Sample records for placa vulnerable solitaria

  1. Archivo de placas astrométricas del Observatorio de La Plata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Sisto, R.; Orellana, R. B.

    Se ha realizado una base de datos con las placas fotográficas obtenidas con el Astrográfico del Observatorio de La Plata. Se han clasificado un total de 3000 placas obtenidas para asteroides y cometas. El acceso a la base de datos se hará por FTP y la misma contendrá la siguiente información: fecha y tiempo de exposición, coordenadas del centro de placa, tipo de emulsión fotográfica, estado de la placa, objeto fotografiado.

  2. Medición de placas astrométricas obtenidas con el telescopio Astrográfico de La Plata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Sisto, R. P.; Orellana, R.

    El Observatorio de La Plata cuenta con un gran número de placas de asteroides y cometas obtenidas con el telescopio astrográfico, que cubren gran parte del cielo del hemisferio sur. En 1996 se recopilaron y clasificaron 2187 placas (Beca para estudiantes de la AAA 1996) de las cuales 2031 corresponden a asteroides. Los datos de cada placa se volcaron en una base de datos creada para facilitar su manejo y preservar la información. A partir de este trabajo se revisaron los MPC electrónicos y se identificaron aquellas placas de asteroides pertenecientes a nuestra base de datos cuyos resultados no fueron publicados en los mismos. De un total de 400 placas que no aparecían publicadas sobresalía un paquete constituído por 40 placas obtenidas en 1977. Estas últimas fueron reducidas utilizando las posiciones y movimientos propios de las estrellas de referencia obtenidas del catálogo SAO 2000 dadas para el sistema FK5. Las posiciones calculadas fueron enviadas y publicadas en los Minor Planet Circulars (MPC).

  3. Software Vulnerability Taxonomy Consolidation

    SciTech Connect

    Polepeddi, S

    2004-12-08

    In today's environment, computers and networks are increasing exposed to a number of software vulnerabilities. Information about these vulnerabilities is collected and disseminated via various large publicly available databases such as BugTraq, OSVDB and ICAT. Each of these databases, individually, do not cover all aspects of a vulnerability and lack a standard format among them, making it difficult for end-users to easily compare various vulnerabilities. A central database of vulnerabilities has not been available until today for a number of reasons, such as the non-uniform methods by which current vulnerability database providers receive information, disagreement over which features of a particular vulnerability are important and how best to present them, and the non-utility of the information presented in many databases. The goal of this software vulnerability taxonomy consolidation project is to address the need for a universally accepted vulnerability taxonomy that classifies vulnerabilities in an unambiguous manner. A consolidated vulnerability database (CVDB) was implemented that coalesces and organizes vulnerability data from disparate data sources. Based on the work done in this paper, there is strong evidence that a consolidated taxonomy encompassing and organizing all relevant data can be achieved. However, three primary obstacles remain: lack of referencing a common ''primary key'', un-structured and free-form descriptions of necessary vulnerability data, and lack of data on all aspects of a vulnerability. This work has only considered data that can be unambiguously extracted from various data sources by straightforward parsers. It is felt that even with the use of more advanced, information mining tools, which can wade through the sea of unstructured vulnerability data, this current integration methodology would still provide repeatable, unambiguous, and exhaustive results. Though the goal of coalescing all available data, which would be of use to system administrators, software developers and vulnerability researchers is not yet achieved, this work has resulted in the most exhaustive collection of vulnerability data to date.

  4. Predicting vulnerable software components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan Neuhaus; Thomas Zimmermann; Christian Holler; Andreas Zeller

    2007-01-01

    We introduce Vulture, a new approach and tool to predict vulnerable components in large software systems. Vulture relates a software project's version archive to its vulnerability database to find those components that had vulnerabilities in the past. It then analyzes the import structure of software com- ponents and uses a support vector machine to learn and predict which imports are

  5. Standardization of vulnerability maps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Neukum; Heinz Hötzl

    2007-01-01

    Groundwater vulnerability assessment schemes are used for the estimation of potential groundwater contamination at different\\u000a scales and on different administrative levels. However, the term vulnerability is not standardized and the available methods\\u000a are not able to give a unique assessment of vulnerability creating thus uncertainty in the interpretation and in further application\\u000a concerning decision creation processes. To judge the information

  6. Safeguarding vulnerable adults.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Nurses have a professional duty to safeguard vulnerable adults from abuse under the provisions of the Nursing and Midwifery Council's (NMC) revised Code (2015) . With adult abuse continuing to increase, all members of the nursing team are well placed to identify and take action to safeguard the vulnerable. This article sets out how the Care Act 2014 seeks to improve the safeguarding of vulnerable adults and the role of nurses in that process. PMID:26153813

  7. Lessons about vulnerability assessments.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R. G. (Roger G.)

    2004-01-01

    The Vulnerability Assessment Team (VAT) at Los Alamos National Laboratory believes that physical security can only be optimized through the use of effective vulnerability assessments. As a result of conducting vulnerability assessments on hundreds of different security devices and systems in the last few years, we have identified some of the attributes of effective assessments. These, along with our recommendations and observations about vulnerability assessments, are summarized in this paper. While our work has primarily involved physical security (in contrast to, for example, computer, network, or information security), our experiences may have applicability to other types of security as well.

  8. Building comparable global change vulnerability assessments: The vulnerability scoping diagram

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin Polsky; Rob Neff; Brent Yarnal

    2007-01-01

    Advancing vulnerability science depends in part on identifying common themes from multiple, independent vulnerability assessments. Such insights are difficult to produce when the assessments use dissimilar, often qualitative, measures. The Vulnerability Scoping Diagram is presented to facilitate the comparison of assessments with dissimilar measures. The diagram is illustrated with recent research on drought vulnerabilities, showing that common insights into vulnerability

  9. Measuring Vulnerability and Poverty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raghav Gaiha; Katsushi Imai

    2008-01-01

    This paper measures the vulnerability of households in rural India, based upon the ICRISAT panel survey. We employ both ex ante and ex post measures of vulnerability. The latter are decomposed into aggregate and idiosyncratic risks and poverty components. Our decomposition shows that idiosyncratic risks account for the largest share, followed by poverty and aggregate risks. Despite some degree of

  10. VULNERABILITY College students are particularly vulnerable

    E-print Network

    Salama, Khaled

    . Generally, rape is defined as sexual inter- course that is perpetrated against the will of the victim are very strong, contribute to this vulnerability. Research suggests that sexual activity may be forced on as many as 25 percent of all college females. Most of the assaults are committed by someone known

  11. Automated and Safe Vulnerability Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fanglu Guo; Yang Yu; Tzi-cker Chiueh

    2005-01-01

    As the number of system vulnerabilities multiplies in re- cent years, vulnerability assessment has emerged as a pow- erful system security administration tool that can identify vulnerabilities in existing systems before they are exploited. Although there are many commercial vulnerability assess- ment tools in the market, none of them can formally guaran- tee that the assessment process never compromises the

  12. Energy vulnerability relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, B.R.; Boesen, J.L.

    1998-02-01

    The US consumption of crude oil resources has been a steadily growing indicator of the vitality and strength of the US economy. At the same time import diversity has also been a rapidly developing dimension of the import picture. In the early 1970`s, embargoes of crude oil from Organization of Producing and Exporting Countries (OPEC) created economic and political havoc due to a significant lack of diversity and a unique set of economic, political and domestic regulatory circumstances. The continued rise of imports has again led to concerns over the security of our crude oil resource but threats to this system must be considered in light of the diversity and current setting of imported oil. This report develops several important issues concerning vulnerability to the disruption of oil imports: (1) The Middle East is not the major supplier of oil to the United States, (2) The US is not vulnerable to having its entire import stream disrupted, (3) Even in stable countries, there exist vulnerabilities to disruption of the export stream of oil, (4) Vulnerability reduction requires a focus on international solutions, and (5) DOE program and policy development must reflect the requirements of the diverse supply. Does this increasing proportion of imported oil create a {open_quotes}dependence{close_quotes}? Does this increasing proportion of imported oil present a vulnerability to {open_quotes}price shocks{close_quotes} and the tremendous dislocations experienced during the 1970`s? Finally, what is the vulnerability of supply disruptions from the current sources of imported oil? If oil is considered to be a finite, rapidly depleting resource, then the answers to these questions must be {open_quotes}yes.{close_quotes} However, if the supply of oil is expanding, and not limited, then dependence is relative to regional supply sources.

  13. Ageing and neuronal vulnerability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim Magnus; Mark P. Mattson

    2006-01-01

    Everyone ages, but only some will develop a neurodegenerative disorder in the process. Disease might occur when cells fail to respond adaptively to age-related increases in oxidative, metabolic and ionic stress, thereby resulting in the accumulation of damaged proteins, DNA and membranes. Determinants of neuronal vulnerability might include cell size and location, metabolism of disease-specific proteins and a repertoire of

  14. The Strength of Vulnerability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, Bobby; Franklin, John Travis

    2004-01-01

    Many aspects of our work with at-risk children are spiritual by nature. A whole generation of at-risk children are crying out and asking hard questions. Although we certainly will not have all the answers, a shared experience of the very vulnerability of our human condition can turn this into a strength for us and our children. The authors propose…

  15. Vulnerability assessment system (VAS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cabin Ying; A. Tsai; H. Yu

    2003-01-01

    Institute for Information Industry is currently handling a project for National Information and Communication Security Taskforce of Executive Yuan. One of the missions of this project is to conduct information security assessments for the current security situation of the national network. Although there are already many commercial software packages on the market to help diagnose security vulnerabilities, but most of

  16. Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

  17. Network Vulnerability Analysis Through Vulnerability Take-Grant Model (VTG)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hamid Reza Shahriari; Reza Sadoddin; Rasool Jalili; Reza Zakeri; Ali Reza Omidian

    2005-01-01

    Modeling and analysis of information system vulnerabilities helps us to predict possible attacks to networks using the network configuration and vul- nerabilities information. As a fact, exploiting most of vulnerabilities result in access rights alteration. In this paper, we propose a new vulnerability analysis method based on the Take-Grant protection model. We extend the initial Take- Grant model to address

  18. BIODIVERSITY Assessing species vulnerability to

    E-print Network

    Zimmermann, Niklaus E.

    BIODIVERSITY RESEARCH Assessing species vulnerability to climate and land use change: the case projections of likely impacts of global change to identify the most vulner- able species. We suggest an original vulnerability index that integrates estima- tions of projected range change and different proxies

  19. Groundwater vulnerability assessment in Portugal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Lobo Ferreira; Manuel M. Oliveira

    2004-01-01

    During the 70's and 80's groundwater vulnerability mapping in Portugal was based mainly on the interpretation of geologi- cal information in terms of vulnerability to groundwater pollution. In 1987 a parametric method for the assessment vulnerability to pollution was introduced by the USEPA (the DRASTIC index). In 1993 Portugal was the first European Union's Member-State to have its territory mapped

  20. AT&TConsulting Security Vulnerability Assessments

    E-print Network

    Fisher, Kathleen

    AT&TConsulting Security Vulnerability Assessments New and rapidly deployed technologies, changing tools. AT&T Consulting offers independent and holistic vulnerability assessment services that include operating environment. Vulnerability Assessments Our Vulnerability Assessment offering provides clients

  1. Methods for Assessing Vulnerability of Critical

    E-print Network

    McShea, Daniel W.

    March 2010 Methods for Assessing Vulnerability of Critical Infrastructure Project Leads Eric Solano derived from risk, vulnerability, and resilience assessments and scenario simulations. Vulnerability. 1 #12;This brief reviews recent literature in vulnerability and resilience assessment, summarizes

  2. The vulnerable child

    PubMed Central

    Colley, J. R. T.

    1975-01-01

    There is enough evidence from epidemiological studies of respiratory disease in children and young adults to justify testing various strategies for the identification of those children who are particularly vulnerable to respiratory disease. Such studies should be coupled with anti-smoking programmes carried out by those involved in the health education of schoolchildren and adults. The effects of this selective approach to the prevention or control of respiratory disease would require rigorous evaluation. PMID:1177223

  3. Aging and Neuronal Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Mattson, Mark P.; Magnus, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Everyone ages, but only some will acquire a neurodegenerative disorder in the process. Disease might occur when cells fail to respond adaptively to age-related increases in oxidative, metabolic and ionic stress resulting in excessive accumulation of damaged proteins, DNA and membranes. Determinants of neuronal vulnerability might include cell size and location, metabolism of disease-specific proteins, and repertoire of signal transduction pathways and stress resistance mechanisms. Emerging evidence on protein interaction networks that monitor and respond to the normal aging process suggests that successful neural aging is possible for most, but also cautions that cures for neurodegenerative disorders are unlikely in the near future. PMID:16552414

  4. Common Control System Vulnerability

    SciTech Connect

    Trent Nelson

    2005-12-01

    The Control Systems Security Program and other programs within the Idaho National Laboratory have discovered a vulnerability common to control systems in all sectors that allows an attacker to penetrate most control systems, spoof the operator, and gain full control of targeted system elements. This vulnerability has been identified on several systems that have been evaluated at INL, and in each case a 100% success rate of completing the attack paths that lead to full system compromise was observed. Since these systems are employed in multiple critical infrastructure sectors, this vulnerability is deemed common to control systems in all sectors. Modern control systems architectures can be considered analogous to today's information networks, and as such are usually approached by attackers using a common attack methodology to penetrate deeper and deeper into the network. This approach often is composed of several phases, including gaining access to the control network, reconnaissance, profiling of vulnerabilities, launching attacks, escalating privilege, maintaining access, and obscuring or removing information that indicates that an intruder was on the system. With irrefutable proof that an external attack can lead to a compromise of a computing resource on the organization's business local area network (LAN), access to the control network is usually considered the first phase in the attack plan. Once the attacker gains access to the control network through direct connections and/or the business LAN, the second phase of reconnaissance begins with traffic analysis within the control domain. Thus, the communications between the workstations and the field device controllers can be monitored and evaluated, allowing an attacker to capture, analyze, and evaluate the commands sent among the control equipment. Through manipulation of the communication protocols of control systems (a process generally referred to as ''reverse engineering''), an attacker can then map out the control system processes and functions. With the detailed knowledge of how the control data functions, as well as what computers and devices communicate using this data, the attacker can use a well known Man-in-the-Middle attack to perform malicious operations virtually undetected. The control systems assessment teams have used this method to gather enough information about the system to craft an attack that intercepts and changes the information flow between the end devices (controllers) and the human machine interface (HMI and/or workstation). Using this attack, the cyber assessment team has been able to demonstrate complete manipulation of devices in control systems while simultaneously modifying the data flowing back to the operator's console to give false information of the state of the system (known as ''spoofing''). This is a very effective technique for a control system attack because it allows the attacker to manipulate the system and the operator's situational awareness of the perceived system status. The three main elements of this attack technique are: (1) network reconnaissance and data gathering, (2) reverse engineering, and (3) the Man-in-the-Middle attack. The details of this attack technique and the mitigation techniques are discussed.

  5. Mushrooming vulnerability to EMP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, E. J.

    1984-08-01

    The electromagnetic pulse (EMP) generated by a single thermonuclear bomb detonated above the continental U.S. could set up electrical fields of 50 kV/m over nearly all of North America. Since the progressively microminiaturized integrated circuits of current military and civilian electronics become more vulnerable with decreasing circuit element size, even shield-protected chips can now be destroyed by the substantially shield-dampened EMP pulses. It is noted as a source of special concern that, as nuclear weapons have evolved, the EMP characteristically generated by them has shifted to increasingly shorter wavelengths, requiring significant redesign of EMP shields devised a decade or more ago. The surge arresters currently employed may not react sufficiently rapidly for existing weapons.

  6. Social Vulnerability to Environmental Hazards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan L. Cutter; Bryan J. Boruff; W. Lynn Shirley

    2003-01-01

    County-level socioeconomic and demographic data were used to construct an index of social vulnerability to environmental hazards, called the Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for the United States based on 1990 data. Copyright (c) 2003 by the Southwestern Social Science Association.

  7. Bug Auctions: Vulnerability Markets Reconsidered

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andy Ozment

    2004-01-01

    Measuring software security is dicult and inexact; as a result, the market for secure software has been compared to a 'market of lemons.' Schechter has proposed a vulnerability market in which software producers oer a time-variable reward to free-market testers who identify vulnera- bilities. This vulnerability market can be used to improve testing and to create a relative metric of

  8. CITY OF SANTA BARBARA SEALEVEL RISE VULNERABILITY

    E-print Network

    communities. This study assesses the vulnerability of the City of Santa Barbara to future sealevel rise storm damage, flooding, inundation, risk assessment, sealevel rise, vulnerability assessment, wave CITY OF SANTA BARBARA SEALEVEL RISE VULNERABILITY STUDY A White Paper from

  9. DISSERTATION ASSESSING VULNERABILITIES IN SOFTWARE SYSTEMS

    E-print Network

    Malaiya, Yashwant K.

    DISSERTATION ASSESSING VULNERABILITIES IN SOFTWARE SYSTEMS: A QUANTITATIVE APPROACH Submitted BY OMAR ALHAZMI ENTITLED ASSESSING VULNERABILITIES IN SOFTWARE SYSTEMS: A QUANTITATIVE APPROACH Jayasumana Dr. Indrakshi Ray #12;iii ABSTRACT OF DISSERTATION ASSESSING VULNERABILITIES IN SOFTWARE SYSTEMS

  10. MAPPING CLIMATE CHANGE EXPOSURES, VULNERABILITIES,

    E-print Network

    MAPPING CLIMATE CHANGE EXPOSURES, VULNERABILITIES, AND ADAPTATION TO PUBLIC HEALTH RISKS's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012041 Prepared for: California Energy Commission of California. #12; ii ABSTRACT This study reviewed first available frameworks for climate change adaptation

  11. An analysis of Bluetooth security vulnerabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Creighton T. Hager; Scott F. Midkiff

    2003-01-01

    Bluetooth has been developed to provide mobile ad hoc connectivity between a wide range of portable and fixed devices. In this paper, the Bluetooth system is described with an emphasis on its security features and known vulnerabilities. Additional security vulnerabilities were discovered using a scheme called VERDICT. These vulnerabilities are compared to vulnerabilities found in the IEEE 802.11 wireless local

  12. Quantitative vulnerability assessment of systems software

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Omar H. Alhazmi; Yashwant K. Malaiya

    2005-01-01

    SUMMARY & CONCLUSIONS Operating systems represent complex interactive software systems that control access to information. Vulnerabilities present in such software represent significant security risks. In this paper, we examine the feasibility of quantitatively characterization of vulnerabilities. For Windows 98 and Windows NT 4.0, we present plots for cumulative numbers of vulnerabilities found. A time-based model for the total vulnerabilities discovered

  13. Infrastructure Vulnerability Assessment Model (I-VAM)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry Charles Ezell

    2007-01-01

    1. Abstract Quantifying vulnerability to critical infrastructure has not been adequately addressed in the literature. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to present a model that quantifies vulnerability. Vulnerability is defined as a measure of system susceptibility to threat scenarios. This paper asserts that vulnerability is a condition of the system and it can be quantified using the Infrastructure

  14. Identifying and mapping community vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Morrow, B H

    1999-03-01

    Disaster vulnerability is socially constructed, i.e., it arises out of the social and economic circumstances of everyday living. Most often discussed from the perspective of developing nations, this article extends the argument using American demographic trends. Examples from recent disasters, Hurricane Andrew in particular, illustrate how certain categories of people, such as the poor, the elderly, women-headed households and recent residents, are at greater risk throughout the disaster response process. Knowledge of where these groups are concentrated within communities and the general nature of their circumstances is an important step towards effective emergency management. Emergency planners, policy-makers and responding organisations are encouraged to identify and locate high-risk sectors on Community Vulnerability Maps, integrating this information into GIS systems where feasible. Effective disaster management calls for aggressively involving these neighbourhoods and groups at all levels of planning and response, as well as mitigation efforts that address the root causes of vulnerability. PMID:10204285

  15. Are Vulnerability Disclosure Deadlines Justified?

    SciTech Connect

    Miles McQueen; Jason L. Wright; Lawrence Wellman

    2011-09-01

    Vulnerability research organizations Rapid7, Google Security team, and Zero Day Initiative recently imposed grace periods for public disclosure of vulnerabilities. The grace periods ranged from 45 to 182 days, after which disclosure might occur with or without an effective mitigation from the affected software vendor. At this time there is indirect evidence that the shorter grace periods of 45 and 60 days may not be practical. However, there is strong evidence that the recently announced Zero Day Initiative grace period of 182 days yields benefit in speeding up the patch creation process, and may be practical for many software products. Unfortunately, there is also evidence that the 182 day grace period results in more vulnerability announcements without an available patch.

  16. Food Chain Security and Vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, Sébastien; Delvenne, Pierre; Claisse, Frédéric

    In our contemporary societies, the food chain could be defined as a macro-technical system, which depends on a wide variety of actors and risks analysis methods. In this contribution, risks related to the food chain are defined in terms of "modern risks" (Beck 1992). The whole national economic sector of food production/distribution is vulnerable to a local accident, which can affect the functioning of food chain, the export programs and even the political system. Such a complex socio-technical environment is undoubtedly vulnerable to intentional act such as terrorism.

  17. Chronic Stress-Induced Hippocampal Vulnerability: The Glucocorticoid Vulnerability Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Cheryl D.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis The hippocampus, a limbic structure important in learning and memory, is particularly sensitive to chronic stress and to glucocorticoids. While glucocorticoids are essential for an effective stress response, their oversecretion was originally hypothesized to contribute to agerelated hippocampal degeneration. However, conflicting findings were reported on whether prolonged exposure to elevated glucocorticoids endangered the hippocampus and whether the primate hippocampus even responded to glucocorticoids as the rodent hippocampus did. This review discusses the seemingly inconsistent findings about the effects of elevated and prolonged glucocorticoids on hippocampal health and proposes that a chronic stress history, which includes repeated elevation of glucocorticoids, may make the hippocampus vulnerable to potential injury. Studies are described to show that chronic stress or prolonged exposure to glucocorticoids can compromise the hippocampus by producing dendritic retraction, a reversible form of plasticity that includes dendritic restructuring without irreversible cell death. Conditions that produce dendritic retraction are hypothesized to make the hippocampus vulnerable to neurotoxic or metabolic challenges. Of particular interest is the finding that the hippocampus can recover from dendritic retraction without any noticeable cell loss. When conditions surrounding dendritic retraction are present, the potential for harm is increased because dendritic retraction may persist for weeks, months or even years, thereby broadening the window of time during which the hippocampus is vulnerable to harm, called the Glucocorticoid Vulnerability Hypothesis. The relevance of these findings is discussed with regard to conditions exhibiting parallels in hippocampal plasticity, including Cushing’s disease, Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). PMID:19317179

  18. Timing vulnerability factors of sequentials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norbert Seifert; Nelson Tam

    2004-01-01

    Single-event upsets (SEU) from particle strikes have become a key challenge in microprocessor design. Modern superpipelined microprocessors typically contain many thousands of sequentials whose soft-error rate (SER) cannot be neglected any more. An accurate assessment of the SER of sequentials is therefore crucial. This work describes a method for computing timing vulnerability factors (TVFs) of sequentials. Our methology captures the

  19. US Vulnerability to Natural Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Vink, G.; Apgar, S.; Batchelor, A.; Carter, C.; Gail, D.; Jarrett, A.; Levine, N.; Morgan, W.; Orlikowski, M.; Pray, T.; Raymar, M.; Siebert, A.; Shawa, T. W.; Wallace, C.

    2002-05-01

    Natural disasters result from the coincidence of natural events with the built environment. Our nation's infrastructure is growing at an exponential rate in many areas of high risk, and the Federal government's liability is increasing proportionally. By superimposing population density with predicted ground motion from earthquakes, historical hurricane tracks, historical tornado locations, and areas within the flood plain, we are able to identify locations of high vulnerability within the United States. We present a comprehensive map of disaster risk for the United States that is being produced for the Senate Natural Hazards Caucus. The map allows for the geographic comparison of natural disaster risk with past disaster declarations, the expenditure of Federal dollars for disaster relief, population increase, and variations of GDP. Every state is vulnerable to natural disasters. Although their frequency varies considerably, the annualized losses for disaster relief from hurricanes, earthquakes, and floods are approximately equivalent. While fast-growing states such as California and Florida remain highly vulnerable, changes in the occurrence of natural events combined with population increases are making areas such as Texas, North Carolina, and the East Coast increasingly vulnerable.

  20. Randomized trials in vulnerable populations.

    PubMed

    Cook, Deborah; Moore-Cox, Anne; Xavier, Denis; Lauzier, François; Roberts, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Many persons enrolled in clinical trials can be considered vulnerable, and such trials often raise concerns because of the diminished ability of vulnerable persons to consider and protect their own interests. However, this research is necessary to answer important questions, such as which interventions are effective, which have no impact, and which do more harm than good. In this article, we identified six specific challenges associated with randomized clinical trials in vulnerable populations and have suggested several potential solutions to overcome these challenges. First addressed were macro issues, such as the scope of the problem, and research capacity in terms of funding and investigators. Next, we have addressed research ethics review, informed consent, regulatory hurdles, and serious adverse event reporting. As clinical trials are expanding globally, all stakeholders (investigators, granting agencies, REBs, DSMBs, regulatory bodies, universities, hospitals, clinicians, patients, and family members) should be aware of the challenges we have outlined, and work collaboratively toward effective solutions that improve the quality, quantity, safety, and relevance of clinical trials for vulnerable persons around the world. PMID:18283082

  1. CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS, VULNERABILITIES, AND

    E-print Network

    CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS, VULNERABILITIES, AND ADAPTATION IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012071 Prepared for: California Energy, as well as projections of future changes in climate based on modeling studies using various plausible

  2. 77 FR 28894 - Maritime Vulnerability Self-Assessment Tool

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ...Maritime Vulnerability Self-Assessment Tool AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration...maritime vulnerability self- assessment tool...Since the TMSARM became available, other tools for conducting vulnerability...

  3. MID-ATLANTIC REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    ORD's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (REVA) Program is developing and demonstrating approaches to assess current and future environmental vulnerabilities so that risk management activities can be targeted. The sister program to EMA.P (Environmental Monitoring Assessment Progr...

  4. Topology-Aware Vulnerability Mitigation Worms

    E-print Network

    Sheldon, Nathan D.

    Topology-Aware Vulnerability Mitigation Worms Defensive Worms Ziyad S. AL-Salloum Thesis submitted-set. Clear area Royal Holloway logo guidelines 2011 #12;#12;Topology-Aware Vulnerability Mitigation Worms

  5. OpenFlow Vulnerability Assessment Kevin Benton

    E-print Network

    Camp, L. Jean

    OpenFlow Vulnerability Assessment Kevin Benton School of Informatics and Computing IndianaFlow vulnerable to man- in-the-middle attacks. We also highlight the classes of vul- nerabilities that emerge from to the centralized design of the network, special care must be taken to avoid denial of service vulner- abilities

  6. Measuring Vulnerability Using the Counting Approach

    E-print Network

    Bandyopadhyay, Antar

    assessment. In this paper we take a fresh look at measuring vulnerability, where we sep- arate out the identi;1 Introduction Vulnerability has become an integral part of any deprivation assessment. In recent years there hasMeasuring Vulnerability Using the Counting Approach Indranil Dutta Ajit Mishra University

  7. Effective Network Vulnerability Assessment through Model Abstraction

    E-print Network

    Ou, Xinming "Simon"

    Effective Network Vulnerability Assessment through Model Abstraction Su Zhang1 , Xinming Ou1. This way we can prevent the distortion in quantitative vulnerability assessment metrics, at the same time networks and the vast number of vulnerabilities regularly found in software applications. A common tech

  8. TOPOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF NETWORK ATTACK VULNERABILITY

    E-print Network

    Noel, Steven

    to specific network targets. The discovered attack paths allow an assessment of the true vulnerabilityChapter 5 TOPOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF NETWORK ATTACK VULNERABILITY Sushil Jajodia, Steven Noel, Brian O vulnerability to network attack, one must consider attacker exploits not just in isolation, but also

  9. Safeguarding Children and Vulnerable Adults 1. Introduction

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Jim

    1 Safeguarding Children and Vulnerable Adults 1. Introduction 2. Definition & Legislation 3. Scope are likely to be a) vulnerable adults or b) children. The welfare and protection from abuse of vulnerable adults and children is paramount and central to this policy. A multi-agency approach is recommended

  10. VULCAN: Vulnerability Assessment Framework for Cloud Computing

    E-print Network

    Kavi, Krishna

    services on Cloud is complex because the security depends on the vulnerability of infrastructure, platform services on Cloud is complex because the security depends on the vulnerability of infrastruc- ture?". Or "I want to host this software application in this cloud environment, what security vulnerabilities I

  11. Katrina and Vulnerability: The Geography of Stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Curtis; Jacqueline Warren. Mills; Michael Leitner

    2007-01-01

    The immediate aftermath of Katrina focused the world's attention on the vulner - ability of the urban poor and racial\\/ethnic minority groups in New Orleans. This vulnerability can be viewed in terms of site, the proximity of a neighborhood to a hazard, and situation, the social context of that neighborhood. Vulnerabilities, associated with demographic char- acteristics such as being poor,

  12. Are Fishers Poor or Vulnerable? Assessing Economic Vulnerability in Small-Scale Fishing Communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe Béné

    2009-01-01

    An index of economic vulnerability is developed and used with a more conventional measure of income poverty to explore vulnerability and chronic poverty in isolated rural communities. The method is applied to data from remote rural fishing–farming communities in Congo. The analysis highlights the high vulnerability of full-time fisherfolk and identifies mobility as a key factor increasing vulnerability. In line

  13. Shield: Vulnerability-Driven Network Filters for Preventing Known Vulnerability Exploits

    E-print Network

    Narasayya, Vivek

    Shield: Vulnerability-Driven Network Filters for Preventing Known Vulnerability Exploits Helen J in the network stack, using shields -- vulnerability-specific, exploit-generic network filters installed in end vulnerabilities. Shields are less disruptive to install and uninstall, easier to test for bad side effects

  14. Vulnerability genes or plasticity genes?

    PubMed Central

    Belsky, J; Jonassaint, C; Pluess, M; Stanton, M; Brummett, B; Williams, R

    2009-01-01

    The classic diathesis–stress framework, which views some individuals as particularly vulnerable to adversity, informs virtually all psychiatric research on behavior–gene–environment (G × E) interaction. An alternative framework of ‘differential susceptibility' is proposed, one which regards those most susceptible to adversity because of their genetic make up as simultaneously most likely to benefit from supportive or enriching experiences—or even just the absence of adversity. Recent G × E findings consistent with this perspective and involving monoamine oxidase-A, 5-HTTLPR (5-hydroxytryptamine-linked polymorphic region polymorphism) and dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) are reviewed for illustrative purposes. Results considered suggest that putative ‘vulnerability genes' or ‘risk alleles' might, at times, be more appropriately conceptualized as ‘plasticity genes', because they seem to make individuals more susceptible to environmental influences—for better and for worse. PMID:19455150

  15. Soil vulnerability for cesium transfer.

    PubMed

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Sweeck, Lieve

    2011-07-01

    The recent events at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan have raised questions about the accumulation of radionuclides in soils and the possible impacts on agriculture surrounding nuclear power plants. This article summarizes the knowledge gained after the nuclear power plant accident in Chernobyl, Ukraine, on how soil parameters influence soil vulnerability for radiocesium bioavailability, discusses some potential agrochemical countermeasures, and presents some predictions of radiocesium crop concentrations for areas affected by the Fukushima accident. PMID:21608116

  16. Health status of vulnerable populations.

    PubMed

    Aday, L A

    1994-01-01

    The notion of risk underlying the concept of vulnerability implies that everyone is potentially vulnerable (or at risk), that is, there is always a chance of developing health problems. The risk is, however, greater for those with the least social status, social capital, and human capital resources to either prevent or ameliorate the origins and consequences of poor physical, psychological, or social health. The completeness and accuracy of information on the health status of the vulnerable populations examined here varies substantially across groups. Methodological work is needed to derive standardized definitions of terms, specify the content and timing for collecting information for minimum basic data sets, and develop uniform standards for evaluating and reporting data quality on the health status of vulnerable populations. The variety of indicators of vulnerable populations examined indicates that during the decade of the 1980s the incidence of serious physical, psychological, and/or social needs increased (at worst) and was unameliorated (at best) for millions of Americans. AIDS emerged as a new and deadly threat from a handful of cases classified as Gay-Related Immune Deficiency in the early part of the 1980s to what now may be over a million Americans who are HIV-positive. The number of homeless has increased an average of 20% a year to estimates now ranging up to one million men, women, or children homeless on any given night to twice that number who may be homeless sometime during the year. Over seven million people immigrated to the United States during the period from 1981 to 1990--an increasing proportion of whom are refugees carrying with them the physical, psychological, and social wounds of war. The number of children abused by family members or other intimates has burgeoned to an estimated 1.6 to 1.7 million per year, and with the greater use of firearms, intentional acts of violence towards oneself or others are becoming increasingly deadly in their consequences. Though fewer Americans smoke, drink, and use illicit drugs in general than was the case earlier in the decade of the 1980s, the use of cocaine (and particularly crack) among hard-core addicts has resulted in increases in the number of drug-related deaths.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8054096

  17. Measuring vulnerability to disaster displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brink, Susan A.; Khazai, Bijan; Power, Christopher; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2015-04-01

    Large scale disasters can cause devastating impacts in terms of population displacement. Between 2008 and 2013, on average 27 million people were displaced annually by disasters (Yonetani 2014). After large events such as hurricane Katrina or the Port-au-Prince earthquake, images of inadequate public shelter and concerns about large scale and often inequitable migration have been broadcast around the world. Population displacement can often be one of the most devastating and visible impacts of a natural disaster. Despite the importance of population displacement in disaster events, measures to understand the socio-economic vulnerability of a community often use broad metrics to estimate the total socio-economic risk of an event rather than focusing on the specific impacts that a community faces in a disaster. Population displacement is complex and multi-causal with the physical impact of a disaster interacting with vulnerability arising from the response, environmental issues (e.g., weather), cultural concerns (e.g., expectations of adequate shelter), and many individual factors (e.g., mobility, risk perception). In addition to the complexity of the causes, population displacement is difficult to measure because of the wide variety of different terms and definitions and its multi-dimensional nature. When we speak of severe population displacement, we may refer to a large number of displaced people, an extended length of displacement or associated difficulties such as poor shelter quality, risk of violence and crime in shelter communities, discrimination in aid, a lack of access to employment or other difficulties that can be associated with large scale population displacement. We have completed a thorough review of the literature on disaster population displacement. Research has been conducted on historic events to understand the types of negative impacts associated with population displacement and also the vulnerability of different groups to these impacts. We aggregate these ideas into a framework of disaster displacement vulnerability that distinguishes between three main aspects of disaster displacement. Disaster displacement can be considered in terms of the number of displaced people and the length of that displacement. However, the literature emphasizes that the severity of disaster displacement can not be measured completely in quantitative terms. Thus, we include a measure representing people who are trapped and unable to leave their homes due to mobility, resources or for other reasons. Finally the third main aspect considers the difficulties that are associated with displacement and reflects the difference between the experiences of those who are displaced into safe and supportive environments as compared to those whose only alternate shelter is dangerous and inadequate for their needs. Finally, we apply the framework to demonstrate a methodology to estimate vulnerability to disaster displacement. Using data from the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) Social and Economic Vulnerability sub-National Database, we generate an index to measure the vulnerability of Japanese prefectures to the dimensions of displacement included in the framework. References Yonitani, M. (2014). Global Estimates 2014: People displaced by disasters. http://www.internal-displacement.org/publications/2014/global-estimates-2014-people-displaced-by-disasters/

  18. When a vulnerable patient absconds.

    PubMed

    Aspinall, P

    1994-03-01

    This case-study examines the nurse's role when a patient at risk absconds. It highlights possible weaknesses in the system for dealing with absconding patients who are so cognitively and emotionally impaired, that they may present a danger to themselves. The issues of patient identification and stigmatization are raised along with the possible conflict this may cause in psychiatric nurses. Recommendations for care at ward level are made, including asking the vulnerable patient to wear an identity bracelet and the instigation of a prepared action plan which involves engaging the help of outside agencies should a patient abscond. PMID:8156133

  19. Students' vulnerability in educational research.

    PubMed

    Sykes, L M; Dullabh, H

    2012-06-01

    Dental teaching institutions in South Africa recently implemented "learner-centred" curricula and expected educators to alter their teaching styles accordingly, but perhaps without providing adequate training in this paedagogical philosophy. At the same time, the lecturers were required to conduct evidence-based research to evaluate the outcomes. Thus, clinicians/lecturers also became researchers, using their own students or student material for assessment purposes. Previously, this form of educational research, which was carried out in normal academic settings, was not subject to review by Institutional Review Boards (IRB). However, concerns have risen that learners may be a vulnerable population due to their position in the academic institution, and the power and knowledge differentials that exist between them and the lecturer/researcher. This raises ethical concerns regarding their autonomy and ability to provide free, voluntary, informed consent to be research participants. This paper questions whether educational research may lead to student vulnerability, and proposes some recommendations for educators and institutions involved in educational research. PMID:23185948

  20. Scenarios for coastal vulnerability assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicholls, Robert J.; Woodroffe, Colin D.; Burkett, Virginia; Hay, John; Wong, Poh Poh; Nurse, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    Coastal vulnerability assessments tend to focus mainly on climate change and especially on sea-level rise. Assessment of the influence of nonclimatic environmental change or socioeconomic change is less well developed and these drivers are often completely ignored. Given that the most profound coastal changes of the twentieth century due to nonclimate drivers are likely to continue through the twenty-first century, this is a major omission. It may result in not only overstating the importance of climate change but also overlooking significant interactions of climate change and other drivers. To support the development of policies relating to climate change and coastal management, integrated assessments of climatic change in coastal areas are required, including the effects of all the relevant drivers. This chapter explores the development of scenarios (or "plausible futures") of relevant climate and nonclimate drivers that can be used for coastal analysis, with an emphasis on the nonclimate drivers. It shows the importance of analyzing the impacts of climate change and sea-level rise in a broader context of coastal change and all its drivers. This will improve the analysis of impacts, key vulnerabilities, and adaptation needs and, hence, inform climate and coastal policy. Stakeholder engagement is important in the development of scenarios, and the underlying assumptions need to be explicit, transparent, and open to scientific debate concerning their uncertainties/realism and likelihood.

  1. Vulnerable Voices: An Examination of the Concept of Vulnerability in Relation to Student Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelor, Denise Claire

    2006-01-01

    Vulnerable student voices are a matter for concern in contemporary higher education, but that concern is directed more towards identifying vulnerable groups, and seeking to widen their participation in higher education. It is less to do with the vulnerability of certain modes of voice when students are there. The concept of student voice may be…

  2. Proliferation Vulnerability Red Team report

    SciTech Connect

    Hinton, J.P.; Barnard, R.W.; Bennett, D.E. [and others

    1996-10-01

    This report is the product of a four-month independent technical assessment of potential proliferation vulnerabilities associated with the plutonium disposition alternatives currently under review by DOE/MD. The scope of this MD-chartered/Sandia-led study was limited to technical considerations that could reduce proliferation resistance during various stages of the disposition processes below the Stored Weapon/Spent Fuel standards. Both overt and covert threats from host nation and unauthorized parties were considered. The results of this study will be integrated with complementary work by others into an overall Nonproliferation and Arms Control Assessment in support of a Secretarial Record of Decision later this year for disposition of surplus U.S. weapons plutonium.

  3. Saudis awaken to their vulnerability

    SciTech Connect

    Tinnin, D.B.

    1980-03-10

    Saudi Arabia is becoming aware that it is vulnerable to internal and external pressures which threaten its security. The strains of rapid modernization and threats from hostile neighbors are undermining the consensus which has held the widely diverse country together in a system of open communication. Influence by the Bedouin (ruling) and the ulama (religious) groups has predominated a traditional society determined to modernize and still remain conservative. Members of the ruling class are seeking to profit from the modernization process, but the common Saudi resists becoming an industrial laborer. Recent events in Mecca, Afghanistan and elsewhere illustrate how political pressures are affecting the country's leadership in the threat of armed conflicts over its oil supplies. (DCK)

  4. Mapping software faults with web security vulnerabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Fonseca; Marco Vieira

    2008-01-01

    Web applications are typically developed with hard time constraints and are often deployed with critical software bugs, making them vulnerable to attacks. The classification and knowledge of the typical software bugs that lead to security vulnerabilities is of utmost importance. This paper presents a field study analyzing 655 security patches of six widely used web applications. Results are compared against

  5. Our Changing Climate 2012 Vulnerability & Adaptation

    E-print Network

    Our Changing Climate 2012 Vulnerability & Adaptation to the Increasing Risks from Climate Change Climate Change Center to lead this effort. The 2009 Adaptation Strategy prepared by the California Natural Resources Agency also called for a statewide vulnerability and adaptation study. This report summarizes

  6. Predicting Vulnerability Risks Using Software Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roumani, Yaman

    2012-01-01

    Software vulnerabilities have been regarded as one of the key reasons for computer security breaches that have resulted in billions of dollars in losses per year (Telang and Wattal 2005). With the growth of the software industry and the Internet, the number of vulnerability attacks and the ease with which an attack can be made have increased. From…

  7. Vulnerable Youth and Transitions to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Rongbing; Sen, Bisakha; Foster, E. Michael

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on vulnerable youth, the challenges they face during their transitions to adulthood, and the adverse effects of limited support systems on those transitions. The authors offer recommendations on how adult educators can help facilitate smooth transitions into adulthood for vulnerable youth.

  8. WATER AND ENERGY SECTOR VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE

    E-print Network

    WATER AND ENERGY SECTOR VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE WARMING IN THE SIERRA NEVADA: Simulating warming mediated losses. Keywords: water energy nexus, water management, climate change, non of California, Davis). 2012. Water-Energy Sector Vulnerability to Climate Warming in the Sierra Nevada

  9. 2, 123155, 2006 Social vulnerability to

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    CPD 2, 123­155, 2006 Social vulnerability to climate C. Pfister and R. Br´azdil Title Page Abstract Interactive Discussion EGU Clim. Past Discuss., 2, 123­155, 2006 www.clim-past-discuss.net/2 (christian.pfister@hist.unibe.ch) 123 #12;CPD 2, 123­155, 2006 Social vulnerability to climate C. Pfister

  10. Quantification of groundwater vulnerability using statistical methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. SCHLEYER

    1994-01-01

    The mapping of groundwater vulnerability to single pollutants may serve as a useful tool for groundwater protection. Existing vulnera­ bility maps are rarely substance-specific and almost always based on a subjective assessment and combination of criteria by experts, because the most important problem in determining groundwater vulnerability to pollutants is the heterogeneity and complexity of the factors controlling it. The

  11. [Biological vulnerability to depressive disorders].

    PubMed

    Poirier-Littré, M F

    1994-12-01

    For some 20 years, numerous research teams have sort to identify specific biological markers for depression. There have been three main stages in this search, each of which was characterized by progress in the technologies then available. The first stage involved evaluation of the activity of known neurotransmitters, involving assay of concentrations of precursors or catabolites, as well as measurement of the activity of enzymes regulating synthesis and catabolism, rate of up-take and storage. The second phase involved use of specific radioactive ligands which bind to neuronal membranes and receptors. This allowed in vivo exploration of the central nervous system in man. Finally, the third stage has involved a functional approach, both cellular and systemic, based upon the dynamic measurement of biological response to stimuli of central origin. While the first two approaches are of course a rather indirect reflection of central nervous system function, the third allows assessment interactions between the various systems. The countless laboratory studies carried out in depression have not provided useful etiologic, diagnostic or therapeutic results, and currently, far more attention is given to the interactions between the various neurotransmitter systems than to each system taken individually. Numerous studies have been carried out to assess interactions between the neurological, immunological and endocrine systems, and abnormal immunological parameters have been reported. Similarly, the endocrine disorders seen in depression could be attributable to a disorganization of the hippocampal-hypothalamic-adrenalin axis due to accumulation of stress. The vulnerability could also be due to preclinical sensitization, as described in the "kindling" model. Post gave particular importance to the role of biochemical modifications induced by repetitive stress. Long-term modifications could involve changes in transcription factors involved in protein synthesis, leading to long-term changes in peptides which, in turn, could lead to neurobiological modifications in the limbic system, a sort of "depression memory" rendering patients far more vulnerable to subsequent episodes. Finally, we would note that the identification of a gene for susceptibility to disorders of mood in some families is only a first step towards the characterization of the protein produced by the gene; this protein should in turn either modulate or produce a signal or a message of some sort. Furthermore, the genetic component itself could act via environmental or relational factors involved in the genesis of the depression. Finally, it is very important to bear in mind the great plasticity of neuronal systems, which are continuously subject to adaptation and modulation phenomena. PMID:7895629

  12. Determining Vulnerability Importance in Environmental Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Toro, Javier, E-mail: jjtoroca@unal.edu.co [Institute of Environmental Studies, National University of Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Duarte, Oscar, E-mail: ogduartev@unal.edu.co [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, National University of Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Requena, Ignacio, E-mail: requena@decsai.ugr.es [Department of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence, University of Granada (Spain); Zamorano, Montserrat, E-mail: zamorano@ugr.es [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Granada (Spain)

    2012-01-15

    The concept of vulnerability has been used to describe the susceptibility of physical, biotic, and social systems to harm or hazard. In this sense, it is a tool that reduces the uncertainties of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) since it does not depend exclusively on the value assessments of the evaluator, but rather is based on the environmental state indicators of the site where the projects or activities are being carried out. The concept of vulnerability thus reduces the possibility that evaluators will subjectively interpret results, and be influenced by outside interests and pressures during projects. However, up until now, EIA has been hindered by a lack of effective methods. This research study analyzes the concept of vulnerability, defines Vulnerability Importance and proposes its inclusion in qualitative EIA methodology. The method used to quantify Vulnerability Importance is based on a set of environmental factors and indicators that provide a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. The results obtained in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method since there is a direct relation between this value and the environmental state of the departments analyzed. - Research Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The concept of vulnerability could be considered defining Vulnerability Importance included in qualitative EIA methodology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The use of the concept of environmental vulnerability could reduce the subjectivity of qualitative methods of EIA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method to quantify the Vulnerability Importance proposed provides a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method.

