The combination of reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopy-termed multimodal spectroscopy (MMS)-provides detailed biochemical information about tissue and can detect vulnerable plaque features: thin fibrous cap (TFC), necrotic core (NC), superficial foam cells (SFC), and thrombus. Ex vivo MMS spectra are collected from 12 patients that underwent carotid endarterectomy or femoral bypass surgery. Data are collected by means of a unitary MMS optical fiber probe and a portable clinical instrument. Blinded histopathological analysis is used to assess the vulnerability of each spectrally evaluated artery lesion. Modeling of the ex vivo MMS spectra produce objective parameters that correlate with the presence of vulnerable plaque features: TFC with fluorescence parameters indicative of collagen presence; NC/SFC with a combination of diffuse reflectance ?-carotene/ceroid absorption and the Raman spectral signature of lipids; and thrombus with its Raman signature. Using these parameters, suspected vulnerable plaques can be detected with a sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 72%. These encouraging results warrant the continued development of MMS as a catheter-based clinical diagnostic technique for early detection of vulnerable plaques.

Š?epanovi?, Obrad R.; Fitzmaurice, Maryann; Miller, Arnold; Kong, Chae-Ryon; Volynskaya, Zoya; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Kramer, John R.; Feld, Michael S.

2011-01-01

236

Coastal vulnerability: climate change and natural hazards perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction Studying coastal zones as a territorial concept (Integrated coastal zone management) is an essential issue for managers, as they have to consider many different topics (natural hazards, resources management, tourism, climate change…). The recent approach in terms of "coastal vulnerability" studies (since the 90's) is the main tool used nowadays to help them in evaluating impacts of natural hazards on coastal zones, specially considering climate change. This present communication aims to highlight the difficulties in integrating this concept in risk analysis as it is usually practiced in natural hazards sciences. 1) Coastal vulnerability as a recent issue The concept of coastal vulnerability mainly appears in the International panel on climate change works of 1992 (IPCC. 2001), where it is presented as essential for climate change adaptation. The concept has been defined by a common methodology which proposes the assessment of seven indicators, in regards to a sea level rise of 1m in 2100: people affected, people at risk, capital value at loss, land at loss, wetland at loss, potential adaptation costs, people at risk assuming this adaptation. Many national assessments have been implemented (Nicholls, et al. 1995) and a global assessment was proposed for three indicators (Nicholls, et al. 1999). The DINAS-Coast project reuses this methodology to produce the DIVA-tool for coastal managers (Vafeidis, et al. 2004). Besides, many other methodologies for national or regional coastal vulnerability assessments have been developed (review by (UNFCCC. 2008). The use of aggregated vulnerability indicators (including geomorphology, hydrodynamics, climate change…) is widespread: the USGS coastal vulnerability index is used worldwide and was completed by a social vulnerability index (Boruff, et al. 2005). Those index-based methods propose a vulnerability mapping which visualise indicators of erosion, submersion and/or socio economic sensibility in coastal zones. This concept is a great tool for policy makers to help managing their action and taking into account climate change (McFadden, et al. 2006). However, in those approaches, vulnerability is the output itself (cost of effective impacts, geomorphologic impacts…), but is not integrated it in a risk analysis. Furthermore, those studies emerged from a climatic perspective, which leads to consider climate change as a hazard or pressure whereas risk studies commonly consider hazards such as erosion and flooding, where climate change modifies the drivers of the hazard. 2) The natural hazards and socio economic perspectives In order to reduce impacts of natural hazards, decision makers need a complete risk assessment (probability of losses). Past studies on natural risks (landslide, earthquake...) highlighted the pertinence of defining risk as a combination of : (1)hazard occurrence and intensity, (2) exposition and (3)vulnerability of assets and population to this hazard (e.g. Douglas. 2007, Sarewitz, et al. 2003). Following the Renn and Klinke risk assessment frame, high uncertainties associated with coastal risks considering climatic and anthropic change highlights the importance of working on that concept of "vulnerability" (Klinke and Renn. 2002). Past studies on vulnerability assessment showed a frequently mentioned gap between "impact based" and "human based" points of view. It is nowadays a great issue for natural risk sciences. Many research efforts in FP7 projects such as MOVE and ENSURE focus on integrating the different dimensions of vulnerability (Turner, et al. 2003, Birkmann. 2006). Coastal risk studies highlight another issue of concern. We previously detailed the different use of the term "vulnerability" in the coastal context, quite different of the "natural risk's" use. Interaction of social, economic and physical sciences is considered within two french research projects (Vulsaco, Miseeva), in order to identify the vulnerability of a system to flooding or erosion (i.e. its characteristics th

Romieu, E.; Vinchon, C.

2009-04-01

237

Vulnerability to Agricultural Drought in Western Orissa: A Case Study of Representative Blocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of vulnerability to agricultural drought in three study blocks of Bolangir district in western Orissa has been analysed. The indexing and vulnerability profile method have been used for assessing the nature of drought vulnerability, coping capacity and risk. The study has revealed that the three most influential biophysical factors of drought vulnerability are: rainfall variability, drought intensity and

Mrutyunjay Swain; Mamata Swain

2011-01-01

238

Vulnerable children, communities and schools: lessons from three HIV\\/AIDS affected areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing number of children made vulnerable by HIV\\/AIDS threatens the achievement of Education for All (EFA) and Millennium Development goals. Policy recommendations assign schools key roles in meeting the needs of vulnerable children, but there is a dearth of evidence about how vulnerable children and schools interact in AIDS affected communities. Case studies of schools and vulnerable children in

Nancy Kendall; Chloe OGara

2007-01-01

239

Debating space security: Capabilities and vulnerabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. position in the debate on space security has been that (1) space-based systems could be developed and used to obtain decisive warfighting superiority over an adversary, and (2) these space-based systems, because they might give such an inordinate advantage over any adversary, will be attacked. The Russians and Chinese, in contrast, claim to be threatened by U.S. aspirations in space but deny that they pose a serious threat to U.S. space-based systems. They view the development of advanced military space systems by the United States as evidence of a growing gap of military capabilities limited only by technological—not political—constraints. They argue that U.S. missile defense systems operating in coordination with advanced satellite sensors would weaken their nuclear retaliatory potential. This dissertation argues that the positions held by both of these parties are more extreme than warranted. An analytical evaluation quickly narrows the touted capabilities and assumed vulnerabilities of space systems to a much smaller set of concerns that can be addressed by collaboration. Chapter 2: Operationally Responsive Space (ORS): Is 24/7 Warfighter Support Feasible? demonstrates the infeasibility of dramatically increasing U.S. warfighting superiority by using satellites. Chapter 3: What Can be Achieved by Attacking Satellites? makes the case that although U.S. armed forces rely extensively on its satellite infrastructure, that does not immediately make them desirable targets. The functions performed by military satellites are diffused among large constellations with redundancies. Also, some of the functions performed by these satellites can be substituted for by other terrestrial and aerial systems. Chapter 4: The Limits of Chinese Anti-Satellite Missiles demonstrates that anti-satellite (ASAT) intercepts are very complex under realistic conditions and that a potential adversary with space capabilities comparable to China's has very limited capability to use ASATs in a real-world battle scenario. Finally, in order to evaluate the chief concern raised by the Russians and Chinese, chapter 5: Satellites, Missile Defense and Space Security simulates a boost-phase missile defense system cued by the advanced Space Tracking and Surveillance (STSS) sensors. It demonstrates that even under best case assumptions, the STSS sensors are not good enough for the boost-phase missile defense system to successfully intercept and destroy an ICBM. Together, these chapters aim to narrow the contentions in the debate on space security thereby fostering the international colloboration and data sharing needed to ensure safe operations in space.

Sankaran, Jaganath

240

Vulnerability to climate change: people, place and exposure to hazard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Human Dimension of the Twinning European and South Asian River Basins to Enhance Capacity and Implement Adaptive Management Approaches Project (EC-Project BRAHMATWINN) is aimed at developing socio-economic tools and context for the effective inclusion of the "Human Dimension" or socio-economic vulnerability into the overall assessment of climate risk in the twinned basins of the Upper Brahmaputra River Basin (UBRB), and the Upper Danube River Basin (UDRB) . This work is conducted in the light of stakeholder/actor analysis and the prevailing legal framework. In order to effectively achieve this end, four key research and associated activities were defined: 1. Identifying stakeholders and actors including: implement an approach to ensure a broad spread of appropriate stakeholder input to the assessment of vulnerability undertaken in Asia and Europe within the research activities of the project. 2. Contextualising legal framework: to provide an assessment of the governance framework relating to socio-environmental policy development within the study site administrative areas leading to the specific identification of related policy and legal recommendations. 3. Spatial analysis and mapping of vulnerability: providing a spatial assessment of the variation of vulnerability to pre-determined environmental stressors across the study areas with an additional specific focus on gender. 4. Inclusion of findings with the broader context of the BRAHMATWINN risk of climate change study through scenarios of hazard and vulnerability (subsequent chapters). This study utilises stakeholder inputs to effectively identify and map relative weightings of vulnerability domains, such as health and education in the context of pre-specified hazards such as flood. The process is underpinned by an adaptation of the IPCC (2001) which characterizes Risk as having the components of Hazard (physiographic component) and Vulnerability (socio-economic component).

Hutton, C. W.; Kienberger, S.; Amoako Johnson, F.; Allan, A.; Giannini, V.; Allen, R.

2011-04-01

241

A Vulnerability Assessment Approach for Dams of Mississippi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of a state-wide effort to characterize the vulnerability of Mississippi's dams, we are developing a new set of vulnerability assessment tools. Our vulnerability assessment methods will consider earlier attempts to develop risk indexing methods for dams, but will be designed to be applied to Mississippi's entire database of over 3,700 dams. Unlike earlier efforts to dams, which emphasized hazards posed by the dams, our methods will be designed to consider intrinsic and extrinsic vulnerability, and consider consequences as well. Intrinsic sources of vulnerability consider such factors as the potential for unstable slopes, piping, and spillway inadequacy. Extrinsic sources of vulnerability will include features such as the potential for intentional or unintentional human acts. Other factors that will be included will be the potential for neglect of maintenance of the dam and susceptibility to interference from wildlife. Consequences will be assessed by considering the downstream population and economic resources that may be at risk due to an uncontrolled release of the reservoir. The analysis of these vulnerabilities and consequences is being calculated using a GIS-based database of all of Mississippi's dams along with population distribution, terrain, and economic resources across the state. Conventional methods of analysis of a dam breach or other uncontrolled release will still be necessary, but the extent to which downstream features and population are affected can be more readily identified. This approach facilitates assessment and decision making on a large dam inventory to permit resources within the state to be directed efficiently to dams that merit attention.

Kuszmaul, J. S.; Gunter, B.; McGregor, G.; Holt, R. M.; Pickens, J.; Holtz, T.; Jones, T.; Phillips, P.

2007-12-01

242

Assessing Agricultural Vulnerability in India using NDVI Data Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impact of climate change on Indian rainfed agriculture was assessed using temporal NDVI data products from AVHRR and MODIS. Agricultural vulnerability was analysed using CV of Max NDVI from NOAA-AVHRR (15-day, 8 km) and MODIS-TERRA (16-day, 250 m) NDVI data products from 1982-2012. AVHRR dataset was found suitable for estimating regional vulnerability at state and agro-eco-sub-region (AESR) level while MODIS dataset was suitable for drawing district-level strategy for adaptation and mitigation. Methodology was developed to analyse NDVI variations with spatial pattern of rainfall using 10 X 10 girded data and spatially interpolating it to estimate Standard Precipitation Index. Study indicated large variations in vegetation dynamics across India owing to bio-climate and natural resource base. IPCC framework of vulnerability and exposure was used to identify vulnerable region extending from arid western India to semi-arid and dry sub-humid regions in central India and southern peninsula. This is a major agricultural region in the country with sizable human and livestock population with millions of marginal and small farm holdings. Exposure to climatic variability at local and regional levels have national implications and study indicated that over 122 districts extending over 110 mha was vulnerable to climate change that spread across 26 typical AESR in 11 states in India. Of the 74 mha under agriculture in the region, MODIS dataset indicated 47 mha as agriculturally vulnerable while coarser resolution of AVHRR dataset indicated a conservative estimate of 29 mha. First ever estimates of agricultural vulnerability for India indicates 20.4 to 33.1 % agricultural land under risk from climate change.

Kaushalya, R.; Praveen Kumar, V.; Shubhasmita, S.

2014-11-01

243

Probabilistic seismic vulnerability and risk assessment of stone masonry structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquakes represent major natural hazards that regularly impact the built environment in seismic prone areas worldwide and cause considerable social and economic losses. The high losses incurred following the past destructive earthquakes promoted the need for assessment of the seismic vulnerability and risk of the existing buildings. Many historic buildings in the old urban centers in Eastern Canada such as Old Quebec City are built of stone masonry and represent un-measurable architectural and cultural heritage. These buildings were built to resist gravity loads only and generally offer poor resistance to lateral seismic loads. Seismic vulnerability assessment of stone masonry buildings is therefore the first necessary step in developing seismic retrofitting and pre-disaster mitigation plans. The objective of this study is to develop a set of probability-based analytical tools for efficient seismic vulnerability and uncertainty analysis of stone masonry buildings. A simplified probabilistic analytical methodology for vulnerability modelling of stone masonry building with systematic treatment of uncertainties throughout the modelling process is developed in the first part of this study. Building capacity curves are developed using a simplified mechanical model. A displacement based procedure is used to develop damage state fragility functions in terms of spectral displacement response based on drift thresholds of stone masonry walls. A simplified probabilistic seismic demand analysis is proposed to capture the combined uncertainty in capacity and demand on fragility functions. In the second part, a robust analytical procedure for the development of seismic hazard compatible fragility and vulnerability functions is proposed. The results are given by sets of seismic hazard compatible vulnerability functions in terms of structure-independent intensity measure (e.g. spectral acceleration) that can be used for seismic risk analysis. The procedure is very efficient for conducting rapid vulnerability assessment of stone masonry buildings. With modification of input structural parameters, it can be adapted and applied to any other building class. A sensitivity analysis of the seismic vulnerability modelling is conducted to quantify the uncertainties associated with each of the input parameters. The proposed methodology was validated for a scenario-based seismic risk assessment of existing buildings in Old Quebec City. The procedure for hazard compatible vulnerability modelling was used to develop seismic fragility functions in terms of spectral acceleration representative of the inventoried buildings. A total of 1220 buildings were considered. The assessment was performed for a scenario event of magnitude 6.2 at distance 15km with a probability of exceedance of 2% in 50 years. The study showed that most of the expected damage is concentrated in the old brick and stone masonry buildings.

Abo El Ezz, Ahmad

244

Soft Error Vulnerability of Iterative Linear Algebra Methods  

SciTech Connect

Devices become increasingly vulnerable to soft errors as their feature sizes shrink. Previously, soft errors primarily caused problems for space and high-atmospheric computing applications. Modern architectures now use features so small at sufficiently low voltages that soft errors are becoming significant even at terrestrial altitudes. The soft error vulnerability of iterative linear algebra methods, which many scientific applications use, is a critical aspect of the overall application vulnerability. These methods are often considered invulnerable to many soft errors because they converge from an imprecise solution to a precise one. However, we show that iterative methods can be vulnerable to soft errors, with a high rate of silent data corruptions. We quantify this vulnerability, with algorithms generating up to 8.5% erroneous results when subjected to a single bit-flip. Further, we show that detecting soft errors in an iterative method depends on its detailed convergence properties and requires more complex mechanisms than simply checking the residual. Finally, we explore inexpensive techniques to tolerate soft errors in these methods.

Bronevetsky, G; de Supinski, B

2007-12-15

245

The upper limit of vulnerability of the heart  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fibrillation is a major cause of death worldwide and it affects a very large part of the population. Its mechanism is not fully understood and the immediate remedy is to defibrillate. While defibrillation has been very successful, defibrillators apply a shock strength that could itself reinduce fibrillation. There exists an upper limit of vulnerability above which a shock does not induce reentry and therefore does not expose the patient to the reinduction of fibrillation. This upper limit of vulnerability has been predicted theoretically and observed experimentally, but the mechanism of the upper limit has not been well understood. This work will investigate the upper limit of vulnerability using a computer simulation. The bidomain model of the cardiac tissue has been used extensively for the past thirty years. The Beeler-Reuter model of the membrane kinetics has also been used in conjunction with the bidomain. This computer simulation of the bidomain and the Beeler-Reuter model will allow us to investigate the response of the induced virtual electrodes necessary to produce reentry. We will look at the vulnerable window and investigate the upper limit above which defibrillators can safely apply any shock strength to stop a fibrillation. One main conclusion is that widespread, random heterogeneities must be included in our model of cardiac tissue in order to predict an upper limit of vulnerability.

Mazeh, Nachaat

246

A unified framework for addiction: Vulnerabilities in the decision process  

PubMed Central

The understanding of decision-making systems has come together in recent years to form a unified theory of decision-making in the mammalian brain as arising from multiple, interacting systems (a planning system, a habit system, and a situation-recognition system). This unified decision-making system has multiple potential access points through which it can be driven to make maladaptive choices, particularly choices that entail seeking of certain drugs or behaviors. We identify 10 key vulnerabilities in the system: (1) moving away from homeostasis, (2) changing allostatic set points, (3) euphorigenic “reward-like” signals, (4) overvaluation in the planning system, (5) incorrect search of situation-action-outcome relationships, (6) misclassification of situations, (7) overvaluation in the habit system, (8) a mismatch in the balance of the two decision systems, (9) over-fast discounting processes, and (10) changed learning rates. These vulnerabilities provide a taxonomy of potential problems with decision-making systems. Although each vulnerability can drive an agent to return to the addictive choice, each vulnerability also implies a characteristic symptomology. Different drugs, different behaviors, and different individuals are likely to access different vulnerabilities. This has implications for an individual’s susceptibility to addiction and the transition to addiction, for the potential for relapse, and for the potential for treatment. PMID:18662461

Redish, A. David; Jensen, Steve; Johnson, Adam

2013-01-01

247

Climate variability and climate change vulnerability and adaptation. Workshop summary  

SciTech Connect

Representatives from fifteen countries met in Prague, Czech Republic, on September 11-15, 1995, to share results from the analysis of vulnerability and adaptation to global climate change. The workshop focused on the issues of global climate change and its impacts on various sectors of a national economy. The U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), which has been signed by more than 150 governments worldwide, calls on signatory parties to develop and communicate measures they are implementing to respond to global climate change. An analysis of a country`s vulnerability to changes in the climate helps it identify suitable adaptation measures. These analyses are designed to determine the extent of the impacts of global climate change on sensitive sectors such as agricultural crops, forests, grasslands and livestock, water resources, and coastal areas. Once it is determined how vulnerable a country may be to climate change, it is possible to identify adaptation measures for ameliorating some or all of the effects.The objectives of the vulnerability and adaptation workshop were to: The objectives of the vulnerability and adaptation workshop were to: Provide an opportunity for countries to describe their study results; Encourage countries to learn from the experience of the more complete assessments and adjust their studies accordingly; Identify issues and analyses that require further investigation; and Summarize results and experiences for governmental and intergovernmental organizations.

Bhatti, N.; Cirillo, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Dixon, R.K. [U.S. Country Studies Program, Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31

248

Parental depression and child cognitive vulnerability predict children's cortisol reactivity.  

PubMed

Risk for depression is expressed across multiple levels of analysis. For example, parental depression and cognitive vulnerability are known markers of depression risk, but no study has examined their interactive effects on children's cortisol reactivity, a likely mediator of early depression risk. We examined relations across these different levels of vulnerability using cross-sectional and longitudinal methods in two community samples of children. Children were assessed for cognitive vulnerability using self-reports (Study 1; n = 244) and tasks tapping memory and attentional bias (Study 2; n = 205), and their parents were assessed for depression history using structured clinical interviews. In both samples, children participated in standardized stress tasks and cortisol reactivity was assessed. Cross-sectionally and longitudinally, parental depression history and child cognitive vulnerability interacted to predict children's cortisol reactivity; associations between parent depression and elevated child cortisol activity were found when children also showed elevated depressotypic attributions as well as attentional and memory biases. Findings indicate that models of children's emerging depression risk may benefit from the examination of the interactive effects of multiple sources of vulnerability across levels of analysis. PMID:25422972

Hayden, Elizabeth P; Hankin, Benjamin L; Mackrell, Sarah V M; Sheikh, Haroon I; Jordan, Patricia L; Dozois, David J A; Singh, Shiva M; Olino, Thomas M; Badanes, Lisa S

2014-11-01

249

Vulnerability to depression: from brain neuroplasticity to identification of biomarkers.  

PubMed

A stressful event increases the risk of developing depression later in life, but the possible predisposing factors remain unknown. Our study aims to characterize latent vulnerability traits underlying the development of depressive disorders in adult animals. Four weeks after a priming stressful event, serum corticosterone concentration returned to control values in all animals, whereas the other biological parameters returned to basal level in only 58% of animals (called nonvulnerable). In contrast, 42% of animals displayed persistent decreased serum and hippocampus BDNF concentrations, reduced hippocampal volume and neurogenesis, CA3 dendritic retraction and decrease in spine density, as well as amygdala neuron hypertrophy, constituting latent vulnerability traits to depression. In this group, called vulnerable, a subsequent mild stress evoked a rise of serum corticosterone levels and a "depressive" phenotype, in contrast to nonvulnerable animals. Intracerebroventricular administration of 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, a selective TrkB receptor agonist, dampened the development of the "depressive" phenotype. Our results thus characterize the presence of latent vulnerability traits that underlie the emergence of depression and identify the association of low BDNF with normal corticosterone serum concentrations as a predictive biomarker of vulnerability to depression. PMID:21900567

Blugeot, Aurélie; Rivat, Cyril; Bouvier, Elodie; Molet, Jenny; Mouchard, Amandine; Zeau, Brigitte; Bernard, Christophe; Benoliel, Jean-Jacques; Becker, Chrystel

2011-09-01

250

Prey behavior, age-dependent vulnerability, and predation rates.  

PubMed

Variation in the temporal pattern of vulnerability can provide important insights into predator-prey relationships and the evolution of antipredator behavior. We illustrate these points with a system that has coyotes (Canis latrans) as a predator and two species of congeneric deer (Odocoileus spp.) as prey. The deer employ different antipredator tactics (aggressive defense vs. flight) that result in contrasting patterns of age-dependent vulnerability in their probability of being captured when encountered by coyotes. We use long-term survival data and a simple mathematical model to show that (1) species differences in age-dependent vulnerability are reflected in seasonal predation rates and (2) seasonal variation in prey vulnerability and predator hunt activity, which can be associated with the availability of alternative prey, interact to shape seasonal and annual predation rates for each prey species. Shifting hunt activity from summer to winter, or vice versa, alleviated annual mortality on one species and focused it on the other. Our results indicate that seasonal variation in prey vulnerability and hunt activity interact to influence the impact that a predator has on any particular type of prey. Furthermore, these results indicate that seasonal variation in predation pressure is an important selection pressure shaping prey defenses. PMID:18840071

Lingle, Susan; Feldman, Alex; Boyce, Mark S; Wilson, W Finbarr

2008-11-01

251

Correlation analysis of different vulnerability metrics on power grids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many scholars have used different metrics to quantify power grid vulnerability in the literature, but how correlated these metrics are is an interesting topic. This paper defines vulnerability as the performance drop of a power grid under a disruptive event, and selects six frequently used performance metrics, including efficiency (E), source-demand considered efficiency (SDE), largest component size (LCS), connectivity level (CL), clustering coefficient (CC), and power supply (PS), to respectively quantify power grid vulnerability V under different node or edge failure probabilities fp and then analyzes the correlation of these six vulnerability metrics. Taking the IEEE 300 power grid as an example, the results show that the flow-based metric V, which is equivalent to the important load shed metric in power engineering, has mild correlation with source-demand considered topology-based metrics V and V, but weak correlation with other topology-based metrics VE, V and V, which do not differentiate source-demand nodes. Similar results are also found in other types of failures, other system operation parameters and other power grids. Hence, one should be careful to use topology-based metrics to quantify the real vulnerability of power grids.

