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1

Silver release from decomposed hyperaccumulating Amanita solitaria fruit-body biomass strongly affects soil microbial community.  

PubMed

Interaction of Ag with communities of soil saprotrophic organisms was studied in two different soils using a metagenomic approach. Three levels of Ag were applied to the soil samples: 0, 0.008 and 0.505 ?g Ag/g soil. Silver was applied in mineral form as well as naturally bound in dry fruit-body biomass of the Ag-hyperaccumulating ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita solitaria. Contrasting behavior of fungi and bacteria in reaction to Ag dosages was observed. The majority of bacterial ribotypes tended to prefer the soil with low doses of Ag, the ribotypes of fungi were more abundant in untreated soils and soils treated with the highest Ag concentration. Organically bound and mineral forms of Ag did not differ substantially in their effects on microbes in samples. The results indicate that decomposing Ag-rich fungal biomass can significantly alter the soil microbiota. This can contribute to formation of spot-like non-homogeneities in soil microbial distribution. PMID:22684239

Gryndler, Milan; Hršelová, Hana; Soukupová, Lucie; Borovi?ka, Jan

2012-06-10

2

What Does Vulnerability Mean?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Protection of those deemed vulnerable has received increasing attention since 2000. This article reports on care staff views of vulnerability using original data from a research study (Parley. "Vulnerability and abuse: an exploration of views of care staff working with people who have learning disabilities," PhD Thesis, 2007) in which care staff…

Parley, Fiona F

2011-01-01

3

Facility Environmental Vulnerability Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

From mid-April through the end of June 2001, a Facility Environmental Vulnerability Assessment (FEVA) was performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The primary goal of this FEVA was to establish an environmental vulnerability baseline at ORNL that could be used to support the Laboratory planning process and place environmental vulnerabilities in perspective. The information developed during the FEVA was

Van Hoesen

2001-01-01

4

Network vulnerability analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing volume of attacks on the Internet has increased the demand for sophisticated tools for vulnerability analysis, intrusion detection, forensic investigations, and possible responses. Current hacker tools and technologies warrant reengineering to address cyber crime and homeland security. The creation of network scanners is necessary to secure the information infrastructure by gathering network topology, intelligence, internal\\/external vulnerability analysis, and

B. Skaggs; B. Blackburn; G. Manes; S. Shenoi

2002-01-01

5

Vulnerable Children and Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings from two studies indicate that the nature of Canadian children's environments within their families, schools, neighborhoods, and communities has very strong effects on children's development and the prevalence of childhood vulnerability. Rather than stemming primarily from poverty, childhood vulnerability may arise from the environments…

Willms, J. Douglas

2002-01-01

6

Vulnerability for Depression.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The vulnerability to depression and the antecedents for depression were collected and analyzed for an epidemiological pilot study of depression. Results of one test showed those categorized as 'invulnerables' as having a more positive opinion of their soc...

P. M. Lewinsohn

1980-01-01

7

Large-scale vulnerability analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The security level of networks and systems is determined by the software vulnerabilities of its elements. Defending against large scale attacks requires a quantitative understanding of the vulnerability lifecycle. Specifically, one has to understand how exploitation and remediation of vulnerabilities, as well as the distribution of information thereof is handled by industry.In this paper, we examine how vulnerabilities are handled

Stefan Frei; Martin May; Ulrich Fiedler; Bernhard Plattner

2006-01-01

8

Understanding vulnerabilities by refining taxonomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since early 90s, experts have proposed various ways to prevent exploitations and avoid releasing software with vulnerabilities. One way is through educating developers with information on known vulnerabilities using taxonomy of vulnerabilities as a guide. However, the guide using taxonomy of vulnerabilities has not shown to mitigate the issues. One possibility is due to the existence of gaps in producing

Nurul Haszeli Ahmad; Syed Ahmad Aljunid; Jamalul-lail Ab Manan

2011-01-01

9

Energy vulnerability relationships  

SciTech Connect

The US consumption of crude oil resources has been a steadily growing indicator of the vitality and strength of the US economy. At the same time import diversity has also been a rapidly developing dimension of the import picture. In the early 1970`s, embargoes of crude oil from Organization of Producing and Exporting Countries (OPEC) created economic and political havoc due to a significant lack of diversity and a unique set of economic, political and domestic regulatory circumstances. The continued rise of imports has again led to concerns over the security of our crude oil resource but threats to this system must be considered in light of the diversity and current setting of imported oil. This report develops several important issues concerning vulnerability to the disruption of oil imports: (1) The Middle East is not the major supplier of oil to the United States, (2) The US is not vulnerable to having its entire import stream disrupted, (3) Even in stable countries, there exist vulnerabilities to disruption of the export stream of oil, (4) Vulnerability reduction requires a focus on international solutions, and (5) DOE program and policy development must reflect the requirements of the diverse supply. Does this increasing proportion of imported oil create a {open_quotes}dependence{close_quotes}? Does this increasing proportion of imported oil present a vulnerability to {open_quotes}price shocks{close_quotes} and the tremendous dislocations experienced during the 1970`s? Finally, what is the vulnerability of supply disruptions from the current sources of imported oil? If oil is considered to be a finite, rapidly depleting resource, then the answers to these questions must be {open_quotes}yes.{close_quotes} However, if the supply of oil is expanding, and not limited, then dependence is relative to regional supply sources.

Shaw, B.R.; Boesen, J.L.

1998-02-01

10

Mutual vulnerability, mutual dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human society affects environmental change but is also vulnerable to these changes. This relation has generated a number of theories that either focus on how we affect the environment or how the environment affects us. Few theories explicitly focus on the interaction. This paper will establish the range of data required to give an assessment of how likely an ecosystem

Evan D. G. Fraser; Warren Mabee; Olav Slaymaker

2003-01-01

11

Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude…

Schuckit, Marc A.

1987-01-01

12

Network Vulnerability Analysis Through Vulnerability Take-Grant Model (VTG)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeling and analysis of information system vulnerabilities helps us to predict possible attacks to networks using the network configuration and vul- nerabilities information. As a fact, exploiting most of vulnerabilities result in access rights alteration. In this paper, we propose a new vulnerability analysis method based on the Take-Grant protection model. We extend the initial Take- Grant model to address

Hamid Reza Shahriari; Reza Sadoddin; Rasool Jalili; Reza Zakeri; Ali Reza Omidian

2005-01-01

13

Legitimate businesses and crime vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the potential of vulnerability studies of economic activities to study the relationship between organised crime and the economy and illustrate it by examples taken from a vulnerability study of the European waste management industry. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Based on both economical and criminological perspectives a scanning tool for assessing the vulnerability

Tom Vander Beken; Stijn Van Daele

2008-01-01

14

Mushrooming vulnerability to EMP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electromagnetic pulse (EMP) generated by a single thermonuclear bomb detonated above the continental U.S. could set up electrical fields of 50 kV\\/m over nearly all of North America. Since the progressively microminiaturized integrated circuits of current military and civilian electronics become more vulnerable with decreasing circuit element size, even shield-protected chips can now be destroyed by the substantially shield-dampened

E. J. Lerner

1984-01-01

15

HEPA Filter Vulnerability Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This assessment of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter vulnerability was requested by the USDOE Office of River Protection (ORP) to satisfy a DOE-HQ directive to evaluate the effect of filter degradation on the facility authorization basis assumptions. Within the scope of this assessment are ventilation system HEPA filters that are classified as Safety-Class (SC) or Safety-Significant (SS) components that perform an accident mitigation function. The objective of the assessment is to verify whether HEPA filters that perform a safety function during an accident are likely to perform as intended to limit release of hazardous or radioactive materials, considering factors that could degrade the filters. Filter degradation factors considered include aging, wetting of filters, exposure to high temperature, exposure to corrosive or reactive chemicals, and exposure to radiation. Screening and evaluation criteria were developed by a site-wide group of HVAC engineers and HEPA filter experts from published empirical data. For River Protection Project (RPP) filters, the only degradation factor that exceeded the screening threshold was for filter aging. Subsequent evaluation of the effect of filter aging on the filter strength was conducted, and the results were compared with required performance to meet the conditions assumed in the RPP Authorization Basis (AB). It was found that the reduction in filter strength due to aging does not affect the filter performance requirements as specified in the AB. A portion of the HEPA filter vulnerability assessment is being conducted by the ORP and is not part of the scope of this study. The ORP is conducting an assessment of the existing policies and programs relating to maintenance, testing, and change-out of HEPA filters used for SC/SS service. This document presents the results of a HEPA filter vulnerability assessment conducted for the River protection project as requested by the DOE Office of River Protection.

GUSTAVSON, R.D.

2000-05-11

16

Aging and Neuronal Vulnerability  

PubMed Central

Everyone ages, but only some will acquire a neurodegenerative disorder in the process. Disease might occur when cells fail to respond adaptively to age-related increases in oxidative, metabolic and ionic stress resulting in excessive accumulation of damaged proteins, DNA and membranes. Determinants of neuronal vulnerability might include cell size and location, metabolism of disease-specific proteins, and repertoire of signal transduction pathways and stress resistance mechanisms. Emerging evidence on protein interaction networks that monitor and respond to the normal aging process suggests that successful neural aging is possible for most, but also cautions that cures for neurodegenerative disorders are unlikely in the near future.

Mattson, Mark P.; Magnus, Tim

2011-01-01

17

Classification of vulnerability information  

SciTech Connect

The current upgrading of security measures at sensitive Department of Energy (DOE) facilities reflects the continuing concern over possible terrorist and other criminal acts against these facilities. Security reviews are periodically conducted at DOE facilities, deficiencies are identified, and corrective actions are recommended. While security upgrades are initiated as soon as possible, the process of securing funding and the construction or other activities necessary to complete upgrades can cause delays in correcting security vulnerabilities. Details of security weaknesses at important DOE facilities are classified in order to deny valuable information to terrorists and other malefactors.

Gibson, W.G.

1984-07-01

18

Beyond 'vulnerable groups': contexts and dynamics of vulnerability.  

PubMed

This paper reviews approaches to vulnerability in public health, introducing a series of 10 papers addressing vulnerability in health in Africa. We understand vulnerability as simultaneously a condition and a process. Social inequalities are manifest in and exacerbate three key dimensions of vulnerability: the initial level of wellbeing, the degree of exposure to risk, and the capacity to manage risk effectively. We stress the dynamic interactions linking material and social deprivation, poverty, powerlessness and ill health: risks or shocks and their health impacts are intimately interconnected and reinforce each other in a cycle which in the absence of effective interventions, increases vulnerability. An inductive process which does not begin with an a priori definition or measurement of 'vulnerability' and which does not assume the existence of fixed 'vulnerable groups' allowed us both to re-affirm core aspects of existing conceptual frameworks, and to engage in new ways with literature specifically addressing vulnerability and resilience at the population level as well as with literature - for example in ecology, and on the concept of frailty in research on aging - with which researchers on health and poverty in Africa may not be familiar. We invite conceptual and empirical work on vulnerability in complex systems frameworks. These perspectives emphasize contexts and nonlinear causality thus supporting analyses of vulnerability and resilience as both markers and emergent properties of dynamic interactions. We accept a working definition of vulnerability, and recognize that some definable groups of people are more likely than others to suffer harm from exposure to health risks. But we suggest that the real work - at both intellectual and policy/political levels - lies in understanding and responding to the dynamics, meanings and power relations underlying actual instances and processes of vulnerability and harm. PMID:23549696

Zarowsky, Christina; Haddad, Slim; Nguyen, Vinh-Kim

2013-03-01

19

Common Control System Vulnerability  

SciTech Connect

The Control Systems Security Program and other programs within the Idaho National Laboratory have discovered a vulnerability common to control systems in all sectors that allows an attacker to penetrate most control systems, spoof the operator, and gain full control of targeted system elements. This vulnerability has been identified on several systems that have been evaluated at INL, and in each case a 100% success rate of completing the attack paths that lead to full system compromise was observed. Since these systems are employed in multiple critical infrastructure sectors, this vulnerability is deemed common to control systems in all sectors. Modern control systems architectures can be considered analogous to today's information networks, and as such are usually approached by attackers using a common attack methodology to penetrate deeper and deeper into the network. This approach often is composed of several phases, including gaining access to the control network, reconnaissance, profiling of vulnerabilities, launching attacks, escalating privilege, maintaining access, and obscuring or removing information that indicates that an intruder was on the system. With irrefutable proof that an external attack can lead to a compromise of a computing resource on the organization's business local area network (LAN), access to the control network is usually considered the first phase in the attack plan. Once the attacker gains access to the control network through direct connections and/or the business LAN, the second phase of reconnaissance begins with traffic analysis within the control domain. Thus, the communications between the workstations and the field device controllers can be monitored and evaluated, allowing an attacker to capture, analyze, and evaluate the commands sent among the control equipment. Through manipulation of the communication protocols of control systems (a process generally referred to as ''reverse engineering''), an attacker can then map out the control system processes and functions. With the detailed knowledge of how the control data functions, as well as what computers and devices communicate using this data, the attacker can use a well known Man-in-the-Middle attack to perform malicious operations virtually undetected. The control systems assessment teams have used this method to gather enough information about the system to craft an attack that intercepts and changes the information flow between the end devices (controllers) and the human machine interface (HMI and/or workstation). Using this attack, the cyber assessment team has been able to demonstrate complete manipulation of devices in control systems while simultaneously modifying the data flowing back to the operator's console to give false information of the state of the system (known as ''spoofing''). This is a very effective technique for a control system attack because it allows the attacker to manipulate the system and the operator's situational awareness of the perceived system status. The three main elements of this attack technique are: (1) network reconnaissance and data gathering, (2) reverse engineering, and (3) the Man-in-the-Middle attack. The details of this attack technique and the mitigation techniques are discussed.

Trent Nelson

2005-12-01

20

Social Vulnerability to Environmental Hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

County-level socioeconomic and demographic data were used to construct an index of social vulnerability to environmental hazards, called the Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for the United States based on 1990 data. Copyright (c) 2003 by the Southwestern Social Science Association.

Susan L. Cutter; Bryan J. Boruff; W. Lynn Shirley

2003-01-01

21

Vulnerability due to Nocturnal Tornadoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the human vulnerability caused by tornadoes that occurred between sunset and sunrise from 1880 to 2007. Nocturnal tornadoes are theorized to enhance vulnerability because they are difficult to spot and occur when the public tends to be asleep and in weak building structures. Results illustrate that the nocturnal tornado death rate over the past century has not

Walker S. Ashley; Andrew J. Krmenec; Rick Schwantes

2008-01-01

22

Genetic Algorithm in Vulnerability Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic hazard analysis and vulnerability evaluation are two parts of seismic risk assessment. The form of the vulnerability evaluation procedure in HAZUS99, which is widely adopted in US and world wide, is taken as reference. A hybrid approach integrated the Simplex with the Generic Algorithm is adopted to inverse the parameters of capacity curve and fragility curve from the earthquake

Zheng-ru Tao; Xia-xin Tao

2009-01-01

23

Vulnerability and all that jazz: Addressing vulnerability in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay reviews the concept of vulnerability, paying special attention to the vulnerability of New Orleans exposed by Hurricane Katrina, and the need for interdisciplinary approaches to reducing vulnerability. Vulnerability is defined as a function of exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. Physical vulnerability results from exposure, and social vulnerability emanates from social factors that place people in highly exposed areas,

Brent Yarnal

2007-01-01

24

The protection of vulnerable adults.  

PubMed

Abuse of vulnerable adults is a growing yet under-reported problem. Episodes of abuse are often considered to be rare dramatic incidents of physical or sexual abuse. However, most incidents of abuse relate to poor practice, neglect and poor management. The great majority of abuse, 67%, occurs in the person's own home with 22% occurring in care homes and 5% in hospital. Therefore, district nurses are well placed to identify those suffering or at risk of abuse. As well as criminal sanctions for abuse against the vulnerable, the government has attempted to prevent those who might abuse the vulnerable from working in health and social care through the Protection of Vulnerable Adult scheme. This scheme is to be replaced in the autumn of 2009 by the Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act 2006, that will see the remit of the Vetting and Barring system extended to the NHS and will include district nurses. In this article Richard Griffith and Cassam Tengnah discuss the incidence and forms of abuse against the vulnerable and go on to consider the case put forward for replacing the current Protection of Vulnerable Adult scheme. PMID:19516232

Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam

2009-06-01

25

Race and Vulnerability to Stress: An Examination of Differential Vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article the possibility of race differences in vulnerability to stress is considered. Structural models linking socioeconomic status, age, and life-change events to psychological distress are fit to blacks’ and whites’ data, which were obtained in a community survey of 829 Florida residents to evaluate differences in vulnerability. Life-change-distress paths were slightly larger among blacks than among whites, though

James Alan Neff

1985-01-01

26

Topological Analysis of Network Attack Vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand overall vulnerability to network attack, one must consider attacker exploits not just in isolation, but also in combination. That is, one must analyze how low-level vulnerabilities can be combined to achieve high-level attack goals. In this chapter, we describe a tool that implements an integrated, topological approach to network vulnerability analysis. Our Topological Vulnerability Analysis (TVA) tool automates

Sushil Jajodia; Steven Noel; Brian O’Berry

27

Vulnerability Analysis in Earthquake Loss Estimate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abodes in Costa Rica have almost the samevulnerability as the old civil houses in China, whichrepresent the vulnerability in worst cases. On theother hand, the high quality buildings in Middle Easthave the same vulnerability as the reinforced concretebuildings in China due to employing thestate-of-art-design and construction techniques, whichrepresent the vulnerability of the best cases. Themacroeconomic vulnerability is defined as

Chen Yong; Chen Qi-fu; Chen Ling

2001-01-01

28

Infrastructure Vulnerability Assessment Model (I-VAM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Abstract Quantifying vulnerability to critical infrastructure has not been adequately addressed in the literature. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to present a model that quantifies vulnerability. Vulnerability is defined as a measure of system susceptibility to threat scenarios. This paper asserts that vulnerability is a condition of the system and it can be quantified using the Infrastructure

Barry Charles Ezell

2007-01-01

29

Are Vulnerability Disclosure Deadlines Justified?  

SciTech Connect

Vulnerability research organizations Rapid7, Google Security team, and Zero Day Initiative recently imposed grace periods for public disclosure of vulnerabilities. The grace periods ranged from 45 to 182 days, after which disclosure might occur with or without an effective mitigation from the affected software vendor. At this time there is indirect evidence that the shorter grace periods of 45 and 60 days may not be practical. However, there is strong evidence that the recently announced Zero Day Initiative grace period of 182 days yields benefit in speeding up the patch creation process, and may be practical for many software products. Unfortunately, there is also evidence that the 182 day grace period results in more vulnerability announcements without an available patch.

Miles McQueen; Jason L. Wright; Lawrence Wellman

2011-09-01

30

Identifying and mapping community vulnerability.  

PubMed

Disaster vulnerability is socially constructed, i.e., it arises out of the social and economic circumstances of everyday living. Most often discussed from the perspective of developing nations, this article extends the argument using American demographic trends. Examples from recent disasters, Hurricane Andrew in particular, illustrate how certain categories of people, such as the poor, the elderly, women-headed households and recent residents, are at greater risk throughout the disaster response process. Knowledge of where these groups are concentrated within communities and the general nature of their circumstances is an important step towards effective emergency management. Emergency planners, policy-makers and responding organisations are encouraged to identify and locate high-risk sectors on Community Vulnerability Maps, integrating this information into GIS systems where feasible. Effective disaster management calls for aggressively involving these neighbourhoods and groups at all levels of planning and response, as well as mitigation efforts that address the root causes of vulnerability. PMID:10204285

Morrow, B H

1999-03-01

31

The Vulnerability of Science and the Science of Vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The events of September 11th shocked the nation and painfully illustrated our vulnerability to international terrorist attacks. Despite some of the most sophisticated models, monitoring systems, and science in the world, officials were unable to anticipate and predict these cascading events. The collective scientific ability to geographically represent environmental threats, map exposures, and map consequences is relatively straightforward when the

Susan L. Cutter

2003-01-01

32

Adaptation, adaptive capacity and vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the concept of adaptation of human communities to global changes, especially climate change, in the context of adaptive capacity and vulnerability. It focuses on scholarship that contributes to practical implementation of adaptations at the community scale. In numerous social science fields, adaptations are considered as responses to risks associated with the interaction of environmental hazards and human

Barry Smit; Johanna Wandel

2006-01-01

33

Compounding Vulnerability: Pregnancy and Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predominant ethical framework for addressing reproductive decisions in the maternal–fetal relationship is respect for the woman's autonomy. However, when a pregnant schizophrenic woman lacks such autonomy, healthcare providers try to both protect her and respect her preferences. By delineating etic (objective) and emic (subjective) perspectives on vulnerability, I argue that options which balance both perspectives are preferable and that

Denise M. Dudzinski

2006-01-01

34

US Vulnerability to Natural Disasters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural disasters result from the coincidence of natural events with the built environment. Our nation's infrastructure is growing at an exponential rate in many areas of high risk, and the Federal government's liability is increasing proportionally. By superimposing population density with predicted ground motion from earthquakes, historical hurricane tracks, historical tornado locations, and areas within the flood plain, we are able to identify locations of high vulnerability within the United States. We present a comprehensive map of disaster risk for the United States that is being produced for the Senate Natural Hazards Caucus. The map allows for the geographic comparison of natural disaster risk with past disaster declarations, the expenditure of Federal dollars for disaster relief, population increase, and variations of GDP. Every state is vulnerable to natural disasters. Although their frequency varies considerably, the annualized losses for disaster relief from hurricanes, earthquakes, and floods are approximately equivalent. While fast-growing states such as California and Florida remain highly vulnerable, changes in the occurrence of natural events combined with population increases are making areas such as Texas, North Carolina, and the East Coast increasingly vulnerable.

van der Vink, G.; Apgar, S.; Batchelor, A.; Carter, C.; Gail, D.; Jarrett, A.; Levine, N.; Morgan, W.; Orlikowski, M.; Pray, T.; Raymar, M.; Siebert, A.; Shawa, T. W.; Wallace, C.