  13. Vulnerability indicators of sea water intrusion.

    PubMed

    Werner, Adrian D; Ward, James D; Morgan, Leanne K; Simmons, Craig T; Robinson, Neville I; Teubner, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, simple indicators of the propensity for sea water intrusion (SWI) to occur (referred to as "SWI vulnerability indicators") are devised. The analysis is based on an existing analytical solution for the steady-state position of a sharp fresh water-salt water interface. Interface characteristics, that is, the wedge toe location and sea water volume, are used in quantifying SWI in both confined and unconfined aquifers. Rates-of-change (partial derivatives of the analytical solution) in the wedge toe or sea water volume are used to quantify the aquifer vulnerability to various stress situations, including (1) sea-level rise; (2) change in recharge (e.g., due to climate change); and (3) change in seaward discharge. A selection of coastal aquifer cases is used to apply the SWI vulnerability indicators, and the proposed methodology produces interpretations of SWI vulnerability that are broadly consistent with more comprehensive investigations. Several inferences regarding SWI vulnerability arise from the analysis, including: (1) sea-level rise impacts are more extensive in aquifers with head-controlled rather than flux-controlled inland boundaries, whereas the opposite is true for recharge change impacts; (2) sea-level rise does not induce SWI in constant-discharge confined aquifers; (3) SWI vulnerability varies depending on the causal factor, and therefore vulnerability composites are needed that differentiate vulnerability to such threats as sea-level rise, climate change, and changes in seaward groundwater discharge. We contend that the approach is an improvement over existing methods for characterizing SWI vulnerability, because the method has theoretical underpinnings and yet calculations are simple, although the coastal aquifer conceptualization is highly idealized. PMID:21434909

  14. Ship infrared detection/vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, Arie N.

    1993-11-01

    The IR contrast of ships at sea is of importance for those who want to detect or identify the ship and for those who worry about this. This IR contrast is determined by a large number of parameters. Of course temperatures of the ship's structure and those of the ambient sea and air are important, but also important are the reflection properties of the sea background and the radiance distribution of the surrounding sky. Modeling of these phenomena appears to be very complicated and the accuracy of the results is rather course in many cases. Therefore, at FEL- TNO an approach has been followed, using a package of sensors on board the ship, giving radiometric or real temperature data of specific surface elements and background radiometric data. These data are taken into a PC system, providing radiant contrast data in any IR-spectral band. Taking into account atmospheric propagation effects and sensor performance, a simplified detection model provides range data in the form of polar diagrams with elevation as parameter. The commander of the ship uses the system as an IR Tactical Decision Aid (TDA), as he may decide upon countermeasures, if the vulnerability of his ship exceeds certain limits.

  15. ICBM vulnerability: Calculations, predictions, and error bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobson, Art

    1988-09-01

    The theory of intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) silo vulnerability is reviewed, and the present and probable future (mid-1990s) vulnerability of US silos is analyzed. The analysis emphasizes methodology, sources of information, and uncertainties. US ICBMs might still be survivable today but they will certainly be vulnerable to ICBM attack, and perhaps even to submarine-launched ballistic missile attack, by the mid-1990s. These calculations are presented not only for their immediate importance but also to introduce other physicists to some of the quantitative methods that can be used to analyze international security topics.

  16. Cancer Vulnerabilities Unveiled by Genomic Loss

    E-print Network

    Nijhawan, Deepak

    Due to genome instability, most cancers exhibit loss of regions containing tumor suppressor genes and collateral loss of other genes. To identify cancer-specific vulnerabilities that are the result of copy number losses, ...

  17. GIS and Statistical Groundwater Vulnerability Modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon L. Qi; Jason J. Gurdak

    ArcGIS Desktop* and ArcGIS Workstation* were used to extract statistically significant information from various geospatial data sets for input into a statistical model of groundwater vulnerability. The product of this effort was a probability map that identified areas of vulnerability to groundwater-quality degradation. This information is of interest to a variety of water professionals because it provides a tool to

  18. Debris-flow impact, vulnerability, and response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Santi; K. Hewitt; D. F. VanDine; E. Barillas Cruz

    2011-01-01

    This paper calls attention to vulnerable groups that are disproportionately affected by smaller, less-publicized debris flow\\u000a events and do not always receive the advantages of recent technical advances. The most vulnerable groups tend to be economically\\u000a restricted to live in relatively inexpensive and more dangerous locations, are often forced to live in topographically cramped\\u000a areas due to expansion and development,

  19. Assessing the Vulnerability of Supply Chains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bjørn Egil Asbjørnslett

    Supply chain systems are becoming increasingly lengthy and complex, reflecting the dynamic and global marketplace. Adopting\\u000a a more proactive approach to dealing with new and changing risks and vulnerabilities emerging within or influencing the system\\u000a may be a wise action to secure the mission of the supply chain system.\\u000a \\u000a In this chapter, an approach to analysing vulnerability in a supply

  20. Airport vulnerability assessment: an analytical approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard T. Lazarick

    1998-01-01

    The Airport Vulnerability Assessment Project (AVAP) is the direct result of congressional funding of recommendation 3.13 of the White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security. This project takes a new approach to the assessment of U.S. commercial airports. AVAP uses automation, analytical methods and tools to evaluate vulnerability and risk, and to analyze cost\\/benefits in a more quantitative manner.

  1. IT Security Vulnerability and Incident Response Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. H. M. Hafkamp; S. Paulus; N. Pohlman; H. Reimer

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarises the results of a Dutch PhD research project on IT security vulnerability and\\u000aincident response management, which is supervised by the University of Twente in the Netherlands and\\u000awhich is currently in its final stage. Vulnerabilities are ‘failures or weaknesses in computer (application)\\u000asystem design, implementation or operation which can be exploited to violate the security policy

  2. Towards Automatic Generation of Vulnerability-Based Signatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Brumley; James Newsome; Dawn Xiaodong Song; Hao Wang; Somesh Jha

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we explore the problem of creating vulner- ability signatures. A vulnerability signature matches all ex- ploits of a given vulnerability, even polymorphic or meta- morphic variants. Our work departs from previous ap- proaches by focusing on the semantics of the program and vulnerability exercised by a sample exploit instead of the semantics or syntax of the exploit

  3. Constructing vulnerability maps of material and energy pathways in deltas

    E-print Network

    Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    .5834 Steady Flux Distribution 0 8 #12;Vulnerability to change Wax Lake Delta (Louisiana Coast, USA) Niger 10 #12;Vulnerability Maps Niger Delta H M L 0 11 #12;· Does vulnerability relate to the topology1 Constructing vulnerability maps of material and energy pathways in deltas Efi Foufoula

  4. A Vulnerability Assessment of Storm Surge in Guangdong Province, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junxiang Zhang

    2009-01-01

    In Guangdong Province, China, storm surges that threaten coastal communities are induced by typhoons. The vulnerability of a storm surge is subject to social and economic features. In this article, we provide a definition of socioeconomic vulnerability and suggest six indicators that form a vulnerability indicator system for assessing the socioeconomic vulnerability to typhoon storm surges. The hazard of a

  5. Using Assessing Care of Vulnerable Elders Quality Indicators to Measure Quality of Hospital Care for Vulnerable Elders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vineet M. Arora; Martha Johnson; Jared Olson; Paula M. Podrazik; Stacie Levine; Catherine E. DuBeau; Greg A. Sachs; David O. Meltzer

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the quality of care for hospital- ized vulnerable elders using measures based on Assessing Care of Vulnerable Elders (ACOVE) quality indicators (QIs). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Single academic medical center. PARTICIPANTS: Subjects aged 65 and older hospitalized on the University of Chicago general medicine inpatient service who were defined as vulnerable using the Vulnerable Elder Survey-13

  6. Narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability in psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Pincus, Aaron L; Cain, Nicole M; Wright, Aidan G C

    2014-10-01

    This article briefly summarizes the empirical and clinical literature underlying a contemporary clinical model of pathological narcissism. Unlike the DSM Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD), this clinical model identifies and differentiates between two phenotypic themes of dysfunction-narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability-that can be expressed both overtly and covertly in patients' ways of thinking, feeling, behaving, and participating in treatment. Clinical recognition that narcissistic patients can and often do present for psychotherapy in vulnerable states of depression, anxiety, shame, and even suicidality increases the likelihood of accurate diagnosis and effective treatment planning. This article provides case examples derived from psychotherapies with narcissistic patients to demonstrate how narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability concurrently present in patients who seek treatment. PMID:24446581

  7. Financial Vulnerability Among Medicare Managed Care Enrollees

    PubMed Central

    Robins, Cynthia S.; Heller, Amy; Myers, Mary Anne

    2005-01-01

    Consumer Assessment of Health Plans Survey (CAHPS®) data show that Medicare managed care plans often receive low satisfaction scores from certain vulnerable populations. This article describes findings from a qualitative study with beneficiaries about their Medicare managed care experiences. Focus groups were stratified by participant race/ethnicity and self-described health status. Yet participants did not describe their concerns in terms of their race, ethnicity, or health condition, but rather their access to financial resources. Our findings suggest that researchers consider how socioeconomics creates health care vulnerability for racial and ethnic minorities, females, people with disabilities, and other economically marginalized persons. PMID:17290629

  8. The vulnerability cube: a multi-dimensional framework for assessing relative vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Lin, Brenda B; Morefield, Philip E

    2011-09-01

    The diversity and abundance of information available for vulnerability assessments can present a challenge to decision-makers. Here we propose a framework to aggregate and present socioeconomic and environmental data in a visual vulnerability assessment that will help prioritize management options for communities vulnerable to environmental change. Socioeconomic and environmental data are aggregated into distinct categorical indices across three dimensions and arranged in a cube, so that individual communities can be plotted in a three-dimensional space to assess the type and relative magnitude of the communities' vulnerabilities based on their position in the cube. We present an example assessment using a subset of the USEPA National Estuary Program (NEP) estuaries: coastal communities vulnerable to the effects of environmental change on ecosystem health and water quality. Using three categorical indices created from a pool of publicly available data (socioeconomic index, land use index, estuary condition index), the estuaries were ranked based on their normalized averaged scores and then plotted along the three axes to form a vulnerability cube. The position of each community within the three-dimensional space communicates both the types of vulnerability endemic to each estuary and allows for the clustering of estuaries with like-vulnerabilities to be classified into typologies. The typologies highlight specific vulnerability descriptions that may be helpful in creating specific management strategies. The data used to create the categorical indices are flexible depending on the goals of the decision makers, as different data should be chosen based on availability or importance to the system. Therefore, the analysis can be tailored to specific types of communities, allowing a data rich process to inform decision-making. PMID:21638079

  9. WATER AND ENERGY SECTOR VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE

    E-print Network

    WATER AND ENERGY SECTOR VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE WARMING IN THE SIERRA NEVADA: Water Year explores the sensitivity of water indexing methods to climate change scenarios to better understand how water management decisions and allocations will be affected by climate change. Many water management

  10. Retrieval from Memory: Vulnerable or Inviolable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dylan M.; Marsh, John E.; Hughes, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    We show that retrieval from semantic memory is vulnerable even to the mere presence of speech. Irrelevant speech impairs semantic fluency--namely, lexical retrieval cued by a semantic category name--but only if it is meaningful (forward speech compared to reversed speech or words compared to nonwords). Moreover, speech related semantically to the…

  11. Characterizing Application Memory Error Vulnerability to

    E-print Network

    Mutlu, Onur

    -reliability memory (HRM) Store error-tolerant data in less-reliable lower-cost memory Store error-vulnerable data an application Observation 2: Data can be recovered by software ·Heterogeneous-Reliability Memory (HRM: Data can be recovered by software ·Heterogeneous-Reliability Memory (HRM) ·Evaluation 4 #12;Server

  12. Human Carotid Plaque Calcification and Vulnerability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl-Magnus Wahlgren; Wei Zheng; Wael Shaalan; Jun Tang; Hisham S. Bassiouny

    2009-01-01

    Background: Inflammation is a key mechanism in human atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability and disruption. The objective was to determine the differential gene expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory factors in the fibrous cap and shoulder region of noncalcified and calcified carotid endarterectomy plaques. Methods: Thirty carotid endarterectomy plaques were classified as type Va (noncalcified, n = 15) and type Vb (calcified, n

  13. Measuring vulnerabilities and their exploitation cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evangelos Morakis; Stylianos Vidalis; Andrew Blyth

    2003-01-01

    In a world ruled by chaotic causality, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is only a natural limitation. Analysts only have their personal logic, experience and intuition to depend on in order to make judgments regarding the safety of a system. However, today's analysts are getting bombarded with large amounts of data coming from all kinds of security-related products, such as vulnerability scanners,

  14. Network Setup Vulnerability of Wireless Home Networks

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Junshan

    hacking tools Wireless home networks are a growing trend in today's world 802.11 a/b/g/n has been usedNetwork Setup Vulnerability of Wireless Home Networks Hacking into WPA Stephen G. Calvert (sgcalver tools can capture the authentication requests and use a dictionary attack to find the passphrase

  15. Vulnerable plaque intervention: State of the art.

    PubMed

    Young, John J; Phillips, Harry R; Marso, Steven P; Granada, Juan F; McPherson, John A; Waksman, Ron; Steinhubl, Steven R; Schwartz, Robert S; Stone, Gregg W

    2008-02-15

    Progressive atherosclerotic disease is responsible for many of the late adverse clinical events that detract from the high procedural and clinical success of percutaneous coronary intervention. Despite recent advances in catheter based technology for the treatment of obstructive coronary artery disease, the greater risk to the patient over time may in fact come from the significant rate of acute coronary events triggered by nonculprit and/or nonobstructive coronary artery lesions. These areas of vulnerability within the epicardial coronary tree have generated a great deal of interest surrounding the concepts of vulnerable plaque (VP), vulnerable blood and the vulnerable patient. This 'state of the art' review discusses the limitations of coronary angiography alone in providing risk assessment; reviews the underlying biological concepts of VP; discusses evolving noninvasive and invasive imaging technologies for the detection of VP; and finally provides a futuristic look at how the field of interventional cardiology may transcend the traditional angiogram and move toward a more comprehensive treatment approach that benefits the patients' overall coronary health. PMID:18288729

  16. Evaluating Youth Work with Vulnerable Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlong, Andy; Cartmel, Fred; Powney, Janet; Hall, Stuart

    This report presents the results of an 18-month research project that studied the effectiveness of youth work with vulnerable young people. The research, representing six distinct geographical areas of Scotland characterized by disadvantage, focused on young people aged 13 to 16. In each neighborhood, the project examined the experiences of young…

  17. Overactive bladder in the vulnerable elderly

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Gillian F; Kuchel, George A; Smith, Phillip P

    2014-01-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a common problem that may occur in individuals of all ages. It has a considerable impact on patient quality of life, and although moderately effective management strategies do exist, this condition often remains undiagnosed and untreated. OAB needs to be viewed as a symptom complex. Its presentation and management are complicated in the vulnerable elderly by the presence of baseline frailty and multiple coexisting chronic conditions. Furthermore, and beyond a simple understanding of symptomatology, providers must address patient goals and motivations as well as the expectations of caretakers. These multiple levels of perception, function, expectations, and treatment efficacy/risks must be tailored to the individual patient. While the vulnerable elderly patient may often have evidence of urinary tract dysfunction, OAB and urge urinary incontinence in this population must be understood as a multifactorial geriatric syndrome and viewed in the context of medical and functional baseline and precipitating risk factors. Expectations and goals must be tailored to the resources of vulnerable elderly patients and their caregivers, and care must be coordinated with other medical care providers. The management of OAB in the vulnerable elderly often poses significant management challenges. Nonetheless, with a thoughtful approach and an aim towards future research specifically for this population, significant reductions in morbidity and mortality long with enhancement in health-related quality of life are possible. PMID:25328867

  18. Electric power grid structural vulnerability assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mao Anji; Yu Jiaxi; Guo Zhizhong

    2006-01-01

    With the rapid development of economy and the increasing interdependence between national infrastructures, power system is becoming more and more complicated. Moreover, because of the deregulation of power system and the impact of power market, the deteriorated natural environment and the potential terrorism attack, power system is facing with more challenges and becomes more vulnerable than ever. So, It is

  19. Educational and Vocational Exploration in Vulnerable Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Though numerous studies indicate that youth and young adults who are involved in one or more social service systems have poor educational and employment outcomes, little is known about the pathways to employment and education in this population. In this qualitative study of educational and employment exploration in vulnerable youth, 11 individuals…

  20. African agriculture especially vulnerable to warming climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-09-01

    Malnourishment across Africa could jump 40% by 2050 due to climate change, according to the Africa Agriculture Status Report 2014 (AASR), released on 2 September. With temperatures predicted to rise 1.5°C-2.5°C by midcentury, African smallholder farms, which are generally run by one family, are more vulnerable than ever, the report finds.

  1. New vulnerabilities in RSA Abderrahmane Nitaj

    E-print Network

    Nitaj, Abderrahmane

    New vulnerabilities in RSA Abderrahmane Nitaj Laboratoire de Math´ematiques Nicolas Oresme be the product of two large unknown primes of equal bit-size. Wiener's famous attack on RSA shows that using a public key (N, e) satisfying ed - k(N + 1 - (p + q)) = 1 with d RSA completely insecure

  2. Perceived Vulnerability to Disease Predicts Environmental Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Kubiatko, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Investigating predictors of environmental attitudes may bring valuable benefits in terms of improving public awareness about biodiversity degradation and increased pro-environmental behaviour. Here we used an evolutionary approach to study environmental attitudes based on disease-threat model. We hypothesized that people vulnerable to diseases may…

  3. Analysis of vulnerabilities in Internet firewalls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seny Kamara; Sonia Fahmy; E. Eugene Schultz; Florian Kerschbaum; Michael Frantzen

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Firewalls protect a trusted network from an untrusted network by filtering traffic according to a specified security policy A diverse set of firewalls is being used today As it is infeasible to examine and test each firewall for all possible potential problems, a taxonomy is needed to understand firewall vulnerabilities in the context of firewall operations This paper describes

  4. Cognitive Slippage in Children Vulnerable to Schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas F. Oltmanns; Sheldon Weintraub; Arthur A. Stone; John M. Neale

    1978-01-01

    Psychological deficit research with adult schizophrenics has been hindered by numerous methodological problems that may be avoided by the prospective study of children vulnerable to the disorder. An object sorting task was administered to 156 children of schizophrenic patients, 102 children of depressed patients, and 139 children of normal parents. The children were between 6 and 15 years old. The

  5. Who's Vulnerable in Infant Child Care Centers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Earline D.; Moukaddem, Virginia E.

    1992-01-01

    Maintains that infants and toddlers, parents, and child caregivers are vulnerable to a variety of infectious diseases from infant-toddler child care centers. These diseases include infectious diarrhea; rubella; cytomeglovirus; hepatitis A, and haemophilus influenza type B. Suggests ways to prevent the spread of such diseases. (BB)

  6. Adult attachment style and vulnerability to depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Murphy; Glen W. Bates

    1997-01-01

    The present study examined the role of adult attachment styles in differentiating ‘depressed’ and ‘non-depressed’ college students, and the association between attachment styles and the depressive personality vulnerabilities, sociotropy and autonomy. High scores on the fearful and, to a lesser extent, preoccupied attachment scales were associated with higher levels of depression, highlighting negative self-representation as a key factor in depression.

  7. Vulnerability of Tropical Pacific Fisheries and Aquaculture

    E-print Network

    3 Vulnerability of Tropical Pacific Fisheries and Aquaculture to Climate Change Edited by Johann D and Aquaculture to Climate Change Edited by Johann D Bell, Johanna E Johnson and Alistair J Hobday #12;ii of Tropical Pacific Fisheries and Aquaculture to Climate Change 1. Fishery management ­ Oceania. 2. Marine

  8. Vulnerability Assessment of Cybersecurity for SCADA Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chee-Wooi Ten; Chen-Ching Liu; Govindarasu Manimaran

    2008-01-01

    Vulnerability assessment is a requirement of NERC's cybersecurity standards for electric power systems. The purpose is to study the impact of a cyber attack on supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. Compliance of the requirement to meet the standard has become increasingly challenging as the system becomes more dispersed in wide areas. Interdependencies between computer communication system and the

  9. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This report marks the culmination of a 4-month review conducted to identify chemical safety vulnerabilities existing at DOE facilities. This review is an integral part of DOE's efforts to raise its commitment to chemical safety to the same level as that for nuclear safety.

  10. Spreadability, vulnerability, regional viability and protector control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdes Samed Bernoussi

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we present some concepts recently introduced in the analysis and control of Distributed Parameter Systems: Spreadability, vulnerability, regional viability and protector control. These concepts permit to describe many bio- geographical phenomena, as those of pollution, desertification or epidemics, which are characterized by a spatio-temporal evolution. We give some connection between such concepts. To illustrate these concepts an

  11. REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT: A CONCEPTUAL APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (REVA) project is developing and testing an approach to conducting comparative ecological risk assessments at the regional scale. I't seeks an objective and quantifiable answer to answer the question, "What are the greatest threaten accompa...

  12. Psychological Vulnerability to Completed Suicide: A Review of Empirical Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Kenneth R.; Duberstein, Paul R.; Conwell, Yeates; Seidlitz, Larry; Caine, Eric D.

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews empirical literature on psychological vulnerability to completed suicide. Five constructs have been consistently associated with completed suicide: impulsivity/aggression; depression; anxiety; hopelessness; and self-consciousness/social disengagement. Current knowledge of psychological vulnerability could inform social…

  13. 6 CFR 27.400 - Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information. 27.400...THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Other § 27.400 Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information. (a)...

  14. 6 CFR 27.400 - Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information. 27.400...THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Other § 27.400 Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information. (a)...

  15. 6 CFR 27.400 - Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information. 27.400...THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Other § 27.400 Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information. (a)...

  16. 6 CFR 27.400 - Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information. 27.400...THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Other § 27.400 Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information. (a)...

  17. Placas and Murals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romotsky, Jerry; Romotsky, Sally

    1974-01-01

    Presented examples of graffiti as seen in the barrios of East Los Angeles that told of the past and demonstrated how graffiti could be used in a positive fashion reflecting the positive aspirations, interests, and identities of the residents. (Author/RK)

  18. Using web security scanners to detect vulnerabilities in web services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Vieira; Nuno Antunes; Henrique Madeira

    2009-01-01

    Although web services are becoming business- critical components, they are often deployed with criti- cal software bugs that can be maliciously explored. Web vulnerability scanners allow detecting security vulnerabilities in web services by stressing the service from the point of view of an attacker. However, re- search and practice show that different scanners have different performance on vulnerabilities detection. In

  19. FAST ABSTRACT: Seasonality in Vulnerability Discovery in Major Software Systems

    E-print Network

    Malaiya, Yashwant K.

    FAST ABSTRACT: Seasonality in Vulnerability Discovery in Major Software Systems HyunChul Joh discovered. An examination of the vulnerability data suggests a seasonal behavior that has not been modeled by the recently proposed vulnerability discovery models. This seasonality has not been identified or examined so

  20. Supporting Community in Schools: The Relationship of Resilience and Vulnerability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderwood, Patricia E.

    This paper examines the role of community in education. It focuses on the relation between vulnerability and resilience and how this dialectic is fundamental to the workings of community. Community without vulnerability is impoverished since it offers no chance to build resilience. However, vulnerabilities may be perceived as flaws that could be…

  1. VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT FOR MINING SUBSIDENCE HAZARD DECK Olivier1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT FOR MINING SUBSIDENCE HAZARD DECK Olivier1 , VERDEL Thierry1 , SALMON mining subsidence events, which occurred in the iron-ore field in Lorraine (France) in 1996, 1997 in relation to the subsidence intensity and vulnerable elements. KEYWORDS: Vulnerability, Subsidence, Stakes

  2. Vulnerability Assessment In Cloud Computing Srujan Kotikela1,a

    E-print Network

    Kavi, Krishna

    Vulnerability Assessment In Cloud Computing Srujan Kotikela1,a , Krishna Kavi2,a , and Mahadevan Abstract-- As vulnerabilities keep increasing exponentially every year, the need to efficiently classify, manage, and analyse them also increases. Many of the previous attempts at managing vulnerabilities have

  3. Modeling Learningless Vulnerability Discovery using a Folded Distribution

    E-print Network

    Malaiya, Yashwant K.

    ; vulnerability discovery model (VDM); Folded model; Risk assessment 1 Introduction The society today relies. Also, they allow the users to assess the potential risk due to new vulner- abilities. InvestigatingModeling Learningless Vulnerability Discovery using a Folded Distribution Awad A. Younis1 , Hyun

  4. Vulnerability Assessment in Autonomic Networks and Services: A Survey

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Vulnerability Assessment in Autonomic Networks and Services: A Survey Mart´in Barr`ere, R security attacks. We focus in this survey on the assessment of vulnerabilities in autonomic environments to fully integrate this process into the autonomic management plane. Index Terms--Vulnerability assessment

  5. PNNL-SA-33642 VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE

    E-print Network

    Hultman, Nathan E.

    transformation as well as climate change in assessing the future significance of climate change. Vulnerability. Multifaceted, interdisciplinary quantitative approaches to vulnerability assessment are essential for improving by the IPCC, we have constructed a prototype computer-based methodology for assessing vulnerability

  6. Manual vs. Automated Vulnerability Assessment: A Case Study

    E-print Network

    Miller, Barton P.

    Manual vs. Automated Vulnerability Assessment: A Case Study James A. Kupsch and Barton P. Miller manual vulnerability assessment methodology, and the results of ap- plying this to a major piece not appear to be any that indicated significant vulnerabilities beyond those found by the manual assessment

  7. First Principles Vulnerability Assessment James A. Kupsch Barton P. Miller

    E-print Network

    Miller, Barton P.

    First Principles Vulnerability Assessment James A. Kupsch Barton P. Miller University of Wisconsin.Cesar,Elisa.Heymann}@uab.es September 2009 Abstract Vulnerability assessment is a key part of deploying secure software. As part Vulnerability Assessment (FPVA). FPVA is a primarily analyst-centric (manual) approach to assessment, whose aim

  8. The Hazards of Indicators: Insights from the Environmental Vulnerability Index

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon Barnett; Simon Lambert; Ian Fry

    2008-01-01

    Since the early 1990s a number of projects have developed indexes to measure vulnerability to environmental change. This article investigates the key conceptual and methodological problems associated with such indexes. It examines in detail an index that explicitly addresses environmental change as an issue of vulnerability, the Environmental Vulnerability Index (EVI) developed by the South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC).

  9. Reconceptualizing Vulnerability in Personal Narrative Writing with Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Through a student/teacher classroom conflict, the author explores ways adults produce student writers as vulnerable. Drawing on post-structural concepts of adolescence, identity production, interrogation, and vulnerability, the author details how an English teacher invited students to perform vulnerability in personal narratives about issues like…

  10. ISSO Information Alert Mozilla Vulnerabilities Could Allow Remote Code Execution

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    Request object to read these error messages, allowing user privacy to be eroded. Cross Domain Security BypassChildRemove()'. This vulnerability could be exploited to possibly allow for remote code execution. Cross Domain Scripting Vulnerability A CrossDomain Scripting Vulnerability can occur when the application allows attackers to bypass

  11. Hierarchical statistical modeling of xylem vulnerability to cavitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiona Ogle; Jarrett J. Barber; Cynthia Willson; Brenda Thompson

    2009-01-01

    Summary • Cavitation of xylem elements diminishes the water transport capacity of plants, and quantifying xylem vulnerability to cavitation is important to understanding plant function. Current approaches to analyzing hydraulic conductivity (K) data to infer vulnerability to cavitation suffer from problems such as the use of potentially unre- alistic vulnerability curves, difficulty interpreting parameters in these curves, a statis- tical

  12. Vendor System Vulnerability Testing Test Plan

    SciTech Connect

    James R. Davidson

    2005-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) prepared this generic test plan to provide clients (vendors, end users, program sponsors, etc.) with a sense of the scope and depth of vulnerability testing performed at the INL’s Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Test Bed and to serve as an example of such a plan. Although this test plan specifically addresses vulnerability testing of systems applied to the energy sector (electric/power transmission and distribution and oil and gas systems), it is generic enough to be applied to control systems used in other critical infrastructures such as the transportation sector, water/waste water sector, or hazardous chemical production facilities. The SCADA Test Bed is established at the INL as a testing environment to evaluate the security vulnerabilities of SCADA systems, energy management systems (EMS), and distributed control systems. It now supports multiple programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, other government agencies, and private sector clients. This particular test plan applies to testing conducted on a SCADA/EMS provided by a vendor. Before performing detailed vulnerability testing of a SCADA/EMS, an as delivered baseline examination of the system is conducted, to establish a starting point for all-subsequent testing. The series of baseline tests document factory delivered defaults, system configuration, and potential configuration changes to aid in the development of a security plan for in depth vulnerability testing. The baseline test document is provided to the System Provider,a who evaluates the baseline report and provides recommendations to the system configuration to enhance the security profile of the baseline system. Vulnerability testing is then conducted at the SCADA Test Bed, which provides an in-depth security analysis of the Vendor’s system.b a. The term System Provider replaces the name of the company/organization providing the system being evaluated. This can be the system manufacturer, a system user, or a third party organization such as a government agency. b. The term Vendor (or Vendor’s) System replaces the name of the specific SCADA/EMS being tested.

  13. Topological Vulnerability Analysis: A Powerful New Approach For Network Attack Prevention, Detection, and Response

    E-print Network

    Noel, Steven

    , and have real-time situational awareness. Traditional tools for network vulnerability assessment simply1 Topological Vulnerability Analysis: A Powerful New Approach For Network Attack Prevention to such attacks. We describe our Topological Vulnerability Analysis (TVA) system, which analyzes vulnerability

  14. The Vulnerable Faces of Pathological Gambling

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Pathological gambling is an emerging psychiatric disorder that has medical, psychiatric, and social consequences. Recently, research has been focusing on identifying which portions of the population are most vulnerable to developing problems related to ongoing gambling. Specific populations of interest have included adolescents, elderly, minorities, those with comorbid psychiatric or substance use disorders, and gender differences. Each group possesses unique biological, psychological, and/or social characteristics that confer a vulnerability to develop pathological gambling behaviors. Being able to recognize those who are at risk to become pathological gamblers is the first step toward developing effective prevention and early intervention programs. This is Part Two of a three-part series on pathological gambling. Part One appeared in the March issue of Psychiatry 2005. PMID:21179650

  15. Vulnerable Cloud: SOAP Message Security Validation Revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nils Gruschka; Luigi Lo Iacono

    2009-01-01

    The service-oriented architecture paradigm is influencing modern software systems remarkably and Web services are a common technology to implement such systems. However, the numerous Web service standard specifications and especially their ambiguity result in a high complexity which opens the door for security-critical mistakes.This paper aims on raising awareness of this issue while discussing a vulnerability in Amazonpsilas Elastic Compute

  16. SEAMOUNT INVERTEBRATES: COMPOSITION AND VULNERABILITY TO FISHING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Stocks

    To describe the invertebrate communities found on seamounts and their vulnerability to fishing, a global review of seamount data was conducted. Using data from SeamountsOnline (http:\\/\\/seamounts.sdsc.edu), data from 1771 kinds of organisms on 171 seamounts were evaluated, representing the largest global synthesis of seamount data to date. The data clearly indicate that seamount communities differ from those found in other

  17. Detecting Format String Vulnerabilities with Type Qualifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Umesh Shankar; Kunal Talwar; Jeffrey S. Foster; David Wagner

    2001-01-01

    We present a new system for automatically detecting format string security vulnerabilities in C programs using a constraint-based type-inference engine. We describe new techniques for presenting the results of such an analysis to the user in a form that makes bugs easier to find and to fix. The system has been implemented and tested on several real-world software packages. Our

  18. Vulnerability assessment using two complementary analysis tools

    SciTech Connect

    Paulus, W.K.

    1993-07-01

    To analyze the vulnerability of nuclear materials to theft or sabotage, Department of Energy facilities have been using, since 1989, a computer program called ASSESS, Analytic System and Software for Evaluation of Safeguards and Security. During the past year Sandia National Laboratories has begun using an additional program, SEES, Security Exercise Evaluation Simulation, enhancing the picture of vulnerability beyond what either program achieves alone. Assess analyzes all possible paths of attack on a target and, assuming that an attack occurs, ranks them by the probability that a response force of adequate size can interrupt the attack before theft or sabotage is accomplished. A Neutralization module pits, collectively, a security force against the interrupted adversary force in a fire fight and calculates the probability that the adversaries are defeated. SEES examines a single scenario and simulates in detail the interactions among all combatants. its output includes shots fired between shooter and target, and the hits and kills. Whereas ASSESS gives breadth of analysis, expressed statistically and performed relatively quickly, SEES adds depth of detail, modeling tactical behavior. ASSESS finds scenarios that exploit the greatest weakness of a facility. SEES explores these scenarios to demonstrate in detail how various tactics to nullify the attack might work out. Without ASSESS to find the facility weakness, it is difficult to focus SEES objectively on scenarios worth analyzing. Without SEES to simulate the details of response vs. adversary interaction, it is not possible to test tactical assumptions and hypotheses. Using both programs together, vulnerability analyses achieve both breadth and depth.

  19. Cultural knowledge and local vulnerability in African American communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller Hesed, Christine D.; Paolisso, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Policymakers need to know what factors are most important in determining local vulnerability to facilitate effective adaptation to climate change. Quantitative vulnerability indices are helpful in this endeavour but are limited in their ability to capture subtle yet important aspects of vulnerability such as social networks, knowledge and access to resources. Working with three African American communities on Maryland’s Eastern Shore, we systematically elicit local cultural knowledge on climate change and connect it with a scientific vulnerability framework. The results of this study show that: a given social-ecological factor can substantially differ in the way in which it affects local vulnerability, even among communities with similar demographics and climate-related risks; and social and political isolation inhibits access to sources of adaptive capacity, thereby exacerbating local vulnerability. These results show that employing methods for analysing cultural knowledge can yield new insights to complement those generated by quantitative vulnerability indices.

  20. Evaluating regional vulnerability to climate change: purposes and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, Elizabeth L.; Engle, Nathan L.

    2011-03-15

    As the emphasis in climate change research, international negotiations, and developing-country activities has shifted from mitigation to adaptation, vulnerability has emerged as a bridge between impacts on one side and the need for adaptive changes on the other. Still, the term vulnerability remains abstract, its meaning changing with the scale, focus, and purpose of each assessment. Understanding regional vulnerability has advanced over the past several decades, with studies using a combination of indicators, case studies and analogues, stakeholder-driven processes, and scenario-building methodologies. As regions become increasingly relevant scales of inquiry for bridging the aggregate and local, for every analysis, it is perhaps most appropriate to ask three “what” questions: “What/who is vulnerable?,” “What is vulnerability?,” and “Vulnerable to what?” The answers to these questions will yield different definitions of vulnerability as well as different methods for assessing it.

  1. Earthquakes, vulnerability and disaster risk: Georgia case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsereteli, Nino; Varazanashvili, Otar; Askan, Aysegul

    2015-04-01

    The Republic of Georgia, located on the East coast of the Black Sea, is prone to multiple natural hazards, the most dangerous and devastating of which are strong earthquakes. This work issues a call for advance planning and action to reduce natural disaster risks, notably seismic risk through the investigation of vulnerability and seismic hazard for Georgia. Ground motion prediction equations are essential for several purposes ranging from seismic design and analysis to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment. Seismic hazard maps were calculated based on modern approach of selecting and ranking global and regional ground motion prediction equation for region. We have also applied the host-to-target method in two regions in Georgia with different source mechanisms. According to the tectonic regime of the target areas, two different regions are chosen as host regions. One of them is the North Anatolian Fault zone in Turkey with the dominant strike-slip source mechanism while the other is Tabas in Iran with mostly events of reverse mechanism. We performed stochastic finite-fault simulations in both host and target areas and employed the hybrid-empirical method as introduced and outlined in Campbell (2003). An initial hybrid empirical ground motion model is developed for PGA and SA at selected periods for Georgia. An application of these coefficients for ground motion models have been used in probabilistic seismic hazard assessment. Intensity based vulnerability study were completed for Georgian buildings. Finally, Probabilistic seismic risk assessment in terms of structural damage and casualties were calculated. This methodology gave prediction of damage and casualty for a given probability of recurrence, based on a probabilistic seismic hazard model, population distribution, inventory, and vulnerability of buildings

  2. Why healthcare facilities are vulnerable to crime.

    PubMed

    Mikow-Porto, Victoria A; Smith, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Although the public's view of healthcare facilities is that they are inherently safe and secure, administrators and staff members in hospitals are very aware that they could be vulnerable to an episode of violence at any time, according to the author. Today, crimes, including homicide, are an ever-present reality in healthcare facilities, they report, citing recent studies which attempt to explain why this is so. The article is based on the introduction to the IAHSS and IHSS Foundation 2012 Crime and Security Trends Survey. The complete survey is accessible to members in the Reference Section of the IAHSS web page. PMID:24020317

  3. Safeguarding vulnerable older people in hospital.

    PubMed

    Phair, L; Heath, H

    Safeguarding vulnerable older people is the responsibility of all healthcare professionals, but what this means in reality and how it can be achieved in practice is not always well understood. This article provides guidance on how government initiatives can be used by nurses to improve the care of older people. The article identifies criteria for determining when a concern should be raised as a safeguarding alert and when neglect may be occurring. A positive culture encompassing zero tolerance of poor care in the hospital setting is advocated. PMID:23101299

  4. Disaster planning for vulnerable populations: mental health.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Thomas B

    2010-12-01

    Psychological responses to a disaster are well established; however, little is known regarding how individuals with established psychiatric and mental health needs respond to a disaster. Further research is needed to provide a better understanding as well as to provide data and information that would assist in the provision of timely and adequate intervention and treatment. Addressing the psychological and psychiatric needs of this vulnerable population would assist in the provision of adequate and appropriate psychiatric mental health care in a timely and an effective manner. PMID:21095557

  5. Differences in ergot vulnerability among sorghum genotypes and the relationship between stigma receptivity and ergot vulnerability

    E-print Network

    Moran Maradiaga, Jorge Luis

    2000-01-01

    . The objectives of this research were (1) to characterize the relative rate of ergot vulnerability of a set of publicly available and commercially used A, B, R-lines, and hybrids; (2) to determine the relationship between the duration of stigma receptivity...

  6. Cizelj, Koncar, Leskovar: Vulnerability of a partially flooded.... Vulnerability of a partially flooded

    E-print Network

    Cizelj, Leon

    flooded PWR reactor cavity to a steam explosion Leon Cizelj, Bostjan Koncar, Matjaz Leskovar "Jozef Stefan 5885 215; fax + 386 1 5885 377; e-mail: Leon.Cizelj@ijs.si Keywords Steam explosion, reactor cavity, vulnerability Abstract When the hot molten core comes into contact with the water in the reactor cavity a steam

  7. Cyber Security Vulnerability Impact on I&C Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Mark D.; McBride, Justin B.

    2006-11-01

    We present a discussion of the cyber security vulnerability impact on instrument and control reliability. In the discussion we demonstrate the likely vector of attack and vulnerabilities associated with commodity hardware, protocols and communication media. The current fleet of nuclear power plants in the United States utilizes aging analog instrument and control systems which are more frequently suffering from obsolescence and failure. The commodity equipment available now and in the near future incorporates features from information technology systems which compound cyber vulnerabilities.

  8. Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: An Evolution of Conceptual Thinking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans-Martin Füssel; Richard J. T. Klein

    2006-01-01

    Vulnerability is an emerging concept for climate science and policy. Over the past decade, efforts to assess vulnerability\\u000a to climate change triggered a process of theory development and assessment practice, which is reflected in the reports of\\u000a the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). This paper reviews the historical development of the conceptual ideas\\u000a underpinning assessments of vulnerability to climate

  9. Airport vulnerability assessment: an analytical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarick, Richard T.

    1998-12-01

    The Airport Vulnerability Assessment Project (AVAP) is the direct result of congressional funding of recommendation 3.13 of the White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security. This project takes a new approach to the assessment of U.S. commercial airports. AVAP uses automation, analytical methods and tools to evaluate vulnerability and risk, and to analyze cost/benefits in a more quantitative manner. This paper addresses both the process used to conduct this program, as well as a generalized look at the results, which have been achieved for the initial airport assessments. The process description covers the acquisition approach, the project structure, and a review of the various methodologies and tools being used by the sever performing organizations (Abacus Technology, Battelle, CTI, Lockwood Greene, Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, SAIC, and Science & Engineering Associates). The tools described include ASSESS, SAM, RiskWatch, CASRAP, and AVAT. Included in the process is the utilization of an advisory panel made up predominantly of experts from the National Laboratories 9Sandia, Oak Ridge, Argonne and Brookhaven). The results portion addresses the findings and products resulting from the initial airport assessments. High level (unrestricted) summaries of the results are presented, along with initial trends in commonly recommended security improvements (countermeasures). Opportunities for the application of optics technology are identified.

  10. Multimodal spectroscopy detects features of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque

    E-print Network

    Scepanovic, Obrad R.

    Early detection and treatment of rupture-prone vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is critical to reducing patient mortality associated with cardiovascular disease. The combination of reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman ...

  11. Empirical Estimates of 0Day Vulnerabilities in Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Miles A. McQueen; Wayne F. Boyer; Sean M. McBride; Trevor A. McQueen

    2009-01-01

    We define a 0Day vulnerability to be any vulnerability, in deployed software, which has been discovered by at least one person but has not yet been publicly announced or patched. These 0Day vulnerabilities are of particular interest when assessing the risk to well managed control systems which have already effectively mitigated the publicly known vulnerabilities. In these well managed systems the risk contribution from 0Days will have proportionally increased. To aid understanding of how great a risk 0Days may pose to control systems, an estimate of how many are in existence is needed. Consequently, using the 0Day definition given above, we developed and applied a method for estimating how many 0Day vulnerabilities are in existence on any given day. The estimate is made by: empirically characterizing the distribution of the lifespans, measured in days, of 0Day vulnerabilities; determining the number of vulnerabilities publicly announced each day; and applying a novel method for estimating the number of 0Day vulnerabilities in existence on any given day using the number of vulnerabilities publicly announced each day and the previously derived distribution of 0Day lifespans. The method was first applied to a general set of software applications by analyzing the 0Day lifespans of 491 software vulnerabilities and using the daily rate of vulnerability announcements in the National Vulnerability Database. This led to a conservative estimate that in the worst year there were, on average, 2500 0Day software related vulnerabilities in existence on any given day. Using a smaller but intriguing set of 15 0Day software vulnerability lifespans representing the actual time from discovery to public disclosure, we then made a more aggressive estimate. In this case, we estimated that in the worst year there were, on average, 4500 0Day software vulnerabilities in existence on any given day. We then proceeded to identify the subset of software applications likely to be used in some control systems, analyzed the associated subset of vulnerabilities, and characterized their lifespans. Using the previously developed method of analysis, we very conservatively estimated 250 control system related 0Day vulnerabilities in existence on any given day. While reasonable, this first order estimate for control systems is probably far more conservative than those made for general software systems since the estimate did not include vulnerabilities unique to control system specific components. These control system specific vulnerabilities were unable to be included in the estimate for a variety of reasons with the most problematic being that the public announcement of unique control system vulnerabilities is very sparse. Consequently, with the intent to improve the above 0Day estimate for control systems, we first identified the additional, unique to control systems, vulnerability estimation constraints and then investigated new mechanisms which may be useful for estimating the number of unique 0Day software vulnerabilities found in control system components. We proceeded to identify a number of new mechanisms and approaches for estimating and incorporating control system specific vulnerabilities into an improved 0Day estimation method. These new mechanisms and approaches appear promising and will be more rigorously evaluated during the course of the next year.

  12. Vulnerability of housing buildings in Bucharest, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostenaru, M.

    2009-04-01

    The author participates to the World Housing Encyclopedia project (www.world-housing.net), an internet based database of housing buildings in earthquake prone areas of the world. This is a voluntary project run by the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, Oakland, California and the International Association of Earthquake Engineering, financial means being available only for the website where the information is shared. For broader dissemination in 2004 a summary publication of the reports to date was published. The database can be querried for various parameters and browsed after geographic distribution. Participation is open to any housing experts. Between 2003 and 2006 the author was also member of the editorial board. The author contributed numerous reports about building types in Romania, and each one about building types in Germany and Switzerland. This presentation will be about the contributed reports on building types in Romania. To the Encyclopedia eight reports on building types from Bucharest were contributed, while in further research of the author one more was similarly described regarding the vulnerability and the seismic retrofit. The selection of these types was done considering the historic development of the built substance in Bucharest from 1850 on, time from which a representative amount of housing buildings which can be classified in typologies can be found in Bucharest. While the structural types are not necessarily characteristic for the style, since the style has other time limits, often appearing before the type became common and then remaining being practiced also after another style gained ground, a historic succession can be seen also in this case. The nine types considered can be grouped in seven time categories: - the time 1850-1880, for a vernacular housing type with masonry load bearing walls and timber floors, - the time 1880-1920, for the type of two storey or multi-storey house with masonry walls and timber floors (in which stylistically the "national style" flourished), - the time 1920-1940 for the type with reinforced concrete skeleton for gravitational loads only (in which the "interwar style" or Romanian Modernism flourished), - the time immediately after 1940 (when a strong earthquake struck Bucharest), somehow 1940-1947, when the former structural type was continued, but with some improvements, for which a type with reinforced concrete diagonals was considered, - the time 1947-1977, before the strong earthquake from 1977, when cast-in-situ reinforced concrete structural wall buildings were spread. Two types are considered, one which displayed low earthquake vulnerability and one which displayed high earthquake vulnerability, - the time 1977-1989, after the strong earthquake from 1977 and before the fall on the communist regime, when taking as a reason the strong earthquake the regime started to implement another type of buildings, which structurally often were still reinforced concrete structural wall type, but prefabricated, - the time after 1989, when for more flexibility moment resisting frame was built, and also some of the unfinished moment resisting frame buildings were completed. To have such a complete description of all the building type in a country is not common for the World Housing Encyclopedia, and having them for Romania was due to a particular effort of the author. At the same time the database allows finding similar types in other parts of the world. Broadly speaking, each report included two sections, the first one more extended, on the vulnerability of buildings and the second on the seismic retrofit. The reports contain completed check lists, descriptions of the structural system, photographs and drawings. The accent in this presentation will be on the identification of seismic deficiencies and earthquake resilient features, and the connected typical damages, which all describe the vulnerability.

  13. Vulnerability analysis methods for road networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bíl, Michal; Vodák, Rostislav; Kube?ek, Jan; Rebok, Tomáš; Svoboda, Tomáš

    2014-05-01

    Road networks rank among the most important lifelines of modern society. They can be damaged by either random or intentional events. Roads are also often affected by natural hazards, the impacts of which are both direct and indirect. Whereas direct impacts (e.g. roads damaged by a landslide or due to flooding) are localized in close proximity to the natural hazard occurrence, the indirect impacts can entail widespread service disabilities and considerable travel delays. The change in flows in the network may affect the population living far from the places originally impacted by the natural disaster. These effects are primarily possible due to the intrinsic nature of this system. The consequences and extent of the indirect costs also depend on the set of road links which were damaged, because the road links differ in terms of their importance. The more robust (interconnected) the road network is, the less time is usually needed to secure the serviceability of an area hit by a disaster. These kinds of networks also demonstrate a higher degree of resilience. Evaluating road network structures is therefore essential in any type of vulnerability and resilience analysis. There are a range of approaches used for evaluation of the vulnerability of a network and for identification of the weakest road links. Only few of them are, however, capable of simulating the impacts of the simultaneous closure of numerous links, which often occurs during a disaster. The primary problem is that in the case of a disaster, which usually has a large regional extent, the road network may remain disconnected. The majority of the commonly used indices use direct computation of the shortest paths or time between OD (origin - destination) pairs and therefore cannot be applied when the network breaks up into two or more components. Since extensive break-ups often occur in cases of major disasters, it is important to study the network vulnerability in these cases as well, so that appropriate steps can be taken in order to make it more resilient. Performing such an analysis of network break-ups requires consideration of the network as a whole, ideally identifying all the cases generated by simultaneous closure of multiple links and evaluating them using various criteria. The spatial distribution of settlements, important companies and the overall population in the nodes of the network are several factors, apart from the topology of the network which could be taken into account when computing vulnerability indices and identifying the weakest links and/or weakest link combinations. However, even for small networks (i.e., hundreds of nodes and links), the problem of break-up identification becomes extremely difficult to resolve. The naive approaches of the brute force examination consequently fail and more elaborated algorithms have to be applied. We address the problem of evaluating the vulnerability of road networks in our work by simulating the impacts of the simultaneous closure of multiple roads/links. We present an ongoing work on a sophisticated algorithm focused on the identification of network break-ups and evaluating them by various criteria.