Ouyang, Min; Pan, Zhezhe; Hong, Liu; Zhao, Lijing

2014-02-01

252

Assessing groundwater vulnerability to agrichemical contamination in the Midwest US  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Agrichemicals (herbicides and nitrate) are significant sources of diffuse pollution to groundwater. Indirect methods are needed to assess the potential for groundwater contamination by diffuse sources because groundwater monitoring is too costly to adequately define the geographic extent of contamination at a regional or national scale. This paper presents examples of the application of statistical, overlay and index, and process-based modeling methods for groundwater vulnerability assessments to a variety of data from the Midwest U.S. The principles for vulnerability assessment include both intrinsic (pedologic, climatologic, and hydrogeologic factors) and specific (contaminant and other anthropogenic factors) vulnerability of a location. Statistical methods use the frequency of contaminant occurrence, contaminant concentration, or contamination probability as a response variable. Statistical assessments are useful for defining the relations among explanatory and response variables whether they define intrinsic or specific vulnerability. Multivariate statistical analyses are useful for ranking variables critical to estimating water quality responses of interest. Overlay and index methods involve intersecting maps of intrinsic and specific vulnerability properties and indexing the variables by applying appropriate weights. Deterministic models use process-based equations to simulate contaminant transport and are distinguished from the other methods in their potential to predict contaminant transport in both space and time. An example of a one-dimensional leaching model linked to a geographic information system (GIS) to define a regional metamodel for contamination in the Midwest is included.

Burkart, M.R.; Kolpin, D.W.; James, D.E.

1999-01-01

253

Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains the Executive summary; Introduction; Summary of vulnerabilities; Management systems weaknesses; Commendable practices; Summary of management response plan; Conclusions; and a Glossary of chemical terms.

Not Available

1994-09-01

254

An holistic approach to beach erosion vulnerability assessment.  

PubMed

Erosion is a major threat for coasts worldwide, beaches in particular, which constitute one of the most valuable coastal landforms. Vulnerability assessments related to beach erosion may contribute to planning measures to counteract erosion by identifying, quantifying and ranking vulnerability. Herein, we present a new index, the Beach Vulnerability Index (BVI), which combines simplicity in calculations, easily obtainable data and low processing capacity. This approach provides results not only for different beaches, but also for different sectors of the same beach and enables the identification of the relative significance of the processes involved. It functions through the numerical approximation of indicators that correspond to the mechanisms related to the processes that control beach evolution, such as sediment availability, wave climate, beach morhodynamics and sea level change. The BVI is also intended to be used as a managerial tool for beach sustainability, including resilience to climate change impact on beach erosion. PMID:25123815

Alexandrakis, George; Poulos, Serafim ?

2014-01-01

255

Treating the most vulnerable and costly in diabetes.  

PubMed

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is associated with negative health outcomes and high costs for patients, families, and communities. Interventions developed to effectively reduce DKA and related costs should target the multiple risk factors associated with DKA and adherence difficulties. Certain demographic, psychological, and family factors are associated with increased risk for adherence problems and DKA. Individuals with a combination of risk factors (e.g., mental health problems, low socioeconomic status, high family conflict) may be particularly vulnerable to DKA. Although several different interventions have demonstrated promise in improving adherence and/or decreasing the risk of DKA, the generalizability of treatment results to those individuals most vulnerable to DKA is limited. Approaches which include multiple evidence-based components of care, are flexible in treatment delivery (e.g., home- and community-based, utilize technology), and target the multiple risk factors across relevant systems (e.g., individual, family, school, medical) are warranted to effectively reduce DKA in vulnerable populations. PMID:25877049

Wagner, David V; Stoeckel, Maggie; E Tudor, Megan; Harris, Michael A

2015-06-01

256

Vulnerability of coastal livelihoods to shrimp farming: Insights from Mozambique.  

PubMed

Millions of people around the world depend on shrimp aquaculture for their livelihoods. Yet, the phenomenal growth of shrimp farming has often given rise to considerable environmental and social damage. This article examines the impacts of commercial, export-oriented shrimp aquaculture on local livelihood vulnerability by comparing the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of shrimp farm employees with non-farm employees in rural Mozambique. Exposure to stressors was similar between the two groups. Shrimp farm employees had higher assets and higher adaptive capacity than non-farm employees. However, because their income is heavily dependent on a single commodity, shrimp farm employees were highly susceptible to the boom crop nature of intensive shrimp farming. The implications for aquaculture policy and vulnerability research are discussed. The article argues that coastal vulnerability is dynamic, variable, and influenced by multiple processes operating at multiple scales. PMID:25391555

Blythe, Jessica; Flaherty, Mark; Murray, Grant

2015-05-01

257

Regional hazard analysis for use in vulnerability and risk assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for supporting an operational regional risk and vulnerability analysis for hydrological hazards is suggested and applied in the Island of Cyprus. The method aggregates the output of a hydrological flow model forced by observed temperatures and precipitations, with observed discharge data. A scheme supported by observed discharge is applied for model calibration. A comparison of different calibration schemes indicated that the same model parameters can be used for the entire country. In addition, it was demonstrated that, for operational purposes, it is sufficient to rely on a few stations. Model parameters were adjusted to account for land use and thus for vulnerability of elements at risk by comparing observed and simulated flow patterns, using all components of the hydrological model. The results can be used for regional risk and vulnerability analysis in order to increase the resilience of the affected population.

Maris, Fotis; Kitikidou, Kyriaki; Paparrizos, Spyridon; Karagiorgos, Konstantinos; Potouridis, Simeon; Fuchs, Sven

2014-05-01

258

Climate volatility deepens poverty vulnerability in developing countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme climate events could influence poverty by affecting agricultural productivity and raising prices of staple foods that are important to poor households in developing countries. With the frequency and intensity of extreme climate events predicted to change in the future, informed policy design and analysis requires an understanding of which countries and groups are going to be most vulnerable to increasing poverty. Using a novel economic-climate analysis framework, we assess the poverty impacts of climate volatility for seven socio-economic groups in 16 developing countries. We find that extremes under present climate volatility increase poverty across our developing country sample—particularly in Bangladesh, Mexico, Indonesia, and Africa—with urban wage earners the most vulnerable group. We also find that global warming exacerbates poverty vulnerability in many nations.

Ahmed, Syud A.; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Hertel, Thomas W.

2009-07-01

259

Mechanical vulnerability explains size-dependent mortality of reef corals  

PubMed Central

Understanding life history and demographic variation among species within communities is a central ecological goal. Mortality schedules are especially important in ecosystems where disturbance plays a major role in structuring communities, such as coral reefs. Here, we test whether a trait-based, mechanistic model of mechanical vulnerability in corals can explain mortality schedules. Specifically, we ask whether species that become increasingly vulnerable to hydrodynamic dislodgment as they grow have bathtub-shaped mortality curves, whereas species that remain mechanically stable have decreasing mortality rates with size, as predicted by classical life history theory for reef corals. We find that size-dependent mortality is highly consistent between species with the same growth form and that the shape of size-dependent mortality for each growth form can be explained by mechanical vulnerability. Our findings highlight the feasibility of predicting assemblage-scale mortality patterns on coral reefs with trait-based approaches. PMID:24894390

Madin, Joshua S; Baird, Andrew H; Dornelas, Maria; Connolly, Sean R

2014-01-01

260

Physically based groundwater vulnerability assessment using sensitivity analysis methods.  

PubMed

A general physically based method is presented to assess the vulnerability of groundwater to external pressures by numerical simulation of groundwater flow. The concept of groundwater vulnerability assessment considered here is based on the calculation of sensitivity coefficients for a user-defined groundwater state for which we propose several physically based indicators. Two sensitivity analysis methods are presented: the sensitivity equation method and the adjoint operator method. We show how careful selection of a method can significantly minimize the computational effort. An illustration of the general methodology is presented for the Herten aquifer analog (Germany). This application to a simple, yet insightful, case demonstrates the potential use of this general and physically based vulnerability assessment method to complex aquifers. PMID:24236887

Beaujean, Jean; Lemieux, Jean-Michel; Dassargues, Alain; Therrien, René; Brouyère, Serge

2014-01-01

261

Properties of ecosystems that are vulnerable during eco-fusion  

PubMed Central

When two ecosystems with separate evolutionary histories come into contact (eco-fusion), reciprocal invasions occur during their fusion. Asymmetries in the migration direction or extinction rate then occur (e.g., during the Great American Biotic Interchange, GABI). Hypotheses have been proposed to describe this process, but the ecosystem properties have not been adequately discussed. To identify the ecosystem properties that create vulnerability to species loss during eco-fusion, we conducted computer simulations of the fusion of ecosystems with independent evolutionary histories. With asymmetrical species extinction rates, the ecosystem with a higher extinction rate had a shorter food chain, a higher ratio of animal species to plant species, and a lower ratio of carnivores to herbivores. Most ecosystems that have undergone isolated evolution are vulnerable. These results may explain the vulnerability of South America's ecosystem during the GABI and that of modern Australia. PMID:25631294

Yoshida, Katsuhiko; Tokita, Kei

2015-01-01

262

Properties of ecosystems that are vulnerable during eco-fusion.  

PubMed

When two ecosystems with separate evolutionary histories come into contact (eco-fusion), reciprocal invasions occur during their fusion. Asymmetries in the migration direction or extinction rate then occur (e.g., during the Great American Biotic Interchange, GABI). Hypotheses have been proposed to describe this process, but the ecosystem properties have not been adequately discussed. To identify the ecosystem properties that create vulnerability to species loss during eco-fusion, we conducted computer simulations of the fusion of ecosystems with independent evolutionary histories. With asymmetrical species extinction rates, the ecosystem with a higher extinction rate had a shorter food chain, a higher ratio of animal species to plant species, and a lower ratio of carnivores to herbivores. Most ecosystems that have undergone isolated evolution are vulnerable. These results may explain the vulnerability of South America's ecosystem during the GABI and that of modern Australia. PMID:25631294

Yoshida, Katsuhiko; Tokita, Kei

2015-01-01

263

Economic vulnerability of timber resources to forest fires.  

PubMed

The temporal-spatial planning of activities for a territorial fire management program requires knowing the value of forest ecosystems. In this paper we extend to and apply the economic valuation principle to the concept of economic vulnerability and present a methodology for the economic valuation of the forest production ecosystems. The forest vulnerability is analyzed from criteria intrinsically associated to the forest characterization, and to the potential behavior of surface fires. Integrating a mapping process of fire potential and analytical valuation algorithms facilitates the implementation of fire prevention planning. The availability of cartography of economic vulnerability of the forest ecosystems is fundamental for budget optimization, and to help in the decision making process. PMID:22343614

y Silva, Francisco Rodríguez; Molina, Juan Ramón; González-Cabán, Armando; Machuca, Miguel Ángel Herrera

2012-06-15

264

Research on vulnerability assessments of the Huanghe (Yellow River) delta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal zone located at the juncture of the sea, river and land, and under the influence of both land and ocean (including atmosphere), especially the sea-level rise and human activities, are vulnerable to environment and ecology. At highest risk are coastal zone of South, Southeast and East Asia with dense populations, low elevations and inadequate adaptive capacity. In China, more than 40% of the population live on the 15% of the land in coastal area and more than 70% cities located around the coastal area. The Chinese coastal region, especially river delta area has been experienced erosion, seawater intrusion and decrease in biodiversity under the combined influence of sea-level rise, tectonic subsidence and flooding. Furthermore, some kinds of human activity, such as land use, building, dam construction, reclamation from the sea and waste dumping strengthen the vulnerability of environment and ecosystem in coastal region. The coastal hazards (e.g. coastal erosion, seawater intrusion, land subsidence) and vulnerability of the Huanghe (Yelllow River) delta area are studied during the past several years. A systematic coastal assessment index is built and an evaluation model is developed using the development platform of Visual studio.Net 2005. The assessment index system includes two parts, inherent (sea level rise rate, elevation, morphology, water and sediment discharge, mean tidal range, mean wave height etc) and specific vulnerability index (population density, GDP, land utilization, protection structures etc). The assessment index are determined the weight using Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method. Based on the research results, we better understand the current status and future change of coastal vulnerability and hazards, discuss the impact of the natural possess and human activities. Furthermore, we provide defending strategies for coastal zone vulnerability and typical coastal hazards.

qiao, shuqing; shi, xuefa

2014-05-01

265

Selective Neuronal Vulnerability to Oxidative Stress in the Brain  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress (OS), caused by the imbalance between the generation and detoxification of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), plays an important role in brain aging, neurodegenerative diseases, and other related adverse conditions, such as ischemia. While ROS/RNS serve as signaling molecules at physiological levels, an excessive amount of these molecules leads to oxidative modification and, therefore, dysfunction of proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids. The response of neurons to this pervasive stress, however, is not uniform in the brain. While many brain neurons can cope with a rise in OS, there are select populations of neurons in the brain that are vulnerable. Because of their selective vulnerability, these neurons are usually the first to exhibit functional decline and cell death during normal aging, or in age-associated neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. Understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms of selective neuronal vulnerability (SNV) to OS is important in the development of future intervention approaches to protect such vulnerable neurons from the stresses of the aging process and the pathological states that lead to neurodegeneration. In this review, the currently known molecular and cellular factors that contribute to SNV to OS are summarized. Included among the major underlying factors are high intrinsic OS, high demand for ROS/RNS-based signaling, low ATP production, mitochondrial dysfunction, and high inflammatory response in vulnerable neurons. The contribution to the selective vulnerability of neurons to OS by other intrinsic or extrinsic factors, such as deficient DNA damage repair, low calcium-buffering capacity, and glutamate excitotoxicity, are also discussed. PMID:20552050

Wang, Xinkun; Michaelis, Elias K.

2010-01-01

266

The role of mechanoelectric feedback in vulnerability to electric shock  

PubMed Central

Experimental and clinical studies have shown that ventricular dilatation is associated with increased arrhythmogenesis and elevated defibrillation threshold; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The goal of the present study was to test the hypothesis that 1) stretch-activated channel (SAC) recruitment and 2) geometrical deformations in organ shape and fiber architecture lead to increased arrhythmogenesis by electric shocks following acute ventricular dilatation. To elucidate the contribution of these two factors, the study employed, for the first time, a combined electro-mechanical simulation approach. Acute dilatation was simulated in a model of rabbit ventricular mechanics by raising the LV end-diastolic pressure from 0.6 (control) to 4.2 kPa (dilated). The output of the mechanics model was used in the electrophysiological model. Vulnerability to shocks was examined in the control, the dilated ventricles and in the dilated ventricles that also incorporated currents through SAC as a function of local strain, by constructing vulnerability grids. Results showed that dilatation-induced deformation alone decreased upper limit of vulnerability (ULV) slightly and did not result in increased vulnerability. With SAC recruitment in the dilated ventricles, the number of shock-induced arrhythmia episodes increased by 37% (from 41 to 56) and low limit of vulnerability (LLV) decreased from 9 to 7 V/cm, while ULV did not change. The heterogeneous activation of SAC caused by the heterogeneous fiber strain in the ventricular walls was the main reason for increased vulnerability to electric shocks since it caused dispersion of electrophysiological properties in the tissue, resulting in postshock unidirectional block and establishment of reentry. PMID:18374394

Li, Weihui; Gurev, Viatcheslav; McCulloch, Andrew D.; Trayanova, Natalia A.

2008-01-01

267

Vulnerability Analysis Considerations for the Transportation of Special Nuclear Material  

SciTech Connect

The vulnerability analysis methodology developed for fixed nuclear material sites has proven to be extremely effective in assessing associated transportation issues. The basic methods and techniques used are directly applicable to conducting a transportation vulnerability analysis. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that the same physical protection elements (detection, delay, and response) are present, although the response force plays a dominant role in preventing the theft or sabotage of material. Transportation systems are continuously exposed to the general public whereas the fixed site location by its very nature restricts general public access.

Nicholson, Lary G.; Purvis, James W.

1999-07-21

268

Low vulnerability explosives (LOVEX) for mass-use warheads  

SciTech Connect

There is an ongoing effort at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to develop explosives with a significantly lower vulnerability to battlefield environments (bullets, fragments, sympathetic detonation) than current explosives (TNT and Comp B) without sacrificing performance or increasing costs. The approach taken is to develop a composite explosive which is comprised of inexpensive fillers such as RDX, NaNO{sub 3}, Al and a low modulus binder system. The binder system uses nitroglycerin/triacetin as an energetic plasticizer. This paper discusses the experimental results to date in vulnerability, performance and processing. 7 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

Pruneda, C.; Jessop, E.; McGuire, R.

1990-03-13

269

Ten questions for evolutionary studies of disease vulnerability  

PubMed Central

Many evolutionary applications in medicine rely on well-established methods, such as population genetics, phylogenetic analysis, and observing pathogen evolution. Approaches to evolutionary questions about traits that leave bodies vulnerable to disease are less well developed. Strategies for formulating questions and hypotheses remain unsettled, and methods for testing evolutionary hypotheses are unfamiliar to many in medicine. This article uses recent examples to illustrate successful strategies and some common challenges. Ten questions arise in the course of considering hypotheses about traits that leave bodies vulnerable to disease. Addressing them systematically can help minimize confusion and errors. PMID:25567972

Nesse, Randolph M

2011-01-01

270

Validating vulnerability functions for buildings exposed to Alpine torrent processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vulnerability assessment is generally seen as an important component in the framework of risk assessment. Focusing on the physical vulnerability and following a natural science perspective, vulnerability functions can be used to quantify vulnerability by setting up a mathematical relationship between the degree of loss of an element at risk exposed and the corresponding intensity of the hazardous process. The examined elements at risk were defined as those buildings that were firstly located on the torrent fans of individual Austrian test sites and secondly characterised by mixed types of construction composed from brick masonry and concrete, however used for different purposes (private residential and commercial accommodation buildings). The degree of loss was calculated as the ratio between the damage and the reconstruction value of the corresponding building. The damage was quantitatively registered in terms of monetary loss after the event by professional damage appraisers. The reconstruction values were calculated based on an insurance approach using unit prices per m2. The intensity of the process (fluvial sediment transport and debris flow) was proxied for each individual building in terms of deposition height. Additionally, a relative intensity, composed from a ratio between the deposition height and the height of the affected building, was used to compensate the influence of different building heights on the degree of loss at a given process intensity. The determination of the degree of loss as well as the corresponding intensity yields a scatterplot of vulnerability values for each individual building; illustrating both the degree of loss (ordinate) and the process intensity (abscissa). Nonlinear regression approaches in terms of cumulative distribution functions were applied to derive the mathematical relation between process intensities and degrees of loss. The corresponding parameters were estimated by using a sequential quadratic programming algorithm based on a nonlinear least squares estimation. Based on first results published for fluvial sediment transport in torrents, this study pursued the following aims: (1) testing the possibility to merge the data based on different processes or building types to derive an overall vulnerability function for torrent processes; and (2) validating the final functions to show their practical applicability in Alpine areas outside of Austria. The conducted statistical tests confirmed that in case of absolute intensity a pooling of the vulnerability values for fluvial sediment transport and debris flows as well as for the two building types and the calculation of a joint vulnerability function is justifiable. In the case of relative intensity, commercial accommodation buildings showed higher vulnerability values than private residential buildings considering low intensity values of process intensities. Therefore, based on relative intensity, individual vulnerability functions are proposed for private residential and commercial accommodation buildings. Using data from an Italian validation test site, the broader applicability of the proposed vulnerability functions was confirmed.

Totschnig, R.; Fuchs, S.

2012-04-01

271

Vulnerability assessment and risk perception: the case of the Arie? River Middle Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vulnerability assessment is influenced by a number of factors, including risk perception. This paper investigates the vulnerability of people living in the middle basin of the Aries river region, a former mining area, to natural and technologic hazards. The mining industry lead to significant environmental changes, which combined with the social problems caused by its decline (high unemployment rate, low income and old age) raised the level of the vulnerability in the area. This case study is unique, as it includes an evaluation of risk perception and its influence on the social vulnerability and resilience of local communities to disasters. Key words: vulnerability assessment, natural hazards, social vulnerability, risk perception

Ozunu, Al.; Botezan, C.

2012-04-01

272

Vulnerabilities and surveillance of the international financial system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Banking and Finance Institute (IBFI) organised its fifth international monetary seminar from 12 to 16 May 2003 on the topic “Vulnerabilities and surveillance of the international financial system”. This seminar brought together 43 participants from the central banks of industrialised and emerging countries as well as from international institutions (BIS, IMF, OECD, FSF, etc.), and around 30 speakers

A. Krueger; M. Prada

2003-01-01

273

Selective Prevention: Addressing Vulnerability to Problem Drug Use in Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following the 2003 publication of the European Union (EU) Council Recommendations and the 2005-2008 and 2009-2012 EU Drugs Action Plans, increasing attention has been given in EU member states' drug policies to populations that are vulnerable to problem drug use (PDU). Monitoring data reported to the EMCDDA by designated agencies from 30 countries…

Burkhart, Gregor; Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Bo, Alessandra

2011-01-01

274

American Indian Adolescent Girls: Vulnerability to Sex Trafficking, Intervention Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Minnesota Indian Women's Resource Center offers harm reduction programming to at-risk adolescent American Indian girls, including outreach, case management, advocacy, healthy sexuality education, and support groups. To evaluate program impact, participants are assessed at intake and every 6 months afterward for current vulnerability to…

Pierce, Alexandra

2012-01-01

275

The Emerging Role of Small Firms in Overcoming Economic Vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous papers on small economies look at the macroeconomic implications of their size. This paper focuses on the microeconomic perspectives of economic sustainability with respect to the important role of a dynamic private sector fostering the creation, growth and survival of firms. In so doing, it discusses the role of small firms in overcoming certain economic vulnerabilities present in small

Robert Read; Adreene Staines

276

Opening Pathways for Vulnerable Young People in Patagonia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New and improved institutions are needed to support the transition to adulthood of vulnerable young people. Existing institutions that should provide that support demonstrate structural lag: they have not adapted to changing circumstances. Action research was conducted in Por un Manana, an employment training program for low-income youth and young…

Hamilton, Mary Agnes; Hamilton, Stephen F.; Bianchi, Lucia; Bran, Jacqui

2013-01-01

277

Assessing Vulnerability to Agricultural Drought: A Nebraska Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent drought events in the United States and the magnitude of drought losses indicate the continuing vulnerability of the country to drought. Until recently, drought management in many states, including Nebraska, has been largely response oriented with little or no attention to mitigation and preparedness. In 1998, Nebraska began to revise its drought plan in order to place more emphasis

Olga V. Wilhelmi; Donald A. Wilhite

2002-01-01

278

[Hegemonic masculinity, vulnerability and the prevention of HIV/AIDS].  

PubMed

The study aims to examine the relationship between masculinity, vulnerability and the prevention of HIV/AIDS, based on reports from young men from the so-called urban working classes, taking into account not only the meanings attributed to prevention by these subjects, but also considering the dialectical relationship between the individual and society. The conceptual framework encompasses the three main aspects of hegemonic masculinity, prevention and vulnerability. This involves qualitative research based on the perspective of dialectical hermeneutics that uses the method of interpretation of meanings. The analysis yielded two main results, namely hegemonic masculinity as a vulnerability factor, and myths and prejudices as factors of vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. By way of conclusion, it reinforces the need for discussion of prevention encompassing the need to put on the agenda the construction of the sex/gender system around which to articulate the social meanings of masculinity and femininity that influence the structural plan of affective sexual relations in general and HIV/AIDS in particular. PMID:22267045

Marques, Joilson Santana; Gomes, Romeu; do Nascimento, Elaine Ferreira

2012-02-01

279

POPULATION, POVERTY, AND VULNERABILITY: MITIGATING THE EFFECTS OF NATURAL DISASTERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hurricane Mitch was one of the most destructive natural disasters of recent times, and it exposed the underlying vulnerability of the Central American region, where poverty magnifies the threat of natural hazards. International assistance for national disasters tends to focus on short-term recuperation rather than on long-range prevention. Policymakers need to pay greater attention to the role of population dynamics

George Martine; Jose Miguel Guzman

280

Case Study on the Bluetooth Vulnerabilities in Mobile Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary As the widespread use and acceptance of Bluetooth continues concerns are being raised related to security vulnerabilities and privacy issues inherent in the use of this technology. Inadequate device resources and lack of user awareness has compounded this issue where the emphasis on design constraints, functionality and ease of use sometimes outweigh security concerns. Recently some concerns have being

J. Harkin

281

International Student-Workers in Australia: A New Vulnerable Workforce  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the period immediately preceding the 2007 Australian election, much attention was accorded to the impact of the nation's labour laws on vulnerable employees. This debate centred on specific groups including women, youth, migrants and workers on individual employment contracts. International students, by contrast, were ignored in the debate.…

Nyland, Chris; Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Marginson, Simon; Ramia, Gaby; Sawir, Erlenawati; Smith, Sharon

2009-01-01

282

SOCIAL VULNERABILITY, ENVIRONMENTAL INEQUALITY, AND CHILDHOOD ASTHMA IN PHOENIX,  

E-print Network

1 SOCIAL VULNERABILITY, ENVIRONMENTAL INEQUALITY, AND CHILDHOOD ASTHMA IN PHOENIX, ARIZONA A Report School Anne Feeney, School Nurse Summit School of Ahwatukee Kathy Evans, Director Asthma Athletics Joe Breathmobile Maricopa County Asthma Susanne Cook, Assistant Professor of Nursing at ASU Coalition #12

Hall, Sharon J.