2002-05-01

35

Vulnerability and Resilience in Oceania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pacific and other islands have long been represented as sites of vulnerability. Despite this, communities on many Pacific islands survived for millennia prior to the intrusion of people from Europe into their realm. An examination of traditional disaster reduction measures indicates that traditional Pacific island communities coped with many of the effects of extreme events that today give rise to

JOHN CAMPBELL

36

Yet Another Symbian Vulnerability Update  

Microsoft Academic Search

The more the mobile devices are approaching to advance their security, the numbers of vulnerabilities are also becoming more astonishing. The number of mobile phones including smart phones is rising vertically, and so has the amount of malware activity. This report documents the latest threats in Symbian mobile industry and analyses the consequence. In addition, it will suggest the possible

Nizam Uddin Bhuiyan

2010-01-01

37

An airport vulnerability assessment methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper highlights a general vulnerability assessment methodology and procedural tools that have been developed, refined, and applied to more than one hundred facilities over a 20-year period. The methodology and tools were adapted to conduct assessments of two major airports in the United States. The methodology is applied in a logical, sequenced fashion that considers the threat, target identification,

J. D. Veatch; J. W. James; T. T. May; T. M. Wood; E. M. Kruse

1999-01-01

38

Cognitive vulnerability and dental fear  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Cognitive Vulnerability Model proposes that perceptions of certain characteristics of a situation are critical determinants of fear. Although the model is applicable to all animal, natural environment and situational fears, it has not yet been applied specifically to dental fear. This study therefore aimed to examine the association between dental fear and perceptions of dental visits as uncontrollable,

Jason M Armfield; Gary D Slade; A John Spencer

2008-01-01

39

Cognitive vulnerabilities to the development of PTSD: A review of four vulnerabilities and the proposal of an integrative vulnerability model  

Microsoft Academic Search

While some individuals develop PTSD subsequent to traumatic experiences, many individuals resume prior functioning naturally. Diathesis-stress models suggest that stable individual differences present in individuals prior to trauma may serve as vulnerability factors to symptom development. The high levels of comorbidity and symptom similarity suggest that established vulnerability factors for anxiety and depression may also serve as vulnerability factors for

Lisa S. Elwood; Kathryn S. Hahn; Bunmi O. Olatunji; Nathan L. Williams

2009-01-01

40

Application of PRA to HEMP Vulnerability Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vulnerability analyses of large systems, e.g., control and communication centers, aircraft, ships, are subject to many uncertainties. A basic source of uncertainty is the random variation inherent in the physical world. Thus, vulnerability is appropriatel...

R. W. Mensing

1985-01-01

41

MID-ATLANTIC REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

ORD's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (REVA) Program is developing and demonstrating approaches to assess current and future environmental vulnerabilities so that risk management activities can be targeted. The sister program to EMA.P (Environmental Monitoring Assessment Progr...

42

Energy's Water Demand: Trends, Vulnerabilities, and Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Energy's Water Use: A Policy Introduction (Scope and Structure of This Report); Energy Trends Shape Water Demand; Energy Sector's Vulnerability to Water Constraints (Climate Change Could Increase Energy's Freshwater Vulnerability); How Much Wate...

N. T. Carter

2010-01-01

43

A Framework for Network Vulnerability Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

With increasing faults and attacks on the Internet infrastructure, there is an urgent need to develop techniques to analyze network and service vulnerability under organized fault attacks. Network vulnerability refers to the impact of attacks and faults on network and system behaviors. An accurate vulnerability analysis requires a deep understanding of failure modes and effects on each of the network

Guangzhi Qu; Jayprakash Rudraraju; R. Modukuri; Salim Hariri; C. S. Raghavendra

2002-01-01

44

A Methodological Overview of Network Vulnerability Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluating network infrastructures for potential vulnerabilities is an important component of strategic planning, particularly in the context of managing and mitigating service disruptions. Many methods have been proposed to facilitate such analysis, providing different interpretations of infrastructure vulnerability. The primary approaches that have been employed for network vulnerability analysis can be broadly classified as \\

ALAN T. MURRAY; TIMOTHY C. MATISZIW; TONY H. GRUBESIC

2008-01-01

45

Methodology for network communication vulnerability analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A framework for a developing network vulnerability assessment methodology is described. An original network taxonomy is used to orient the analyst to the new network and to assess the potential vulnerability issues. Four network characteristics are used, as in data link vulnerability analysis susceptibility; interceptability; accessibility; and feasibility. Susceptibility issues are pursued in terms of three perspectives: topology; communication protocols;

Marlin P. Ristenbatt

1988-01-01

46

Vulnerability genes or plasticity genes?  

PubMed Central

The classic diathesis–stress framework, which views some individuals as particularly vulnerable to adversity, informs virtually all psychiatric research on behavior–gene–environment (G × E) interaction. An alternative framework of ‘differential susceptibility' is proposed, one which regards those most susceptible to adversity because of their genetic make up as simultaneously most likely to benefit from supportive or enriching experiences—or even just the absence of adversity. Recent G × E findings consistent with this perspective and involving monoamine oxidase-A, 5-HTTLPR (5-hydroxytryptamine-linked polymorphic region polymorphism) and dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) are reviewed for illustrative purposes. Results considered suggest that putative ‘vulnerability genes' or ‘risk alleles' might, at times, be more appropriately conceptualized as ‘plasticity genes', because they seem to make individuals more susceptible to environmental influences—for better and for worse.

Belsky, J; Jonassaint, C; Pluess, M; Stanton, M; Brummett, B; Williams, R

2009-01-01

47

Are Fishers Poor or Vulnerable? Assessing Economic Vulnerability in Small-Scale Fishing Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

An index of economic vulnerability is developed and used with a more conventional measure of income poverty to explore vulnerability and chronic poverty in isolated rural communities. The method is applied to data from remote rural fishing–farming communities in Congo. The analysis highlights the high vulnerability of full-time fisherfolk and identifies mobility as a key factor increasing vulnerability. In line

Christophe Béné

2009-01-01

48

Vulnerability genes or plasticity genes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classic diathesis–stress framework, which views some individuals as particularly vulnerable to adversity, informs virtually all psychiatric research on behavior–gene–environment (G × E) interaction. An alternative framework of ‘differential susceptibility’ is proposed, one which regards those most susceptible to adversity because of their genetic make up as simultaneously most likely to benefit from supportive or enriching experiences—or even just the

J Belsky; C Jonassaint; M Pluess; M Stanton; B Brummett; R Williams

2009-01-01

49

Assessing the Security Vulnerabilities of Correctional Facilities  

SciTech Connect

The National Institute of Justice has tasked their Satellite Facility at Sandia National Laboratories and their Southeast Regional Technology Center in Charleston, South Carolina to devise new procedures and tools for helping correctional facilities to assess their security vulnerabilities. Thus, a team is visiting selected correctional facilities and performing vulnerability assessments. A vulnerability assessment helps to identi~ the easiest paths for inmate escape, for introduction of contraband such as drugs or weapons, for unexpected intrusion fi-om outside of the facility, and for the perpetration of violent acts on other inmates and correctional employees, In addition, the vulnerability assessment helps to quantify the security risks for the facility. From these initial assessments will come better procedures for performing vulnerability assessments in general at other correctional facilities, as well as the development of tools to assist with the performance of such vulnerability assessments.

Morrison, G.S.; Spencer, D.S.

1998-10-27

50

Mapping Community Determinants of Heat Vulnerability  

PubMed Central

Background The evidence that heat waves can result in both increased deaths and illness is substantial, and concern over this issue is rising because of climate change. Adverse health impacts from heat waves can be avoided, and epidemiologic studies have identified specific population and community characteristics that mark vulnerability to heat waves. Objectives We situated vulnerability to heat in geographic space and identified potential areas for intervention and further research. Methods We mapped and analyzed 10 vulnerability factors for heat-related morbidity/mortality in the United States: six demographic characteristics and two household air conditioning variables from the U.S. Census Bureau, vegetation cover from satellite images, and diabetes prevalence from a national survey. We performed a factor analysis of these 10 variables and assigned values of increasing vulnerability for the four resulting factors to each of 39,794 census tracts. We added the four factor scores to obtain a cumulative heat vulnerability index value. Results Four factors explained > 75% of the total variance in the original 10 vulnerability variables: a) social/environmental vulnerability (combined education/poverty/race/green space), b) social isolation, c) air conditioning prevalence, and d) proportion elderly/diabetes. We found substantial spatial variability of heat vulnerability nationally, with generally higher vulnerability in the Northeast and Pacific Coast and the lowest in the Southeast. In urban areas, inner cities showed the highest vulnerability to heat. Conclusions These methods provide a template for making local and regional heat vulnerability maps. After validation using health outcome data, interventions can be targeted at the most vulnerable populations.

Reid, Colleen E.; O'Neill, Marie S.; Gronlund, Carina J.; Brines, Shannon J.; Brown, Daniel G.; Diez-Roux, Ana V.; Schwartz, Joel

2009-01-01

51

ICBM vulnerability: Calculations, predictions, and error bars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) silo vulnerability is reviewed, and the present and probable future (mid-1990s) vulnerability of US silos is analyzed. The analysis emphasizes methodology, sources of information, and uncertainties. US ICBMs might still be survivable today but they will certainly be vulnerable to ICBM attack, and perhaps even to submarine-launched ballistic missile attack, by the mid-1990s.

Art Hobson

1988-01-01

52

Mining Bug Databases for Unidentified Software Vulnerabilities  

SciTech Connect

Identifying software vulnerabilities is becoming more important as critical and sensitive systems increasingly rely on complex software systems. It has been suggested in previous work that some bugs are only identified as vulnerabilities long after the bug has been made public. These vulnerabilities are known as hidden impact vulnerabilities. This paper discusses the feasibility and necessity to mine common publicly available bug databases for vulnerabilities that are yet to be identified. We present bug database analysis of two well known and frequently used software packages, namely Linux kernel and MySQL. It is shown that for both Linux and MySQL, a significant portion of vulnerabilities that were discovered for the time period from January 2006 to April 2011 were hidden impact vulnerabilities. It is also shown that the percentage of hidden impact vulnerabilities has increased in the last two years, for both software packages. We then propose an improved hidden impact vulnerability identification methodology based on text mining bug databases, and conclude by discussing a few potential problems faced by such a classifier.

Dumidu Wijayasekara; Milos Manic; Jason Wright; Miles McQueen

2012-06-01

53

Proliferation Vulnerability Red Team report  

SciTech Connect

This report is the product of a four-month independent technical assessment of potential proliferation vulnerabilities associated with the plutonium disposition alternatives currently under review by DOE/MD. The scope of this MD-chartered/Sandia-led study was limited to technical considerations that could reduce proliferation resistance during various stages of the disposition processes below the Stored Weapon/Spent Fuel standards. Both overt and covert threats from host nation and unauthorized parties were considered. The results of this study will be integrated with complementary work by others into an overall Nonproliferation and Arms Control Assessment in support of a Secretarial Record of Decision later this year for disposition of surplus U.S. weapons plutonium.

Hinton, J.P.; Barnard, R.W.; Bennett, D.E. [and others

1996-10-01

54

Infrastructure Vulnerability Assessment Model (I-VAM).  

PubMed

Quantifying vulnerability to critical infrastructure has not been adequately addressed in the literature. Thus, the purpose of this article is to present a model that quantifies vulnerability. Vulnerability is defined as a measure of system susceptibility to threat scenarios. This article asserts that vulnerability is a condition of the system and it can be quantified using the Infrastructure Vulnerability Assessment Model (I-VAM). The model is presented and then applied to a medium-sized clean water system. The model requires subject matter experts (SMEs) to establish value functions and weights, and to assess protection measures of the system. Simulation is used to account for uncertainty in measurement, aggregate expert assessment, and to yield a vulnerability (Omega) density function. Results demonstrate that I-VAM is useful to decisionmakers who prefer quantification to qualitative treatment of vulnerability. I-VAM can be used to quantify vulnerability to other infrastructures, supervisory control and data acquisition systems (SCADA), and distributed control systems (DCS). PMID:17640208

Ezell, Barry Charles

2007-06-01

55

Network Security Vulnerabilities in SCADA and EMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power system deregulation brings broader reliance on information systems and telecommunication network to share the critical and non-critical data. In par with the network system expansion in power system, network security vulnerabilities have increased tremendously. Utilities are currently more vulnerable for external attacks due to integration of cooperate network and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system at modern utilities.

M. T. O. Amanullah; A. Kalam; A. Zayegh

2005-01-01

56

Vulnerability to air pollution health effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionAmbient air pollution can have adverse effects on the health of exposed populations, but individuals or groups are not equally vulnerable, and pollution reduction benefits are likely to be unevenly distributed within a population. While the use of total-population risks is a valid approach for public health protection, it is increasingly recognized that more attention on vulnerable groups is necessary.

Anna Makri; Nikolaos I. Stilianakis

2008-01-01

57

Model-Based Analysis of Configuration Vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vulnerability analysis is concerned with the problem of identifying weaknesses in computer systems that can be exploited to compromise their security. In this paper we describe a new approach to vulnerability analysis based on model checking. Our approach involves: • Formal specification of desired security properties. An example of such a property is \\

C. R. Ramakrishnan; R. C. Sekar

2002-01-01

58

Vulnerability Assessment of Mining Subsidence Hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the last mining subsidence events, which occurred in the iron-ore field in Lorraine (France) in 1996, 1997 and 1999, and because of the thousand hectares of undermined areas, the assessment of vulnerability of buildings and territories became necessary for risk management. The ten last years highlight evolutions of the vulnerability concept and its assessment method between the first risk

Olivier Deck; Thierry Verdel; Romuald Salmon

2009-01-01

59

Airport vulnerability assessment-an analytical approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Airport Vulnerability Assessment Project (AVAP), is the direct result of congressional funding of recommendation 3.13 of the White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security. This project takes a new approach to the assessment of US commercial airports. AVAP uses automation analytical methods and tools to evaluate vulnerability and risk, and to analyze cost\\/benefits in a more quantitative manner.

R. Lazarick

1998-01-01

60

VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT THROUGH INTEGRATED TRANSPORTATION ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vulnerability assessment is the analysis of a system for weaknesses that could be exploited and the determination of the probability of an attack on those weaknesses. Transportation vulnerability assessment is concerned with our transportation system. Highway, bridge, airport, rail, transit, and intermodal infrastructure are part of our transportation system. Automobiles, trucks, airplanes, trains, and transit vehicles are part of our

Jacqueline Hood; Tim Olivas; Chuck Slocter; Barry Howard; David P Albright

2003-01-01

61

Tajikistan’s Vulnerability to Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tajikistan is classified by the World Bank as one of the CIS countries that are most vulnerable to climate change risks. This paper provides a closer look at a set of variables that determine Tajikistan’s vulnerability to risk in general and to climate change risk in particular. After presenting some background information on Tajikistan (Chapter 1), we provide a conceptual

Zvi Lerman

2011-01-01

62

Automatically fixing security vulnerabilities in Java code  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most kinds of security vulnerabilities in web applications can be fixed by adding appropriate sanitization methods. Finding the correct place for the sanitizers can be difficult due to complicated data and control flow. Fixing SQL injection vulnerabilities may require more complex transformations, such as replacing uses of Statement by PreparedStatement, which could include some code motion. We have developed algorithms

Aharon Abadi; Ran Ettinger; Yishai A. Feldman; Mati Shomrat

2011-01-01

63

Statically Detecting Likely Buffer Overflow Vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buffer overflow attacks may be today's single most important security threat. This paper presents a new approach to mitigating buffer overflow vulnerabilities by detecting likely vulnerabilities through an analysis of the program source code. Our approach exploits information provided in semantic comments and uses lightweight and efficient static analyses. This paper describes an implementation of our approach that extends the

David Larochelle; David Evans

2001-01-01

64

Health care service use among vulnerable adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the patterns of health care service use among a cohort of vulnerable adolescents with a history of homelessness and uses the Expanded Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations to examine factors associated with use of ambulatory and emergent care. We incorporated a health care interview into an existing longitudinal study of newly homeless adolescents, at their 24-month assessment

M. Rosa Solorio; Norweeta G. Milburn; Ronald M. Andersen; Sharone Trifskin; Lillian Gelberg

2006-01-01

65

Automatic Testing of Program Security Vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vulnerabilities in applications and their widespread exploitation through successful attacks are common these days. Testing applications for preventing vulnerabilities is an important step to address this issue. In recent years, a number of security testing approaches have been proposed. However, there is no comparative study of these work that might help security practitioners select an appropriate approach for their needs.

Hossain Shahriar; Mohammad Zulkernine

2009-01-01

66

Ship infrared detection/vulnerability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IR contrast of ships at sea is of importance for those who want to detect or identify the ship and for those who worry about this. This IR contrast is determined by a large number of parameters. Of course temperatures of the ship's structure and those of the ambient sea and air are important, but also important are the reflection properties of the sea background and the radiance distribution of the surrounding sky. Modeling of these phenomena appears to be very complicated and the accuracy of the results is rather course in many cases. Therefore, at FEL- TNO an approach has been followed, using a package of sensors on board the ship, giving radiometric or real temperature data of specific surface elements and background radiometric data. These data are taken into a PC system, providing radiant contrast data in any IR-spectral band. Taking into account atmospheric propagation effects and sensor performance, a simplified detection model provides range data in the form of polar diagrams with elevation as parameter. The commander of the ship uses the system as an IR Tactical Decision Aid (TDA), as he may decide upon countermeasures, if the vulnerability of his ship exceeds certain limits.

de Jong, Arie N.

1993-11-01

67

Screening for Intimate Partner Violence and Abuse of Vulnerable Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... Screening for Intimate Partner Violence and Abuse of Elderly and Vulnerable Adults The U.S. Preventive Services Task ... vulnerable adults? Facts About IPV and Abuse of Elderly and Vulnerable Adults IPV is common in the ...

68

6 CFR 27.215 - Security vulnerability assessments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Vulnerability Assessment. A Security Vulnerability Assessment shall include...potential critical assets...identified critical asset(s...supporting infrastructure; and identification...Threat Assessment, which...Security Vulnerability...

2010-01-01

69

6 CFR 27.215 - Security vulnerability assessments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Vulnerability Assessment. A Security Vulnerability Assessment shall include...potential critical assets...identified critical asset(s...supporting infrastructure; and identification...Threat Assessment, which...Security Vulnerability...

2009-01-01

70

Determining Vulnerability Importance in Environmental Impact Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The concept of vulnerability has been used to describe the susceptibility of physical, biotic, and social systems to harm or hazard. In this sense, it is a tool that reduces the uncertainties of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) since it does not depend exclusively on the value assessments of the evaluator, but rather is based on the environmental state indicators of the site where the projects or activities are being carried out. The concept of vulnerability thus reduces the possibility that evaluators will subjectively interpret results, and be influenced by outside interests and pressures during projects. However, up until now, EIA has been hindered by a lack of effective methods. This research study analyzes the concept of vulnerability, defines Vulnerability Importance and proposes its inclusion in qualitative EIA methodology. The method used to quantify Vulnerability Importance is based on a set of environmental factors and indicators that provide a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. The results obtained in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method since there is a direct relation between this value and the environmental state of the departments analyzed. - Research Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The concept of vulnerability could be considered defining Vulnerability Importance included in qualitative EIA methodology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The use of the concept of environmental vulnerability could reduce the subjectivity of qualitative methods of EIA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method to quantify the Vulnerability Importance proposed provides a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method.

Toro, Javier, E-mail: jjtoroca@unal.edu.co [Institute of Environmental Studies, National University of Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Duarte, Oscar, E-mail: ogduartev@unal.edu.co [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, National University of Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Requena, Ignacio, E-mail: requena@decsai.ugr.es [Department of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence, University of Granada (Spain); Zamorano, Montserrat, E-mail: zamorano@ugr.es [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Granada (Spain)

2012-01-15

71

Spatial scan statistics in vulnerability assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the European Alps the concept of risk has increasingly been applied in order to reduce the susceptibility of society to mountain hazards. Risk is defined as a function of the magnitude and frequency of a hazard process times consequences; the latter being quantified by the value of elements at risk exposed and their vulnerability. Vulnerability means the degree of loss to a given element at risk resulting from the impact of a natural hazard. Recent empirical studies suggested a dependency of the degree of loss on the hazard impact, and respective vulnerability (or damage-loss) functions were developed. However, until now only little information is available on the spatial characteristics of vulnerability on a local scale; considerable ranges in the loss ratio for medium process intensities only provide a hint that there might me mutual reasons for lower or higher loss rates. In this paper we therefore focus on the spatial dimension of vulnerability by searching for spatial clusters in the damage ratio of elements at risk exposed. By using the software SaTScan, we applied an ordinal data model and a normal data model in order to detect spatial distribution patterns of five individual torrent events in Austria. For both models, we detected some significant clusters of high damage ratios, and consequently high vulnerability. Moreover, secondary clusters of high and low values were found. Based on our results, the assumption that lower process intensities result in lower damage ratios, and therefore in lower vulnerability, and vice versa, has to be partly rejected. The spatial distribution of vulnerability is not only dependent on the process intensities but also on the overall land use pattern and the individual constructive characteristics of the buildings exposed. Generally we suggest the use of a normal data model for test sites exceeding a minimum of 30 elements at risk exposed. As such, the study enhanced our understanding of spatial vulnerability patterns on a local scale.

Fuchs, Sven; Ornetsmüller, Christine

2013-04-01

72

DOE contractor vulnerability analysis: DPA or MAIT  

SciTech Connect

Two vulnerability analysis techniques, Diversion Path Analysis (DPA) and Matrix Analysis of the Insider Threat (MAIT), were applied by EG and G Idaho, Inc. Safeguards and Security to the same item accountable SNM storage area at INEL. Technical and cost data for each methodology were collected and compared. A recommendation that MAIT be utilized for future vulnerability analyses of item accountable SNM storage and use areas operated by EG and G Idaho for DOE-ID resulted. Unclassified results of the two techniques and MAIT/DPA technical and cost comparisons will be presented which show that MAIT can be used for vulnerability analyses to comply with Department of Energy (DOE) requirements.