  14. An Integrated Approach for Urban Earthquake Vulnerability Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Düzgün, H. S.; Yücemen, M. S.; Kalaycioglu, H. S.

    2009-04-01

    The earthquake risk for an urban area has increased over the years due to the increasing complexities in urban environments. The main reasons are the location of major cities in hazard prone areas, growth in urbanization and population and rising wealth measures. In recent years physical examples of these factors are observed through the growing costs of major disasters in urban areas which have stimulated a demand for in-depth evaluation of possible strategies to manage the large scale damaging effects of earthquakes. Understanding and formulation of urban earthquake risk requires consideration of a wide range of risk aspects, which can be handled by developing an integrated approach. In such an integrated approach, an interdisciplinary view should be incorporated into the risk assessment. Risk assessment for an urban area requires prediction of vulnerabilities related to elements at risk in the urban area and integration of individual vulnerability assessments. However, due to complex nature of an urban environment, estimating vulnerabilities and integrating them necessities development of integrated approaches in which vulnerabilities of social, economical, structural (building stock and infrastructure), cultural and historical heritage are estimated for a given urban area over a given time period. In this study an integrated urban earthquake vulnerability assessment framework, which considers vulnerability of urban environment in a holistic manner and performs the vulnerability assessment for the smallest administrative unit, namely at neighborhood scale, is proposed. The main motivation behind this approach is the inability to implement existing vulnerability assessment methodologies for countries like Turkey, where the required data are usually missing or inadequate and decision makers seek for prioritization of their limited resources in risk reduction in the administrative districts from which they are responsible. The methodology integrates socio-economical, structural, coastal, ground condition, organizational vulnerabilities, as well as accessibility to critical services within the framework. The proposed framework has the following eight components: Seismic hazard analysis, soil response analysis, tsunami inundation analysis, structural vulnerability analysis, socio-economic vulnerability analysis, accessibility to critical services, GIS-based integrated vulnerability assessment, and visualization of vulnerabilities in 3D virtual city model The integrated model for various vulnerabilities obtained for the urban area is developed in GIS environment by using individual vulnerability assessments for considered elements at risk and serve for establishing the backbone of the spatial decision support system. The stages followed in the model are: Determination of a common mapping unit for each aspect of urban earthquake vulnerability, formation of a geo-database for the vulnerabilities, evaluation of urban vulnerability based on multi attribute utility theory with various weighting algorithms, mapping of the evaluated integrated earthquake risk in geographic information systems (GIS) in the neighborhood scale. The framework is also applicable to larger geographical mapping scales, for example, the building scale. When illustrating the results in building scale, 3-D visualizations with remote sensing data is used so that decision-makers can easily interpret the outputs. The proposed vulnerability assessment framework is flexible and can easily be applied to urban environments at various geographical scales with different mapping units. The obtained total vulnerability maps for the urban area provide a baseline for the development of risk reduction strategies for the decision makers. Moreover, as several aspects of elements at risk for an urban area is considered through vulnerability analyses, effect on changes in vulnerability conditions on the total can easily be determined. The developed approach also enables decision makers to monitor temporal and spatial changes in the urban environment due to implementation of

  15. Intravascular probe for detection of vulnerable plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patt, Bradley E.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; MacDonald, Lawrence R.; Yamaguchi, Yuko; Tull, Carolyn R.; Janecek, Martin; Hoffman, Edward J.; Strauss, H. William; Tsugita, Ross; Ghazarossian, Vartan

    2001-12-01

    Coronary angiography is unable to define the status of the atheroma, and only measures the luminal dimensions of the blood vessel, without providing information about plaque content. Up to 70% of heart attacks are caused by minimally obstructive vulnerable plaques, which are too small to be detected adequately by angiography. We have developed an intravascular imaging detector to identify vulnerable coronary artery plaques. The detector works by sensing beta or conversion electron radiotracer emissions from plaque-binding radiotracers. The device overcomes the technical constraints of size, sensitivity and conformance to the intravascular environment. The detector at the distal end of the catheter uses six 7mm long by 0.5mm diameter scintillation fibers coupled to 1.5m long plastic fibers. The fibers are offset from each other longitudinally by 6mm and arranged spirally around a guide wire in the catheter. At the proximal end of the catheter the optical fibers are coupled to an interface box with a snap on connector. The interface box contains a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT) to decode the individual fibers. The whole detector assembly fits into an 8-French (2.7 mm in diameter) catheter. The PSPMT image is further decoded with software to give a linear image, the total instantaneous count rate and an audio output whose tone corresponds to the count rate. The device was tested with F-18 and Tl-204 sources. Spectrometric response, spatial resolution, sensitivity and beta to background ratio were measured. System resolution is 6 mm and the sensitivity is >500 cps / micrometers Ci when the source is 1 mm from the detector. The beta to background ratio was 11.2 for F-18 measured on a single fiber. The current device will lead to a system allowing imaging of labeled vulnerable plaque in coronary arteries. This type of signature is expected to enable targeted and cost effective therapies to prevent acute coronary artery diseases such as: unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.

  16. ISS-011, Vulnerability Assessment Standard 1/3 UCIT INFORMATION SECURITY STANDARDS

    E-print Network

    Habib, Ayman

    ISS-011, Vulnerability Assessment Standard 1/3 UCIT INFORMATION SECURITY STANDARDS Vulnerability Assessment Standard Rationale 1 To enable timely identification and mitigation of vulnerabilities, or availability. 3.2 Vulnerability Assessment Program (VAP): is a program to identify and address vulnerabilities

  17. A comparison of supply chain vulnerability indices for different categories of firms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan M. Wagner; Nikrouz Neshat

    2011-01-01

    Given the high vulnerability of today's supply chains to disruptions, measuring and managing supply chain vulnerability has become critical. In the attempt to support practice in reducing supply chain vulnerability, we (1) discuss and define the concept of supply chain vulnerability and (2) measure and compare supply chain vulnerability for various categories of firms. Normal Accident Theory and High Reliability

  18. A comparison of supply chain vulnerability indices for different categories of firms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan M. Wagner; Nikrouz Neshat

    2012-01-01

    Given the high vulnerability of today's supply chains to disruptions, measuring and managing supply chain vulnerability has become critical. In the attempt to support practice in reducing supply chain vulnerability, we (1) discuss and define the concept of supply chain vulnerability and (2) measure and compare supply chain vulnerability for various categories of firms. Normal Accident Theory and High Reliability

  19. Method and tool for network vulnerability analysis

    DOEpatents

    Swiler, Laura Painton (Albuquerque, NM); Phillips, Cynthia A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-03-14

    A computer system analysis tool and method that will allow for qualitative and quantitative assessment of security attributes and vulnerabilities in systems including computer networks. The invention is based on generation of attack graphs wherein each node represents a possible attack state and each edge represents a change in state caused by a single action taken by an attacker or unwitting assistant. Edges are weighted using metrics such as attacker effort, likelihood of attack success, or time to succeed. Generation of an attack graph is accomplished by matching information about attack requirements (specified in "attack templates") to information about computer system configuration (contained in a configuration file that can be updated to reflect system changes occurring during the course of an attack) and assumed attacker capabilities (reflected in "attacker profiles"). High risk attack paths, which correspond to those considered suited to application of attack countermeasures given limited resources for applying countermeasures, are identified by finding "epsilon optimal paths."

  20. Health Insurance Coverage for Vulnerable Populations

    PubMed Central

    Alegria, Margarita; Cao, Zhun; McGuire, Thomas G.; Ojeda, Victoria D.; Sribney, Bill; Woo, Meghan; Takeuchi, David

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the role that population vulnerabilities play in insurance coverage for a representative sample of Latinos and Asians in the U.S. Using data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), these analyses compare coverage differences among and within ethnic subgroups, across states and regions, among types of occupation and among those with or without English language proficiency. Extensive differences exist in coverage between Latinos and Asians, with Latinos more likely to be uninsured. Potential explanations include the type of occupations available to Latinos and Asians, reforms in immigration laws, length of time in the U.S., and regional differences in safety net coverage. Policy implications are discussed. PMID:17176967

  1. Economic vulnerability and the energy transition

    SciTech Connect

    Sterman, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    The United States is currently undergoing a transition from rapidly depleting nonrenewable energy sources to ''backstop'' energy sources. A system dynamics model has been developed to analyze the macroeconomic effects of the energy transition. GNP, consumption, investment, wages and prices, and other major energy and economic aggregates are determined endogenously. The model shows how delays in substitution and the development of new energy sources arise and lead to substantial economic losses during the next several decades. The economic consequences of developing long lead time, capital-intensive, centralized technologies are contrasted against those attending development of short lead time, labor-intensive, decentralized technologies; the latter are found to be far more effective in reducing the vulnerability of the economy during the transition. 57 references, 7 figures, 7 tables.

  2. Neuronal vulnerability, pathogenesis, and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Sulzer, David; Surmeier, D James

    2013-01-01

    Although there have been significant advances, pathogenesis in Parkinson's disease (PD) is still poorly understood. Potential clues about pathogenesis that have not been systematically pursued are suggested by the restricted pattern of neuronal pathology in the disease. In addition to dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), a significant number of other central and peripheral neuronal populations exhibit Lewy pathology (LP), phenotypic dysregulation, or frank degeneration in PD patients. Drawing on this literature, there appear to be a small number of risk factors contributing to vulnerability. These include autonomous activity, broad action potentials, low intrinsic calcium-buffering capacity, poorly myelinated long highly branched axons and terminal fields, and use of a monoamine neurotransmitter, often with the catecholamine-derived neuromelanin pigment. Of these phenotypic traits, only the physiological ones appear to provide a reachable therapeutic target at present. PMID:22791686

  3. Neuronal vulnerability, pathogenesis, and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Sulzer, David; Surmeier, D James

    2013-06-01

    Although there have been significant advances, pathogenesis in Parkinson's disease (PD) is still poorly understood. Potential clues about pathogenesis that have not been systematically pursued are suggested by the restricted pattern of neuronal pathology in the disease. In addition to dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), a significant number of other central and peripheral neuronal populations exhibit Lewy pathology (LP), phenotypic dysregulation, or frank degeneration in PD patients. Drawing on this literature, there appears to be a small number of risk factors contributing to vulnerability. These include autonomous activity, broad action potentials, low intrinsic calcium buffering capacity, poorly myelinated long highly branched axons and terminal fields, and use of a catecholamine neurotransmitter, often with the catecholamine-derived neuromelanin pigment. Of these phenotypic traits, only the physiological ones appear to provide a reachable therapeutic target at present. PMID:23589357

  4. An integrated approach to vulnerability assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Jurado, Sariah Ruth (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Silva, Consuelo Juanita

    2005-03-01

    How might the quality of a city's delivered water be compromised through natural or malevolent causes? What are the consequences of a contamination event? What water utility assets are at greatest risk to compromise? Utility managers have been scrambling to find answers to these questions since the events of 9/11. However, even before this date utility mangers were concerned with the potential for system contamination through natural or accidental causes. Unfortunately, an integrated tool for assessing both the threat of attack/failure and the subsequent consequence is lacking. To help with this problem we combine Markov Latent Effects modeling for performing threat assessment calculations with the widely used pipe hydraulics/transport code, EPANET, for consequences analysis. Together information from these models defines the risk posed to the public due to natural or malevolent contamination of a water utility system. Here, this risk assessment framework is introduced and demonstrated within the context of vulnerability assessment for water distribution systems.

  5. Building vulnerability assessment based on cloud model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xixia; Cai, Chao

    2013-10-01

    This study aims at building a general framework for estimating building vulnerability to blast-fragmentation warhead of a missile. Considering the fuzziness and randomness existing in the damage criterion rules, cloud models are applied to represent the qualitative concepts. On the basis of building geometric description, element criticality analysis, blast wave and fragment movement description, and meeting analysis of fragments and target, kill probabilities of the components are estimated by the shot line method. The damage state of the whole building given the threat is obtained by cloud model based uncertainty reasoning and the proposed similarity measure, enabling both randomness of probability reasoning and the fuzziness of the traditional fuzzy logic to be considered. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can provide useful reference for optimizing warhead design and mission efficiency evaluation.

  6. Ecosystems Vulnerability Challenge and Prize Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. H.; Frame, M. T.; Ferriter, O.; Recker, J.

    2014-12-01

    Stimulating innovation and private sector entrepreneurship is an important way to advance the preparedness of communities, businesses and individuals for the impacts of climate change on certain aspects of ecosystems, such as: fire regimes; water availability; carbon sequestration; biodiversity conservation; weather-related hazards, and the spread of invasive species. The creation of tools is critical to help communities and natural resource managers better understand the impacts of climate change on ecosystems and the potential resulting implications for ecosystem services and conservation efforts. The Department of the Interior is leading an interagency effort to develop the Ecosystems Vulnerability theme as part of the President's Climate Action Plan. This effort will provide seamless access to relevant datasets that can help address such issues as: risk of wildfires to local communities and federal lands; water sensitivity to climate change; and understanding the role of ecosystems in a changing climate. This session will provide an overview of the proposed Ecosystem Vulnerability Challenge and Prize Competition, outlining the intended audience, scope, goals, and overall timeline. The session will provide an opportunity for participants to offer new ideas. Through the Challenge, access will be made available to critical datasets for software developers, engineers, scientists, students, and researchers to develop and submit applications addressing critical science issues facing our Nation today. Application submission criteria and guidelines will also be discussed. The Challenge will be open to all sectors and organizations (i.e. federal, non-federal, private sector, non-profits, and universities) within the United States. It is anticipated the Challenge will run from early January 2015 until spring of 2015.

  7. Study on space evacuation vulnerability in city emergency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fanliang Bu; Hui Fang

    2010-01-01

    Before city emergencies happen, one of the most important tasks is to develop contingency plans, and reasonable analysis of space evacuation vulnerability is an important part of contingency plans. Based on the analysis of evacuation vulnerability of emergency area, this article develops a critical evacuation cluster model, and searches for the critical cluster of evacuation area by heuristic searching algorithm.

  8. Analysis and Defense of Vulnerabilities in Binary Code

    E-print Network

    ;Keywords: Vine, binary analysis, patch-based exploit generation, vulnerability filter generation #12 techniques as part of a binary analysis architecture called Vine. We then demonstrate the utility of our approach, and Vine, in two typical ap- plications of vulnerability analysis and defense. First, we develop

  9. Workplace support after breast cancer treatment: recognition of vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Tiedtke, Corine; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Donceel, Peter; de Rijk, Angelique

    2014-11-17

    Abstract Background: Support from the workplace seems to be a key element in addressing the poor return-to-work (RTW) rate of employees with breast cancer. We aim to acquire an in-depth understanding of how Flemish employees experience their RTW after breast cancer and the support from the workplace. Method: Fourteen in-depth interviews of women who experienced breast cancer and returned to work (high school graduates, age range 42-55 years, mean age 48 at time of surgery) were analysed using the Qualitative Analysis Guide of Leuven (QUAGOL), based on a Grounded Theory approach. Results: The key experiences were feeling vulnerable, feeling able to work and need for support. Although little diversity in RTW experiences was found, the background of the vulnerability varied. Women experienced support (which could be emotional or practical) only as adequate if it addressed their specific vulnerability. Conclusions: Employees felt particularly vulnerable. Vulnerability is not the same as low-work ability and as such it should be added as theoretical concept in RTW research. Adequate workplace support addresses the specific vulnerability of an individual woman. Our study offers a nuanced insight into the RTW process of breast cancer survivors. Implications for Rehabilitation Upon actual return-to-work (RTW) after breast cancer treatment, women feel vulnerable but able to work and, hence, have a high need for workplace support. Support from the workplace during RTW after breast cancer treatment is experienced as adequate when it expresses genuine recognition of the individual woman's vulnerability. PMID:25401405

  10. The asset vulnerability framework: Reassessing urban poverty reduction strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline O. N. Moser

    1998-01-01

    Identifying what the poor have, rather than what they do not have, focuses on their assets. This paper contributes to the extensive vulnerability\\/assets literature, by categorizing the assets of the urban poor in terms of an “asset vulnerability framework.” These include both tangible assets, such as labor and human capital, less familiar productive assets, such as housing, as well as

  11. Fear the EAR: Discovering and Mitigating Execution After Redirect Vulnerabilities

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    Fear the EAR: Discovering and Mitigating Execution After Redirect Vulnerabilities Adam Doupé, Bryce Execution After Redirect, or EAR. A web application de- veloper can introduce an EAR by calling a redirect web frameworks are to EAR vulnerabilities. We then discuss the results from the EAR challenge

  12. Chemical-Terrorism Vulnerability Information Guidance Document January 7, 2011

    E-print Network

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Chemical-Terrorism Vulnerability Information Guidance Document January 7, 2011 The following is a transcription of the Department of Homeland Security's (DHS) Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standard (CFATS) section on Chemical-Terrorism Vulnerability Information (CVI) 6 CFR 27.400. The Program Manager's comments

  13. Libsafe 2.0: Detection of Format String Vulnerability Exploits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy Tsai; Navjot Singh

    2001-01-01

    This white paper describes a significant new feature of libsafe version 2.0: the ability to detect and handle format string vulnerability exploits. Such exploits have recently garnered attention in security advisories, discussion lists, web sites devoted to security, and even conventional media such as television and newspapers. Examples of vulnerable software include wu-ftpd (a common FTP daemon) and bind (A

  14. Vulnerability Assessment of Cyber Security in Power Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Jiaxi; Mao Anjia; Guo Zhizhong

    2006-01-01

    Cyber system plays an important role in supervising and controlling power system. Besides its contribution of much convenience to power industry, the cyber system brings some potential danger because of its inherent vulnerability. It is significant to assess the vulnerability of cyber system, determine its risk to power industry, find out the weak parts, set appropriate response to the probable

  15. Automatic diagnosis and response to memory corruption vulnerabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Xu; Peng Ning; Chongkyung Kil; Yan Zhai; Christopher Bookholt

    2005-01-01

    Cyber attacks against networked computers have become relentless in recent years. The most common attack method is to exploit memory corruption vulnerabilities such as buffer overflow and format string bugs. This paper presents a technique to automatically identify both known and unknown memory corruption vulnerabilities. Based on the observation that a randomized program usually crashes upon a memory corruption attack,

  16. Effective Vulnerability Assessment of Tamper-Indicating Seals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RG Johnston

    1997-01-01

    : Security seals are widely used to detect tampering orunauthorized entry. In the author's view, existing standards forvulnerability assessment of security seals are incomplete. This paperdiscusses the critical attributes of effective vulnerability assessment.These include: a clear understanding of what seal vulnerability assessmentis and why it is undertaken, use of appropriate assessment personnel,assessment at the earliest possible stage of seal development,

  17. Vulnerability assessment for the Gaza Strip, Palestine using DRASTIC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Baalousha

    2006-01-01

    The main usefulness of groundwater vulnerability assessment maps is their ability to be an effective preliminary tool for planning, policy, and operational levels of decision-making. DRASTIC is one such assessment method. The DRASTIC index is made up of a calculated sum of products rating and weights for seven hydrogeological parameters that contribute to aquifer vulnerability. With the help of GIS,

  18. Taking the uncertainty in climate-change vulnerability assessment seriously

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony Patt; Richard J. T. Klein; Anne de la Vega-Leinert

    2005-01-01

    Climate-change vulnerability assessment has become a frequently employed tool, with the purpose of informing policy-makers attempting to adapt to global change conditions. However, we suggest that there are three reasons to suspect that vulnerability assessment often promises more certainty, and more useful results, than it can deliver. First, the complexity of the system it purports to describe is greater than

  19. Force and Displacement Based Vulnerability Assessment for Traditional Buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dina F. D’ayala

    2005-01-01

    Vulnerability assessment for historic buildings is usually carried out using capacity based approaches and prediction of losses is obtained by using normal or lognormal distributions for expected levels of macro seismic intensity or peak ground accelerations. Several authors have outlined the limitations of such approach. The paper presents a method to correlate analysis of seismic vulnerability using a failure mechanisms

  20. International Space Station: Meteoroid/Orbital Debris Survivability and Vulnerability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Russell

    2000-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the surviability and vulnerability of the International Space Station (ISS) from the threat posed by meteoroid and orbital debris. The topics include: (1) Space station natural and induced environments (2) Meteoroid and orbital debris threat definition (3) Requirement definition (4) Assessment methods (5) Shield development and (6) Component vulnerability

  1. Integration of generalized vulnerability to drug and alcohol addiction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norman S. Miller; Jane C. Guttman; Soyna Chawla

    1997-01-01

    The vulnerability to develop addiction to alcohol has been well established in familial and genetic studies. Similar familial and genetic studies have supported a vulnerability to drug addiction. The co?occurrence of alcohol and drug addiction in the same individuals is highly prevalent in clinical populations. Common putative neurochemical mechanisms underlie addiction to both alcohol and drugs, namely, in the mesolimbic

  2. A quantitative vulnerability function for fluvial sediment transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totschnig, Reinhold; Sedlacek, Walter; Fuchs, Sven

    2010-05-01

    In quantitative risk assessment, risk is expressed as a function of hazard, elements at risk exposed, and the vulnerability. From a natural sciences perspective, vulnerability is defined as the expected degree of loss for an element at risk as a consequence of a certain event. The resulting value is dependent on the impacting process intensity and the susceptibility of the elements at risk, and ranges from 0 (no damage) to 1 (complete destruction). With respect to torrent processes, i.e. fluvial sediment transport, the concept of vulnerability - though widely acknowledged - did not result in any sound quantitative relationship between process intensities and vulnerability values so far, even if considerable loss occurred during recent years. To close this gap and establish this relationship, data from three well-documented torrent events in the Austrian Alps was used to derive a quantitative vulnerability function applicable to residential buildings located on torrent fans. The method applied followed a spatial approach, and was based on process intensities, the spatial characteristics of elements at risk, and average reconstruction values on a local scale. The results suggest a modified Weibull function to fit best to the observed damage pattern if vulnerability is quantified in absolute values, and a modified Frechet function if vulnerability is quantified relatively in relation to the individual building height. The vulnerability relationship obtained is applicable to a mixed type of construction used in European mountain regions, composed from brick masonry and concrete, a typical design in post-1950s building craft in alpine countries.

  3. A Vulnerability Study of Geographic Routing in Underwater Acoustic Networks

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Shengli

    , current network protocols have not been designed to defend against security attacks that can block that need to be considered when designing secure network protocols and study the vulnerabilities is tested on both static and mobile UANs. Index Terms--Underwater Acoustic Networks, Vulnerability, Security

  4. A Concept and Isotope Method for Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Gellermann; H. Jordan; D. Hebert; K. Fröhlich; P. Szymczak; N. Meinert

    1990-01-01

    Early assessment of groundwater vulnerability during groundwater exploration is an important precondition for effective protection. Any attempt to assess the “vulnerability” is confronted with the very different factors influencing this property. In this paper we present a new concept to combine different factors on an objective basis. A protection index ? is defined and it is shown that this index

  5. The Vulnerable Child. Caring for Children, Number Five.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Lois B.; Leeper, Ethel M.

    The booklet addresses the problems of vulnerable children with suggestions child care center workers may use both for recognizing signs of handicaps in children and helping children overcome existing handicaps. The vulnerable child is defined as a child who may be overwhelmed by physical and/or emotional handicaps and thus is at risk of later…

  6. Shield: vulnerability-driven network filters for preventing known vulnerability exploits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen J. Wang; Chuanxiong Guo; Daniel R. Simon; Alf Zugenmaier

    2004-01-01

    Software patching has not been effective as a first-line defense against large-scale worm attacks, even when patches have long been available for their corresponding vulnerabilities. Generally, people have been reluctant to patch their systems immediately, because patches are perceived to be unreliable and disruptive to apply. To address this problem, we propose a first-line worm defense in the network stack,

  7. [Assessment of eco-environmental vulnerability of Hainan Island, China].

    PubMed

    Huang, Bao-rong; Ouyang, Zhi-yun; Zhang, Hui-zhi; Zhang, Li-hua; Zheng, Hua

    2009-03-01

    Based on the assessment method of environmental vulnerability constructed by SOPAC and UNEP, this paper constructed an indicator system from three sub-themes including hazard, resistance, and damage to assess the eco-environmental vulnerability of Hainan Island. The results showed that Hainan Island was suffering a middling level eco-environmental hazard, and the main hazards came from some intensive human activities such as intensive agriculture, mass tourism, mining, and a mass of solid wastes thrown by islanders and tourists. Some geographical characters such as larger land area, larger altitude range, integrated geographical form, and abundant habitat types endowed Hainan Island higher resistance to environmental hazards. However, disturbed by historical accumulative artificial and natural hazards, the Island ecosystem had showed serious ecological damage, such as soil degradation and biodiversity loss. Comprehensively considered hazard, resistance, damage, and degradation, the comprehensive environmental vulnerability of the Island was at a middling level. Some indicators showed lower vulnerability, but some showed higher vulnerability. PMID:19637604

  8. Nutritional Vulnerability in Older Adults: A Continuum of Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N.; McDonald, Shelley R.; Bales, Connie W.

    2015-01-01

    A nutritionally vulnerable older adult has a reduced physical reserve that limits the ability to mount a vigorous recovery in the face of an acute health threat or stressor. Often this vulnerability contributes to more medical complications, longer hospital stays, and increased likelihood of nursing home admission. We have characterized in this review the etiology of nutritional vulnerability across the continuum of the community, hospital, and long term care settings. Frail older adults may become less vulnerable with strong, consistent, and individualized nutritional care. Interventions for the vulnerable older adult must take their nutritional needs into account to optimize resiliency in the face of the acute and/or chronic health challenges they will surely face in their life course. PMID:26042189

  9. Analyses Of Two End-User Software Vulnerability Exposure Metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Jason L. Wright; Miles McQueen; Lawrence Wellman

    2012-08-01

    The risk due to software vulnerabilities will not be completely resolved in the near future. Instead, putting reliable vulnerability measures into the hands of end-users so that informed decisions can be made regarding the relative security exposure incurred by choosing one software package over another is of importance. To that end, we propose two new security metrics, average active vulnerabilities (AAV) and vulnerability free days (VFD). These metrics capture both the speed with which new vulnerabilities are reported to vendors and the rate at which software vendors fix them. We then examine how the metrics are computed using currently available datasets and demonstrate their estimation in a simulation experiment using four different browsers as a case study. Finally, we discuss how the metrics may be used by the various stakeholders of software and to software usage decisions.

  10. [Identification of vulnerable individuals in the area surrounding a university hospital: connecting vulnerability, solidarity and healthcare].

    PubMed

    Sthal, Hellen Cristina; Berti, Heloisa Wey

    2011-07-01

    In the area around a university hospital in the interior of São Paulo state people are found sleeping, eating or resting on the lawns and surrounding areas, and they linger in such sites for hours. This study sought to identify and characterize vulnerable individuals in the area around the hospital by offering help. Data were collected from November 2007 to October 2008, on a weekly basis and on randomly selected days and times. The people found in these places were identified, and 52 subjects were interviewed. The individuals were, predominantly, females (67.3%), white (51.9%), married (59.6%), had attended school for up to four years (44.2%) and did not have a defined profession (84.6%). Most of them were waiting for bus transportation provided by their hometown administration; the mean waiting time was approximately 90 minutes and most of the subjects had certain needs during the waiting period. Help was offered to 15 individuals who reported specific needs at the moment of the interview. It was concluded that these individuals were in a situation of individual, social and systematic vulnerability, especially in terms of socio-economic vulnerability. They showed reduced self-determination ability and submitted themselves to unfavorable conditions due to their dependence on public services. PMID:21808903

  11. Tsunami survivors' perspectives on vulnerability and vulnerability reduction: evidence from Koh Phi Phi Don and Khao Lak, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Steckley, Marylynn; Doberstein, Brent

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the results of primary research with 40 survivors of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in two communities: Khao Lak (n=20) and Koh Phi Phi Don (n=20), Thailand. It traces tsunami survivors' perceptions of vulnerability, determines whether residents felt that the tsunami affected different communities differently, identifies the populations and sub-community groups that survivors distinguished as being more vulnerable than others, highlights community-generated ideas about vulnerability reduction, and pinpoints a range of additional vulnerability reduction actions. Tsunami survivors most consistently identified the 'most vulnerable' community sub-populations as women, children, the elderly, foreigners, and the poor. In Khao Lak, however, respondents added 'Burmese migrants' to this list, whereas in Koh Phi Phi Don, they added 'Thai Muslims'. Results suggest that the two case study communities, both small, coastal, tourism-dominated communities no more than 100 kilometres apart, have differing vulnerable sub-groups and environmental vulnerabilities, requiring different post-disaster vulnerability reduction efforts. PMID:21083848

  12. 75 FR 51806 - Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ...EPA-HQ-ORD-2010-0701] Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment: Four...the draft document titled, ``Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment: Four...their vulnerability to future climate change. The report is intended to...

  13. Benjamin Livshits and Monica S. Lam 1. PHPList Admin Page SQL Injection Vulnerability

    E-print Network

    Livshits, Ben

    Mac OS X Font Book Font Collection Buffer Overflow Vulnerability 24. OpenBook Admin.PHP SQL Injection Vulnerability 23. Apple Mac OS X Font Book Font Collection Buffer Overflow Vulnerability 24. OpenBook Admin

  14. 6 CFR 27.240 - Review and approval of security vulnerability assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...and approval of security vulnerability assessments. 27.240 Section...and approval of security vulnerability assessments. (a) Review and Approval...in writing all Security Vulnerability Assessments that satisfy the...

  15. Towards Evidence-Based Assessment of Factors Contributing to the Introduction and Detection of Software Vulnerabilities

    E-print Network

    Finifter, Matthew Smith

    2013-01-01

    and Malware and Vulnerability Assessment (DIMVA), Bonn,Vulnerabilities Copyright 2013 by Matthew Smith Finifter Abstract Towards Evidence-Based AssessmentAssessment of Factors Contributing to the Introduction and Detection of Software Vulnerabilities

  16. 6 CFR 27.240 - Review and approval of security vulnerability assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...and approval of security vulnerability assessments. 27.240 Section...and approval of security vulnerability assessments. (a) Review and Approval...in writing all Security Vulnerability Assessments that satisfy the...

  17. ITL BULLETIN FOR DECEMBER 2013 THE NATIONAL VULNERABILITY DATABASE (NVD): OVERVIEW

    E-print Network

    to provide reliable and interoperable information about vulnerability impact metrics, technical assessment vulnerability checking, patch installation verification, security configuration checking, and assessmentITL BULLETIN FOR DECEMBER 2013 THE NATIONAL VULNERABILITY DATABASE (NVD): OVERVIEW Harold Booth

  18. Seismic vulnerability assessment to slight dam-age based on experimental modal parameters

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Seismic vulnerability assessment to slight dam- age based on experimental modal parameters Clotaire behaviour models for each class of structure for vulnerability assessment by using ambient vibration vulnerability as- sessment to slight damage based on experimental modal parameters, Earthquake Engineering

  19. Defining and Assessing Quantitative Security Risk Measures Using Vulnerability Lifecycle and CVSS Metrics

    E-print Network

    Malaiya, Yashwant K.

    Defining and Assessing Quantitative Security Risk Measures Using Vulnerability Lifecycle and CVSS the vulnerability lifecycle starting with discovery. A conditional risk measure and assessment approach is also, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA Abstract - Known vulnerabilities which have been discov- ered

  20. 6 CFR 27.240 - Review and approval of security vulnerability assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...and approval of security vulnerability assessments. 27.240 Section...and approval of security vulnerability assessments. (a) Review and Approval...in writing all Security Vulnerability Assessments that satisfy the...

  1. Can Fault Prediction Models and Metrics be Used for Vulnerability Prediction? Yonghee Shin and Laurie Williams

    E-print Network

    Young, R. Michael

    Can Fault Prediction Models and Metrics be Used for Vulnerability Prediction? Yonghee Shin general faults in software - thinking like an attacker. Therefore, security engineers looking security vulnerabilities rather than faults. At the same time, faults and vulnerabilities have

  2. Modeling Complex Control Systems to Identify Remotely Accessible Devices Vulnerable to Cyber Attack1

    E-print Network

    Krings, Axel W.

    vulnerable to cyber attack. We use graph theory to model electric power control and protection devicesModeling Complex Control Systems to Identify Remotely Accessible Devices Vulnerable to Cyber Attack: Security, Vulnerabilities, Cyber Attack, Critical Infrastructure Protection, Electric Power Management

  3. Transplanting Supersites of HIV-1 Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yongping; Gorman, Jason; Ofek, Gilad; Srivatsan, Sanjay; Druz, Aliaksandr; Lees, Christopher R.; Lu, Gabriel; Soto, Cinque; Stuckey, Jonathan; Burton, Dennis R.; Koff, Wayne C.; Connors, Mark; Kwon, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    One strategy for isolating or eliciting antibodies against a specific target region on the envelope glycoprotein trimer (Env) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) involves the creation of site transplants, which present the target region on a heterologous protein scaffold with preserved antibody-binding properties. If the target region is a supersite of HIV-1 vulnerability, recognized by a collection of broadly neutralizing antibodies, this strategy affords the creation of “supersite transplants”, capable of binding (and potentially eliciting) antibodies similar to the template collection of effective antibodies. Here we transplant three supersites of HIV-1 vulnerability, each targeted by effective neutralizing antibodies from multiple donors. To implement our strategy, we chose a single representative antibody against each of the target supersites: antibody 10E8, which recognizes the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) on the HIV-1 gp41 glycoprotein; antibody PG9, which recognizes variable regions one and two (V1V2) on the HIV-1 gp120 glycoprotein; and antibody PGT128 which recognizes a glycopeptide supersite in variable region 3 (glycan V3) on gp120. We used a structural alignment algorithm to identify suitable acceptor proteins, and then designed, expressed, and tested antigenically over 100-supersite transplants in a 96-well microtiter-plate format. The majority of the supersite transplants failed to maintain the antigenic properties of their respective template supersite. However, seven of the glycan V3-supersite transplants exhibited nanomolar affinity to effective neutralizing antibodies from at least three donors and recapitulated the mannose9-N-linked glycan requirement of the template supersite. The binding of these transplants could be further enhanced by placement into self-assembling nanoparticles. Essential elements of the glycan V3 supersite, embodied by as few as 3 N-linked glycans and ?25 Env residues, can be segregated into acceptor scaffolds away from the immune-evading capabilities of the rest of HIV-1 Env, thereby providing a means to focus the immune response on the scaffolded supersite. PMID:24992528

  4. A model for how to disclose physical security vulnerabilities.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R. G. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2009-01-01

    When security vulnerabilities are discovered, it is often unclear how much public disclosure of the vulnerabilities is prudent. This is especially true for physical security vis a vis cyber security. We never want to help the 'bad guys' more than the 'good guys', but if the good guys aren't made aware of the problems, they are unlikely to fix them. This paper presents a unique semi-quantitative tool, called the 'Vulnerability Disclosure Index' (VDI), to help determine how much disclosure of vulnerabilities is warranted and in what forum. The VDI certainly does not represent the final, definitive answer to this complex issue. It does, however, provide a starting point for thinking about some of the factors that must go into making such a decision. Moreover, anyone using the VDI tool can at least claim to have shown some degree of responsibility in contemplating disclosure issues. The purpose of this paper is to provide a tool to help decide if and how security vulnerabilities should be disclosed. This tool, called the Vulnerability Disclosure Index (VDI), is not presented here as the ultimate, authoritative method for dealing with this complex issue. It is offered instead as a first step, and as a vehicle for thinking about and discussing some of the factors that need to be pondered when vulnerability disclosures are being considered.

  5. Assessing the vulnerability of buildings to tsunami in Sydney

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Osso, F.; Gonella, M.; Gabbianelli, G.; Withycombe, G.; Dominey-Howes, D.

    2009-12-01

    Australia is vulnerable to the impacts of tsunamis and exposure along the SE coast of New South Wales is especially high. Significantly, this is the same area reported to have been affected by repeated large magnitude tsunamis during the Holocene. Efforts are under way to complete probabilistic risk assessments for the region but local government planners and emergency risk managers need information now about building vulnerability in order to develop appropriate risk management strategies. We use the newly revised PTVA-3 Model (Dall'Osso et al., 2009) to assess the relative vulnerability of buildings to damage from a "worst case tsunami" defined by our latest understanding of regional risk - something never before undertaken in Australia. We present selected results from an investigation of building vulnerability within the local government area of Manly - an iconic coastal area of Sydney. We show that a significant proportion of buildings (in particular, residential structures) are classified as having "High" and "Very High" Relative Vulnerability Index scores. Furthermore, other important buildings (e.g., schools, nursing homes and transport structures) are also vulnerable to damage. Our results have serious implications for immediate emergency risk management, longer-term land-use zoning and development, and building design and construction standards. Based on the work undertaken here, we recommend further detailed assessment of the vulnerability of coastal buildings in at risk areas, development of appropriate risk management strategies and a detailed program of community engagement to increase overall resilience.

  6. 77 FR 74685 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical-Terrorism Vulnerability Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ...DHS-2012-0057] Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical- Terrorism Vulnerability Information (CVI) AGENCY...commercial or financial information, Chemical-terrorism Vulnerability Information (CVI),...

  7. Stress and vulnerability in medical students.

    PubMed

    Stewart, S M; Betson, C; Marshall, I; Wong, C M; Lee, P W; Lam, T H

    1995-03-01

    One hundred and forty Hong Kong Chinese students were surveyed early in the second year of their medical education (year 2), and compared with 138 students surveyed prior to beginning their first year of medical school and with 74 non-medical university students in their second year. In year 2 students, distress as reflected in their scores on anxiety and depression self-report scales was high, and these students reported greater utilization of health professional services as compared with the other two groups. In year 2 students, concerns related to the medical school environment and curriculum, and whether one has the endurance and ability to be successful were significant correlates with depression and anxiety. Loss of opportunity to maintain social and recreational sources of gratification correlated with anxiety. There was no difference between the sexes with regard to the development of anxiety and depression symptoms. Academically less successful students reported somewhat higher levels of depressive ideation and symptomatology. Trait anxiety correlated with the development of distress, while optimism protected against the development of distress. Active coping styles and positive reinterpretation as a coping strategy correlated negatively with distress, while wishful thinking correlated positively with distress. These findings emphasize the need for greater attention to the psychological well-being of doctors-in-training, in Hong Kong as in the Western world. These findings should be further explored in longitudinal studies, and may be helpful in designing intervention and support programmes for vulnerable students. PMID:7623698

  8. Somatostatin, neuronal vulnerability and behavioral emotionality.

    PubMed

    Lin, L C; Sibille, E

    2015-03-01

    Somatostatin (SST) deficits are common pathological features in depression and other neurological disorders with mood disturbances, but little is known about the contribution of SST deficits to mood symptoms or causes of these deficits. Here we show that mice lacking SST (Sst(KO)) exhibit elevated behavioral emotionality, high basal plasma corticosterone and reduced gene expression of Bdnf, Cortistatin and Gad67, together recapitulating behavioral, neuroendocrine and molecular features of human depression. Studies in Sst(KO) and heterozygous (Sst(HZ)) mice show that elevated corticosterone is not sufficient to reproduce the behavioral phenotype, suggesting a putative role for Sst cell-specific molecular changes. Using laser capture microdissection, we show that cortical SST-positive interneurons display significantly greater transcriptome deregulations after chronic stress compared with pyramidal neurons. Protein translation through eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (EIF2) signaling, a pathway previously implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, was most affected and suppressed in stress-exposed SST neurons. We then show that activating EIF2 signaling through EIF2 kinase inhibition mitigated stress-induced behavioral emotionality in mice. Taken together, our data suggest that (1) low SST has a causal role in mood-related phenotypes, (2) deregulated EIF2-mediated protein translation may represent a mechanism for vulnerability of SST neurons and (3) that global EIF2 signaling has antidepressant/anxiolytic potential. PMID:25600109

  9. Modeling Regional Vulnerability to Alzheimer Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Royall, Donald R.; Palmer, Raymond F.; Petrovitch, Helen; Ross, G. Webster; Masaki, Kamal; White, Lon R.

    2015-01-01

    Latent growth curve (LGC) models estimate change over time in a cohort's serially obtained measurements. We have applied LGC techniques to a spatial distribution of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology using autopsy data from 435 participants in the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study. Neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) and neuritic plaques (NP) were distributed across differently ordered sets of anatomical regions. The gradient of spatial change in NP (dNP), was significantly associated with that of NFT (dNFT), but weakly and inversely (r = -0.12, p <0.001). Both dNFT and dNP correlated significantly and inversely with Braak stage. 61% of the variance in Braak stage was explained by dNFT independent of covariates. Only dNFT was significantly associated with longitudinal change in cognition. Only dNP was associated with apolipoprotein (APOE) e4 burden. This is the first application of LGC models to spatially ordered data. The result is a quantification of the inter-individual variation in the inter-regional vulnerability to AD lesions. PMID:21803455

  10. Vulnerability of streams to legacy nitrate sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tesoriero, Anthony J.; Du?, John H.; Saad, David A.; Spahr, Norman E.; Wolock, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of hydrogeologic setting on the susceptibility of streams to legacy nitrate was examined at seven study sites having a wide range of base flow index (BFI) values. BFI is the ratio of base flow to total streamflow volume. The portion of annual stream nitrate loads from base flow was strongly correlated with BFI. Furthermore, dissolved oxygen concentrations in streambed pore water were significantly higher in high BFI watersheds than in low BFI watersheds suggesting that geochemical conditions favor nitrate transport through the bed when BFI is high. Results from a groundwater-surface water interaction study at a high BFI watershed indicate that decades old nitrate-laden water is discharging to this stream. These findings indicate that high nitrate levels in this stream may be sustained for decades to come regardless of current practices. It is hypothesized that a first approximation of stream vulnerability to legacy nutrients may be made by geospatial analysis of watersheds with high nitrogen inputs and a strong connection to groundwater (e.g., high BFI).

  11. Link-layer vulnerabilities of quantum cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartalopoulos, Stamatios V.

    2005-09-01

    The last two decades have witnessed an exciting advanced research field that stems from non-classical atomic theory, quantum mechanics. This field promises an important applicability in secure data communications, known as quantum cryptography. Quantum cryptography takes advantage of the inherent random polarization state of single photons, which is not reproducible by a third party or an eavesdropper located between the source and the destination. Thus, when polarization states of photons are associated with binary logic an algorithm may intelligently developed according to which a cryptographic key is disseminated by the source terminal to the destination. This is a process known as quantum key distribution. However, as photons propagate in a non-linear medium such as fiber, their polarization state does not remain intact and thus the quantum key distribution and quantum cryptography becomes vulnerable to attacks. In this paper we consider the applicability of quantum cryptography in a pragmatic fiber-optic medium and in a popular communication network topology. We identify major weaknesses for each step of the quantum key distribution process, and also potential attacks to incapacitate quantum cryptography in fiber communications, so that better countermeasure strategies can be developed.

  12. Tracking Nile Delta Vulnerability to Holocene Change

    PubMed Central

    Marriner, Nick; Flaux, Clément; Morhange, Christophe; Stanley, Jean-Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Understanding deltaic resilience in the face of Holocene climate change and human impacts is an important challenge for the earth sciences in characterizing the full range of present and future wetland responses to global warming. Here, we report an 8000-year mass balance record from the Nile Delta to reconstruct when and how this sedimentary basin has responded to past hydrological shifts. In a global Holocene context, the long-term decrease in Nile Delta accretion rates is consistent with insolation-driven changes in the ‘monsoon pacemaker’, attested throughout the mid-latitude tropics. Following the early to mid-Holocene growth of the Nile’s deltaic plain, sediment losses and pronounced erosion are first recorded after ~4000 years ago, the corollaries of falling sediment supply and an intensification of anthropogenic impacts from the Pharaonic period onwards. Against the backcloth of the Saharan ‘depeopling’, reduced river flow underpinned by a weakening of monsoonal precipitation appears to have been particularly conducive to the expansion of human activities on the delta by exposing productive floodplain lands for occupation and irrigation agriculture. The reconstruction suggests that the Nile Delta has a particularly long history of vulnerability to extreme events (e.g. floods and storms) and sea-level rise, although the present sediment-starved system does not have a direct Holocene analogue. This study highlights the importance of the world’s deltas as sensitive archives to investigate Holocene geosystem responses to climate change, risks and hazards, and societal interaction. PMID:23922692

  13. Vulnerability of streams to legacy nitrate sources.

    PubMed

    Tesoriero, Anthony J; Duff, John H; Saad, David A; Spahr, Norman E; Wolock, David M

    2013-04-16

    The influence of hydrogeologic setting on the susceptibility of streams to legacy nitrate was examined at seven study sites having a wide range of base flow index (BFI) values. BFI is the ratio of base flow to total streamflow volume. The portion of annual stream nitrate loads from base flow was strongly correlated with BFI. Furthermore, dissolved oxygen concentrations in streambed pore water were significantly higher in high BFI watersheds than in low BFI watersheds suggesting that geochemical conditions favor nitrate transport through the bed when BFI is high. Results from a groundwater-surface water interaction study at a high BFI watershed indicate that decades old nitrate-laden water is discharging to this stream. These findings indicate that high nitrate levels in this stream may be sustained for decades to come regardless of current practices. It is hypothesized that a first approximation of stream vulnerability to legacy nutrients may be made by geospatial analysis of watersheds with high nitrogen inputs and a strong connection to groundwater (e.g., high BFI). PMID:23530900

  14. Visiting relatives and friends (VFR), pregnant, and other vulnerable travelers.

    PubMed

    Matteelli, Alberto; Carvalho, Anna Cristina C; Bigoni, Sara

    2012-09-01

    With industrial development and expanding tourism, many people now have an opportunity to travel to many previously unreachable foreign destinations. Travelers with medical or physical conditions or who are vulnerable because of pregnancy or age (pediatric or elderly traveler), require specialist support and advice before traveling. Immigrants who return to their country of birth to visit relatives and friends should be classified as vulnerable travelers, as they have been shown to carry a disproportionate burden of travel-related morbidity. In this article, we explore the major risks to health and the main preventive strategies appropriate to the most vulnerable travelers. PMID:22963774

  15. Vulnerability Assessment for Cascading Failures in Electric Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Baldick, R.; Chowdhury, Badrul; Dobson, Ian; Dong, Zhao Yang; Gou, Bei; Hawkins, David L.; Huang, Zhenyu; Joung, Manho; Kim, Janghoon; Kirschen, Daniel; Lee, Stephen; Li, Fangxing; Li, Juan; Li, Zuyi; Liu, Chen-Ching; Luo, Xiaochuan; Mili, Lamine; Miller, Stephen; Nakayama, Marvin; Papic, Milorad; Podmore, Robin; Rossmaier, John; Schneider, Kevin P.; Sun, Hongbin; Sun, Kai; Wang, David; Wu, Zhigang; Yao, Liangzhong; Zhang, Pei; Zhang, Wenjie; Zhang, Xiaoping

    2008-09-10

    Cascading failures present severe threats to power grid security, and thus vulnerability assessment of power grids is of significant importance. Focusing on analytic methods, this paper reviews the state of the art of vulnerability assessment methods in the context of cascading failures in three categories: steady-state modeling based analysis; dynamic modeling analysis; and non-traditional modeling approaches. The impact of emerging technologies including phasor technology, high-performance computing techniques, and visualization techniques on the vulnerability assessment of cascading failures is then addressed, and future research directions are presented.