283

Increasing Automated Vulnerability Assessment Accuracy on Cloud and Grid Middleware  

E-print Network

Analyzer (AvA), which is able to automatically hint which middleware components should be assessed and why. AvA is based on automatizing part of the First Principles Vulnerability Assessment, an innovative middleware systems. AvA's results are language- independent, provide a comprehensive assessment of every

Miller, Barton P.

284

CHEX: Statically Vetting Android Apps for Component Hijacking Vulnerabilities  

E-print Network

of apps have been developed for Android in recent years, making it one of the most popular mobile operatCHEX: Statically Vetting Android Apps for Component Hijacking Vulnerabilities Long Lu Zhichun Li- ing systems. However, the quality of the booming apps can be a concern [4]. Poorly engineered apps may

Lee, Wenke

285

Identification of lightning vulnerability points on complex grounded structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification of the most vulnerable points on a given structure to be struck by lightning is an important issue on the design of a reliable lightning protection system. Traditionally, these lightning strike points are identified using the rolling sphere method, through an empirical correlation with the prospective peak return stroke current. However, field observations in Kuala Lumpur and Singapore

M. Becerra; V. Cooray; Z. A. Hartono

2007-01-01

286

Vulnerability analysis for complex networks using aggressive abstraction.  

SciTech Connect

Large, complex networks are ubiquitous in nature and society, and there is great interest in developing rigorous, scalable methods for identifying and characterizing their vulnerabilities. This paper presents an approach for analyzing the dynamics of complex networks in which the network of interest is first abstracted to a much simpler, but mathematically equivalent, representation, the required analysis is performed on the abstraction, and analytic conclusions are then mapped back to the original network and interpreted there. We begin by identifying a broad and important class of complex networks which admit vulnerability-preserving, finite state abstractions, and develop efficient algorithms for computing these abstractions. We then propose a vulnerability analysis methodology which combines these finite state abstractions with formal analytics from theoretical computer science to yield a comprehensive vulnerability analysis process for networks of realworld scale and complexity. The potential of the proposed approach is illustrated with a case study involving a realistic electric power grid model and also with brief discussions of biological and social network examples.

Colbaugh, Richard; Glass, Kristin L.

2010-06-01

287

Development of hazard-compatible building fragility and vulnerability models  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present a methodology for transforming the structural and non-structural fragility functions in HAZUS into a format that is compatible with conventional seismic hazard analysis information. The methodology makes use of the building capacity (or pushover) curves and related building parameters provided in HAZUS. Instead of the capacity spectrum method applied in HAZUS, building response is estimated by inelastic response history analysis of corresponding single-degree-of-freedom systems under a large number of earthquake records. Statistics of the building response are used with the damage state definitions from HAZUS to derive fragility models conditioned on spectral acceleration values. Using the developed fragility models for structural and nonstructural building components, with corresponding damage state loss ratios from HAZUS, we also derive building vulnerability models relating spectral acceleration to repair costs. Whereas in HAZUS the structural and nonstructural damage states are treated as if they are independent, our vulnerability models are derived assuming "complete" nonstructural damage whenever the structural damage state is complete. We show the effects of considering this dependence on the final vulnerability models. The use of spectral acceleration (at selected vibration periods) as the ground motion intensity parameter, coupled with the careful treatment of uncertainty, makes the new fragility and vulnerability models compatible with conventional seismic hazard curves and hence useful for extensions to probabilistic damage and loss assessment.

Karaca, E.; Luco, N.

2008-01-01

288

Psychological Distress and Mortality: Are Women More Vulnerable?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Does psychological distress increase mortality risk? If it does, are women more vulnerable than men to the effect of distress on mortality? Drawing from cumulative disadvantage theory, these questions are addressed with data from a 20-year follow-up of a national sample of adults ages 25-74. Event history analyses were performed to examine…

Ferraro, Kenneth F.; Nuriddin, Tariqah A.

2006-01-01

289

Spatial vulnerability of Australian urban populations to extreme heat events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme heat events pose a risk to the health of all individuals, especially the elderly and the chronically ill, and are associated with an increased demand for healthcare services. In order to address this problem, policy makers' need information about temperatures above which mortality and morbidity of the exposed population is likely to increase, where the vulnerable groups in the community are located, and how the risks from extreme heat events are likely to change in the future. This study identified threshold temperatures for all Australian capital cities, developed a spatial index of population vulnerability, and used climate model output to predict changes in the number of days exceeding temperature thresholds in the future, as well as changes in risk related to changes in urban density and an ageing population. The study has shown that daily maximum and minimum temperatures from the Bureau of Meteorology forecasts can be used to calculate temperature thresholds for heat alert days. The key risk factors related to adverse health outcomes were found to be areas with intense urban heat islands, areas with higher proportions of older people, and areas with ethnic communities. Maps of spatial vulnerability have been developed to provide information to assist emergency managers, healthcare professionals, and ancillary services develop heatwave preparedness plans at a local scale that target vulnerable groups and address heat-related health risks. The numbers of days exceeding current heat thresholds are predicted to increase over the next 20 to 40 years in all Australian capital cities.

Loughnan, Margaret; Tapper, Nigel; Phan, Thu; Lynch, Kellie; McInnes, Judith

2013-04-01

290

VIRAL TRANSPORT AND FATE MODELS FOR GROUND WATER VULNERABILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this project is to develop a model to assess the vulnerability of public water systems to pathogens. It is focused on the sources, fate and transport of viruses in aquifer systems in specific hydrologic settings. It's intended to be used by resource managers or r...

291

Reflecting on a Difficult Life: Narrative Construction in Vulnerable Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined narrative processes of identity development as they related to desistance from delinquent behavior in a sample of vulnerable adolescents. Building on a robust theoretical and empirical foundation in the field of narrative identity, we examined processes of meaning-making and agency in relation to desistance. Thirty-one adolescents were…

McLean, Kate C.; Wood, Becky; Breen, Andrea V.

2013-01-01

292

Intravascular Modalities for Detection of Vulnerable Plaque Current Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease is dependent on a greater understanding of the mechanisms of coronary plaque progression. Autopsy studies have characterized a subgroup of high-risk, or vulnerable, plaques that result in acute coronary syndromes or sudden cardiac death. These angiographically modest plaques share certain pathologic characteristics: a thin, fibrous cap, lipid-rich core,

Briain D. MacNeill; Harry C. Lowe; Masamichi Takano; Valentin Fuster; Ik-Kyung Jang

293

The Linneweil Affair: A Study in Adolescent Vulnerability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Details the case of Elizabeth Linneweil, a Jewish child who was persuaded by her guardians to convert to Catholicism. The motives of the emotionally vulnerable adolescent--desire to conform, to please guardians, and to cement social bonding in the community--are discussed. (JAC)

Isser, Natalie

1984-01-01

294

Youth Work with Vulnerable Young People. Interchange No. 51.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research was conducted in Scotland to evaluate the effectiveness of youth work with vulnerable young people, primarily between the ages of 13 and 16. Four complementary methods were adopted: (1) a survey of secondary school students; (2) a series of focus group interviews with young people with experience of youth work; (3) interviews with…

Powney, Janet; Furlong, Andy; Cartmel, Fred; Hall, Stuart

295

Autobiographical Memory as a Predictor of Depression Vulnerability in Girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overgeneral autobiographical memory (AM), the tendency to recall categories of events when asked to provide specific instances from one's life, is purported to be a marker of depression vulnerability that develops in childhood. Although early adolescence is a period of risk for depression onset especially among girls, prospective examination of this putative risk factor is lacking. The current study examined

Alison E. Hipwell; Brenna Sapotichne; Susan Klostermann; Deena Battista; Kate Keenan

2011-01-01

296

Metrics for setting a baseline for web vulnerability scanners  

E-print Network

of successful detection. These benchmarks are only capable of judging which scanner is better in the matter of how well the scanners can de- tect the fixed set of vulnerabilities the benchmarks picked with static selection criteria. They suffer from drawbacks by neglecting the critical questions: Does the benchmark

Kaiser, Gail E.

297

Identifying Vulnerabilities and Critical Requirements Using Criminal Court Proceeding  

E-print Network

case, United States v. Ferrer, that details insider threats to patient medical records involving. RELATED WORK Misuse and abuse cases are used in security to elicit and reason about system vulnerabilities. McDermott and Fox first defined abuse cases as user-system interactions that result in harm

Breaux, Travis D.

298

EPA'S REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT PROGRAM (REVA) DEMONSTRATING RESULTS THROUGH PARTNERSHIPS  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) program, a regional-scale comparative risk research effort, has been under development since 1998 with a pilot study focused on the Mid- Atlantic region. ReVA is part of the interagency Integrated Science for Ecosystem Challenges ini...

299

Dimensions of Dysfunctional Attitudes as Vulnerabilities to Depressive Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical tests of the diathesis–stress component of A. T. Beck's (1976; A. T. Beck, A. J. Rush, B. F. Shaw, & G. Emery, 1979) cognitive theory of depression have generally not yielded positive results. The resulting focus on conceptual and methodological concerns has diverted attention from the more fundamental issue of how validly vulnerability is measured. The present investigation uses

Gary P. Brown; Constance L. Hammen; Michelle G. Craske; Thomas D. Wickens

1995-01-01

300

Our Shared Future: Social Media, Leadership, Vulnerability, and Digital Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social media have challenged us in our journey to support our students. Administrators have entered into new web-based conversations with one another and with their students. Personal branding has created a sense of performativity that conflicts with a growing trend towards online vulnerability. Our leaders have increasingly been engaged in…

Stoller, Eric

2013-01-01

301

Flood Vulnerability and Flood Protection North and Baltic Seas  

E-print Network

G G G G Flood Vulnerability and Flood Protection North and Baltic Seas Meteorological Forcings NorthSea/BalticSeaMeteorologicalForcingsforDCSM28April2009 1 #12;G G G G Overview GLAMEPS Harmonie G G G G NorthSea/BalticSeaMeteorologicalForcingsforDCSM28April2009 2 #12;G G G G DCSM and Hirlam History

Vries, Hans de

302

Research for Development in West Africa: Vulnerability, Health Risks  

E-print Network

Part I Research for Development in West Africa: Vulnerability, Health Risks and Institution, Autochthony and Integration: Urban and Rural Development Challenges in West Africa Guéladio Cissé1 1 requiring careful con- sideration in West Africa were identified, classified and synthesised during

Richner, Heinz

303

Early Markers of Vulnerable Language Skill Development in Galactosaemia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are no known biomedical or genetic markers to identify which infants with galactosaemia (GAL) are most at risk of poor language skill development, yet pre-linguistic communicative "red flag" behaviours are recognised as early identifiers of heightened vulnerability to impaired language development. We report on pre-linguistic…

Lewis, Fiona M.; Coman, David J.; Syrmis, Maryanne

2014-01-01

304

Extinction vulnerability in marine populations Nicholas K Dulvy1  

E-print Network

Extinction vulnerability in marine populations Nicholas K Dulvy1 , Yvonne Sadovy2 & John D Reynolds about the extinction of marine taxa.We have compiled133 local, regional and global extinc- tions and the reported date of the extinction at whatever scale this has occurred. Most disappearances (80%) were

Reynolds, John D.

305

REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT: CREATING A CONTEXT FOR EVALUATING STREAM ACIDIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

USEPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) program is designed to identify ecosystems that are likely to vary beyond the range of natural variability and thereby experience reduced ecological integrity as a result of natural and human-induced stressors. ReVA makes use of r...

306

Cybersecurity of SCADA Systems: Vulnerability assessment and mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this panel presentation, we will discuss our proposed framework for cyber security vulnerability assessment and mitigation based on our recent work [1-3]. We will demonstrate how a probabilistic cyber security index can be calculated for a cyber-power system. A risk measure is determined using an integrated SCADA model and the steady state power flow program. Future research needs in

Chen-Ching Liu; Chee-Wooi Ten; Manimaran Govindarasu

2009-01-01

307

Childhood Cancer and Vulnerability for Significant Academic Underachievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning difficulties related to childhood cancer were examined by comparison of 22 oncology patients and 22 children (6 to 17 years old) referred for psychiatric/psychological evaluation. Findings demonstrated, among children undergoing treatment of cancer, some academic vulnerabilities for which psychosocial aspects may not fully account.…

Ott, Jeanne S.; And Others

1982-01-01

308

Stressful Segregation Housing and Psychosocial Vulnerability in Prison Suicide Ideators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychosocially vulnerable prisoners under stressful conditions of confinement are ill prepared to cope and at risk for developing suicide intention. The present study examined the relationships of depression, hopelessness, reasons for living, mental health problem history, suicide attempt lethality history, and stressful segregation housing with…

Bonner, Ronald L.

2006-01-01

309

Research Article Demographic Patterns and Harvest Vulnerability of  

E-print Network

(Odocoileus virginianus) caused by transmissible protease-resistant prions. Since the discovery of CWD of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in high-density white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations words Chronic wasting disease (CWD), disease prevalence, epidemiology, harvest vulnerability, Odocoileus

Mladenoff, David

310

VULNERABILITY AND RISK ASSESSMENT FOR EARTHQUAKE PRONE CITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Urban seismic risk is steadily increasing world-wide. This is true as well for the countries of low and moderate seismicity, taking into account that the risk value depends not only on the hazard level, but also on the aggregate elements at risk (both in human and economic terms) and their vulnerability to probable seismic influence. Thus, the proper approach

Sergey TYAGUNOV; Lothar STEMPNIEWSKI; Gottfried GRÜNTHAL; Rutger WAHLSTRÖM; Jochen ZSCHAU

311

Early Detection Monitoring for Vulnerable Great Lakes Coastal Ecosystems  

EPA Science Inventory

Great Lakes harbors/embayments are vulnerable to introduction of aquatic invasive species. Monitoring is needed to inform on new introductions, as well as to track success of prevention programs intended to limit spread. We have completed a pilot field case study in the Duluth-...

312

ORIGINAL PAPER Vulnerability of benthic habitats to the aquatic invasive  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Vulnerability of benthic habitats to the aquatic invasive species Anastasija Zaiko Ã? and the sea. Results indicated that invasive species richness (number of alien species per habitat) in lagoon distinguished to be the most important for native and invasive species distribution were salinity, depth range

313

VULNERABILITY OF BLUETOOTH TO IMPULSIVE NOISE IN ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSION SUBSTATIONS  

E-print Network

VULNERABILITY OF BLUETOOTH TO IMPULSIVE NOISE IN ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSION SUBSTATIONS S A Bhattil environment of an Electricity transmission substation environment is modelled as a Symmetric Alpha Stable of an electricity transmission substation. I. INTRODUCTION In industrial environments, Supervisor Control and Data

Atkinson, Robert C

314

Challenges of disaster vulnerability reduction in Lagos Megacity Area, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this research is to identify the factors responsible for the inability of authorities in rapidly growing megacities in developing countries to integrate disaster risk vulnerability reduction strategies effectively with their development plans. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study followed a qualitative research strategy. A survey research approach with pre-tested questionnaires as key data collection instrument was used

Eziyi Offia Ibem

2011-01-01

315

Automated detection of vulnerabilities in privileged programs by execution monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a method for detecting exploitations of vulnerabilities in privileged programs by monitoring their execution using audit trails, where the monitoring is with respect to specifications of the security-relevant behavior of the programs. Our work is motivated by the intrusion detection paradigm, but is an attempt to avoid ad hoc approaches to codifying misuse behavior. Our approach is based on

Calvin Ko; George Fink; Karl Levitt

1994-01-01

316

A First Step Towards Automated Detection of Buffer Overrun Vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a new technique for finding potential buffer overrun vulnerabilities in security-critical C code. The k ey to success is to use static analysis: we formulate detec- tion of buffer overruns as an integer range analysis prob- lem. One major advantage of static analysis is that secu- rity bugs can be eliminated before code is deployed. We have implemented

David Wagner; Jeffrey S. Foster; Eric A. Brewer; Alexander Aiken

2000-01-01

317

Mitigation of Collapse Risk in Vulnerable Concrete Buildings  

E-print Network

, and as such are vulnerable to collapse. Testing of two full-scale, shear-critical column specimens was carried out at the NEES-MAST facility at the University of Minnesota. The test specimens had nominally identical material and reinforcement properties. The primary test...

Matchulat, Lisa Marie

2009-01-01

318

Doubly Vulnerable: The Paradox of Disability and Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parker Palmer's comment that teaching is a "daily exercise in vulnerability" might just as easily be said about living with a disability. As much as the person with a disability might want to hide his or her differences, it is often difficult to do so. Something as commonplace as walking through a grocery store without being stared at is often…

Stewart, Meredith

2010-01-01

319

Vulnerability of Zigbee to impulsive noise in electricity substations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vulnerability of Zigbee technology to noise in an electricity substation environment is assessed. Substation noise obtained from a measurement campaign is modelled as a Symmetric ?-Stable process. The parameters of the model are estimated from the measurements and the resulting model is used to investigate the likely BER performance of Zigbee technology deployed in a substation. 1. Introduction The

S A Bhatti; Qingshan Shan; R Atkinson; M Vieira; I A Glover

2011-01-01

320

Vulnerabilities of children admitted to a pediatric inpatient care unit?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To identify the vulnerabilities of children admitted to a pediatric inpatient unit of a university hospital. METHODS: Cross-sectional, descriptive study from April to September 2013 with36 children aged 30 days to 12 years old, admitted to medical-surgical pediatric inpatient units of a university hospital and their caregivers. Data concerning sociocultural, socioeconomic and clinical context of children and their families were collected by interview with the child caregiver and from patients, records, and analyzed by descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Of the total sample, 97.1% (n=132) of children had at least one type of vulnerability, the majority related to the caregiver's level of education, followed by caregiver's financial situation, health history of the child, caregiver's family situation, use of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs by the caregiver, family's living conditions, caregiver's schooling, and bonding between the caregiver and the child. Only 2.9% (n=4) of the children did not show any criteria to be classified in a category of vulnerability. CONCLUSIONS: Most children were classified has having a social vulnerability. It is imperative to create networks of support between the hospital and the primary healthcare service to promote healthcare practices directed to the needs of the child and family. PMID:25511001

de Oliveira, Larissa Natacha; Breigeiron, Márcia Koja; Hallmann, Sofia; Witkowski, Maria Carolina

2014-01-01

321

Extreme seismicity and disaster risks: Hazard versus vulnerability (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the extreme nature of earthquakes has been known for millennia due to the resultant devastation from many of them, the vulnerability of our civilization to extreme seismic events is still growing. It is partly because of the increase in the number of high-risk objects and clustering of populations and infrastructure in the areas prone to seismic hazards. Today an earthquake may affect several hundreds thousand lives and cause significant damage up to hundred billion dollars; it can trigger an ecological catastrophe if occurs in close vicinity to a nuclear power plant. Two types of extreme natural events can be distinguished: (i) large magnitude low probability events, and (ii) the events leading to disasters. Although the first-type events may affect earthquake-prone countries directly or indirectly (as tsunamis, landslides etc.), the second-type events occur mainly in economically less-developed countries where the vulnerability is high and the resilience is low. Although earthquake hazards cannot be reduced, vulnerability to extreme events can be diminished by monitoring human systems and by relevant laws preventing an increase in vulnerability. Significant new knowledge should be gained on extreme seismicity through observations, monitoring, analysis, modeling, comprehensive hazard assessment, prediction, and interpretations to assist in disaster risk analysis. The advanced disaster risk communication skill should be developed to link scientists, emergency management authorities, and the public. Natural, social, economic, and political reasons leading to disasters due to earthquakes will be discussed.

Ismail-Zadeh, A.

2013-12-01

322

Experimental Studies of Microwave Interference Vulnerabilities in IC  

E-print Network

Experimental Studies of Microwave Interference Vulnerabilities in IC Devices Agis A. Iliadis and in some cases it may even enhance the RF effects on IC devices. · The project focuses on identifying the effects of high power microwave interference on the fundamental components of integrated circuits (IC

Anlage, Steven

323

Improving satellite vulnerability assessment to untrackable orbital debris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The projected growth in the untrackable orbital debris population will place an increased emphasis on satellite vulnerability assessments during both design and mission operations. This study presents an enhanced method for assessing satellite vulnerability to untrackable orbital debris that expands on traditional practices. By looking beyond structural penetration of the spacecraft, the method predicts the survivability of individual components and the associated degradation of system functionality resulting from untrackable debris impacts. A new risk assessment tool, the Particle Impact Risk and Vulnerability Assessment Tool (PIRAT), has been developed based on this method and is also presented here. It interfaces with both the NASA ORDEM2000 and ESA MASTER-2009 debris models and has been validated against the benchmark test cases from the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC). This study concludes with an example vulnerability assessment using PIRAT for a generic Earth observation satellite in a Sun-synchronous low-Earth orbit. The results illustrate the additional insight provided by this method that can be used to improve the robustness of future satellite designs and mitigate the overall mission risk posed by untrackable orbital debris.

Welty, Nathan; Schaefer, Frank; Rudolph, Martin; Destefanis, Roberto; Grassi, Lilith

2012-07-01

324

Food Insecurity and Vulnerability in Latin America and the Caribbean  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines how Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) nations have proceeded in addressing the issues of food insecurity and vulnerability in response to the 1996 Rome Declaration on World Food Security. The data suggests that while the food insecurity situation has improved in LAC over the past few years, many nations are worse off in terms of food insecurity

Gustavo Gordillo; Paul C. Winters; Leonardo Corral

2000-01-01

325

ORIGINAL PAPER Vulnerable island carnivores: the endangered endemic  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Vulnerable island carnivores: the endangered endemic dwarf procyonids from Cozumel online: 15 August 2009 � Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009 Abstract Insular carnivores represent action. Keywords Carnivore conservation Á Dwarf coati Á Mark-recapture Á Nasua nelsoni Á Procyon pygmaeus

Gompper, Matthew E.

326

A physical approach on flood risk vulnerability of buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of efficient hydrological risk mitigation strategies and their subsequent implementation relies on a careful vulnerability analysis of the elements exposed. Recently, extensive research efforts were undertaken to develop and refine empirical relationships linking the structural vulnerability of buildings to the impact forces of the hazard processes. These empirical vulnerability functions allow estimating the expected direct losses as a result of the hazard scenario based on spatially explicit representation of the process patterns and the elements at risk classified into defined typological categories. However, due to the underlying empiricism of such vulnerability functions, the physics of the damage generating mechanisms for a well-defined element at risk with its peculiar geometry and structural characteristics remain unveiled, and, as such, the applicability of the empirical approach for planning hazard-proof residential buildings is limited. Therefore, we propose a conceptual assessment scheme to close this gap. This assessment scheme encompasses distinct analytical steps: modelling (a) the process intensity, (b) the impact on the element at risk exposed and (c) the physical response of the building envelope. Furthermore, these results provide the input data for the subsequent damage evaluation and economic damage valuation. This dynamic assessment supports all relevant planning activities with respect to a minimisation of losses, and can be implemented in the operational risk assessment procedure.

Mazzorana, B.; Simoni, S.; Scherer, C.; Gems, B.; Fuchs, S.; Keiler, M.

2014-02-01

327

A physical approach on flood risk vulnerability of buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of efficient hydrological risk mitigation strategies and their subsequent implementation relies on a careful vulnerability analysis of the elements exposed. Recently, extensive research efforts were undertaken to develop and refine empirical relationships linking the structural vulnerability of buildings to the impact forces of the hazard processes. These empirical vulnerability functions allow estimating the expected direct losses as a result of the hazard scenario based on spatially explicit representation of the process patterns and the elements at risk classified into defined typological categories. However, due to the underlying empiricism of such vulnerability functions, the physics of the damage-generating mechanisms for a well-defined element at risk with its peculiar geometry and structural characteristics remain unveiled, and, as such, the applicability of the empirical approach for planning hazard-proof residential buildings is limited. Therefore, we propose a conceptual assessment scheme to close this gap. This assessment scheme encompasses distinct analytical steps: modelling (a) the process intensity, (b) the impact on the element at risk exposed and (c) the physical response of the building envelope. Furthermore, these results provide the input data for the subsequent damage evaluation and economic damage valuation. This dynamic assessment supports all relevant planning activities with respect to a minimisation of losses, and can be implemented in the operational risk assessment procedure.