Six, D.E.; Nichols, D.H.

1980-01-01

73

Nuclear material production cycle vulnerability analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses a method for rapidly and systematically identifying vulnerable equipment in a nuclear material or similar production process and ranking that equipment according to its attractiveness to a malevolent attacker. A multistep approach was used in the analysis. First, the entire production cycle was modeled as a flow diagram. This flow diagram was analyzed using graph theoretical methods to identify processes in the production cycle and their locations. Models of processes that were judged to be particularly vulnerable based on the cycle analysis then were developed in greater detail to identify equipment in that process that is vulnerable to intentional damage.

Bott, T.F.

1996-07-01

74

Vulnerability of networks of interacting Markov chains.  

PubMed

The concept of vulnerability is introduced for a model of random, dynamical interactions on networks. In this model, known as the influence model, the nodes are arranged in an arbitrary network, while the evolution of the status at a node is according to an internal Markov chain, but with transition probabilities that depend not only on the current status of that node but also on the statuses of the neighbouring nodes. Vulnerability is treated analytically and numerically for several networks with different topological structures, as well as for two real networks--the network of infrastructures and the EU power grid--identifying the most vulnerable nodes of these networks. PMID:20368242

Kocarev, L; Zlatanov, N; Trajanov, D

2010-05-13

75

ICBM vulnerability: Calculations, predictions, and error bars  

SciTech Connect

The theory of intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) silo vulnerability is reviewed, and the present and probable future (mid-1990s) vulnerability of US silos is analyzed. The analysis emphasizes methodology, sources of information, and uncertainties. US ICBMs might still be survivable today but they will certainly be vulnerable to ICBM attack, and perhaps even to submarine-launched ballistic missile attack, by the mid-1990s. These calculations are presented not only for their immediate importance but also to introduce other physicists to some of the quantitative methods that can be used to analyze international security topics.

Hobson, A.

1988-09-01

76

[Protecting vulnerable persons: an ethical requirement in need of clarification].  

PubMed

Protecting vulnerable persons is important. But who is vulnerable and what protections are required? This article outlines versions of vulnerability found in the literature: vulnerability as human finitude, as a lesser ability to protect one's interests, as fragility, as a hindrance to health. It then proposes a definition of vulnerability as an increased risk of incurring a wrong and examines how this definition could be applied to clear-cut as well as controversial cases of vulnerability. Protecting vulnerable persons requires a diagnostic approach: identifying the wrong involved, the source of vulnerability, adequate protections, as well as the persons who participate in the duty of protection. PMID:23745241

Hurst, Samia

2013-05-15

77

Future socio-economic impacts and vulnerabilities  

Treesearch

Title: Future socio-economic impacts and vulnerabilities ... Brent; Dafalla, Tallaat; Joyce, Linda A.; Johnson, Nkem; Robledo, Carmenza ... and water quality, human health and well-being, spiritual and cultural values, recreation and ecotourism.

78

Reducing the Vulnerability of Sewage Treatment Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guide describes characteristics of typical modern sewage treatment plants in the United States, reviews their relative vulnerability to nuclear effects and considers protective measures. For this guide, OCD has established the effects of 2, 5, and 10...

1965-01-01

79

Managing risk with climate vulnerability science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate information alone cannot be sufficient for anticipating and reducing climate impacts. Enhanced vulnerability science is needed, including local to global monitoring, to support effective anticipatory efforts to increase societal resilience to potentially disruptive events.

Stern, Paul C.; Ebi, Kristie L.; Leichenko, Robin; Olson, Richard Stuart; Steinbruner, John D.; Lempert, Robert

2013-07-01

80

Extinction vulnerability of coral reef fishes  

PubMed Central

With rapidly increasing rates of contemporary extinction, predicting extinction vulnerability and identifying how multiple stressors drive non-random species loss have become key challenges in ecology. These assessments are crucial for avoiding the loss of key functional groups that sustain ecosystem processes and services. We developed a novel predictive framework of species extinction vulnerability and applied it to coral reef fishes. Although relatively few coral reef fishes are at risk of global extinction from climate disturbances, a negative convex relationship between fish species locally vulnerable to climate change vs. fisheries exploitation indicates that the entire community is vulnerable on the many reefs where both stressors co-occur. Fishes involved in maintaining key ecosystem functions are more at risk from fishing than climate disturbances. This finding is encouraging as local and regional commitment to fisheries management action can maintain reef ecosystem functions pending progress towards the more complex global problem of stabilizing the climate.

Graham, Nicholas A J; Chabanet, Pascale; Evans, Richard D; Jennings, Simon; Letourneur, Yves; Aaron MacNeil, M; McClanahan, Tim R; Ohman, Marcus C; Polunin, Nicholas V C; Wilson, Shaun K

2011-01-01

81

Managing the Health Needs of Vulnerable Children.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project applied qualitative methods to gain insight into the experiences of vulnerable childrens families: how they define their childrens health needs, decisions regarding where and when to seek care, and their experiences with care received.

E. J. Sobo M. Seid

2003-01-01

82

Decision support: Vulnerability, conservation, and restoration ...  

Treesearch

Title: Decision support: Vulnerability, conservation, and restoration (Chapter 8) ... Climate change in grasslands, shrublands, and deserts of the interior American West: a ... Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky  ...

83

Anatomy of Cyberterrorism: Is America Vulnerable.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States is vulnerable to attacks from cyberterrorists. A 'Digital World Trade Center Attack', possibly killing thousands and causing billions of dollars in damage. This paper will provide fundamental background information on what cyberterror is...

B. K. Ashley

2003-01-01

84

Vulnerabilities and Threats & US Government Response.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This AFCEA briefing outlines information vulnerabilities and threats and the US Government response. The briefing discusses the trends in the information age, data protection over time, the evolving defense environment, threat awareness over the past, pre...

M. McConnell

1998-01-01

85

Coping with Subjectivity in Vulnerability Assessment Models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vulnerability assessment models are widely used to systematically evaluate the performance of complex safeguards systems against a variety of threats. These models require varying levels of detail and input data about the physical design of a facility and...

T. A. Renis R. G. Cardwell

1988-01-01

86

The Evolving Vulnerability of Electric Power Grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A perspective is provided on design decisions in the electric power grid infrastructure and the formative role this has had in greatly increasing the vulnerability of this critical infrastructure to space weather disturbances.

John Kappenman

2004-01-01

87

Vulnerability of the Albuquerque Water Supply System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report assesses the vulnerability of the Albuquerque water supply system to damage from a hypothetical nuclear weapon attack. Probable damage to facilities and casualties to personnel are considered, as well as the possible loss of support from inter...

R. L. Nevin

1969-01-01

88

Debris-flow impact, vulnerability, and response  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper calls attention to vulnerable groups that are disproportionately affected by smaller, less-publicized debris flow\\u000a events and do not always receive the advantages of recent technical advances. The most vulnerable groups tend to be economically\\u000a restricted to live in relatively inexpensive and more dangerous locations, are often forced to live in topographically cramped\\u000a areas due to expansion and development,

P. M. Santi; K. Hewitt; D. F. VanDine; E. Barillas Cruz

2011-01-01

89

Drug-eluting stents and vulnerable plaque  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coronary artery disease with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) is the leading cause of death worldwide in both men and women.\\u000a ACS mostly occur as a result of rupture of “vulnerable plaque” with a superimposed thrombus formation, which ultimately leads\\u000a to distal cessation of blood flow. Vulnerable plaque mostly occurs in mildly obstructive coronary lesions rather than severely\\u000a stenosed (< 50%)

Mehmet Cilingiroglu; Faisal Khan

2009-01-01

90

A typological framework for categorizing infrastructure vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of vulnerability is increasingly important in engineering and the socio-economic planning sciences, particularly\\u000a given the enormous costs associated with addressing it. The ability to identify and mitigate vulnerabilities is extremely\\u000a challenging because it is influenced by a complex and dynamic set of interacting factors that can compromise social, economic\\u000a and infrastructure systems. Where the latter is concerned, the

Tony H. GrubesicTimothy; Timothy C. Matisziw

91

Vulnerability assessment of mining subsidence hazards.  

PubMed

Between 1996 and 1999, five mining subsidence events occurred in the iron-ore field in Lorraine, France, and damaged several hundred buildings. Because of the thousand hectares of undermined areas, an assessment of the vulnerability of buildings and land is necessary for risk management. Risk assessment methods changed from initial risk management decisions that took place immediately after the mining subsidence to the risk assessment studies that are currently under consideration. These changes reveal much about the complexity of the vulnerability concept and about difficulties in developing simple and relevant methods for its assessment. The objective of this article is to present this process, suggest improvements on the basis of theoretical definitions of the vulnerability, and give an operational example of vulnerability assessment in the seismic field. The vulnerability is divided into three components: weakness, stakes value, and resilience. Final improvements take into account these three components and constitute an original method of assessing the vulnerability of a city to subsidence. PMID:19473313

Deck, Olivier; Verdel, Thierry; Salmon, Romuald

2009-05-18

92

Application of PRA to HEMP vulnerability analysis  

SciTech Connect

Vulnerability analyses of large systems, e.g., control and communication centers, aircraft, ships, are subject to many uncertainties. A basic source of uncertainty is the random variation inherent in the physical world. Thus, vulnerability is appropriately described by an estimate of the probability of survival (or failure). A second source of uncertainty that also needs to be recognized is the uncertainty associated with the analysis or estimation process itself. This uncertainty, often called modeling uncertainty, has many contributors. There are the approximations introduced by using mathematical models to describe reality. Also, the appropriate values of the model parameters are derived from several sources, e.g., based on experimental or test data, based on expert judgment and opinion. In any case, these values are subject to uncertainty. This uncertainty must be considered in the description of vulnerability. Thus, the estimate of the probability of survival is not a single value but a range of values. Probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) is a methodology which deals with these uncertainty issues. This report discusses the application of PRA to HEMP vulnerability analyses. Vulnerability analysis and PRA are briefly outlined and the need to distinguish between random variation and modeling uncertainty is discussed. Then a sequence of steps appropriate for applying PRA to vulnerability problems is outlined. Finally, methods for handling modeling uncertainty are identified and discussed.

Mensing, R.W.

1985-09-01

93

Global Distributions of Vulnerability to Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

Signatories of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have committed themselves to addressing the “specific needs and special circumstances of developing country parties, especially those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change”.1 The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has since concluded with high confidence that “developing countries will be more vulnerable to climate change than developed countries”.2 In their most recent report, however, the IPCC notes that “current knowledge of adaptation and adaptive capacity is insufficient for reliable prediction of adaptations” 3 because “the capacity to adapt varies considerably among regions, countries and socioeconomic groups and will vary over time”.4 Here, we respond to the apparent contradiction in these two statements by exploring how variation in adaptive capacity and climate impacts combine to influence the global distribution of vulnerability. We find that all countries will be vulnerable to climate change, even if their adaptive capacities are enhanced. Developing nations are most vulnerable to modest climate change. Reducing greenhouse-gas emissions would diminish their vulnerabilities significantly. Developed countries would benefit most from mitigation for moderate climate change. Extreme climate change overwhelms the abilities of all countries to adapt. These findings should inform both ongoing negotiations for the next commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol and emerging plans for implementing UNFCCC-sponsored adaptation funds.

Yohe, Gary; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Brenkert, Antoinette L.; Schlesinger, Michael; Meij, Henk; Xiaoshi, Xing

2006-12-01

94

A psychological perspective on vulnerability in the fear of crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines vulnerability and risk perception in the fear of crime. Past studies have often treated gender and age as proxies for vulnerability, and on the few occasions that vulnerability has been operationalized, there has been little agreement on the mechanisms that underpin perceived susceptibility. To develop a more theoretically-driven approach, the current study examines whether markers of vulnerability

Jonathan Jackson

2009-01-01

95

A framework for understanding old-age vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying vulnerable older people and understanding the causes and conse- quences of their vulnerability is of human concern and an essential task of social policy. To date, vulnerability in old age has mainly been approached by identi- fying high risk groups, like the poor, childless, frail or isolated. Yet vulnerability is the outcome of complex interactions of discrete risks, namely

ELISABETH SCHRÖDER-BUTTERFILL; RULY MARIANTI

2006-01-01

96

Vulnerability: A generally applicable conceptual framework for climate change research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term ‘vulnerability’ is used in many different ways by various scholarly communities. The resulting disagreement about the appropriate definition of vulnerability is a frequent cause for misunderstanding in interdisciplinary research on climate change and a challenge for attempts to develop formal models of vulnerability. Earlier attempts at reconciling the various conceptualizations of vulnerability were, at best, partly successful. This

Hans-Martin Füssel

2007-01-01

97

Axioms for vulnerability measurement of online social network profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increase in online social network (OSN) usage has led to personal details known as attributes being readily displayed in online profiles. This can lead to the profile owners being vulnerable to social engineering attacks. Our vulnerability model is based upon a way to quantify the vulnerability of a profile and consists of three components. The individual vulnerability is determined

Sophia Alim; Daniel Neagu; Mick Ridley

2011-01-01

98

Vulnerability Science: A Response to a Criticism of the Ballistic Research Laboratory's Vulnerability Modeling Strategy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is a certain kind of technical work performed by several DoD Laboratories and Activities as well as by aerospace firms and consultants. The work is traditionally called 'vulnerability analysis', about 150 of the workers toil in the Vulnerability/Let...

M. W. Starks

1990-01-01

99

Evaluating AVDL descriptions for web application vulnerability analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several vulnerability analysis techniques in web-based applications detect and report on different types of vulnerabilities. However, no single technique provides a generic technology-independent handling of Web-based vulnerabilities. In this paper we present our experience with and experimental exemplification of using the application vulnerability description language (AVDL) to realize a unified data model for technology-independent vulnerability analysis of Web applications. This

Ha-thanh Le; Peter Kok Keong Loh

2008-01-01

100

A framework for modeling rail transport vulnerability  

SciTech Connect

Railroads represent one of the most efficient methods of long-haul transport for bulk commodities, from coal to agricultural products. Over the past fifty years, the rail network has contracted while tonnage has increased. Service, geographically, has been abandoned along short haul routes and increased along major long haul routes, resulting in a network that is more streamlined. The current rail network may be very vulnerable to disruptions, like the failure of a trestle. This paper proposes a framework to model rail network vulnerability and gives an application of this modeling framework in analyzing rail network vulnerability for the State of Washington. It concludes with a number of policy related issues that need to be addressed in order to identify, plan, and mitigate the risks associated with the sudden loss of a bridge or trestle.

Peterson, Steven K [ORNL; Church, Richard L. [University of California, Santa Barbara

2008-01-01

101

A new insider vulnerability assessment model  

SciTech Connect

A new insider vulnerability assessment model is currently being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The model focuses on timely detection of theft or diversion of nuclear material by a non-violent insider. This model will be part of an integrated vulnerability assessment package being developed jointly by LLNL and Sandia National Laboratory. The model will enable a safeguards analyst to complete a comprehensive and well-documented vulnerability analysis. Two major components are used in the model. The first consists of a description of the facility being analyzed, the safeguards components in the use at the facility, the theft material, and the potential insider adversaries. The second component is a predefined set of strategy definitions, including specific methods of defeating the individual safeguards components.

Sokkappa, P.; Renis, T.A.

1988-01-01

102

Regional tsunami vulnerability analysis through ASTER imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of vulnerability to natural hazards is a key issue of prevention measures within ICZM. Knowledge of susceptibility to damage and how this is distributed along the coast allows to optimize possible prevention and mitigation actions. The present study focuses on tsunami vulnerability of a large extension of coastline: the entire westerly Thailand's coast. The work is a follow up of the CRATER project (Coastal Risk Analysis for Tsunamis and Environmental Remediation) carried out on the aftermath of the 26th December 2004 Tsunami event. Vulnerability is analyzed considering an inundation scenario given by a tsunami of seismic origin, causing a maximum run-up of 25m.. An innovative methodology have been here developed and applied, based on the combined use of ASTER (Advanced Spaceborn Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) satellite imagery, SRTM v-3 (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission - version #3) DEMs and GIS. Vulnerability level has been calculated combining information on coastal geomorphology, land use, topography and distance from the shoreline. Land use has been extrapolated from ASTER images through a multi-spectral analysis (a pixel-based and supervised classification process) of ASTER bands 1 to 9, plus one band for the NDVI index (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index). Coastal geomorphology has been obtained through a photo-interpretation process. Results have been organized in a set of vectorial vulnerability maps with horizontal resolution of 90m. The proposed methodology has the great advantage of being repeatable for any case of vulnerability analysis at small-medium scale (i.e. at Regional/National level) with a moderate investment in term of costs and human resources.

Dall'Osso, Filippo; Cavalletti, Alessandra; Immordino, Francesco; Gonella, Marco

2010-05-01

103

The vulnerability cube: a multi-dimensional framework for assessing relative vulnerability.  

PubMed

The diversity and abundance of information available for vulnerability assessments can present a challenge to decision-makers. Here we propose a framework to aggregate and present socioeconomic and environmental data in a visual vulnerability assessment that will help prioritize management options for communities vulnerable to environmental change. Socioeconomic and environmental data are aggregated into distinct categorical indices across three dimensions and arranged in a cube, so that individual communities can be plotted in a three-dimensional space to assess the type and relative magnitude of the communities' vulnerabilities based on their position in the cube. We present an example assessment using a subset of the USEPA National Estuary Program (NEP) estuaries: coastal communities vulnerable to the effects of environmental change on ecosystem health and water quality. Using three categorical indices created from a pool of publicly available data (socioeconomic index, land use index, estuary condition index), the estuaries were ranked based on their normalized averaged scores and then plotted along the three axes to form a vulnerability cube. The position of each community within the three-dimensional space communicates both the types of vulnerability endemic to each estuary and allows for the clustering of estuaries with like-vulnerabilities to be classified into typologies. The typologies highlight specific vulnerability descriptions that may be helpful in creating specific management strategies. The data used to create the categorical indices are flexible depending on the goals of the decision makers, as different data should be chosen based on availability or importance to the system. Therefore, the analysis can be tailored to specific types of communities, allowing a data rich process to inform decision-making. PMID:21638079

Lin, Brenda B; Morefield, Philip E

2011-06-03

104

Security market: incentives for disclosure of vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previous paper by the author proposed a model for when disclosure helps or hurts security, and provided reasons why computer security is often different in this respect than physical security. This paper examines the incentives of actors to disclose vulnerabilities. A chief point of this paper is that the incentives of disclosure depend on two, largely independent, assessments -

Peter P. Swire

2005-01-01

105

Vulnerability Assessment of Cybersecurity for SCADA Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vulnerability assessment is a requirement of NERC's cybersecurity standards for electric power systems. The purpose is to study the impact of a cyber attack on supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. Compliance of the requirement to meet the standard has become increasingly challenging as the system becomes more dispersed in wide areas. Interdependencies between computer communication system and the

Chee-Wooi Ten; Chen-Ching Liu; Govindarasu Manimaran

2008-01-01

106

Social geography and disaster vulnerability in Tokyo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial distribution of disaster-vulnerable groups in Tokyo is not known in detail, although correlations between the distribution of earthquake-susceptible wooden housing and elderly populations are suggestive. A pilot study of homelessness in Tokyo indicates that most known homeless people are concentrated in limited areas of the city near parks, railway stations and river embankments. Although small by international standards,

Shigeo Takahashi

1998-01-01

107

Who's Vulnerable in Infant Child Care Centers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Maintains that infants and toddlers, parents, and child caregivers are vulnerable to a variety of infectious diseases from infant-toddler child care centers. These diseases include infectious diarrhea; rubella; cytomeglovirus; hepatitis A, and haemophilus influenza type B. Suggests ways to prevent the spread of such diseases. (BB)|

Kendall, Earline D.; Moukaddem, Virginia E.

1992-01-01

108

CYBER/PHYSICAL SECURITY VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT INTEGRATION  

SciTech Connect

This internally funded Laboratory-Directed R&D project by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in conjunction with QinetiQ North America, is intended to identify and properly assess areas of overlap (and interaction) in the vulnerability assessment process between cyber security and physical protection. Existing vulnerability analysis (VA) processes and software tools exist, and these are heavily utilized in the determination of predicted vulnerability within the physical and cyber security domains. These determinations are normally performed independently of one another, and only interact on a superficial level. Both physical and cyber security subject matter experts have come to realize that though the various interactive elements exist, they are not currently quantified in most periodic security assessments. This endeavor aims to evaluate both physical and cyber VA techniques and provide a strategic approach to integrate the interdependent relationships of each into a single VA capability. This effort will also transform the existing suite of software currently utilized in the physical protection world to more accurately quantify the risk associated with a blended attack scenario. Performance databases will be created to support the characterization of the cyber security elements, and roll them into prototype software tools. This new methodology and software capability will enable analysts to better identify and assess the overall risk during a vulnerability analysis.

MacDonald, Douglas G.; Key, Brad; Clements, Samuel L.; Hutton, William J.; Craig, Philip A.; Patrick, Scott W.; Crawford, Cary E.