  16. Target vulnerability to air defense weapons. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Reinard, B.E.

    1984-12-01

    This thesis is intended to become a portion of the textbook utilized in the course entitled Warheads and Lethality (AE-3705). This portion of the text includes an unclassified discussion of a target's susceptibility to an externally detonating HE warhead and a target's vulnerability. In particular, the section on target susceptibility leads to the development of the number of fragments which strike a target aircraft from an externally detonating warhead. The section on target vulnerability explains the methodology used for identifying critical components and conducting a vulnerability assessment, and leads to the effects of fragments and penetrators striking an aircraft.

  17. Automated Vulnerability Detection for Compiled Smart Grid Software

    SciTech Connect

    Prowell, Stacy J [ORNL; Pleszkoch, Mark G [ORNL; Sayre, Kirk D [ORNL; Linger, Richard C [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    While testing performed with proper experimental controls can provide scientifically quantifiable evidence that software does not contain unintentional vulnerabilities (bugs), it is insufficient to show that intentional vulnerabilities exist, and impractical to certify devices for the expected long lifetimes of use. For both of these needs, rigorous analysis of the software itself is essential. Automated software behavior computation applies rigorous static software analysis methods based on function extraction (FX) to compiled software to detect vulnerabilities, intentional or unintentional, and to verify critical functionality. This analysis is based on the compiled firmware, takes into account machine precision, and does not rely on heuristics or approximations early in the analysis.

  18. Ethics seminars: vulnerable populations in emergency medicine research.

    PubMed

    Quest, Tammie; Marco, Catherine A

    2003-11-01

    Regulatory bodies and institutional review boards are increasingly considering human subjects who are vulnerable to research not because of their intrinsic characteristics, but because of the particular situations or circumstances that they bring with them as potential research participants. Several subsets of emergency department patients may be considered vulnerable in the research setting. This may include patients who are vulnerable because of a medical condition, a baseline limitation of intellectual function, a social setting, psychosocial stressors, or other factors. These issues should be carefully considered when including such patients in research protocols. Special efforts should be made to ensure voluntary participation and understanding of the purposes and risks of participation. PMID:14597508

  19. Vulnerability of rural hospitals to Medicare outpatient payment reform.

    PubMed

    Mohr, P E; Franco, S J; Blanchfield, B B; Cheng, C M; Evans, W N

    1999-01-01

    Because the Balanced Budget Act (BBA) of 1997 requires implementation of a Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for hospital outpatient services, the authors evaluated the potential impact of outpatient PPS on rural hospitals. Areas examined include: (1) How dependent are rural hospitals on outpatient revenue? (2) Are they more likely than urban hospitals to be vulnerable to payment reform? (3) What types of rural hospitals will be most vulnerable to reform? Using Medicare cost report data, the authors found that small size and government ownership are more common among rural than urban hospitals and are the most important determinants of vulnerability to payment reform. PMID:11481724

  20. Vulnerability of the Ecuador's Agricultural Sector as part of an Integrated Climate Change Vulnerability Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Lopez, F.; Depsky, N. J.

    2014-12-01

    Earlier this year SEI, in conjunction with the Environmental Secretary of Quito, concluded a vulnerability analysis for the Metropolitan District of Quito (DMQ). The study analyzed future anthropogenic and natural hazards, and how these threats may be potentially exacerbated by a changing climate over the next 40 years. The focus of this abstract is specifically on the vulnerability of the agricultural sector.Overall, there is a lack of consensus amongst the results of long-term trends of precipitation in the Quito region. However, there is much more confidence in the trends of mean air temperature increase, and therefore this analysis focused specifically upon the effects of increasing temperatures upon Quito's agricultural sector. Effects of a roughly 2°C increase in mean air temperature by 2050 (corresponding to a relative CO2 concentration pathway within the GCMs of 8.5) was evaluated with respect to its potential effects upon the length of growing season for principal crops, and which of these crops are most vulnerable to the increased heat stress. Also studied was the potential expansion of agriculture into higher elevation areas, namely the sensitive 'paramo' alpine ecosystem, due to increasing arability of these areas as temperatures rise. The extent of cultivation of 'paramos' areas was estimated in order to assess the likely diminutive effects upon local hydrology and ecosystem well-being.Our results show that in fact it is expected that the increase in temperature would have a positive effect on the development of some crops, though the growing seasons would likely be shortened, which may be problematic given soil and rainfall constraints.Regarding expansion of agriculture into the 'paramo' highlands, results showed that each 200m zone above 3400masl would experience a marked increase in agricultural land conversion, ranging from 15 - 55km2, depending upon the zone. The lowest zones are expectedly the most vulnerable as they already exist at the interface of the current agricultural frontier. The need for additional adaptation, conservation, and land management planning initiatives in the region are echoed by these results, as well as need for further scrutiny of these issues under additional scenarios and sectoral lenses in order to best inform smart policy making in the DMQ.

  1. RESEARCH ARTICLE Extreme population differentiation in a vulnerable slavemaking

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Nadir

    frag- mentation process. We also show extreme population dif- ferentiation at nuclear and mitochondrialRESEARCH ARTICLE Extreme population differentiation in a vulnerable slavemaking ant.V. 2010 Abstract Understanding levels of population differenti- ation and inbreeding are important issues

  2. The Effect of Parental Depression on Cognitive Vulnerability

    E-print Network

    Williams, Christina Lynne

    2012-12-31

    This paper reports on research on the effect of parental depression on cognitive vulnerability to depression. Although there is extensive literature to suggest that parental depression confers depressotypic cognitive thinking in children...

  3. Evaluation of the Vulnerability of Speaker Verification to Synthetic Speech 

    E-print Network

    De Leon, P.L.; Pucher, M.; Yamagishi, Junichi

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the vulnerability of a speaker verification (SV) system to synthetic speech. Although this problem was first examined over a decade ago, dramatic improvements in both SV and speech synthesis ...

  4. Assessing node risk and vulnerability in epidemics on networks

    E-print Network

    Rogers, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Which nodes are most vulnerable to an epidemic spreading through a network, and which carry the highest risk of causing a major outbreak if they are the source of the infection? Here we show how these questions can be answered to good approximation using the cavity method. Several curious properties of node vulnerability and risk are explored: some nodes are more vulnerable than others to weaker infections, yet less vulnerable to stronger ones; a node is always more likely to be caught in an outbreak than it is to start one, except when the disease has a deterministic lifetime; the rank order of node risk depends on the details of the distribution of infectious periods.

  5. Assessing the Vulnerability of Older Americans to Climate Change

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project is comprised of a series of activities ? listening sessions, literature reviews, and an expert elicitation research agenda-setting workshop ? designed to examine and characterize the vulnerability of older adults to climate change and opportunities for adaptation. ...

  6. Nemesis: Preventing Authentication & Access Control Vulnerabilities in Web Applications

    E-print Network

    Sabatini, David M.

    Nemesis: Preventing Authentication & Access Control Vulnerabilities in Web Applications Michael web applications. Authentication attacks occur when a web application authenticates users unsafely, granting access to web clients that lack the ap- propriate credentials. Access control attacks occur when

  7. Vulnerability and social risk management in India and Mexico

    E-print Network

    Flores Ballesteros, Luis

    2008-01-01

    The development of effective community, regional and national risk-management strategies, especially for systemic risks, such as natural disasters, entails understanding the determinants of social vulnerability in individuals ...

  8. Managing Landscapes for Vulnerable, Invasive and Disease Species

    E-print Network

    Zavaleta, Erika

    ; invasive species; landscape epidemiology; trade-offs; vulnerable species. Introduction Landscape design management and disease control. We examine the rationale for landscape design targeted at individual species. We summarize landscape design recommendations from the fields of landscape epi- demiology

  9. Assessing vulnerability to drought: identifying underlying factors across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urquijo, Julia; Gonzalez Tánago, Itziar; Ballesteros, Mario; De Stefano, Lucia

    2015-04-01

    Drought is considered one of the most severe and damaging natural hazards in terms of people and sectors affected and associated losses. Drought is a normal and recurrent climatic phenomenon that occurs worldwide, although its spatial and temporal characteristics vary significantly among climates. In the case of Europe, in the last thirty years, the region has suffered several drought events that have caused estimated economic damages over a €100 billion and have affected almost 20% of its territory and population. In recent years, there has been a growing awareness among experts and authorities of the need to shift from a reactive crisis approach to a drought risk management approach, as well as of the importance of designing and implementing policies, strategies and plans at country and river basin levels to deal with drought. The identification of whom and what is vulnerable to drought is a central aspect of drought risk mitigation and planning and several authors agree that societal vulnerability often determines drought risk more than the actual precipitation shortfalls. The final aim of a drought vulnerability assessment is to identify the underlying sources of drought impact, in order to develop policy options that help to enhance coping capacity and therefore to prevent drought impact. This study identifies and maps factors underlying vulnerability to drought across Europe. The identification of factors influencing vulnerability starts from the analysis of past drought impacts in four European socioeconomic sectors. This analysis, along with an extensive literature review, led to the selection of vulnerability factors that are both relevant and adequate for the European context. Adopting the IPCC model, vulnerability factors were grouped to describe exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. The aggregation of these components has resulted in the mapping of vulnerability to drought across Europe at NUTS02 level. Final results have been compared with data from the European Drought Impact Report Inventory. For specific hotpots vulnerability factors are presented also through spider diagrams in order to allow policy and decision makers to identify underlying sources of vulnerability in the European context. This assessment offers an overall picture at a European level that strives to contribute to enhance the understanding of drought vulnerability across Europe.

  10. The hack attack - Increasing computer system awareness of vulnerability threats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quann, John; Belford, Peter

    1987-01-01

    The paper discusses the issue of electronic vulnerability of computer based systems supporting NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) by unauthorized users. To test the security of the system and increase security awareness, NYMA, Inc. employed computer 'hackers' to attempt to infiltrate the system(s) under controlled conditions. Penetration procedures, methods, and descriptions are detailed in the paper. The procedure increased the security consciousness of GSFC management to the electronic vulnerability of the system(s).

  11. Using Vulnerability Trees for Decision Making in Threat Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Vidalis; A Jones

    2003-01-01

    Abstract During the development of the TAME threat assessment methodology under framework 5 IST-2000–29601, the problem,of analysing and ,examining ,vulnerabilities was ,identified. The methodology ,was ,developed ,for the assessment and analysis of threat and vulnerabilities within the context of a security risk management.,TAME was developed,with the needs of electronic payment ,systems in mind ,and it consists of ,four stages: a)

  12. Optimal worm-scanning method using vulnerable-host distributions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zesheng Chen; Chuanyi Ji

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Most Internet worms use random scanning. The distribution of vulnerable hosts on the Internet, however, is highly non-uniform over the IP-address space. This implies that random scanning wastes many scans on invulnerable addresses, and more virulent scanning schemes may take advantage of the non-uniformity of a vulnerable-host distribution. Questions then arise as to how attackers may exploit such informa-tion

  13. Importance-scanning worm using vulnerable-host distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zesheng Chen; Chuanyi Ji

    2005-01-01

    Most Internet worms use random scanning. The distribution of vulnerable hosts on the Internet, however, is highly non-uniform over the IP-address space. This implies that random scanning wastes many scans on invulnerable addresses, and more virulent scanning schemes may take advantage of the non-uniformity of a vulnerable-host distribution. Questions then arise how attackers may make use of such information, and

  14. Evaluation Of The Seismic Vulnerability of Fortified Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Baratta, Alessandro; Corbi, Ileana [Department of Structural Engineering, University of Naples 'Federico II', Via Claudio 21, Naples (Italy); Coppari, Sandro [Department of Civil Protection, Ministry Council, Via Vitorchiano 4, 00189 Rome (Italy)

    2008-07-08

    In the paper a prompt method to evaluate the seismic vulnerability of an ancient structure has been applied to the seismic vulnerability of the fortified structures in Italy, having as basics the elaboration of rather gross information about the state, the consistency and the history of the considered population of fabrics. The procedure proves to be rather effective and able to produce reliable results, despite the poor initial data.

  15. Overwash vulnerability assessment based on long-term washover evolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tiago GarciaOscar; Óscar Ferreira; Ana Matias; João Alveirinho Dias

    2010-01-01

    An integrated methodology for evaluation of overwash vulnerability is developed with respect to the historical washover evolution\\u000a of a barrier island system. Three different aspects of overwash are addressed in the vulnerability indices developed: overwashed\\u000a shoreline ratio, maximum overwash intrusion recurrence, and complete barrier overwash. The indices were applied to the barriers\\u000a in the Ria Formosa system in Southern Portugal

  16. Vulnerability-attention analysis for space-related activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, Donnie; Hays, Dan; Lee, Sung Yong; Wolfsberger, John

    1988-01-01

    Techniques for representing and analyzing trouble spots in structures and processes are discussed. Identification of vulnerable areas usually depends more on particular and often detailed knowledge than on algorithmic or mathematical procedures. In some cases, machine inference can facilitate the identification. The analysis scheme proposed first establishes the geometry of the process, then marks areas that are conditionally vulnerable. This provides a basis for advice on the kinds of human attention or machine sensing and control that can make the risks tolerable.

  17. Ultrasound Tissue Characterization of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaque

    PubMed Central

    Picano, Eugenio; Paterni, Marco

    2015-01-01

    A thrombotic occlusion of the vessel fed by ruptured coronary atherosclerotic plaque may result in unstable angina, myocardial infarction or death, whereas embolization from a plaque in carotid arteries may result in transient ischemic attack or stroke. The atherosclerotic plaque prone to such clinical events is termed high-risk or vulnerable plaque, and its identification in humans before it becomes symptomatic has been elusive to date. Ultrasonic tissue characterization of the atherosclerotic plaque is possible with different techniques—such as vascular, transesophageal, and intravascular ultrasound—on a variety of arterial segments, including carotid, aorta, and coronary districts. The image analysis can be based on visual, video-densitometric or radiofrequency methods and identifies three distinct textural patterns: hypo-echoic (corresponding to lipid- and hemorrhage-rich plaque), iso- or moderately hyper-echoic (fibrotic or fibro-fatty plaque), and markedly hyperechoic with shadowing (calcific plaque). Hypoechoic or dishomogeneous plaques, with spotty microcalcification and large plaque burden, with plaque neovascularization and surface irregularities by contrast-enhanced ultrasound, are more prone to clinical complications than hyperechoic, extensively calcified, homogeneous plaques with limited plaque burden, smooth luminal plaque surface and absence of neovascularization. Plaque ultrasound morphology is important, along with plaque geometry, in determining the atherosclerotic prognostic burden in the individual patient. New quantitative methods beyond backscatter (to include speed of sound, attenuation, strain, temperature, and high order statistics) are under development to evaluate vascular tissues. Although not yet ready for widespread clinical use, tissue characterization is listed by the American Society of Echocardiography roadmap to 2020 as one of the most promising fields of application in cardiovascular ultrasound imaging, offering unique opportunities for the early detection and treatment of atherosclerotic disease. PMID:25950760

  18. Vulnerability of critical infrastructures : identifying critical nodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Roger Gary; Robinson, David Gerald

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this research was the development of tools and techniques for the identification of critical nodes within critical infrastructures. These are nodes that, if disrupted through natural events or terrorist action, would cause the most widespread, immediate damage. This research focuses on one particular element of the national infrastructure: the bulk power system. Through the identification of critical elements and the quantification of the consequences of their failure, site-specific vulnerability analyses can be focused at those locations where additional security measures could be effectively implemented. In particular, with appropriate sizing and placement within the grid, distributed generation in the form of regional power parks may reduce or even prevent the impact of widespread network power outages. Even without additional security measures, increased awareness of sensitive power grid locations can provide a basis for more effective national, state and local emergency planning. A number of methods for identifying critical nodes were investigated: small-world (or network theory), polyhedral dynamics, and an artificial intelligence-based search method - particle swarm optimization. PSO was found to be the only viable approach and was applied to a variety of industry accepted test networks to validate the ability of the approach to identify sets of critical nodes. The approach was coded in a software package called Buzzard and integrated with a traditional power flow code. A number of industry accepted test networks were employed to validate the approach. The techniques (and software) are not unique to power grid network, but could be applied to a variety of complex, interacting infrastructures.

  19. Early Brain Vulnerability in Wolfram Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hershey, Tamara; Lugar, Heather M.; Shimony, Joshua S.; Rutlin, Jerrel; Koller, Jonathan M.; Perantie, Dana C.; Paciorkowski, Alex R.; Eisenstein, Sarah A.; Permutt, M. Alan

    2012-01-01

    Wolfram Syndrome (WFS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, optic nerve atrophy, diabetes insipidus, deafness, and neurological dysfunction leading to death in mid-adulthood. WFS is caused by mutations in the WFS1 gene, which lead to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated cell death. Case studies have found widespread brain atrophy in late stage WFS. However, it is not known when in the disease course these brain abnormalities arise, and whether there is differential vulnerability across brain regions and tissue classes. To address this limitation, we quantified regional brain abnormalities across multiple imaging modalities in a cohort of young patients in relatively early stages of WFS. Children and young adults with WFS were evaluated with neurological, cognitive and structural magnetic resonance imaging measures. Compared to normative data, the WFS group had intact cognition, significant anxiety and depression, and gait abnormalities. Compared to healthy and type 1 diabetic control groups, the WFS group had smaller intracranial volume and preferentially affected gray matter volume and white matter microstructural integrity in the brainstem, cerebellum and optic radiations. Abnormalities were detected in even the youngest patients with mildest symptoms, and some measures did not follow the typical age-dependent developmental trajectory. These results establish that WFS is associated with smaller intracranial volume with specific abnormalities in the brainstem and cerebellum, even at the earliest stage of clinical symptoms. This pattern of abnormalities suggests that WFS has a pronounced impact on early brain development in addition to later neurodegenerative effects, representing a significant new insight into the WFS disease process. Longitudinal studies will be critical for confirming and expanding our understanding of the impact of ER stress dysregulation on brain development. PMID:22792385

  20. Rockfall vulnerability assessment for masonry buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavrouli, Olga

    2015-04-01

    The methodologies for the quantitative risk assessment vary in function of the application scale and the available data. For fragmental rockfalls, risk calculation requires data for the expected damage of the exposed elements due to potential rock block impacts with a range of trajectories, magnitudes and intensities. Although the procedures for the quantification of the rock block characteristics in terms of magnitude-frequency relationships are well established, there are few methodologies for the calculation of the vulnerability, and these are usually empirical or judgmental. The response of buildings to rock block impacts using analytical methods has been mainly realised so far for reinforced concrete buildings, and some fragility curves have been calculated with the results, indicating the potential damage for a range of rock block characteristics. Masonry buildings, as a common structural typology in mountainous areas, are in many cases impacted by rock blocks during rockfalls. Their response presents some peculiarities in comparison with reinforced-concrete structures given the non-homogeneity and variability of the compound materials (blocks and mortar), their orthotropy, low strength in tension, the statically indeterminate load-bearing system and the non-monolithic connections. To this purpose, analytical procedures which are specifically adapted to masonry structures should be used for the evaluation of the expected damage due to rock impacts. In this contribution we discuss the application of the analytical approach for the assessment of the expected damage in rockfall prone areas and the simulation assumptions that can be made concerning the materials, geometry, loading and the relevant simplifications. The amount of uncertainties introduced during their analytical simulation is high due to the dispersion of the data for material mechanical properties and the construction techniques and quality and thus a probabilistic assessment is suggested. The random nature of the rockfall as far as it concerns the magnitude and the intensity of the rock blocks can also be introduced using parametric analyses.

  1. Using cyber vulnerability testing techniques to expose undocumented security vulnerabilities in DCS and SCADA equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Pollet, J. [PlantData Technologies, Inc., 1201 Louisiana Street, Houston, TX 77002 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This session starts by providing an overview of typical DCS (Distributed Control Systems) and SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) architectures, and exposes cyber security vulnerabilities that vendors never admit, but are found through a comprehensive cyber testing process. A complete assessment process involves testing all of the layers and components of a SCADA or DCS environment, from the perimeter firewall all the way down to the end devices controlling the process, including what to look for when conducting a vulnerability assessment of real-time control systems. The following systems are discussed: 1. Perimeter (isolation from corporate IT or other non-critical networks) 2. Remote Access (third Party access into SCADA or DCS networks) 3. Network Architecture (switch, router, firewalls, access controls, network design) 4. Network Traffic Analysis (what is running on the network) 5. Host Operating Systems Hardening 6. Applications (how they communicate with other applications and end devices) 7. End Device Testing (PLCs, RTUs, DCS Controllers, Smart Transmitters) a. System Discovery b. Functional Discovery c. Attack Methodology i. DoS Tests (at what point does the device fail) ii. Malformed Packet Tests (packets that can cause equipment failure) iii. Session Hijacking (do anything that the operator can do) iv. Packet Injection (code and inject your own SCADA commands) v. Protocol Exploitation (Protocol Reverse Engineering / Fuzzing) This paper will provide information compiled from over five years of conducting cyber security testing on control systems hardware, software, and systems. (authors)

  2. Malware Sandbox Analysis for Secure Observation of Vulnerability Exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, Katsunari; Inoue, Daisuke; Eto, Masashi; Hoshizawa, Yuji; Nogawa, Hiroki; Nakao, Koji

    Exploiting vulnerabilities of remote systems is one of the fundamental behaviors of malware that determines their potential hazards. Understanding what kind of propagation tactics each malware uses is essential in incident response because such information directly links with countermeasures such as writing a signature for IDS. Although recently malware sandbox analysis has been studied intensively, little work is done on securely observing the vulnerability exploitation by malware. In this paper, we propose a novel sandbox analysis method for securely observing malware's vulnerability exploitation in a totally isolated environment. In our sandbox, we prepare two victim hosts. We first execute the sample malware on one of these hosts and then let it attack the other host which is running multiple vulnerable services. As a simple realization of the proposed method, we have implemented a sandbox using Nepenthes, a low-interaction honeypot, as the second victim. Because Nepenthes can emulate a variety of vulnerable services, we can efficiently observe the propagation of sample malware. In the experiments, among 382 samples whose scan capabilities are confirmed, 381 samples successfully started exploiting vulnerabilities of the second victim. This indicates the certain level of feasibility of the proposed method.

  3. Coastal vulnerability: climate change and natural hazards perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romieu, E.; Vinchon, C.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction Studying coastal zones as a territorial concept (Integrated coastal zone management) is an essential issue for managers, as they have to consider many different topics (natural hazards, resources management, tourism, climate change…). The recent approach in terms of "coastal vulnerability" studies (since the 90's) is the main tool used nowadays to help them in evaluating impacts of natural hazards on coastal zones, specially considering climate change. This present communication aims to highlight the difficulties in integrating this concept in risk analysis as it is usually practiced in natural hazards sciences. 1) Coastal vulnerability as a recent issue The concept of coastal vulnerability mainly appears in the International panel on climate change works of 1992 (IPCC. 2001), where it is presented as essential for climate change adaptation. The concept has been defined by a common methodology which proposes the assessment of seven indicators, in regards to a sea level rise of 1m in 2100: people affected, people at risk, capital value at loss, land at loss, wetland at loss, potential adaptation costs, people at risk assuming this adaptation. Many national assessments have been implemented (Nicholls, et al. 1995) and a global assessment was proposed for three indicators (Nicholls, et al. 1999). The DINAS-Coast project reuses this methodology to produce the DIVA-tool for coastal managers (Vafeidis, et al. 2004). Besides, many other methodologies for national or regional coastal vulnerability assessments have been developed (review by (UNFCCC. 2008). The use of aggregated vulnerability indicators (including geomorphology, hydrodynamics, climate change…) is widespread: the USGS coastal vulnerability index is used worldwide and was completed by a social vulnerability index (Boruff, et al. 2005). Those index-based methods propose a vulnerability mapping which visualise indicators of erosion, submersion and/or socio economic sensibility in coastal zones. This concept is a great tool for policy makers to help managing their action and taking into account climate change (McFadden, et al. 2006). However, in those approaches, vulnerability is the output itself (cost of effective impacts, geomorphologic impacts…), but is not integrated it in a risk analysis. Furthermore, those studies emerged from a climatic perspective, which leads to consider climate change as a hazard or pressure whereas risk studies commonly consider hazards such as erosion and flooding, where climate change modifies the drivers of the hazard. 2) The natural hazards and socio economic perspectives In order to reduce impacts of natural hazards, decision makers need a complete risk assessment (probability of losses). Past studies on natural risks (landslide, earthquake...) highlighted the pertinence of defining risk as a combination of : (1)hazard occurrence and intensity, (2) exposition and (3)vulnerability of assets and population to this hazard (e.g. Douglas. 2007, Sarewitz, et al. 2003). Following the Renn and Klinke risk assessment frame, high uncertainties associated with coastal risks considering climatic and anthropic change highlights the importance of working on that concept of "vulnerability" (Klinke and Renn. 2002). Past studies on vulnerability assessment showed a frequently mentioned gap between "impact based" and "human based" points of view. It is nowadays a great issue for natural risk sciences. Many research efforts in FP7 projects such as MOVE and ENSURE focus on integrating the different dimensions of vulnerability (Turner, et al. 2003, Birkmann. 2006). Coastal risk studies highlight another issue of concern. We previously detailed the different use of the term "vulnerability" in the coastal context, quite different of the "natural risk's" use. Interaction of social, economic and physical sciences is considered within two french research projects (Vulsaco, Miseeva), in order to identify the vulnerability of a system to flooding or erosion (i.e. its characteristics th

  4. Static Security Analysis based on Vulnerability Index (VI) and Network Contribution Factor

    E-print Network

    1 Static Security Analysis based on Vulnerability Index (VI) and Network Contribution Factor (NCF introduces a new approach of power system static security analysis based on the Vulnerability Index (VI) and Network Contribution Factor (NCF) method. Vulnerability Index method provides quantitative vulnerability

  5. Automated and Safe Vulnerability Assessment Fanglu Guo Yang Yu Tzi-cker Chiueh

    E-print Network

    Chiueh, Tzi-cker

    Automated and Safe Vulnerability Assessment Fanglu Guo Yang Yu Tzi-cker Chiueh Computer Science}@cs.sunysb.edu Abstract As the number of system vulnerabilities multiplies in re- cent years, vulnerability assessment has systems before they are exploited. Although there are many commercial vulnerability assess- ment tools

  6. CITI Fault Report Classification and Encoding for Vulnerability and Risk Assessment of Interconnected

    E-print Network

    CITI Fault Report Classification and Encoding for Vulnerability and Risk Assessment serve as a useful source to identify vulnerability patterns and impact of those vulnerabilities on other. Traditional approaches of such CITI fault and vulnerability analysis are based on different types of traffic

  7. An Efficient Approach to Assessing the Risk of Zero-Day Vulnerabilities Massimiliano Albanese1

    E-print Network

    Wang, Lingyu

    An Efficient Approach to Assessing the Risk of Zero-Day Vulnerabilities Massimiliano Albanese1@ciise.concordia.ca Keywords: Zero-Day Vulnerabilities, Vulnerability Analysis, Attack Graphs Abstract: Computer systems are vulnerable to both known and zero-day attacks. Although known attack patterns can be easily modeled, thus

  8. Dependency Relation Based Vulnerability Analysis of 3G Networks: Can It Identify Unforeseen Cascading Attacks ?

    E-print Network

    Yener, Aylin

    toolkit called the Advanced Cellular Network Vulnerability Assessment Toolkit - aCAT. aCAT is unique due the number of vulnerabilities in the 3G network are innumerable, existing vulnerability assessment solutions vulnerability assessment. 1 #12;As a result, 3G network designers, developers, vendors, and operators are still

  9. A HIERARCHICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE VULNERABILITY TO TSUNAMIS OF PUERTO RICAN COASTAL CITIES

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    A HIERARCHICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE VULNERABILITY TO TSUNAMIS OF PUERTO RICAN COASTAL CITIES Juan vulnerability index that will allow identifying the cities that are most vulnerable to tsunamis, and, thus. In the presentation, we will discuss the preliminary work on the conceptual model for the national vulnerability

  10. Computing and Informatics, Vol. , , 113, V 2011-May-18 VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT ENHANCEMENT

    E-print Network

    Miller, Barton P.

    Computing and Informatics, Vol. , , 1­13, V 2011-May-18 VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT ENHANCEMENT Vulnerability Assessment (FPVA), an innovative analystic-centric (manual) methodology that goes beyond current configurations. Keywords: Grid, middleware, security, vulnerability assessment, vulnerability graph #12;2 J

  11. Method for Assessing Vulnerability of Aircraft to Spray Fragments of Missile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yang PEI; Bi-feng SONG; Qing HAN

    2007-01-01

    A method is proposed for calculating the vulnerability of aircraft to spray fragments of a missile. The input data of aircraft or components for vulnerability assessment is organized by the finite element models. First, the `shot line scanning method' is used to calculate the single-hit vulnerability of aircraft by a fragment of missile. Utilizing Markov-Chain method, the vulnerability of aircraft

  12. Seawater intrusion vulnerability indicators for freshwater lenses in strip islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, L.; Werner, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Freshwater lenses on small islands have been described as some of the most vulnerable aquifer systems in the world. Yet, little guidance is available regarding methods for rapidly assessing the vulnerability of freshwater lenses to the potential effects of climate change. To address this gap we employ a steady-state analytic modelling approach to develop seawater intrusion (SWI) vulnerability indicator equations. The vulnerability indicator equations quantify the propensity for SWI to occur in strip islands due to both recharge change and sea-level rise (SLR) (incorporating the effect of land surface inundation (LSI)). This work extends that of Werner et al. (2012) who developed SWI vulnerability indicator equations for unconfined and confined continental aquifers, and did not consider LSI. Flux-controlled and head-controlled conceptualisations of freshwater lenses are adopted. Under flux-controlled conditions the water table is able to rise unencumbered by land surface effects. Under head-controlled conditions the head is fixed at the centre of the lens due to, for example, centrally located topographic controls, surface water features or pumping. A number of inferences about SWI vulnerability in freshwater lenses can be made from the analysis: (1) SWI vulnerability indicators for SLR (under flux-controlled conditions) are proportional to lens thickness (or volume) and the rate of LSI and inversely proportional to island width; (2) SWI vulnerability indicators for recharge change (under flux-controlled conditions) are proportional to lens thickness (or volume) and inversely proportional to recharge; (3) SLR has greater impact under head-controlled conditions rather than flux-controlled conditions, whereas the opposite is the case for LSI and recharge change. Example applications to several case studies illustrate use of the method for rapidly ranking lenses according to vulnerability, thereby allowing for prioritisation of areas where further and more detailed SWI investigations may be required. References Werner, A.D., Ward, J.D., Morgan, L.K., Simmons, C.T., Robinson, N.I., Teubner, M.D., 2012. Vulnerability indicators of seawater intrusion. Ground Water 50(1), 48-58. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6584.2011.00817.x.

  13. Debating space security: Capabilities and vulnerabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankaran, Jaganath

    The U.S. position in the debate on space security has been that (1) space-based systems could be developed and used to obtain decisive warfighting superiority over an adversary, and (2) these space-based systems, because they might give such an inordinate advantage over any adversary, will be attacked. The Russians and Chinese, in contrast, claim to be threatened by U.S. aspirations in space but deny that they pose a serious threat to U.S. space-based systems. They view the development of advanced military space systems by the United States as evidence of a growing gap of military capabilities limited only by technological—not political—constraints. They argue that U.S. missile defense systems operating in coordination with advanced satellite sensors would weaken their nuclear retaliatory potential. This dissertation argues that the positions held by both of these parties are more extreme than warranted. An analytical evaluation quickly narrows the touted capabilities and assumed vulnerabilities of space systems to a much smaller set of concerns that can be addressed by collaboration. Chapter 2: Operationally Responsive Space (ORS): Is 24/7 Warfighter Support Feasible? demonstrates the infeasibility of dramatically increasing U.S. warfighting superiority by using satellites. Chapter 3: What Can be Achieved by Attacking Satellites? makes the case that although U.S. armed forces rely extensively on its satellite infrastructure, that does not immediately make them desirable targets. The functions performed by military satellites are diffused among large constellations with redundancies. Also, some of the functions performed by these satellites can be substituted for by other terrestrial and aerial systems. Chapter 4: The Limits of Chinese Anti-Satellite Missiles demonstrates that anti-satellite (ASAT) intercepts are very complex under realistic conditions and that a potential adversary with space capabilities comparable to China's has very limited capability to use ASATs in a real-world battle scenario. Finally, in order to evaluate the chief concern raised by the Russians and Chinese, chapter 5: Satellites, Missile Defense and Space Security simulates a boost-phase missile defense system cued by the advanced Space Tracking and Surveillance (STSS) sensors. It demonstrates that even under best case assumptions, the STSS sensors are not good enough for the boost-phase missile defense system to successfully intercept and destroy an ICBM. Together, these chapters aim to narrow the contentions in the debate on space security thereby fostering the international colloboration and data sharing needed to ensure safe operations in space.

  14. Prediction of individualized therapeutic vulnerabilities in cancer from genomic profiles

    PubMed Central

    Aksoy, Bülent Arman; Demir, Emek; Babur, Özgün; Wang, Weiqing; Jing, Xiaohong; Schultz, Nikolaus; Sander, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Somatic homozygous deletions of chromosomal regions in cancer, while not necessarily oncogenic, may lead to therapeutic vulnerabilities specific to cancer cells compared with normal cells. A recently reported example is the loss of one of the two isoenzymes in glioblastoma cancer cells such that the use of a specific inhibitor selectively inhibited growth of the cancer cells, which had become fully dependent on the second isoenzyme. We have now made use of the unprecedented conjunction of large-scale cancer genomics profiling of tumor samples in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and of tumor-derived cell lines in the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia, as well as the availability of integrated pathway information systems, such as Pathway Commons, to systematically search for a comprehensive set of such epistatic vulnerabilities. Results: Based on homozygous deletions affecting metabolic enzymes in 16 TCGA cancer studies and 972 cancer cell lines, we identified 4104 candidate metabolic vulnerabilities present in 1019 tumor samples and 482 cell lines. Up to 44% of these vulnerabilities can be targeted with at least one Food and Drug Administration-approved drug. We suggest focused experiments to test these vulnerabilities and clinical trials based on personalized genomic profiles of those that pass preclinical filters. We conclude that genomic profiling will in the future provide a promising basis for network pharmacology of epistatic vulnerabilities as a promising therapeutic strategy. Availability and implementation: A web-based tool for exploring all vulnerabilities and their details is available at http://cbio.mskcc.org/cancergenomics/statius/ along with supplemental data files. Contact: statius@cbio.mskcc.org Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24665131

  15. Vulnerability to climate change: people, place and exposure to hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutton, C. W.; Kienberger, S.; Amoako Johnson, F.; Allan, A.; Giannini, V.; Allen, R.

    2011-04-01

    The Human Dimension of the Twinning European and South Asian River Basins to Enhance Capacity and Implement Adaptive Management Approaches Project (EC-Project BRAHMATWINN) is aimed at developing socio-economic tools and context for the effective inclusion of the "Human Dimension" or socio-economic vulnerability into the overall assessment of climate risk in the twinned basins of the Upper Brahmaputra River Basin (UBRB), and the Upper Danube River Basin (UDRB) . This work is conducted in the light of stakeholder/actor analysis and the prevailing legal framework. In order to effectively achieve this end, four key research and associated activities were defined: 1. Identifying stakeholders and actors including: implement an approach to ensure a broad spread of appropriate stakeholder input to the assessment of vulnerability undertaken in Asia and Europe within the research activities of the project. 2. Contextualising legal framework: to provide an assessment of the governance framework relating to socio-environmental policy development within the study site administrative areas leading to the specific identification of related policy and legal recommendations. 3. Spatial analysis and mapping of vulnerability: providing a spatial assessment of the variation of vulnerability to pre-determined environmental stressors across the study areas with an additional specific focus on gender. 4. Inclusion of findings with the broader context of the BRAHMATWINN risk of climate change study through scenarios of hazard and vulnerability (subsequent chapters). This study utilises stakeholder inputs to effectively identify and map relative weightings of vulnerability domains, such as health and education in the context of pre-specified hazards such as flood. The process is underpinned by an adaptation of the IPCC (2001) which characterizes Risk as having the components of Hazard (physiographic component) and Vulnerability (socio-economic component).

  16. Defining and Measuring Coastal Vulnerability and Resilience to Natural Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, M. K.; Hoagland, P.

    2014-12-01

    Accounting for an estimated 23 percent of the world's population, coastal communities face many types of natural hazards. In particular, they may be vulnerable to the effects of tropical cyclones, flooding due to tsunamis or storm surges, erosion, saltwater intrusion, and subsidence. These coastal hazards are further exacerbated by population growth and climate change. There is a lack of consensus in the literature about what constitutes vulnerability (negative impacts) and resilience (recovery from negative impacts) and how to measure these phenomena. While some important work has focused on the long-term effects of coastal hazards on economic growth, little has been done to understand, in quantitative terms, the extent to which coastal communities may be vulnerable to such hazards and, if so, whether they can be resilient. We surveyed nine indicators of human well-being in order to determine their potential suitability as measures of coastal vulnerability or resilience. Some measures, such as the Gross Domestic Product, the Human Development Index, and the Gini coefficient, comprise economic or distributional indicators of human welfare; others, such as the Social Vulnerability Index, are more complex and difficult to interpret. We selected per capita personal income as the most viable indicator, due largely to its simplicity and its availability over several decades. We used it to examine human community vulnerability and resilience to a specific coastal hazard—significant storm surges from major coastal hurricanes—in several US coastal metropolitan areas. We compiled data on per capita personal income from the US Bureau of Economic Analysis for 15 to 20 years prior and subsequent to four major hurricanes: Hugo, which hit the Charleston, South Carolina, metropolitan area in 1989; Bob, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, in 1991; Andrew, Miami, Florida, in 1992; and Opal, Pensacola, Florida, in 1995. Intervention analysis using linear regression suggests that these coastal areas exhibited the full range of possible combinations of vulnerability and resilience.

  17. A Vulnerability Assessment Approach for Dams of Mississippi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuszmaul, J. S.; Gunter, B.; McGregor, G.; Holt, R. M.; Pickens, J.; Holtz, T.; Jones, T.; Phillips, P.

    2007-12-01

    As part of a state-wide effort to characterize the vulnerability of Mississippi's dams, we are developing a new set of vulnerability assessment tools. Our vulnerability assessment methods will consider earlier attempts to develop risk indexing methods for dams, but will be designed to be applied to Mississippi's entire database of over 3,700 dams. Unlike earlier efforts to dams, which emphasized hazards posed by the dams, our methods will be designed to consider intrinsic and extrinsic vulnerability, and consider consequences as well. Intrinsic sources of vulnerability consider such factors as the potential for unstable slopes, piping, and spillway inadequacy. Extrinsic sources of vulnerability will include features such as the potential for intentional or unintentional human acts. Other factors that will be included will be the potential for neglect of maintenance of the dam and susceptibility to interference from wildlife. Consequences will be assessed by considering the downstream population and economic resources that may be at risk due to an uncontrolled release of the reservoir. The analysis of these vulnerabilities and consequences is being calculated using a GIS-based database of all of Mississippi's dams along with population distribution, terrain, and economic resources across the state. Conventional methods of analysis of a dam breach or other uncontrolled release will still be necessary, but the extent to which downstream features and population are affected can be more readily identified. This approach facilitates assessment and decision making on a large dam inventory to permit resources within the state to be directed efficiently to dams that merit attention.

  18. Coastal Vulnerability to Erosion Processes: Study Cases from Different Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anfuso, Giorgio; Martinez Del Pozo, Jose Angel; Rangel-Buitrago, Nelson

    2010-05-01

    When natural processes affect or threaten human activities or infrastructures they become a natural hazard. In order to prevent the natural hazards impact and the associated economic and human losses, coastal managers need to know the intrinsic vulnerability of the littoral, using information on the physical and ecological coastal features, human occupation and present and future shoreline trends. The prediction of future coastline positions can be based on the study of coastal changes which have occurred over recent decades. Vertical aerial photographs, satellite imagery and maps are very useful data sources for the reconstruction of coast line changes at long (>60 years) and medium (between 60 and 10 years) temporal and spatial scales. Vulnerability maps have been obtained for several coastal sectors around the world through the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS), computer-assisted multivariate analysis and numerical models. In the USA, "Flood Insurance Rate Maps" have been created by the government and "Coastal Zone Hazard Maps" have been prepared for coastal stretches affected by hurricane Hugo. In Spain, the vulnerability of the Ebro and an Andalusia coastal sector were investigated over different time scales. McLaughlin et al., (2002) developed a GIS based coastal vulnerability index for the Northern Ireland littoral that took into account socio-economic activities and coastal resistance to erosion and energetic characteristics. Lizárraga et al., (2001) combined beach reduction at Rosario (Mexico) with the probability of damage to landward structures, obtaining a vulnerability matrix. In this work several coastal vulnerability maps have also been created by comparing data on coastal erosion/accretion and land use along different coastal sectors in Italy, Morocco and Colombia. Keywords: Hazard, Vulnerability, Coastal Erosion, Italy, Morocco, Colombia.

  19. A Preliminary Tsunami Vulnerability Analysis for Yenikapi Region in Istanbul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceren Cankaya, Zeynep; Suzen, Lutfi; Cevdet Yalciner, Ahmet; Kolat, Cagil; Aytore, Betul; Zaytsev, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    One of the main requirements during post disaster recovery operations is to maintain proper transportation and fluent communication at the disaster areas. Ports and harbors are the main transportation hubs which must work with proper performance at all times especially after the disasters. Resilience of coastal utilities after earthquakes and tsunamis have major importance for efficient and proper rescue and recovery operations soon after the disasters. Istanbul is a mega city with its various coastal utilities located at the north coast of the Sea of Marmara. At Yenikapi region of Istanbul, there are critical coastal utilities and vulnerable coastal structures and critical activities occur daily. Fishery ports, commercial ports, small craft harbors, passenger terminals of intercity maritime transportation, water front commercial and/or recreational structures are some of the examples of coastal utilization which are vulnerable against marine disasters. Therefore their vulnerability under tsunami or any other marine hazard to Yenikapi region of Istanbul is an important issue. In this study, a methodology of vulnerability analysis under tsunami attack is proposed with the applications to Yenikapi region. In the study, high resolution (1m) GIS database of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (IMM) is used and analyzed by using GIS implementation. The bathymetry and topography database and the vector dataset containing all buildings/structures/infrastructures in the study area are obtained for tsunami numerical modeling for the study area. GIS based tsunami vulnerability assessment is conducted by applying the Multi-criteria Decision Making Analysis (MCDA). The tsunami parameters from deterministically defined worst case scenarios are computed from the simulations using tsunami numerical model NAMI DANCE. The vulnerability parameters in the region due to two different classifications i) vulnerability of buildings/structures and ii) vulnerability of (human) evacuation are defined and scored. The risk level is computed using tsunami intensity (level of flow depth from simulations) and vulnerability (structural and human-based) at each node in Yenikapi. The results are presented at high resolution (1m) and discussed. Acknowledgements: Partial support by EU 603839 ASTARTE Project, UDAP-C-12-14 of AFAD of Turkey, 108Y227 and 113M556 of TUBITAK Turkey, RAPSODI (CONCERT_Dis-021) of CONCERT-Japan Joint Call, 2011K140210 of DPT, Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, Japan-Turkey Joint Research Project by JICA on earthquakes and tsunamis in Marmara Region by SATREPS are acknowledged.

  20. Synergistic vulnerabilities: Antiretroviral treatment among women in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Winchester, Margaret S

    2015-08-01

    Despite being an early success story in the reduction of HIV infection rates, Uganda faces myriad challenges in the recent era of accelerated antiretroviral treatment (ARV) scale-up. For those able to access treatment, ongoing vulnerabilities of poverty and violence compound treatment-related costs and concerns. This paper explores experiences of one particularly vulnerable population - women on ARVs who have also experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). Data were collected over 12 months in Uganda. They include ethnographic interviews (n = 40) drawn from a larger sample of women on ARV and semi-structured interviews with policy-makers and service providers (n = 42), examining the intersection of experiences and responses to treatment from multiple perspectives. Women's narratives show that due to treatment, immediate health concerns take on secondary importance, while other forms of vulnerability, including IPV and poverty, can continue to shape treatment experiences and the decision to stay in violent relationships. Providers likewise face difficulties in overburdened clinics, though they recognise women's concerns and the importance of considering other forms of vulnerability in treatment. This analysis makes the case for integrating treatment with other types of social services and demonstrates the importance of understanding the ways in which synergistic and compounding vulnerabilities confound treatment scale-up efforts. PMID:25647145

  1. Defining Resilience and Vulnerability Based on Ontology Engineering Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumazawa, T.; Matsui, T.; Endo, A.

    2014-12-01

    It is necessary to reflect the concepts of resilience and vulnerability into the assessment framework of "Human-Environmental Security", but it is also in difficulty to identify the linkage between both concepts because of the difference of the academic community which has discussed each concept. The authors have been developing the ontology which deals with the sustainability of the social-ecological systems (SESs). Resilience and vulnerability are also the concepts in the target world which this ontology covers. Based on this point, this paper aims at explicating the semantic relationship between the concepts of resilience and vulnerability based on ontology engineering approach. For this purpose, we first examine the definitions of resilience and vulnerability which the existing literatures proposed. Second, we incorporate the definitions in the ontology dealing with sustainability of SESs. Finally, we focus on the "Water-Energy-Food Nexus Index" to assess Human-Environmental Security, and clarify how the concepts of resilience and vulnerability are linked semantically through the concepts included in these index items.

  2. Soft Error Vulnerability of Iterative Linear Algebra Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Bronevetsky, G; de Supinski, B

    2007-12-15

    Devices become increasingly vulnerable to soft errors as their feature sizes shrink. Previously, soft errors primarily caused problems for space and high-atmospheric computing applications. Modern architectures now use features so small at sufficiently low voltages that soft errors are becoming significant even at terrestrial altitudes. The soft error vulnerability of iterative linear algebra methods, which many scientific applications use, is a critical aspect of the overall application vulnerability. These methods are often considered invulnerable to many soft errors because they converge from an imprecise solution to a precise one. However, we show that iterative methods can be vulnerable to soft errors, with a high rate of silent data corruptions. We quantify this vulnerability, with algorithms generating up to 8.5% erroneous results when subjected to a single bit-flip. Further, we show that detecting soft errors in an iterative method depends on its detailed convergence properties and requires more complex mechanisms than simply checking the residual. Finally, we explore inexpensive techniques to tolerate soft errors in these methods.