Mazzorana, B.; Simoni, S.; Scherer, C.; Gems, B.; Fuchs, S.; Keiler, M.

2014-09-01

328

Strategic Discovery and Sharing of Vulnerabilities in Competitive Environments  

E-print Network

and government to share cyber threat and vulnerability information in order to increase overall situational awareness of the cyber threat". In the US, the "National Coordinating Center for Communications (NCC)" acts of the origins of inefficiency and paves the path towards more efficient sharing of cyber-intelligence among

329

The Development of Cognitive Vulnerability to Hopelessness Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

While several studies have supported the hopelessness theory's claim that depressogenic inferential styles serve as vulnerability factors to depression, little research has examined how these styles de- velop. The current study examined three theories of their development in children between the ages of 7 and 13. Results supported two of these theories, indicating that children with pessimistic infer- ential styles

Sabina Sarin; John R. Z. Abela

2005-01-01

330

Vulnerability Assessment of Cybersecurity for SCADA Systems Using Attack Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

By penetrating the SCADA system, an intruder may remotely operate a power system using supervisory control privileges. Hence, cybersecurity has been recognized as a major threat due to the potential intrusion to the online system. This paper proposes a methodology to evaluate the cybersecurity vulnerability using attack trees. The attack tree formulation based on power system control networks is used

Chee-Wooi Ten; Chen-Ching Liu; Manimaran Govindarasu

2007-01-01

331

DO-IT-YOURSELF SCADA VULNERABILITY TESTING WITH LZFUZZ  

E-print Network

Chapter 1 DO-IT-YOURSELF SCADA VULNERABILITY TESTING WITH LZFUZZ Rebecca Shapiro, Sergey Bratus, for SCADA software used in critical infrastructure, the widespread use of propri- etary protocols makes't apply in real-world infrastructure such as power SCADA. Domain experts often do not have the time

Smith, Sean W.

332

Serotonergic vulnerability and depression: assumptions, experimental evidence and implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the term serotonergic vulnerability (SV) has been used in scientific literature, but so far it has not been explicitly defined. This review article attempts to elucidate the SV concept. SV can be defined as increased sensitivity to natural or experimental alterations of the serotonergic (5-HTergic) system. Several factors that may disrupt the 5-HTergic system and hence contribute

L A W Jans; W J Riedel; C R Markus; A Blokland; LAW Jans

2007-01-01

333

A Framework for Analysing Vulnerability to Food Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whilst traditional food security analysis offers an ex post view on who the food insecure are and why they are so, looking at food insecurity from a vulnerability perspective provides a dynamic and forward looking way of analysing causes and more importantly options for reducing food insecurity. This can help improving policy responses to food insecurity. The paper seeks to

Christian Romer Lovendal; Macro Knowles

334

Vulnerability of a killer whale social network to disease outbreaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases are among the main threats to conservation of biological diversity. A crucial task facing epidemiologists is to predict the vulnerability of populations of endangered animals to disease outbreaks. In this context, the network structure of social interactions within animal populations may affect disease spreading. However, endangered animal populations are often small and to investigate the dynamics of

Paulo R. Guimarães Jr.; Márcio Argollo de Menezes; Robin W. Baird; David Lusseau; Sérgio F. Dos Reis

2007-01-01

335

Prefrontal vulnerabilities and whole brain connectivity in aging and depression  

PubMed Central

Studies exploring the underpinnings of age-related neurodegeneration suggest fronto-limbic alterations that are increasingly vulnerable in the presence of disease including late life depression. Less work has assessed the impact of this specific vulnerability on widespread brain circuitry. Seventy-nine older adults (healthy controls=45; late life depression=34) completed translational tasks shown in non-human primates to rely on fronto-limbic networks involving dorsolateral (Self-Ordered Pointing Task) or orbitofrontal (Object Alternation Task) cortices. A sub-sample of participants also completed diffusion tensor imaging for white matter tract quantification (uncinate and cingulum bundle; n=58) and whole brain tract-based spatial statistics (n=62). Despite task associations to specific white matter tracts across both groups, only healthy controls demonstrated significant correlations between widespread tract integrity and cognition. Thus, increasing Object Alternation Task errors were associated with decreasing fractional anisotropy in the uncinate in late life depression; however, only in healthy controls was the uncinate incorporated into a larger network of white matter vulnerability associating fractional anisotropy with Object Alternation Task errors using whole brain tract-based spatial statistics. It appears that the whole brain impact of specific fronto-limbic vulnerabilities in aging may be eclipsed in the presence of disease-specific neuropathology like that seen in late life depression. PMID:23680399

Lamar, Melissa; Charlton, Rebecca A.; Ajilore, Olusola; Zhang, Aifeng; Yang, Shaolin; Barrick, Thomas R.; Rhodes, Emma; Kumar, Anand

2013-01-01

336

Climate Change: Conflict, Security and Vulnerability Professor of Climate Change  

E-print Network

Climate Change: Conflict, Security and Vulnerability Mike Hulme Professor of Climate Change Science, Society and Sustainability Group School of Environmental Sciences Rethinking Climate Change, Conflict security" "increase risk of conflicts among and within nations" #12;· from `climatic change' to `climate-change

Hulme, Mike

337

Vulnerability of the US to future sea level rise  

SciTech Connect

The differential vulnerability of the conterminous United States to future sea level rise from greenhouse climate warming is assessed, using a coastal hazards data base. This data contains information on seven variables relating to inundation and erosion risks. High risk shorelines are characterized by low relief, erodible substrate, subsidence, shoreline retreat, and high wave/tide energies. Very high risk shorelines on the Atlantic Coast (Coastal Vulnerability Index {ge}33.0) include the outer coast of the Delmarva Peninsula, northern Cape Hatteras, and segments of New Jersey, Georgia and South Carolina. Louisiana and sections of Texas are potentially the most vulnerable, due to anomalously high relative sea level rise and erosion, coupled with low elevation and mobile sediments. Although the Pacific Coast is generally the least vulnerable, because of its rugged relief and erosion-resistant substrate, the high geographic variability leads to several exceptions, such as the San Joaquin-Sacramento Delta area, the barrier beaches of Oregon and Washington, and parts of the Puget Sound Lowlands. 31 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Gornitz, V. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, New York, NY (USA). Goddard Inst. for Space Studies); White, T.W.; Cushman, R.M. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1991-01-01

338

A1B: balanced. Human vulnerability to heat  

E-print Network

intense, frequent, and longer-lasting heat waves will exacerbate heat impacts on human health in the near heat stress calls using daily maximum Temperature,Phoenix emperical data predicted values (using TmaxA1B: balanced. Human vulnerability to heat can be define a function of heat exposure, sensitivity

Hall, Sharon J.

339

Understanding heat wave vulnerability in nursing and residential homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency, intensity and duration of heat waves affecting the UK (and other parts of the world) is set to increase as the climate changes with potentially serious implications for future heat-related mortality. Epidemiological research has shown that in England and Wales older people in nursing and residential homes are among those most vulnerable to the impacts of hot weather.

Sam Brown; Gordon Walker

2008-01-01

340

Exploring Faculty Perceptions toward Working with Academically Vulnerable College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is an exploratory study of faculty members' knowledge and perceptions toward of with academically vulnerable college students who are specifically experiencing reading and writing difficulties. Data were gathered from 174 college faculty at six higher education institutions throughout northwestern Pennsylvania via an online…

Quick, Robin L.

2013-01-01

341

The vulnerability of renewable energy to climate change in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy supply in Brazil relies heavily on renewable energy source. The production of energy from renewable sources, however, greatly depends on climatic conditions, which may be impacted in the future due to global climate change (GCC). This paper analyzes the vulnerabilities of renewable energy production in Brazil for the cases of hydropower generation and liquid biofuels production, given a set

André Frossard Pereira de Lucena; Alexandre Salem Szklo; Roberto Schaeffer; Raquel Rodrigues de Souza; Bruno Soares Moreira Cesar Borba; Isabella Vaz Leal da Costa; Amaro Olimpio Pereira Júnior; Sergio Henrique Ferreira da Cunha

2009-01-01

342

Identifying Cross Site Scripting Vulnerabilities in Web Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross site scripting (XSS) is a vulnerability of a Web application that is essentially caused by the failure of the application to check up on user input before returning it to the client's Web browser. Without an adequate validation, user input may include malicious code that may be sent to other clients and unexpectedly executed by their browsers, thus causing

Giuseppe A. Di Lucca; Anna Rita Fasolino; M. Mastoianni; Porfirio Tramontana

2004-01-01

343

Measuring Vulnerability to U.S. Foreign Economic Sanctions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic sanctions are an important instrument of U.S. foreign policy. While politicians look favorably on unilateral economic sanctions as a policy instrument, many scholars attribute significant long-term economic costs to the United States and have doubts about their effectiveness. We outline a simple approach to assess the vulnerability of target countries to sanctions in order to develop focused sanctions and

Hossein Askari; John Forrer; Jiawen Yang; Tarek Hachem

2005-01-01

344

Conflict and social vulnerability to climate change: Lessons from Gaza  

Microsoft Academic Search

In societies marred by conflict, the propensity of populations to be harmed by climate hazards is likely to be increased by their exposure to violence and other coercive practices. Stakeholder assessments of climate vulnerability, as reported here for the Gaza Strip, can capture the qualitative experience of harm caused by conflict-related practices as these relate to, and interact with, forecasted

Michael Mason; Mark Zeitoun; Rebhy El Sheikh

2011-01-01

345

Vulnerability and livelihoods before and after the Haiti earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the dynamics of poverty and vulnerability in Haiti using various data sets. As living conditions survey data are not comparable in this country, we first propose to use the three rounds of the Demographic Health Survey (DHS) available before the earthquake. Decomposing household assets changes into age and cohort effects, we use repeated cross-section data to identify

Damien Echevin

2011-01-01

346

Mental Health of Children in Palestinian Kindergartens: Resilience and Vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Exposure to adversity does not necessarily lead to the development of psychopathology in all affected children. This study examined the factors associated with resilience and vulnerability in mental health in the Gaza Strip in 2007. Methods: Children selected from a random sample of kindergartens (3-6 years old, N = 350) were assessed for growth and their mothers administered an

Salwa Massad; F. Javier Nieto; Mari Palta; Maureen Smith; Roseanne Clark; Abdel-Aziz Thabet

2009-01-01

347

AMPA Receptor Current Density, Not Desensitization, Predicts Selective Motoneuron Vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal motoneurons are more susceptible to AMPA receptor- mediated injury than are other spinal neurons, a property that has been implicated in their selective degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The aim of this study was to determine whether this difference in vulnerability between motoneurons and other spinal neurons can be attributed to a difference in AMPA receptor desensitization and\\/or

Wim Vandenberghe; Eva C. Ihle; Doris K. Patneau; Wim Robberecht; James R. Brorson

2000-01-01

348

Vulnerability analysis for a drought Early Warning System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early Warning Systems (EWS) for drought are often based on risk models that do not, or marginally, take into account the vulnerability factor. The multifaceted nature of drought (hydrological, meteorological, and agricultural) is source of coexistence for different ways to measure this phenomenon and its effects. The latter, together with the complexity of impacts generated by this hazard, causes the current underdevelopment of drought EWS compared to other hazards. In Least Developed Countries, where drought events causes the highest numbers of affected people, the importance of correct monitoring and forecasting is considered essential. Existing early warning and monitoring systems for drought produced at different geographic levels, provide only in a few cases an actual spatial model that tries to describe the cause-effect link between where the hazard is detected and where impacts occur. Integrate vulnerability information in such systems would permit to better estimate affected zones and livelihoods, improving the effectiveness of produced hazard-related datasets and maps. In fact, the need of simplification and, in general, of a direct applicability of scientific outputs is still a matter of concern for field experts and early warning products end-users. Even if the surplus of hazard related information produced right after catastrophic events has, in some cases, led to the creation of specific data-sharing platforms, the conveyed meaning and usefulness of each product has not yet been addressed. The present work is an attempt to fill this gap which is still an open issue for the scientific community as well as for the humanitarian aid world. The study aims at conceiving a simplified vulnerability model to embed into an existing EWS for drought, which is based on the monitoring of vegetation phenological parameters and the Standardized Precipitation Index, both produced using free satellite derived datasets. The proposed vulnerability model includes (i) a pure agricultural vulnerability and (ii) a systemic vulnerability. The first considers the agricultural potential of terrains, the diversity of cultivated crops and the percentage of irrigated area as main driving factors. The second vulnerability aspect consists of geographic units in which a set of socio-economic factors are modeled geographically on the basis of the physical accessibility to market centers in one case, and according to a spatial gravity model of market areas in another case. Results of the model applied to a case study (Niger) and evaluated with food insecurity data, are presented.

Angeluccetti, Irene; Demarchi, Alessandro; Perez, Francesca

2014-05-01

349

Repeated Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Mechanisms of Cerebral Vulnerability  

PubMed Central

Abstract Among the 3.5 million annual new head injury cases is a subpopulation of children and young adults who experience repeated traumatic brain injury (TBI). The duration of vulnerability after a single TBI remains unknown, and biomarkers have yet to be determined. Decreases in glucose metabolism (cerebral metabolic rate of glucose [CMRglc]) are consistently observed after experimental and human TBI. In the current study, it is hypothesized that the duration of vulnerability is related to the duration of decreased CMRglc and that a single mild TBI (mTBI) increases the brain's vulnerability to a second insult for a period, during which a subsequent mTBI will worsen the outcome. Postnatal day 35 rats were given sham, single mTBI, or two mTBI at 24-h or 120-h intervals. 14C-2-deoxy-D-glucose autoradiography was conducted at 1 or 3 days post-injury to calculate CMRglc. At 24?h after a single mTBI, CMRglc is decreased by 19% in both the parietal cortex and hippocampus, but approached sham levels by 3 days post-injury. When a second mTBI is introduced during the CMRglc depression of the first injury, the consequent CMRglc is depressed (36.5%) at 24?h and remains depressed (25%) at 3 days. In contrast, when the second mTBI is introduced after the metabolic recovery of the first injury, the consequent CMRglc depression is similar to that seen with a single injury. Results suggest that the duration of metabolic depression reflects the time-course of vulnerability to second injury in the juvenile brain and could serve as a valuable biomarker in establishing window of vulnerability guidelines. PMID:23025820

Alexander, Daya; Giza, Christopher C.; Hovda, David A.

2013-01-01

350

Calibration of the DRASTIC ground water vulnerability mapping method.  

PubMed

Ground water vulnerability maps developed using the DRASTIC method have been produced in many parts of the world. Comparisons of those maps with actual ground water quality data have shown that the DRASTIC method is typically a poor predictor of ground water contamination. This study significantly improved the effectiveness of a modified DRASTIC ground water vulnerability map by calibrating the point rating schemes to actual ground water quality data by using nonparametric statistical techniques and a geographic information system. Calibration was performed by comparing data on nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen (NO2 + NO3-N) concentrations in ground water to land-use, soils, and depth to first-encountered ground water data. These comparisons showed clear statistical differences between NO2 + NO3-N concentrations and the various categories. Ground water probability point ratings for NO2 + NO3-N contamination were developed from the results of these comparisons, and a probability map was produced. This ground water probability map was then correlated with an independent set of NO2 + NO3-N data to demonstrate its effectiveness in predicting elevated NO2 + NO3-N concentrations in ground water. This correlation demonstrated that the probability map was effective, but a vulnerability map produced with the uncalibrated DRASTIC method in the same area and using the same data layers was not effective. Considerable time and expense have been out-laid to develop ground water vulnerability maps with the DRASTIC method. This study demonstrates a cost-effective method to improve and verify the effectiveness of ground water vulnerability maps. PMID:11447862

Rupert, M G

2001-01-01

351

Calibration of the DRASTIC ground water vulnerability mapping method  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground water vulnerability maps developed using the DRASTIC method have been produced in many parts of the world. Comparisons of those maps with actual ground water quality data have shown that the DRASTIC method is typically a poor predictor of ground water contamination. This study significantly improved the effectiveness of a modified DRASTIC ground water vulnerability map by calibrating the point rating schemes to actual ground water quality data by using nonparametric statistical techniques and a geographic information system. Calibration was performed by comparing data on nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen (NO2 + NO3-N) concentrations in ground water to land-use, soils, and depth to first-encountered ground water data. These comparisons showed clear statistical differences between NO2 + NO3-N concentrations and the various categories. Ground water probability point ratings for NO2 + NO3-N contamination were developed from the results of these comparisons, and a probability map was produced. This ground water probability map was then correlated with an independent set of NO2 + NO3-N data to demonstrate its effectiveness in predicting elevated NO2 + NO3-N concentrations in ground water. This correlation demonstrated that the probability map was effective, but a vulnerability map produced with the uncalibrated DRASTIC method in the same area and using the same data layers was not effective. Considerable time and expense have been outlaid to develop ground water vulnerability maps with the DRASTIC method. This study demonstrates a cost-effective method to improve and verify the effectiveness of ground water vulnerability maps.

Rupert, M.G.

2001-01-01

352

Targeting attention on local vulnerabilities using an integrated index approach: the example of the climate vulnerability index.  

PubMed

It is known that climate impacts can have significant effects on the environment, societies and economies. For human populations, climate change impacts can be devastating, giving rise to economic disruption and mass migration as agricultural systems fail, either through drought or floods. Such events impact significantly, not only where they happen, but also in the neighbouring areas. Vulnerability to the impacts of climate change needs to be assessed, so that adaptation strategies can be developed and populations can be protected. In this paper, we address the issue of vulnerability assessment through the use of an indicator approach, the climate vulnerability index (CVI). We show how this can overcome some of the difficulties of incommensurability associated with the combination of different types of data, and how the approach can be applied at a variety of scales. Through the development of nested index values, more reliable and robust coverage of large areas can be achieved, and we provide an indication of how this could be done. While further work is required to improve the methodology through wider application and component refinement, it seems likely that this approach will have useful application in the assessment of climate vulnerability. Through its application at sub-national and community scales, the CVI can help to identify those human populations most at risk from climate change impacts, and as a result, resources can be targeted towards those most in need. PMID:15918360

Sullivan, C; Meigh, J

2005-01-01

353

77 FR 6548 - Notice of Availability of Ballistic Survivability, Lethality and Vulnerability Analyses  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...vulnerability (SLV) analyses. ARL/SLAD conducts SLV analyses, using the MUVES-S2...vulnerability model, to quantify system, subsystem and/or...air vehicles. These analyses are used to support production, design, trade and...

2012-02-08

354

49 CFR 1503.3 - Reports by the public of security problems, deficiencies, and vulnerabilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Reports by the public of security problems, deficiencies, and vulnerabilities...3 Reports by the public of security problems, deficiencies, and vulnerabilities...regarding transportation-related security problems, deficiencies, and...

2012-10-01

355

49 CFR 1503.3 - Reports by the public of security problems, deficiencies, and vulnerabilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Reports by the public of security problems, deficiencies, and vulnerabilities...3 Reports by the public of security problems, deficiencies, and vulnerabilities...regarding transportation-related security problems, deficiencies, and...

2011-10-01

356

49 CFR 1503.3 - Reports by the public of security problems, deficiencies, and vulnerabilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Reports by the public of security problems, deficiencies, and vulnerabilities...3 Reports by the public of security problems, deficiencies, and vulnerabilities...regarding transportation-related security problems, deficiencies, and...

2014-10-01

357

49 CFR 1503.3 - Reports by the public of security problems, deficiencies, and vulnerabilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Reports by the public of security problems, deficiencies, and vulnerabilities...3 Reports by the public of security problems, deficiencies, and vulnerabilities...regarding transportation-related security problems, deficiencies, and...

2013-10-01

358

State Vulnerability to Disaster: a BioQUEST Summer Workshop Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using the paper Katrina and Vulnerability: the Geography of Stress (Curtis, Mills, Leitner, 2010), we explored vulnerability using multiple stress factors in order to make an assessment of the impact of disaster.

Stacey Kiser (Lane Community College; Biology)

2010-06-18

359

MINIMIZING THE VULNERABILITY OF WATER SUPPLIES TO NATURAL AND TERRORIST THREATS  

EPA Science Inventory

There is increasing concern that drinking water utilities may be vulnerable to attacks by terrorists. In the US the President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection has concluded the US drinking water utilities are vulnerable to physical, cyber and biological terroris...

360

Accounting for the Impact of Impermeable Soil Layers on Pesticide Runoff and Leaching in a Landscape Vulnerability Model  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A regional-scale model that estimates landscape vulnerability of pesticide leaching and runoff (solution and particle adsorbed) underestimated runoff vulnerability and overestimated leaching vulnerability compared to measured data when applied to a gently rolling landscape in northeast Missouri. Man...

361

Quantitative assessment and spatial characteristics analysis of agricultural drought vulnerability in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the spatial characteristics of agricultural drought vulnerability in China were investigated using a GIS-based\\u000a agricultural drought vulnerability assessment model, which was constructed by selecting three agricultural drought vulnerability\\u000a factors. Seasonal crop water deficiency, available soil water-holding capacity and irrigation were identified as the main\\u000a indicators of agricultural drought vulnerability in China. The study showed that the distribution

Jianjun WuBin; Bin He; Aifeng Lü; Lei Zhou; Ming Liu; Lin Zhao

2011-01-01

362

VuWiki: An Ontology-Based Semantic Wiki for Vulnerability Assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of vulnerability, as well as its implementation in vulnerability assessments, is used in various disciplines and contexts ranging from disaster management and reduction to ecology, public health or climate change and adaptation, and a corresponding multitude of ideas about how to conceptualize and measure vulnerability exists. Three decades of research in vulnerability have generated a complex and growing body of knowledge that challenges newcomers, practitioners and even experienced researchers. To provide a structured representation of the knowledge field "vulnerability assessment", we have set up an ontology-based semantic wiki for reviewing and representing vulnerability assessments: VuWiki, www.vuwiki.org. Based on a survey of 55 vulnerability assessment studies, we first developed an ontology as an explicit reference system for describing vulnerability assessments. We developed the ontology in a theoretically controlled manner based on general systems theory and guided by principles for ontology development in the field of earth and environment (Raskin and Pan 2005). Four key questions form the first level "branches" or categories of the developed ontology: (1) Vulnerability of what? (2) Vulnerability to what? (3) What reference framework was used in the vulnerability assessment?, and (4) What methodological approach was used in the vulnerability assessment? These questions correspond to the basic, abstract structure of the knowledge domain of vulnerability assessments and have been deduced from theories and concepts of various disciplines. The ontology was then implemented in a semantic wiki which allows for the classification and annotation of vulnerability assessments. As a semantic wiki, VuWiki does not aim at "synthesizing" a holistic and overarching model of vulnerability. Instead, it provides both scientists and practitioners with a uniform ontology as a reference system and offers easy and structured access to the knowledge field of vulnerability assessments with the possibility for any user to retrieve assessments using specific research criteria. Furthermore, Vuwiki can serve as a collaborative knowledge platform that allows for the active participation of those generating and using the knowledge represented in the wiki.