2011-07-17

109

Vulnerability analysis of the Nordic power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive methodology is developed for the analysis of power system vulnerability with respect to energy shortage, capacity shortage, and power system failures. The basic method is risk analysis, where risk is defined in terms of the probability of events and their consequences. The objective is to identify medium- and high-risk situations that require corrective actions. The method is applied

Gerard L. Doorman; Kjetil Uhlen; G. H. Kjolle; E. S. Huse

2006-01-01

110

Eutrophication vulnerability analysis: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

River Cavado water quality variability was studied for eutrophication vulnerability assessment at a new surface water supply intake. Since the river flow regime is artificially controlled by upstream multipurpose reservoirs, mathematical modelling was applied in evaluating alternative management scenarios. Due to the fact that surface water quality at intake location is mainly affected by a 5 km upstream wastewater treatment

José M. P. Vieira; José L. S. Pinho; António A. L. S. Duarte

1998-01-01

111

Using Description Logics for Network Vulnerability Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distributed nature and complexity of computer networks and various services provided via them, makes the networks vulnerable to numerous attacks. The TCP\\/IP presumptions which are based on using this protocol to provide a simple, open communication infrastructure in an academic and collaborative environment, causes this protocol lack of built-in mechanisms for authentication, integrity and privacy. Even though in the

Reza Zakeri; Rasool Jalili; Hamid Reza Shahriari; Hassan Abolhassani

2006-01-01

112

Scalable, graph-based network vulnerability analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even well administered networks are vulnerable to attack. Recent work in network security has focused on the fact that combinations of exploits are the typical means by which an attacker breaks into a network. Researchers have proposed a variety of graph-based algorithms to generate attack trees (or graphs). Either structure represents all possible sequences of exploits, where any given exploit

Paul Ammann; Duminda Wijesekera; Saket Kaushik

2002-01-01

113

A physical approach on flood risk vulnerability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of efficient flood risk mitigation strategies and their subsequent implementation relies on a careful vulnerability analysis of the elements exposed to flood hazard. Recently, extensive research efforts were undertaken to develop and refine empirical relationships linking the structural vulnerability of buildings to the intensity of the impacting water-related hazard processes. These empirical vulnerability functions allow for an estimation of the expected direct losses as a result of the hazard scenario on the basis of a spatially explicit representation of the process patterns and the elements at risk, and improve both risk assessments and cost-benefit analyses of planned mitigation strategies. However, due to the underlying empiricism of such vulnerability functions, the physics of the damage generating mechanisms remain unveiled, and, as such, the applicability of the empirical approach for planning hazard-proof residential buildings is rather limited. Therefore, we propose a conceptual assessment scheme to close this gap. This assessment scheme comprises distinct analytical steps: (a) modelling the process intensity and (b) the impact on the element at risk exposed, (c) the physical response of the building envelope, (d) the damage accounting and (f) the economic damage valuation. This dynamic assessment supports all relevant planning activities with respect to a minimisation of flood hazard losses, and can be implemented in the operational risk assessment procedure.

Mazzorana, Bruno; Fuchs, Sven; Keiler, Margreth

2013-04-01

114

Bridging the Digital Divide: Reaching Vulnerable Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The AMIA 2003 Spring Congress entitled ''Bridging the Digital Divide: Informatics and Vulnerable Populations'' convened 178 experts including medical informaticians, health care professionals, government leaders, policy makers, researchers, health care industry leaders, consumer advocates, and others specializing in health care provision to underserved populations. The primary objective of this working congress was to develop a framework for a national agenda

BETTY L. CHANG; S UZANNE BAKKEN; S. SCOTT BROWN; THOMAS K. HOUSTON; GARY L. KREPS; RITA KUKAFKA; CHARLES SAFRAN; P. ZOE STAVRI

2010-01-01

115

Vulnerability assessment and control of power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

With power grids considered national security matters, the reliable operation of the system is of top priority to utilities. This concern is amplified by the utility's deregulation, which increases the system's openness while simultaneously decreasing the applied degree of control. Vulnerability Assessment (VA) deals with the power system's ability to continue to provide service in case of an unforeseen catastrophic

Mohamed A. El-Sharkawi

2002-01-01

116

Disasters and communities: vulnerability, resilience and preparedness  

Microsoft Academic Search

With regard to their utility in predicting the adoption of household hazard preparations, traditional approaches to public education directed at increasing awareness and\\/or risk perception have proven ineffective. Discusses reasons why this may have occurred from public education, vulnerability analysis, and community resilience perspectives and outlines strategies for enhancing preparedness. Describes a model of resilience to hazard effects that has

Douglas Paton; David Johnston

2001-01-01

117

Disaster Vulnerability of University Student Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Student populations at Gulf Coast universities and colleges are subjected to multiple forces working together making them an especially vulnerable sub-group to hazards. Research has suggested that college students represent a segment of the population that hazards research has frequently overlooked and maybe not fully appreciated in university emergency planning. Most prior research has focused on university disaster experiences, highlighting

Jamie Lynn Auletta

2012-01-01

118

REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT: A CONCEPTUAL APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (REVA) project is developing and testing an approach to conducting comparative ecological risk assessments at the regional scale. I't seeks an objective and quantifiable answer to answer the question, "What are the greatest threaten accompa...

119

Nuclear material production cycle vulnerability analysis. Revision.  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses a method for rapidly and systematically identifying vulnerable equipment in a nuclear material or similar production process and ranking that equipment according to its attractiveness to a malevolent attacker. A multi-step approach was used in the analysis. First, the entire production cycle was modeled as a flow diagram. This flow diagram was analyzed using graph theoretical methods to identify processes in the production cycle and their locations. Models of processes that were judged to be particularly vulnerable based on the cycle analysis then were developed in greater detail to identify equipment in that process that is vulnerable to intentional damage. The information generated by this analysis may be used to devise protective features for critical equipment. The method uses directed graphs, fault trees, and evaluation matrices. Expert knowledge of plant engineers and operators is used to determine the critical equipment and evaluate its attractiveness to potential attackers. The vulnerability of equipment can be ranked and sorted according to any criterion desired and presented in a readily grasped format using matrices.

Bott, T.F.

1996-10-01

120

Impacts of information system vulnerabilities on society  

Microsoft Academic Search

After briefly presenting examples of potential vulnerabilities in computer systems which society relies on, the concept of risk analysis is introduced and applied to a simplified model for a nation's financial system. A sampling of specific technical safeguards to ameliorate the risk in this (or any) computer system is then given. The paper concludes with examples of questions to be

Lance J. Hoffman

1982-01-01

121

Vaccinating to Protect a Vulnerable Subpopulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEpidemic influenza causes serious mortality and morbidity in temperate countries each winter. Research suggests that schoolchildren are critical in the spread of influenza virus, while the elderly and the very young are most vulnerable to the disease. Under these conditions, it is unclear how best to focus prevention efforts in order to protect the population. Here we investigate the question

Jonathan Dushoff; Joshua B Plotkin; Cecile Viboud; Lone Simonsen; Mark Miller; Mark Loeb; David J. D Earn

2007-01-01

122

Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group Report  

SciTech Connect

This report marks the culmination of a 4-month review conducted to identify chemical safety vulnerabilities existing at DOE facilities. This review is an integral part of DOE's efforts to raise its commitment to chemical safety to the same level as that for nuclear safety.

Not Available

1994-09-01

123

The selective vulnerability of striatopallidal neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The different types of striatal neuron show a range of vulnerabilities to a variety of insults. This can be clearly seen in Huntington's disease where a well mapped pattern of pathological events occurs.Medium spiny projection (MSP) neurons are the first striatal cells to be affected as the disease progresses whilst interneurons, in particular the NADPH diaphorase positive ones, are spared

I. J Mitchell; A. J Cooper; M. R Griffiths

1999-01-01

124

Evaluating Youth Work with Vulnerable Young People.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report presents the results of an 18-month research project that studied the effectiveness of youth work with vulnerable young people. The research, representing six distinct geographical areas of Scotland characterized by disadvantage, focused on young people aged 13 to 16. In each neighborhood, the project examined the experiences of young…

Furlong, Andy; Cartmel, Fred; Powney, Janet; Hall, Stuart

125

Adolescent children of alcoholics: Vulnerable or Resilient?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Children of alcoholics (COAs) have been described as both vulnerable and resilient. Although identified as at-risk for mental and physical health problems, chemical dependency, and child abuse and neglect, many go on to lead successful lives. Objective: The relationship between COA status and various adolescent risk behaviors, such as drug and alcohol abuse and sexual precocity, was assessed by

MaryLou Mylant; Bette Ide; Elizabeth Cuevas; Maurita Meehan

2002-01-01

126

Bridging the Digital Divide: Reaching Vulnerable Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The AMIA 2003 Spring Congress entitled “Bridging the Digital Divide: Informatics and Vulnerable Populations” convened 178 experts including medical informaticians, health care professionals, government leaders, policy makers, researchers, health care industry leaders, consumer advocates, and others specializing in health care provision to underserved populations. The primary objective of this working congress was to develop a framework for a national agenda

Betty L Chang; Suzanne Bakken; S Scott Brown; Thomas K Houston; Gary L Kreps; Rita Kukafka; Charles Safran; P Zoe Stavri

2004-01-01

127

U.S. vulnerable to major hurricane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nation is ‘in the most vulnerable position in history’ should a major hurricane strike this year, according to James P. Walsh, acting NOAA Administrator.He warned that mushrooming coastal populations, public inexperience and apathy, and limited evacuation routes could combine to create a major catastrophe.

Bell, Peter M.

128

Airport vulnerability assessment-a methodology evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an evaluation of several different approaches to conducting quantitative airport vulnerability and risk assessment. Field tests of seven methodologies applied to a total of thirteen major US domestic airports provided the results and reports used to evaluate the various methodologies. The process of evaluation used a rigorous decision technology approach, which involves evaluation criteria,

R. Lazarick

1999-01-01

129

Vulnerability assessment activities [for electric utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

One purpose of the Department of Energy (DOE) Infrastructure Assurance Outreach Program (IAOP) is to assist energy infrastructure providers in assuring the continued delivery of their critical services. One means of doing this has been the conduct of a number of vulnerability assessments for energy infrastructure providers. The assessments differ from those that are provided by other organizations in process,

J. Dagle

2001-01-01

130

Vulnerability Assessment for Critical Infrastructure Control Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing security in critical control systems is a particular task that can have dangerous real-world consequences if done poorly or according to more traditional security assessments. In 2006, the North American Electric Reliability Corporation adopted the Critical Infrastructure Protection standards for cyber vulnerability assessment of critical infrastructure control systems. Such CIP assessments entail challenges at each stage, from planning and

Raymond C. Parks; Edmond Rogers

2008-01-01

131

The Vulnerable Age: A Serendipitous Finding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Six to 11 year old children may be generally more vulnerable to crises in their environment than their younger or older siblings. Based upon a cross cultural study of Moroccan and Rumanian immigrants to Israel, the authors suggest some theoretical considerations and note some practical implications. (Author/DB)|

Inbar, Michael; Adler, Chaim

1976-01-01

132

Biometric Technologies: Functionality, Emerging Trends, and Vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biometric identification methods are quickly becoming commonplace in security and access control applications. This article presents a general overview of various biometric technologies along with some of the vulnerabilities related to them. Those reading this article will gain a general understanding of the history behind each biometric technology as well as the direction each method is taking for the future.

Joseph V. Di Nardo

2008-01-01

133

Coping with subjectivity in vulnerability assessment models  

SciTech Connect

Vulnerability assessment models are widely used to systematically evaluate the performance of complex safeguards systems against a variety of threats. These models require varying levels of detail and input data about the physical design of a facility and its safeguards operations and procedures. However, to evaluate safeguards effectiveness and give a performance rating, these models require additional performance data reflecting probabilities of detection, assessment, interruption, and neutralization, as well as the associated times for various adversary scenarios. These data may be attained from equipment design specification, laboratory testing, expert judgment, or component testing. Regardless of how these data are obtained, they are inherently subjective. Although vulnerability assessment models for safeguards performance evaluation rely on many subjective inputs, their results are extremely useful in identifying strengths and weaknesses in proposed and existing safeguards systems and in evaluating the benefit of proposed safeguards upgrades. Thus, in using vulnerability assessment models it is important to ensure the quality of subjective inputs and proper interpretation of the results. This paper addresses the uses of various vulnerability assessment models and the nature of subjectivity in those models. The paper also describes methods for coping with subjective data. 12 refs., 1 fig.

Renis, T.A.; Cardwell, R.G.

1988-06-23

134

Electric power grid structural vulnerability assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid development of economy and the increasing interdependence between national infrastructures, power system is becoming more and more complicated. Moreover, because of the deregulation of power system and the impact of power market, the deteriorated natural environment and the potential terrorism attack, power system is facing with more challenges and becomes more vulnerable than ever. So, It is

Mao Anji; Yu Jiaxi; Guo Zhizhong

2006-01-01

135

Modelling Community Evacuation Vulnerability Using GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method for systematically identifying neighbourhoods that may face transportation di Yculties during an evacuation. A classi® cation of this nature o Vers a unique approach to assessing community vulnerability in regions subject to fast-moving hazards of uncertain spatial impact (e.g., urban ® restorms and toxic spills on highways). The approach is founded on an integer programming (IP)

Thomas J. Cova; Richard L. Church

1997-01-01

136

Measuring potential vulnerabilities in emerging market economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes some experiments with the construction of relatively simple indices which summarise in a systematic and objective way information about emerging economies currently under pressure in financial markets and those vulnerable to such pressure in the future. A survey of the literature suggests financial crises are typically preceded by overvalued exchange rates, inadequate international reserves, recessions and excessive

Marc Klau; John Hawkins

2000-01-01

137

The Likelihood of Vulnerability Rediscovery and the Social Utility of Vulnerability Hunting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial attempts to apply software reliability growth models to the pro- cess of vulnerability nding relied upon noisy data. Here, a more appro- priate data collection process is discussed and employed to identify the age of vulnerabilities in OpenBSD 2.2. A number of models are tested against the data and two are found to have acceptable goodness-of-t. These models indicate

Andy Ozment

2005-01-01

138

Placas and Murals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented examples of graffiti as seen in the barrios of East Los Angeles that told of the past and demonstrated how graffiti could be used in a positive fashion reflecting the positive aspirations, interests, and identities of the residents. (Author/RK)|

Romotsky, Jerry; Romotsky, Sally

1974-01-01

139

On the Library and Information Literacy Education of Vulnerable Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper defines and classifies vulnerable groups, elaborates the necessity of information literacy education of vulnerable groups, analyzes the feasibility for the library to carry out the education, and then discusses specific measures taken by the library to fulfill it.|

Zhu, Tian-hui

2009-01-01

140

Psychological Vulnerability to Completed Suicide: A Review of Empirical Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews empirical literature on psychological vulnerability to completed suicide. Five constructs have been consistently associated with completed suicide: impulsivity/aggression; depression; anxiety; hopelessness; and self-consciousness/social disengagement. Current knowledge of psychological vulnerability could inform social…

Conner, Kenneth R.; Duberstein, Paul R.; Conwell, Yeates; Seidlitz, Larry; Caine, Eric D.

2001-01-01

141

6 CFR 27.215 - Security vulnerability assessments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...chemical facility is high-risk, the facility must complete a Security Vulnerability Assessment. A Security Vulnerability...in meeting the applicable Risk-Based Performance Standards; (4) Risk Assessment, including a...

2013-01-01

142

6 CFR 27.215 - Security vulnerability assessments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...chemical facility is high-risk, the facility must complete a Security Vulnerability Assessment. A Security Vulnerability...in meeting the applicable Risk-Based Performance Standards; (4) Risk Assessment, including a...

2012-01-01

143

7 CFR 1730.27 - Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA). 1730.27 Section 1730.27 Agriculture...Maintenance Requirements § 1730.27 Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA). (a) Each borrower with an...

2013-01-01

144

7 CFR 1730.27 - Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA). 1730... § 1730.27 Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA...identifying: (1) Critical assets or facilities...Critical assets or infrastructure owned or...

2010-01-01

145

7 CFR 1730.27 - Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA). 1730... § 1730.27 Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA...identifying: (1) Critical assets or facilities...Critical assets or infrastructure owned or...

2009-01-01

146

Social vulnerability and climate change: synthesis of literature  

Treesearch

Global Forest Information Service ... political, health, and cultural effects of climate change on socially vulnerable populations in the United ... The synthesis reviews what available science says about social vulnerability and climate change, ...

147

6 CFR 27.400 - Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information. 27.400...THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Other § 27.400 Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information. (a)...

2009-01-01

148

6 CFR 27.400 - Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information. 27.400...THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Other § 27.400 Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information. (a)...

2010-01-01

149

Modelling farm vulnerability to flooding: A step toward vulnerability mitigation policies appraisal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent catastrophic flood events such as Elbe in 2002 or Rhône in 2003 have shown limits of flood management policies relying on dykes protection: worsening of flood impacts downstream, increased damage by dykes rupture. Those events, among others, contributes to radical changes on the philosophy of flood prevention, with the promotion of new orientations for mitigating flood exposition. Two new trends may have a significant impact on rural areas: floodplain restoration and vulnerability mitigation. The Rhône River program, which is an contract of objectives signed between French Government and local collectivites, is highly illustrative of these new trends and their impact on agricultural sector. In this program, it appears that areas to be concerned by floodplain restoration are agricultural ones, because their supposed vulnerability to flood is expected to be less important to urban areas. As a consequence, agricultural sector is particularly concerned by planned actions on mitigation of assets vulnerability, an important part of the program (financial support of European Union of 7.5 Million euros). Mitigation of agricultural assets vulnerability reveals particularly interesting for two following reasons. Firstly, it is a way to maintain agricultural activities in floodplains yet existing, without promoting flood protection. Secondly, in case of floodplain restoration, vulnerability mitigation is a way for local authorities to compensate over-flooding impacts. In practice, local authorities may financially support farmers for implementing measures to mitigate their farm vulnerability. On the Rhône River, an important work has already been done to identify farm vulnerability to flooding, and propose measures to mitigate it. More than 3 000 farms exposed to flood risk have been identified representing 88 690 ha of agricultural areas which is estimated to generate damage between 400 and 800 Million euros depending on the season of occurrence for a catastrophic flood. In the case of farm activities, vulnerability mitigation consists in implementing measures which can be: physical (equipment or electric power system elevation), organizational (emergency or recovery plan) or financial (insurance). These measures aim at decreasing the total damage incurred by farmers in case of flooding. For instance, if equipment is elevated, it will not suffer direct damage such as degradation. As a consequence, equipment will be available to continue production or recovery tasks, thus, avoiding indirect damage such as delays, indebtednessâ?¦ The effects of these policies on farms, in particular vulnerability mitigation cannot be appraised using current methodologies mainly because they do not consider farm as a whole and focus on direct damage at the land plot scale (loss of yield). Moreover, since vulnerability mitigation policies are quite recent, few examples of implementation exist and no feedback experience can be processed. Meanwhile, decision makers and financial actors require more justification of the efficiency of public fund by economic appraisal of the projects. On the Rhône River, decision makers asked for an economic evaluation of the program of farm vulnerability mitigation they plan to implement. This implies to identify the effects of the measures to mitigate farm vulnerability, and to classify them by comparing their efficacy (avoided damage) and their cost of implementation. In this presentation, we propose and discuss a conceptual model of vulnerability at the farm scale. The modelling, in Unified Modelling Language, enabled to represent the ties between spatial, organizational and temporal dimensions, which are central to understanding of farm vulnerability and resilience to flooding. Through this modelling, we encompass three goals: To improve the comprehension of farm vulnerability and create a framework that allow discussion with experts of different disciplines as well as with local farmers; To identify data which are needed to implement the model and to collect them, specifically using the focus group

Brémond, P.; Abrami, G.; Blanc, C.; Grelot, F.

2009-04-01

150

Vendor System Vulnerability Testing Test Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) prepared this generic test plan to provide clients (vendors, end users, program sponsors, etc.) with a sense of the scope and depth of vulnerability testing performed at the INL’s Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Test Bed and to serve as an example of such a plan. Although this test plan specifically addresses vulnerability testing of systems applied to the energy sector (electric/power transmission and distribution and oil and gas systems), it is generic enough to be applied to control systems used in other critical infrastructures such as the transportation sector, water/waste water sector, or hazardous chemical production facilities. The SCADA Test Bed is established at the INL as a testing environment to evaluate the security vulnerabilities of SCADA systems, energy management systems (EMS), and distributed control systems. It now supports multiple programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, other government agencies, and private sector clients. This particular test plan applies to testing conducted on a SCADA/EMS provided by a vendor. Before performing detailed vulnerability testing of a SCADA/EMS, an as delivered baseline examination of the system is conducted, to establish a starting point for all-subsequent testing. The series of baseline tests document factory delivered defaults, system configuration, and potential configuration changes to aid in the development of a security plan for in depth vulnerability testing. The baseline test document is provided to the System Provider,a who evaluates the baseline report and provides recommendations to the system configuration to enhance the security profile of the baseline system. Vulnerability testing is then conducted at the SCADA Test Bed, which provides an in-depth security analysis of the Vendor’s system.b a. The term System Provider replaces the name of the company/organization providing the system being evaluated. This can be the system manufacturer, a system user, or a third party organization such as a government agency. b. The term Vendor (or Vendor’s) System replaces the name of the specific SCADA/EMS being tested.

James R. Davidson

2005-01-01

151

Categorisation of typical vulnerability patterns in global drylands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drylands display specific vulnerability-creating mechanisms which threaten ecosystems and human well-being. The upscaling of successful interventions to reduce vulnerability arises as an important, but challenging aim, since drylands are not homogenous. To support this aim, we present the first attempt to categorise dryland vulnerability at a global scale and sub-national resolution. The categorisation yields typical patterns of dryland vulnerability and

Diana Sietz; Matthias K. B. Lüdeke; Carsten Walther

2011-01-01

152

The Hazards of Indicators: Insights from the Environmental Vulnerability Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early 1990s a number of projects have developed indexes to measure vulnerability to environmental change. This article investigates the key conceptual and methodological problems associated with such indexes. It examines in detail an index that explicitly addresses environmental change as an issue of vulnerability, the Environmental Vulnerability Index (EVI) developed by the South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC).