  3. Assessing groundwater vulnerability to agrichemical contamination in the Midwest US

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkart, M.R.; Kolpin, D.W.; James, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    Agrichemicals (herbicides and nitrate) are significant sources of diffuse pollution to groundwater. Indirect methods are needed to assess the potential for groundwater contamination by diffuse sources because groundwater monitoring is too costly to adequately define the geographic extent of contamination at a regional or national scale. This paper presents examples of the application of statistical, overlay and index, and process-based modeling methods for groundwater vulnerability assessments to a variety of data from the Midwest U.S. The principles for vulnerability assessment include both intrinsic (pedologic, climatologic, and hydrogeologic factors) and specific (contaminant and other anthropogenic factors) vulnerability of a location. Statistical methods use the frequency of contaminant occurrence, contaminant concentration, or contamination probability as a response variable. Statistical assessments are useful for defining the relations among explanatory and response variables whether they define intrinsic or specific vulnerability. Multivariate statistical analyses are useful for ranking variables critical to estimating water quality responses of interest. Overlay and index methods involve intersecting maps of intrinsic and specific vulnerability properties and indexing the variables by applying appropriate weights. Deterministic models use process-based equations to simulate contaminant transport and are distinguished from the other methods in their potential to predict contaminant transport in both space and time. An example of a one-dimensional leaching model linked to a geographic information system (GIS) to define a regional metamodel for contamination in the Midwest is included.

  4. A unified framework for addiction: Vulnerabilities in the decision process

    PubMed Central

    Redish, A. David; Jensen, Steve; Johnson, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The understanding of decision-making systems has come together in recent years to form a unified theory of decision-making in the mammalian brain as arising from multiple, interacting systems (a planning system, a habit system, and a situation-recognition system). This unified decision-making system has multiple potential access points through which it can be driven to make maladaptive choices, particularly choices that entail seeking of certain drugs or behaviors. We identify 10 key vulnerabilities in the system: (1) moving away from homeostasis, (2) changing allostatic set points, (3) euphorigenic “reward-like” signals, (4) overvaluation in the planning system, (5) incorrect search of situation-action-outcome relationships, (6) misclassification of situations, (7) overvaluation in the habit system, (8) a mismatch in the balance of the two decision systems, (9) over-fast discounting processes, and (10) changed learning rates. These vulnerabilities provide a taxonomy of potential problems with decision-making systems. Although each vulnerability can drive an agent to return to the addictive choice, each vulnerability also implies a characteristic symptomology. Different drugs, different behaviors, and different individuals are likely to access different vulnerabilities. This has implications for an individual’s susceptibility to addiction and the transition to addiction, for the potential for relapse, and for the potential for treatment. PMID:18662461

  5. Climate volatility deepens poverty vulnerability in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Syud A.; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Hertel, Thomas W.

    2009-07-01

    Extreme climate events could influence poverty by affecting agricultural productivity and raising prices of staple foods that are important to poor households in developing countries. With the frequency and intensity of extreme climate events predicted to change in the future, informed policy design and analysis requires an understanding of which countries and groups are going to be most vulnerable to increasing poverty. Using a novel economic-climate analysis framework, we assess the poverty impacts of climate volatility for seven socio-economic groups in 16 developing countries. We find that extremes under present climate volatility increase poverty across our developing country sample—particularly in Bangladesh, Mexico, Indonesia, and Africa—with urban wage earners the most vulnerable group. We also find that global warming exacerbates poverty vulnerability in many nations.

  6. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains the Executive summary; Introduction; Summary of vulnerabilities; Management systems weaknesses; Commendable practices; Summary of management response plan; Conclusions; and a Glossary of chemical terms.

  7. Mechanical vulnerability explains size-dependent mortality of reef corals

    PubMed Central

    Madin, Joshua S; Baird, Andrew H; Dornelas, Maria; Connolly, Sean R

    2014-01-01

    Understanding life history and demographic variation among species within communities is a central ecological goal. Mortality schedules are especially important in ecosystems where disturbance plays a major role in structuring communities, such as coral reefs. Here, we test whether a trait-based, mechanistic model of mechanical vulnerability in corals can explain mortality schedules. Specifically, we ask whether species that become increasingly vulnerable to hydrodynamic dislodgment as they grow have bathtub-shaped mortality curves, whereas species that remain mechanically stable have decreasing mortality rates with size, as predicted by classical life history theory for reef corals. We find that size-dependent mortality is highly consistent between species with the same growth form and that the shape of size-dependent mortality for each growth form can be explained by mechanical vulnerability. Our findings highlight the feasibility of predicting assemblage-scale mortality patterns on coral reefs with trait-based approaches. PMID:24894390

  8. Modelling the elements of country vulnerability to earthquake disasters.

    PubMed

    Asef, M R

    2008-09-01

    Earthquakes have probably been the most deadly form of natural disaster in the past century. Diversity of earthquake specifications in terms of magnitude, intensity and frequency at the semicontinental scale has initiated various kinds of disasters at a regional scale. Additionally, diverse characteristics of countries in terms of population size, disaster preparedness, economic strength and building construction development often causes an earthquake of a certain characteristic to have different impacts on the affected region. This research focuses on the appropriate criteria for identifying the severity of major earthquake disasters based on some key observed symptoms. Accordingly, the article presents a methodology for identification and relative quantification of severity of earthquake disasters. This has led to an earthquake disaster vulnerability model at the country scale. Data analysis based on this model suggested a quantitative, comparative and meaningful interpretation of the vulnerability of concerned countries, and successfully explained which countries are more vulnerable to major disasters. PMID:18958916

  9. Imaging of coronary atherosclerosis and identification of the vulnerable plaque

    PubMed Central

    de Feyter, P.J.; Serruys, P. W.; Nieman, K.; Mollet, N.; Cademartiri, F.; van Geuns, R. J.; Slager, C.; van der Steen, A.F.W.; Krams, R.; Schaar, J.A.; Wielopolski, P.; Pattynama, P.M.T.; Arampatzis, A.; van der Lugt, A.; Regar, E.; Ligthart, J.; Smits, P.

    2003-01-01

    Identification of the vulnerable plaque responsible for the occurrence of acute coronary syndromes and acute coronary death is a prerequisite for the stabilisation of this vulnerable plaque. Comprehensive coronary atherosclerosis imaging in clinical practice should involve visualisation of the entire coronary artery tree and characterisation of the plaque, including the three-dimensional morphology of the plaque, encroachment of the plaque on the vessel lumen, the major tissue components of the plaque, remodelling of the vessel and presence of inflammation. Obviously, no single diagnostic modality is available that provides such comprehensive imaging and unfortunately no diagnostic tool is available that unequivocally identifies the vulnerable plaque. The objective of this article is to discuss experience with currently available diagnostic modalities for coronary atherosclerosis imaging. In addition, a number of evolving techniques will be briefly discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:25696244

  10. [Vulnerability and bare life: bioethics and biopolitics today].

    PubMed

    Arán, Márcia; Peixoto Júnior, Carlos Augusto

    2007-10-01

    The study had the objective of analyzing the notion of vulnerability that is used by bioethics to debate research involving human beings today, from reflections on biopolitics in contemporary culture. For this, the starting point was Giorgio Agamben's reading of Foucault's model of power (Sovereignty and Biopolitics), with the aim of subsequently analyzing the notion of bare life: "life without any value". If the devices of power in modern democracies conjoin biopolitical strategies with the emergence of the strength of sovereign power that transforms life into bare life, in fact bioethics must be an instrument for protecting people who have become vulnerable. Nevertheless, beyond the territory of the rule of law, bioethics must also penetrate the undifferentiated zones where sovereignty and techniques become mixed, disrespecting the frontiers of biopolitics and questioning the condition of vulnerability itself. PMID:17713709

  11. An holistic approach to beach erosion vulnerability assessment.

    PubMed

    Alexandrakis, George; Poulos, Serafim ?

    2014-01-01

    Erosion is a major threat for coasts worldwide, beaches in particular, which constitute one of the most valuable coastal landforms. Vulnerability assessments related to beach erosion may contribute to planning measures to counteract erosion by identifying, quantifying and ranking vulnerability. Herein, we present a new index, the Beach Vulnerability Index (BVI), which combines simplicity in calculations, easily obtainable data and low processing capacity. This approach provides results not only for different beaches, but also for different sectors of the same beach and enables the identification of the relative significance of the processes involved. It functions through the numerical approximation of indicators that correspond to the mechanisms related to the processes that control beach evolution, such as sediment availability, wave climate, beach morhodynamics and sea level change. The BVI is also intended to be used as a managerial tool for beach sustainability, including resilience to climate change impact on beach erosion. PMID:25123815

  12. [Elements of adolescents' individual vulnerability to HIV/AIDS].

    PubMed

    Toledo, Melina Mafra; Takahashi, Renata Ferreira; De-La-Torre-Ugarte-Guanilo, Mónica Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by experimentation and discovery, the development of autonomy and close search of sexuality. The objective of this study was to identify the scientific evidences of literature on the elements of the individual dimension of adolescents' vulnerability of to the HIV/AIDS. Through the integrative review, in electronic data bases (Cinahl PubMed, Scopus, LILACS, Adolec, Dedalus, Digital Library of Brazilian of Teses and Dissertações (BDTD) and Portal of Thesis of University of São Paulo), works published between 1996 and 2006 were tracked. 41 studies compose the final sample. The most frequent element of individual vulnerability in the studies was the degree and quality of the knowledge on HI V/AIDS. The revision allowed identifying excellent scientific evidences of the individual vulnerability for the planning of the actions of prevention to the infection for the HIV in adolescents. PMID:21755225

  13. Physically based groundwater vulnerability assessment using sensitivity analysis methods.

    PubMed

    Beaujean, Jean; Lemieux, Jean-Michel; Dassargues, Alain; Therrien, René; Brouyère, Serge

    2014-01-01

    A general physically based method is presented to assess the vulnerability of groundwater to external pressures by numerical simulation of groundwater flow. The concept of groundwater vulnerability assessment considered here is based on the calculation of sensitivity coefficients for a user-defined groundwater state for which we propose several physically based indicators. Two sensitivity analysis methods are presented: the sensitivity equation method and the adjoint operator method. We show how careful selection of a method can significantly minimize the computational effort. An illustration of the general methodology is presented for the Herten aquifer analog (Germany). This application to a simple, yet insightful, case demonstrates the potential use of this general and physically based vulnerability assessment method to complex aquifers. PMID:24236887

  14. Different gestational ages and changing vulnerability of the premature brain.

    PubMed

    Sannia, Andrea; Natalizia, Anna R; Parodi, Alessandro; Malova, Mariya; Fumagalli, Monica; Rossi, Andrea; Ramenghi, Luca A

    2013-08-23

    Abstract In recent decades, there has been a general increase in survival rates of preterm and low birth weight infants, but this overall decrease in perinatal mortality has not been accompanied by a decrease in long-term physical and mental disability. In order to reduce the long-term sequelae of prematurity and to establish preventive measures, it is important to identify risk factors since the main determinant of specific vulnerability to different types of lesions is gestational age. The regional tissue vulnerability at a given gestational age is probably determined by the local metabolic requirements together with specific cell characteristics and their level of maturation. In this article, we discuss the most common neonatal cerebral lesions (cerebellar haemorrhage, germinal matrix intraventricular haemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, arterial ischaemic stroke, cerebral vein sinus thrombosis and hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy) related to the gestational age-dependent vulnerability of the premature brain. PMID:23968292

  15. Research on vulnerability assessments of the Huanghe (Yellow River) delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    qiao, shuqing; shi, xuefa

    2014-05-01

    Coastal zone located at the juncture of the sea, river and land, and under the influence of both land and ocean (including atmosphere), especially the sea-level rise and human activities, are vulnerable to environment and ecology. At highest risk are coastal zone of South, Southeast and East Asia with dense populations, low elevations and inadequate adaptive capacity. In China, more than 40% of the population live on the 15% of the land in coastal area and more than 70% cities located around the coastal area. The Chinese coastal region, especially river delta area has been experienced erosion, seawater intrusion and decrease in biodiversity under the combined influence of sea-level rise, tectonic subsidence and flooding. Furthermore, some kinds of human activity, such as land use, building, dam construction, reclamation from the sea and waste dumping strengthen the vulnerability of environment and ecosystem in coastal region. The coastal hazards (e.g. coastal erosion, seawater intrusion, land subsidence) and vulnerability of the Huanghe (Yelllow River) delta area are studied during the past several years. A systematic coastal assessment index is built and an evaluation model is developed using the development platform of Visual studio.Net 2005. The assessment index system includes two parts, inherent (sea level rise rate, elevation, morphology, water and sediment discharge, mean tidal range, mean wave height etc) and specific vulnerability index (population density, GDP, land utilization, protection structures etc). The assessment index are determined the weight using Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method. Based on the research results, we better understand the current status and future change of coastal vulnerability and hazards, discuss the impact of the natural possess and human activities. Furthermore, we provide defending strategies for coastal zone vulnerability and typical coastal hazards.

  16. The role of mechanoelectric feedback in vulnerability to electric shock

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weihui; Gurev, Viatcheslav; McCulloch, Andrew D.; Trayanova, Natalia A.

    2008-01-01

    Experimental and clinical studies have shown that ventricular dilatation is associated with increased arrhythmogenesis and elevated defibrillation threshold; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The goal of the present study was to test the hypothesis that 1) stretch-activated channel (SAC) recruitment and 2) geometrical deformations in organ shape and fiber architecture lead to increased arrhythmogenesis by electric shocks following acute ventricular dilatation. To elucidate the contribution of these two factors, the study employed, for the first time, a combined electro-mechanical simulation approach. Acute dilatation was simulated in a model of rabbit ventricular mechanics by raising the LV end-diastolic pressure from 0.6 (control) to 4.2 kPa (dilated). The output of the mechanics model was used in the electrophysiological model. Vulnerability to shocks was examined in the control, the dilated ventricles and in the dilated ventricles that also incorporated currents through SAC as a function of local strain, by constructing vulnerability grids. Results showed that dilatation-induced deformation alone decreased upper limit of vulnerability (ULV) slightly and did not result in increased vulnerability. With SAC recruitment in the dilated ventricles, the number of shock-induced arrhythmia episodes increased by 37% (from 41 to 56) and low limit of vulnerability (LLV) decreased from 9 to 7 V/cm, while ULV did not change. The heterogeneous activation of SAC caused by the heterogeneous fiber strain in the ventricular walls was the main reason for increased vulnerability to electric shocks since it caused dispersion of electrophysiological properties in the tissue, resulting in postshock unidirectional block and establishment of reentry. PMID:18374394

  17. Integrating Science and Engineering to Reduce Vulnerability to Climate Extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Mari R.; Holland, Greg J.; Done, James M.

    2013-12-01

    How does our built environment make society vulnerable to climate extremes such as flooding? What knowledge is required by engineering designers and risk managers to address the associated risks? How can engineering/scientific approaches be adapted to reduce vulnerability to weather and climate extremes? These were some of the key questions posed during a recent workshop at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), which was attended by climate scientists, civil engineering practitioners, and governmental departments. Engineering design encompasses a broad range of applications; to focus discussions, this workshop targeted the specific theme of water resources.

  18. Assessing environmental vulnerability in EIA-The content and context of the vulnerability concept in an alternative approach to standard EIA procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Kvaerner, Jens [Bioforsk-Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Soil and Environmental Division, Frederik A. Dahls vei 20, N-1432 As (Norway)]. E-mail: jens.kvarner@bioforsk.no; Swensen, Grete [NIKU, Norwegian Institute for Cultural Heritage Research, Storgata 2, P.O. Box 736, Sentrum, N-0105 Oslo (Norway)]. E-mail: grete.swensen@niku.no; Erikstad, Lars [NINA, Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Dronningens gt. 13., P.O. Box 736, Sentrum, N-0105 Oslo (Norway)]. E-mail: lars.erikstad@nina.no

    2006-07-15

    In the traditional EIA procedure environmental vulnerability is only considered to a minor extent in the early stages when project alternatives are worked out. In Norway, an alternative approach to EIA, an integrated vulnerability model (IVM), emphasising environmental vulnerability and alternatives development in the early stages of EIA, has been tried out in a few pilot cases. This paper examines the content and use of the vulnerability concept in the IVM approach, and discusses the concept in an EIA context. The vulnerability concept is best suited to overview analyses and large scale spatial considerations. The concept is particularly useful in the early stages of EIA when alternatives are designed and screened. By introducing analyses of environmental vulnerability at the start of the EIA process, the environment can be a more decisive issue for the creation of project alternatives as well as improving the basis for scoping. Vulnerability and value aspects should be considered as separate dimensions. There is a need to operate with a specification between general and specific vulnerability. The concept of environmental vulnerability has proven useful in a wide range of disciplines. Different disciplines have different lengths of experience regarding vulnerability. In disciplines such as landscape planning and hydrogeology we find elements suitable as cornerstones in the further development of an interdisciplinary methodology. Further development of vulnerability criteria in different disciplines and increased public involvement in the early stages of EIA are recommended.

  19. Do the Most Vulnerable People Live in the Worst Slums? A Spatial Analysis of Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Jankowska, Marta M; Weeks, John R; Engstrom, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Slums are examples of localized communities within third world urban systems representing a range of vulnerabilities and adaptive capacities. This study examines vulnerability in relation to flooding, environmental degradation, social-status, demographics, and health in the slums of Accra, Ghana by utilizing a place-based approach informed by fieldwork, remote sensing, census data, and geographically weighted regression. The study objectives are threefold: (1) to move slums from a dichotomous into a continuous classification and examine the spatial patterns of the gradient, (2) develop measures of vulnerability for a developing world city and model the relationship between slums and vulnerability, and (3) to assess if the most vulnerable individuals live in the worst slums. A previously developed slum index is utilized, and four new measures of vulnerability are developed through principle components analysis, including a novel component of health vulnerability based on child mortality. Visualizations of the vulnerability measures assess spatial patterns of vulnerability in Accra. Ordinary least squares, spatial, and geographically weighted regression model the ability of the slum index to predict the four vulnerability measures. The slum index performs well for three of the four vulnerability measures, but is least able to predict health vulnerability underscoring the complex relationship between slums and child mortality in Accra. Finally, quintile analysis demonstrates the elevated prevalence of high vulnerability in places with high slum index scores. PMID:22379509

  20. Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment of Casablanca - Morocco, Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omira, R.; Baptista, M. V.; Miranda, M.; Catita, C.; Toto, E.

    2007-12-01

    In this study we present a preliminary evaluation of the tsunami vulnerability of Casablanca area (Morocco) and the expected inundation from a tsunami generated in the North East Atlantic area in the Gulf of Cadiz using a combination of numerical modeling and GIS tools. The study area is the intensively occupied area of the Casablanca Harbor, a location that may be considered as one of the most vulnerable areas to tsunami hazard, along Morocco Atlantic coast, due to its location close to the source of moderate and strong magnitude earthquakes, the extension of low flat areas close to the sea and the existence of dwellings characterized by unstructured constructions. To study vulnerability and inundation we considered geomorphologic and artificial elements as well as the existence of defensive constructions. The inundation zone was divided in for sub-zones according to their height above sea level; the buildings were classed according to: building material, number of floors, conditions of foundation soil. The study area presents a large variety of constructions:1 storey buildings of 2- 2.5 m height, houses and stores of the ancient medina and some modern buildings. The results are presented, using GIS and show a preliminary "picture" of built stock behaviour in case of tsunami for Casablanca. The results clearly demonstrate that the vulnerability to tsunami impact is not uniform within the inundation zone. This work was developed in the framework of NEAREST and TRANSFER projects, EU.

  1. Mental Health of Children in Palestinian Kindergartens: Resilience and Vulnerability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salwa Massad; F. Javier Nieto; Mari Palta; Maureen Smith; Roseanne Clark; Abdel-Aziz Thabet

    2009-01-01

    Background: Exposure to adversity does not necessarily lead to the development of psychopathology in all affected children. This study examined the factors associated with resilience and vulnerability in mental health in the Gaza Strip in 2007. Methods: Children selected from a random sample of kindergartens (3-6 years old, N = 350) were assessed for growth and their mothers administered an

  2. Embryo stability and vulnerability in an always changing world

    E-print Network

    Embryo stability and vulnerability in an always changing world Amro Hamdoun and David Epel Hopkins to the view that embryos and larvae are the most fragile stages of life, development is stable under real-world conditions. Early cleavage embryos are prepared for environmental vagaries by having high levels of cellular

  3. AN OVERVIEW OF EPA'S REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT (REVA) PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) is a, approach to place-based ecological risk assessment that is currently under development by ORD. The pilot assessment will be done for the Mid-Atlantic region and builds on data collected for EMAP. ReVA is being developed to identify t...

  4. Active Cyber Attack Model for Network System's Vulnerability Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jung-ho Eom; Young-Ju Han; Seon-Ho Park; Tai-Myoung Chung

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we architected active cyber attack model for assessing network system's vulnerability. As simulating cyber attack model in network system, we can identify the weakest point and inspect security policy. It also improved the capability of information collection and attack action, as using autonomous agents. Attack action agents which introduced attack a set of sequence number can reduce

  5. International Student-Workers in Australia: A New Vulnerable Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyland, Chris; Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Marginson, Simon; Ramia, Gaby; Sawir, Erlenawati; Smith, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    In the period immediately preceding the 2007 Australian election, much attention was accorded to the impact of the nation's labour laws on vulnerable employees. This debate centred on specific groups including women, youth, migrants and workers on individual employment contracts. International students, by contrast, were ignored in the debate.…

  6. Extinction vulnerability in marine populations Nicholas K Dulvy1

    E-print Network

    Reynolds, John D.

    Extinction vulnerability in marine populations Nicholas K Dulvy1 , Yvonne Sadovy2 & John D Reynolds about the extinction of marine taxa.We have compiled133 local, regional and global extinc- tions and the reported date of the extinction at whatever scale this has occurred. Most disappearances (80%) were

  7. Aspects of Social Work with Vulnerable Groups in Cambodia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen Fujimoto

    (Abstract) Social Work in Cambodia is still largely conducted by NGOs and INGOs, rather than Gov- ernment employees of the Social Affairs Department. In the paper I focus on some organiza- tions which are meeting the needs of some of the most vulnerable groups in the society, women and children affected by domestic violence, and disabled children. It is important

  8. Security Analytics: Analysis of Security Policies for Vulnerability Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yolanta Beres; Jonathan Griffin; Simon Shiu

    In th is pap er we present a novel approach of using mathematical models and stochastic simulations to gui de and inform security investment and policy change decisions. In particular, we investigate vulnerability management policies, and explore how effective standard patch management and emergency escalation based policies are, and how they can be combined with earlier, pre-patch mitigation measures to

  9. A Framework for Analysing Vulnerability to Food Security

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Romer Lovendal; Macro Knowles

    Whilst traditional food security analysis offers an ex post view on who the food insecure are and why they are so, looking at food insecurity from a vulnerability perspective provides a dynamic and forward looking way of analysing causes and more importantly options for reducing food insecurity. This can help improving policy responses to food insecurity. The paper seeks to

  10. TOMORROW'S HUNGER: A FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSING VULNERABILITY TO FOOD INSECURITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Romer Løvendal; Marco Knowles

    Whilst traditional food security analysis offers an ex post view on who the food insecure are and why they are so, looking at food insecurity from a vulnerability perspective provides a dynamic and forward looking way of analysing causes and more importantly options for reducing food insecurity. This can help improving policy responses to food insecurity. The paper seeks to

  11. Exploring Faculty Perceptions toward Working with Academically Vulnerable College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quick, Robin L.

    2013-01-01

    This study is an exploratory study of faculty members' knowledge and perceptions toward of with academically vulnerable college students who are specifically experiencing reading and writing difficulties. Data were gathered from 174 college faculty at six higher education institutions throughout northwestern Pennsylvania via an online…

  12. Comparing Groundwater Contamination Vulnerability in Large, Urbanized Basins of California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Moran; G. B. Hudson; R. Leif; G. F. Eaton

    2002-01-01

    We have sampled over 700 public drinking water wells as part of a study to assess relative contamination susceptibility of the major groundwater basins in California. The parameters used to rank wells according to vulnerability are groundwater age dates (using the tritium-3helium method), stable isotopes of the water molecule (for water source determination), and occurrence of low level Volatile Organic

  13. Linking degradation status with ecosystem vulnerability to environmental change.

    PubMed

    Angeler, David G; Baho, Didier L; Allen, Craig R; Johnson, Richard K

    2015-07-01

    Environmental change can cause regime shifts in ecosystems, potentially threatening ecosystem services. It is unclear if the degradation status of ecosystems correlates with their vulnerability to environmental change, and thus the risk of future regime shifts. We assessed resilience in acidified (degraded) and circumneutral (undegraded) lakes with long-term data (1988-2012), using time series modeling. We identified temporal frequencies in invertebrate assemblages, which identifies groups of species whose population dynamics vary at particular temporal scales. We also assessed species with stochastic dynamics, those whose population dynamics vary irregularly and unpredictably over time. We determined the distribution of functional feeding groups of invertebrates within and across the temporal scales identified, and in those species with stochastic dynamics, and assessed attributes hypothesized to contribute to resilience. Three patterns of temporal dynamics, consistent across study lakes, were identified in the invertebrates. The first pattern was one of monotonic change associated with changing abiotic lake conditions. The second and third patterns appeared unrelated to the environmental changes we monitored. Acidified and the circumneutral lakes shared similar levels and patterns of functional richness, evenness, diversity, and redundancy for species within and across the observed temporal scales and for stochastic species groups. These similar resilience characteristics suggest that both lake types did not differ in vulnerability to the environmental changes observed here. Although both lake types appeared equally vulnerable in this study, our approach demonstrates how assessing systemic vulnerability by quantifying ecological resilience can help address uncertainty in predicting ecosystem responses to environmental change across ecosystems. PMID:25752618

  14. Power grid vulnerability assement based on energy function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jingling Lu; QunXing Ji; YongLi Zhu

    2008-01-01

    The traditional certainty assessment method of the power system security is difficult to consider its randomness, at the same time it is difficult to provide the safe and health realtime information of power network quantitatively and intuitively. In this paper, the traditional concept of security of the power system is expanded and network vulnerability is introduced. Considering the probability of

  15. Vulnerability of the US to future sea level rise

    SciTech Connect

    Gornitz, V. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, New York, NY (USA). Goddard Inst. for Space Studies); White, T.W.; Cushman, R.M. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The differential vulnerability of the conterminous United States to future sea level rise from greenhouse climate warming is assessed, using a coastal hazards data base. This data contains information on seven variables relating to inundation and erosion risks. High risk shorelines are characterized by low relief, erodible substrate, subsidence, shoreline retreat, and high wave/tide energies. Very high risk shorelines on the Atlantic Coast (Coastal Vulnerability Index {ge}33.0) include the outer coast of the Delmarva Peninsula, northern Cape Hatteras, and segments of New Jersey, Georgia and South Carolina. Louisiana and sections of Texas are potentially the most vulnerable, due to anomalously high relative sea level rise and erosion, coupled with low elevation and mobile sediments. Although the Pacific Coast is generally the least vulnerable, because of its rugged relief and erosion-resistant substrate, the high geographic variability leads to several exceptions, such as the San Joaquin-Sacramento Delta area, the barrier beaches of Oregon and Washington, and parts of the Puget Sound Lowlands. 31 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Disabling a Computer by Exploiting Softphone Vulnerabilities: Threat and Mitigation

    E-print Network

    Wang, Xinyuan "Frank"

    that runs the VoIP soft- phone. In this paper, we investigate the security ramifications that Vo and smart phones, vulnerabilities in VoIP protocols and systems could introduce new threats to the computer attack) can disable a Windows XP host that runs the official Vonage VoIP softphone within several min

  17. Doubly Vulnerable: The Paradox of Disability and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    Parker Palmer's comment that teaching is a "daily exercise in vulnerability" might just as easily be said about living with a disability. As much as the person with a disability might want to hide his or her differences, it is often difficult to do so. Something as commonplace as walking through a grocery store without being stared at is often…

  18. Bifocals: Analyzing WebView Vulnerabilities in Android Applications

    E-print Network

    Wagner, David

    branches (e.g., Kindle Fire, Nook Tablet); and a score of competing platforms including iOS and WindowsBifocals: Analyzing WebView Vulnerabilities in Android Applications Erika Chin and David Wagner University of California, Berkeley {emc, daw}@cs.berkeley.edu Abstract. WebViews allow Android developers

  19. Automated detection of vulnerabilities in privileged programs by execution monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Calvin Ko; George Fink; Karl Levitt

    1994-01-01

    Presents a method for detecting exploitations of vulnerabilities in privileged programs by monitoring their execution using audit trails, where the monitoring is with respect to specifications of the security-relevant behavior of the programs. Our work is motivated by the intrusion detection paradigm, but is an attempt to avoid ad hoc approaches to codifying misuse behavior. Our approach is based on

  20. Update on the role of neutrophils in atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Federico; Mach, Francois; Montecucco, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the main pathophysiological process underlying acute cardiovascular diseases. Life-threatening conditions, such as myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke, are provoked by the sudden rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques, characterized by thin, highly inflamed and collagen-poor fibrous cap. Whereas both innate and adaptive inflammation progressively emerged as driving force of this processes, less is known about the involvement of neutrophils (PMNs). Advances in laboratory techniques during the last two decades disclosed that PMNs play a crucial role in promoting plaque vulnerability by the release of different enzymes, such as gelatinases (matrix metalloproteinases) collagenases, elastase and myeloperoxidase. Accordingly, circulating levels of PMNs and their products have been investigated as potential markers of plaque instability in both primary and secondary prevention on cardiovascular diseases. In addition, the development of different classes of drugs targeting PMNs activation is emerging as an interesting field of research. This narrative review will provide an update on the role of PMNs in promoting plaque vulnerability also discussing the potential effects of therapeutic strategies targeting PMN on plaque vulnerability. PMID:25382205

  1. Leaf Shrinkage with Dehydration: Coordination with Hydraulic Vulnerability and Drought

    E-print Network

    Sack, Lawren

    simulations of the leaf hydraulic system showed that a reduction of hydraulic conductance of the mesophyll through the hydraulic system. The leaf hydraulic system has two components, which act essentiallyLeaf Shrinkage with Dehydration: Coordination with Hydraulic Vulnerability and Drought Tolerance1[C

  2. Reflecting on a Difficult Life: Narrative Construction in Vulnerable Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Kate C.; Wood, Becky; Breen, Andrea V.

    2013-01-01

    We examined narrative processes of identity development as they related to desistance from delinquent behavior in a sample of vulnerable adolescents. Building on a robust theoretical and empirical foundation in the field of narrative identity, we examined processes of meaning-making and agency in relation to desistance. Thirty-one adolescents were…

  3. Autobiographical Memory as a Predictor of Depression Vulnerability in Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipwell, Alison E.; Sapotichne, Brenna; Klostermann, Susan; Battista, Deena; Keenan, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (AM), the tendency to recall categories of events when asked to provide specific instances from one's life, is purported to be a marker of depression vulnerability that develops in childhood. Although early adolescence is a period of risk for depression onset especially among girls, prospective examination of…

  4. From Vulnerability to Resilience: The Challenge of Adaptation to

    E-print Network

    From Vulnerability to Resilience: The Challenge of Adaptation to Climate Change Case Studies from of Adaptation to Climate Change Case Studies from Bangladesh, Brazil, China, India, South Africa and Korea Wha: The Challenge of Adaptation to Climate Change Case Studies from Bangladesh, Brazil, China, India, South Africa

  5. SOCIAL VULNERABILITY, ENVIRONMENTAL INEQUALITY, AND CHILDHOOD ASTHMA IN PHOENIX,

    E-print Network

    Hall, Sharon J.

    1 SOCIAL VULNERABILITY, ENVIRONMENTAL INEQUALITY, AND CHILDHOOD ASTHMA IN PHOENIX, ARIZONA A Report School Anne Feeney, School Nurse Summit School of Ahwatukee Kathy Evans, Director Asthma Athletics Joe Breathmobile Maricopa County Asthma Susanne Cook, Assistant Professor of Nursing at ASU Coalition #12

  6. Reuse-Oriented Camouflaging Trojan: Vulnerability Detection and Attack Construction

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Xiangyu

    Reuse-Oriented Camouflaging Trojan: Vulnerability Detection and Attack Construction Zhiqiang Lin,xyzhang,dxu}@cs.purdue.edu Abstract We introduce the reuse-oriented camouflaging trojan ­ a new threat to legitimate software binaries-world software binaries demonstrate that the reuse-oriented camouflaging trojans are a real threat

  7. United States Department of Agriculture Forest Ecosystem Vulnerability Assessment

    E-print Network

    Xi, Weimin

    for publication February 2014 Forest ecosystems across the Northwoods will face direct and indirect impacts from a changing climate over the 21st century. This assessment evaluates the vulnerability of forest ecosystems potential impacts on forests by incorporating these future climate projections into three forest impact

  8. The SECAD project - vulnerability reduction via propulsion control logic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Pisano; C. E. Frankenberger

    2006-01-01

    Digital propulsion controls provide the foundation for adding capabilities beyond normal control functions to enable the next level of increased survivability for both war-time and peace-time damage scenarios. Propulsion is a critical system for any platform, providing electrical and hydraulic power, ECS (environmental control system) air as well as thrust. If the vulnerability of propulsion systems can be reduced, the

  9. A MACROSEISMIC METHOD FOR THE VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF BUILDINGS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonia GIOVINAZZI; Sergio LAGOMARSINO

    SUMMARY A seismic risk analysis addressed to earthquake emergency management and protection strategies planning, requires territorial scale evaluation; to this aim a macroseismic method for the vulnerability assessment of built-up area is presented. The method is derived, in a conceptually rigorous way, by the use of Probability and of Fuzzy Set Theory, considering Macroseismic Scale definitions. Damage Probability Matrices are

  10. Vulnerability assessment of a retreating coast in SW Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Domínguez; G. Anfuso; F. J. Gracia

    2005-01-01

    The present study assesses coastal vulnerability to erosion processes along a 23-km-long coastal sector that presents different morphological features and grades of human occupation. Seven photogrammetric flights, at different scales, were used for reconstructing the coastal evolution from 1956 to 2001. Several sources were compiled to assess human activities and land uses in the coastal zones that were mapped and

  11. Vulnerability Assessment of Selected Buildings Designated as Shelters: Anguilla.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Tony

    Educational facilities in the Caribbean often serve roles as shelters during natural hazards, but they often sustain as much damage as other buildings. This study investigated the physical vulnerability of schools located on Anguilla to wind forces, torrential rain, and seismic forces in order to provide relevant local agencies with some of the…

  12. Dyadic Vulnerability and Risk Profiling for Elder Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulmer, Terry; Paveza, Gregory; VandeWeerd, Carla; Fairchild, Susan; Guadagno, Lisa; Bolton-Blatt, Marguarette; Norman, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Neglect of older adults accounts for 60% to 70% of all elder-mistreatment reports made to adult protective services. The purpose of this article is to report data from research, using a risk-and-vulnerability model, that captures the independent contributions of both the elder and the caregiver as they relate to the outcome of neglect.…

  13. Vulnerability assessment in karstic areas: validation by field experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Perrin; A. Pochon; P.-Y. Jeannin; F. Zwahlen

    2004-01-01

    Several methods have been developed for vulnerability mapping in karstic areas. These methods need additional validation by field experiments. Several tests have been carried out in the Swiss Jura with natural and artificial tracers. The protective role of some intrinsic properties of the system, such as glacial deposits covering karst, epikarst storage and system dilution effect, have been clearly demonstrated.

  14. REGIONAL CLIMATE CHANGE SCENARIOS FOR VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTATION ASSESSMENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel B. Smith; Gregory J. Pitts

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the regional climate change scenarios that are recommended for use in the U.S. Country Studies Program (CSP) and evaluates how well four general circulation models (GCMs) simulate current climate over Europe. Under the umbrella of the CSP, 50 countries with varying skills and experience in developing climate change scenarios are assessing vulnerability and adaptation. We considered the

  15. Vulnerability Assessment of Selected Buildings Designated as Shelters: Grenada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Tony

    Educational facilities in the Caribbean often serve as shelters during natural hazards, but they often sustain as much damage as other buildings. This study investigated the physical vulnerability of schools, located in Grenada, to wind forces, torrential rain, and seismic forces in order to provide relevant local agencies with some of the input…

  16. Guidance on environmental vulnerabilities of unattended ground sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lindamae Peck

    1999-01-01

    Operational guidance on reliability as a function of site conditions is essential to unattended ground sensors (UGS) effectiveness. For physical security\\/force protection sensor systems, the Weather Vulnerability Assessment Tool (WVAT) will fill this need. WVAT is a computer application that will warn of situations in which the likelihood of detecting an intruder falls below a specified probability of detection (Pd).

  17. Vulnerability for cocaine dependence \\/ Involvement of µ-opioid receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heidi Maria Bonifacio Lesscher

    2004-01-01

    Drug dependence is a major health issue worldwide, which is characterised by its persistence and high rates of relapse. Individual differences exist in the vulnerability for drug dependence after first exposure to drugs of abuse like cocaine. A likely risk factor for drug dependence is the sensitivity to the positive reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse.\\u000a The studies described in

  18. Selective Prevention: Addressing Vulnerability to Problem Drug Use in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Gregor; Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Bo, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Following the 2003 publication of the European Union (EU) Council Recommendations and the 2005-2008 and 2009-2012 EU Drugs Action Plans, increasing attention has been given in EU member states' drug policies to populations that are vulnerable to problem drug use (PDU). Monitoring data reported to the EMCDDA by designated agencies from 30 countries…

  19. Session Fixation the Forgotten Vulnerability? Michael Schrank1

    E-print Network

    Posegga, Joachim

    steps to assess the current attack surface of Session Fixation. Finally, we present a transparent server attack surface of Session Fixation (Sec. 3). Finally, we present a transparent server-side method hijacking attack through controlling the victim's session identifier value. We explore this vulnerability

  20. Low vulnerability explosives (LOVEX) for mass-use warheads

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Pruneda; E. Jessop; R. McGuire

    1990-01-01

    There is an ongoing effort at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to develop explosives with a significantly lower vulnerability to battlefield environments (bullets, fragments, sympathetic detonation) than current explosives (TNT and Comp B) without sacrificing performance or increasing costs. The approach taken is to develop a composite explosive which is comprised of inexpensive fillers such as RDX, NaNOâ, Al and a

  1. Target vulnerability to air defense weapons. Master's thesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reinard

    1984-01-01

    This thesis is intended to become a portion of the textbook utilized in the course entitled Warheads and Lethality (AE-3705). This portion of the text includes an unclassified discussion of a target's susceptibility to an externally detonating HE warhead and a target's vulnerability. In particular, the section on target susceptibility leads to the development of the number of fragments which

  2. Vulnerability on the streets: Female sex workers and HIV risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. PYETT; D. J. WARR

    1997-01-01

    In-depth interviews were conducted with 24 purposively selected female sex workers who were perceived to be vulnerable to risks associated with their lifestyle and occupation. Brothel workers were found to be considerably less exposed to risk than the women working on the streets. Client resistance was the major obstacle to women maintaining safe sex practices. Physical threats and coercion from

  3. Theorising globalisation's social impact: proposing the concept of vulnerability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peadar Kirby

    2006-01-01

    The concept of vulnerability was introduced into IR theorising by Keohane and Nye who saw it as one of the consequences of complex interdependence and it is being increasingly employed by IGOs to capture the impact of globalisation on society. However, the concept has been little used in the academic literature on globalisation, except in a descriptive sense. This article

  4. Extreme weather events and construction SMEs : Vulnerability, impacts, and responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gayan Wedawatta; Bingunath Ingirige; Keith Jones; David Proverbs

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The UK experienced a number of Extreme Weather Events (EWEs) during recent years and a significant number of businesses were affected as a result. With the intensity and frequency of weather extremes predicted in the future, enhancing the resilience of businesses, especially of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs), who are considered as highly vulnerable, has become a necessity.

  5. Our Shared Future: Social Media, Leadership, Vulnerability, and Digital Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoller, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Social media have challenged us in our journey to support our students. Administrators have entered into new web-based conversations with one another and with their students. Personal branding has created a sense of performativity that conflicts with a growing trend towards online vulnerability. Our leaders have increasingly been engaged in…

  6. Experimental Investigation of Microwave Vulnerabilities in CMOS Inverters

    E-print Network

    Anlage, Steven

    Experimental Investigation of Microwave Vulnerabilities in CMOS Inverters Agis A. Iliadis effects on single CMOS inverters, the fundamental building block of logic ICs, consisting of an NMOS and a PMOS transistor. The inverters were designed in our group and fabricated in the AMI-1.5µm MOSIS line

  7. Rethinking the nature of genetic vulnerability to autistic spectrum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David H. Skuse

    Autism is a common and genetically heterogeneous disorder, with an estimated heritability of >90%. Its spe- cific underlying causes are largely unknown. Here, I pro- pose that low levels of autistic vulnerability, reflected in social-cognitive processing differences, do not necess- arily manifest in a behavioural phenotype but are usually compensated for during development. They are more likely to lead to

  8. A First Step Towards Automated Detection of Buffer Overrun Vulnerabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Wagner; Jeffrey S. Foster; Eric A. Brewer; Alexander Aiken

    2000-01-01

    We describe a new technique for finding potential buffer overrun vulnerabilities in security-critical C code. The k ey to success is to use static analysis: we formulate detec- tion of buffer overruns as an integer range analysis prob- lem. One major advantage of static analysis is that secu- rity bugs can be eliminated before code is deployed. We have implemented

  9. American Indian Adolescent Girls: Vulnerability to Sex Trafficking, Intervention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    The Minnesota Indian Women's Resource Center offers harm reduction programming to at-risk adolescent American Indian girls, including outreach, case management, advocacy, healthy sexuality education, and support groups. To evaluate program impact, participants are assessed at intake and every 6 months afterward for current vulnerability to…

  10. Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Serre; B. Barroca

    2009-01-01

    Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city Bruno Barroca1, Damien Serre2 1Laboratory of Urban Engineering, Environment and Building (L G U E H) - Université de Marne-la-Vallée - Pôle Ville, 5, Bd Descartes - Bâtiment Lavoisier - 77454 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 - France 2City of Paris Engineering School, Construction - Environment Department, 15 rue Fénelon,

  11. Small island developing states: natural disaster vulnerability and global change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Pelling; Juha I. Uitto

    2001-01-01

    This paper sets out an examination of natural disaster amongst small island developing states (SIDS), and presents a framework for assessing the interaction of global pressures and local dynamics in the production of human vulnerability. Change at the global level is found to be a source of new opportunities as well as constraints on building local resilience to natural disaster.

  12. Advances in Topological Vulnerability Analysis Steven Noel1

    E-print Network

    Noel, Steven

    all possible ways an attacker can penetrate the network. TVA transforms raw security data into a roadmap that lets one proactively prepare for attacks. It supports both offensive (e.g., penetration a network via TVA provides a concrete understanding of how individual and combined vulnerabilities impact

  13. Critiquing War in the Classroom: Professor Positionality, Vulnerability, and Possibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an analytic autoethnographical research study focusing on my experiences developing, delivering, and evaluating course content critiquing war from a feminist anti-militarist perspective as a pre-tenured faculty member. Themes include: professional vulnerability, student resistance, pedagogical possibility, and scholarly…

  14. Vulnerability of Hydropower Projects to Climate Change Revision: 20th

    E-print Network

    Harrison, Gareth

    Vulnerability of Hydropower Projects to Climate Change Revision: 20th December 2001 Dr Gareth P and increased use of renewable sources including hydropower. Paradoxically, climate change itself may alter role in whether emissions cuts are achieved. 2. Climate Change and Hydropower A rising demand

  15. Research Article Demographic Patterns and Harvest Vulnerability of

    E-print Network

    Mladenoff, David

    including elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and white-tailed deer (Miller et al. 2000 (Odocoileus virginianus) caused by transmissible protease-resistant prions. Since the discovery of CWD words Chronic wasting disease (CWD), disease prevalence, epidemiology, harvest vulnerability, Odocoileus

  16. EDUCATING SYSTEM TESTERS IN VULNERABILITY Laboratory Development and Deployment

    E-print Network

    for improving security assurance of IT systems during test and integration phases. The approach that VA takes of finding security weaknesses in products. It covers the four steps of a vulnerability analysis. In addition, a course evaluation and lessons learned are also provided. Key words: IT security education

  17. Psychological Distress and Mortality: Are Women More Vulnerable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferraro, Kenneth F.; Nuriddin, Tariqah A.

    2006-01-01

    Does psychological distress increase mortality risk? If it does, are women more vulnerable than men to the effect of distress on mortality? Drawing from cumulative disadvantage theory, these questions are addressed with data from a 20-year follow-up of a national sample of adults ages 25-74. Event history analyses were performed to examine…

  18. Childhood Cancer and Vulnerability for Significant Academic Underachievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Jeanne S.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Learning difficulties related to childhood cancer were examined by comparison of 22 oncology patients and 22 children (6 to 17 years old) referred for psychiatric/psychological evaluation. Findings demonstrated, among children undergoing treatment of cancer, some academic vulnerabilities for which psychosocial aspects may not fully account.…

  19. Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression in Canadian and Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Randy P.; Eberhart, Nicole K.; Abela, John R. Z.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to compare diathesis-stress and transactional models of cognitive vulnerability to depression in samples of Canadian (n = 118) and Chinese (n = 405) adolescents. We utilized a six-month multi-wave, longitudinal design in order to examine whether (a) perceived control moderated the association between the…

  20. Introduction Karst aquifers are vulnerable to contamination because

    E-print Network

    Toran, Laura

    Introduction Karst aquifers are vulnerable to contamination because of the rapid recharge through the different types of recharge and the likely causes for the variation. Nitrate is a common groundwater in contribution of base- flow in different seasons from deep to shallow groundwater. The cal- cium concentrations

  1. The vulnerability index calculation for determination of groundwater quality

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, D.A.; Parizek, R.R. [Penn State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Non-point source pollutants, such as pesticides, enter groundwater systems in a variety of means at wide-ranging concentrations. Risks in using groundwater in human consumption vary depending on the amounts of contaminants, the type of groundwater aquifer, and various use factors. We have devised a method of determining the vulnerability of an aquifer towards contamination with the Vulnerability Index. The Index can be used either as a comparative or an absolute index (comparative with a pure water source or aquifer spring or without comparison, assuming no peaks in the compared sample). Data for the calculation is obtained by extraction of a given water sample followed by analysis with a nitrogen/phosphorus detector on gas chromatography. The calculation uses the sum of peak heights as its determination. An additional peak number factor is added to emphasize higher numbers of compounds found in a given sample. Karst aquifers are considered to be highly vulnerable due to the large solution openings in its structure. Examples will be given of Vulnerability Indices taken from springs emanating from karst, intermediate, and diffuse flow aquifers taken at various times of the 1992 sampling year and compared with rainfall during that time. Comparisons will be made of the Index vs. rainfall events and vs. pesticide application data. The risk of using contaminated drinking water sources can be evaluated with the use of this index.