Khazai, Bijan; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Büscher, Christian; Wegner, Antje

2014-05-01

363

Free and Open Source Software for land degradation vulnerability assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays the role of FOSS software in scientific research is becoming increasingly important. Besides the important issues of reduced costs for licences, legality and security there are many other reasons that make FOSS software attractive. Firstly, making the code opened is a warranty of quality permitting to thousands of developers around the world to check the code and fix bugs rather than rely on vendors claims. FOSS communities are usually enthusiastic about helping other users for solving problems and expand or customize software (flexibility). Most important for this study, the interoperability allows to combine the user-friendly QGIS with the powerful GRASS-GIS and the richness of statistical methods of R in order to process remote sensing data and to perform geo-statistical analysis in one only environment. This study is focused on the land degradation (i.e. the reduction in the capacity of the land to provide ecosystem goods and services and assure its functions) and in particular on the estimation of the vulnerability levels in order to suggest appropriate policy actions to reduce/halt land degradation impacts, using the above mentioned software. The area investigated is the Basilicata Region (Southern Italy) where large natural areas are mixed with anthropized areas. To identify different levels of vulnerability we adopted the Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAs) model, based on the combination of indicators related to soil, climate, vegetation and anthropic stress. Such indicators were estimated by using the following data-sources: - Basilicata Region Geoportal to assess soil vulnerability; - DESERTNET2 project to evaluate potential vegetation vulnerability and climate vulnerability; - NDVI-MODIS satellite time series (2000-2010) with 250m resolution, available as 16-day composite from the NASA LP DAAC to characterize the dynamic component of vegetation; - Agricultural Census data 2010, Corine Land Cover 2006 and morphological information to assess the vulnerability to anthropic factors mainly connected with agricultural and grazing management. To achieve the final ESAs Index depicting the overall vulnerability to degradation of the investigated area we applied the geometric mean to cross normalized indices related to each examined component. In this context QGIS was used to display data and to perform basic GIS calculations, whereas GRASS was used for map-algebra operations and image processing. Finally R was used for computing statistical analysis (Principal Component Analysis) aimed to determine the relative importance of each adopted indicator. Our results show that GRASS, QGIS and R software are suitable to map land degradation vulnerability and identify highly vulnerable areas in which rehabilitation/recovery interventions are urgent. In addition they allow us to put into evidence the most important drivers of degradation thus supplying basic information for the setting up of intervention strategies. Ultimately, Free Open Source Software deliver a fair chance for geoscientific investigations thanks to their high interoperability and flexibility enabling to preserve the accuracy of the data and to reduce processing time. Moreover, the presence of several communities that steadily support users allows for achieving high quality results, making free open source software a valuable and easy alternative to conventional commercial software.

Imbrenda, Vito; Calamita, Giuseppe; Coluzzi, Rosa; D'Emilio, Mariagrazia; Lanfredi, Maria Teresa; Perrone, Angela; Ragosta, Maria; Simoniello, Tiziana

2013-04-01

364

Vulnerability analysis of disaster risk based on geographic information and Dempster-Shafer theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vulnerability analysis of human society in natural hazard is confronted with uncertainty and complex factors in given geographic area. The assessment of vulnerability is significant for decision-makers and their spatial planning exercises. However, vulnerability is hard to use quantity analysis because of the uncertainty in both model and data. In our approach, the exposure zone of hazard is introduced by

Shanzhen Yi; Yajuan Xie

2010-01-01

365

On the Vulnerability of Fingerprint Verification Systems to Fake Fingerprints Attacks  

E-print Network

vulnerable points of a general biometric system are pointed out. All eight points are depicted in Fig. 1On the Vulnerability of Fingerprint Verification Systems to Fake Fingerprints Attacks J. Galbally and a thermal sweeping sensors are given. Both systems are shown to be vulnerable to direct attacks. Decision 1

Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

366

Vulnerabilities in Biometric Systems: Attacks and Recent Advances in Liveness Detection  

E-print Network

Vulnerabilities in Biometric Systems: Attacks and Recent Advances in Liveness Detection Javier fingerprint can be generated if an impostor "steals" it). Furthermore, biometric systems are vulnerable to fraudulently access a system was discussed and defined as the first vulnerability point in a biometric security

Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

367

On the Vulnerability of Finger Vein Recognition to Spoofing Pedro Tome, Matthias Vanoni and Sebastien Marcel  

E-print Network

of identity is a crucial point. However, biometric systems are vulnerable to attacks which could decrease%, thus showing that finger vein biometrics is vulnerable to spoofing attacks, pointing out the importanceOn the Vulnerability of Finger Vein Recognition to Spoofing Pedro Tome, Matthias Vanoni and S

368

Application of fuzzy variable set model to evaluation of agriculture drought vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive evaluation model for agriculture drought vulnerability was established based on variable fuzzy sets method combined with the index system. The multi-criterion fuzzy variable set model was applied to evaluate agriculture drought vulnerability. In the model the membership degrees and relative membership functions belonging to the ranking ranges of all indicators involved in agriculture drought vulnerability were determined. The

Shang yang Yang; Long Yun Zhang

2010-01-01

369

Emotion Regulation and Vulnerability to Depression: Spontaneous Versus Instructed Use of Emotion Suppression and Reappraisal  

E-print Network

Emotion Regulation and Vulnerability to Depression: Spontaneous Versus Instructed Use of Emotion Emotion dysregulation has long been thought to be a vulnerability factor for mood disorders. However vulnerability is related to difficulties with emotion regulation by comparing recovered-depressed and never

Gross, James J.

370

Indra Prasad Paneru Livelihood strategy and occupational vulnerability of street ice cream vendors in Kathmandu Valley  

E-print Network

Indra Prasad Paneru Livelihood strategy and occupational vulnerability of street ice cream vendors in Kathmandu Valley Livelihood strategy and occupational vulnerability of street ice cream vendors in Kathmandu Valley Summary The present study on 'livelihood strategy and occupational vulnerability of street ice-cream

Richner, Heinz

371

Perceived vulnerability to disease predicts variation in preferences for apparent health in faces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have suggested that increased female attraction to healthy-looking faces during conditions where progesterone level is raised reflects a mechanism that compensates for increased vulnerability to disease during pregnancy. Vulnerability to disease may also predict individual differences in preferences for apparent health more generally, however, with people who are particularly vulnerable to disease minimizing the likelihood of contracting illnesses

L. L. M. Welling; C. A. Conway; L. M. DeBruine; B. C. Jones

2007-01-01

372

Climate Change Vulnerability of Native and Alien Freshwater Fishes of California: A Systematic Assessment  

E-print Network

Climate Change Vulnerability of Native and Alien Freshwater Fishes of California: A Systematic and climate change vulnerability scores were derived for 121 native and 43 alien fish species. The two scores baseline and greater climate change vulnerability than did alien species. Fifty percent of California

373

Seasonal Variation in the Vulnerability Discovery Process HyunChul Joh and Yashwant K. Malaiya  

E-print Network

Seasonal Variation in the Vulnerability Discovery Process HyunChul Joh and Yashwant K. Malaiya for handling vulnerabilities discovered. Seasonal behaviors of the vulnerability discovery process for a multi operating systems, web servers and web browsers suggests presence of a seasonal behavior

Malaiya, Yashwant K.

374

CAT A Practical Graph & SDL Based Toolkit for Vulnerability Assessment of 3G Networks  

E-print Network

CAT ­ A Practical Graph & SDL Based Toolkit for Vulnerability Assessment of 3G Networks Kameswari Vulnerability As- sessment Toolkit - CAT, designed for end-to-end vulnerability assessment of 3G networks. CAT uses freely available 3G telecommunication specifications written in SDL, the stan- dard

Yener, Aylin

375

Public health, human rights and the harm reduction paradigm: from risk reduction to vulnerability reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the utility of expanding the harm reduction paradigm to incorporate vulnerability reduction. The thrust of harm reduction interventions to date, particularly in injection drug use, has been risk reduction. Many interventions have been designed to reduce drug-related harm by altering high-risk behaviours. Vulnerability looks behind risk. The notion of vulnerability incorporates the complex of underlying factors that

Nadine Ezard

2001-01-01

376

Perceptions of Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS: A Comparison of Two College Cohorts, 1990 and 2005  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theories of preventive health behavior posit that perceived vulnerability to health threats motivates self-protective behavior. Fifteen years after an initial study of college students' perceptions of their vulnerability to HIV, a replication was conducted on the same campus in 2005. Comparisons between cohorts on vulnerability judgements were…

Teague, Susan M.

2009-01-01

377

Application of the Applied Element Method to the Seismic Vulnerability Evaluation of Existing Buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an approach to the problem of seismic vulnerability evaluation of existing buildings through the predicted vulnerability method, analytical models can be applied to define the capacity curves of typical buildings which represent different building classes. These curves are then combined with the seismic demands to produce the vulnerability curves for each of the building classes according to the damage

A. Karbassi; M. J. Nollet

378

Vulnerable Children, Communities and Schools: Lessons from Three HIV/AIDS Affected Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The growing number of children made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS threatens the achievement of Education for All (EFA) and Millennium Development goals. Policy recommendations assign schools key roles in meeting the needs of vulnerable children, but there is a dearth of evidence about how vulnerable children and schools interact in AIDS affected…

Kendall, Nancy; O'Gara, Chloe

2007-01-01

379

Theory and Practice in Assessing Vulnerability to Climate Change andFacilitating Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss approaches to the assessment of vulnerability to climatevariability and change andattempt to clarify the relationship between the concepts of vulnerability andadaptation. In searchof a robust, policy-relevant framework, we define vulnerability in terms ofthe capacity ofindividuals and social groups to respond to, that is, to cope with, recoverfrom or adapt to, anyexternal stress placed on their livelihoods and well-being.

P. M. Kelly; W. N. Adger

2000-01-01

380

Social vulnerability to climate change in primary producers: A typology approach  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Adaptation in agro-ecological systems will be important for moderating the impacts of climate change. Vulnerability assessments provide the basis for developing strategies to reduce social vulnerability and plan for climate adaptation. Primary industries have been identified as the most vulnerable i...

381

Vulnerability assessment at a national level in Georgia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vulnerability assessment at a national level in Georgia Nino Tsereteli, Vakhtang Arabidze, Otar Varazanashvili, Tengiz Gugeshashvili The risk always exists when cities are built on. Population growth in cities and urbanization in natural hazard-prone zones leads to infrastructure expansion. The goal of the society is to construct natural hazards resistant infrastructure and minimize the expected losses. This is a complicated task as there is always knowledge deficiency on real seismic hazard and vulnerability. Assessment of vulnerability is vital in risk analysis, as vulnerability is defined in many different ways. Work presented here mostly deals with assessment of infrastructure's and population vulnerability at national level in Georgia. This work was initiated by NATO SFP project "seismic Hazard and Risk Assessment for Southern Caucasus - Eastern Turkey Energy Corridors" and the two work packages WP4 (seismic risk) and WP5 (city scenarios) of risk module of EMME (Earthquake Model of the Middle East Region) project. First step was creation databases (inventory) of elements at risk in GIS. Element at risk were the buildings, population, pipelines. The inventories was studied and Created in GIS for the following categories: Building material, number of stories, number of entrances, condition of building, building period. For pipelines pipe tipe (continous or segmented), material, pipe diameter. Very important is to estimate the initial cost of building for assessment of economic losses. From this purpose the attempt was done and the algorithm of this estimation were prepared taking into account obtained the inventory. Build quality, reliability and durability are of special importance to corresponding state agencies and include different aesthetic, engineering, practical, social, technological and economical aspects. The necessity that all of these aspects satisfy existing normative requirements becomes evident as the building and structures come into exploitation. The long term usage of building is very complex. It relates to the reliability and durability of buildings. The long term usage and durability of a building is determined by the concept of depreciation. Depreciation of an entire building is calculated by summing the products of individual construction unit' depreciation rates and the corresponding value of these units within the building. This method of calculation is based on an assumption that depreciation is proportional to the building's (constructions) useful life. We used this methodology to create a matrix, which provides a way to evaluate the depreciation rates of buildings with different type and construction period and to determine their corresponding value. Finely some attempt was done to investigate how these structures were damaged by various hazards. In other words vulnerability curves were constrained on the basis on the relation between various hazard intensities and damage data.

Tsereteli, N.; Arabidze, V.; Varazanashvili, O.; Gugeshashvili, T.

2012-04-01

382

Climate Change and Infrastructure, Urban Systems, and Vulnerabilities  

SciTech Connect

This Technical Report on Climate Change and Infrastructure, Urban Systems, and Vulnerabilities has been prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in support of the U.S. National Climate Assessment (NCA). It is a summary of the currently existing knowledge base on its topic, nested within a broader framing of issues and questions that need further attention in the longer run. The report arrives at a number of assessment findings, each associated with an evaluation of the level of consensus on that issue within the expert community, the volume of evidence available to support that judgment, and the section of the report that provides an explanation for the finding. Cross-sectoral issues related to infrastructures and urban systems have not received a great deal of attention to date in research literatures in general and climate change assessments in particular. As a result, this technical report is breaking new ground as a component of climate change vulnerability and impact assessments in the U.S., which means that some of its assessment findings are rather speculative, more in the nature of propositions for further study than specific conclusions that are offered with a high level of confidence and research support. But it is a start in addressing questions that are of interest to many policymakers and stakeholders. A central theme of the report is that vulnerabilities and impacts are issues beyond physical infrastructures themselves. The concern is with the value of services provided by infrastructures, where the true consequences of impacts and disruptions involve not only the costs associated with the clean-up, repair, and/or replacement of affected infrastructures but also economic, social, and environmental effects as supply chains are disrupted, economic activities are suspended, and/or social well-being is threatened. Current knowledge indicates that vulnerability concerns tend to be focused on extreme weather events associated with climate change that can disrupt infrastructure services, often cascading across infrastructures because of extensive interdependencies threatening health and local economies, especially in areas where human populations and economic activities are concentrated in urban areas. Vulnerabilities are especially large where infrastructures are subject to multiple stresses, beyond climate change alone; when they are located in areas vulnerable to extreme weather events; and if climate change is severe rather than moderate. But the report also notes that there are promising approaches for risk management, based on emerging lessons from a number of innovative initiatives in U.S. cities and other countries, involving both structural and non-structural (e.g., operational) options.

Wilbanks, Thomas J [ORNL] [ORNL; Fernandez, Steven J [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

383

Human donor milk for the vulnerable infant: a Canadian perspective  

PubMed Central

Breast milk is the normal way to feed infants and is accepted worldwide as the optimal first source of nutrition. Though the majority intend to breastfeed, many mothers of sick, hospitalized newborns, particularly those of very low birth weight, are unable to provide a full volume of milk due to numerous physical and emotional barriers to breastfeeding. This vulnerable population of infants may benefit most from receiving breast milk nutrition and thus pasteurized donor milk should be the first consideration for supplementation when there is an inadequate supply of mother’s own milk. This commentary will briefly review the history of milk banking in Canada, as well as the best available evidence for donor milk use in the very low birth weight population, including available economic analyses, with a view to advocate for its use in these vulnerable infants. PMID:24742283

2014-01-01

384

Vulnerability of complex networks under path-based attacks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate vulnerability of complex networks including model networks and real-world networks subject to path-based attacks. Specifically, we remove approximately the longest simple path from a network iteratively until there are no paths left in the network. We propose two algorithms, the random augmenting approach (RPA) and the Hamilton-path based approach (HPA), for finding the approximately longest simple path in a network. Results demonstrate that steps of longest-path attacks increase with network density linearly for random networks, while exponentially increasing for scale-free networks. The more homogeneous the degree distribution is, the more fragile the network, which is different from the previous results of node or edge attacks. HPA is generally more efficient than RPA in the longest-path attacks of complex networks. These findings further help us understand the vulnerability of complex systems, better protect complex systems, and design more tolerant complex systems.

Pu, Cun-Lai; Cui, Wei

2015-02-01

385

Learning the requirements for compassionate practice: student vulnerability and courage.  

PubMed

Student nurses' professional development arises through socialisation in nursing knowledge, values and behaviours. Students are expected to demonstrate compassion; however, compassion is a complex concept, one that creates emotional challenges. A grounded theory study was undertaken to explore student nurse socialisation in compassionate practice. In-depth interviews were undertaken with 19 students in the north of England during 2009-2010, and their concerns and concern management emerged. Students expressed several concerns, one being their emotional vulnerability and uncertainty of the emotional requirements for compassionate practice. A core category of 'balancing future intentions' was identified: that students managed feelings of vulnerability and uncertainty through balancing their intentions towards and away from engagement in compassionate practice, depending upon perceived impact on their emotional well-being. The findings are discussed in relation to emotional labour and moral distress, and courage, resilience and self-compassion are explored as a means to enable sustainable compassionate practice. PMID:23515253

Curtis, Katherine

2014-03-01

386

Attitude before method: disability in vulnerability and capacity assessment.  

PubMed

Many agencies working on disaster risk reduction use vulnerability and capacity assessment (VCA) to identify vulnerable groups, to assess their needs and capacities, and to develop appropriate programmes and policies. In theory, VCA offers a good opportunity to incorporate disabled people's needs and resources in counter-disaster programming. This paper seeks to establish and explain the extent to which disability is included in VCA in practice. It reviews VCA reports and findings, formal VCA guidance, and other methodological literature. The review indicates that disability is a neglected issue in VCA practice and that manuals and guidelines, while promoting the general ideal of inclusiveness, are insufficiently aware of the challenges to achieving this in practice and do not offer enough guidance on how to reach and include disabled people. Ways of overcoming these problems are suggested. However, the real challenge may be to change core attitudes and perceptions of disability within implementing organisations. PMID:24905706

Twigg, John

2014-07-01

387

Vulnerability and adaptation of US shellfisheries to ocean acidification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean acidification is a global, long-term problem whose ultimate solution requires carbon dioxide reduction at a scope and scale that will take decades to accomplish successfully. Until that is achieved, feasible and locally relevant adaptation and mitigation measures are needed. To help to prioritize societal responses to ocean acidification, we present a spatially explicit, multidisciplinary vulnerability analysis of coastal human communities in the United States. We focus our analysis on shelled mollusc harvests, which are likely to be harmed by ocean acidification. Our results highlight US regions most vulnerable to ocean acidification (and why), important knowledge and information gaps, and opportunities to adapt through local actions. The research illustrates the benefits of integrating natural and social sciences to identify actions and other opportunities while policy, stakeholders and scientists are still in relatively early stages of developing research plans and responses to ocean acidification.

Ekstrom, Julia A.; Suatoni, Lisa; Cooley, Sarah R.; Pendleton, Linwood H.; Waldbusser, George G.; Cinner, Josh E.; Ritter, Jessica; Langdon, Chris; van Hooidonk, Ruben; Gledhill, Dwight; Wellman, Katharine; Beck, Michael W.; Brander, Luke M.; Rittschof, Dan; Doherty, Carolyn; Edwards, Peter E. T.; Portela, Rosimeiry

2015-03-01

388

Subsidence vulnerability in shallow room-and-pillar mines  

SciTech Connect

Concern over mining-related subsidence is inhibiting the development of surface land uses in previously mined areas and is constraining the recovery of coal resources in areas with established land uses that might be impacted by subsequent subsidence. The determination of subsidence vulnerability of mined-out areas (especially abandoned mine areas) can be a useful tool in the design and location of surface structures. A model has been developed for assessing subsidence vulnerability in shallow room-and-pillar mines based on the flexural rigidity and strength characteristics of the overlying strata. The model does not predict the subsidence profile or when the subsidence will occur. It only predicts those areas that are likely to subside. This paper briefly describes the model and its testing.

Missavage, R.

1985-07-01

389

Social vulnerability and bullying in children with Asperger syndrome.  

PubMed

Children with Asperger syndrome (AS) have IQ within the normal range but specific impairments in theory of mind, social interaction and communication skills. The majority receive education in mainstream schools and research suggests they are bullied more than typically developing peers. The current study aimed to evaluate factors that predict bullying for such children and also to examine a new measure, the Social Vulnerability Scale (SVS). One hundred and thirty three parents of children with AS completed the SVS and of these 92 parents completed both the SVS and questionnaires measuring anxiety, anger, behaviour problems, social skills and bullying. Regression analyses revealed that these variables together strongly predicted bullying, but that social vulnerability was the strongest predictor. Test-re-test and internal consistency analyses of the SVS demonstrated sound psychometric properties and factor analyses revealed two sub-scales: gullibility and credulity. Limitations of the study are acknowledged and suggestions for future research discussed. PMID:21430018

Sofronoff, Kate; Dark, Elizabeth; Stone, Valerie

2011-05-01

390

Diversity Strategies to Mitigate Postulated Common Cause Failure Vulnerabilities  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an approach to establish effective mitigating strategies that can resolve potential common-cause failure (CCF) vulnerabilities in instrumentation and control (I&C) systems at nuclear power plants. A particular objective in the development of these strategies, which consist of combinations of diversity attributes and their associated criteria, is to address the unique characteristics of digital technology that can contribute to CCF concerns. The research approach employed to establish diversity strategies involves investigation of available documentation on diversity usage and experience from nuclear power and non-nuclear industries, capture of expert knowledge and lessons learned, determination of common practices, and assessment of the nature of CCFs and compensating diversity attributes. The resulting diversity strategies address considerations such as the effect of technology choices, the nature of CCF vulnerabilities, and the prospective impact of each diversity type. In particular, the impact of each attribute and criterion on the purpose, process, product, and performance aspects of diverse systems are considered.

Wood, Richard Thomas [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01

391

Integrating Climate and Ocean Change Vulnerability into Conservation Planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical coastal and marine ecosystems are particularly vulnerable to ocean warming, ocean acidification, and sea-level rise. Yet these projected climate and ocean change impacts are rarely considered in conservation planning due to the lack of guidance on how existing climate and ocean change models, tools, and data can be applied. We address this gap by describing how conservation planning can use available tools and data for assessing the vulnerability of tropical marine ecosystems to key climate threats. Additionally, we identify limitations of existing tools and provide recommendations for future research to improve integration of climate and ocean change information and conservation planning. Such information is critical for developing a conservation response that adequately protects these ecosystems and dependent coastal communities in the face of climate and ocean change.

Mcleod, E.; Green, A.; Game, E.; Anthony, K.; Cinner, J.; Heron, S. F.; Kleypas, J. A.; Lovelock, C.; Pandolfi, J.; Pressey, B.; Salm, R.; Schill, S.; Woodroffe, C. D.

2013-05-01

392

Does nurses' vulnerability affect their ability to care?  

PubMed

Recent reports from the Department of Health (2008), the Parliamentary and Health Service Ombudsman (2011) and the Commission on Dignity in Care for Older People (2012) have been highly critical regarding the care that some patients have experienced. They have highlighted that fundamental aspects of care are missing resulting in a lack of high quality individualised nursing care, which is in contrast with holistic nursing philosophy. We have to ask ourselves what is happening within nursing, as many enter the profession owing to a desire to 'make a difference'. Drawing on focus group data exploring perceptions of caring for residents with dementia in a care home setting, the authors found that nurses and healthcare assistants experience a mutual vulnerability with patients. This paper explores whether this mutual vulnerability could lead to nurses focusing on the clinical aspects of their role to the detriment of the compassionate, caring components of nursing. PMID:22874859

Heaslip, Vanessa; Board, Michele

393

Major depression during interferon-? treatment: vulnerability and prevention  

PubMed Central

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) during interferons (IFN-?) treatment can occur within a few months of therapy, and shares many homologies with other forms of MDD, Most patients are resilient to the side effect ofinterferon-induced depression (IFN-MDD), but 15% to 40% are vulnerable. Several studies have employed antidepressants to prevent the incidence of an IFN-MDD episode, and the results suggest that prophylactic antidepressants may be specifically useful in those with pre-existing subthreshold depressive symptoms andlor a history of prior MDD episodes. Several other potential markers of vulnerability for IFN-MDD have been implicated in assessments of nondepressed patients before they start IFN-? These include poor sleep quality, premorbid elevations in inflammatory cytokines, genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin system, personality, and social support. The interplay of these factors strongly predicts who is at risk for IFN-MDD, and indicates several potentially modifiable targets for the personalized prevention of IFN-MDD, PMID:20135899

Lotrich, Francis E.