Jon Barnett; Simon Lambert; Ian Fry

2008-01-01

153

An Approach to Vulnerability Analysis of Complex Industrial Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of vulnerability of complex industrial systems is defined and discussed in relation to risk and system survivability. The discussion is illustrated by referring to a number of previous industrial accidents. The various risk factors, or threats, influencing an industrial system's vulnerability are classified and discussed. Both internal and external threats are covered. The general scope of vulnerability analysis

Stefán Einarsson; Marvin Rausand

1998-01-01

154

Security Vulnerabilities - From Data Analysis to Protection Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper combines an analysis of data on security vulnerabilities (published in the Bugtraq database) and a focused source-code examination to: (i) develop a finite state machine (FSM) model to depict and reason about security vulnerabilities; and (ii) to extract characteristics shared by a large class of commonly seen vulnerabilities (e.g., integer overflow, heap overflow, format string, and stack buffer

Ravishankar K. Iyer; Shuo Chen; Jun Xu; Zbigniew Kalbarczyk

2003-01-01

155

Model-Based Vulnerability Analysis of Computer Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vulnerability analysis is concerned with the problem of identifying weaknesses in computer systems that can be exploited to compromise their security. Most vulnerabilities arise from unexpected interactions between different system components such as server processes, filesystem permissions and content, and other operating system services. Existing vulnerability techniques (such as those used in COPS and SATAN) are based on enumerating the

C. R. Ramakrishnan; R. Sekar

1998-01-01

156

Structural vulnerability of power systems: A topological approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vulnerability analysis of power systems is a key issue in modern society and many efforts have contributed to the analysis. Complex network metrics for the assessment of the vulnerability of networked systems have been recently applied to power systems. Complex network theory may come in handy for vulnerability analysis of power systems due to a close link between the topological

Ettore Bompard; Di Wu; Fei Xue

2011-01-01

157

Detecting past and present intrusions through vulnerability-specific predicates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most systems contain software with yet-to-be-discovered security vulnerabilities. When a vulnerability is disclosed, administrators face the grim reality that they have been running software which was open to attack. Sites that value availability may be forced to continue running this vulnerable software until the accompanying patch has been tested. Our goal is to improve security by detecting intrusions that occurred

Ashlesha Joshi; Samuel T. King; George W. Dunlap; Peter M. Chen

2005-01-01

158

Using vulnerability performance indicators to attain food supply chain robustness  

Microsoft Academic Search

High effectiveness and leanness of modern supply chains (SCs) increase their vulnerability, i.e. susceptibility to disturbances reflected in non-robust SC performances. Both the SC management literature and SC professionals indicate the need for the development of SC vulnerability assessment tools. In this article, a new method for vulnerability assessment, the VULA method, is presented. The VULA method helps to identify

Jelena V. Vlajic; Sander W. M. van Lokven; René Haijema; Jack G. A. J. van der Vorst

2012-01-01

159

An Efficient Measurement of Object Oriented Design Vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

As foundation is to building, design phase is to software because in this phase ideas start converting into actuality. Effects of vulnerabilities introduced in this phase manifest with ongoing software life cycle. Even detection and correction of these vulnerabilities seem to be difficult in absence of any efficient method or automated tool. This paper suggests an approach to identify vulnerable

Alka Agrawal; Shalini Chandra; Raees Ahmad Khan

2009-01-01

160

Empirical Estimates and Observations of 0Day Vulnerabilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We define a 0Day vulnerability to be any vulnerability, in deployed software, that has been discovered by at least one person but has not yet been publicly announced or patched. These 0Day vulnerabilities are of particular interest when assessing the risk...

M. A. McQueen M. R. Chaffin T. A. McQueen W. F. Boyer

2009-01-01

161

Supporting Community in Schools: The Relationship of Resilience and Vulnerability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines the role of community in education. It focuses on the relation between vulnerability and resilience and how this dialectic is fundamental to the workings of community. Community without vulnerability is impoverished since it offers no chance to build resilience. However, vulnerabilities may be perceived as flaws that could be…

Calderwood, Patricia E.

162

A new vulnerability evaluation model to electric power grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

With scale spreading continually and components complicating gradually, security analysis to electric power grid had been a focus. Based on existing researches of electric power grid vulnerability, respectively definitions and new evaluation models of running state vulnerability and structural vulnerability were presented. Then a new evaluation thought combining intensity of state variable and structural character of component was proposed, and

Zhenbo Wei; Junyong Liu; Mai He; Guojun Zhu

2009-01-01

163

Contributions of serotonin in addiction vulnerability.  

PubMed

The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) system has long been associated with mood and its dysregulation implicated in the pathophysiology of mood and anxiety disorders. While modulation of 5-HT neurotransmission by drugs of abuse is also recognized, its role in drug addiction and vulnerability to drug relapse is a more recent focus of investigation. First, we review preclinical data supporting the serotonergic raphe nuclei and their forebrain projections as targets of drugs of abuse, with emphasis on the effects of psychostimulants, opioids and ethanol. Next, we examine the role of 5-HT receptors in impulsivity, a core behavior that contributes to the vulnerability to addiction and relapse. Finally, we discuss evidence for serotonergic dysregulation in comorbid mood and addictive disorders and suggest novel serotonergic targets for the treatment of addiction and the prevention of drug relapse. PMID:21466815

Kirby, L G; Zeeb, F D; Winstanley, C A

2011-04-03

164

Contributions of Serotonin in Addiction Vulnerability  

PubMed Central

The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) system has long been associated with mood and its dysregulation implicated in the pathophysiology of mood and anxiety disorders. While modulation of 5-HT neurotransmission by drugs of abuse is also recognized, its role in drug addiction and vulnerability to drug relapse is a more recent focus of investigation. First, we review preclinical data supporting the serotonergic raphe nuclei and their forebrain projections as targets of drugs of abuse, with emphasis on the effects of psychostimulants, opioids and ethanol. Next, we examine the role of 5-HT receptors in impulsivity, a core behavior that contributes to the vulnerability to addiction and relapse. Finally, we discuss evidence for serotonergic dysregulation in comorbid mood and addictive disorders and suggest novel serotonergic targets for the treatment of addiction and the prevention of drug relapse.

Kirby, LG; Zeeb, FD; Winstanley, CA

2011-01-01

165

Attentional biases and vulnerability to depression.  

PubMed

This study was designed to examine selective processing of emotional information in depression. It focuses on possible attentional biases in depression, and whether such biases constitute a cognitive vulnerability factor to suffer from the disorder or, on the contrary, they reflect a feature associated exclusively with the clinical level of depression. 81 participants were included in the study: 15 with a diagnosis of Major Depression; 17 were diagnosed as Dysthymia; 11 participants scored over 18 in the Beck Depression Inventory (Beck, Rush, Shaw, & Emery, 1979); 15 participants, in whom a sad mood state was induced by an experimental mood induction (Velten technique + music, or biographical recall + music); and 23 participants as a normal-control group. All participants were presented with the emotional Stroop task. The data indicated that attentional bias was only present in the group of patients with Major Depression, so it does not seem to be a cognitive vulnerability factor for this disorder. PMID:11757256

Gallardo Pérez, M; Baños Rivera, R M; Belloch Fuster, A; Ruipérez Rodríguez, M A

1999-05-01

166

Information systems vulnerability: A systems analysis perspective  

SciTech Connect

Vulnerability analyses for information systems are complicated because the systems are often geographically distributed. Sandia National Laboratories has assembled an interdisciplinary team to explore the applicability of probabilistic logic modeling (PLM) techniques (including vulnerability and vital area analysis) to examine the risks associated with networked information systems. The authors have found that the reliability and failure modes of many network technologies can be effectively assessed using fault trees and other PLM methods. The results of these models are compatible with an expanded set of vital area analysis techniques that can model both physical locations and virtual (logical) locations to identify both categories of vital areas simultaneously. These results can also be used with optimization techniques to direct the analyst toward the most cost-effective security solution.

Wyss, G.D.; Daniel, S.L.; Schriner, H.K.; Gaylor, T.R.

1996-07-01

167

Coping with subjectivity in vulnerability assessment  

SciTech Connect

Vulnerability assessment models are widely used to systematically evaluate the performance of complex safeguards systems against a variety of threats. These models require varying levels of detail and input data about the physical design of a facility and its safeguards operations and procedures. However, to evaluate safeguards effectiveness and give a performance rating, these models require additional performance data reflecting probabilities of detection, assessment, interruption, and neutralization, as well as the associated times for various adversary scenarios. These data may be attained from equipment design specifications, laboratory testing, expert judgment, or component testing. Regardless of how these data are obtained, they are inherently subjective. This paper addresses the uses of various vulnerability assessment models and the nature of subjectivity in those models. The paper also describes methods for coping with subjective data.

Renis, T.A.; Cardwell, R.G.

1988-01-01

168

Neural mechanisms of stress resilience and vulnerability.  

PubMed

Exposure to stressful events can be differently perceived by individuals and can have persistent sequelae depending on the level of stress resilience or vulnerability of each person. The neural processes that underlie such clinically and socially important differences reside in the anatomical, functional, and molecular connectivity of the brain. Recent work has provided novel insight into some of the involved biological mechanisms that promises to help prevent and treat stress-related disorders. In this review, we focus on causal and mechanistic evidence implicating altered functions and connectivity of the neuroendocrine system, and of hippocampal, cortical, reward, and serotonergic circuits in the establishment and the maintenance of stress resilience and vulnerability. We also touch upon recent findings suggesting a role for epigenetic mechanisms and neurogenesis in these processes and briefly discuss promising avenues of future investigation. PMID:22958817

Franklin, Tamara B; Saab, Bechara J; Mansuy, Isabelle M

2012-09-01

169

Vulnerable Cloud: SOAP Message Security Validation Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

The service-oriented architecture paradigm is influencing modern software systems remarkably and Web services are a common technology to implement such systems. However, the numerous Web service standard specifications and especially their ambiguity result in a high complexity which opens the door for security-critical mistakes.This paper aims on raising awareness of this issue while discussing a vulnerability in Amazonpsilas Elastic Compute

Nils Gruschka; Luigi Lo Iacono

2009-01-01

170

Seaside, Oregon, Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment Pilot Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of a pilot study to assess the risk from tsunamis for the Seaside-Gearhart, Oregon region will be presented. To determine the risk from tsunamis, it is first necessary to establish the hazard or probability that a tsunami of a particular magnitude will occur within a certain period of time. Tsunami inundation maps that provide 100-year and 500-year probabilistic tsunami wave height contours for the Seaside-Gearhart, Oregon, region were developed as part of an interagency Tsunami Pilot Study(1). These maps provided the probability of the tsunami hazard. The next step in determining risk is to determine the vulnerability or degree of loss resulting from the occurrence of tsunamis due to exposure and fragility. The tsunami vulnerability assessment methodology used in this study was developed by M. Papathoma and others(2). This model incorporates multiple factors (e.g. parameters related to the natural and built environments and socio-demographics) that contribute to tsunami vulnerability. Data provided with FEMA's HAZUS loss estimation software and Clatsop County, Oregon, tax assessment data were used as input to the model. The results, presented within a geographic information system, reveal the percentage of buildings in need of reinforcement and the population density in different inundation depth zones. These results can be used for tsunami mitigation, local planning, and for determining post-tsunami disaster response by emergency services. (1)Tsunami Pilot Study Working Group, Seaside, Oregon Tsunami Pilot Study--Modernization of FEMA Flood Hazard Maps, Joint NOAA/USGS/FEMA Special Report, U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2006, Final Draft. (2)Papathoma, M., D. Dominey-Howes, D.,Y. Zong, D. Smith, Assessing Tsunami Vulnerability, an example from Herakleio, Crete, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 3, 2003, p. 377-389.

Dunbar, P. K.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Varner, J.

2006-12-01

171

Vulnerability assessment in avalanche hazardous areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until a few decades ago, damages and human losses related to the avalanche risk represented only a small part of the destructive effects produced each year by natural events. Nowadays, on the contrary, the situation has considerably changed due to growing of the built-up areas and human presence in the mountain environment: this fact increases the current avalanche risk and puts snow avalanches and hydro-geological risks (floods, landslides, rock falls, etc…) at the same importance level. To mitigate the effects, Authorities provide both specific policies for urban development and mountain land use and simple but reliable methodologies to define the avalanche risk. As is well known, risk can be defined as the product of three factors: the environmental danger P (probability that a given phenomenon with its catastrophic intensity occurs in a specific area and time), the vulnerability V (degree of loss of one or more elements by a natural phenomenon of a known magnitude) and the exposure E (measure of the exposed value for each vulnerable element). A novel approach for the evaluation of the "Vulnerability factor" of a new or existing building under avalanche hazard by considering its structural (materials, strength and robustness, etc…) and architectural (shape, exposure, etc…) peculiarities is presented. A real avalanche event occurred in December, 2008 in Aosta Valley, which caused the total collapse of a building is taken as an example for tesing the effectiveness of the proposed risk assessment. By means of photographical analysis on undamaged parts, local surveys and debris arrangement, the impact pressure and the collapse dynamics are back-analyzed. The results are commented and comparisons between the damages and Vulnerability factor are made.

Frigo, B.; De Biagi, V.; Chiaia, B.

2012-04-01

172

Race and Healthcare Disparities: Overcoming Vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper summarizes recently published dataand recommendations about healthcaredisparities experienced by African Americanswho have Medicare or other healthcare coverage.Against this background the paper addresses theethics of such disparities and howdisadvantages of vulnerable populations likeAfrican Americans are typically maintained indecision making about how to respond to suchdisparities. Considering how to respond todisparities reveals much that vulnerablepopulations would bring to the policy-makingtable,

John Stone

2002-01-01

173

Gene therapy for the vulnerable plaque  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rupture of coronary atherosclerotic plaque and subsequent formation of an occlusive intracoronary thrombus (Figure 410-1)\\u000a are the major events precipitating acute coronary syndromes [1–6]. The vulnerable plaque is smaller in size [7], richer in lipids [1],[2], and more infiltrated with macrophages [2,3,8–10] than the stable, fibromuscular lesion. Therefore, lowering the lipid and\\/or macrophage pools stored in the plaque may “stabilize”

Douglas W. Losordo; Jeffrey M. Isner

174

Vulnerability to interpretation bias in overweight children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obese children are often liable to weight-related teasing, and in earlier studies this childhood teasing has been found to predict body dissatisfaction. Cognitive theory postulates that negative experiences are the source of interpretation biases, implicating that weight-related teasing might make obese children vulnerable to shape- and weight-related interpretation biases. In the present study, it was tested whether young overweight children

Anita Jansen; Tom Smeets; Brigitte Boon; Chantal Nederkoorn; Anne Roefs; Sandra Mulkens

2007-01-01

175

Growth of Necrotic Cores in Vulnerable Plaque  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plaques are fatty deposits that grow mainly in arteries and develop as a result of a chronic inflammatory response. Plaques are called vulnerable when they are prone to mechanical rupture. Vulnerable Plaques (VPs) are characterized by lipid-rich, necrotic cores that are heavily infiltrated with macrophages. The rupture of VPs releases thrombogenic agents into the bloodstream, usually resulting in myocardial infarctions. We propose a quantitative model to predict the development of a plaque's necrotic core. By solving coupled reaction-diffusion equations for macrophages and dead cells, we explore the joint effects of hypoxic cell death and chemo-attraction to Ox-LDL, a molecule that is strongly linked to atherosclerosis. Our model predicts cores that have approximately the right size and shape. Normal mode analysis and subsequent calculation of the smallest eigenvalues allow us to compute the times required for the system to reach its steady state. This study allows us to make quantitative predictions for how quickly vulnerable plaques develop and how their growth depends on system parameters such as chemotactic coefficients and cell death rates.

Fok, Pak-Wing

2011-03-01

176

A new insider vulnerability assessment model  

SciTech Connect

A new insider vulnerability assessment model is currently being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The model focuses on timely detection of theft or diversion of nuclear material by a non-violent insider. This model will be part of an integrated vulnerability assessment package being developed jointly by LLNL and Sandia National Laboratory. The model will enable a safeguards analyst to complete a comprehensive and well-documented vulnerability analysis. Two major components are used in the model. The first consists of a description of the facility being analyzed, the safeguards components in use at the facility, the theft material, and the potential insider adversaries. The second component is a predefined set of strategy definitions, including specific methods of defeating the individual safeguards components. It also contains the logic and equations necessary to determine which strategies apply to the various insider adversaries and to compute the associated detection probabilities. The optimal theft scenario and the overall probability of detection are determined for each type leads to consistency of results and ease of evaluation. The reports generated are designed to aid in identifying weaknesses and suggesting potential upgrades. Re-evaluation is simplified by the structure of the model. 1 ref., 5 figs.

Sokkappa, P.R.; Renis, T.A.

1988-06-22

177

Vulnerability assessment using two complementary analysis tools  

SciTech Connect

To analyze the vulnerability of nuclear materials to theft or sabotage, Department of Energy facilities have been using, since 1989, a computer program called ASSESS, Analytic System and Software for Evaluation of Safeguards and Security. During the past year Sandia National Laboratories has begun using an additional program, SEES, Security Exercise Evaluation Simulation, enhancing the picture of vulnerability beyond what either program achieves alone. Assess analyzes all possible paths of attack on a target and, assuming that an attack occurs, ranks them by the probability that a response force of adequate size can interrupt the attack before theft or sabotage is accomplished. A Neutralization module pits, collectively, a security force against the interrupted adversary force in a fire fight and calculates the probability that the adversaries are defeated. SEES examines a single scenario and simulates in detail the interactions among all combatants. its output includes shots fired between shooter and target, and the hits and kills. Whereas ASSESS gives breadth of analysis, expressed statistically and performed relatively quickly, SEES adds depth of detail, modeling tactical behavior. ASSESS finds scenarios that exploit the greatest weakness of a facility. SEES explores these scenarios to demonstrate in detail how various tactics to nullify the attack might work out. Without ASSESS to find the facility weakness, it is difficult to focus SEES objectively on scenarios worth analyzing. Without SEES to simulate the details of response vs. adversary interaction, it is not possible to test tactical assumptions and hypotheses. Using both programs together, vulnerability analyses achieve both breadth and depth.

Paulus, W.K.

1993-07-01

178

Technical Papers on Target Vulnerability Analysis Intended for a Briefing to Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four technical papers on the subject of Target Vulnerability are presented. The first paper Vulnerability Overview discusses the scope of vulnerability analysis and vulnerability reduction and their application to military equipment. The second paper disc...

A. J. Hoffman B. E. Cummings T. Shirata W. S. Vikestad

1975-01-01

179

Evaluating regional vulnerability to climate change: purposes and methods  

SciTech Connect

As the emphasis in climate change research, international negotiations, and developing-country activities has shifted from mitigation to adaptation, vulnerability has emerged as a bridge between impacts on one side and the need for adaptive changes on the other. Still, the term vulnerability remains abstract, its meaning changing with the scale, focus, and purpose of each assessment. Understanding regional vulnerability has advanced over the past several decades, with studies using a combination of indicators, case studies and analogues, stakeholder-driven processes, and scenario-building methodologies. As regions become increasingly relevant scales of inquiry for bridging the aggregate and local, for every analysis, it is perhaps most appropriate to ask three “what” questions: “What/who is vulnerable?,” “What is vulnerability?,” and “Vulnerable to what?” The answers to these questions will yield different definitions of vulnerability as well as different methods for assessing it.

Malone, Elizabeth L.; Engle, Nathan L.

2011-03-15

180

Systemic vulnerability model for coastal erosion processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many coastal areas constitute an extraordinary environmental worth and economic value resource continuously exposed to an unceasing transformation due to climatic and anthropic factors. The pressure factor overloads carry out an amplification of environmental degradation and economic rent decrease of these territories producing a disruption of normal and anticipated community growth. This paper copes with coastal erosion problem by a systemic vulnerability model application and environmental indicators approach. Through the definition of an original indicator depending on the observed annual rate of coastal erosion and wave climate parameters, such an approach allow scenario generation and it is useful and powerful planning and management tool. The model has been applied on the test case of Ionian Coast of Basilicata Region located in the southern part of Italy, in the middle of Mediterranean basin. The littoral area is constituted of sandy shores of about 50 km length and 5 river deltas take place. Looking at the shoreline in terms of displacements, a shift of a coastal part is a function of grain size characteristics of the shore sands and of the wave climate. Therefore the selected index taking into account the energy stress affecting the shore area, characterizing the territorial system state and finalized to vulnerability estimation, is defined through the maximum annual erosion,tE, and the surface-wave parameters (H,T) corresponding to the wave-generated bottom orbital velocities higher than critical velocity matches with the bottom incipient transport condition. The resulting coefficient ? (? = tE? ? gH2-?T) is obviously dimensionless and represents the part of the available power in the seas, dissipated by erosion processes. If ? increases, the system integrity decreases and the system vulnerability increases. Available data, in terms of topographic/bathymetric information referred to the period 1873-2008, were utilized to derive tE by the use of a GIS-CAD "comb model" developed at the University of Basilicata, in which the full shoreline length was divided in 92 segments corresponding to 500 m for each one. Wave climate data were estimated from wind data by use of a hindcasting method for the observation period 1987-2010. Grain size characteristic of the shore sands were acquired by a in situ measurement campaigns. The ? index gives a synthetic representation of the coastal erosion and progress processes exclusively due to climatic actions and the information derived in terms of vulnerability is distributed on the coastal territory. Results show heterogeneous trends, with relevant difference in vulnerability response among the morphological elements. In particular, the river deltas represent a critical location with significant exposition. By the analyses performed, the southern part of the coast, located near the delta of Sinni river, seems to be more sensible to the vulnerability respect to the other part of the test area.

Greco, M.; Martino, G.; Guariglia, A.

2010-09-01

181

Overview of the integrated vulnerability assessment tool  

SciTech Connect

Safeguards professionals need a single, comprehensive tool for evaluating safeguards effectiveness aginst theft of special nuclear material by many different adversaries: insiders, outsiders, and colluding insiders and outsiders. This paper describes a new integrated vulnerability assessment tool which is currently being tested and will be ready for release later this year. The tool consists of five modules: Integration System Manager, Facility Description, Insider Evaluation, Outsider Evaluation, and Collusion Evaluation. This tool provides a standard approach for evaluating safeguards effectiveness and for preparing Master Safeguards and Security Agreements at various DOE facilities.

Al-Ayat, R.A.; Renis, T.A.; Matter, J.C.; Winblad, A.

1988-01-01

182

Why healthcare facilities are vulnerable to crime.  

PubMed

Although the public's view of healthcare facilities is that they are inherently safe and secure, administrators and staff members in hospitals are very aware that they could be vulnerable to an episode of violence at any time, according to the author. Today, crimes, including homicide, are an ever-present reality in healthcare facilities, they report, citing recent studies which attempt to explain why this is so. The article is based on the introduction to the IAHSS and IHSS Foundation 2012 Crime and Security Trends Survey. The complete survey is accessible to members in the Reference Section of the IAHSS web page. PMID:24020317

Mikow-Porto, Victoria A; Smith, Thomas

2013-01-01

183

Children of Darfur: a vulnerable population.  