  2. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability in the Río Artiguas basin, Nicaragua

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Mendoza; G. Barmen

    2006-01-01

    The Río Artiguas basin in central Nicaragua shows a distinctive case of environmental deterioration due to anthropogenic activities. Heavy metals used in gold mining and other wastes are continuously released into the rivers, representing a threat to the water quality. This article aims to evaluate the groundwater intrinsic vulnerability in the Río Artiguas basin and to provide information for sustainable

  3. Regional assessment and mapping of groundwater vulnerability to contamination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. S. Zektser; A. P. Belousova; V. Yu. Dudov

    1995-01-01

    In many regions the use of groundwater for water supply is limited by the increase in contamination of aquifers. The problem of contamination requires the development of new approaches in assessing areas in which groundwater is vulnerable to contamination. A brief analysis of the present day level of methods for regional evaluation and mapping of areas in which groundwater is

  4. Groundwater Vulnerability, Brownfield Redevelopment and Land Use Planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kent Murray; Daniel Rogers

    1999-01-01

    An understanding of groundwater vulnerability in urban watersheds is important for the prevention of both surface water and groundwater contamination and can therefore be a useful tool in brownfield redevelopment and land use planning. Although industrial activity in southeastern Michigan has historically been restricted to the urbanized sections of metropolitan Detroit, new industrial development is rapidly taking place in rural

  5. Increasing Automated Vulnerability Assessment Accuracy on Cloud and Grid Middleware

    E-print Network

    Miller, Barton P.

    practitioners in government, academia, and industry. To tackle the problem of assessing the security of critical. The fast adaptation of Cloud computing has led to an increased speedy rate of novel information technology of critical and complex vulnerabilities. In addition, frequently middleware systems bases their security

  6. Research for Development in West Africa: Vulnerability, Health Risks

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    Part I Research for Development in West Africa: Vulnerability, Health Risks and Institution, Autochthony and Integration: Urban and Rural Development Challenges in West Africa Guéladio Cissé1 1 requiring careful con- sideration in West Africa were identified, classified and synthesised during

  7. Small Solutions to Polynomial Equations, and Low Exponent RSA Vulnerabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Don Coppersmith

    1997-01-01

    .    We show how to find sufficiently small integer solutions to a polynomial in a single variable modulo N, and to a polynomial in two variables over the integers. The methods sometimes extend to more variables. As applications:\\u000a RSA encryption with exponent 3 is vulnerable if the opponent knows two-thirds of the message, or if two messages agree over

  8. Managing vulnerabilities of information systems to security incidents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fariborz Farahmand; Shamkant B. Navathe; Philip H. Enslow Jr.; Gunter P. Sharp

    2003-01-01

    Information security-conscious managers of organizations have the responsibility to advise their senior management of the level of risks faced by the information systems. This requires managers to conduct vulnerability assessment as the first step of a risk analysis approach. However, a lack of real world data classification of security threats and develops a three-axis view of the threat space. It

  9. SPECIAL ISSUE PAPER Vulnerabilities of underwater acoustic networks to

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Shengli

    enemy radio frequencies. Various solutions to jamming attacks in WSNs have been suggested from channelSPECIAL ISSUE PAPER Vulnerabilities of underwater acoustic networks to denial-of-service jamming-of-service jamming attacks on UANs using real-world field tests. We develop our own jammer hardware and signals

  10. Vulnerabilities of Cognitive Radio MAC Protocols and Countermeasures

    E-print Network

    Lazos, Loukas

    radio networks, MAC, misbe- havior, jamming, denial-of-service. I. INTRODUCTION With the proliferationVulnerabilities of Cognitive Radio MAC Protocols and Countermeasures Yan Zhang and Loukas Lazos@email.arizona.edu, llazos@ece.arizona.edu Abstract--Cognitive Radio (CR) is a promising technology for opportunistically

  11. Reconciling supply chain vulnerability, risk and supply chain management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Peck

    2006-01-01

    Supply chain vulnerability has become a fashionable area of management research. The purpose of this paper is to provide a critique of the extant canon and to review of the positioning of research in the field, together with literature drawn from several relevant and overlapping fields of research and practice. The aim is to foster a more explicit understanding of

  12. Perceived vulnerability, relapse risk and coping in schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irmgard Thurm; Heinz Haefner

    1987-01-01

    Summary Patients suffering from schizophrenia are faced with numerous adaptational demands as a consequence of their illness. Both directly perceived vulnerability and knowledge about precipitating factors deducted from the experience of recurrent relapses were assessed in a group of chronic schizophrenics. In addition, self-administered coping with symptoms and attempts to prevent relapses were explored. Most patients were aware of both

  13. Tsunami Mortality Estimates and Vulnerability Mapping in Aceh, Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shannon Doocy; Yuri Gorokhovich; Gilbert Burnham; Deborah Balk; Courtland Robinson

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We aimed to quantify tsunami mortality and compare approaches to mortality assessment in the emergency context in Aceh, Indonesia, where the impact of the 2004 tsunami was greatest. Methods. Mortality was estimated using geographic information systems-based vulnerability models and demographic methods from surveys of tsunami- displaced populations. Results. Tsunami mortality in Aceh as estimated by demographic models was 131

  14. Development of hazard-compatible building fragility and vulnerability models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karaca, E.; Luco, N.

    2008-01-01

    We present a methodology for transforming the structural and non-structural fragility functions in HAZUS into a format that is compatible with conventional seismic hazard analysis information. The methodology makes use of the building capacity (or pushover) curves and related building parameters provided in HAZUS. Instead of the capacity spectrum method applied in HAZUS, building response is estimated by inelastic response history analysis of corresponding single-degree-of-freedom systems under a large number of earthquake records. Statistics of the building response are used with the damage state definitions from HAZUS to derive fragility models conditioned on spectral acceleration values. Using the developed fragility models for structural and nonstructural building components, with corresponding damage state loss ratios from HAZUS, we also derive building vulnerability models relating spectral acceleration to repair costs. Whereas in HAZUS the structural and nonstructural damage states are treated as if they are independent, our vulnerability models are derived assuming "complete" nonstructural damage whenever the structural damage state is complete. We show the effects of considering this dependence on the final vulnerability models. The use of spectral acceleration (at selected vibration periods) as the ground motion intensity parameter, coupled with the careful treatment of uncertainty, makes the new fragility and vulnerability models compatible with conventional seismic hazard curves and hence useful for extensions to probabilistic damage and loss assessment.

  15. NV: Nessus Vulnerability Visualization for the Web Lane Harrison

    E-print Network

    Kaiser, Gail E.

    Ridge TN, USA harrisonlt@ornl.gov Riley Spahn Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge TN, USA spahnrb1@ornl.gov Mike Iannacone Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge TN, USA iannaconemd@ornl.gov Evan National Laboratory Oak Ridge TN, USA jgoodall@ornl.gov ABSTRACT Network vulnerability is a critical

  16. Cybersecurity of SCADA Systems: Vulnerability assessment and mitigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen-Ching Liu; Chee-Wooi Ten; Manimaran Govindarasu

    2009-01-01

    In this panel presentation, we will discuss our proposed framework for cyber security vulnerability assessment and mitigation based on our recent work [1-3]. We will demonstrate how a probabilistic cyber security index can be calculated for a cyber-power system. A risk measure is determined using an integrated SCADA model and the steady state power flow program. Future research needs in

  17. Vulnerability Assessment of Cybersecurity for SCADA Systems Using Attack Trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chee-Wooi Ten; Chen-Ching Liu; Manimaran Govindarasu

    2007-01-01

    By penetrating the SCADA system, an intruder may remotely operate a power system using supervisory control privileges. Hence, cybersecurity has been recognized as a major threat due to the potential intrusion to the online system. This paper proposes a methodology to evaluate the cybersecurity vulnerability using attack trees. The attack tree formulation based on power system control networks is used

  18. Early Markers of Vulnerable Language Skill Development in Galactosaemia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Fiona M.; Coman, David J.; Syrmis, Maryanne

    2014-01-01

    There are no known biomedical or genetic markers to identify which infants with galactosaemia (GAL) are most at risk of poor language skill development, yet pre-linguistic communicative "red flag" behaviours are recognised as early identifiers of heightened vulnerability to impaired language development. We report on pre-linguistic…

  19. Early Detection Monitoring for Vulnerable Great Lakes Coastal Ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes harbors/embayments are vulnerable to introduction of aquatic invasive species. Monitoring is needed to inform on new introductions, as well as to track success of prevention programs intended to limit spread. We have completed a pilot field case study in the Duluth-...

  20. Exploiting MMS Vulnerabilities to Stealthily Exhaust Mobile Phone's Battery

    E-print Network

    Chen, Hao

    Exploiting MMS Vulnerabilities to Stealthily Exhaust Mobile Phone's Battery Radmilo Racic' battery power up to 22 times faster and therefore could render these devices useless before the end of business hours. This attack targets a unique resource bot- tleneck in mobile devices (the battery power

  1. Exploiting MMS Vulnerabilities to Stealthily Exhaust Mobile Phone's Battery

    E-print Network

    Chen, Hao

    Exploiting MMS Vulnerabilities to Stealthily Exhaust Mobile Phone's Battery Radmilo Racic' battery power up to 22 times faster and therefore could render these devices useless before the end of business hours. This attack targets a unique resource bot­ tleneck in mobile devices (the battery power

  2. Climate Change: Conflict, Security and Vulnerability Professor of Climate Change

    E-print Network

    Hulme, Mike

    Climate Change: Conflict, Security and Vulnerability Mike Hulme Professor of Climate Change Science, Society and Sustainability Group School of Environmental Sciences Rethinking Climate Change, Conflict security" "increase risk of conflicts among and within nations" #12;· from `climatic change' to `climate-change

  3. VIRAL TRANSPORT AND FATE MODELS FOR GROUND WATER VULNERABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this project is to develop a model to assess the vulnerability of public water systems to pathogens. It is focused on the sources, fate and transport of viruses in aquifer systems in specific hydrologic settings. It's intended to be used by resource managers or r...

  4. A comparison of data-driven groundwater vulnerability assessment methods.

    PubMed

    Sorichetta, Alessandro; Ballabio, Cristiano; Masetti, Marco; Robinson, Gilpin R; Sterlacchini, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Increasing availability of geo-environmental data has promoted the use of statistical methods to assess groundwater vulnerability. Nitrate is a widespread anthropogenic contaminant in groundwater and its occurrence can be used to identify aquifer settings vulnerable to contamination. In this study, multivariate Weights of Evidence (WofE) and Logistic Regression (LR) methods, where the response variable is binary, were used to evaluate the role and importance of a number of explanatory variables associated with nitrate sources and occurrence in groundwater in the Milan District (central part of the Po Plain, Italy). The results of these models have been used to map the spatial variation of groundwater vulnerability to nitrate in the region, and we compare the similarities and differences of their spatial patterns and associated explanatory variables. We modify the standard WofE method used in previous groundwater vulnerability studies to a form analogous to that used in LR; this provides a framework to compare the results of both models and reduces the effect of sampling bias on the results of the standard WofE model. In addition, a nonlinear Generalized Additive Model has been used to extend the LR analysis. Both approaches improved discrimination of the standard WofE and LR models, as measured by the c-statistic. Groundwater vulnerability probability outputs, based on rank-order classification of the respective model results, were similar in spatial patterns and identified similar strong explanatory variables associated with nitrate source (population density as a proxy for sewage systems and septic sources) and nitrate occurrence (groundwater depth). PMID:23289724

  5. Patterns of Freshwater Species Richness, Endemism, and Vulnerability in California

    PubMed Central

    Furnish, Joseph; Gardali, Thomas; Grantham, Ted; Katz, Jacob V. E.; Kupferberg, Sarah; McIntyre, Patrick; Moyle, Peter B.; Ode, Peter R.; Peek, Ryan; Quiñones, Rebecca M.; Rehn, Andrew C.; Santos, Nick; Schoenig, Steve; Serpa, Larry; Shedd, Jackson D.; Slusark, Joe; Viers, Joshua H.; Wright, Amber; Morrison, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    The ranges and abundances of species that depend on freshwater habitats are declining worldwide. Efforts to counteract those trends are often hampered by a lack of information about species distribution and conservation status and are often strongly biased toward a few well-studied groups. We identified the 3,906 vascular plants, macroinvertebrates, and vertebrates native to California, USA, that depend on fresh water for at least one stage of their life history. We evaluated the conservation status for these taxa using existing government and non-governmental organization assessments (e.g., endangered species act, NatureServe), created a spatial database of locality observations or distribution information from ~400 data sources, and mapped patterns of richness, endemism, and vulnerability. Although nearly half of all taxa with conservation status (n = 1,939) are vulnerable to extinction, only 114 (6%) of those vulnerable taxa have a legal mandate for protection in the form of formal inclusion on a state or federal endangered species list. Endemic taxa are at greater risk than non-endemics, with 90% of the 927 endemic taxa vulnerable to extinction. Records with spatial data were available for a total of 2,276 species (61%). The patterns of species richness differ depending on the taxonomic group analyzed, but are similar across taxonomic level. No particular taxonomic group represents an umbrella for all species, but hotspots of high richness for listed species cover 40% of the hotspots for all other species and 58% of the hotspots for vulnerable freshwater species. By mapping freshwater species hotspots we show locations that represent the top priority for conservation action in the state. This study identifies opportunities to fill gaps in the evaluation of conservation status for freshwater taxa in California, to address the lack of occurrence information for nearly 40% of freshwater taxa and nearly 40% of watersheds in the state, and to implement adequate protections for freshwater taxa where they are currently lacking. PMID:26147215

  6. Systematic identification of molecular subtype-selective vulnerabilities in non-small-cell lung cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Published on Office of Cancer Genomics (https://ocg.cancer.gov) Home > Systematic identification of molecular subtype-selective vulnerabilities in non-small-cell lung cancer Systematic identification of molecular subtype-selective vulnerabilities in

  7. Systematic identification of molecular subtype-selective vulnerabilities in non-small-cell lung cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Published on Office of Cancer Genomics (http://ocg.cancer.gov) Home > Systematic identification of molecular subtype-selective vulnerabilities in non-small-cell lung cancer Systematic identification of molecular subtype-selective vulnerabilities in non-small-cell

  8. CloudSafe: Securing Data Processing within Vulnerable Virtualization Environments in the Cloud

    E-print Network

    Yao, Danfeng "Daphne'

    CloudSafe: Securing Data Processing within Vulnerable Virtualization Environments in the Cloud large-scale cloud applications. Index Terms--cloud security, outsourced computation, side- channel, newly discovered vulnerabilities in cloud virtualization envi- ronment have threatened the security

  9. State Vulnerability to Disaster: a BioQUEST Summer Workshop Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stacey Kiser (Lane Community College; Biology)

    2010-06-18

    Using the paper Katrina and Vulnerability: the Geography of Stress (Curtis, Mills, Leitner, 2010), we explored vulnerability using multiple stress factors in order to make an assessment of the impact of disaster.

  10. MINIMIZING THE VULNERABILITY OF WATER SUPPLIES TO NATURAL AND TERRORIST THREATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is increasing concern that drinking water utilities may be vulnerable to attacks by terrorists. In the US the President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection has concluded the US drinking water utilities are vulnerable to physical, cyber and biological terroris...

  11. Enhanced vulnerability assessment in karst areas by combining mapping with modeling approaches.

    PubMed

    Butscher, Christoph; Huggenberger, Peter

    2009-01-15

    The objective of this work is to facilitate a sustainable regional planning of water resources in karst areas by providing a conceptual framework for an integrative vulnerability assessment. A combined mapping and modeling approach is proposed, taking into account both spatial and temporal aspects of karst groundwater vulnerability. The conceptual framework comprises the delineation of recharge areas, vulnerability mapping, numerical flow and transport modeling and the integration of information into a combined vulnerability map and time series. The approach is illustrated at a field site in northwest Switzerland (Gempen plateau). The results show that the combination of vulnerability mapping and numerical modeling allows the vulnerability distribution, both in the recharge and discharge areas, to be identified, and at the same time, the time dependence of karst groundwater vulnerability to be assessed. The combined vulnerability map and time series provide a quantitative basis for drinking water management and for regional planning. PMID:18962828

  12. Agricultural Livelihoods and Climate Change: Employing the Livelihood Vulnerability Index in Bluefields, Jamaica 

    E-print Network

    Fath, Kevin

    2014-08-20

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine agricultural livelihood vulnerability to climate change in Bluefields, Westmoreland, Jamaica based on the Livelihoods Vulnerability Index (LVI). Additionally, this study sought to examine...

  13. TO APPEAR IN IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS 1 Vulnerability Assessment of Cybersecurity for

    E-print Network

    Manimaran, Govindarasu

    TO APPEAR IN IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS 1 Vulnerability Assessment of Cybersecurity Govindarasu, Member, IEEE Abstract--Vulnerability assessment is a requirement of NERC's cybersecurity within the substation networks. Countermeasures are identified for improvement of the cybersecurity

  14. Agricultural Livelihoods and Climate Change: Employing the Livelihood Vulnerability Index in Bluefields, Jamaica

    E-print Network

    Fath, Kevin

    2014-08-20

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine agricultural livelihood vulnerability to climate change in Bluefields, Westmoreland, Jamaica based on the Livelihoods Vulnerability Index (LVI). Additionally, this study sought to examine...

  15. Accounting for the Impact of Impermeable Soil Layers on Pesticide Runoff and Leaching in a Landscape Vulnerability Model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A regional-scale model that estimates landscape vulnerability of pesticide leaching and runoff (solution and particle adsorbed) underestimated runoff vulnerability and overestimated leaching vulnerability compared to measured data when applied to a gently rolling landscape in northeast Missouri. Man...

  16. What if quality of damage data is poor: an Entity-Vulnerability approach for flood vulnerability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naso, Susanna; Chen, Albert S.; Djordjevi?, Slobodan; Aronica, Giuseppe T.

    2015-04-01

    The classical approach to flood defence, aimed at reducing the probability of flooding through hard defences, has been substituted by flood risk management approach which accepts the idea of coping with floods and aims at reducing not only the probability of flooding, but also the consequences. In this view, the concept of vulnerability becomes central, such as the (non-structural) measures for its increment. On 22 November 2011, an exceptional rainstorm hit the Longano catchment (North-East part of Sicily, Italy) producing local heavy rainfall, mud-debris flow and flash flooding. The flash flood involved property, buildings, roads and more than 100 commercial estates have suffered severe damages. Some days after the event, the municipality provided people forms to describe the damages that occurred on their properties. Unfortunately, the lack of common guidelines in compiling them, their coarseness and the impossibility to have monetary information on them (such us damage data from previous events), did not allow the implementation of a detailed damage analysis. What we're developing in this work is a method for a qualitative evaluation of the consequences of floods, based on vulnerability curves for structures and classes of entities at risk. The difficulty in deriving the vulnerability curves for different building typologies, as function of the water depth, was due to the lack of quantitative information both on damages caused by previous events and on buildings' value. To solve the problem we submitted a questionnaire to a team of experts asking for an estimation of building damages to different hypothetical inundation depths. What we wanted to obtain was deriving the vulnerability data from technicians' experience, believing in the fundamental importance of the collaboration among research and professional engineers. Through the elaboration and the synthesis of the experts' estimations we derived the vulnerability curves for different building typologies and for inundations of both short and long duration. At the same time we defined the classes of the variable Entity in function of both buildings' asset value and their importance for society. Once the buildings of different typologies are grouped, a GIS-based tool (using hazard information obtained from hydraulic modelling, building parcels, vulnerability curves and entity classes) is used to collocate each element at risk inside an Entity-Vulnerability matrix. The construction of a E-V matrix allow both to understand the actual situation of flood-prone area (and the possible consequences of a flood event) and to study the effectiveness of non-structural measures, just studying how their implementation modifies the distribution of elements at risk inside it. The proposed approach can be useful for authorities responsible for development and periodical review of adaptive flood risk management plans.

  17. VuWiki: An Ontology-Based Semantic Wiki for Vulnerability Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazai, Bijan; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Büscher, Christian; Wegner, Antje

    2014-05-01

    The concept of vulnerability, as well as its implementation in vulnerability assessments, is used in various disciplines and contexts ranging from disaster management and reduction to ecology, public health or climate change and adaptation, and a corresponding multitude of ideas about how to conceptualize and measure vulnerability exists. Three decades of research in vulnerability have generated a complex and growing body of knowledge that challenges newcomers, practitioners and even experienced researchers. To provide a structured representation of the knowledge field "vulnerability assessment", we have set up an ontology-based semantic wiki for reviewing and representing vulnerability assessments: VuWiki, www.vuwiki.org. Based on a survey of 55 vulnerability assessment studies, we first developed an ontology as an explicit reference system for describing vulnerability assessments. We developed the ontology in a theoretically controlled manner based on general systems theory and guided by principles for ontology development in the field of earth and environment (Raskin and Pan 2005). Four key questions form the first level "branches" or categories of the developed ontology: (1) Vulnerability of what? (2) Vulnerability to what? (3) What reference framework was used in the vulnerability assessment?, and (4) What methodological approach was used in the vulnerability assessment? These questions correspond to the basic, abstract structure of the knowledge domain of vulnerability assessments and have been deduced from theories and concepts of various disciplines. The ontology was then implemented in a semantic wiki which allows for the classification and annotation of vulnerability assessments. As a semantic wiki, VuWiki does not aim at "synthesizing" a holistic and overarching model of vulnerability. Instead, it provides both scientists and practitioners with a uniform ontology as a reference system and offers easy and structured access to the knowledge field of vulnerability assessments with the possibility for any user to retrieve assessments using specific research criteria. Furthermore, Vuwiki can serve as a collaborative knowledge platform that allows for the active participation of those generating and using the knowledge represented in the wiki.

  18. A Generic Calculation Model for Aircraft Single-hit Vulnerability Assessment Based on Equivalent Target

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yang PEI; Bi-feng SONG; Qing HAN

    2006-01-01

    Aircraft single-hit vulnerability\\/survivability is usually expressed as the probability of kill or the vulnerable area in case of being given a random threat (e.g. a fragment) hit on the aircraft. In this paper, introducing the “equivalent target method” in lethality field into the aircraft vulnerability assessment, a generic vulnerability calculation model is proposed. In order for a good representation of

  19. Current trends and future challenges in groundwater vulnerability assessment using overlay and index methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Gogu; A. Dassargues

    2000-01-01

    The concept of groundwater vulnerability is a useful tool for environmental planning and decision-making. Many different\\u000a methods have been developed for assessing this vulnerability. Hydrogeologists have failed to reach a consensus concerning\\u000a the definitions of and reference terms for groundwater vulnerability assessment. Therefore, a review of vulnerability assessment\\u000a and mapping methods providing a new classification system is necessary. This is

  20. Seasonal Variation in the Vulnerability Discovery Process HyunChul Joh and Yashwant K. Malaiya

    E-print Network

    Malaiya, Yashwant K.

    Seasonal Variation in the Vulnerability Discovery Process HyunChul Joh and Yashwant K. Malaiya for handling vulnerabilities discovered. Seasonal behaviors of the vulnerability discovery process for a multi operating systems, web servers and web browsers suggests presence of a seasonal behavior

  1. On deriving unknown vulnerabilities from zero-day polymorphic and metamorphic worm exploits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jedidiah R. Crandall; Zhendong Su; Shyhtsun Felix Wu; Frederic T. Chong

    2005-01-01

    Vulnerabilities that allow worms to hijack the control flow of each host that they spread to are typically discovered months before the worm outbreak, but are also typically discovered by third party researchers. A determined attacker could discover vulnerabilities as easily and create zero-day worms for vulnerabilities unknown to network defenses. It is important for an analysis tool to be

  2. VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES SUBMITTED TO OUT-OF-PLANE LOADINGS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES SUBMITTED TO OUT-OF-PLANE LOADINGS vulnerability assessment of RC (reinforced concrete) structures loaded by pressure distributions coming from and the vulnerability of the exposed ele- ments at risk have to be describe. Therefore, the mechanical response

  3. Response surfaces of vulnerability to climate change: the Colorado River Basin, the High Plains, and California

    E-print Network

    , it becomes ever more important to assess the vulnerability of current and future water supplies to shortage of supply and demand into a probabilistic assessment of the vulnerability of the entire US water supplyResponse surfaces of vulnerability to climate change: the Colorado River Basin, the High Plains

  4. Columbia University, EE Technical Report #2008-08-26, Aug. 2008 Assessing the Vulnerability of

    E-print Network

    Zussman, Gil

    Columbia University, EE Technical Report #2008-08-26, Aug. 2008 Assessing the Vulnerability of such events on the network's connectivity. In this paper, we focus on assessing the vulnerability MIT Cambridge, MA 02139 modiano@mit.edu Abstract--Communication networks are vulnerable to natural

  5. Reducing Vulnerability through Microfinance: Assessing the Impact of Self Help Groups In India

    E-print Network

    Lansky, Joshua

    1 Reducing Vulnerability through Microfinance: Assessing the Impact of Self Help Groups In India in reducing vulnerability. Using theSHG rural household survey data collected in 2003, we examine the poverty and vulnerability profiles of SHG and non-SHG rural, low-income household members. Our construction

  6. Towards the Assessment of Distributed Vulnerabilities in Autonomic Networks and Systems

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Towards the Assessment of Distributed Vulnerabilities in Autonomic Networks and Systems Mart. In this work, we present a novel approach for describing and assessing distributed vulner- abilities a framework for assessing dis- tributed vulnerabilities in autonomic environments that exploits the knowledge

  7. A DYNAMIC VULNERABILITY MAP TO ASSESS THE RISK OF ROAD NETWORK TRAFFIC UTILIZATION

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A DYNAMIC VULNERABILITY MAP TO ASSESS THE RISK OF ROAD NETWORK TRAFFIC UTILIZATION Michel Nabaa1. In the literature, we construct vulnerability maps to help decision makers assess the risk. Such approaches remain static and do take into account the population displacement in the estimation of the vulnerability. We

  8. The Effect of Input Data on Program Vulnerability Vilas Sridharan and David R. Kaeli

    E-print Network

    Kaeli, David R.

    architecture and software engineering communities to participate in the vulnerability assessment process. By defining the effects of a fault on the ISA, the vulnerability stack allows a software architect to assess1 The Effect of Input Data on Program Vulnerability Vilas Sridharan and David R. Kaeli Department

  9. Vulnerability of national economies to the impacts of climate change on fisheries

    E-print Network

    Reynolds, John D.

    1S5 Canada Introduction 174 Methods 175 Spatial scale of climate vulnerability assessment 175Vulnerability of national economies to the impacts of climate change on fisheries Edward H. Allison The three components of vulnerability 175 Exposure 176 Abstract Anthropogenic global warming has

  10. Seismic vulnerability analysis of moderate seismicity areas using in situ experimental

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of their behaviour. The aim of this work is to use this modal information to help the vulnerability assessment the vulnerability assessment. Moreover, there is a need in earthquake engineering methods to better predictSeismic vulnerability analysis of moderate seismicity areas using in situ experimental techniques

  11. Sensitivity analysis for the EPIK method of vulnerability assessment in a small karstic aquifer, southern Belgium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Radu Constantin Gogu; Alain Dassargues

    2000-01-01

    Applying the EPIK parametric method, a vulnerability assessment has been made for a small karstic groundwater system in southern Belgium. The aquifer is a karstified limestone of Devonian age. A map of intrinsic vulnerability of the aquifer and of the local water-supply system shows three vulnerability areas. A parameter-balance study and a sensitivity analysis were performed to evaluate the influence

  12. Assessing vulnerabilities to the effects of global change: an eight step approach1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dagmar Schröter; Colin Polsky; Anthony G. Patt; Stuart Gaffin; Marybeth Long Martello; Rob Neff; Alex Pulsipher; Henrik Selin

    2005-01-01

    In the recent years, global environmental change research has seen increased attention to the concept of vulnerability. There have been a growing number of vulnerability assessments, but relatively little discussion on appropriate and common methods. Here we propose a methodology to guide vulnerability assessments of coupled human-environment systems towards a common objective: informing the decision-making of specific stakeholders about options

  13. Assessing vulnerabilities to the effects of global change: an eight step approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dagmar Schröter; Colin Polsky; Anthony G. Patt

    2005-01-01

    In the recent years, global environmental change research has seen increased attention to the concept of vulnerability. There have been a growing number of vulnerability assessments, but relatively little discussion on appropriate and common methods. Here we propose a method to guide vulnerability assessments of coupled human–environment systems toward a common objective: informing the decision-making of specific stakeholders about options

  14. Relationship between Attack Surface and Vulnerability Density: A Case Study on Apache HTTP Server

    E-print Network

    Malaiya, Yashwant K.

    Relationship between Attack Surface and Vulnerability Density: A Case Study on Apache HTTP Server 1 software security metrics. Among these are attack surface and vulnerability density. The attack surface the relationship between the attack surface and vulnerability density metrics. For this examination, the source

  15. Vulnerability of a killer whale social network to disease outbreaks Paulo R. Guimares, Jr.,1,

    E-print Network

    Baird, Robin W.

    Vulnerability of a killer whale social network to disease outbreaks Paulo R. Guimarães, Jr.,1 population of mammal-eating killer whales is vulnerable to disease outbreaks. This feature was found organization of the endangered mammal- eating killer whales 12 and infer their vulnerability to dis- ease

  16. Social vulnerability to climate change in primary producers: A typology approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adaptation in agro-ecological systems will be important for moderating the impacts of climate change. Vulnerability assessments provide the basis for developing strategies to reduce social vulnerability and plan for climate adaptation. Primary industries have been identified as the most vulnerable i...

  17. Climate Change Vulnerability of Native and Alien Freshwater Fishes of California: A Systematic Assessment

    E-print Network

    Climate Change Vulnerability of Native and Alien Freshwater Fishes of California: A Systematic and climate change vulnerability scores were derived for 121 native and 43 alien fish species. The two scores baseline and greater climate change vulnerability than did alien species. Fifty percent of California

  18. A Framework for Understanding Vulnerabilities in Firewalls Using a Dataflow Model of Firewall Internals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Frantzen; Florian Kerschbaum; E. Eugene Schultz; Sonia Fahmy

    2001-01-01

    Vulnerabilities in vendor as well as freeware implementations of firewalls continue to emerge at a rapid pace. Each vulnerability superficially appears to be the result of something such as a coding flaw in one case, or a configuration weakness in another. Given the large number of firewall vulnerabilities that have surfaced in recent years, it is important to develop a

  19. Multi-vulnerability assessment for flash flood risk management in East Attica, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagiorgos, Konstantinos; Thaler, Thomas; Hübl, Johannes; Maris, Fotios; Mallinis, Giorgos; Fuchs, Sven

    2015-04-01

    Vulnerability assessment implies a quantitative evaluation of the individual vulnerability components such as elements at risk, their physical exposure and social characteristics. Current approaches in vulnerability research are driven by a divide between social scientists who tend to view vulnerability as representing a set of socio-economic factors, and scientists who view vulnerability in terms of the degree of loss to an element at risk. To close this gap, a multi-dimensional vulnerability analysis has been undertaken focusing on flash flood hazards in Greece. To represent physical vulnerability, an empirical relation between the process intensity and the degree of loss was established. With respect to social vulnerability, an assessment was undertaken by means of empirical data collection based on a door-to-door survey. In general, both physical and social vulnerability was comparable low, which is interpreted as a result from (a) specific building regulations in Greece as well as general design principles leading to less structural susceptibility of elements at risk exposed, and (b) a relatively low economic loss leading to less social vulnerability of citizens exposed. It is shown that a combination of different perspectives of vulnerability will lead to a better understanding of perceptions of actors regarding their vulnerabilities and capacities.

  20. Vulnerable Children, Communities and Schools: Lessons from Three HIV/AIDS Affected Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Nancy; O'Gara, Chloe

    2007-01-01

    The growing number of children made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS threatens the achievement of Education for All (EFA) and Millennium Development goals. Policy recommendations assign schools key roles in meeting the needs of vulnerable children, but there is a dearth of evidence about how vulnerable children and schools interact in AIDS affected…

  1. Characterization of groundwater vulnerability to fulfill requirements of the water framework directive of the European Union

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans-Jürgen Voigt; Thomas Heinkele; Christoph Jahnke; Rüdiger Wolter

    2004-01-01

    Aquifer vulnerability assessment is an important basis in order to fulfill demands of the water framework directive of the European Union. For the determination of the groundwater vulnerability different methods can be used. In this paper, the intrinsic vulnerability of groundwater resources is defined as the worst case of a pollution input in the unsaturated zone without interaction or decay

  2. Karst groundwater vulnerability mapping: application of a new method in the Swabian Alb, Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nico Goldscheider

    2005-01-01

    Groundwater from karst aquifers is an important drinking water resource, which is, however, particularly vulnerable to contamination. Karst aquifers consequently need special protection. This paper discusses the concept of groundwater vulnerability mapping and the special characteristics of karst aquifers that are relevant in this context. On this basis, a new method of groundwater vulnerability mapping is proposed—the PI method. It

  3. Probabilistic Exposure Risk Assessment with Advective-Dispersive Well Vulnerability Criteria

    E-print Network

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    delineation, groundwater protection, well vulnerability, risk assessment, uncertainty, Bayesian GLUE 2 #12;1 2Probabilistic Exposure Risk Assessment with Advective-Dispersive Well Vulnerability Criteria Rainer vulnerability criteria by Frind et al. [1] into a framework of probabilistic risk assessment. These criteria

  4. Integrating your information security vulnerability management capabilities through industry standards (CVE&OVAL)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Martin

    2003-01-01

    There are important changes to the cyber-security industry, being fostered by the Common Vulnerability Exposures (CVE®) and Open Vulnerability Assessment Language (OVAL™) Initiatives, a pair of international, community-based effort amongst industry, government, and academia. These changes will transform the way your enterprise deals with vulnerabilities in the commercial and open source components of your enterprise infrastructure and mission systems. With

  5. Theory and Practice in Assessing Vulnerability to Climate Change andFacilitating Adaptation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Kelly; W. N. Adger

    2000-01-01

    We discuss approaches to the assessment of vulnerability to climatevariability and change andattempt to clarify the relationship between the concepts of vulnerability andadaptation. In searchof a robust, policy-relevant framework, we define vulnerability in terms ofthe capacity ofindividuals and social groups to respond to, that is, to cope with, recoverfrom or adapt to, anyexternal stress placed on their livelihoods and well-being.

  6. Hippocampal developmental vulnerability to methylmercury extends into prepubescence

    PubMed Central

    Obiorah, Maryann; McCandlish, Elizabeth; Buckley, Brian; DiCicco-Bloom, Emanuel

    2015-01-01

    The developing brain is sensitive to environmental toxicants such as methylmercury (MeHg), to which humans are exposed via contaminated seafood. Prenatal exposure in children is associated with learning, memory and IQ deficits, which can result from hippocampal dysfunction. To explore underlying mechanisms, we have used the postnatal day (P7) rat to model the third trimester of human gestation. We previously showed that a single low exposure (0.6 ?g/gbw) that approaches human exposure reduced hippocampal neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) 24 h later, producing later proliferation and memory deficits in adolescence. Yet, the vulnerable stem cell population and period of developmental vulnerability remain undefined. In this study, we find that P7 exposure of stem cells has long-term consequences for adolescent neurogenesis. It reduced the number of mitotic S-phase cells (BrdU), especially those in the highly proliferative Tbr2+ population, and immature neurons (Doublecortin) in adolescence, suggesting partial depletion of the later stem cell pool. To define developmental vulnerability to MeHg in prepubescent (P14) and adolescent (P21) rats, we examined acute 24 h effects of MeHg exposure on mitosis and apoptosis. We found that low exposure did not adversely impact neurogenesis at either age, but that a higher exposure (5 ?g/gbw) at P14 reduced the total number of neural stem cells (Sox2+) by 23% and BrdU+ cells by 26% in the DG hilus, suggesting that vulnerability diminishes with age. To determine whether these effects reflect changes in MeHg transfer across the blood brain barrier (BBB), we assessed Hg content in the hippocampus after peripheral injection and found that similar levels (~800 ng/gm) were obtained at 24 h at both P14 and P21, declining in parallel, suggesting that changes in vulnerability depend more on local tissue and cellular mechanisms. Together, we show that MeHg vulnerability declines with age, and that early exposure impairs later neurogenesis in older juveniles.

  7. Vulnerability assessment at a national level in Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsereteli, N.; Arabidze, V.; Varazanashvili, O.; Gugeshashvili, T.

    2012-04-01

    Vulnerability assessment at a national level in Georgia Nino Tsereteli, Vakhtang Arabidze, Otar Varazanashvili, Tengiz Gugeshashvili The risk always exists when cities are built on. Population growth in cities and urbanization in natural hazard-prone zones leads to infrastructure expansion. The goal of the society is to construct natural hazards resistant infrastructure and minimize the expected losses. This is a complicated task as there is always knowledge deficiency on real seismic hazard and vulnerability. Assessment of vulnerability is vital in risk analysis, as vulnerability is defined in many different ways. Work presented here mostly deals with assessment of infrastructure's and population vulnerability at national level in Georgia. This work was initiated by NATO SFP project "seismic Hazard and Risk Assessment for Southern Caucasus - Eastern Turkey Energy Corridors" and the two work packages WP4 (seismic risk) and WP5 (city scenarios) of risk module of EMME (Earthquake Model of the Middle East Region) project. First step was creation databases (inventory) of elements at risk in GIS. Element at risk were the buildings, population, pipelines. The inventories was studied and Created in GIS for the following categories: Building material, number of stories, number of entrances, condition of building, building period. For pipelines pipe tipe (continous or segmented), material, pipe diameter. Very important is to estimate the initial cost of building for assessment of economic losses. From this purpose the attempt was done and the algorithm of this estimation were prepared taking into account obtained the inventory. Build quality, reliability and durability are of special importance to corresponding state agencies and include different aesthetic, engineering, practical, social, technological and economical aspects. The necessity that all of these aspects satisfy existing normative requirements becomes evident as the building and structures come into exploitation. The long term usage of building is very complex. It relates to the reliability and durability of buildings. The long term usage and durability of a building is determined by the concept of depreciation. Depreciation of an entire building is calculated by summing the products of individual construction unit' depreciation rates and the corresponding value of these units within the building. This method of calculation is based on an assumption that depreciation is proportional to the building's (constructions) useful life. We used this methodology to create a matrix, which provides a way to evaluate the depreciation rates of buildings with different type and construction period and to determine their corresponding value. Finely some attempt was done to investigate how these structures were damaged by various hazards. In other words vulnerability curves were constrained on the basis on the relation between various hazard intensities and damage data.

  8. The spatial dispersion of atrial refractoriness and atrial fibrillation vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Roithinger, F X; Karch, M R; Steiner, P R; SippensGroenewegen, A; Lesh, M D

    1999-12-01

    The local dispersion of conduction and refractoriness has been considered essential for induction of atrial arrhythmias. This study sought to determine whether a difference of refractoriness and vulnerability for induction of atrial fibrillation between trabeculated and smooth as well as high and low right atrium may contribute to initiation of atrial fibrillation in dogs. In 14 healthy mongrel dogs weighing 22.4 +/- 1 kg, closed-chest endocardial programmed stimulation was performed from four distinct right atrial sites. Atrial refractory periods and vulnerability for induction of atrial fibrillation or premature atrial complexes were determined during a basic cycle length of 400 and 300 ms and an increasing pacing current strength. For a pacing cycle length of 300 ms, atrial refractory periods were longer on the smooth, as compared to the trabeculated right atrium (102 +/- 25 vs. 97 +/- 17 ms, p < 0.05), whereas for a pacing cycle length of 400 ms, there was no significant difference. The duration of the vulnerability zone for induction of atrial fibrillation was longer on the smooth right atrium, for a cycle length of both 400 ms (40 +/- 30 vs. 31 +/- 22 ms; p < 0.05) and 300 ms (33 +/- 25 vs. 23 +/- 21 ms; p < 0. 01). When comparing high and low right atrium, refractory periods were longer on the the low right atrium, for a cycle length of both 400 ms (111 +/- 23 vs. 94 +/- 24 ms; p < 0.01) and 300 ms (104 +/- 20 vs. 96 +/- 23 ms; p < 0.01). For a pacing cycle length of 300 ms, the duration of the atrial fibrillation vulnerability zone was longer for the high, as compared to the low right atrium (34 +/- 22 vs. 22 +/- 22, p < 0.01). Seven dogs with easily inducible episodes of atrial fibrillation demonstrated significantly shorter refractory periods as compared to 7 non-vulnerable dogs, regardless of pacing site and current strength. In conclusion, significant differences in refractoriness and vulnerability for induction of atrial fibrillation can be observed in the area of the crista terminalis in healthy dogs. Thus, local anatomic factors may play a role in the initiation of atrial fibrillation. PMID:10525245

  9. Inequalities in morbidity and consulting behaviour for socially vulnerable groups.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Deborah; Mead, Nicola; Campbell, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The focus of health policy on improving health and reducing inequality for socially vulnerable groups. AIM: To examine self-report of condition-specific morbidity and consultation with the general practitioner (GP) for socially vulnerable groups. DESIGN OF STUDY: Cross-sectional survey using a modified version of the General Practitioner Assessment Survey (GPAS). SETTING: Ten general practices in each of six health authorities. METHOD: A random sample of 200 patients was selected from each practice. The questionnaire elicited information about experience of specific acute and chronic conditions and whether the GP had been consulted. Four sub-samples were selected from the 4493 registered patients who responded to the self-completion questionnaire. They were lone mothers (n = 160), elderly living alone (n = 417), the unemployed (n = 100), and members of ethnic minority groups (n = 316). RESULTS: Logistic regression analyses showed that, after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, and housing tenure, only lone motherhood and ethnic minority group status were consistently and independently associated with poorer health outcomes. Lone motherhood was associated with a higher likelihood of anxiety (odds ratio [OR] = 2.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.34 to 3.08) and sleep problems (OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.18 to 2.83) and ethnic minority group status with a higher likelihood of depression (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.34 to 3.04), diabetes (OR = 4.03, 95% CI = 2.54 to 6.39, migraine (OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.26 to 2.35), and minor respiratory symptoms (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.33 to 2.29). Ethnic minority group status was the only source of social vulnerability that was independently associated with a higher likelihood of GP consultation, particularly for episodes of illness such as backache (OR = 3.28, 95% CI = 2.06 to 5.21), indigestion (OR = 2.94, 95% CI = 1.53 to 5.65), migraine (OR = 3.22, 95% CI = 1.75 to 5.93), minor respiratory symptoms (OR = 3.53, 95% CI = 2.26 to 5.50) and sleep problems (OR = 4.72, 95% CI = 2.56 to 8.71). CONCLUSIONS: Social vulnerability can be a risk factor for poorer health, but this is dependent on the source of vulnerability and is condition-specific. No association was found between inequity in the utilisation of primary care and social vulnerability. The propensity for members of ethnic minority groups to consult more than white people, particularly for acute conditions, requires further exploration. PMID:11885821

  10. CARVE: The Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Charles E.; Dinardo, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    The Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) is a NASA Earth Ventures (EV-1) investigation designed to quantify correlations between atmospheric and surface state variables for the Alaskan terrestrial ecosystems through intensive seasonal aircraft campaigns, ground-based observations, and analysis sustained over a 5-year mission. CARVE bridges critical gaps in our knowledge and understanding of Arctic ecosystems, linkages between the Arctic hydrologic and terrestrial carbon cycles, and the feedbacks from fires and thawing permafrost. CARVE's objectives are to: (1) Directly test hypotheses attributing the mobilization of vulnerable Arctic carbon reservoirs to climate warming; (2) Deliver the first direct measurements and detailed maps of CO2 and CH4 sources on regional scales in the Alaskan Arctic; and (3) Demonstrate new remote sensing and modeling capabilities to quantify feedbacks between carbon fluxes and carbon cycle-climate processes in the Arctic (Figure 1). We describe the investigation design and results from 2011 test flights in Alaska.

  11. Human donor milk for the vulnerable infant: a Canadian perspective

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Breast milk is the normal way to feed infants and is accepted worldwide as the optimal first source of nutrition. Though the majority intend to breastfeed, many mothers of sick, hospitalized newborns, particularly those of very low birth weight, are unable to provide a full volume of milk due to numerous physical and emotional barriers to breastfeeding. This vulnerable population of infants may benefit most from receiving breast milk nutrition and thus pasteurized donor milk should be the first consideration for supplementation when there is an inadequate supply of mother’s own milk. This commentary will briefly review the history of milk banking in Canada, as well as the best available evidence for donor milk use in the very low birth weight population, including available economic analyses, with a view to advocate for its use in these vulnerable infants. PMID:24742283

  12. Preventing RSV bronchiolitis in vulnerable infants: the role of palivizumab.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Dominic A

    2009-09-01

    As the vast majority of infants tolerate infection with the respiratory syncytial virus [RSV] well and can be managed in the home, most should not be considered for RSV prophylaxis with palivizumab. However, there exists a subset of vulnerable infants in whom the consequences of RSV infection are greater, with an increased likelihood of intensive care admission and mechanical ventilation. These include children born extremely preterm with chronic neonatal lung disease and infants with haemodynamically significant cardiac disease in whom there exists level II evidence to suggest that palivizumab may reduce their risk of acquiring RSV by approximately 50%. The use of palivizumab varies considerably across the world, based largely on economic considerations. This article reviews the strategies developed to fight RSV infection, the evidence for the use of palivizumab and suggests a reasonable approach clinically and economically to the use of palivizumab, proposing its use selectively in the most vulnerable infants during the first six months of life. PMID:19651385

  13. Social vulnerability and bullying in children with Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sofronoff, Kate; Dark, Elizabeth; Stone, Valerie

    2011-05-01

    Children with Asperger syndrome (AS) have IQ within the normal range but specific impairments in theory of mind, social interaction and communication skills. The majority receive education in mainstream schools and research suggests they are bullied more than typically developing peers. The current study aimed to evaluate factors that predict bullying for such children and also to examine a new measure, the Social Vulnerability Scale (SVS). One hundred and thirty three parents of children with AS completed the SVS and of these 92 parents completed both the SVS and questionnaires measuring anxiety, anger, behaviour problems, social skills and bullying. Regression analyses revealed that these variables together strongly predicted bullying, but that social vulnerability was the strongest predictor. Test-re-test and internal consistency analyses of the SVS demonstrated sound psychometric properties and factor analyses revealed two sub-scales: gullibility and credulity. Limitations of the study are acknowledged and suggestions for future research discussed. PMID:21430018

  14. Existential vulnerability: toward a psychopathology of limit situations.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Jaspers' concept of limit situations seems particularly appropriate not only to elucidate outstanding existential situations in general, but also basic preconditions for the occurrence of mental disorders. For this purpose, the concept is first explained in Jaspers' sense and then related to an 'existential vulnerability' of mentally ill persons that makes them experience even inconspicuous events as distressing limit situations. In such situations, an otherwise hidden fundamental condition of existence becomes manifest for them, e.g. the fragility of one's own body, the inevitability of freedom, or the finiteness of life. This fundamental condition is found unbearable and, as a reaction, gives rise to mental illness. This concept of existential vulnerability is illustrated by some psychopathological examples. PMID:23860487

  15. Vulnerability Assessment: The Seasons-to-Centuries Links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenkert, A.; Malone, E. L.; Moss, R.