2009-01-01

394

[Vulnerability of adolescent students to STD / HIV in Imperatriz - Maranhao].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the vulnerability of adolescent students related to sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), identifying the main risk behaviors and prevention. This quantitative, cross-sectional study was performed in three public schools in Imperatriz--Maranhão, with 295 adolescents, using a structured questionnaire. The results show that: most young people (86.3%) who used a condom the last time they had intercourse, usually keep this practice, 82.8% of adolescents who understand the concept of HIV protect themselves against these infections and believe the main form of contamination is through sex, infected blood or through the placental barrier. We conclude that most teenager participants showed coherent knowledge about sexual practices and risk behaviors that make them vulnerable to STD/HIK presenting a positive aspect for the prevention of these diseases. PMID:24344601

Costa, Ana Cristina Pereira de Jesus; Lins, Anamaria Gomes; de Araújo, Márcio Flávio Moura; de Araújo, Thiago Moura; Gubert, Fabiane do Amaral; Vieira, Neiva Francenely Cunha

2013-09-01

395

Neuronal activity regulates the regional vulnerability to amyloid-? deposition  

PubMed Central

Amyloid-? (A?) plaque deposition in specific brain regions is a major pathological hallmark of Alzheimer’fs disease (AD). However, the mechanism underlying the regional vulnerability to A? deposition in AD is unknown. Herein, we provide evidence that endogenous neuronal activity regulates the regional concentration of interstitial fluid (ISF) A? which drives local A? aggregation. Using in vivo microdialysis, we show that ISF A? levels in multiple brain regions of APP transgenic mice prior to plaque deposition were commensurate with the degree of subsequent plaque deposition and to the concentration of lactate, a marker of neuronal activity. Furthermore, unilateral vibrissae stimulation increased ISF A?, and unilateral vibrissae deprivation decreased ISF A? and lactate levels in contralateral barrel cortex. Long term unilateral vibrissae deprivation decreased amyloid plaque formation and growth. Our results suggest a mechanism to account for the vulnerability of specific brain regions to A? deposition in AD. PMID:21532579

Bero, Adam W.; Yan, Ping; Roh, Jee Hoon; Cirrito, John R.; Stewart, Floy R.; Raichle, Marcus E.; Lee, Jin-Moo; Holtzman, David M.

2011-01-01

396

Comprehensive care for vulnerable elderly veterans during disasters.  

PubMed

Despite problematic evacuation and sheltering of nursing home residents during Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, an exploration of the experiences of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) nursing homes (VANHs) is necessary for a comprehensive examination of the healthcare community's response to these disasters. VANH evacuations during these hurricanes have not been widely studied. This exploratory project aimed to provide information about the evacuation experiences and characteristics of vulnerable nursing home residents. Interviews with key informants from VHA facilities with nursing home staff and representatives revealed that physical harm, psychological distress, cognitive decline and increased social isolation were areas that deserved special attention for this vulnerable population. Moreover, physical, psychological and social needs were interconnected in that each influenced the others. Findings contribute to the general conversation about meeting the biopsychosocial needs of nursing home residents in an integrated healthcare delivery system and more broadly, the role of long-term care facilities in general in planning for future disasters. PMID:22901664

Claver, Maria; Dobalian, Aram; Fickel, Jacqueline J; Ricci, Karen A; Mallers, Melanie Horn

2013-01-01

397

Vulnerability Assessment: The Seasons-to-Centuries Links  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Actors within societies must cope with climate variability all the time, for example, with the aftermath of a severe storm, a persistent drought, severe flooding or coastal erosion from storm-induced sea-level surges. Understanding the capacity to respond to these types of experiences is important in its own right, and also provides a baseline against which to measure adaptive responses to long-term changes to climate. Because the rate, magnitude, pattern, and potential for non-linear rapid future changes in climate remain uncertain, increasing resilience of systems to climate variability is an important first step in planning for adaptation to long-term changes. An important characteristic of analysis of vulnerability to climate variability is the need to integrate information on both environmental and socio-economic factors that affect the ability of different actors to mount an effective response. We developed a framework for considering responses to both climate variability and change that is relevant to analysis at a variety of geographic scales. Our Vulnerability-Resilience Assessment methodology is an indicator-based prototype model that calculates the overall vulnerability or resilience of an area to climate variability and change. The model integrates information on the climate sensitivity of five sectors or areas of activity (food security, water resources, human settlements, ecosystem services, and human health) with information on economic, human resources, and environmental capacity to cope or adapt to variability and change. The model can be used for both static assessment of vulnerability at a point in time as well as for assessing how vulnerability and resilience would evolve in the future under different assumptions of socio-economic and environmental change. When coupled with uncertainty analysis, the modeling system can be used to identify those factors that have the most influence on vulnerability and capacity to adapt to variability and change. . The current realization of the model is tested at a national scale for both baseline (1990) conditions for conditions envisioned to evolve in the future under three scenarios developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES). Of the 38 countries analyzed, 16 countries are considered more vulnerable than the world as a whole, while by the end of this century only one country remains vulnerable in the rapid growth scenario, three countries in the local sustainability scenario, and nine countries in the delayed development scenario. The main factor, at the national level, determining coping and adaptive capacity is economic growth, while the main sensitive factor is water availability, but the different countries differ significantly with regard to which factors play the determining roles. The model results and analysis of the interactions among proxies and sectors provide insights about where countries might focus their efforts in building resilience. In future work with the indicators and model, we will explore additional qualitative and quantitative indicators at other scales and connect climate variability and change to socioeconomic conditions.

Brenkert, A.; Malone, E. L.; Moss, R.

2002-05-01

398

Humanitarian responses to mass violence perpetrated against vulnerable populations.  

PubMed Central

This multidisciplinary review links three areas of legitimate inquiry for practitioners of medicine and public health. The first is occurrences of mass violence or genocide perpetrated against vulnerable populations, with a focus on the failure of national and international mechanisms to prevent or predict such violence. The second is evolving concepts of national sovereignty and an emerging framework in which the imperative to assist vulnerable populations supersedes a state's right to self determination. The last is how medical, public health, and other systems of surveillance and rapid assessment of mass violence can accelerate public awareness and facilitate structured, consistent political decision making to prevent mass violence and to provide international humanitarian assistance. Images p1000-a PMID:7580643

Gellert, G. A.

1995-01-01

399

Vulnerability of a killer whale social network to disease outbreaks.  

PubMed

Emerging infectious diseases are among the main threats to conservation of biological diversity. A crucial task facing epidemiologists is to predict the vulnerability of populations of endangered animals to disease outbreaks. In this context, the network structure of social interactions within animal populations may affect disease spreading. However, endangered animal populations are often small and to investigate the dynamics of small networks is a difficult task. Using network theory, we show that the social structure of an endangered population of mammal-eating killer whales is vulnerable to disease outbreaks. This feature was found to be a consequence of the combined effects of the topology and strength of social links among individuals. Our results uncover a serious challenge for conservation of the species and its ecosystem. In addition, this study shows that the network approach can be useful to study dynamical processes in very small networks. PMID:17995045

Guimarães, Paulo R; de Menezes, Márcio Argollo; Baird, Robin W; Lusseau, David; Guimarães, Paulo; dos Reis, Sérgio F

2007-10-01

400

Dyadic Vulnerability and Risk Profiling for Elder Neglect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Neglect of older adults accounts for 60% to 70% of all elder-mistreatment reports made to adult protective services. The purpose of this article is to re- port data from research, using a risk-and-vulnerability model, that captures the independent contributions of both the elder and the caregiver as they relate to theoutcomeofneglect. Methods: Between February 2001 and September 2003, older

Terry Fulmer; Gregory Paveza; Carla VandeWeerd; Susan Fairchild; Lisa Guadagno; Marguarette Bolton-Blatt; Robert Norman

2005-01-01

401

Vulnerability and Gambling Addiction: Psychosocial Benchmarks and Avenues for Intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defined by researchers as “a silent epidemic” the gambling phenomenon is a social problem that has a negative impact on individuals,\\u000a families and communities. Among these effects, there is exasperating evidence of comprised community networks, a deterioration\\u000a of family and social ties, psychiatric co-morbidity, suicides and more recently, homelessness. In this context, individual,\\u000a structural and social vulnerabilities become important markers

Amnon Jacob Suissa

2011-01-01

402

Regional differences of vulnerability of food security in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of food affordability and the threshold for food security, this paper has established an integrated index for assessing\\u000a the vulnerability of food security in China, which is composed mainly of the balance between food supply and demand, the reserve\\u000a for food security and the economic capacity for offset food demand. Six types of food security regions are identified

Peihong Yin; Xiuqi Fang; Yaru Yun

2009-01-01

403

Activity Dependent Degeneration Explains Hub Vulnerability in Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Brain connectivity studies have revealed that highly connected ‘hub’ regions are particularly vulnerable to Alzheimer pathology: they show marked amyloid-? deposition at an early stage. Recently, excessive local neuronal activity has been shown to increase amyloid deposition. In this study we use a computational model to test the hypothesis that hub regions possess the highest level of activity and that hub vulnerability in Alzheimer's disease is due to this feature. Cortical brain regions were modeled as neural masses, each describing the average activity (spike density and spectral power) of a large number of interconnected excitatory and inhibitory neurons. The large-scale network consisted of 78 neural masses, connected according to a human DTI-based cortical topology. Spike density and spectral power were positively correlated with structural and functional node degrees, confirming the high activity of hub regions, also offering a possible explanation for high resting state Default Mode Network activity. ‘Activity dependent degeneration’ (ADD) was simulated by lowering synaptic strength as a function of the spike density of the main excitatory neurons, and compared to random degeneration. Resulting structural and functional network changes were assessed with graph theoretical analysis. Effects of ADD included oscillatory slowing, loss of spectral power and long-range synchronization, hub vulnerability, and disrupted functional network topology. Observed transient increases in spike density and functional connectivity match reports in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) patients, and may not be compensatory but pathological. In conclusion, the assumption of excessive neuronal activity leading to degeneration provides a possible explanation for hub vulnerability in Alzheimer's disease, supported by the observed relation between connectivity and activity and the reproduction of several neurophysiologic hallmarks. The insight that neuronal activity might play a causal role in Alzheimer's disease can have implications for early detection and interventional strategies. PMID:22915996

de Haan, Willem; Mott, Katherine; van Straaten, Elisabeth C. W.; Scheltens, Philip; Stam, Cornelis J.

2012-01-01

404

Chapter 2 Vulnerability of Marine Turtles to Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine turtles are generally viewed as vulnerable to climate change because of the role that temperature plays in the sex determination of embryos, their long life history, long age-to-maturity and their highly migratory nature. Extant species of marine turtles probably arose during the mid–late Jurassic period (180–150 Mya) so have survived past shifts in climate, including glacial periods and warm

Elvira S. Poloczanska; Colin J. Limpus; Graeme C. Hays

2009-01-01

405

A vulnerability function for Mediterranean flash flood risk assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood risk is a major type of environmental hazard jeopardizing human development, and is usually defined as a functional relation between the hazard, such as the physical and statistical aspects of flooding (e.g. return period of a certain flow height, spatial extend of inundation), and the associated vulnerability, i.e. the exposure of people and assets to floods and the susceptibility of the elements at risk to suffer from flood damage. The assessment of vulnerability -from the quantitative point of view- expresses vulnerability as the expected degree of loss for a given element at risk as a consequence of a certain event. It is ranges on a scale from 0 (no damage) to 1 (complete destruction) and focuses on direct flood loss which is estimated by damage or loss functions. A methodology for the development of a vulnerability curve for Mediterranean flash flood risk assessment is presented. This curve is based on a relationship between the intensity of the process and the associated degree of loss of elements at risk. The computation procedure is based on a method combining spatially explicit loss data, data on the value of exposed elements at risk and data on flood intensities on an individual building scale (local scale). The developed methodology is applied for the district of East Attica in Greece, a Mediterranean region influenced by mountain and coastal characteristics of land development. The aim of the study is to provide a valuable tool for the local authorities and the decision makers, a necessary implementation of flood risk management emerging from the requirements laid down in the European Flood Directive, as well as for an assessment of potential costs emerging from future flood events in order to protect individual households.

Karagiorgos, Konstantinos; Hübl, Johannes; Thaler, Thomas; Fuchs, Sven

2014-05-01

406

Homeless Youth in Toronto Are Nutritionally Vulnerable1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to characterize nutritional vulnerability among a sample of homeless youth in downtown Toronto. Interviews were conducted with 261 homeless youth (149 male, 112 female), recruited from drop-in centers and outdoor locations. Information about current living circumstances, nutrition and health- related behaviors, and 24-h dietary intake recalls were collected, and height, weight, triceps skinfold thickness, and mid-upper

Valerie Tarasuk; Naomi Dachner; Jinguang Li

407

Vulnerability assessment of rainfall-induced debris flows in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A GIS-based decision support system, which incorporates local topographic and rainfall effects on debris flow vulnerability\\u000a is developed. Rainfall at a scale compatible with the digital elevation model resolution is obtained using a neural network\\u000a with a wind-induced topographic effect and rainfall derived from satellite rain estimates and an adaptive inverse distance\\u000a weight method (WTNN). The technique is tested using

George Y. Lu; Long S. Chiu; David W. Wong

2007-01-01

408

BrowserShield: Vulnerability-Driven Filtering of Dynamic HTML  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vulnerability-driven filtering of network data can offer a fast and easy-to-deploy alternative or intermediary to software patching, as exemplified in Shield (43). In this paper, we take Shield's vision to a new domain, inspect- ing and cleansing not just static content, but also dy- namic content. The dynamic content we target is the dynamic HTML in web pages, which have

Charles Reis; John Dunagany; Helen J. Wangy Opher

409

BrowserShield: Vulnerability-Driven Filtering of Dynamic HTML  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vulnerability-driven filtering of network data can offer a fast and easy-to-deploy alternative or intermediary to software patching, as exemplified in Shield (43). In this paper, we take Shield's vision to a new domain, inspect- ing and cleansing not just static content, but also dy- namic content. The dynamic content we target is the dynamic HTML in web pages, which have

Charles Reis; John Dunagan; Helen J. Wang; Opher Dubrovsky; Saher Esmeir

2006-01-01

410

Poverty, vulnerability, and provision of healthcare in Afghanistan.  

PubMed

This paper presents findings on conditions of healthcare delivery in Afghanistan. There is an ongoing debate about barriers to healthcare in low-income as well as fragile states. In 2002, the Government of Afghanistan established a Basic Package of Health Services (BPHS), contracting primary healthcare delivery to non-state providers. The priority was to give access to the most vulnerable groups: women, children, disabled persons, and the poorest households. In 2005, we conducted a nationwide survey, and using a logistic regression model, investigated provider choice. We also measured associations between perceived availability and usefulness of healthcare providers. Our results indicate that the implementation of the package has partially reached its goal: to target the most vulnerable. The pattern of use of healthcare provider suggests that disabled people, female-headed households, and poorest households visited health centres more often (during the year preceding the survey interview). But these vulnerable groups faced more difficulties while using health centres, hospitals as well as private providers and their out-of-pocket expenditure was higher than other groups. In the model of provider choice, time to travel reduces the likelihood for all Afghans of choosing health centres and hospitals. We situate these findings in the larger context of current debates regarding healthcare delivery for vulnerable populations in fragile state environments. The 'scaling-up process' is faced with several issues that jeopardize the objective of equitable access: cost of care, coverage of remote areas, and competition from profit-orientated providers. To overcome these structural barriers, we suggest reinforcing processes of transparency, accountability and participation. PMID:20359809

Trani, Jean-Francois; Bakhshi, Parul; Noor, Ayan A; Lopez, Dominique; Mashkoor, Ashraf

2010-06-01

411

Inhibitory Processing of Sad Facial Expressions and Depression Vulnerability  

E-print Network

that take place on a brief time scale, ERP research, with its precise temporal resolution, is 12 uniquely positioned to help elucidate how attentional processes are instantiated in time within particular neurocognitive systems. In terms... with respect to attentional ERP waveform components could shed light on depression vulnerability at a neurocognitive level of analysis. Selective Attention ERP Components ERP waveform components related to aspects of selective attention include the N200...

Bistricky, Steven L.

2010-05-17

412

Quantifying water vulnerability: a multi-dimensional approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In today’s uncertain world, vulnerability of water supplies is of increasing concern. A number of factors influence this,\\u000a ranging from physical conditions through to human management capacities. Across the Orange River Basin in southern Africa,\\u000a these threats arise from overpopulation and farming pressure, with agrochemical and industrial runoff as well as harsh weather\\u000a conditions giving rise to severe problems of

Caroline A. Sullivan

2011-01-01

413

Vulnerability of benthic habitats to the aquatic invasive species  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative vulnerability analysis of 16 selected benthic habitat types in the SE Baltic Sea waters and the Curonian lagoon,\\u000a including Klaipeda strait, was performed using long-term monitoring datasets (1980–2003) and results of several other surveys\\u000a in the lagoon and the sea. Results indicated that invasive species richness (number of alien species per habitat) in lagoon\\u000a habitats was significantly higher

Anastasija Zaiko; Sergej Olenin; Darius Daunys; Tomas Nalepa

2007-01-01

414

Martyrdom redefined: self-destructive killers and vulnerable narcissism.  

PubMed

Lankford shows that suicide terrorists have much in common with maladjusted persons who die by suicide. However, what differentiates suicidal killers from those who "only" commit suicide? A key element may be vulnerable narcissism. Narcissism has been simultaneously linked to interpersonal aggression, achievement, and depression. These traits may explain the paradoxical picture of a person who may appear "normal" in some aspects, and yet hate himself and others so intensely as to seek mutual destruction. PMID:25162842

Bobadilla, Leonardo

2014-08-01

415

Correlates of vulnerability among arthropod species threatened by invasive ants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive species are causing population declines and extinctions of native species worldwide. Correlates of species vulnerability,\\u000a which help identify at-risk taxa, are not well developed for arthropods, particularly with respect to threats from invasive\\u000a species. At five sites undergoing invasion by ants in the Hawaiian Islands, we assessed body size, population density, trophic\\u000a role and provenance (introduced or endemic to

Paul D. KrushelnyckyRosemary; Rosemary G. Gillespie

2010-01-01

416

Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Change and Global Market Developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a As many crops are sensitive to changes in temperature and precipitation, agriculture is especially vulnerable to climate events.\\u000a This may prove critical in tropical regions where most agriculture is in rain-fed systems and climate change may have a potentially\\u000a large influence on productivity. By adversely affecting food and water resources, climate change thus threatens progress and\\u000a efforts made in poverty

Franziska Mannke; Kathrin Rath

417

Country Stakes in Climate Change Negotiations. Two Dimensions of Vulnerability  

SciTech Connect

Using a comprehensive geo-referenced database of indicators relating to global change and energy, the paper assesses countries' likely attitudes with respect to international treaties that regulate carbon emissions. The authors distinguish between source and impact vulnerability and classify countries according to these dimensions. The findings show clear differences in the factors that determine likely negotiating positions. This analysis and the resulting detailed, country level information help to explain the incentives required to make the establishment of such agreements more likely.

Buys, P.; Deichmann, U.; Meisner, C. [Development Research Group, World Bank, Washington DC (United States); That, Thao Ton [UN Environment Programme, Geneva (Switzerland); Wheeler, D. [Center for Global Development, Washington DC (United States)

2007-08-15

418

Collateral DNA Damage Makes Cancer Vulnerable | Physical Sciences in Oncology  

Cancer.gov

Genomic deletions promote cancer by disrupting or eliminating tumor-suppressor genes. Based on new results from researchers at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute at Harvard Medical School, it appears that these so-called driver mutations produce collateral damage on neighboring genes that actually exposes cancer cells to vulnerabilities and new avenues for attack.

419

Socioeconomic Factors and Vulnerability to Outbreaks of Leptospirosis in Nicaragua  

PubMed Central

Leptospirosis is an epidemic-prone zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide, with more than 500,000 human cases reported annually. It is influenced by environmental and socioeconomic factors that affect the occurrence of outbreaks and the incidence of the disease. Critical areas and potential drivers for leptospirosis outbreaks have been identified in Nicaragua, where several conditions converge and create an appropriate scenario for the development of leptospirosis. The objectives of this study were to explore possible socioeconomic variables related to leptospirosis critical areas and to construct and validate a vulnerability index based on municipal socioeconomic indicators. Municipalities with lower socioeconomic status (greater unsatisfied basic needs for quality of the household and for sanitary services, and higher extreme poverty and illiteracy rates) were identified with the highest leptospirosis rates. The municipalities with highest local vulnerability index should be the priority for intervention. A distinction between risk given by environmental factors and vulnerability to risk given by socioeconomic conditions was shown as important, which also applies to the “causes of outbreaks” and “causes of cases”. PMID:25153463

Bacallao, Jorge; Schneider, Maria Cristina; Najera, Patricia; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Soto, Aida; Marquiño, Wilmer; Sáenz, Carlos; Jiménez, Eduardo; Moreno, Gilberto; Chávez, Octavio; Galan, Deise I.; Espinal, Marcos A.

2014-01-01

420

General Vulnerability and Exposure Profile to Tsunami in Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Puerto Rico archipelago, located in the seismically active Caribbean region, has been directly affected by tsunamis in the last two centuries. The M 7.3 tsunamigenic earthquake, which occurred on October 11, 1918, caused $29 million in damage, death of 116 people and 100 residents were reported as missing. Presently, deficiencies on urban planning have induced an increase on the number of vulnerable people living inside the tsunami flood areas. Tsunami-prone areas have been delimited for Puerto Rico based on numerical tsunami modeling. However, the demographic, social and physical (e.g. critical and essential facilities) characteristics of these areas have not been documented in detail. We are conducting a municipality and community-level tsunami vulnerability and exposure study using Geographical Information System (GIS) tool. The results of our study are being integrated into the Puerto Rico Disaster Decision Support Tool (DDST). The DDST is a tool that brings access, at no cost, to a variety of updated geo-referenced information for Puerto Rico. This tool provides internet-based scalable maps that will aid emergency managers and decision-makers on their responsibilities and will improve Puerto Rico communities' resilience against tsunami hazard. This project aims to provide an initial estimate of Puerto Rico vulnerability and exposure to tsunami and brings to the community a technological tool that will help increase their awareness of this hazard and to assist them on their decisions.

Ruiz, R.; Huérfano-Moreno, V.

2012-12-01

421

Rapid Assessment of Seismic Vulnerability in Palestinian Refugee Camps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of historical and recorded earthquakes in Palestine demonstrate that damaging earthquakes are occurring frequently along the Dead Sea Transform: Earthquake of 11 July 1927 (ML 6.2), Earthquake of 11 February 2004 (ML 5.2). In order to reduce seismic vulnerability of buildings, losses in lives, properties and infrastructures, an attempt was made to estimate the percentage of damage degrees and losses at selected refugee camps: Al Ama`ri, Balata and Dhaishe. Assessing the vulnerability classes of building structures was carried out according to the European Macro-Seismic Scale 1998 (EMS-98) and the Fedral Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The rapid assessment results showed that very heavy structural and non structural damages will occur in the common buildings of the investigated Refugee Camps (many buildings will suffer from damages grades 4 and 5). Bad quality of buildings in terms of design and construction, lack of uniformity, absence of spaces between the building and the limited width of roads will definitely increase the seismic vulnerability under the influence of moderate-strong (M 6-7) earthquakes in the future.

Al-Dabbeek, Jalal N.; El-Kelani, Radwan J.

422

Hierarchical statistical modeling of xylem vulnerability to cavitation.  

PubMed

Cavitation of xylem elements diminishes the water transport capacity of plants, and quantifying xylem vulnerability to cavitation is important to understanding plant function. Current approaches to analyzing hydraulic conductivity (K) data to infer vulnerability to cavitation suffer from problems such as the use of potentially unrealistic vulnerability curves, difficulty interpreting parameters in these curves, a statistical framework that ignores sampling design, and an overly simplistic view of uncertainty. This study illustrates how two common curves (exponential-sigmoid and Weibull) can be reparameterized in terms of meaningful parameters: maximum conductivity (k(sat)), water potential (-P) at which percentage loss of conductivity (PLC) =X% (P(X)), and the slope of the PLC curve at P(X) (S(X)), a 'sensitivity' index. We provide a hierarchical Bayesian method for fitting the reparameterized curves to K(H) data. We illustrate the method using data for roots and stems of two populations of Juniperus scopulorum and test for differences in k(sat), P(X), and S(X) between different groups. Two important results emerge from this study. First, the Weibull model is preferred because it produces biologically realistic estimates of PLC near P = 0 MPa. Second, stochastic embolisms contribute an important source of uncertainty that should be included in such analyses. PMID:19210723

Ogle, Kiona; Barber, Jarrett J; Willson, Cynthia; Thompson, Brenda

2009-01-01

423

Prenatal drug exposure effects on subsequent vulnerability to drug abuse.  