PubMed

Four years of intense war in Darfur has created an entire generation of children who might never recover. Children in this region are particularly vulnerable and suffer from issues including physical and psychological illness, malnutrition, rape and unlawful military recruitment. This international crisis is among the most important public health issues in the world. The responsibility of the international community to these children is significant and required to break this cycle. This paper will discuss the concerns surrounding these children, how current strategies are failing and proposed public health nursing interventions. PMID:18190487

Chaikin, Jennifer

2008-02-01

184

The perils of protection: vulnerability and women in clinical research.  

PubMed

Subpart B of 45 Code of Federal Regulations Part 46 (CFR) identifies the criteria according to which research involving pregnant women, human fetuses, and neonates can be conducted ethically in the United States. As such, pregnant women and fetuses fall into a category requiring "additional protections," often referred to as "vulnerable populations." The CFR does not define vulnerability, but merely gives examples of vulnerable groups by pointing to different categories of potential research subjects needing additional protections. In this paper, I assess critically the role of this categorization of pregnant women involved in research as "vulnerable," both as separate entities and in combination with the fetuses they carry. In particular, I do three things: (1) demonstrate that pregnant women qua pregnancy are either not "vulnerable" according to any meaningful definition of that term or that such vulnerability is irrelevant to her status as a research participant; (2) argue that while a fetus may be vulnerable in terms of dependency, this categorization does not equate to the vulnerability of the pregnant woman; and (3) suggest that any vulnerability that appends to women is precisely the result of federal regulations and dubious public perceptions about pregnant women. I conclude by demonstrating how this erroneous characterization of pregnant women as "vulnerable" and its associated protections have not only impeded vital research for pregnant women and their fetuses, but have also negatively affected the inclusion of all women in clinical research. PMID:23686729

Schonfeld, Toby

2013-06-01

185

Susceptibility to mountain hazards in Austria - paradigms of vulnerability revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of vulnerability is pillared by multiple disciplinary theories underpinning either a technical or a social origin of the concept and resulting in a range of paradigms for either a qualitative or quantitative assessment of vulnerability. However, efforts to reduce susceptibility to hazards and to create disaster-resilient communities require intersections among these theories, since human activity cannot be seen independently from the environmental setting. Acknowledging different roots of disciplinary paradigms, issues determining structural, economic, institutional and social vulnerability are discussed with respect to mountain hazards in Austria. The underlying idea of taking such an integrative viewpoint was the cognition that human action in mountain environments affects the state of vulnerability, and the state of vulnerability in turn shapes the possibilities of human action. It is argued that structural vulnerability as originator results in considerable economic vulnerability, generated by the institutional settings of dealing with natural hazards and shaped by the overall societal framework. Hence, the vulnerability of a specific location and within a considered point of time is triggered by the hazardous event and the related physical susceptibility of structures, such as buildings located on a torrent fan. Depending on the specific institutional settings, economic vulnerability of individuals or of the society results, above all with respect to imperfect loss compensation mechanisms in the areas under investigation. While this potential for harm can be addressed as social vulnerability, the concept of institutional vulnerability has been developed with respect to the overall political settings of governmental risk management. As a result, the concept of vulnerability, as being used in natural sciences, can be extended by integration of possible reasons why such physical susceptibility of structures exists, and by integration of compensation mechanisms and coping strategies being developed within social sciences. If vulnerability and its counterpart, resilience, is analysed and evaluated by using a comprehensive approach, a better understanding of the vulnerability-influencing parameters could be achieved, taking into account the interdependencies and interactions between the disciplinary foci. Thereby the overall aim of this work is not to develop another integrative approach for vulnerability assessment, different approaches are rather applied by using a vulnerability-of-place criterion, and key issues of vulnerability are reconsidered aiming at a general illustration of the situation in a densely populated mountain region of Europe.

Fuchs, Sven

2010-05-01

186

Evaluating operating system vulnerability to memory errors.  

SciTech Connect

Reliability is of great concern to the scalability of extreme-scale systems. Of particular concern are soft errors in main memory, which are a leading cause of failures on current systems and are predicted to be the leading cause on future systems. While great effort has gone into designing algorithms and applications that can continue to make progress in the presence of these errors without restarting, the most critical software running on a node, the operating system (OS), is currently left relatively unprotected. OS resiliency is of particular importance because, though this software typically represents a small footprint of a compute node's physical memory, recent studies show more memory errors in this region of memory than the remainder of the system. In this paper, we investigate the soft error vulnerability of two operating systems used in current and future high-performance computing systems: Kitten, the lightweight kernel developed at Sandia National Laboratories, and CLE, a high-performance Linux-based operating system developed by Cray. For each of these platforms, we outline major structures and subsystems that are vulnerable to soft errors and describe methods that could be used to reconstruct damaged state. Our results show the Kitten lightweight operating system may be an easier target to harden against memory errors due to its smaller memory footprint, largely deterministic state, and simpler system structure.

Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Bridges, Patrick G. (University of New Mexico); Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Mueller, Frank (North Carolina State University); Fiala, David (North Carolina State University); Brightwell, Ronald Brian

2012-05-01

187

Obesity and Vulnerability of the CNS  

PubMed Central

Summary The incidence of obesity is increasing worldwide, and is especially pronounced in developed western countries. While the consequences of obesity on metabolic and cardiovascular physiology are well established, epidemiological and experimental data are beginning to establish that the central nervous system (CNS) may also be detrimentally affected by obesity and obesity-induced metabolic dysfunction. In particular, data show that obesity in human populations is associated with cognitive decline and enhanced vulnerability to brain injury, while experimental studies in animal models confirm a profile of heightened vulnerability and decreased cognitive function. This review will describe findings from human and animal studies to summarize current understanding of how obesity affects the brain. Furthermore, studies aimed at identifying key elements of body-brain dialog will be discussed to assess how various metabolic and adipose-related signals could adversely affect the CNS. Overall, data suggest that obesity-induced alterations in metabolism may significantly synergize with age to impair brain function and accelerate age-related diseases of the nervous system. Thus, enhanced understanding of the effects of obesity and obesity-related metabolic dysfunction on the brain are especially critical as increasing numbers of obese individuals approach advanced age.

Bruce-Keller, Annadora J.; Keller, Jeffrey N.; Morrison, Christopher D.

2009-01-01

188

Passenger Deletions Generate Therapeutic Vulnerabilities in Cancer  

PubMed Central

Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes via homozygous deletion is a prototypic event in the cancer genome, yet such deletions often encompass neighboring genes. We hypothesized that homozygous deletions in such passenger genes can expose cancer-specific therapeutic vulnerabilities in the case where the collaterally deleted gene is a member of a functionally redundant family of genes exercising an essential function. The glycolytic gene Enolase 1 (ENO1) in the 1p36 locus is deleted in Glioblastoma (GBM), which is tolerated by expression of ENO2. We demonstrate that shRNA-mediated extinction of ENO2 selectively inhibits growth, survival, and tumorigenic potential of ENO1-deleted GBM cells and that the enolase inhibitor phosphonoacetohydroxamate (PhAH) is selectively toxic to ENO1-deleted GBM cells relative to ENO1-intact GBM cells or normal astrocytes. The principle of collateral vulnerability should be applicable to other passenger deleted genes encoding functionally-redundant essential activities and provide an effective treatment strategy for cancers harboring such genomic events.

Muller, Florian L.; Colla, Simona; Aquilanti, Elisa; Manzo, Veronica; Genovese, Giannicola; Lee, Jaclyn; Eisenson, Dan; Narurkar, Rujuta; Deng, Pingna; Nezi, Luigi; Lee, Michelle; Hu, Baoli; Hu, Jian; Sahin, Ergun; Ong, Derrick; Fletcher-Sananikone, Eliot; Ho, Dennis; Kwong, Lawrence; Brennan, Cameron; Wang, Y. Alan; Chin, Lynda; DePinho, Ronald A.

2013-01-01

189

Airport vulnerability assessment: an analytical approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Airport Vulnerability Assessment Project (AVAP) is the direct result of congressional funding of recommendation 3.13 of the White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security. This project takes a new approach to the assessment of U.S. commercial airports. AVAP uses automation, analytical methods and tools to evaluate vulnerability and risk, and to analyze cost/benefits in a more quantitative manner. This paper addresses both the process used to conduct this program, as well as a generalized look at the results, which have been achieved for the initial airport assessments. The process description covers the acquisition approach, the project structure, and a review of the various methodologies and tools being used by the sever performing organizations (Abacus Technology, Battelle, CTI, Lockwood Greene, Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, SAIC, and Science & Engineering Associates). The tools described include ASSESS, SAM, RiskWatch, CASRAP, and AVAT. Included in the process is the utilization of an advisory panel made up predominantly of experts from the National Laboratories 9Sandia, Oak Ridge, Argonne and Brookhaven). The results portion addresses the findings and products resulting from the initial airport assessments. High level (unrestricted) summaries of the results are presented, along with initial trends in commonly recommended security improvements (countermeasures). Opportunities for the application of optics technology are identified.

Lazarick, Richard T.

1998-12-01

190

Overview of the integrated vulnerability assessment tool  

SciTech Connect

Safeguards professionals need a single, comprehensive tool for evaluating safeguards effectiveness against theft of special nuclear material by many different adversaries: insiders, outsiders, and colluding insiders and outsiders. This paper describes a new integrated vulnerability assessment tool which is currently being tested and will be ready for release later this year. The tool consist of five modules: Integration System Manager, Facility Description, Insider Evaluation, Outsider Evaluation, and Collusion Evaluation. The Integration System Manager is designed to keep track of analyses completed and in progress, while the Facility Description Module allows the use to describe the facility targets and safeguards components. Information gathered by the Facility Description Module can then be used by the three evaluation modules. The Outsider Evaluation Module is an enhanced version of SAVI (Systematic Analysis of Vulnerability to Intrusion) that includes an expanded outsider threat spectrum, a faster path algorithm, and a neutralization model based on BATLE (Brief Adversary Threat Loss Estimator). The Insider Evaluation Module is based on a new model, and it includes extensive databases for adversary attributes and strategies; it also contains a reference detection database. Insider/Outsider Collusion will be limited to ''hand-off'' scenarios. This tool will provide a standard approach for evaluating safeguards effectiveness and for preparing Master Safeguards and Security Agreements at various DOE facilities. 5 refs., 4 figs.

Al-Ayat, R.A.; Renis, T.A.; Matter, J.C.; Winblad, A.

1988-06-22

191

Vulnerabilities to misinformation in online pharmaceutical marketing.  

PubMed

Given the large percentage of Internet users who search for health information online, pharmaceutical companies have invested significantly in online marketing of their products. Although online pharmaceutical marketing can potentially benefit both physicians and patients, it can also harm these groups by misleading them. Indeed, some pharmaceutical companies have been guilty of undue influence, which has threatened public health and trust. We conducted a review of the available literature on online pharmaceutical marketing, undue influence and the psychology of decision-making, in order to identify factors that contribute to Internet users' vulnerability to online pharmaceutical misinformation. We find five converging factors: Internet dependence, excessive trust in the veracity of online information, unawareness of pharmaceutical company influence, social isolation and detail fixation. As the Internet continues to change, it is important that regulators keep in mind not only misinformation that surrounds new web technologies and their contents, but also the factors that make Internet users vulnerable to misinformation in the first place. Psychological components are a critical, although often neglected, risk factor for Internet users becoming misinformed upon exposure to online pharmaceutical marketing. Awareness of these psychological factors may help Internet users attentively and safely navigate an evolving web terrain. PMID:23761527

De Freitas, Julian; Falls, Brian A; Haque, Omar S; Bursztajn, Harold J

2013-05-01

192

Vulnerability of housing buildings in Bucharest, Romania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author participates to the World Housing Encyclopedia project (www.world-housing.net), an internet based database of housing buildings in earthquake prone areas of the world. This is a voluntary project run by the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, Oakland, California and the International Association of Earthquake Engineering, financial means being available only for the website where the information is shared. For broader dissemination in 2004 a summary publication of the reports to date was published. The database can be querried for various parameters and browsed after geographic distribution. Participation is open to any housing experts. Between 2003 and 2006 the author was also member of the editorial board. The author contributed numerous reports about building types in Romania, and each one about building types in Germany and Switzerland. This presentation will be about the contributed reports on building types in Romania. To the Encyclopedia eight reports on building types from Bucharest were contributed, while in further research of the author one more was similarly described regarding the vulnerability and the seismic retrofit. The selection of these types was done considering the historic development of the built substance in Bucharest from 1850 on, time from which a representative amount of housing buildings which can be classified in typologies can be found in Bucharest. While the structural types are not necessarily characteristic for the style, since the style has other time limits, often appearing before the type became common and then remaining being practiced also after another style gained ground, a historic succession can be seen also in this case. The nine types considered can be grouped in seven time categories: - the time 1850-1880, for a vernacular housing type with masonry load bearing walls and timber floors, - the time 1880-1920, for the type of two storey or multi-storey house with masonry walls and timber floors (in which stylistically the "national style" flourished), - the time 1920-1940 for the type with reinforced concrete skeleton for gravitational loads only (in which the "interwar style" or Romanian Modernism flourished), - the time immediately after 1940 (when a strong earthquake struck Bucharest), somehow 1940-1947, when the former structural type was continued, but with some improvements, for which a type with reinforced concrete diagonals was considered, - the time 1947-1977, before the strong earthquake from 1977, when cast-in-situ reinforced concrete structural wall buildings were spread. Two types are considered, one which displayed low earthquake vulnerability and one which displayed high earthquake vulnerability, - the time 1977-1989, after the strong earthquake from 1977 and before the fall on the communist regime, when taking as a reason the strong earthquake the regime started to implement another type of buildings, which structurally often were still reinforced concrete structural wall type, but prefabricated, - the time after 1989, when for more flexibility moment resisting frame was built, and also some of the unfinished moment resisting frame buildings were completed. To have such a complete description of all the building type in a country is not common for the World Housing Encyclopedia, and having them for Romania was due to a particular effort of the author. At the same time the database allows finding similar types in other parts of the world. Broadly speaking, each report included two sections, the first one more extended, on the vulnerability of buildings and the second on the seismic retrofit. The reports contain completed check lists, descriptions of the structural system, photographs and drawings. The accent in this presentation will be on the identification of seismic deficiencies and earthquake resilient features, and the connected typical damages, which all describe the vulnerability.

Bostenaru, M.

2009-04-01

193

ZDVUE: prioritization of javascript attacks to discover new vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malware writers are constantly looking for new vulnerabilities to exploit in popular software applications. A successful exploit of a previously unknown vulnerability, that evades state-of-the art anti-virus and intrusion-detection systems is called a zero-day vulnerability. JavaScript is a popular vehicle for testing and delivering attacks through drive-by downloads on web clients. Failed attack attempts leave traces of suspicious activity on

Sandeep Karanth; Srivatsan Laxman; Prasad Naldurg; Ramarathnam Venkatesan; J. Lambert; Jinwook Shin

2011-01-01

194

Social Science Perspectives on Hazards and Vulnerability Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a What makes people and places vulnerable to natural hazards? What technologies and methods are required to assess this vulnerability?\\u000a These questions are used to illustrate the circumstances that place people and localities at risk, and those circumstances\\u000a that enhance or reduce the ability of people and places to respond to environmental threats. Vulnerability science is an emerging\\u000a interdisciplinary perspective that

Susan L. Cutter

195

77 FR 28894 - Maritime Vulnerability Self-Assessment Tool  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...HOMELAND SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Maritime Vulnerability...Self-Assessment Tool AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION...SUMMARY: The Transportation Security Administration (TSA)...

2012-05-16

196

Empirical Estimates of 0Day Vulnerabilities in Control Systems  

SciTech Connect

We define a 0Day vulnerability to be any vulnerability, in deployed software, which has been discovered by at least one person but has not yet been publicly announced or patched. These 0Day vulnerabilities are of particular interest when assessing the risk to well managed control systems which have already effectively mitigated the publicly known vulnerabilities. In these well managed systems the risk contribution from 0Days will have proportionally increased. To aid understanding of how great a risk 0Days may pose to control systems, an estimate of how many are in existence is needed. Consequently, using the 0Day definition given above, we developed and applied a method for estimating how many 0Day vulnerabilities are in existence on any given day. The estimate is made by: empirically characterizing the distribution of the lifespans, measured in days, of 0Day vulnerabilities; determining the number of vulnerabilities publicly announced each day; and applying a novel method for estimating the number of 0Day vulnerabilities in existence on any given day using the number of vulnerabilities publicly announced each day and the previously derived distribution of 0Day lifespans. The method was first applied to a general set of software applications by analyzing the 0Day lifespans of 491 software vulnerabilities and using the daily rate of vulnerability announcements in the National Vulnerability Database. This led to a conservative estimate that in the worst year there were, on average, 2500 0Day software related vulnerabilities in existence on any given day. Using a smaller but intriguing set of 15 0Day software vulnerability lifespans representing the actual time from discovery to public disclosure, we then made a more aggressive estimate. In this case, we estimated that in the worst year there were, on average, 4500 0Day software vulnerabilities in existence on any given day. We then proceeded to identify the subset of software applications likely to be used in some control systems, analyzed the associated subset of vulnerabilities, and characterized their lifespans. Using the previously developed method of analysis, we very conservatively estimated 250 control system related 0Day vulnerabilities in existence on any given day. While reasonable, this first order estimate for control systems is probably far more conservative than those made for general software systems since the estimate did not include vulnerabilities unique to control system specific components. These control system specific vulnerabilities were unable to be included in the estimate for a variety of reasons with the most problematic being that the public announcement of unique control system vulnerabilities is very sparse. Consequently, with the intent to improve the above 0Day estimate for control systems, we first identified the additional, unique to control systems, vulnerability estimation constraints and then investigated new mechanisms which may be useful for estimating the number of unique 0Day software vulnerabilities found in control system components. We proceeded to identify a number of new mechanisms and approaches for estimating and incorporating control system specific vulnerabilities into an improved 0Day estimation method. These new mechanisms and approaches appear promising and will be more rigorously evaluated during the course of the next year.

Miles A. McQueen; Wayne F. Boyer; Sean M. McBride; Trevor A. McQueen

2009-01-01

197

Intravascular probe for detection of vulnerable plaque  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coronary angiography is unable to define the status of the atheroma, and only measures the luminal dimensions of the blood vessel, without providing information about plaque content. Up to 70% of heart attacks are caused by minimally obstructive vulnerable plaques, which are too small to be detected adequately by angiography. We have developed an intravascular imaging detector to identify vulnerable coronary artery plaques. The detector works by sensing beta or conversion electron radiotracer emissions from plaque-binding radiotracers. The device overcomes the technical constraints of size, sensitivity and conformance to the intravascular environment. The detector at the distal end of the catheter uses six 7mm long by 0.5mm diameter scintillation fibers coupled to 1.5m long plastic fibers. The fibers are offset from each other longitudinally by 6mm and arranged spirally around a guide wire in the catheter. At the proximal end of the catheter the optical fibers are coupled to an interface box with a snap on connector. The interface box contains a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT) to decode the individual fibers. The whole detector assembly fits into an 8-French (2.7 mm in diameter) catheter. The PSPMT image is further decoded with software to give a linear image, the total instantaneous count rate and an audio output whose tone corresponds to the count rate. The device was tested with F-18 and Tl-204 sources. Spectrometric response, spatial resolution, sensitivity and beta to background ratio were measured. System resolution is 6 mm and the sensitivity is >500 cps / micrometers Ci when the source is 1 mm from the detector. The beta to background ratio was 11.2 for F-18 measured on a single fiber. The current device will lead to a system allowing imaging of labeled vulnerable plaque in coronary arteries. This type of signature is expected to enable targeted and cost effective therapies to prevent acute coronary artery diseases such as: unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.

Patt, Bradley E.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; MacDonald, Lawrence R.; Yamaguchi, Yuko; Tull, Carolyn R.; Janecek, Martin; Hoffman, Edward J.; Strauss, H. William; Tsugita, Ross; Ghazarossian, Vartan

2001-12-01

198

An Integrated Approach for Urban Earthquake Vulnerability Analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The earthquake risk for an urban area has increased over the years due to the increasing complexities in urban environments. The main reasons are the location of major cities in hazard prone areas, growth in urbanization and population and rising wealth measures. In recent years physical examples of these factors are observed through the growing costs of major disasters in urban areas which have stimulated a demand for in-depth evaluation of possible strategies to manage the large scale damaging effects of earthquakes. Understanding and formulation of urban earthquake risk requires consideration of a wide range of risk aspects, which can be handled by developing an integrated approach. In such an integrated approach, an interdisciplinary view should be incorporated into the risk assessment. Risk assessment for an urban area requires prediction of vulnerabilities related to elements at risk in the urban area and integration of individual vulnerability assessments. However, due to complex nature of an urban environment, estimating vulnerabilities and integrating them necessities development of integrated approaches in which vulnerabilities of social, economical, structural (building stock and infrastructure), cultural and historical heritage are estimated for a given urban area over a given time period. In this study an integrated urban earthquake vulnerability assessment framework, which considers vulnerability of urban environment in a holistic manner and performs the vulnerability assessment for the smallest administrative unit, namely at neighborhood scale, is proposed. The main motivation behind this approach is the inability to implement existing vulnerability assessment methodologies for countries like Turkey, where the required data are usually missing or inadequate and decision makers seek for prioritization of their limited resources in risk reduction in the administrative districts from which they are responsible. The methodology integrates socio-economical, structural, coastal, ground condition, organizational vulnerabilities, as well as accessibility to critical services within the framework. The proposed framework has the following eight components: Seismic hazard analysis, soil response analysis, tsunami inundation analysis, structural vulnerability analysis, socio-economic vulnerability analysis, accessibility to critical services, GIS-based integrated vulnerability assessment, and visualization of vulnerabilities in 3D virtual city model The integrated model for various vulnerabilities obtained for the urban area is developed in GIS environment by using individual vulnerability assessments for considered elements at risk and serve for establishing the backbone of the spatial decision support system. The stages followed in the model are: Determination of a common mapping unit for each aspect of urban earthquake vulnerability, formation of a geo-database for the vulnerabilities, evaluation of urban vulnerability based on multi attribute utility theory with various weighting algorithms, mapping of the evaluated integrated earthquake risk in geographic information systems (GIS) in the neighborhood scale. The framework is also applicable to larger geographical mapping scales, for example, the building scale. When illustrating the results in building scale, 3-D visualizations with remote sensing data is used so that decision-makers can easily interpret the outputs. The proposed vulnerability assessment framework is flexible and can easily be applied to urban environments at various geographical scales with different mapping units. The obtained total vulnerability maps for the urban area provide a baseline for the development of risk reduction strategies for the decision makers. Moreover, as several aspects of elements at risk for an urban area is considered through vulnerability analyses, effect on changes in vulnerability conditions on the total can easily be determined. The developed approach also enables decision makers to monitor temporal and spatial changes in the urban environment due to implementation of

Düzgün, H. S.; Yücemen, M. S.; Kalaycioglu, H. S.