    2002-05-01

    Actors within societies must cope with climate variability all the time, for example, with the aftermath of a severe storm, a persistent drought, severe flooding or coastal erosion from storm-induced sea-level surges. Understanding the capacity to respond to these types of experiences is important in its own right, and also provides a baseline against which to measure adaptive responses to long-term changes to climate. Because the rate, magnitude, pattern, and potential for non-linear rapid future changes in climate remain uncertain, increasing resilience of systems to climate variability is an important first step in planning for adaptation to long-term changes. An important characteristic of analysis of vulnerability to climate variability is the need to integrate information on both environmental and socio-economic factors that affect the ability of different actors to mount an effective response. We developed a framework for considering responses to both climate variability and change that is relevant to analysis at a variety of geographic scales. Our Vulnerability-Resilience Assessment methodology is an indicator-based prototype model that calculates the overall vulnerability or resilience of an area to climate variability and change. The model integrates information on the climate sensitivity of five sectors or areas of activity (food security, water resources, human settlements, ecosystem services, and human health) with information on economic, human resources, and environmental capacity to cope or adapt to variability and change. The model can be used for both static assessment of vulnerability at a point in time as well as for assessing how vulnerability and resilience would evolve in the future under different assumptions of socio-economic and environmental change. When coupled with uncertainty analysis, the modeling system can be used to identify those factors that have the most influence on vulnerability and capacity to adapt to variability and change. . The current realization of the model is tested at a national scale for both baseline (1990) conditions for conditions envisioned to evolve in the future under three scenarios developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES). Of the 38 countries analyzed, 16 countries are considered more vulnerable than the world as a whole, while by the end of this century only one country remains vulnerable in the rapid growth scenario, three countries in the local sustainability scenario, and nine countries in the delayed development scenario. The main factor, at the national level, determining coping and adaptive capacity is economic growth, while the main sensitive factor is water availability, but the different countries differ significantly with regard to which factors play the determining roles. The model results and analysis of the interactions among proxies and sectors provide insights about where countries might focus their efforts in building resilience. In future work with the indicators and model, we will explore additional qualitative and quantitative indicators at other scales and connect climate variability and change to socioeconomic conditions.

  16. Changes to criminal records checks used to safeguard vulnerable patients.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam

    2012-07-01

    The Protection of Freedoms Act 2012 is introducing changes to the Criminal Records Bureau (CRB) checks carried out on those people who work with vulnerable groups. The new law is the coalition Government's response to the criticism of the Safeguarding Vulnerable Group Act 2006. It will merge the CRB and Independent Safeguarding Authority into a new Disclosure and Barring Service and will enhance the rights of applicants to challenge the CRB's right to disclose non-conviction information as part of an enhanced criminal records check. In the first of two articles on the Protection of Freedoms Act 2012, Richard Griffith and Cassam Tengnah discuss the current framework for disclosing criminal records and the impact of the changes on district nurses applying for new posts. PMID:22875189

  17. Assessing the Vulnerability of Agriculture to Climate Change in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khresat, Sa'eb; Shraidaeh, Fadi; Maddat, Amer

    2015-04-01

    Climate change represents one of the greatest environmental, social and economic threats facing Jordan. In particular, the combined effects of climate change and water scarcity threaten to affect food and water resources that are critical for livelihoods in Jordan. This is especially true for those communities who live in the dryland area in the country and who rely wholly on rain-fed agriculture. The exact nature and extent of the impact of climate change on temperature and precipitation distribution pattern remain uncertain and it is the poor and vulnerable who will be the most susceptible to climate change adverse effects. A vulnerability assessment of rain fed agriculture to climate change and variability in semi-arid parts of Jordan was conducted in 2014. The purpose of this study is to assess the vulnerability and resilience of the most vulnerable groups where rainfed and irrigated agriculture is practiced. Also, the study focused on quantifying the impacts on agricultural productivity in response to climate change. This will help policymakers and researchers better understand and anticipate the likely impacts of climate change on agriculture and on vulnerable communities in Jordan. Also, it will provide them with tools to identify and implement appropriate adaptation strategies. The data used includes; Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 adopted by the IPCC for its fifth Assessment Report (AR5). Those pathways were used for climate modeling. A decision support system (DSSAT) for agricultural production was used to assess the impact of climate changes on agricultural production. This approach was used for the Identification of climate change risk and their impacts on Agriculture. Outputs from models are used to assess the vulnerability of farmers and crops to climate and socio-economic change by estimating their sensitivity and capacity to adapt to external factors as a means of identifying what causes the differences in their vulnerability. Based on the projection models for the area, average temperature in Jordan is projected to increase between 1.2 and 1.6°C by 2050. These upward temperature trends are projected to continue beyond 2050. Projections for precipitation trends are projected to decrease by 16% by the year 2050. Evaporation is likely to increase due to higher temperatures. This is likely to increase the incidence of drought potential since precipitation is projected to decrease. It is concluded that the Overall vulnerability of agriculture to climate change in Jordan is high, where impacts such as drought and increased temperatures and decreased precipitation will be more pronounced. Major implications on rain fed agriculture are possible shorter growing season, increasing moisture and heat stress to field and horticultural crops and eventually low income and food insecurity. There were different impacts among studied communities, which is related to the: economic capability, local knowledge, physical infrastructure, institutional capacity, modern technology used, age group of farmers and diversification of their income.

  18. Regional differences of vulnerability of food security in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peihong Yin; Xiuqi Fang; Yaru Yun

    2009-01-01

    In view of food affordability and the threshold for food security, this paper has established an integrated index for assessing\\u000a the vulnerability of food security in China, which is composed mainly of the balance between food supply and demand, the reserve\\u000a for food security and the economic capacity for offset food demand. Six types of food security regions are identified

  19. Sensitivity of estuaries to sea level rise: Vulnerability indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prandle, David; Lane, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    This study addresses the question of how tidally-dominated estuaries will adapt to rises in mean sea level and changes in river flows associated with global climate change. The aim was to develop generic 'Vulnerability Indices' to provide immediate indications of relative resilience or sensitivity. Four indices indicate the likely impacts on: (1) Mass flow, (2) Energetics, (3) Vertical mixing and (4) Salinity intrusion.

  20. Selective vulnerability in the gerbil hippocampus following transient ischemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kirino; K. Sano

    1984-01-01

    Following brief ischemia, the Mongolian gerbil is reported to develop unusual hippocampal cell injury (Brain Res 239:57–69, 1982). To further clarify this hippocampal vulnerability, gerbils were subjected to ischemia for 3, 5, 10, 20, and 30 min by bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries. They were perfusion-fixed after varying intervals of survival time ranging from 3 h up to

  1. BrowserShield: Vulnerability-Driven Filtering of Dynamic HTML

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles Reis; John Dunagan; Helen J. Wang; Opher Dubrovsky; Saher Esmeir

    2006-01-01

    Vulnerability-driven filtering of network data can offer a fast and easy-to-deploy alternative or intermediary to software patching, as exemplified in Shield (43). In this paper, we take Shield's vision to a new domain, inspect- ing and cleansing not just static content, but also dy- namic content. The dynamic content we target is the dynamic HTML in web pages, which have

  2. Chapter 2 Vulnerability of Marine Turtles to Climate Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elvira S. Poloczanska; Colin J. Limpus; Graeme C. Hays

    2009-01-01

    Marine turtles are generally viewed as vulnerable to climate change because of the role that temperature plays in the sex determination of embryos, their long life history, long age-to-maturity and their highly migratory nature. Extant species of marine turtles probably arose during the mid–late Jurassic period (180–150 Mya) so have survived past shifts in climate, including glacial periods and warm

  3. Multi-agent technology for vulnerability assessment and control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juhwan Jung; Chen-Ching Liu

    2001-01-01

    Power systems can become vulnerable due to human errors, natural calamities, impacts of power markets, and cascading events caused by hidden failures of protective devices. The technologies of intelligent agents and multi-agent system are proposed for handling of complex, dynamic, and distributed systems. This paper reports a multi-agent system that provides preventive and corrective self-healing strategies to avoid catastrophic failures

  4. A vulnerability function for Mediterranean flash flood risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagiorgos, Konstantinos; Hübl, Johannes; Thaler, Thomas; Fuchs, Sven

    2014-05-01

    Flood risk is a major type of environmental hazard jeopardizing human development, and is usually defined as a functional relation between the hazard, such as the physical and statistical aspects of flooding (e.g. return period of a certain flow height, spatial extend of inundation), and the associated vulnerability, i.e. the exposure of people and assets to floods and the susceptibility of the elements at risk to suffer from flood damage. The assessment of vulnerability -from the quantitative point of view- expresses vulnerability as the expected degree of loss for a given element at risk as a consequence of a certain event. It is ranges on a scale from 0 (no damage) to 1 (complete destruction) and focuses on direct flood loss which is estimated by damage or loss functions. A methodology for the development of a vulnerability curve for Mediterranean flash flood risk assessment is presented. This curve is based on a relationship between the intensity of the process and the associated degree of loss of elements at risk. The computation procedure is based on a method combining spatially explicit loss data, data on the value of exposed elements at risk and data on flood intensities on an individual building scale (local scale). The developed methodology is applied for the district of East Attica in Greece, a Mediterranean region influenced by mountain and coastal characteristics of land development. The aim of the study is to provide a valuable tool for the local authorities and the decision makers, a necessary implementation of flood risk management emerging from the requirements laid down in the European Flood Directive, as well as for an assessment of potential costs emerging from future flood events in order to protect individual households.

  5. Groundwater vulnerability assessment of the Cork Harbour area, SW Ireland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Allen; D. Milenic

    2007-01-01

    In the Cork Harbour area of SW Ireland, high yield karst and intergranular gravel aquifers are extremely vulnerable to pollution\\u000a from a variety of sources, mainly due to the limited protection afforded by the thin cover of low permeability glacial and\\u000a alluvial overburden. The main potential sources of pollution are due to rapid urbanisation of the Cork city area and

  6. Nutritional Vulnerability Seen Within Asylum Seekers in Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharleen O’Reilly; Tess O’Shea; Sibusiso Bhusumane

    To examine the extent of nutritional vulnerability seen in a cohort of asylum seekers in Australia. Twenty-one asylum seekers\\u000a (15 males, 6 females) that used a food bank were interviewed over a 6 week period at the Melbourne based Asylum Seeker Resource\\u000a Centre about foods consumed in the previous 24-h and any non food bank foods obtained. A basket audit was

  7. Correlates of vulnerability among arthropod species threatened by invasive ants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul D. KrushelnyckyRosemary; Rosemary G. Gillespie

    2010-01-01

    Invasive species are causing population declines and extinctions of native species worldwide. Correlates of species vulnerability,\\u000a which help identify at-risk taxa, are not well developed for arthropods, particularly with respect to threats from invasive\\u000a species. At five sites undergoing invasion by ants in the Hawaiian Islands, we assessed body size, population density, trophic\\u000a role and provenance (introduced or endemic to

  8. Vulnerability Assessments of Colorado Ground Water to Nitrate Contamination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. L. Ceplecha; R. M. Waskom; T. A. Bauder; J. L. Sharkoff; R. Khosla

    2004-01-01

    Nitrate (NO3-N) contamination of ground water aquifers is an important problem in the United States and throughout the world, particularly as ground water resources become increasingly relied upon to support human needs. Cost effective methodologies are needed to facilitate decision-making for ground water protection. To aid ground water protection organizations, we designed two tools to assess aquifer vulnerability to NO3-N

  9. Biologically Inspired Execution Framework for Vulnerable Workflow Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sohail Safdar; Mohd. Fadzil B. Hassan; Muhammad Aasim Qureshi; Rehan Akbar

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of the research is to introduce a biologically inspired\\u000aexecution framework for workflow systems under threat due to some intrusion\\u000aattack. Usually vulnerable systems need to be stop and put into wait state,\\u000ahence to insure the data security and privacy while being recovered. This\\u000aresearch ensures the availability of services and data to the end user

  10. Vulnerability assessment towards tsunami threats using multisensoral remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taubenböck, Hannes; Wurm, Michael; Post, Joachim; Roth, Achim; Strunz, Günter; Dech, Stefan

    2009-09-01

    The occurrence of a tsunami, a set of oceans waves caused by any large, abrupt disturbance of the sea surface, hitting a vulnerable system on land can cause massive loss of life, destruction of coastal infrastructure and disruption of economic activity. Vulnerability assessment and risk modelling are important components for an effective end-to-end hazard early warning system and therefore contribute significantly to disaster risk reduction. The focus of this study is on the capabilities and synergistic usage of multisensoral remotely sensed data to contribute to these complex tasks. We use medium and high resolution optical satellite data (Landsat and Ikonos), high resolution radar data from TerraSAR-X as well as a digital elevation model to provide multiple products for the assessment of spatial vulnerability in case of a tsunami impact on the heterogeneous and highly structured coastal urban area of Padang, Indonesia. Results include physical indicators like dimension and location of urbanization, quantification of potentially affected buildings, the identification of safe areas as well as a time-dependent population assessment.

  11. Vulnerability to temperature-related mortality in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jong-Tae; Anderson, G. Brooke; Bell, Michelle L.

    2011-07-01

    Studies indicate that the mortality effects of temperature may vary by population and region, although little is known about the vulnerability of subgroups to these risks in Korea. This study examined the relationship between temperature and cause-specific mortality for Seoul, Korea, for the period 2000-7, including whether some subgroups are particularly vulnerable with respect to sex, age, education and place of death. The authors applied time-series models allowing nonlinear relationships for heat- and cold-related mortality, and generated exposure-response curves. Both high and low ambient temperatures were associated with increased risk for daily mortality. Mortality risk was 10.2% (95% confidence interval 7.43, 13.0%) higher at the 90th percentile of daily mean temperatures (25 °C) compared to the 50th percentile (15 °C). Mortality risk was 12.2% (3.69, 21.3%) comparing the 10th (-1 °C) and 50th percentiles of temperature. Cardiovascular deaths showed a higher risk to cold, whereas respiratory deaths showed a higher risk to heat effect, although the differences were not statistically significant. Susceptible populations were identified such as females, the elderly, those with no education, and deaths occurring outside of a hospital for heat- and cold-related total mortality. Our findings provide supportive evidence of a temperature-mortality relationship in Korea and indicate that some subpopulations are particularly vulnerable.

  12. Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment for Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher P. Ischay; Ernest L. Fossum; Polly C. Buotte; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Alexander Peterson

    2014-10-01

    The University of Idaho (UI) was asked to participate in the development of a climate change vulnerability assessment for Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This report describes the outcome of that assessment. The climate change happening now, due in large part to human activities, is expected to continue in the future. UI and INL used a common framework for assessing vulnerability that considers exposure (future climate change), sensitivity (system or component responses to climate), impact (exposure combined with sensitivity), and adaptive capacity (capability of INL to modify operations to minimize climate change impacts) to assess vulnerability. Analyses of climate change (exposure) revealed that warming that is ongoing at INL will continue in the coming decades, with increased warming in later decades and under scenarios of greater greenhouse gas emissions. Projections of precipitation are more uncertain, with multi model means exhibiting somewhat wetter conditions and more wet days per year. Additional impacts relevant to INL include estimates of more burned area and increased evaporation and transpiration, leading to reduced soil moisture and plant growth.

  13. Assessment of floodplain vulnerability during extreme Mississippi River flood 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodwell, Allison E.; Zhu, Zhenduo; Dutta, Debsunder; Greenberg, Jonathan A.; Kumar, Praveen; Garcia, Marcelo H.; Rhoads, Bruce L.; Holmes, Robert R.; Parker, Gary; Berretta, David P.; Jacobson, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Regional change in the variability and magnitude of flooding could be a major consequence of future global climate change. Extreme floods have the capacity to rapidly transform landscapes and expose landscape vulnerabilities through highly variable spatial patterns of inundation, erosion, and deposition. We use the historic activation of the Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway during the Mississippi and Ohio River Flooding of 2011 as a scientifically unique stress experiment to analyze indicators of floodplain vulnerability. We use pre- and postflood airborne Light Detection and Ranging data sets to locate erosional and depositional hotspots over the 540 km2 agricultural Floodway. While riparian vegetation between the river and the main levee breach likely prevented widespread deposition, localized scour and deposition occurred near the levee breaches. Eroded gullies nearly 1 km in length were observed at a low ridge of a relict meander scar of the Mississippi River. Our flow modeling and spatial mapping analysis attributes this vulnerability to a combination of erodible soils, flow acceleration associated with legacy fluvial landforms, and a lack of woody vegetation to anchor soil and enhance flow resistance. Results from this study could guide future mitigation and adaptation measures in cases of extreme flooding.

  14. Socioeconomic Factors and Vulnerability to Outbreaks of Leptospirosis in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Bacallao, Jorge; Schneider, Maria Cristina; Najera, Patricia; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Soto, Aida; Marquiño, Wilmer; Sáenz, Carlos; Jiménez, Eduardo; Moreno, Gilberto; Chávez, Octavio; Galan, Deise I.; Espinal, Marcos A.

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an epidemic-prone zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide, with more than 500,000 human cases reported annually. It is influenced by environmental and socioeconomic factors that affect the occurrence of outbreaks and the incidence of the disease. Critical areas and potential drivers for leptospirosis outbreaks have been identified in Nicaragua, where several conditions converge and create an appropriate scenario for the development of leptospirosis. The objectives of this study were to explore possible socioeconomic variables related to leptospirosis critical areas and to construct and validate a vulnerability index based on municipal socioeconomic indicators. Municipalities with lower socioeconomic status (greater unsatisfied basic needs for quality of the household and for sanitary services, and higher extreme poverty and illiteracy rates) were identified with the highest leptospirosis rates. The municipalities with highest local vulnerability index should be the priority for intervention. A distinction between risk given by environmental factors and vulnerability to risk given by socioeconomic conditions was shown as important, which also applies to the “causes of outbreaks” and “causes of cases”. PMID:25153463

  15. Community clusters of tsunami vulnerability in the US Pacific Northwest

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Nathan J.; Jones, Jeanne; Spielman, Seth; Schmidtlein, Mathew C.

    2015-01-01

    Many coastal communities throughout the world are threatened by local (or near-field) tsunamis that could inundate low-lying areas in a matter of minutes after generation. Although the hazard and sustainability literature often frames vulnerability conceptually as a multidimensional issue involving exposure, sensitivity, and resilience to a hazard, assessments often focus on one element or do not recognize the hazard context. We introduce an analytical framework for describing variations in population vulnerability to tsunami hazards that integrates (i) geospatial approaches to identify the number and characteristics of people in hazard zones, (ii) anisotropic path distance models to estimate evacuation travel times to safety, and (iii) cluster analysis to classify communities with similar vulnerability. We demonstrate this approach by classifying 49 incorporated cities, 7 tribal reservations, and 17 counties from northern California to northern Washington that are directly threatened by tsunami waves associated with a Cascadia subduction zone earthquake. Results suggest three primary community groups: (i) relatively low numbers of exposed populations with varied demographic sensitivities, (ii) high numbers of exposed populations but sufficient time to evacuate before wave arrival, and (iii) moderate numbers of exposed populations but insufficient time to evacuate. Results can be used to enhance general hazard-awareness efforts with targeted interventions, such as education and outreach tailored to local demographics, evacuation training, and/or vertical evacuation refuges. PMID:25870283

  16. Community clusters of tsunami vulnerability in the US Pacific Northwest.

    PubMed

    Wood, Nathan J; Jones, Jeanne; Spielman, Seth; Schmidtlein, Mathew C

    2015-04-28

    Many coastal communities throughout the world are threatened by local (or near-field) tsunamis that could inundate low-lying areas in a matter of minutes after generation. Although the hazard and sustainability literature often frames vulnerability conceptually as a multidimensional issue involving exposure, sensitivity, and resilience to a hazard, assessments often focus on one element or do not recognize the hazard context. We introduce an analytical framework for describing variations in population vulnerability to tsunami hazards that integrates (i) geospatial approaches to identify the number and characteristics of people in hazard zones, (ii) anisotropic path distance models to estimate evacuation travel times to safety, and (iii) cluster analysis to classify communities with similar vulnerability. We demonstrate this approach by classifying 49 incorporated cities, 7 tribal reservations, and 17 counties from northern California to northern Washington that are directly threatened by tsunami waves associated with a Cascadia subduction zone earthquake. Results suggest three primary community groups: (i) relatively low numbers of exposed populations with varied demographic sensitivities, (ii) high numbers of exposed populations but sufficient time to evacuate before wave arrival, and (iii) moderate numbers of exposed populations but insufficient time to evacuate. Results can be used to enhance general hazard-awareness efforts with targeted interventions, such as education and outreach tailored to local demographics, evacuation training, and/or vertical evacuation refuges. PMID:25870283

  17. Vulnerabilities and Attacks Targeting Social Networks and Industrial Control Systems

    E-print Network

    Singh, Dharmendra; Songara, Pawan; Rathi, Dr Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Vulnerability is a weakness, shortcoming or flaw in the system or network infrastructure which can be used by an attacker to harm the system, disrupt its normal operation and use it for his financial, competitive or other motives or just for cyber escapades. In this paper, we re-examined the various types of attacks on industrial control systems as well as on social networking users. We have listed which all vulnerabilities were exploited for executing these attacks and their effects on these systems and social networks. The focus will be mainly on the vulnerabilities that are used in OSNs as the convertors which convert the social network into antisocial network and these networks can be further used for the network attacks on the users associated with the victim user whereby creating a consecutive chain of attacks on increasing number of social networking users. Another type of attack, Stuxnet Attack which was originally designed to attack Iran's nuclear facilities is also discussed here which harms the sys...

  18. Hierarchical statistical modeling of xylem vulnerability to cavitation.

    PubMed

    Ogle, Kiona; Barber, Jarrett J; Willson, Cynthia; Thompson, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    Cavitation of xylem elements diminishes the water transport capacity of plants, and quantifying xylem vulnerability to cavitation is important to understanding plant function. Current approaches to analyzing hydraulic conductivity (K) data to infer vulnerability to cavitation suffer from problems such as the use of potentially unrealistic vulnerability curves, difficulty interpreting parameters in these curves, a statistical framework that ignores sampling design, and an overly simplistic view of uncertainty. This study illustrates how two common curves (exponential-sigmoid and Weibull) can be reparameterized in terms of meaningful parameters: maximum conductivity (k(sat)), water potential (-P) at which percentage loss of conductivity (PLC) =X% (P(X)), and the slope of the PLC curve at P(X) (S(X)), a 'sensitivity' index. We provide a hierarchical Bayesian method for fitting the reparameterized curves to K(H) data. We illustrate the method using data for roots and stems of two populations of Juniperus scopulorum and test for differences in k(sat), P(X), and S(X) between different groups. Two important results emerge from this study. First, the Weibull model is preferred because it produces biologically realistic estimates of PLC near P = 0 MPa. Second, stochastic embolisms contribute an important source of uncertainty that should be included in such analyses. PMID:19210723

  19. Putting vulnerability to climate change on the map: a review of approaches, benefits, and risks

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, Benjamin L [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    There is growing demand among stakeholders across public and private institutions for spatially-explicit information regarding vulnerability to climate change at the local scale. However, the challenges associated with mapping the geography of climate change vulnerability are non-trivial, both conceptually and technically, suggesting the need for more critical evaluation of this practice. Here, we review climate change vulnerability mapping in the context of four key questions that are fundamental to assessment design. First, what are the goals of the assessment? A review of published assessments yields a range of objective statements that emphasize problem orientation or decision-making about adaptation actions. Second, how is the assessment of vulnerability framed? Assessments vary with respect to what values are assessed (vulnerability of what) and the underlying determinants of vulnerability that are considered (vulnerability to what). The selected frame ultimately influences perceptions of the primary driving forces of vulnerability as well as preferences regarding management alternatives. Third, what are the technical methods by which an assessment is conducted? The integration of vulnerability determinants into a common map remains an emergent and subjective practice associated with a number of methodological challenges. Fourth, who participates in the assessment and how will it be used to facilitate change? Assessments are often conducted under the auspices of benefiting stakeholders, yet many lack direct engagement with stakeholders. Each of these questions is reviewed in turn by drawing on an illustrative set of 45 vulnerability mapping studies appearing in the literature. A number of pathways for placing vulnerability

  20. Trait-Like Vulnerability to Total and Partial Sleep Loss

    PubMed Central

    Rupp, Tracy L.; Wesensten, Nancy J.; Balkin, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the extent to which individual differences in vulnerability to total sleep deprivation also reflect individual differences in vulnerability to multiple nights of sleep restriction. Design: Two sleep loss conditions (order counterbalanced) separated by 2 to 4 weeks: (a) total sleep deprivation (TSD) of 2 nights (63 h continuous wakefulness); (b) sleep restriction (SR) of 7 nights of 3 h nightly time in bed (TIB). Both conditions were preceded by 7 in-laboratory nights with 10 h nightly TIB; and followed by 3 recovery nights with 8 h nightly TIB. Measures of cognitive performance (psychomotor vigilance, working memory [1-Back], and mathematical processing), objective alertness, subjective sleepiness, and mood were obtained at regular intervals under both conditions. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) were computed using outcome metrics averaged over the last day (08:00-20:00) of TSD and SR. Setting: Residential sleep/performance testing facility. Participants: Nineteen healthy adults (ages 18-39; 11 males, 8 females). Interventions: 2 nights of TSD and 7 nights SR (3 h nightly TIB). Results: Volunteers who displayed greater vulnerability to TSD displayed greater vulnerability to SR on cognitive performance tasks (ICC: PVT lapses = 0.89; PVT speed = 0.86; 1-Back = 0.88; mathematical processing = 0.68, Ps < 0.05). In addition, trait-like responsivity to TSD/SR was found for mood variables vigor (ICC = 0.91), fatigue (ICC = 0.73), and happiness (ICC = 0.85) (all Ps < 0.05). Conclusion: Resilience to sleep loss is a trait-like characteristic that reflects an individual's ability to maintain performance during both types of sleep loss (SR and TSD). Whether the findings extend to sleep schedules other than those investigated here (63 h of TSD and 7 nights of 3 h nightly TIB) will be the focus of future studies. Citation: Rupp TL; Wesensten NJ; Balkin TJ. Trait-like vulnerability to total and partial sleep loss. SLEEP 2012;35(8):1163-1172. PMID:22851812

  1. Study on the Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment in Sanjiang Plain in Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Y.; Tang, W. K.; Liu, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Sanjiang Plain is located in eastern part of China's Heilongjiang Province.It's total area is 109 000 km2, with cultivated land area being 3.6677 million hm2. It is a major national commodity grain base. Rice planting area in Sanjiang Plain has been increasing year by year. Groundwater exploitation is increasing rapidly as a result of rapid increase of paddy field area. It is necessary to research and analyze spatial diversity of groundwater pollution vulnerability for Sanjiang Plain, so as to fulfill the goal of integrated planning, rational utilization of land and water resource, avoiding or minimizing groundwater contamination, and protecting grain security of China. Based on the commonly used DRASTIC method internationally, and according to hydrogeology, land use and other characteristics of Sanjiang Plain, this paper establishes groundwater vulnerability assessment index system. Since the Sanjiang Plain is an area that gives priority to agriculture, and impact of agricultural land and agricultural activity on groundwater vulnerability can not be ignored. Two indicators of agricultural land use rate (L) and population density (P) are increased in the DRASTC index system, the remaining 5 indicators are groundwater depth (D), aquifer net recharge(R), aquifer media type (A), soil type(S), aquifer hydraulic conductivity (C). Taking ArcGis as a calculation analysis platform to assess groundwater vulnerability of the Sanjiang Plain, by using hierarchical analysis method of the fuzzy mathematics method to calculate each index weigh of evaluation vulnerability. This paper applies 6 levels of assessment standard as follows: vulnerability index DI <2 stands for not vulnerable; 2 vulnerable; 4< DI ? 5 stands for more vulnerable; 5vulnerable; 7vulnerable; DI> 8 stands for extremely vulnerable. Groundwater vulnerably contaminated area is delineated based on the groundwater vulnerability spatial distribution of Sanjiang Plain. Reasonable land use plan should be made, and strictly groundwater protection measures should be taken to reduce the risk of groundwater contamination.

  2. Are some groups more vulnerable to macroeconomic shocks than others? Hypothesis tests based on panel data from Peru

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Glewwe; Gillette Hall

    1998-01-01

    Which socio-economic groups are most vulnerable to welfare declines during a macroeconomic shock? After clarifying the difference between poverty and vulnerability, this paper presents an analytical framework and applies it to panel data from Peru. Major findings are: (1) Households with better educated heads are less vulnerable; (2) Female headed households are no more vulnerable than male headed households; (3)

  3. A probabilistic framework for assessing vulnerability to climate variability and change: the case of the US water

    E-print Network

    Ramírez, Jorge A.

    A probabilistic framework for assessing vulnerability to climate variability and change: the case a probabilistic framework for vulnerability analysis and use it to quantify current and future vulnerability-economic drivers to the changes in projected vulnerability. For all scenarios and global climate models examined

  4. Assessment of intrinsic vulnerability to contamination for Gaza coastal aquifer, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Almasri, Mohammad N

    2008-09-01

    Gaza coastal aquifer (GCA) is the major source of fresh water for the 1.5 million residents of Gaza Strip, Palestine. The aquifer is under deteriorating quality conditions mainly due to the excessive application of fertilizers. The intrinsic vulnerability of GCA to contamination was assessed using the well-known DRASTIC method. Detailed analysis of the intrinsic vulnerability map of GCA was carried out and did consider different relationships between the vulnerability indices and the on-ground nitrogen loadings and land use classes. In addition, correlation between vulnerability values and the nitrate concentrations in GCA was studied. Based on the vulnerability analysis, it was found that 10% and 13% of Gaza Strip area is under low and high vulnerability of groundwater contamination, respectively, while more than 77% of the area of Gaza Strip can be designated as an area of moderate vulnerability of groundwater contamination. It was found that the density of groundwater sampling wells for nitrate concentration is high for the moderate and high vulnerability zones. The highest first quartile, median, mean, and third quartile of nitrate concentrations are reported in the high vulnerability zones. Results of sensitivity analysis show a high sensitivity of the high vulnerability index to the depth to water table. PMID:17391837

  5. Does the new EU Regulation on clinical trials adequately protect vulnerable research participants?

    PubMed

    Gennet, Éloïse; Andorno, Roberto; Elger, Bernice

    2015-07-01

    Vulnerable research participants deserve special protection because of their increased risks of being wronged. Yet, paradoxically, the conduct of trials involving vulnerable groups is sometimes inescapable to develop safe and efficient therapies suitable to these groups. The key question is therefore how to protect vulnerable research participants from harm and exploitation without excluding the populations they belong to from the benefits of research. The European Union faced this challenge in April 2014 when adopting the new Regulation on clinical trials, which will replace the currently applicable 2001 Clinical Trials Directive in 2016. In order to assess the protection of vulnerable persons in the new Regulation, this paper makes four suggestions: first, the need to adopt a risk-based approach to vulnerability in biomedical research; second, to better distinguish between decisional vulnerabilities and health-related vulnerabilities; third, to emphasise the need to preserve the freedom of consent of subjects with decisional vulnerability, who are more susceptible to undue influence; and finally to assert the need of actively promoting specific clinical trials involving people with physical or psychological vulnerabilities. In conclusion, this paper claims that the protection of vulnerable subjects still needs to be improved in the new EU Regulation. PMID:25951954

  6. Importance of biometrics to addressing vulnerabilities of the U.S. infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, Craig M.; Hall, Nathaniel A.

    2004-08-01

    Human identification technologies are important threat countermeasures in minimizing select infrastructure vulnerabilities. Properly targeted countermeasures should be selected and integrated into an overall security solution based on disciplined analysis and modeling. Available data on infrastructure value, threat intelligence, and system vulnerabilities are carefully organized, analyzed and modeled. Prior to design and deployment of an effective countermeasure; the proper role and appropriateness of technology in addressing the overall set of vulnerabilities is established. Deployment of biometrics systems, as with other countermeasures, introduces potentially heightened vulnerabilities into the system. Heightened vulnerabilities may arise from both the newly introduced system complexities and an unfocused understanding of the set of vulnerabilities impacted by the new countermeasure. The countermeasure's own inherent vulnerabilities and those introduced by the system's integration with the existing system are analyzed and modeled to determine the overall vulnerability impact. The United States infrastructure is composed of government and private assets. The infrastructure is valued by their potential impact on several components: human physical safety, physical/information replacement/repair cost, potential contribution to future loss (criticality in weapons production), direct productivity output, national macro-economic output/productivity, and information integrity. These components must be considered in determining the overall impact of an infrastructure security breach. Cost/benefit analysis is then incorporated in the security technology deployment decision process. Overall security risks based on system vulnerabilities and threat intelligence determines areas of potential benefit. Biometric countermeasures are often considered when additional security at intended points of entry would minimize vulnerabilities.

  7. Comparison and Evaluation of Global Scale Studies of Vulnerability and Risks to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muccione, Veruska; Allen, Simon K.; Huggel, Christian; Birkmann, Joern

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the present and future distribution of different climate change impacts and vulnerability to climate change is a central subject in the context of climate justice and international climate policy. Commonly, it is claimed that poor countries that contributed little to anthropogenic climate change are those most affected and most vulnerable to climate change. Such statements are backed by a number of global-scale vulnerability studies, which identified poor countries as most vulnerable. However, some studies have challenged this view, likewise highlighting the high vulnerability of richer countries. Overall, no consensus has been reached so far about which concept of vulnerability should be applied and what type of indicators should be considered. Furthermore, there is little agreement which specific countries are most vulnerable. This is a major concern in view of the need to inform international climate policy, all the more if such assessments should contribute to allocate climate adaptation funds as was invoked at some instances. We argue that next to the analysis of who is most vulnerable, it is also important to better understand and compare different vulnerability profiles assessed in present global studies. We perform a systematic literature review of global vulnerability assessments with the scope to highlight vulnerability distribution patterns. We then compare these distributions with global risk distributions in line with revised and adopted concepts by most recent IPCC reports. It emerges that improved differentiation of key drivers of risk and the understanding of different vulnerability profiles are important contributions, which can inform future adaptation policies at the regional and national level. This can change the perspective on, and basis for distributional issues in view of climate burden share, and therefore can have implications for UNFCCC financing instruments (e.g. Green Climate Fund). However, in order to better compare traditional vulnerability distributions with more recent conceptualisation of risks, more research should be devoted to global assessments of climate change risk distributions.

  8. Regional risk assessment for contaminated sites part 1: vulnerability assessment by multicriteria decision analysis.

    PubMed

    Zabeo, A; Pizzol, L; Agostini, P; Critto, A; Giove, S; Marcomini, A

    2011-11-01

    As highlighted in the EU Soil Communication, local contamination is one of the main soil threats and it is often related to present and past industrial activities which left a legacy of a high number of contaminated sites in Europe. These contaminated sites can be harmful to many different receptors according to their sensitivity/susceptibility to contamination, and specific vulnerability evaluations are needed in order to manage this widely spread environmental issue. In this paper a novel comprehensive vulnerability assessment framework to assess regional receptor susceptibility to contaminated site is presented. The developed methodology, which combines multi criteria decision analysis (MCDA) techniques and spatial analysis, can be applied to different receptors recognized as relevant for regional assessment. In order to characterize each receptor, picked parameters significant for the estimation of the vulnerability to contaminated sites have been selected, normalized and aggregated by means of multi criteria decision analysis (MCDA) techniques. The developed MCDA methodology, based on the Choquet integral, allows to include expert judgments for the elicitation of synergic and conflicting effects between involved criteria and is applied to all the geographical objects representing the identified receptors. To test the potential of the vulnerability methodology, it has been applied to a specific case study area in the upper Silesia region of Poland where it proved to be reliable and consistent with the environmental experts' expected results. The vulnerability assessment results indicate that groundwater is the most vulnerable receptor characterized by a wide area with vulnerability scores belonging to the highest vulnerability class. As far as the other receptors are concerned, human health and surface water are characterized by quite homogeneous vulnerability scores falling in the medium-high vulnerability classes, while protected areas resulted to be the less vulnerable receptor with only one protected area falling in the medium vulnerability class. The vulnerability assessment results will support the regional risk assessment for the ranking of potentially contaminated sites at regional scale. PMID:21723609

  9. Age-Related Psychophysiological Vulnerability to Phenylalanine in Phenylketonuria

    PubMed Central

    Leuzzi, Vincenzo; Mannarelli, Daniela; Manti, Filippo; Pauletti, Caterina; Locuratolo, Nicoletta; Carducci, Carla; Carducci, Claudia; Vanacore, Nicola; Fattapposta, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Background: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by the inherited defect of the phenylalanine hydroxylase enzyme, which converts phenylalanine (Phe) into tyrosine (Tyr). Neonatal screening programs and early treatment have radically changed the natural history of PKU. Nevertheless, an increased risk of neurocognitive and psychiatric problems in adulthood remains a challenging aspect of the disease. In order to assess the vulnerability of complex skills to Phe, we explored: (a) the effect of a rapid increase in blood Phe levels on event-related potentials (ERP) in PKU subjects during their second decade of life; (b) the association (if existing) between psychophysiological and neurocognitive features. Methods: Seventeen early-treated PKU subjects, aged 10–20, underwent ERP [mismatch negativity, auditory P300, contingent negative variation (CNV), and Intensity Dependence of Auditory Evoked Potentials] recording before and 2?h after an oral loading of Phe. Neurocognitive functioning, historical and concurrent biochemical values of blood Phe, Tyr, and Phe/Tyr ratio, were all included in the statistical analysis. Results: Event-related potential components were normally detected in all the subjects. In subjects younger than 13 CNV amplitude, W2-CNV area, P3b latency, and reaction times in motor responses were negatively influenced by Phe-loading. Independently from the psychophysiological vulnerability, some neurocognitive skills were more impaired in younger patients. No correlation was found between biochemical alterations and neurocognitive and psychophysiological findings. Conclusion: The vulnerability of the emerging neurocognitive functions to Phe suggests a strict metabolic control in adolescents affected by PKU and a neurodevelopmental approach in the study of neurocognitive outcome in PKU. PMID:25003100

  10. Differential vulnerability of interneurons in the epileptic hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Marx, Markus; Haas, Carola A.; Häussler, Ute

    2013-01-01

    The loss of hippocampal interneurons has been considered as one reason for the onset of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) by shifting the excitation-inhibition balance. Yet, there are many different interneuron types which show differential vulnerability in the context of an epileptogenic insult. We used the intrahippocampal kainate (KA) mouse model for TLE in which a focal, unilateral KA injection induces status epilepticus (SE) followed by development of granule cell dispersion (GCD) and hippocampal sclerosis surrounding the injection site but not in the intermediate and temporal hippocampus. In this study, we characterized the loss of interneurons with respect to septotemporal position and to differential vulnerability of interneuron populations. To this end, we performed intrahippocampal recordings of the initial SE, in situ hybridization for glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) mRNA and immunohistochemistry for parvalbumin (PV) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the early phase of epileptogenesis at 2 days and at 21 days after KA injection, when recurrent epileptic activity and GCD have fully developed. We show that SE extended along the entire septotemporal axis of both hippocampi, but was stronger at distant sites than at the injection site. There was an almost complete loss of interneurons surrounding the injection site and expanding to the intermediate hippocampus already at 2 days but increasing until 21 days after KA. Furthermore, we observed differential vulnerability of PV- and NPY-expressing cells: while the latter were lost at the injection site but preserved at intermediate sites, PV-expressing cells were gone even at sites more temporal than GCD. In addition, we found upregulation of GAD67 mRNA expression in dispersed granule cells and of NPY staining in ipsilateral granule cells and ipsi- and contralateral mossy fibers. Our data thus indicate differential survival capacity of interneurons in the epileptic hippocampus and compensatory plasticity mechanisms depending on the hippocampal position. PMID:24098270

  11. Electronic equipment vulnerability to fire released carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pride, R. A.; Mchatton, A. D.; Musselman, K. A.

    1980-01-01

    The vulnerability of electronic equipment to damage by carbon fibers released from burning aircraft type structural composite materials was investigated. Tests were conducted on commercially available stereo power amplifiers which showed that the equipment was damaged by fire released carbon fibers but not by the composite resin residue, soot and products of combustion of the fuel associated with burning the carbon fiber composites. Results indicate that the failure rates of the equipment exposed to the fire released fiber were consistent with predictions based on tests using virgin fibers.

  12. Water vulnerabilities for existing coal-fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.; Kuiper, J.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-08-19

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Water consumption by all users in the United States over the 2005-2030 time period is projected to increase by about 7% (from about 108 billion gallons per day [bgd] to about 115 bgd) (Elcock 2010). By contrast, water consumption by coal-fired power plants over this period is projected to increase by about 21% (from about 2.4 to about 2.9 bgd) (NETL 2009b). The high projected demand for water by power plants, which is expected to increase even further as carbon-capture equipment is installed, combined with decreasing freshwater supplies in many areas, suggests that certain coal-fired plants may be particularly vulnerable to potential water demand-supply conflicts. If not addressed, these conflicts could limit power generation and lead to power disruptions or increased consumer costs. The identification of existing coal-fired plants that are vulnerable to water demand and supply concerns, along with an analysis of information about their cooling systems and related characteristics, provides information to help focus future research and development (R&D) efforts to help ensure that coal-fired generation demands are met in a cost-effective manner that supports sustainable water use. This study identified coal-fired power plants that are considered vulnerable to water demand and supply issues by using a geographical information system (GIS) that facilitated the analysis of plant-specific data for more than 500 plants in the NETL's Coal Power Plant Database (CPPDB) (NETL 2007a) simultaneously with 18 indicators of water demand and supply. Two types of demand indicators were evaluated. The first type consisted of geographical areas where specific conditions can generate demand vulnerabilities. These conditions include high projected future water consumption by thermoelectric power plants, high projected future water consumption by all users, high rates of water withdrawal per square mile (mi{sup 2}), high projected population increases, and areas projected to be in a water crisis or conflict by 2025. The second type of demand indicator was plant specific. These indicators were developed for each plant and include annual water consumption and withdrawal rates and intensities, net annual power generation, and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. The supply indictors, which are also area based, include areas with low precipitation, high temperatures, low streamflow, and drought. The indicator data, which were in various formats (e.g., maps, tables, raw numbers) were converted to a GIS format and stored, along with the individual plant data from the CPPDB, in a single GIS database. The GIS database allowed the indicator data and plant data to be analyzed and visualized in any combination. To determine the extent to which a plant would be considered 'vulnerable' to a given demand or supply concern (i.e., that the plant's operations could be affected by water shortages represented by a potential demand or supply indicator), criteria were developed to categorize vulnerability according to one of three types: major, moderate, or not vulnerable. Plants with at least two major demand indicator values and/or at least four moderate demand indicator values were considered vulnerable to demand concerns. By using this approach, 144 plants were identified as being subject to demand concerns only. Plants with at least one major supply indicator value and/or at least two moderate supply indicator values were considered vulnerable to supply concerns. By using this approach, 64 plants were identified as being subject to supply concerns only. In addition, 139 plants were identified as subject to both demand and supply concerns. Therefore, a total of 347 plants were considere

  13. Disaster management: vulnerability and resilience in disaster recovery in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Busapathumrong, Pattamaporn

    2013-01-01

    This project explores disaster management in Thailand with a focus on the vulnerability and resilience of women, children, the elderly, and the disabled population and on the impact of disaster on these subpopulations. The 2 main findings deal with the major models of disaster management in Thailand and building resilience for social recovery. The selected 5 major models currently employed in disaster management in Thailand are the (a) model of royal project and international cooperation on disaster preparedness and response, (b) ASEAN Socio-Cultural Blueprint, (c) rights-based approach, (d) welfare mix model, and (e) knowledge management model. PMID:23679805

  14. A Contamination Vulnerability Assessment for the Sacramento Area Groundwater Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, J E; Hudson, G B; Eaton, G F; Leif, R

    2004-03-10

    In response to concerns expressed by the California Legislature and the citizenry of the State of California, the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), implemented a program to assess groundwater quality, and provide a predictive capability for identifying areas that are vulnerable to contamination. The program was initiated in response to concern over public supply well closures due to contamination by chemicals such as MtBE from gasoline, and solvents from industrial operations. As a result of this increased awareness regarding groundwater quality, the Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act mandated the SWRCB to develop a comprehensive ambient groundwater-monitoring plan, and led to the initiation of the Ambient Groundwater Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The primary objective of the GAMA Program is to assess the water quality and to predict the relative susceptibility to contamination of groundwater resources throughout the state of California. Under the GAMA program, scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) collaborate with the SWRCB, the U.S. Geological Survey, the California Department of Health Services (DHS), and the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) to implement the groundwater assessment program in cooperation with local water purveyors. In 2001 and 2002, LLNL carried out this vulnerability study in the groundwater basin of Sacramento suburban area, located to the north of the American River and to the east of the Sacramento River. The goal of the study is to provide a probabilistic assessment of the relative vulnerability of groundwater used for the public water supply to contamination from surface sources. This assessment of relative contamination vulnerability is made based on the results of two types of analyses that are not routinely carried out at public water supply wells: ultra low-level measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and groundwater age dating (using the tritium-helium-3 method). In addition, stable oxygen isotope measurements help determine the recharge water source. Interpreted together, and in the context of existing water quality and hydrogeologic data, these observable parameters help define the flow field of a groundwater basin, and indicate the degree of vertical communication between near-surface sources (or potential sources) of contamination, and deeper groundwater pumped at high capacity production wells.

  15. 'Iraq Water Treatment Vulnerabilities': a challenge to public health ethics.

    PubMed

    MacQueen, Graeme; Nagy, Thomas; Santa Barbara, Joanna; Raichle, Claudia

    2004-01-01

    A formerly classified US document, 'Iraq Water Treatment Vulnerabilities,' provides evidence that ill health was knowingly induced in the population of Iraq through the ruination of that country's water purification system. We believe that the uncovering of this document should stimulate the public health community to clarify principles of public health ethics and to formulate statements giving voice to these principles. We propose here two statements, one dealing with the broad issue of public health ethics and international relations, and one dealing specifically with public health ethics and water purification. PMID:15260175

  16. Structural vulnerability assessment using reliability of slabs in avalanche area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favier, Philomène; Bertrand, David; Eckert, Nicolas; Naaim, Mohamed

    2013-04-01

    Improvement of risk assessment or hazard zoning requires a better understanding of the physical vulnerability of structures. To consider natural hazard issue such as snow avalanches, once the flow is characterized, highlight on the mechanical behaviour of the structure is a decisive step. A challenging approach is to quantify the physical vulnerability of impacted structures according to various avalanche loadings. The main objective of this presentation is to introduce methodology and outcomes regarding the assessment of vulnerability of reinforced concrete buildings using reliability methods. Reinforced concrete has been chosen as it is one of the usual material used to build structures exposed to potential avalanche loadings. In avalanche blue zones, structures have to resist to a pressure up to 30kPa. Thus, by providing systematic fragility relations linked to the global failure of the structure, this method may serve the avalanche risk assessment. To do so, a slab was numerically designed. It represented the avalanche facing wall of a house. Different configuration cases of the element in stake have been treated to quantify numerical aspects of the problem, such as the boundary conditions or the mechanical behaviour of the structure. The structure is analysed according to four different limit states, semi-local and global failures are considered to describe the slab behaviour. The first state is attained when cracks appear in the tensile zone, then the two next states are described consistent with the Eurocode, the final state is the total collapse of the structure characterized by the yield line theory. Failure probability is estimated in accordance to the reliability framework. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to quantify the fragility to different loadings. Sensitivity of models in terms of input distributions were defined with statistical tools such as confidence intervals and Sobol's indexes. Conclusion and discussion of this work are established to well determine contributions, limits and future needs or developments of the research. First of all, this study provides spectrum of fragility curves of reinforced concrete structures which could be used to improve risk assessment. Second, the influence of the failure criterion picked up in this survey are discussed. Then, the weight of the statistical distribution choice is analysed. Finally, the limit between vulnerability and fragility relations is set up to establish the boundary use of our approach.