PubMed

Research has shown that both prenatal alcohol and tobacco exposure are associated with increased risk of significant adverse medical, developmental, and behavioral outcomes including substance abuse. Research on the outcomes of prenatal exposure to illicit drugs (PNDE) has also found increased physical and behavioral problems for gestationally drug-exposed children. However, a clear picture has not emerged on whether the consequences of PNDE are independent from those associated with having a substance abusing parent and whether PNDE increases vulnerability to drug abuse. Because of its typical co-occurrence with factors inherent in having a drug-abusing parent, PNDE is at least a marker of significant increased risk for a range of negative outcomes including greater vulnerability to substance abuse. Although a review of the relevant research literatures indicates that the direct consequences of PNDE appear to be generally both subtle and nonglobal, PNDE does appear to have negative developmental and behavioral outcomes, and there is evidence that it is a modest direct contributor to increased substance abuse vulnerability. PMID:17152406

Glantz, Meyer D; Chambers, Jessica Campbell

2006-01-01

424

Improving delivery of primary care for vulnerable migrants  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To identify and prioritize innovative strategies to address the health concerns of vulnerable migrant populations. Design Modified Delphi consensus process. Setting Canada. Participants Forty-one primary care practitioners, including family physicians and nurse practitioners, who provided care for migrant populations. Methods We used a modified Delphi consensus process to identify and prioritize innovative strategies that could potentially improve the delivery of primary health care for vulnerable migrants. Forty-one primary care practitioners from various centres across Canada who cared for migrant populations proposed strategies and participated in the consensus process. Main findings The response rate was 93% for the first round. The 3 most highly ranked practice strategies to address delivery challenges for migrants were language interpretation, comprehensive interdisciplinary care, and evidence-based guidelines. Training and mentorship for practitioners, intersectoral collaboration, and immigrant community engagement ranked fourth, fifth, and sixth, respectively, as strategies to address delivery challenges. These strategies aligned with strategies coming out of the United States, Europe, and Australia, with the exception of the proposed evidence-based guidelines. Conclusion Primary health care practices across Canada now need to evolve to address the challenges inherent in caring for vulnerable migrants. The selected strategies provide guidance for practices and health systems interested in improving health care delivery for migrant populations. PMID:24452576

Pottie, Kevin; Batista, Ricardo; Mayhew, Maureen; Mota, Lorena; Grant, Karen

2014-01-01

425

Vulnerability assessment towards tsunami threats using multisensoral remote sensing data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The occurrence of a tsunami, a set of oceans waves caused by any large, abrupt disturbance of the sea surface, hitting a vulnerable system on land can cause massive loss of life, destruction of coastal infrastructure and disruption of economic activity. Vulnerability assessment and risk modelling are important components for an effective end-to-end hazard early warning system and therefore contribute significantly to disaster risk reduction. The focus of this study is on the capabilities and synergistic usage of multisensoral remotely sensed data to contribute to these complex tasks. We use medium and high resolution optical satellite data (Landsat and Ikonos), high resolution radar data from TerraSAR-X as well as a digital elevation model to provide multiple products for the assessment of spatial vulnerability in case of a tsunami impact on the heterogeneous and highly structured coastal urban area of Padang, Indonesia. Results include physical indicators like dimension and location of urbanization, quantification of potentially affected buildings, the identification of safe areas as well as a time-dependent population assessment.

Taubenböck, Hannes; Wurm, Michael; Post, Joachim; Roth, Achim; Strunz, Günter; Dech, Stefan

2009-09-01

426

An approach for modeling vulnerability of the network of networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a framework is given to model the network of networks and to investigate the vulnerability of the network of networks subjected to failures. Because there are several redundant systems in infrastructure systems, the dependent intensity between two networks is introduced and adopted to discuss the vulnerability of the interdependent infrastructure networks subjected to failures. Shanghai electrified rail transit network is used to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed framework. Because the rail network is dependent on the power grid and communication network, the corresponding power grid and communication network are also included in this system. Meanwhile the failures to the power grid and communication network are utilized to investigate the vulnerability of the rail network. The results show that the rail network strongly depends on the power grid and weakly depends on the communication network, and the transport functionality loss of the rail network increases with the increase of dependent intensity. Meanwhile the highest betweenness node-based attack to the power grid and the largest degree node-based attack to the communication network can result in the most functionality losses to the rail network. Moreover, the functionality loss of the rail network has the smallest value when the tolerance parameter of the power grid equals 0.75 and the critical nodes of the power grid and communication network can be obtained by simulations.

Zhang, Jianhua; Song, Bo; Zhang, Zhaojun; Liu, Haikuan

2014-10-01

427

Life histories predict vulnerability to overexploitation in parrotfishes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scarcity of life-history data currently exists for many exploited coral reef fishes, hindering our ability to interpret fishery dynamics and develop sound conservation policies. In particular, parrotfishes (Family Labridae) represent a ubiquitous and ecologically important group that is increasingly prevalent in commercial and artisanal fisheries worldwide. We used both fishery-dependent and fishery-independent data to examine the effect of life histories on vulnerability to overexploitation in parrotfishes. Vulnerability for each species was derived from independent measures associated with both temporal (20-year catch records) and spatial datasets. Most life-history traits examined were significant predictors of vulnerability across species, but their relative utility differed considerably. Length-based traits (e.g., lengths at maturity and sex change, maximum length) were generally superior to age-based traits (e.g., life span), but one age-based trait, age at female maturation, was the best predictor. The results suggest that easily derived metrics such as maximum length can be effective measures of sensitivity to exploitation when applied to phylogenetically related multispecies assemblages, but more holistic and comprehensive age-based demographic data should be sought, especially in data-deficient and heavily impacted regions. Given the increasing prevalence of parrotfishes in the global coral reef harvest, species-specific responses demonstrate the capacity for heavy fishing pressure to alter parrotfish assemblages considerably.

Taylor, Brett M.; Houk, Peter; Russ, Garry R.; Choat, J. Howard

2014-12-01

428

Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment for Idaho National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The University of Idaho (UI) was asked to participate in the development of a climate change vulnerability assessment for Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This report describes the outcome of that assessment. The climate change happening now, due in large part to human activities, is expected to continue in the future. UI and INL used a common framework for assessing vulnerability that considers exposure (future climate change), sensitivity (system or component responses to climate), impact (exposure combined with sensitivity), and adaptive capacity (capability of INL to modify operations to minimize climate change impacts) to assess vulnerability. Analyses of climate change (exposure) revealed that warming that is ongoing at INL will continue in the coming decades, with increased warming in later decades and under scenarios of greater greenhouse gas emissions. Projections of precipitation are more uncertain, with multi model means exhibiting somewhat wetter conditions and more wet days per year. Additional impacts relevant to INL include estimates of more burned area and increased evaporation and transpiration, leading to reduced soil moisture and plant growth.

Christopher P. Ischay; Ernest L. Fossum; Polly C. Buotte; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Alexander Peterson

2014-10-01

429

Assessment of floodplain vulnerability during extreme Mississippi River flood 2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Regional change in the variability and magnitude of flooding could be a major consequence of future global climate change. Extreme floods have the capacity to rapidly transform landscapes and expose landscape vulnerabilities through highly variable spatial patterns of inundation, erosion, and deposition. We use the historic activation of the Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway during the Mississippi and Ohio River Flooding of 2011 as a scientifically unique stress experiment to analyze indicators of floodplain vulnerability. We use pre- and postflood airborne Light Detection and Ranging data sets to locate erosional and depositional hotspots over the 540 km2 agricultural Floodway. While riparian vegetation between the river and the main levee breach likely prevented widespread deposition, localized scour and deposition occurred near the levee breaches. Eroded gullies nearly 1 km in length were observed at a low ridge of a relict meander scar of the Mississippi River. Our flow modeling and spatial mapping analysis attributes this vulnerability to a combination of erodible soils, flow acceleration associated with legacy fluvial landforms, and a lack of woody vegetation to anchor soil and enhance flow resistance. Results from this study could guide future mitigation and adaptation measures in cases of extreme flooding.

Goodwell, Allison E.; Zhu, Zhenduo; Dutta, Debsunder; Greenberg, Jonathan A.; Kumar, Praveen; Garcia, Marcelo H.; Rhoads, Bruce L.; Holmes, Robert R.; Parker, Gary; Berretta, David P.; Jacobson, Robert B.

2014-01-01

430

Assessment of floodplain vulnerability during extreme mississippi river flood 2011.  

PubMed

Regional change in the variability and magnitude of flooding could be a major consequence of future global climate change. Extreme floods have the capacity to rapidly transform landscapes and expose landscape vulnerabilities through highly variable spatial patterns of inundation, erosion, and deposition. We use the historic activation of the Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway during the Mississippi and Ohio River Flooding of 2011 as a scientifically unique stress experiment to analyze indicators of floodplain vulnerability. We use pre- and postflood airborne Light Detection and Ranging data sets to locate erosional and depositional hotspots over the 540 km(2) agricultural Floodway. While riparian vegetation between the river and the main levee breach likely prevented widespread deposition, localized scour and deposition occurred near the levee breaches. Eroded gullies nearly 1 km in length were observed at a low ridge of a relict meander scar of the Mississippi River. Our flow modeling and spatial mapping analysis attributes this vulnerability to a combination of erodible soils, flow acceleration associated with legacy fluvial landforms, and a lack of woody vegetation to anchor soil and enhance flow resistance. Results from this study could guide future mitigation and adaptation measures in cases of extreme flooding. PMID:24512322

Goodwell, Allison E; Zhu, Zhenduo; Dutta, Debsunder; Greenberg, Jonathan A; Kumar, Praveen; Garcia, Marcelo H; Rhoads, Bruce L; Holmes, Robert R; Parker, Gary; Berretta, David P; Jacobson, Robert B

2014-03-01

431

Parkinson’s disease: animal models and dopaminergic cell vulnerability  

PubMed Central

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects about 1.5% of the global population over 65 years of age. A hallmark feature of PD is the degeneration of the dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and the consequent striatal DA deficiency. Yet, the pathogenesis of PD remains unclear. Despite tremendous growth in recent years in our knowledge of the molecular basis of PD and the molecular pathways of cell death, important questions remain, such as: (1) why are SNc cells especially vulnerable; (2) which mechanisms underlie progressive SNc cell loss; and (3) what do Lewy bodies or ?-synuclein reveal about disease progression. Understanding the variable vulnerability of the dopaminergic neurons from the midbrain and the mechanisms whereby pathology becomes widespread are some of the primary objectives of research in PD. Animal models are the best tools to study the pathogenesis of PD. The identification of PD-related genes has led to the development of genetic PD models as an alternative to the classical toxin-based ones, but does the dopaminergic neuronal loss in actual animal models adequately recapitulate that of the human disease? The selection of a particular animal model is very important for the specific goals of the different experiments. In this review, we provide a summary of our current knowledge about the different in vivo models of PD that are used in relation to the vulnerability of the dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain in the pathogenesis of PD. PMID:25565980

Blesa, Javier; Przedborski, Serge

2014-01-01

432

Vulnerability to temperature-related mortality in Seoul, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies indicate that the mortality effects of temperature may vary by population and region, although little is known about the vulnerability of subgroups to these risks in Korea. This study examined the relationship between temperature and cause-specific mortality for Seoul, Korea, for the period 2000-7, including whether some subgroups are particularly vulnerable with respect to sex, age, education and place of death. The authors applied time-series models allowing nonlinear relationships for heat- and cold-related mortality, and generated exposure-response curves. Both high and low ambient temperatures were associated with increased risk for daily mortality. Mortality risk was 10.2% (95% confidence interval 7.43, 13.0%) higher at the 90th percentile of daily mean temperatures (25 °C) compared to the 50th percentile (15 °C). Mortality risk was 12.2% (3.69, 21.3%) comparing the 10th (-1 °C) and 50th percentiles of temperature. Cardiovascular deaths showed a higher risk to cold, whereas respiratory deaths showed a higher risk to heat effect, although the differences were not statistically significant. Susceptible populations were identified such as females, the elderly, those with no education, and deaths occurring outside of a hospital for heat- and cold-related total mortality. Our findings provide supportive evidence of a temperature-mortality relationship in Korea and indicate that some subpopulations are particularly vulnerable.

Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jong-Tae; Anderson, G. Brooke; Bell, Michelle L.

2011-07-01

433

Putting vulnerability to climate change on the map: a review of approaches, benefits, and risks  

SciTech Connect

There is growing demand among stakeholders across public and private institutions for spatially-explicit information regarding vulnerability to climate change at the local scale. However, the challenges associated with mapping the geography of climate change vulnerability are non-trivial, both conceptually and technically, suggesting the need for more critical evaluation of this practice. Here, we review climate change vulnerability mapping in the context of four key questions that are fundamental to assessment design. First, what are the goals of the assessment? A review of published assessments yields a range of objective statements that emphasize problem orientation or decision-making about adaptation actions. Second, how is the assessment of vulnerability framed? Assessments vary with respect to what values are assessed (vulnerability of what) and the underlying determinants of vulnerability that are considered (vulnerability to what). The selected frame ultimately influences perceptions of the primary driving forces of vulnerability as well as preferences regarding management alternatives. Third, what are the technical methods by which an assessment is conducted? The integration of vulnerability determinants into a common map remains an emergent and subjective practice associated with a number of methodological challenges. Fourth, who participates in the assessment and how will it be used to facilitate change? Assessments are often conducted under the auspices of benefiting stakeholders, yet many lack direct engagement with stakeholders. Each of these questions is reviewed in turn by drawing on an illustrative set of 45 vulnerability mapping studies appearing in the literature. A number of pathways for placing vulnerability

Preston, Benjamin L [ORNL

2011-01-01

434

Assessment Model of Ecoenvironmental Vulnerability Based on Improved Entropy Weight Method  

PubMed Central

Assessment of ecoenvironmental vulnerability plays an important role in the guidance of regional planning, the construction and protection of ecological environment, which requires comprehensive consideration on regional resources, environment, ecology, society and other factors. Based on the driving mechanism and evolution characteristics of ecoenvironmental vulnerability in cold and arid regions of China, a novel evaluation index system on ecoenvironmental vulnerability is proposed in this paper. For the disadvantages of conventional entropy weight method, an improved entropy weight assessment model on ecoenvironmental vulnerability is developed and applied to evaluate the ecoenvironmental vulnerability in western Jilin Province of China. The assessing results indicate that the model is suitable for ecoenvironmental vulnerability assessment, and it shows more reasonable evaluation criterion, more distinct insights and satisfactory results combined with the practical conditions. The model can provide a new method for regional ecoenvironmental vulnerability evaluation. PMID:25133260

Zhang, Xianqi; Wang, Chenbo; Li, Enkuan; Xu, Cundong

2014-01-01

435

Spectral CT imaging of vulnerable plaque with two independent biomarkers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of a novel four-material decomposition technique for assessing the vulnerability of plaque with two contrast materials spectral computer tomography (CT) using two independent markers: plaque's inflammation and spotty calcification. A simulation study was conducted using an energy-sensitive photon-counting detector for k-edge imaging of the coronary arteries. In addition to detecting the inflammation status, which is known as a biological marker of a plaque's vulnerability, we use spotty calcium concentration as an independent marker to test a plaque's vulnerability. We have introduced a new method for detecting and quantifying calcium concentrations in the presence of two contrast materials (iodine and gold), calcium and soft tissue background. In this method, four-material decomposition was performed on a pixel-by-pixel basis, assuming there was an arbitrary mixture of materials in the voxel. The concentrations of iodine and gold were determined by the k-edge material decomposition based on the maximum likelihood method. The calibration curves of the attenuation coefficients, with respect to the concentrations of different materials, were used to separate the calcium signal from both contrast materials and different soft tissues in the mixtures. Three different materials (muscle, blood and lipid) were independently used as soft tissue. The simulations included both ideal and more realistic energy resolving detectors to measure the polychromatic photon spectrum in single slice parallel beam geometry. The ideal detector was used together with a 3 cm diameter digital phantom to demonstrate the decomposition method while a more realistic detector and a 33 × 24 cm2 digital chest phantom were simulated to validate the vulnerability assessment technique. A 120 kVp spectrum was generated to produce photon flux sufficient for detecting contrast materials above the k-edges of iodine (33.2 keV) and gold (80.7 keV). By performing simulations on a 3 cm diameter digital phantom, we successfully identified four materials that were simultaneously present in the mixture at different proportions and in multiple locations on the phantom. Quantitative analysis with a chest digital phantom showed that the results for iodine, gold and calcium were highly correlated with the known concentrations. The analysis revealed a potentially powerful technique for assessing a plaque's vulnerability with two independent markers. High correlation and low relative errors between calculated and known materials’ concentrations showed that the method is feasible. This technique can potentially have a high clinical impact.

Baturin, Pavlo; Alivov, Yahya; Molloi, Sabee

2012-07-01

436

European information on climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vulnerability to natural and technological disasters is increasing due to a combination of intensifying land use, increasing industrial development, further urban expansion and expanding infrastructure and also climate change. At EU level the European Commission's White Paper on adaptation to climate change (published in 2009) highlights that adaptation actions should be focused on the most vulnerable areas and communities in Europe (e.g. mountains, coastal areas, river flood prone areas, Mediterranean, Arctic). Mainstreaming of climate change into existing EU policies will be a key policy, including within the Water Framework Directive, Marine Strategy Framework Directive, Nature protection and biodiversity policies, integrated coastal zone management, other (sectoral) policies (agriculture, forestry, energy, transport, health) and disaster risk prevention. 2010 is the international year on biodiversity and the Conference of Parties of the biodiversity convention will meet in autumn 2010 (Japan) to discuss amongst other post-2010 strategies, objectives and indicators. Both within the Biodiversity Convention (CBD) and the Climate Change Convention (UNFCCC) there is increasing recognition of the need for integration of biodiversity conservation into climate change mitigation and adaptation activities. Furthermore a number of European countries and also some regions have started to prepare and/or have adopted national adaptation plans or frameworks. Sharing of good practices on climate change vulnerability methods and adaptation actions is so far limited, but is essential to improve such plans, at national, sub national and local level where much of the adaptation action is already taking place and will be expanding in future, also involving increasingly the business community. The EU Clearinghouse on CC impacts, vulnerability and adaptation should address these needs and it is planned to be operational end of 2011. The EEA is expected to have a role in its development in 2010 and is likely to manage the system after 2011. The European Commission in its Communication in 2009 on disaster risk prevention also calls for improving and better sharing of data on disasters, disaster risk mapping and disaster risk management, in the context of the EU civil protection mechanism. Such information might also be linked to the planned EU Clearinghouse on climate change adaptation. The activities of EEA on climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation (including disaster risk reduction) include indicators of the impacts of climate change; a regularly updated overview of national assessments and adaptation plans on the EEA web site and specific focused reports, e.g. on adaptation to the challenges of changing water resources in the Alps (2009) and on analysis of past trends in natural disasters (due in 2010) and regular expert meetings and workshops with EEA member countries. The ECAC presentation will include the latest developments in the EU Clearinghouse on adaptation and progress in relevant EEA activities.

Jol, A.; Isoard, S.

2010-09-01

437

Governance in vulnerability assessment: the role of globalising decision-making networks in determining local vulnerability and adaptive capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community-based vulnerability assessment has often assumed that the local is the relevant level of adaptation to climate change.\\u000a This paper suggests that not only do a number of levels from the international to the regional influence which adaptations\\u000a can take place locally, but the governance network that is made up by actors on different levels may to a large extent

E. Carina H. Keskitalo; H. Keskitalo

2009-01-01

438

Importance of biometrics to addressing vulnerabilities of the U.S. infrastructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human identification technologies are important threat countermeasures in minimizing select infrastructure vulnerabilities. Properly targeted countermeasures should be selected and integrated into an overall security solution based on disciplined analysis and modeling. Available data on infrastructure value, threat intelligence, and system vulnerabilities are carefully organized, analyzed and modeled. Prior to design and deployment of an effective countermeasure; the proper role and appropriateness of technology in addressing the overall set of vulnerabilities is established. Deployment of biometrics systems, as with other countermeasures, introduces potentially heightened vulnerabilities into the system. Heightened vulnerabilities may arise from both the newly introduced system complexities and an unfocused understanding of the set of vulnerabilities impacted by the new countermeasure. The countermeasure's own inherent vulnerabilities and those introduced by the system's integration with the existing system are analyzed and modeled to determine the overall vulnerability impact. The United States infrastructure is composed of government and private assets. The infrastructure is valued by their potential impact on several components: human physical safety, physical/information replacement/repair cost, potential contribution to future loss (criticality in weapons production), direct productivity output, national macro-economic output/productivity, and information integrity. These components must be considered in determining the overall impact of an infrastructure security breach. Cost/benefit analysis is then incorporated in the security technology deployment decision process. Overall security risks based on system vulnerabilities and threat intelligence determines areas of potential benefit. Biometric countermeasures are often considered when additional security at intended points of entry would minimize vulnerabilities.

Arndt, Craig M.; Hall, Nathaniel A.

2004-08-01

439

Rethinking vulnerability analysis and governance with emphasis on a participatory approach.  

PubMed

This article draws on vulnerability analysis as it emerged as a complement to classical risk analysis, and it aims at exploring its ability for nurturing risk and vulnerability governance actions. An analysis of the literature on vulnerability analysis allows us to formulate a three-fold critique: first, vulnerability analysis has been treated separately in the natural and the technological hazards fields. This separation prevents vulnerability from unleashing the full range of its potential, as it constrains appraisals into artificial categories and thus already closes down the outcomes of the analysis. Second, vulnerability analysis focused on assessment tools that are mainly quantitative, whereas qualitative appraisal is a key to assessing vulnerability in a comprehensive way and to informing policy making. Third, a systematic literature review of case studies reporting on participatory approaches to vulnerability analysis allows us to argue that participation has been important to address the above, but it remains too closed down in its approach and would benefit from embracing a more open, encompassing perspective. Therefore, we suggest rethinking vulnerability analysis as one part of a dynamic process between opening-up and closing-down strategies, in order to support a vulnerability governance framework. PMID:24924802

Rossignol, Nicolas; Delvenne, Pierre; Turcanu, Catrinel

2015-01-01

440

Assessment of intrinsic vulnerability to contamination for Gaza coastal aquifer, Palestine.  

PubMed

Gaza coastal aquifer (GCA) is the major source of fresh water for the 1.5 million residents of Gaza Strip, Palestine. The aquifer is under deteriorating quality conditions mainly due to the excessive application of fertilizers. The intrinsic vulnerability of GCA to contamination was assessed using the well-known DRASTIC method. Detailed analysis of the intrinsic vulnerability map of GCA was carried out and did consider different relationships between the vulnerability indices and the on-ground nitrogen loadings and land use classes. In addition, correlation between vulnerability values and the nitrate concentrations in GCA was studied. Based on the vulnerability analysis, it was found that 10% and 13% of Gaza Strip area is under low and high vulnerability of groundwater contamination, respectively, while more than 77% of the area of Gaza Strip can be designated as an area of moderate vulnerability of groundwater contamination. It was found that the density of groundwater sampling wells for nitrate concentration is high for the moderate and high vulnerability zones. The highest first quartile, median, mean, and third quartile of nitrate concentrations are reported in the high vulnerability zones. Results of sensitivity analysis show a high sensitivity of the high vulnerability index to the depth to water table. PMID:17391837

Almasri, Mohammad N

2008-09-01

441

Socio-Economic Vulnerability to Climate Change in California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The western United States faces a range of impacts from global climate change, including increases in extreme heat, wildfires, and coastal flooding and erosion; changes are also likely to occur in air quality, water availability, and the spread of infectious diseases. To date, a great deal of research has been done to forecast the physical effects of climate change, while less attention has been given to the factors make different populations more or less vulnerable to harm from such changes. For example, mortality rates from Hurricane Audrey, which struck the coast of Louisiana in 1957, were more than eight times higher among blacks than among whites. While disaster events may not discriminate, impacts on human populations are shaped by "intervening conditions" that determine the human impact of the flood and the specific needs for preparedness, response, and recovery. In this study, we analyze the potential impacts of climate change by using recent downscaled climate model outputs, creating a variety of statistics and visualizations to communicate potential impacts to community groups and decision makers, after several meetings with these groups to ask, "What types of information are most useful to you for planning?" We relate climate impacts to social vulnerability - defined as the intersection of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of a person or group of people - with a focus on the U.S. state of California. Understanding vulnerability factors and the populations that exhibit these factors are critical for crafting effective climate change policies and response strategies. It is also important to the emerging study of climate justice, which is the concept that no group of people should disproportionately bear the burden of climate impacts or the costs of mitigation and adaptation.

Heberger, M. G.; Cooley, H.; Moore, E.; Garzon, C.