2009-04-01

199

Neuronal vulnerability, pathogenesis, and Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Although there have been significant advances, pathogenesis in Parkinson's disease (PD) is still poorly understood. Potential clues about pathogenesis that have not been systematically pursued are suggested by the restricted pattern of neuronal pathology in the disease. In addition to dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), a significant number of other central and peripheral neuronal populations exhibit Lewy pathology (LP), phenotypic dysregulation, or frank degeneration in PD patients. Drawing on this literature, there appear to be a small number of risk factors contributing to vulnerability. These include autonomous activity, broad action potentials, low intrinsic calcium-buffering capacity, poorly myelinated long highly branched axons and terminal fields, and use of a monoamine neurotransmitter, often with the catecholamine-derived neuromelanin pigment. Of these phenotypic traits, only the physiological ones appear to provide a reachable therapeutic target at present. PMID:22791686

Sulzer, David; Surmeier, D James

2012-07-12

200

An integrated approach to vulnerability assessment.  

SciTech Connect

How might the quality of a city's delivered water be compromised through natural or malevolent causes? What are the consequences of a contamination event? What water utility assets are at greatest risk to compromise? Utility managers have been scrambling to find answers to these questions since the events of 9/11. However, even before this date utility mangers were concerned with the potential for system contamination through natural or accidental causes. Unfortunately, an integrated tool for assessing both the threat of attack/failure and the subsequent consequence is lacking. To help with this problem we combine Markov Latent Effects modeling for performing threat assessment calculations with the widely used pipe hydraulics/transport code, EPANET, for consequences analysis. Together information from these models defines the risk posed to the public due to natural or malevolent contamination of a water utility system. Here, this risk assessment framework is introduced and demonstrated within the context of vulnerability assessment for water distribution systems.

Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Jurado, Sariah Ruth (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Silva, Consuelo Juanita

2005-03-01

201

Homelessness and our most vulnerable patients.  

PubMed

The scope of homelessness among children is broad and growing, and its affect on physical and mental health is extensive. It may seem daunting for individual providers to make an impact on the challenges faced by these most vulnerable of patients. However, healthcare providers who care for homeless children can improve more than just their physical health by understanding barriers specific to this population, and addressing them through minor changes in standard practice; education of self, staff, and colleagues; and advocacy. By collaborating with parents and local agencies, clinicians can make tangible progress in improving the health of their homeless patients and can provide parents with the information and support they need to prioritize a child's health needs appropriately. Ultimately, providers should strive to make their practices a true medical home, as it may be the only home a child knows. PMID:19186593

Olszyk, Mark D; Goodell, Melly

2008-01-01

202

Gastrointestinal and other vulnerabilities for geriatric globetrotters.  

PubMed

An awareness of the journey's destination and the consequential events along the way will better enhance our diagnoses and in turn sustain our elder "homo turisticus," no longer an endangered species but worthy of our continued compassionate care while enjoying their longevity. All potential treacheries must be assessed by each elderly traveler. It may be the first of many trips or the last opportunity to view and relate to the sequoia's longevity, hike the Scottish highlands, view the game of the Serengeti, explore the Nordic fjords, indulge in the Patagonian scenes of the Iguazú falls, seek the habitats of the Galápagos tortoise, partake of the photograph opportunities of Papua-New Guinea, or finalize that "last" business contract in the Orient. With consideration of these many vulnerabilities and potential hazards, why then undertake the journey? Perhaps our geriatric globetrotters give credence to the age-old saying (of unknown origin) "Running water never freezes." PMID:1855161

Gordon, M E

1991-05-01

203

Method and tool for network vulnerability analysis  

DOEpatents

A computer system analysis tool and method that will allow for qualitative and quantitative assessment of security attributes and vulnerabilities in systems including computer networks. The invention is based on generation of attack graphs wherein each node represents a possible attack state and each edge represents a change in state caused by a single action taken by an attacker or unwitting assistant. Edges are weighted using metrics such as attacker effort, likelihood of attack success, or time to succeed. Generation of an attack graph is accomplished by matching information about attack requirements (specified in "attack templates") to information about computer system configuration (contained in a configuration file that can be updated to reflect system changes occurring during the course of an attack) and assumed attacker capabilities (reflected in "attacker profiles"). High risk attack paths, which correspond to those considered suited to application of attack countermeasures given limited resources for applying countermeasures, are identified by finding "epsilon optimal paths."

Swiler, Laura Painton (Albuquerque, NM); Phillips, Cynthia A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-03-14

204

Calcium homeostasis, selective vulnerability and Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder of which the core motor symptoms are attributable to the degeneration of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Recent work has revealed that the engagement of L-type Ca(2+) channels during autonomous pacemaking renders SNc DA neurons susceptible to mitochondrial toxins used to create animal models of PD, indicating that homeostatic Ca(2+) stress could be a determinant of their selective vulnerability. This view is buttressed by the central role of mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (linchpins of current theories about the origins of PD) in Ca(2+) homeostasis. Here, we summarize this evidence and suggest the dual roles had by these organelles could compromise their function, leading to accelerated aging of SNc DA neurons, particularly in the face of genetic or environmental stress. We conclude with a discussion of potential therapeutic strategies for slowing the progression of PD. PMID:19307031

Chan, C Savio; Gertler, Tracy S; Surmeier, D James

2009-03-21

205

MODELING UNDERGROUND STRUCTURE VULNERABILITY IN JOINTED ROCK  

SciTech Connect

The vulnerability of underground structures and openings in deep jointed rock to ground shock attack is of chief concern to military planning and security. Damage and/or loss of stability to a structure in jointed rock, often manifested as brittle failure and accompanied with block movement, can depend significantly on jointed properties, such as spacing, orientation, strength, and block character. We apply a hybrid Discrete Element Method combined with the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics approach to simulate the MIGHTY NORTH event, a definitive high-explosive test performed on an aluminum lined cylindrical opening in jointed Salem limestone. Representing limestone with discrete elements having elastic-equivalence and explicit brittle tensile behavior and the liner as an elastic-plastic continuum provides good agreement with the experiment and damage obtained with finite-element simulations. Extending the approach to parameter variations shows damage is substantially altered by differences in joint geometry and liner properties.

R. SWIFT; D. STEEDMAN

2001-02-01

206

Shield: vulnerability-driven network filters for preventing known vulnerability exploits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software patching has not been effective as a first-line defense against large-scale worm attacks, even when patches have long been available for their corresponding vulnerabilities. Generally, people have been reluctant to patch their systems immediately, because patches are perceived to be unreliable and disruptive to apply. To address this problem, we propose a first-line worm defense in the network stack,

Helen J. Wang; Chuanxiong Guo; Daniel R. Simon; Alf Zugenmaier

2004-01-01

207

Vulnerability is universal’: Considering the place of ‘security’ and ‘vulnerability’ within contemporary global health discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of global health has, at least since 9\\/11, (re)emerged as one of the world’s key geopolitical issues and, as many scholars have noted, this increased attention to the state of world health is especially focused on questions of national security and vulnerability. Despite its prominence in political, health policy and scholarly circles, health geographers have tended to overlook

Tim Brown

2011-01-01

208

Managing the margins: how journalism reports the vulnerable  

Microsoft Academic Search

All citizens have the potential to be caught up in a situation which will render them vulnerable to the media; some of the most serious implications are for those who lie at society’s margins. Such individuals are especially vulnerable to journalistic exploitation or misrepresentation, with the attendant risks of public embarrassment, humiliation or psychological trauma. When dealing with society’s most

I. Richards

2009-01-01

209

Security Vulnerabilities and Mitigation Strategies for Application Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anticipating and mitigating security threats is critical during software development. This work investigates security vulnerabilities and mitigation strategies to help software developers build secure applications. The work examines common vulnerabilities, and relevant mitigation strategies, from several perspectives, including the input environment used to supply the software with needed data, the internal data and structures used to store and retrieve the

Brunil Dalila Romero Marino; Hisham M. Haddad; M. Romero

2009-01-01

210

The Vulnerable Child. Caring for Children, Number Five.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The booklet addresses the problems of vulnerable children with suggestions child care center workers may use both for recognizing signs of handicaps in children and helping children overcome existing handicaps. The vulnerable child is defined as a child who may be overwhelmed by physical and/or emotional handicaps and thus is at risk of later…

Murphy, Lois B.; Leeper, Ethel M.

211

Vulnerability Assessment of Cyber Security in Power Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyber system plays an important role in supervising and controlling power system. Besides its contribution of much convenience to power industry, the cyber system brings some potential danger because of its inherent vulnerability. It is significant to assess the vulnerability of cyber system, determine its risk to power industry, find out the weak parts, set appropriate response to the probable

Yu Jiaxi; Mao Anjia; Guo Zhizhong

2006-01-01

212

Security Vulnerabilities: From Analysis to Detection and Masking Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study that uses extensive analysis of real security vulnerabilities to drive the development of: 1) runtime techniques for detection\\/masking of security attacks and 2) formal source code analysis methods to enable identification and removal of potential security vulnerabilities. A finite-state machine (FSM) approach is employed to decompose programs into multiple elementary activities, making it possible to

SHUO CHEN; JUN XU; ZBIGNIEW KALBARCZYK; RAVISHANKAR K. IYER

2006-01-01

213

The Beauty and the Beast: Vulnerabilities in Red Hat's Packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show in an empirical study of 3241 Red Hat packages that software vulnerabilities correlate with dependencies between packages. With formal concept analysis and statistical hypothesis testing, we identify dependencies that decrease the risk of vulnerabilities (beauties) or increase the risk (beasts). Using support vector machines on dependency data, our prediction models successfully and consistently catch about two thirds of

Stephan Neuhaus; Thomas Zimmermann

2009-01-01

214

Conceptualizing nursing research with offenders: Another look at vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, vulnerability is examined as it applies to the conduct of nursing research with offenders. As a group, offenders present with a multitude of acute and chronic physical and mental health care needs; they are subject to discrimination, stigmatization, and marginalization; and as such, they often experience dual, multiple, or overlapping vulnerabilities. As research participants, they are especially

Cindy A. Peternelj-Taylor

2005-01-01

215

Vulnerability assessment for cascading failures in electric power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cascading failures present severe threats to power grid security, and thus vulnerability assessment of power grids is of significant importance. Focusing on analytic methods, this paper reviews the state of the art of vulnerability assessment methods in the context of cascading failures. These methods are based on steady-state power grid modeling or high-level probabilistic modeling. The impact of emerging technologies

R. Baldick; Badrul Chowdhury; Ian Dobson; Zhaoyang Dong; Bei Gou; David L. Hawkins; Zhenyu Huang; Manho Joung; Janghoon Kim; Daniel Kirschen; Stephen Lee; Fangxing Li; Juan Li; Zuyi Li; Chen-Ching Liu; Xiaochuan Luo; Lamine Mili; Stephen Miller; Marvin Nakayama; Milorad Papic; Robin Podmore; John Rossmaier; Kevin P. Schneider; Hongbin Sun; Kai Sun; David Wang; Zhigang Wu; Liangzhong Yao; Pei Zhang; Wenjie Zhang; Xiaoping Zhang

2009-01-01

216

Soil Vulnerability and Sensitivity to Acid Deposition in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensitivity, in this context, refers to `the degree to which a system will respond to acid deposition', while vulnerability is `the extent to which acid deposition may damage or harm system'.Thus, sensitivity stresses the risk of an increase in the rateof change of the soil chemistry (the acidification rate), and vulnerability stresses the risk of damage to an organism or

Fulu Tao; Yousay Hayashi; Erda Lin

2002-01-01

217

Development and Demography of Perceived Vulnerability in Youngsters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In order to assess children's perceived vulnerability to health problems, a longitudinal study was designed to observe third and seventh graders at five intervals over a 2-year period. The hypotheses tested concerned relationships between perceived vulnerability to health problems and age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Data were obtained from a…

Gochman, David S.

218

Reliability of groundwater vulnerability maps obtained through statistical methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistical methods are widely used in environmental studies to evaluate natural hazards. Within groundwater vulnerability in particular, statistical methods are used to support decisions about environmental planning and management. The production of vulnerability maps obtained by statistical methods can greatly help decision making. One of the key points in all of these studies is the validation of the model outputs,

Alessandro Sorichetta; Marco Masetti; Cristiano Ballabio; Simone Sterlacchini; Giovanni Pietro Beretta

2011-01-01

219

Maternal Adaptation to Pediatric Illness: A Personal Vulnerability Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to explain variability in maternal adaptation to pediatric illness using a structural equation model. The suggested Personal Vulnerability Model emphasizes personal vulnerability (high neuroticism and low optimism) and incorporates family support, emotion-focused coping, stress, and illness severity as predictors of maternal adaptation. Mothers (N = 148) of children undergoing neurosurgery reported levels of neuroticism,

Sigal Tifferet; Orly Manor; Yoel Elizur; Orna Friedman; Shlomi Constantini

2010-01-01

220

Decision-making and the vulnerability of interdependent critical infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interdependencies among critical infrastructure systems are well recognized as key points of vulnerability that can compromise system performance especially during extreme events. At the heart of these vulnerabilities are decisions, often unnoticed and indirect, which occur anywhere from infrastructure planning, siting and design through operation and maintenance. The key contributions of the paper are (i) the presentation of a method

Rae Zimmerman; Robert F. Wagner

2004-01-01

221

Looming vulnerability to spreading contamination in subclinical OCD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the hypothesis, stimulated by the looming vulnerability model of anxiety (Riskind, in press, Behaviour Research and Therapy), that subclinical OCD is associated with a subjective sense of looming vulnerability. One-hundred and four undergraduates rated vignettes of common, everday situations involving exposure to possible dirt, germs, or contamination. Participants in a subclinical obsessional group had a far

John H. Riskind; Karim Abreu; Mike Strauss; Robert Holt

1997-01-01

222

VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF CIVIL INFRASTRUCTURE SYSTEMS: A NETWORK APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable work has been carried out in recent years on vulnerability assessment of Critical Infrastructure Systems (CIS). Recent man-introduced hazard, including the 9\\/11 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) in New York highlighted critical need to assess and evaluate the vulnerably of CIS with a focus on providing well coordinated and integrated strategies for public safety and property

O. Moselhi; A. Hammad; S. Alkass; M. Debbabi

2005-01-01

223

Cognitive and Serotonergic Vulnerability to Depression: Convergent Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive reactivity (CR) is a psychological vulnerability marker of depression, whereas response to acute tryptophan depletion (ATD; a serotonergic challenge procedure) is a biological vulnerability marker. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between these markers. Thirty-nine remitted depressed patients participated in 2 ATD sessions in a double-blind crossover design. CR, assessed prior to the ATD sessions,

Linda Booij

2007-01-01

224

Temporal and spatial changes in social vulnerability to natural hazards.  

PubMed

During the past four decades (1960-2000), the United States experienced major transformations in population size, development patterns, economic conditions, and social characteristics. These social, economic, and built-environment changes altered the American hazardscape in profound ways, with more people living in high-hazard areas than ever before. To improve emergency management, it is important to recognize the variability in the vulnerable populations exposed to hazards and to develop place-based emergency plans accordingly. The concept of social vulnerability identifies sensitive populations that may be less likely to respond to, cope with, and recover from a natural disaster. Social vulnerability is complex and dynamic, changing over space and through time. This paper presents empirical evidence on the spatial and temporal patterns in social vulnerability in the United States from 1960 to the present. Using counties as our study unit, we found that those components that consistently increased social vulnerability for all time periods were density (urban), race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. The spatial patterning of social vulnerability, although initially concentrated in certain geographic regions, has become more dispersed over time. The national trend shows a steady reduction in social vulnerability, but there is considerable regional variability, with many counties increasing in social vulnerability during the past five decades. PMID:18268336

Cutter, Susan L; Finch, Christina

2008-02-11

225

Temporal and spatial changes in social vulnerability to natural hazards  

PubMed Central

During the past four decades (1960–2000), the United States experienced major transformations in population size, development patterns, economic conditions, and social characteristics. These social, economic, and built-environment changes altered the American hazardscape in profound ways, with more people living in high-hazard areas than ever before. To improve emergency management, it is important to recognize the variability in the vulnerable populations exposed to hazards and to develop place-based emergency plans accordingly. The concept of social vulnerability identifies sensitive populations that may be less likely to respond to, cope with, and recover from a natural disaster. Social vulnerability is complex and dynamic, changing over space and through time. This paper presents empirical evidence on the spatial and temporal patterns in social vulnerability in the United States from 1960 to the present. Using counties as our study unit, we found that those components that consistently increased social vulnerability for all time periods were density (urban), race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. The spatial patterning of social vulnerability, although initially concentrated in certain geographic regions, has become more dispersed over time. The national trend shows a steady reduction in social vulnerability, but there is considerable regional variability, with many counties increasing in social vulnerability during the past five decades.

Cutter, Susan L.; Finch, Christina

2008-01-01

226

Ionic mechanisms underlying differential vulnerability to ischemia in striatal neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain cells express extremely different sensitivity to ischemic insults. The reason for this differential vulnerability is still largely unknown. Here we discuss the ionic bases underlying the physiological responses to in vitro ischemia in two neostriatal neuronal subtypes exhibiting respectively high sensitivity and high resistance to energy deprivation. Vulnerable neostriatal neurons respond to ischemia with a membrane depolarization. This membrane

D. Centonze; G. A. Marfia; A. Pisani; B. Picconi; P. Giacomini; G. Bernardi; P. Calabresi

2001-01-01

227

Social Vulnerability Scale for older adults: Validation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Social Vulnerability Scale (SVS), an informant-report of social vulnerability for older adults, was piloted in a sample of 167 undergraduate students (63 male, 104 female) from the University of Queensland. Participants aged 18 - 53 (M ¼ 25.53 years, SD ¼ 7.83 years) completed the SVS by rating a relative or friend aged ? 50 years (M ¼ 71.65

DONNA M. PINSKER; Valerie Stone; Nancy Pachana; Stephen Greenspan

2006-01-01

228

Eliciting Information on the Vulnerability Black Market from Interviews  

Microsoft Academic Search

Threats to computing prompted by software vulnerabilities are abundant and costly for those affected. Adding to this problem is the emerging vulnerability black markets (VBMs), since they become places to trade malware and exploits. VBMs are discussed based on information derived from interviews with security researchers. The effort is enriched by further examination of documents surrounding the disclosure of four

Jaziar Radianti

2010-01-01

229

Analysis of Vulnerabilities of Iris Scanning Personal Authentication  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides an analysis of fundamental vulnerabilities in iris scanning authentication tec hnology. Iris scanning is a growingly popular form of biometric i dentification, and vulnerabilities that exists is it can be exploi ted if the appropriate techniques are applied. The proposed method of spoofing is the Microlithographic Iris Spoofing Att ack Approach, or MISAA.

Michael J. S. Kang; Oscar T. Plag

230

A framework for understanding old-age vulnerabilities  

PubMed Central

Identifying vulnerable older people and understanding the causes and consequences of their vulnerability is of human concern and an essential task of social policy. To date, vulnerability in old age has mainly been approached by identifying high risk groups, like the poor, childless, frail or isolated. Yet vulnerability is the outcome of complex interactions of discrete risks, namely of being exposed to a threat, of a threat materialising, and of lacking the defences or resources to deal with a threat. In this article, we review approaches to vulnerability in various disciplines in order to develop a systematic framework for approaching vulnerability. This framework distinguishes and examines the interactions among the domains of exposure, threats, coping capacities and outcomes. Drawing on European and Asian gerontological literature, we discuss what might be meant by these domains and their place in the understanding of vulnerability in old age. Two case studies are presented - one on homelessness in Britain, the other on familial care provision in Indonesia - to illustrate the ways in which specific vulnerabilities are created and distributed over the lifecourse.

SCHRODER-BUTTERFILL, ELISABETH; MARIANTI, RULY

2007-01-01

231

Climate change and poverty in Africa: Mapping hotspots of vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change and increasing climate variability threaten the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), and some of the worst effects on human health and agriculture will be in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in vulnerable regions. The relationships between climate change and the vulnerability of resource-poor croppers and livestock keepers and their resilience to current and future climate variability need to

Philip K. Thornton; Peter G. Jones; Tom Owiyo; Russell L. Kruska; Mario Herrero; Victor Orindi; Suruchi Bhadwal; Patricia Kristjanson; An Notenbaert; Nigat Bekele; Abisalom Omolo

2008-01-01

232

Towards QVA – Quantitative Vulnerability Assessment: a generic practical model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the quest for sound and practical solutions to quantify the vulnerability of critical infrastructures a model is proposed providing, in essence: (i) a two-parameter description and the respective equation of state, for any multicomponent, multiindicator system featuring two states: ‘operable’ and ‘inoperable’; (ii) a division of the two-parameter phase space of the system into ‘vulnerability basins’; and (iii) a

Adrian V. Gheorghe; Dan V. Vamanu

2004-01-01

233

Critical infrastructure and systemic vulnerability: Towards a planning framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an analytical planning framework for hypothesizing, formulating and mitigating vulnerability in critical infrastructures. The point of departure is that because technological change plays a significant role in the development of critical infrastructures, the dynamics of such change must be taken into account when assessing how such structures advance a state of vulnerability over time. A second key

Tomas Hellström

2007-01-01

234

The Na?ve nurse: revisiting vulnerability for nursing  

PubMed Central

Background Nurses in the Western world have given considerable attention to the concept of vulnerability in recent decades. However, nurses have tended to view vulnerability from an individualistic perspective, and have rarely taken into account structural or collective dimensions of the concept. As the need grows for health workers to engage in the global health agenda, nurses must broaden earlier works on vulnerability, noting that conventional conceptualizations and practical applications on the notion of vulnerability warrant extension to include more collective conceptualizations thereby making a more complete understanding of vulnerability in nursing discourse. Discussion The purpose of this paper is to examine nursing contributions to the concept of vulnerability and consider how a broader perspective that includes socio-political dimensions may assist nurses to reach beyond the immediate milieu of the patient into the dominant social, political, and economic structures that produce and sustain vulnerability. Summary By broadening nurse’s conceptualization of vulnerability, nurses can obtain the consciousness needed to move beyond a peripheral role of nursing that has been dominantly situated within institutional settings to contribute in the larger arena of social, economic, political and global affairs.