  17. A new species of Loxosomatidae (Entoprocta, Solitaria) from the White Sea: Loxosomella unicornis sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Borisanova, Anastasiya O; Krylova, Elena M

    2014-01-01

    A new solitary entoproct, Loxosomella unicornis sp. nov., is described. The species was found on the gymnolaemate bryozoans Cribrilina sp. and Electra sp. in Kandalaksha Bay, White Sea. Loxosomella unicornis sp. nov. is a medium-sized species with a total length up to 650 µm, eight tentacles and a conspicuous horn-shaped appendage on the top part of calyx.  PMID:25283409

  18. "Show me the money": vulnerability to gambling moderates the attractiveness of money versus suspense.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Cheryl; Wilson, Timothy D; McRae, Kaichen; Gilbert, Daniel T

    2013-10-01

    Do people take risks to obtain rewards or experience suspense? We hypothesized that people vulnerable to gambling are motivated more by the allure of winning money whereas people less vulnerable to gambling are motivated more by the allure of suspense. Consistent with this hypothesis, participants with high scores on a subscale of the Gambling Attitudes and Beliefs Survey--a measure of vulnerability to gambling--reported more of a motivation to earn money (pilot study), were more likely to accept a certain or near-certain amount of money than to gamble for that same amount (Studies 1-2), and worked harder to earn money (Study 3). People vulnerable to gambling also made more accurate predictions about how much they would gamble. People less vulnerable to gambling, in contrast, gambled more than people vulnerable to gambling, but did not know that they would. PMID:23798372

  19. Savannah River Site management response plan for chemical safety vulnerability field assessment. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kahal, E.J.; Murphy, S.L.; Salaymeh, S.R.

    1994-09-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) initiative to identify potential chemical safety vulnerabilities in the DOE complex, the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Core Working Group issued a field verification assessment report. While the report concluded that Savannah River Site (SRS) is moving in a positive direction, the report also identified five chemical safety vulnerabilities with broad programmatic impact that are not easily nor quickly remedied. The May 1994 SRS Management Response Plan addressed the five SRS vulnerabilities identified in the field assessment report. The SRS response plan listed observations supporting the vulnerabilities and any actions taken or planned toward resolution. Many of the observations were resolved by simple explanations, such as the existence of implementation plans for Safety Analysis Report updates. Recognizing that correcting individual observations does not suffice in remedying the vulnerabilities, a task team was assembled to address the broader programmatic issues and to recommend corrective actions.

  20. A note on measurement of network vulnerability under random and intentional attacks

    E-print Network

    Yazdani, A

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we propose an alternative approach for the assessment of network vulnerability under random and intentional attacks as compared to the results obtained from the "vulnerability function" given by Criado et al. [Criado et al. (Int. J. Comput. Math., 86 (2) (2009), pp. 209-218)]. By using spectral and statistical measurements, we assess robustness as the antonym to vulnerability of complex networks and suggest a tentative ranking for vulnerability, based on the interpretation of quantified network characteristics. We conclude that vulnerability function, derived from the network's degree distribution and its variations only, is not general enough to reflect the lack of robustness due to the specific configurations in graphs with hierarchical or centralized structures. The spectral and statistical metrics, on the other hand, capture different aspects of network topology which provide a more thorough assessment of network vulnerability.

  1. Is There a Universal Understanding of Vulnerability? Experiences with Russian and Romanian Trainees in Research Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Loue, Sana; Loff, Bebe

    2014-01-01

    Vulnerability of participants in research and the provision of special protections for vulnerable research participants are key concepts in research ethics. Despite international consensus requiring special protections for vulnerable research participants, both the concept of vulnerability and the nature and adequacy of strategies to reduce vulnerability remain vague and, consequently, are subject to varying interpretations. We report on observations of the challenges faced in understanding this key concept by 20 Russian and Romanian trainees participating in a one-year M.A. training program in research ethics from 2000 through 2011. We describe how trainees’ understanding of and appreciation for the need for special protections of vulnerable research participants was nurtured. This paper is part of a collection of papers analyzing the Fogarty International Center's International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum Development program. PMID:24384513

  2. V-DRASTIC: Using visualization to engage policymakers in groundwater vulnerability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojórquez-Tapia, Luis A.; Cruz-Bello, Gustavo M.; Luna-González, Laura; Juárez, Lourdes; Ortiz-Pérez, Mario A.

    2009-06-01

    SummaryGroundwater vulnerability mapping is increasingly being used to design aquifer protection and management strategies. This paper presents a dynamic visualization method to groundwater vulnerability mapping. This method—called V-DRASTIC—extends the capacities of DRASTIC, an overlay/index technique that has been applied worldwide to evaluate the condition of hydrogeological factors and determine groundwater vulnerability at regional scales. V-DRASTIC is based upon psychophysics' principles (a theory that describes the people's response to a stimulus) to generate alternative groundwater vulnerability categorization schemes. These are used as inputs in a fuzzy pattern recognition procedure to enable planners, decision makers and stakeholders identify which scheme conveys meaningful information regarding groundwater vulnerability across a territory. V-DRASTIC was applied in the groundwater vulnerability assessment of two urban watersheds in Mexico.

  3. Energy Sector Vulnerability to Climate Change: Adaptation Options to Increase Resilience (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Newmark, R. L.; Bilello, D.; Macknick, J.; Hallet, K. C.; Anderson, R.; Tidwell, V.; Zamuda, C.

    2013-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is conducting an assessment of vulnerabilities of the U.S. energy sector to climate change and extreme weather. Emphasizing peer reviewed research, it seeks to quantify vulnerabilities and identify specific knowledge or technology gaps. It draws upon a July 2012 workshop, ?Climate Change and Extreme Weather Vulnerability Assessment of the US Energy Sector?, hosted by the Atlantic Council and sponsored by DOE to solicit industry input.

  4. Mapping the groundwater vulnerability for pollution at the pan African scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouedraogo, Issoufou; Defourny, Pierre; Vanclooster, Marnik

    2015-04-01

    We mapped the pan-African intrinsic and specific vulnerability of groundwater systems towards pollution. We compiled the most recent continental scale information on soil, land use, geology, hydrogeology and climate in a Geographical Information System (GIS) at the resolution of 15kmx15km and the 1:60,000,000 scale and implemented an indicator vulnerability model based on the DRASTIC method. The intrinsic vulnerability map reveals that groundwater is highly vulnerable in Central, West and some areas of North Africa, where the watertable is very low. The intrinsic vulnerability is very low in the large sedimentary basins of the African deserts where groundwater situates in very deep aquifers. The specific vulnerability is obtained by overlaying the intrinsic vulnerability with current land use. The specific vulnerability is high in North, Central, and West Africa and strongly related to water table depths and development of agricultural activities. Subsequently, we performed a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the relative importance of each indicator parameter on groundwater vulnerability for pollution. The sensitivity analysis indicated that the removal of the vadose zone impact, the depth of the groundwater, the hydraulic conductivity and the net recharge causes a large variation in the vulnerability index. The pan African assessment of groundwater vulnerability presented in this paper is expected to be of particular value for water policy and for designing water resources management programmes. We expect, however, that this assessment can be strongly improved when pan African monitoring data on groundwater pollution will be integrated in the assessment methodology. Keywords: groundwater vulnerability, pan-Africa, DRASTIC method, Sensitivity analysis, GIS

  5. Groundwater vulnerability map of the Chrzanów karst-fissured Triassic aquifer (Poland)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Witkowski; K. Rubin; A. Kowalczyk; A. Ró?kowski; J. Wróbel

    2003-01-01

    A map shows intrinsic vulnerability to pollution of the Chrzanów karst-fissured aquifer (273 km2) in the southern part of Poland. This aquifer is intensively drained by numerous intakes and Zn-Pb ore mines. A DRASTIC-type parametric system was applied for groundwater vulnerability evaluation. Vulnerability assessment is based on six factors (depth to groundwater table, lithology of the unsaturated zone, net recharge,

  6. Assessing patterns of vulnerability, adaptive capacity and resilience across urban centers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Romero Lankao; John L. Tribbia

    Summary: Can repeated patterns of vulnerability and resilience be identified across urban areas? This question is addressed using a conceptualization of vulnerability developed by the climate community and applying a model-centered meta-analysis approach of 64 case studies on cities and vulnerability. In this meta-analysis the authors pull a minimum set of models or frameworks to go beyond existing case studies,

  7. Vessel maturation schedule determines vulnerability to neuronal injuries of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Licht, Tamar; Dor-Wollman, Talia; Ben-Zvi, Ayal; Rothe, Gadiel; Keshet, Eli

    2015-03-01

    Premature birth is a major risk factor for multiple brain pathologies, notably periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), which is distinguished by bilateral necrosis of neural tissue around the ventricles and a sequela of neurological disturbances. The 2 hallmarks of brain pathologies of prematurity are a restricted gestational window of vulnerability and confinement of injury to a specific cerebral region. Here, we examined the proposition that both of these features are determined by the state of blood vessel immaturity. We developed a murine genetic model that allows for inducible and reversible VEGF blockade during brain development. Using this system, we determined that cerebral vessels mature in a centrifugal, wave-like fashion that results in sequential acquisition of a functional blood-brain barrier and exit from a VEGF-dependent phase, with periventricular vessels being the last to mature. This developmental program permitted selective ablation of periventricular vessels via episodic VEGF blockade within a specific, vulnerable gestational window. Enforced collapse of ganglionic eminence vessels and resultant periventricular neural apoptosis resulted in a PVL-like phenotype that recapitulates the primary periventricular lesion, ventricular enlargement, and the secondary cortical deficit in out-migrating GABAergic inhibitory interneurons. These findings provide an animal model that reproduces the temporal and spatial specificities of PVL and indicate that damage to VEGF-dependent, immature periventricular vessels contributes to PVL development. PMID:25689256

  8. HIV vulnerabilities of sex-trafficked Indian women and girls

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Jhumka; Raj, Anita; Decker, Michele R.; Reed, Elizabeth; Silverman, Jay G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To qualitatively explore potential mechanisms that may confer heightened risk for HIV infection among survivors of sex trafficking in India. Methods Case narratives of 61 repatriated women and girls who reported being trafficked into sex work and were receiving services at an NGO in Mysore, India, were reviewed. Narratives were analyzed to examine potential sources of HIV risk related to sex trafficking. Results Participants were aged 14–30 years. Among the 48 women and girls tested for HIV, 45.8% were HIV positive. Narratives described very low levels of autonomy, with control exacted by brothel managers and traffickers. Lack of control appeared to heighten trafficked women and girls’ vulnerability to HIV infection in the following ways: use of violent rape as a means of coercing initiation into sex work, inability to refuse sex, inability to use condoms or negotiate use, substance use as a coping strategy, and inadequate access to health care. Conclusion Sex trafficked women and girls lack autonomy and are rendered vulnerable to HIV infection through several means. Development of HIV prevention strategies specifically designed to deal with lack of autonomy and reach sex-trafficked women and girls is imperative. PMID:19625022

  9. Initiation of reentry inside the vulnerable window of the heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudenbacher, Petra; Baudenbacher, Franz; Aliev, Rubin; Wikswo, John

    2000-03-01

    Cardiac vulnerability refers to the initiation of self-sustained waves after the application of a stimulus in the wake of a propagating pulse, which can lead to arrhythmias and fibrillation. We used optical mapping of the transmembrane potential on the epicardium of Langendorff-perfused, di-4-ANNEPS stained isolated rabbit hearts. After a planar wave was launched by an S1 stimulus with line electrodes perpendicular to the fiber direction, an S2 stimulus was applied with a point electrode at a different location at a time ?T after S1. The S1 strength was 2-4×threshold S2=2×S1. The spatio-temporal dynamics of S2 responses shows three distinct excitation regions: For ?T>160ms, a point shaped hypopolarized region (make excitation) leads to propagation symmetrical in both directions perpendicular to the wire. For ?T<160ms, a dog-bone shaped hyperpolarized region is followed by a hypopolarized region (break excitation), leading to an asymmetrical curved wave due to partial functional block, and in some cases reentry, especially at shorter time intervals. For ?T<115ms, break excitation occurs without propagation. Stimulating inside the vulnerable window results in multiple responses due to functional block and allows us to extract the propagation velocity as a function of refractoriness.

  10. Field information links permafrost carbon to physical vulnerabilities of thawing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Jennifer W.; Koven, Charles; Ping, Chien-Lu; Hugelius, Gustaf; McGuire, A. David; Camill, P.; Jorgenson, Torre; Kuhry, Peter; Michaelson, Gary; O'Donnell, Jonathan A.; Schuur, Edward A.G.; Tamocai, Charles; Johnson, K.; Grosse, G.

    2012-01-01

    Deep soil profiles containing permafrost (Gelisols) were characterized for organic carbon (C) and total nitrogen (N) stocks to 3m depths. Using the Community Climate System Model (CCSM4) we calculate cumulative probability functions (PDFs) for active layer depths under current and future climates. The difference in PDFs over time was multiplied by C and N contents of soil horizons in Gelisol suborders to calculate newly thawed C and N, Thawing ranged from 147 PgC with 10 PgN by 2050 (representative concentration pathway RCP scenario 4.5) to 436 PgC with 29 PgN by 2100 (RCP 8.5). Organic horizons that thaw are vulnerable to combustion, and all horizon types are vulnerable to shifts in hydrology and decomposition. The rates and extent of such losses are unknown and can be further constrained by linking field and modelling approaches. These changes have the potential for strong additional loading to our atmosphere, water resources, and ecosystems.

  11. Non-invasive molecular imaging of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques.

    PubMed

    Magnoni, Marco; Ammirati, Enrico; Camici, Paolo G

    2015-04-01

    The growing discoveries coming from clinical and basic research during the past decades have revolutionized our knowledge regarding pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the atherosclerotic process and its thrombotic complications. The traditional view focusing on the severity of stenosis of atherosclerotic plaque has given way to the evidence that the clinical complications of atherosclerotic vascular disease, particularly the propensity to develop thrombotic complications, are determined mainly by the biological composition of the plaque. This paradigm shift has reinforced the need to move from the sole anatomical assessment toward combined anatomic and functional imaging modalities enabling the molecular and cellular characterization of the disease on top of its structural properties. Together, the progress to identify molecular targets related to plaque vulnerability and the improvement of imaging techniques for the detection of such molecular targets have allowed us to obtain new important pathophysiological information. This might allow better patient stratification for the identification of subjects at high risk to develop premature atherosclerosis who might need an aggressive therapeutic approach. Nuclear techniques, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography angiography, and contrast-enhanced ultrasound represent the currently available non-invasive imaging modalities for molecular imaging which can provide different and complementary insights into the biological features of the atherosclerotic process. This clinical review will discuss the evidence and potential translational applications of the individual imaging techniques particularly concerning their ability to detect the main atherosclerotic features related to plaque vulnerability, such as plaque inflammation and intertwined neovascularization. PMID:25702846

  12. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 2 consists of seven appendices containing the following: Tasking memorandums; Project plan for the CSV Review; Field verification guide for the CSV Review; Field verification report, Lawrence Livermore National Lab.; Field verification report, Oak Ridge Reservation; Field verification report, Savannah River Site; and the Field verification report, Hanford Site.

  13. Seismic vulnerability study Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF)

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, M. [EQE International, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States); Goen, L.K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF), located at TA-53 of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), features an 800 MeV proton accelerator used for nuclear physics and materials science research. As part of the implementation of DOE Order 5480.25 and in preparation for DOE Order 5480.28, a seismic vulnerability study of the structures, systems, and components (SSCs) supporting the beam line from the accelerator building through to the ends of die various beam stops at LAMPF has been performed. The study was accomplished using the SQUG GIP methodology to assess the capability of the various SSCs to resist an evaluation basis earthquake. The evaluation basis earthquake was selected from site specific seismic hazard studies. The goals for the study were as follows: (1) identify SSCs which are vulnerable to seismic loads; and (2) ensure that those SSCs screened during die evaluation met the performance goals required for DOE Order 5480.28. The first goal was obtained by applying the SQUG GIP methodology to those SSCS represented in the experience data base. For those SSCs not represented in the data base, information was gathered and a significant amount of engineering judgment applied to determine whether to screen the SSC or to classify it as an outlier. To assure the performance goals required by DOE Order 5480.28 are met, modifications to the SQUG GIP methodology proposed by Salmon and Kennedy were used. The results of this study ire presented in this paper.

  14. Minor Physical Anomalies and Vulnerability in Prodromal Youth

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Vijay A.; Walker, Elaine F.

    2011-01-01

    Because both the brain and craniofacial/limb features originate from the same germinal layer during early gestation, the postnatal presence of minor physical anomalies (MPAs) involving these physical features may be indicative of defects in prenatal neural migration and consequent brain abnormalities among individuals with psychosis. However, to date it is unknown what symptoms and characteristics MPAs may be associated with, or how these markers may reflect vulnerability among adolescents at high-risk for developing psychosis. This information is particularly vital for understanding susceptibility and informing etiological conceptualizations such as the neural diathesis-stress model. In this study, 50 adolescents with a prodromal syndrome were evaluated for MPAs, salivary cortisol, auditory and visual memory function, and attenuated positive, negative, and disorganized symptoms. Results indicated that the participants showing elevated MPAs (n = 25) were distinguished by elevated cortisol, deficit immediate and delayed visual memory, and higher levels of disorganized prodromal symptoms when compared with those participants exhibiting a lower incidence of MPAs. This was supported by supplementary correlational analyses examining the entire sample. These findings provide preliminary support for a theory that MPAs may reflect hippocampal system vulnerability among prodromal patients. PMID:21429715

  15. Contraceptive practices of Brazilian adolescents: social vulnerability in question.

    PubMed

    Rozenberg, Riva; da Silva, Katia Silveira; Bonan, Claudia; Ramos, Eloane Gonçalves

    2013-12-01

    This article seeks to analyze contraceptive practices of Brazilian adolescents and to discuss associated vulnerability situations. A cross-sectional study was conducted, using the database of the National Survey on Demography and Health of Women and Children _ PNDS 2006. Factors associated with the current use of contraceptive methods were investigated. The analysis included 986 sexually-active adolescents. Bivariate analysis between the outcome and each of the socioeconomic, demographic and reproductive characteristics of women was performed. The associations between variables were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression. Four factors related to outcome were identified in the multivariate analysis: having completed junior high school (aOR=2.29; CI 95% 1.07_4.85); being married or cohabiting with a partner (aOR=2.85; CI 95% 1.45_5.59); having used contraceptives during the first sexual intercourse (aOR=2.77; CI 95% 1.36_5.63); and having access to transportation to get to health center services (aOR=3.33; CI 95% 1.42_7.80). Adolescents with higher social vulnerability are at a disadvantage regarding adoption of contraceptive methods. This points to the need to establish intersectoral articulations of public policies, which could ensure their reproductive rights. PMID:24263880

  16. A comparative study on plaque vulnerability using constitutive equations.

    PubMed

    Karimi, A; Navidbakhsh, M; Faghihi, S

    2014-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is the most serious and common form of cardiovascular disease in which plaque builds up inside the arteries. Peak plaque stress is considered as the main reason for plaque rupture, which results in heart attack and stroke. In the current research, the finite element method is used to anticipate plaque vulnerability, using human samples. A total of 23 healthy and atherosclerotic human coronary arteries (14 healthy and 9 atherosclerotic) were removed within 5 h postmortem. The samples were mounted on a uniaxial tensile test machine and the obtained mechanical properties were used in finite element models. The peak plaque stresses for the Ogden hyperelastic model were compared to the Mooney-Rivlin and Neo-Hookean outcomes. The results indicated that hypocellular plaque in all three models has the highest stress values compared to the cellular and calcified ones and, as a result, is quite prone to rupture. The calcified plaque type, in contrast, has the lowest stress values and remains stable. The results can be used in plaque vulnerability prediction and have clinical implications for interventions and surgeries such as balloon-angioplasty, cardiopulmonary bypass and stenting. PMID:23999817

  17. A Methodology for Assessing the Seismic Vulnerability of Highway Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cirianni, Francis; Leonardi, Giovanni; Scopelliti, Francesco [University of Reggio Calabria-Faculty of Engineering Department of Computer Science, Mathematics, Electronics and Transportation (Italy)

    2008-07-08

    Modern society is totally dependent on a complex and articulated infrastructure network of vital importance for the existence of the urban settlements scattered on the territory. On these infrastructure systems, usually indicated with the term lifelines, are entrusted numerous services and indispensable functions of the normal urban and human activity.The systems of the lifelines represent an essential element in all the urbanised areas which are subject to seismic risk. It is important that, in these zones, they are planned according to opportune criteria based on two fundamental assumptions: a) determination of the best territorial localization, avoiding, within limits, the places of higher dangerousness; b) application of constructive technologies finalized to the reduction of the vulnerability.Therefore it is indispensable that in any modern process of seismic risk assessment the study of the networks is taken in the rightful consideration, to be integrated with the traditional analyses of the buildings.The present paper moves in this direction, dedicating particular attention to one kind of lifeline: the highway system, proposing a methodology of analysis finalized to the assessment of the seismic vulnerability of the system.

  18. Seismic Vulnerability and Performance Level of confined brick walls

    SciTech Connect

    Ghalehnovi, M.; Rahdar, H. A. [University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-07-08

    There has been an increase on the interest of Engineers and designers to use designing methods based on displacement and behavior (designing based on performance) Regarding to the importance of resisting structure design against dynamic loads such as earthquake, and inability to design according to prediction of nonlinear behavior element caused by nonlinear properties of constructional material.Economically speaking, easy carrying out and accessibility of masonry material have caused an enormous increase in masonry structures in villages, towns and cities. On the other hand, there is a necessity to study behavior and Seismic Vulnerability in these kinds of structures since Iran is located on the earthquake belt of Alpide.Different reasons such as environmental, economic, social, cultural and accessible constructional material have caused different kinds of constructional structures.In this study, some tied walls have been modeled with software and with relevant accelerator suitable with geology conditions under dynamic analysis to research on the Seismic Vulnerability and performance level of confined brick walls. Results from this analysis seem to be satisfactory after comparison of them with the values in Code ATC40, FEMA and standard 2800 of Iran.

  19. Researching the vulnerables: issues of consent and ethical approval.

    PubMed

    Afolabi, M O S

    2012-12-01

    Imagine you are a biomedical scientist attempting to cross a busy, beggar-crowded road in Lagos. You suddenly notice that the loud horns of the speeding cars, trucks and trailers draw no visible physiologic response from any of the beggars including their children and babies, unlike the rest of the crowd. Consequently, certain questions such as the following begin to engage your mind: Is this phenomenon a kind of habituation? If so, is its onset the same for the blind ones amongst them? Have these beggars acquired a neural system absent from "normal" people? If so, just how long does it take for such a system to be established? At the very height of this creative outburst, you however realize that the informed consent and ethical approval you would need for this particular research differs from the type you have previously encountered in your career.... Although the above scenario suggests that new and difficult ethical questions may confront scientists while pursuing their curiosity, our research ethics guidelines do not currently address this issue. This paper explores some of the ethical challenges involved in carrying out basic research on vulnerable subjects such as beggars. It highlights how the notions of autonomy and informed consent in this context become vague, thus, liable to exploitation. Ultimately, the paper offers a useful framework in relation to developing a research ethics committee charged with the moral mandate of overseeing the integrity of research involving this vulnerable population in particular and basic biomedical research in general. PMID:23678631

  20. Chronic Stress, Drug Use, and Vulnerability to Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Rajita

    2009-01-01

    Stress is a well-known risk factor in the development of addiction and in addiction relapse vulnerability. A series of population-based and epidemiological studies have identified specific stressors and individual-level variables that are predictive of substance use and abuse. Preclinical research also shows that stress exposure enhances drug self-administration and reinstates drug seeking in drug-experienced animals. The deleterious effects of early life stress, child maltreatment, and accumulated adversity on alterations in the corticotropin releasing factor and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (CRF/HPA), the extrahypothalamic CRF, the autonomic arousal, and the central noradrenergic systems are also presented. The effects of these alterations on the corticostriatal-limbic motivational, learning, and adaptation systems that include mesolimbic dopamine, glutamate, and gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) pathways are discussed as the underlying pathophysiology associated with stress-related risk of addiction. The effects of regular and chronic drug use on alterations in these stress and motivational systems are also reviewed, with specific attention to the impact of these adaptations on stress regulation, impulse control, and perpetuation of compulsive drug seeking and relapse susceptibility. Finally, research gaps in furthering our understanding of the association between stress and addiction are presented, with the hope that addressing these unanswered questions will significantly influence new prevention and treatment strategies to address vulnerability to addiction. PMID:18991954

  1. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 3 consists of eleven appendices containing the following: Field verification reports for Idaho National Engineering Lab., Rocky Flats Plant, Brookhaven National Lab., Los Alamos National Lab., and Sandia National Laboratories (NM); Mini-visits to small DOE sites; Working Group meeting, June 7--8, 1994; Commendable practices; Related chemical safety initiatives at DOE; Regulatory framework and industry initiatives related to chemical safety; and Chemical inventory data from field self-evaluation reports.

  2. Chronic stress, drug use, and vulnerability to addiction.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rajita

    2008-10-01

    Stress is a well-known risk factor in the development of addiction and in addiction relapse vulnerability. A series of population-based and epidemiological studies have identified specific stressors and individual-level variables that are predictive of substance use and abuse. Preclinical research also shows that stress exposure enhances drug self-administration and reinstates drug seeking in drug-experienced animals. The deleterious effects of early life stress, child maltreatment, and accumulated adversity on alterations in the corticotropin releasing factor and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (CRF/HPA), the extrahypothalamic CRF, the autonomic arousal, and the central noradrenergic systems are also presented. The effects of these alterations on the corticostriatal-limbic motivational, learning, and adaptation systems that include mesolimbic dopamine, glutamate, and gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) pathways are discussed as the underlying pathophysiology associated with stress-related risk of addiction. The effects of regular and chronic drug use on alterations in these stress and motivational systems are also reviewed, with specific attention to the impact of these adaptations on stress regulation, impulse control, and perpetuation of compulsive drug seeking and relapse susceptibility. Finally, research gaps in furthering our understanding of the association between stress and addiction are presented, with the hope that addressing these unanswered questions will significantly influence new prevention and treatment strategies to address vulnerability to addiction. PMID:18991954

  3. Assessing mechanical vulnerability in water distribution networks under multiple failures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berardi, Luigi; Ugarelli, Rita; Røstum, Jon; Giustolisi, Orazio

    2014-03-01

    Understanding mechanical vulnerability of water distribution networks (WDN) is of direct relevance for water utilities since it entails two different purposes. On the one hand, it might support the identification of severe failure scenarios due to external causes (e.g., natural or intentional events) which result into the most critical consequences on WDN supply capacity. On the other hand, it aims at figure out the WDN portions which are more prone to be affected by asset disruptions. The complexity of such analysis stems from the number of possible scenarios with single and multiple simultaneous shutdowns of asset elements leading to modifications of network topology and insufficient water supply to customers. In this work, the search for the most disruptive combinations of multiple asset failure events is formulated and solved as a multiobjective optimization problem. The higher vulnerability failure scenarios are detected as those causing the lower supplied demand due to the lower number of simultaneous failures. The automatic detection of WDN topology, subsequent to the detachments of failed elements, is combined with pressure-driven analysis. The methodology is demonstrated on a real water distribution network. Results show that, besides the failures causing the detachment of reservoirs, tanks, or pumps, there are other different topological modifications which may cause severe WDN service disruptions. Such information is of direct relevance to support planning asset enhancement works and improve the preparedness to extreme events.

  4. Vessel maturation schedule determines vulnerability to neuronal injuries of prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Licht, Tamar; Dor-Wollman, Talia; Ben-Zvi, Ayal; Rothe, Gadiel; Keshet, Eli

    2015-01-01

    Premature birth is a major risk factor for multiple brain pathologies, notably periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), which is distinguished by bilateral necrosis of neural tissue around the ventricles and a sequela of neurological disturbances. The 2 hallmarks of brain pathologies of prematurity are a restricted gestational window of vulnerability and confinement of injury to a specific cerebral region. Here, we examined the proposition that both of these features are determined by the state of blood vessel immaturity. We developed a murine genetic model that allows for inducible and reversible VEGF blockade during brain development. Using this system, we determined that cerebral vessels mature in a centrifugal, wave-like fashion that results in sequential acquisition of a functional blood-brain barrier and exit from a VEGF-dependent phase, with periventricular vessels being the last to mature. This developmental program permitted selective ablation of periventricular vessels via episodic VEGF blockade within a specific, vulnerable gestational window. Enforced collapse of ganglionic eminence vessels and resultant periventricular neural apoptosis resulted in a PVL-like phenotype that recapitulates the primary periventricular lesion, ventricular enlargement, and the secondary cortical deficit in out-migrating GABAergic inhibitory interneurons. These findings provide an animal model that reproduces the temporal and spatial specificities of PVL and indicate that damage to VEGF-dependent, immature periventricular vessels contributes to PVL development. PMID:25689256

  5. The Occurrence and Prevention of Foodborne Disease in Vulnerable People

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Sarah J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In developed countries, such as the United Kingdom and the United States, between 15% and 20% of the population show greater susceptibility than the general population to foodborne disease. This proportion includes people with primary immunodeficiency, patients treated with radiation or with immunosuppressive drugs for cancer and diseases of the immune system, those with acquired immune-deficiency syndrome and diabetics, people suffering from liver or kidney disease or with excessive iron in the blood, pregnant women, infants, and the elderly. Malnutrition and use of antacids, particularly proton-pump inhibitors, also increase susceptibility. We review the occurrence of infection by foodborne pathogens in these groups of people and measures to prevent infection. The nature and use of low microbial diets to reduce the risk of foodborne disease in immunocompromised patients are very variable. Diets for vulnerable people in care should exclude higher-risk foods, and vulnerable people in the community should receive clear advice about food safety, in particular avoidance of higher-risk foods and substitution of safer, nutritious foods. PMID:21561383

  6. Corticosteroid-induced neural remodeling predicts behavioral vulnerability and resilience.

    PubMed

    Gourley, Shannon L; Swanson, Andrew M; Koleske, Anthony J

    2013-02-13

    Neurons in distinct brain regions remodel in response to postnatal stressor exposure, and structural plasticity may underlie stress-related modifications in behavioral outcomes. Given the persistence of stress-related diseases such as depression, a critical next step in identifying the contributions of neural structure to psychopathology will be to identify brain circuits and cell types that fail to recover from stressor exposure. We enumerated dendritic spines during and after chronic stress hormone exposure in hippocampal CA1, deep-layer prefrontal cortex, and the basal amygdala and also reconstructed dendritic arbors of CA1 pyramidal neurons. Corticosterone modified dendritic spine density in these regions, but with the exception of the orbitofrontal cortex, densities normalized with a recovery period. Dendritic retraction of hippocampal CA1 neurons and anhedonic-like insensitivity to a sucrose solution also persisted despite a recovery period. Using mice with reduced gene dosage of p190rhogap, a cytoskeletal regulatory protein localized to dendritic spines, we next isolated structural correlates of both behavioral vulnerability (spine elimination) and resilience (spine proliferation) to corticosterone within the orbital cortex. Our findings provide novel empirical support for the perspective that stress-related structural reorganization of certain neuron populations can persist despite a "recovery" period from stressor exposure and that these modifications may lay a structural foundation for stressor vulnerability-or resiliency-across the lifespan. PMID:23407965

  7. CCSF Lunch Summary 20 August, 2008 Assessing climate change vulnerabilities and adaptation strategies for agriculture and

    E-print Network

    Angenent, Lars T.

    CCSF Lunch Summary ­ 20 August, 2008 Assessing climate change vulnerabilities and adaptation), to assess climate change impacts and adaptations in the areas of water resources and agriculture. Discussion

  8. Drought vulnerability assessment: The case of wheat farmers in Western Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarafshani, Kiumars; Sharafi, Lida; Azadi, Hossein; Hosseininia, Gholamhossein; De Maeyer, Philippe; Witlox, Frank

    2012-12-01

    Drought, as a natural and slow-onset phenomenon, creates numerous damages to agricultural communities. As a drought prone area in the Middle East, Iran has currently launched a crisis management approach to mitigate the harmful impacts of drought. However, thus far studies indicate that effective drought management strategies should be designed based upon vulnerability management which can increase farmers' ability to challenge the impacts. The purpose of this study was to assess drought vulnerability across three drought intensities (very high, extremely high, and critical) areas in Western Iran. Accordingly, a survey study was applied and 370 wheat farmers who all experienced drought during 2007-2009 were selected through a multi-stage stratified random sampling method. Face to face interviews were used to collect data on vulnerability indices from the farmers. Me-Bar and Valdez's vulnerability formula was applied to assess the vulnerability of wheat farmers during drought. Results revealed that the farmers' vulnerability is influenced mainly by economic, socio-cultural, psychological, technical, and infrastructural factors. The results also indicated that the farmers in Sarpole-Zahab township were most vulnerable compared to those in the Kermanshah township as the least vulnerable. Accordingly, some conclusions and recommendations are drawn for both policy-makers and practitioners who often must prioritize limited resources in the design vulnerability-reducing interventions.

  9. AVQS: Attack Route-Based Vulnerability Quantification Scheme for Smart Grid

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyunwoo; Lee, Seokjun; Shon, Taeshik

    2014-01-01

    A smart grid is a large, consolidated electrical grid system that includes heterogeneous networks and systems. Based on the data, a smart grid system has a potential security threat in its network connectivity. To solve this problem, we develop and apply a novel scheme to measure the vulnerability in a smart grid domain. Vulnerability quantification can be the first step in security analysis because it can help prioritize the security problems. However, existing vulnerability quantification schemes are not suitable for smart grid because they do not consider network vulnerabilities. We propose a novel attack route-based vulnerability quantification scheme using a network vulnerability score and an end-to-end security score, depending on the specific smart grid network environment to calculate the vulnerability score for a particular attack route. To evaluate the proposed approach, we derive several attack scenarios from the advanced metering infrastructure domain. The experimental results of the proposed approach and the existing common vulnerability scoring system clearly show that we need to consider network connectivity for more optimized vulnerability quantification. PMID:25152923

  10. AVQS: attack route-based vulnerability quantification scheme for smart grid.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jongbin; Lim, Hyunwoo; Lee, Seokjun; Shon, Taeshik

    2014-01-01

    A smart grid is a large, consolidated electrical grid system that includes heterogeneous networks and systems. Based on the data, a smart grid system has a potential security threat in its network connectivity. To solve this problem, we develop and apply a novel scheme to measure the vulnerability in a smart grid domain. Vulnerability quantification can be the first step in security analysis because it can help prioritize the security problems. However, existing vulnerability quantification schemes are not suitable for smart grid because they do not consider network vulnerabilities. We propose a novel attack route-based vulnerability quantification scheme using a network vulnerability score and an end-to-end security score, depending on the specific smart grid network environment to calculate the vulnerability score for a particular attack route. To evaluate the proposed approach, we derive several attack scenarios from the advanced metering infrastructure domain. The experimental results of the proposed approach and the existing common vulnerability scoring system clearly show that we need to consider network connectivity for more optimized vulnerability quantification. PMID:25152923

  11. Stochastic landslide vulnerability modeling in space and time in a part of the northern Himalayas, India.

    PubMed

    Das, Iswar; Kumar, Gaurav; Stein, Alfred; Bagchi, Arunabha; Dadhwal, Vinay K

    2011-07-01

    Little is known about the quantitative vulnerability analysis to landslides as not many attempts have been made to assess it comprehensively. This study assesses the spatio-temporal vulnerability of elements at risk to landslides in a stochastic framework. The study includes buildings, persons inside buildings, and traffic as elements at risk to landslides. Building vulnerability is the expected damage and depends on the position of a building with respect to the landslide hazard at a given time. Population and vehicle vulnerability are the expected death toll in a building and vehicle damage in space and time respectively. The study was carried out in a road corridor in the Indian Himalayas that is highly susceptible to landslides. Results showed that 26% of the buildings fall in the high and very high vulnerability categories. Population vulnerability inside buildings showed a value >0.75 during 0800 to 1000 hours and 1600 to 1800 hours in more buildings that other times of the day. It was also observed in the study region that the vulnerability of vehicle is above 0.6 in half of the road stretches during 0800 hours to 1000 hours and 1600 to 1800 hours due to high traffic density on the road section. From this study, we conclude that the vulnerability of an element at risk to landslide is a space and time event, and can be quantified using stochastic modeling. Therefore, the stochastic vulnerability modeling forms the basis for a quantitative landslide risk analysis and assessment. PMID:20809386

  12. A comparative study of four vulnerability mapping methods in a detritic aquifer under mediterranean climatic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draoui, M.; Vias, J.; Andreo, B.; Targuisti, K.; Stitou El Messari, J.

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents the results of a comparative study relating to the application of four vulnerability mapping methods, GOD, AVI, DRASTIC and SINTACS, in a pilot detritic aquifer situated in NW Morocco, known as the Martil-Alila aquifer. The principal objective of this work is to determine the most suitable such methods for this aquifer type within a Mediterranean context, and to show the effect of the rainfall variations that are characteristic of the Mediterranean climate on the degree of vulnerability. The methods applied distinguish five classes of vulnerability, these being irregularly divided up in space, with the division varying according to the method in question. The vulnerability maps obtained by the different methods strongly suggest that the eastern half of the aquifer is more vulnerable to contamination than the western half, for all hydrological situations. The effect of climatic conditions on the degree of vulnerability is well represented by the DRASTIC, according to which the aquifer is moderately to strongly vulnerable during humid hydrological years and weakly to moderately vulnerable during dry ones. For the other methods, this climatic effect is limited to the area occupied by the two predominant classes (“High” and “Low” for GOD and “High” and “Moderate” for SINTACS) while it is null for AVI. In conclusion, DRASTIC appears the most suitable for mapping the vulnerability to contamination of Mediterranean coastal detritic aquifers such as the Martil-Alila aquifer.

  13. Spatial-explicit modeling of social vulnerability to malaria in East Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite efforts in eradication and control, malaria remains a global challenge, particularly affecting vulnerable groups. Despite the recession in malaria cases, previously malaria free areas are increasingly confronted with epidemics as a result of changing environmental and socioeconomic conditions. Next to modeling transmission intensities and probabilities, integrated spatial methods targeting the complex interplay of factors that contribute to social vulnerability are required to effectively reduce malaria burden. We propose an integrative method for mapping relative levels of social vulnerability in a spatially explicit manner to support the identification of intervention measures. Methods Based on a literature review, a holistic risk and vulnerability framework has been developed to guide the assessment of social vulnerability to water-related vector-borne diseases (VBDs) in the context of changing environmental and societal conditions. Building on the framework, this paper applies spatially explicit modeling for delineating homogeneous regions of social vulnerability to malaria in eastern Africa, while taking into account expert knowledge for weighting the single vulnerability indicators. To assess the influence of the selected indicators on the final index a local sensitivity analysis is carried out. Results Results indicate that high levels of malaria vulnerability are concentrated in the highlands, where immunity within the population is currently low. Additionally, regions with a lack of access to education and health services aggravate vulnerability. Lower values can be found in regions with relatively low poverty, low population pressure, low conflict density and reduced contributions from the biological susceptibility domain. Overall, the factors characterizing vulnerability vary spatially in the region. The vulnerability index reveals a high level of robustness in regard to the final choice of input datasets, with the exception of the immunity indicator which has a marked impact on the composite vulnerability index. Conclusions We introduce a conceptual framework for modeling risk and vulnerability to VBDs. Drawing on the framework we modeled social vulnerability to malaria in the context of global change using a spatially explicit approach. The results provide decision makers with place-specific options for targeting interventions that aim at reducing the burden of the disease amongst the different vulnerable population groups. PMID:25127688

  14. Climate change and Public health: vulnerability, impacts, and adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzone, F.; Setegn, S.

    2013-12-01

    Climate Change plays a significant role in public health. Changes in climate affect weather conditions that we are accustomed to. Increases in the frequency or severity of extreme weather events such as storms could increase the risk of dangerous flooding, high winds, and other direct threats to people and property. Changes in temperature, precipitation patterns, and extreme events could enhance the spread of some diseases. According to studies by EPA, the impacts of climate change on health will depend on many factors. These factors include the effectiveness of a community's public health and safety systems to address or prepare for the risk and the behavior, age, gender, and economic status of individuals affected. Impacts will likely vary by region, the sensitivity of populations, the extent and length of exposure to climate change impacts, and society's ability to adapt to change. Transmissions of infectious disease have been associated with social, economic, ecological, health care access, and climatic factors. Some vector-borne diseases typically exhibit seasonal patterns in which the role of temperature and rainfall is well documented. Some of the infectious diseases that have been documented by previous studies, include the correlation between rainfall and drought in the occurrence of malaria, the influence of the dry season on epidemic meningococcal disease in the sub-Saharan African, and the importance of warm ocean waters in driving cholera occurrence in the Ganges River delta in Asia The rise of climate change has been a major concern in the public health sector. Climate change mainly affects vulnerable populations especially in developing countries; therefore, it's important that public health advocates are involve in the decision-making process in order to provide resources and preventative measures for the challenges that are associated with climate change. The main objective of this study is to assess the vulnerability and impact of climate change on public health and identify appropriate adaptation strategies. Several studies have evaluated the impact of climate change on health, which have included evaluating the current associations between the recent changes in climate, and the evidence base analysis of current, as well as projecting the future impacts of climate change on health. This study will document the use of building an integrated approach for sustainable management of climate, environmental, health surveillance and epidemiological data that will support the assessment of vulnerability, impact and adaption to climate change.

  15. Virtual water trade and country vulnerability: A network perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartori, Martina; Schiavo, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    This work investigates the relationship between countries' participation in virtual water trade and their vulnerability to external shocks from a network perspective. In particular, we investigate whether (i) possible sources of local national crises may interact with the system, propagating through the network and affecting the other countries involved; (ii) the topological characteristics of the international agricultural trade network, translated into virtual water-equivalent flows, may favor countries' vulnerability to external crises. Our work contributes to the debate on the potential merits and risks associated with openness to trade in agricultural and food products. On the one hand, trade helps to ensure that even countries with limited water (and other relevant) resources have access to sufficient food and contribute to the global saving of water. On the other hand, there are fears that openness may increase the vulnerability to external shocks and thus make countries worse off. Here we abstract from political considerations about food sovereignty and independence from imports and focus instead on investigating whether the increased participation in global trade that the world has witnessed in the last 30 years has made the system more susceptible to large shocks. Our analysis reveals that: (i) the probability of larger supply shocks has not increased over time; (ii) the topological characteristics of the VW network are not such as to favor the systemic risk associated with shock propagation; and (iii) higher-order interconnections may reveal further important information about the structure of a network. Regarding the first result, fluctuations in output volumes, among the sources of shock analyzed here, are more likely to generate some instability. The first implication is that, on one side, past national or regional economic crises were not necessarily brought about or strengthened by global trade. The second, more remarkable, implication is that, on the other side, supporting a national policy of self-sufficiency in food production while progressively reducing the participation in international agricultural trade does not necessarily protect a country from economic instability. Moreover, it is well established in the literature that, over time, international food trade has favored more efficient use of water resources, at the global level. This fact, together with our conclusions, highlights the important role of international trade in driving the efficient allocation of water resources. To sum up, our evidence reveals that the increased globalization witnessed in the last 30 years is not associated with an increased frequency of adverse shocks (in either precipitation or food production). Furthermore, building on recent advances in network analysis that connect the stability of a complex system to the interaction between the distribution of shocks and the network topology, we find that the world is more interconnected, but not necessarily less stable.

  16. Fallible humans and vulnerable systems - Lessons learned from aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, Earl L.

    1987-01-01

    It is suggested that the problems being experienced in complex automatic systems are essentially due to the failure of information management and communication. The failure covers the entire spectrum: display devices and techniques, coding information so as to reduce human error, and information economy, i.e., resisting the temptation to bombard the operator with unlimited information simply because the system possesses the capability to do so. Since there has been great progress in hardware engineering, it is suggested that further attention is needed in the 'soft' side of systems. The approach should focus on (1) preventing human cognitive slips and (2) making the systems less vulnerable to such slips when they do occur. Most of the examples are taken from studies of cockpit automation.

  17. The extreme vulnerability of interdependent spatially embedded networks

    E-print Network

    Bashan, Amir; Buldyrev, Sergey V; Havlin, Shlomo

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies show that in interdependent networks a very small failure in one network may lead to catastrophic consequences. Above a critical fraction of interdependent nodes, even a single node failure can invoke cascading failures that may abruptly fragment the system, while below this "critical dependency" (CD) a failure of few nodes leads only to small damage to the system. So far, the research has been focused on interdependent random networks without space limitations. However, many real systems, such as power grids and the Internet, are not random but are spatially embedded. Here we analytically and numerically analyze the stability of systems consisting of interdependent spatially embedded networks modeled as lattice networks. Surprisingly, we find that in lattice systems, in contrast to non-embedded systems, there is no CD and \\textit{any} small fraction of interdependent nodes leads to an abrupt collapse. We show that this extreme vulnerability of very weakly coupled lattices is a consequence of t...

  18. Characterization of errors inherent in system EMP vulnerability assessment programs

    SciTech Connect

    Bevensee, R.M.; Cabayan, H.S.; Deadrick, F.J.; Martin, L.C.; Mensing, R.W.

    1980-10-01

    The overall objectives of the DNA-funded program at LLL are to provide a measure of accuracy of currently used EMP vulnerability assessment methodology. In addition, system tools are to be provided to improve the confidence in assessment efforts, which in turn will result in improved confidence in establishing hardening requirements. During Phase I, assessment techniques currently used by the EMP community are surveyed and the sources of uncertainty are identified. Typical data are presented for quantifying the major sources of uncertainty in all phases of the assessment effort. During this phase, a statistical methodology to assess the impact of uncertainty on the survivability of a system has been partially validated with a simple system test.

  19. Psychological vulnerabilities and propensities for involvement in violent extremism.

    PubMed

    Borum, Randy

    2014-01-01

    Research on the psychology of terrorism has argued against the idea that most terrorist behavior is caused by mental illness or by a terrorist personality. This article suggests an alternative line of inquiry - an individual psychology of terrorism that explores how otherwise normal mental states and processes, built on characteristic attitudes, dispositions, inclinations, and intentions, might affect a person's propensity for involvement with violent extremist groups and actions. It uses the concepts of "mindset" - a relatively enduring set of attitudes, dispositions, and inclinations - and worldview as the basis of a psychological "climate," within which various vulnerabilities and propensities shape ideas and behaviors in ways that can increase the person's risk or likelihood of involvement in violent extremism. PMID:24652686

  20. Evaluating Common Privacy Vulnerabilities in Internet Service Providers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotzanikolaou, Panayiotis; Maniatis, Sotirios; Nikolouzou, Eugenia; Stathopoulos, Vassilios

    Privacy in electronic communications receives increased attention in both research and industry forums, stemming from both the users' needs and from legal and regulatory requirements in national or international context. Privacy in internet-based communications heavily relies on the level of security of the Internet Service Providers (ISPs), as well as on the security awareness of the end users. This paper discusses the role of the ISP in the privacy of the communications. Based on real security audits performed in national-wide ISPs, we illustrate privacy-specific threats and vulnerabilities that many providers fail to address when implementing their security policies. We subsequently provide and discuss specific security measures that the ISPs can implement, in order to fine-tune their security policies in the context of privacy protection.