2011-12-01

442

Age-Related Psychophysiological Vulnerability to Phenylalanine in Phenylketonuria  

PubMed Central

Background: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by the inherited defect of the phenylalanine hydroxylase enzyme, which converts phenylalanine (Phe) into tyrosine (Tyr). Neonatal screening programs and early treatment have radically changed the natural history of PKU. Nevertheless, an increased risk of neurocognitive and psychiatric problems in adulthood remains a challenging aspect of the disease. In order to assess the vulnerability of complex skills to Phe, we explored: (a) the effect of a rapid increase in blood Phe levels on event-related potentials (ERP) in PKU subjects during their second decade of life; (b) the association (if existing) between psychophysiological and neurocognitive features. Methods: Seventeen early-treated PKU subjects, aged 10–20, underwent ERP [mismatch negativity, auditory P300, contingent negative variation (CNV), and Intensity Dependence of Auditory Evoked Potentials] recording before and 2?h after an oral loading of Phe. Neurocognitive functioning, historical and concurrent biochemical values of blood Phe, Tyr, and Phe/Tyr ratio, were all included in the statistical analysis. Results: Event-related potential components were normally detected in all the subjects. In subjects younger than 13 CNV amplitude, W2-CNV area, P3b latency, and reaction times in motor responses were negatively influenced by Phe-loading. Independently from the psychophysiological vulnerability, some neurocognitive skills were more impaired in younger patients. No correlation was found between biochemical alterations and neurocognitive and psychophysiological findings. Conclusion: The vulnerability of the emerging neurocognitive functions to Phe suggests a strict metabolic control in adolescents affected by PKU and a neurodevelopmental approach in the study of neurocognitive outcome in PKU. PMID:25003100

Leuzzi, Vincenzo; Mannarelli, Daniela; Manti, Filippo; Pauletti, Caterina; Locuratolo, Nicoletta; Carducci, Carla; Carducci, Claudia; Vanacore, Nicola; Fattapposta, Francesco

2014-01-01

443

Vulnerability of Mesostriatal Dopaminergic Neurons in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

The term vulnerability was first associated with the midbrain dopaminergic neurons 85 years ago, before they were identified as monoaminergic neurons, when Foix and Nicolesco (1925) reported the loss of neuromelanin containing neurons in the midbrain of patients with post-encephalitic Parkinson's disease (PD). A few years later, Hassler (1938) showed that degeneration is more intense in the ventral tier of the substantia nigra compacta than in its dorsal tier and the ventral tegmental area (VTA), outlining the concept of differential vulnerability of midbrain dopaminergic (DA-) neurons. Nowadays, we know that other neuronal groups degenerate in PD, but the massive loss of nigral DA-cells is its pathological hallmark, having a pivotal position in the pathophysiology of the disease as it is responsible for the motor symptoms. Data from humans as well as cellular and animal models indicate that DA-cell degeneration is a complex process, probably precipitated by the convergence of different risk factors, mediated by oxidative stress, and involving pathogenic factors arising within the DA-neuron (intrinsic factors), and from its environment and distant interconnected brain regions (extrinsic factors). In light of current data, intrinsic factors seem to be preferentially involved in the first steps of the degenerative process, and extrinsic factors in its progression. A controversial issue is the relative weight of the impairment of common cell functions, such as energy metabolism and proteostasis, and specific dopaminergic functions, such as pacemaking activity and DA handling, in the pathogenesis of DA-cell degeneration. Here we will review the current knowledge about the relevance of these factors at the beginning and during the progression of PD, and in the differential vulnerability of midbrain DA-cells. PMID:21079748

González-Hernández, Tomás; Cruz-Muros, Ignacio; Afonso-Oramas, Domingo; Salas-Hernandez, Josmar; Castro-Hernandez, Javier

2010-01-01

444

Brain renin-angiotensin system and dopaminergic cell vulnerability  

PubMed Central

Although the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) was classically considered as a circulating system that regulates blood pressure, many tissues are now known to have a local RAS. Angiotensin, via type 1 receptors, is a major activator of the NADPH-oxidase complex, which mediates several key events in oxidative stress (OS) and inflammatory processes involved in the pathogenesis of major aging-related diseases. Several studies have demonstrated the presence of RAS components in the basal ganglia, and particularly in the nigrostriatal system. In the nigrostriatal system, RAS hyperactivation, via NADPH-oxidase complex activation, exacerbates OS and the microglial inflammatory response and contributes to progression of dopaminergic degeneration, which is inhibited by angiotensin receptor blockers and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Several factors may induce an increase in RAS activity in the dopaminergic system. A decrease in dopaminergic activity induces compensatory upregulation of local RAS function in both dopaminergic neurons and glia. In addition to its role as an essential neurotransmitter, dopamine may also modulate microglial inflammatory responses and neuronal OS via RAS. Important counterregulatory interactions between angiotensin and dopamine have also been observed in several peripheral tissues. Neurotoxins and proinflammatory factors may also act on astrocytes to induce an increase in RAS activity, either independently of or before the loss of dopamine. Consistent with a major role of RAS in dopaminergic vulnerability, increased RAS activity has been observed in the nigra of animal models of aging, menopause and chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, which also showed higher dopaminergic vulnerability. Manipulation of the brain RAS may constitute an effective neuroprotective strategy against dopaminergic vulnerability and progression of Parkinson’s disease. PMID:25071471

Labandeira-García, Jose L.; Garrido-Gil, Pablo; Rodriguez-Pallares, Jannette; Valenzuela, Rita; Borrajo, Ana; Rodríguez-Perez, Ana I.

2014-01-01

445

DNA deletions promote cancer, but collateral damage make it vulnerable  

Cancer.gov

Genomic deletions promote cancer by carving up or eliminating tumor-suppressor genes, but now scientists report in the journal Nature that the collateral damage they inflict on neighboring genes exposes cancer cells to vulnerabilities and new avenues for attack. Working with cell lines of glioblastoma multiforme, the most lethal type of brain tumor, researchers from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute at Harvard Medical School, and some now at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, found that collateral deletion of a gene vital to tumor metabolism allowed them to kill malignant cells by blocking another gene that redundantly performs the same function.

446

Structural vulnerability assessment using reliability of slabs in avalanche area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improvement of risk assessment or hazard zoning requires a better understanding of the physical vulnerability of structures. To consider natural hazard issue such as snow avalanches, once the flow is characterized, highlight on the mechanical behaviour of the structure is a decisive step. A challenging approach is to quantify the physical vulnerability of impacted structures according to various avalanche loadings. The main objective of this presentation is to introduce methodology and outcomes regarding the assessment of vulnerability of reinforced concrete buildings using reliability methods. Reinforced concrete has been chosen as it is one of the usual material used to build structures exposed to potential avalanche loadings. In avalanche blue zones, structures have to resist to a pressure up to 30kPa. Thus, by providing systematic fragility relations linked to the global failure of the structure, this method may serve the avalanche risk assessment. To do so, a slab was numerically designed. It represented the avalanche facing wall of a house. Different configuration cases of the element in stake have been treated to quantify numerical aspects of the problem, such as the boundary conditions or the mechanical behaviour of the structure. The structure is analysed according to four different limit states, semi-local and global failures are considered to describe the slab behaviour. The first state is attained when cracks appear in the tensile zone, then the two next states are described consistent with the Eurocode, the final state is the total collapse of the structure characterized by the yield line theory. Failure probability is estimated in accordance to the reliability framework. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to quantify the fragility to different loadings. Sensitivity of models in terms of input distributions were defined with statistical tools such as confidence intervals and Sobol's indexes. Conclusion and discussion of this work are established to well determine contributions, limits and future needs or developments of the research. First of all, this study provides spectrum of fragility curves of reinforced concrete structures which could be used to improve risk assessment. Second, the influence of the failure criterion picked up in this survey are discussed. Then, the weight of the statistical distribution choice is analysed. Finally, the limit between vulnerability and fragility relations is set up to establish the boundary use of our approach.

Favier, Philomène; Bertrand, David; Eckert, Nicolas; Naaim, Mohamed

2013-04-01

447

Rare species support vulnerable functions in high-diversity ecosystems.  

PubMed

Around the world, the human-induced collapses of populations and species have triggered a sixth mass extinction crisis, with rare species often being the first to disappear. Although the role of species diversity in the maintenance of ecosystem processes has been widely investigated, the role of rare species remains controversial. A critical issue is whether common species insure against the loss of functions supported by rare species. This issue is even more critical in species-rich ecosystems where high functional redundancy among species is likely and where it is thus often assumed that ecosystem functioning is buffered against species loss. Here, using extensive datasets of species occurrences and functional traits from three highly diverse ecosystems (846 coral reef fishes, 2,979 alpine plants, and 662 tropical trees), we demonstrate that the most distinct combinations of traits are supported predominantly by rare species both in terms of local abundance and regional occupancy. Moreover, species that have low functional redundancy and are likely to support the most vulnerable functions, with no other species carrying similar combinations of traits, are rarer than expected by chance in all three ecosystems. For instance, 63% and 98% of fish species that are likely to support highly vulnerable functions in coral reef ecosystems are locally and regionally rare, respectively. For alpine plants, 32% and 89% of such species are locally and regionally rare, respectively. Remarkably, 47% of fish species and 55% of tropical tree species that are likely to support highly vulnerable functions have only one individual per sample on average. Our results emphasize the importance of rare species conservation, even in highly diverse ecosystems, which are thought to exhibit high functional redundancy. Rare species offer more than aesthetic, cultural, or taxonomic diversity value; they disproportionately increase the potential breadth of functions provided by ecosystems across spatial scales. As such, they are likely to insure against future uncertainty arising from climate change and the ever-increasing anthropogenic pressures on ecosystems. Our results call for a more detailed understanding of the role of rarity and functional vulnerability in ecosystem functioning. PMID:23723735

Mouillot, David; Bellwood, David R; Baraloto, Christopher; Chave, Jerome; Galzin, Rene; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille; Kulbicki, Michel; Lavergne, Sebastien; Lavorel, Sandra; Mouquet, Nicolas; Paine, C E Timothy; Renaud, Julien; Thuiller, Wilfried

2013-01-01

448

Rare Species Support Vulnerable Functions in High-Diversity Ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Around the world, the human-induced collapses of populations and species have triggered a sixth mass extinction crisis, with rare species often being the first to disappear. Although the role of species diversity in the maintenance of ecosystem processes has been widely investigated, the role of rare species remains controversial. A critical issue is whether common species insure against the loss of functions supported by rare species. This issue is even more critical in species-rich ecosystems where high functional redundancy among species is likely and where it is thus often assumed that ecosystem functioning is buffered against species loss. Here, using extensive datasets of species occurrences and functional traits from three highly diverse ecosystems (846 coral reef fishes, 2,979 alpine plants, and 662 tropical trees), we demonstrate that the most distinct combinations of traits are supported predominantly by rare species both in terms of local abundance and regional occupancy. Moreover, species that have low functional redundancy and are likely to support the most vulnerable functions, with no other species carrying similar combinations of traits, are rarer than expected by chance in all three ecosystems. For instance, 63% and 98% of fish species that are likely to support highly vulnerable functions in coral reef ecosystems are locally and regionally rare, respectively. For alpine plants, 32% and 89% of such species are locally and regionally rare, respectively. Remarkably, 47% of fish species and 55% of tropical tree species that are likely to support highly vulnerable functions have only one individual per sample on average. Our results emphasize the importance of rare species conservation, even in highly diverse ecosystems, which are thought to exhibit high functional redundancy. Rare species offer more than aesthetic, cultural, or taxonomic diversity value; they disproportionately increase the potential breadth of functions provided by ecosystems across spatial scales. As such, they are likely to insure against future uncertainty arising from climate change and the ever-increasing anthropogenic pressures on ecosystems. Our results call for a more detailed understanding of the role of rarity and functional vulnerability in ecosystem functioning. PMID:23723735

Mouillot, David; Bellwood, David R.; Baraloto, Christopher; Chave, Jerome; Galzin, Rene; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille; Kulbicki, Michel; Lavergne, Sebastien; Lavorel, Sandra; Mouquet, Nicolas; Paine, C. E. Timothy; Renaud, Julien; Thuiller, Wilfried

2013-01-01

449

Water vulnerabilities for existing coal-fired power plants.  

SciTech Connect

This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Water consumption by all users in the United States over the 2005-2030 time period is projected to increase by about 7% (from about 108 billion gallons per day [bgd] to about 115 bgd) (Elcock 2010). By contrast, water consumption by coal-fired power plants over this period is projected to increase by about 21% (from about 2.4 to about 2.9 bgd) (NETL 2009b). The high projected demand for water by power plants, which is expected to increase even further as carbon-capture equipment is installed, combined with decreasing freshwater supplies in many areas, suggests that certain coal-fired plants may be particularly vulnerable to potential water demand-supply conflicts. If not addressed, these conflicts could limit power generation and lead to power disruptions or increased consumer costs. The identification of existing coal-fired plants that are vulnerable to water demand and supply concerns, along with an analysis of information about their cooling systems and related characteristics, provides information to help focus future research and development (R&D) efforts to help ensure that coal-fired generation demands are met in a cost-effective manner that supports sustainable water use. This study identified coal-fired power plants that are considered vulnerable to water demand and supply issues by using a geographical information system (GIS) that facilitated the analysis of plant-specific data for more than 500 plants in the NETL's Coal Power Plant Database (CPPDB) (NETL 2007a) simultaneously with 18 indicators of water demand and supply. Two types of demand indicators were evaluated. The first type consisted of geographical areas where specific conditions can generate demand vulnerabilities. These conditions include high projected future water consumption by thermoelectric power plants, high projected future water consumption by all users, high rates of water withdrawal per square mile (mi{sup 2}), high projected population increases, and areas projected to be in a water crisis or conflict by 2025. The second type of demand indicator was plant specific. These indicators were developed for each plant and include annual water consumption and withdrawal rates and intensities, net annual power generation, and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. The supply indictors, which are also area based, include areas with low precipitation, high temperatures, low streamflow, and drought. The indicator data, which were in various formats (e.g., maps, tables, raw numbers) were converted to a GIS format and stored, along with the individual plant data from the CPPDB, in a single GIS database. The GIS database allowed the indicator data and plant data to be analyzed and visualized in any combination. To determine the extent to which a plant would be considered 'vulnerable' to a given demand or supply concern (i.e., that the plant's operations could be affected by water shortages represented by a potential demand or supply indicator), criteria were developed to categorize vulnerability according to one of three types: major, moderate, or not vulnerable. Plants with at least two major demand indicator values and/or at least four moderate demand indicator values were considered vulnerable to demand concerns. By using this approach, 144 plants were identified as being subject to demand concerns only. Plants with at least one major supply indicator value and/or at least two moderate supply indicator values were considered vulnerable to supply concerns. By using this approach, 64 plants were identified as being subject to supply concerns only. In addition, 139 plants were identified as subject to both demand and supply concerns. Therefore, a total of 347 plants were considere

Elcock, D.; Kuiper, J.; Environmental Science Division

2010-08-19

450

Parental alienation syndrome. A developmental analysis of a vulnerable population.  

PubMed

1. Parental alienation syndrome is the systematic denigration by one parent of the other parent with the intent of alienating the child. 2. Parents who engage in alienating activity have experienced loss, leading to depression, anger, and aggression. The family system experiences loss during divorce and is adversely affected by the alienating activities of one parent. 3. Understanding the dynamics of parental alienation syndrome will position the nurse to recognize it as a symptom of depression and dependence, and bring care to the vulnerable population. PMID:7884694

Price, J L; Pioske, K S

1994-11-01

451

A classic collaboration: Michael Davies on plaque vulnerability.  

PubMed

The British Heart Foundation sponsors the Michael Davies Young Investigator Award, and at its presentation in the Spring of 2009 two collaborators of Michael Davies spoke regarding their experiences on the Plaque Vulnerability project with him. This was to provide the winner and other nominees for the award, and colleagues at the meeting, descriptions of collaborating with Michael to sustain more than his name in association with the award. This article is an expansion of the personal reminiscences given at the time as a tribute to him, and to provide an inside story of how collaboration with such a prominent cardiac pathologist worked. PMID:22196149

Born, G V R; Richardson, P D

2012-02-01

452

BUSINESS VULNERABILITY AND DISRUPTION: DATA FROM THE 1993 MIDWEST FLOODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Understanding business vulnerability to disasters is important for loss estimation, hazard mitigation, disaster preparedness, and recovery planning. However, only a very small number of studies have focused,systematically,on that topic.,This paper presents preliminary,findings,from,a,study,of,a,random,sample,of,1079 businesses in Des Moines\\/Polk County, Iowa, a community that experienced extensive,damage,and disruption,as a result of,the Midwest floods of 1993. The study focused on a range of topics,

Kathleen J. Tierney

1994-01-01

453

Is There a Universal Understanding of Vulnerability? Experiences with Russian and Romanian Trainees in Research Ethics  

PubMed Central

Vulnerability of participants in research and the provision of special protections for vulnerable research participants are key concepts in research ethics. Despite international consensus requiring special protections for vulnerable research participants, both the concept of vulnerability and the nature and adequacy of strategies to reduce vulnerability remain vague and, consequently, are subject to varying interpretations. We report on observations of the challenges faced in understanding this key concept by 20 Russian and Romanian trainees participating in a one-year M.A. training program in research ethics from 2000 through 2011. We describe how trainees’ understanding of and appreciation for the need for special protections of vulnerable research participants was nurtured. This paper is part of a collection of papers analyzing the Fogarty International Center's International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum Development program. PMID:24384513

Loue, Sana; Loff, Bebe

2014-01-01

454

Vulnerability, irregular migrants' health-related rights and the European Court of Human Rights.  

PubMed

The protection of irregular migrants' health-related rights brings to the fore the tensions that exist between human rights, citizenship and the sovereign state, and exposes the protection gaps in the international human rights regime. With this in mind, I consider the merits of a vulnerability analysis in international human rights law (IHRL). I posit that, detached from specific groups and reconceptualised as universal, vulnerability can be reclaimed as a foundation and tool of IHRL. I further contend that the deployment of a vulnerability analysis can alleviate the exclusionary dimension of IHRL and extend protections to irregular migrants. On this basis, I investigate the development of a vulnerability analysis in the case law of the European Court of Human Rights. I argue that, in contrast with the Court's vulnerable population approach, a vulnerability analysis can improve protection standards for irregular migrants in the field of health. PMID:25199397

Da Lomba, Sylvie

2014-09-01

455

Applying a Comprehensive Contextual Climate Change Vulnerability Framework to New Zealand's Tourism Industry.  

PubMed

Conceptualisations of 'vulnerability' vary amongst scholarly communities, contributing to a wide variety of applications. Research investigating vulnerability to climate change has often excluded non-climatic changes which may contribute to degrees of vulnerability perceived or experienced. This paper introduces a comprehensive contextual vulnerability framework which incorporates physical, social, economic and political factors which could amplify or reduce vulnerability. The framework is applied to New Zealand's tourism industry to explore its value in interpreting a complex, human-natural environment system with multiple competing vulnerabilities. The comprehensive contextual framework can inform government policy and industry decision making, integrating understandings of climate change within the broader context of internal and external social, physical, economic, and institutional stressors. PMID:24805920

Hopkins, Debbie

2015-03-01

456

Public Health Consequences on Vulnerable Populations from Acute Chemical Releases  

PubMed Central

Data from a large, multi-state surveillance system on acute chemical releases were analyzed to describe the type of events that are potentially affecting vulnerable populations (children, elderly and hospitalized patients) in order to better prevent and plan for these types of incidents in the future. During 2003–2005, there were 231 events where vulnerable populations were within ¼ mile of the event and the area of impact was greater than 200 feet from the facility/point of release. Most events occurred on a weekday during times when day care centers or schools were likely to be in session. Equipment failure and human error caused a majority of the releases. Agencies involved in preparing for and responding to chemical emergencies should work with hospitals, nursing homes, day care centers, and schools to develop policies and procedures for initiating appropriate protective measures and managing the medical needs of patients. Chemical emergency response drills should involve the entire community to protect those that may be more susceptible to harm. PMID:21572842

Ruckart, Perri Zeitz; Orr, Maureen F.

2008-01-01

457

Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 3  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 3 consists of eleven appendices containing the following: Field verification reports for Idaho National Engineering Lab., Rocky Flats Plant, Brookhaven National Lab., Los Alamos National Lab., and Sandia National Laboratories (NM); Mini-visits to small DOE sites; Working Group meeting, June 7--8, 1994; Commendable practices; Related chemical safety initiatives at DOE; Regulatory framework and industry initiatives related to chemical safety; and Chemical inventory data from field self-evaluation reports.

Not Available

1994-09-01

458

A conceptual model of people's vulnerability to floods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydraulic risk maps provide the baseline for land use and emergency planning. Accordingly, they should convey clear information on the potential physical implications of the different hazards to the stakeholders. This paper presents a vulnerability criterion focused on human stability in a flow specifically devised for rapidly evolving floods where life, before than economic values, might be threatened. The human body is conceptualized as a set of cylinders and its stability to slipping and toppling is assessed by forces and moments equilibrium. Moreover, a depth threshold to consider drowning is assumed. In order to widen its scope of application, the model takes the destabilizing effect of local slope (so far disregarded in the literature) and fluid density into account. The resulting vulnerability classification could be naturally subdivided in three levels (low, medium, and high) that are limited by two stability curves for children and adults, respectively. In comparison with the most advanced literature conceptual approaches, the proposed model is weakly parameterized and the computed thresholds fit better the available experimental data sets. A code that implements the proposed algorithm is provided.

Milanesi, Luca; Pilotti, Marco; Ranzi, Roberto

2015-01-01

459

Field information links permafrost carbon to physical vulnerabilities of thawing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Deep soil profiles containing permafrost (Gelisols) were characterized for organic carbon (C) and total nitrogen (N) stocks to 3m depths. Using the Community Climate System Model (CCSM4) we calculate cumulative probability functions (PDFs) for active layer depths under current and future climates. The difference in PDFs over time was multiplied by C and N contents of soil horizons in Gelisol suborders to calculate newly thawed C and N, Thawing ranged from 147 PgC with 10 PgN by 2050 (representative concentration pathway RCP scenario 4.5) to 436 PgC with 29 PgN by 2100 (RCP 8.5). Organic horizons that thaw are vulnerable to combustion, and all horizon types are vulnerable to shifts in hydrology and decomposition. The rates and extent of such losses are unknown and can be further constrained by linking field and modelling approaches. These changes have the potential for strong additional loading to our atmosphere, water resources, and ecosystems.

Harden, Jennifer W.; Koven, Charles; Ping, Chien-Lu; Hugelius, Gustaf; McGuire, A. David; Camill, P.; Jorgenson, Torre; Kuhry, Peter; Michaelson, Gary; O'Donnell, Jonathan A.; Schuur, Edward A.G.; Tamocai, Charles; Johnson, K.; Grosse, G.

2012-01-01

460

Vulnerability of ecosystems to climate change moderated by habitat intactness.  

PubMed

The combined effects of climate change and habitat loss represent a major threat to species and ecosystems around the world. Here, we analyse the vulnerability of ecosystems to climate change based on current levels of habitat intactness and vulnerability to biome shifts, using multiple measures of habitat intactness at two spatial scales. We show that the global extent of refugia depends highly on the definition of habitat intactness and spatial scale of the analysis of intactness. Globally, 28% of terrestrial vegetated area can be considered refugia if all natural vegetated land cover is considered. This, however, drops to 17% if only areas that are at least 50% wilderness at a scale of 48×48 km are considered and to 10% if only areas that are at least 50% wilderness at a scale of 4.8×4.8 km are considered. Our results suggest that, in regions where relatively large, intact wilderness areas remain (e.g. Africa, Australia, boreal regions, South America), conservation of the remaining large-scale refugia is the priority. In human-dominated landscapes, (e.g. most of Europe, much of North America and Southeast Asia), focusing on finer scale refugia is a priority because large-scale wilderness refugia simply no longer exist. Action to conserve such refugia is particularly urgent since only 1 to 2% of global terrestrial vegetated area is classified as refugia and at least 50% covered by the global protected area network. PMID:25059822

Eigenbrod, Felix; Gonzalez, Patrick; Dash, Jadunandan; Steyl, Ilse

2015-01-01

461

Field information links permafrost carbon to physical vulnerabilities of thawing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep soil profiles containing permafrost (Gelisols) were characterized for organic carbon (C) and total nitrogen (N) stocks to 3 m depths. Using the Community Climate System Model (CCSM4) we calculate cumulative distributions of active layer thickness (ALT) under current and future climates. The difference in cumulative ALT distributions over time was multiplied by C and N contents of soil horizons in Gelisol suborders to calculate newly thawed C and