2012-01-01

235

Towards a Definition of Orphaned and Vulnerable Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HIV epidemic presents challenges including orphans and a large mass of children rendered vulnerable by the epidemic and other societal forces. Focus on orphaned and vulnerable children (OVC) is important, but needs accurate definition. Twelve focus group interviews of service providers, leaders in these communities, OVC and their caretakers were conducted at six project sites across Botswana, South Africa

Donald Skinner; N. Tsheko; S. Mtero-Munyati; M. Segwabe; P. Chibatamoto; S. Mfecane; B. Chandiwana; N. Nkomo; S. Tlou; G. Chitiyo

2006-01-01

236

Social Vulnerability to Climate Change and Extremes in Coastal Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

A framework for analyzing social vulnerability is outlined, an aspect largely underemphasized in assessments of the impacts of climate change and climate extremes. Vulnerability is defined in this paper as the exposure of individuals or collective groups to livelihood stress as a result of the impacts of such environmental change. It is constituted by individual and collective aspects which can

W. Neil Adger

1999-01-01

237

Defining 'vulnerability': conflicts, complexities and implications for Coastal Zone Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

McFadden, L. and Green, C., 2007. Defining 'vulnerability': conflicts, complexities and implications for Coastal Zone Management. Journal of Coastal Research, SI 50 (Proceedings of the 9th International Coastal Symposium), 120 - 124. Gold Coast, Australia, ISSN 0749.0208 This paper argues that important insights for improved coastal management can be gained by examining complexities involved in defining vulnerable coastal environments and

L. McFadden; C. Green

2007-01-01

238

A taxonomy of vulnerabilities in implantable medical devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Once the domain of science fiction, devices connecting biological systems with computers have become reality. Security vulnerabilities that might be exploited in such systems by malicious parties or by inadvertent manipulation are also now a reality. Where previous research has described certain categories of attacks against and countermeasures for implantable medical devices (IMDs), we construct a loose vulnerability taxonomy useful

Jeremy A. Hansen; Nicole M. Hansen

2010-01-01

239

PointGuardTM: Protecting Pointers From Buffer Overflow Vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite numerous security technologies crafted to resist buffer overflow vulnerabilities, buffer overflows continue to be the dominant form of software security vulnerability. This is because most buffer overflow defenses provide only partial coverage, and the attacks have adapted to exploit problems that are not well-defended, such as heap over- flows. This paper presents PointGuard, a compiler technique to defend against

Crispin Cowan; Steve Beattie; John Johansen; Perry Wagle

2003-01-01

240

[Identification of vulnerable individuals in the area surrounding a university hospital: connecting vulnerability, solidarity and healthcare].  

PubMed

In the area around a university hospital in the interior of São Paulo state people are found sleeping, eating or resting on the lawns and surrounding areas, and they linger in such sites for hours. This study sought to identify and characterize vulnerable individuals in the area around the hospital by offering help. Data were collected from November 2007 to October 2008, on a weekly basis and on randomly selected days and times. The people found in these places were identified, and 52 subjects were interviewed. The individuals were, predominantly, females (67.3%), white (51.9%), married (59.6%), had attended school for up to four years (44.2%) and did not have a defined profession (84.6%). Most of them were waiting for bus transportation provided by their hometown administration; the mean waiting time was approximately 90 minutes and most of the subjects had certain needs during the waiting period. Help was offered to 15 individuals who reported specific needs at the moment of the interview. It was concluded that these individuals were in a situation of individual, social and systematic vulnerability, especially in terms of socio-economic vulnerability. They showed reduced self-determination ability and submitted themselves to unfavorable conditions due to their dependence on public services. PMID:21808903

Sthal, Hellen Cristina; Berti, Heloisa Wey

2011-07-01

241

A framework for vulnerability analysis in sustainability science  

PubMed Central

Global environmental change and sustainability science increasingly recognize the need to address the consequences of changes taking place in the structure and function of the biosphere. These changes raise questions such as: Who and what are vulnerable to the multiple environmental changes underway, and where? Research demonstrates that vulnerability is registered not by exposure to hazards (perturbations and stresses) alone but also resides in the sensitivity and resilience of the system experiencing such hazards. This recognition requires revisions and enlargements in the basic design of vulnerability assessments, including the capacity to treat coupled human–environment systems and those linkages within and without the systems that affect their vulnerability. A vulnerability framework for the assessment of coupled human–environment systems is presented.

Turner, B. L.; Kasperson, Roger E.; Matson, Pamela A.; McCarthy, James J.; Corell, Robert W.; Christensen, Lindsey; Eckley, Noelle; Kasperson, Jeanne X.; Luers, Amy; Martello, Marybeth L.; Polsky, Colin; Pulsipher, Alexander; Schiller, Andrew

2003-01-01

242

Vulnerability assessment for the Gaza Strip, Palestine using DRASTIC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main usefulness of groundwater vulnerability assessment maps is their ability to be an effective preliminary tool for planning, policy, and operational levels of decision-making. DRASTIC is one such assessment method. The DRASTIC index is made up of a calculated sum of products rating and weights for seven hydrogeological parameters that contribute to aquifer vulnerability. With the help of GIS, and based on the available data, maps of DRASTIC parameters were prepared for the Gaza Strip area in a case study. Each map was given a proper rate and a special weight factor developed. The final vulnerability map was obtained as a summation of the seven maps after multiplying each one with the appropriate weight. The vulnerability map was checked against the actual pollution potential in the area and nitrate concentration. The obtained vulnerability map is strongly correlated to known pollution values in the area.

Baalousha, H.

2006-06-01

243

The meaning of vulnerability to nurses caring for older people.  

PubMed

Research concerning work on caring for older people shows that care providers experience a variety of consuming emotions and stress. They can be said to be in a vulnerable position. It is not known, however, how the care providers themselves understand vulnerability. The aim of this study was to illuminate the meaning of vulnerability to care providers caring for older people. A qualitative interpretive approach was adopted. Data were collected through tape-recorded interviews with 16 female registered and practical nurses who were experienced in caring for older people. Qualitative analysis resulted in one core theme and six themes with subthemes. The core theme showed that, for the participating nurses, vulnerability essentially meant being human. The meanings of being human were illustrated by the six themes: having feelings; experiencing moral indignation; being harmed; having courage; protecting oneself; and maturing and developing. Analysis showed that vulnerability was a resource as well as a burden. PMID:21285195

Stenbock-Hult, Bettina; Sarvimäki, Anneli

2011-01-01

244

The vulnerability of Australian rural communities to climate variability and change: Part I—Conceptualising and measuring vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vulnerability is a term frequently used to describe the potential threat to rural communities posed by climate variability and change. Despite growing use of the term, analytical measures of vulnerability that are useful for prioritising and evaluating policy responses are yet to evolve. Demand for research capable of prioritising adaptation responses has evolved rapidly with an increasing awareness of climate

R. Nelson; P. Kokic; S. Crimp; H. Meinke; S. M. Howden

2010-01-01

245

Factors associated with health care utilization among vulnerable populations: Using Gelberg's and Andersen's behavioral model for vulnerable populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2001 Andersen and Gelberg introduced the Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations which enables the identification of factors that might be particularly relevant to health care utilization among vulnerable populations. This dissertation uses this model along with the Health Services Research Data to conduct secondary data analysis to evaluate the factors that are most likely to influence health utilization outcomes

La Fleur Small

2005-01-01

246

Intracoronary imaging for detecting vulnerable plaque.  

PubMed

It is now generally recognized that acute coronary syndromes most commonly result from disruption of thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA), which is characterized by a large necrotic core with an overlying thin-fibrous cap measuring <65 ?m. Recent advances in intracoronary imaging modalities have significantly improved the ability to detect TCFA in vivo. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is perhaps the most promising modality that has been used more than 15 years to evaluate atherosclerotic plaque. IVUS has revealed a lot of the clinical evidence regarding vulnerable plaque detection in live humans. Recently, by analyzing the IVUS acoustic signal before demodulation and scan conversion, IVUS radiofrequency analysis can be used to differentiate adjacent smaller areas of atherosclerotic plaque with heterogeneous composition. Coronary angioscopy allows direct visualization of the coronary artery wall and provides detailed information of the luminal surface of plaque, such as color, thrombus or disruption. Optical coherence tomography imaging, recently been introduced for in vivo human imaging, offers a higher resolution than any other available imaging modality, and can visualize a thin fibrous cap measuring <65 ?m. In this review, we will discuss the features and limitations of each imaging modalities for detecting TCFA. PMID:23370454

Fujii, Kenichi; Hao, Hiroyuki; Ohyanagi, Mitsumasa; Masuyama, Tohru

2013-02-01

247

Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment In Greece Using Gis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new methodology is described that uses GIS (Geographical Information System)to determine tsunami vulnerability at different spatial and temporal scales. The method- ology is based on the construction of a GIS database, which may be used by different end-users and under varying hazard scenarios. Primary data are collected for a range of parameters that relate to the natural environment, land use, the built environment, the local economy and services, as well as socio-economic parameters. The methodol- ogy permits interrogation of the primary datasets by several different end-user groups. For example, the GIS may be used: (1) by the emergency services in order to locate large numbers of casualties, to organise the immediate post-tsunami disaster response and to design evacuation routes; (2) by insurance companies in order to set the premi- ums of individual buildings and businesses and (3) by the municipal authorities as a tool for local planning (planning regulations, relocation of buildings). The results of two applications of the methodology in Greece are presented. The first application in Herakleio (Crete) relates to the impact that the 1650AD tsunami would have in the area under the current circumstances. The worse case scenario for the second application is based on the 1963 tsunami, which affected the coastal segment west of Aeghio in Peloponnese. The two case studies provide valuable information for civil protection, disaster management and planning.

Papathoma, M.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Zong, Y.; Smith, D.

248

Vulnerability of streams to legacy nitrate sources.  

PubMed

The influence of hydrogeologic setting on the susceptibility of streams to legacy nitrate was examined at seven study sites having a wide range of base flow index (BFI) values. BFI is the ratio of base flow to total streamflow volume. The portion of annual stream nitrate loads from base flow was strongly correlated with BFI. Furthermore, dissolved oxygen concentrations in streambed pore water were significantly higher in high BFI watersheds than in low BFI watersheds suggesting that geochemical conditions favor nitrate transport through the bed when BFI is high. Results from a groundwater-surface water interaction study at a high BFI watershed indicate that decades old nitrate-laden water is discharging to this stream. These findings indicate that high nitrate levels in this stream may be sustained for decades to come regardless of current practices. It is hypothesized that a first approximation of stream vulnerability to legacy nutrients may be made by geospatial analysis of watersheds with high nitrogen inputs and a strong connection to groundwater (e.g., high BFI). PMID:23530900

Tesoriero, Anthony J; Duff, John H; Saad, David A; Spahr, Norman E; Wolock, David M

2013-03-26

249

Bridging the Digital Divide: Reaching Vulnerable Populations  

PubMed Central

The AMIA 2003 Spring Congress entitled “Bridging the Digital Divide: Informatics and Vulnerable Populations” convened 178 experts including medical informaticians, health care professionals, government leaders, policy makers, researchers, health care industry leaders, consumer advocates, and others specializing in health care provision to underserved populations. The primary objective of this working congress was to develop a framework for a national agenda in information and communication technology to enhance the health and health care of underserved populations. Discussions during four tracks addressed issues and trends in information and communication technologies for underserved populations, strategies learned from successful programs, evaluation methodologies for measuring the impact of informatics, and dissemination of information for replication of successful programs. Each track addressed current status, ideal state, barriers, strategies, and recommendations. Recommendations of the breakout sessions were summarized under the overarching themes of Policy, Funding, Research, and Education and Training. The general recommendations emphasized four key themes: revision in payment and reimbursement policies, integration of health care standards, partnerships as the key to success, and broad dissemination of findings including specific feedback to target populations and other key stakeholders.

Chang, Betty L.; Bakken, Suzanne; Brown, S. Scott; Houston, Thomas K.; Kreps, Gary L.; Kukafka, Rita; Safran, Charles; Stavri, P. Zoe

2004-01-01

250

Special vulnerability of children to environmental exposures.  

PubMed

Fetal life and childhood are the periods most vulnerable to the harmful effects of exposure to environmental insults. This is because, during these periods, there is rapid cell division,organs are being formed, and growth is rapid. Thus, disruption of these processes may result in life-long abnormalities.Of particular concern are exposures that alter cognitive function and behavior, but exposures that alter growth, development,and reproductive and immune system function and that may increase risk of development of diseases like cancer later in life are also especially important. Exposure to environmental chemicals as well as infectious agents occurs via air, food,water, and absorption through the skin. Therefore, the environment in which fetal and childhood development occurs is very important. Unfortunately, poverty is a major risk factor for both exposures and childhood and later-life disease resulting from exposures to both environmental chemicals and infectious agents. It is very important to protect children because they are the future generation. PMID:23095179

Leith Sly, J; Carpenter, David O

2012-01-01

251

77 FR 6548 - Notice of Availability of Ballistic Survivability, Lethality and Vulnerability Analyses  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Survivability, Lethality and Vulnerability Analyses AGENCY: Department of the...survivability, lethality and vulnerability (SLV) analyses. ARL/SLAD conducts SLV analyses, using the MUVES-S2 vulnerability model, to quantify...

2012-02-08

252

Rural Nevada and climate change: vulnerability, beliefs, and risk perception.  

PubMed

In this article, we present the results of a study investigating the influence of vulnerability to climate change as a function of physical vulnerability, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity on climate change risk perception. In 2008/2009, we surveyed Nevada ranchers and farmers to assess their climate change-related beliefs, and risk perceptions, political orientations, and socioeconomic characteristics. Ranchers' and farmers' sensitivity to climate change was measured through estimating the proportion of their household income originating from highly scarce water-dependent agriculture to the total income. Adaptive capacity was measured as a combination of the Social Status Index and the Poverty Index. Utilizing water availability and use, and population distribution GIS databases; we assessed water resource vulnerability in Nevada by zip code as an indicator of physical vulnerability to climate change. We performed correlation tests and multiple regression analyses to examine the impact of vulnerability and its three distinct components on risk perception. We find that vulnerability is not a significant determinant of risk perception. Physical vulnerability alone also does not impact risk perception. Both sensitivity and adaptive capacity increase risk perception. While age is not a significant determinant of it, gender plays an important role in shaping risk perception. Yet, general beliefs such as political orientations and climate change-specific beliefs such as believing in the anthropogenic causes of climate change and connecting the locally observed impacts (in this case drought) to climate change are the most prominent determinants of risk perception. PMID:22583075

Safi, Ahmad Saleh; Smith, William James; Liu, Zhnongwei

2012-05-14

253

Calcium is a major determinant of xylem vulnerability to cavitation.  

PubMed

Xylem vulnerability to cavitation is a key parameter in the drought tolerance of trees, but little is known about the control mechanisms involved. Cavitation is thought to occur when an air bubble penetrates through a pit wall, and would hence be influenced by the wall's porosity. We first tested the role of wall-bound calcium in vulnerability to cavitation in Fagus sylvatica. Stems perfused with solutions of oxalic acid, EGTA, or sodium phosphate (NaPO(4)) were found to be more vulnerable to cavitation. The NaPO(4)-induced increase in vulnerability to cavitation was linked to calcium removal from the wall. In contrast, xylem hydraulic conductance was unaffected by the chemical treatments, demonstrating that the mechanisms controlling vulnerability to cavitation and hydraulic resistance are uncoupled. The NaPO(4) solution was then perfused into stems from 13 tree species possessing highly contrasted vulnerability to cavitation. Calcium was found to be a major determinant of between-species differences in vulnerability to cavitation. This was evidenced in angiosperms as well as conifer species, thus supporting the hypothesis of a common mechanism in drought-induced cavitation. PMID:20547703

Herbette, Stephane; Cochard, Herve

2010-06-14

254

Calcium Is a Major Determinant of Xylem Vulnerability to Cavitation  

PubMed Central

Xylem vulnerability to cavitation is a key parameter in the drought tolerance of trees, but little is known about the control mechanisms involved. Cavitation is thought to occur when an air bubble penetrates through a pit wall, and would hence be influenced by the wall's porosity. We first tested the role of wall-bound calcium in vulnerability to cavitation in Fagus sylvatica. Stems perfused with solutions of oxalic acid, EGTA, or sodium phosphate (NaPO4) were found to be more vulnerable to cavitation. The NaPO4-induced increase in vulnerability to cavitation was linked to calcium removal from the wall. In contrast, xylem hydraulic conductance was unaffected by the chemical treatments, demonstrating that the mechanisms controlling vulnerability to cavitation and hydraulic resistance are uncoupled. The NaPO4 solution was then perfused into stems from 13 tree species possessing highly contrasted vulnerability to cavitation. Calcium was found to be a major determinant of between-species differences in vulnerability to cavitation. This was evidenced in angiosperms as well as conifer species, thus supporting the hypothesis of a common mechanism in drought-induced cavitation.

Herbette, Stephane; Cochard, Herve

2010-01-01

255

Attending to social vulnerability when rationing pandemic resources.  

PubMed

Pandemic plans are increasingly attending to groups experiencing health disparities and other social vulnerabilities. Although some pandemic guidance is silent on the issue, guidance that attends to socially vulnerable groups ranges widely, some procedural (often calling for public engagement), and some substantive. Public engagement objectives vary from merely educational to seeking reflective input into the ethical commitments that should guide pandemic planning and response. Some plans that concern rationing during a severe pandemic recommend ways to protect socially vulnerable groups without prioritizing access to scarce resources based on social vulnerability per se. The Minnesota Pandemic Ethics Project (MPEP), a public engagement project on rationing scarce health resources during a severe influenza pandemic, agrees and recommends an integrated set of ways to attend to the needs of socially vulnerable people and avoid exacerbation of health disparities during a severe influenza pandemic. Among other things, MPEP recommends: 1. Engaging socially vulnerable populations to clarify unique needs and effective strategies; 2. Engaging socially vulnerable populations to elicit ethical values and perspectives on rationing; 3. Rejecting rationing based on race, socioeconomic class, citizenship, quality of life, length of life-extension and first-come, first-served; 4. Prioritizing those in the general population for access to resources based on combinations of risk (of death or severe complications from influenza, exposure to influenza, transmitting influenza to vulnerable groups) and the likelihood of responding well to the resource in question. 5. Protecting critical infrastructures on which vulnerable populations and the general public rely; 6. Identifying and removing access barriers during pandemic planning and response; and 7. Collecting and promptly analyzing data during the pandemic to identify groups at disproportionate risk of influenza-related mortality and serious morbidity and to optimize the distribution of resources. PMID:21595354

Vawter, Dorothy E; Garrett, J Eline; Gervais, Karen G; Prehn, Angela Witt; DeBruin, Debra A

2011-01-01

256

Applying spatial scan statistics on vulnerability to mountain hazards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the European Alps the concept of risk has increasingly been applied in order to reduce the susceptibility of society to mountain hazards. Risk is defined as a function of the magnitude and frequency of a hazard process times consequences; the latter being quantified by the value of elements at risk exposed and their vulnerability. Vulnerability means the degree of loss to a given element at risk resulting from the impact of a natural hazard. Recent empirical studies suggested a dependency of the degree of loss on the hazard impact, and respective vulnerability (or damage-loss) functions were developed. However, until now only little information is available on the spatial characteristics of vulnerability on a local scale; considerable ranges in the loss ratio for medium process intensities only provide a hint that there might be mutual reasons for lower or higher loss rates. In this paper we therefore focus on the spatial dimension of vulnerability by searching for spatial clusters in the damage ratio of elements at risk exposed. By using the software SaTScan, we applied an ordinal data model and a normal data model in order to detect spatial distribution patterns of five individual torrent events in Austria. For both models, we detected some significant clusters of high damage ratios, and consequently high vulnerability. Moreover, secondary clusters of high and low values were found. Based on our results, the assumption that lower process intensities result in lower damage ratios, and therefore in lower vulnerability, and vice versa, has to be partly rejected. The spatial distribution of vulnerability is not only dependent on the process intensities but also on the overall land use pattern and the individual constructive characteristics of the buildings exposed. Generally we suggest the use of a normal data model for test sites exceeding a minimum of 30 elements at risk exposed. As such, the study enhanced our understanding of spatial vulnerability patterns on a local scale.

Ornetsmüller, C.; Heidger, C.; Totschnig, R.; Fuchs, S.

2012-04-01

257

EDITORIAL: Groundwater resources, climate and vulnerability Groundwater resources, climate and vulnerability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater is an important component of the freshwater system and its role is becoming even more prominent as the more accessible surface water resources become increasingly exploited to support increasing populations and development. Yet despite its significance, there has been comparatively little research conducted on groundwater relative to surface water resources, particularly in the context of climate change impact assessment. This focus issue has therefore been assembled to expand upon the currently limited knowledge of groundwater systems and their links with climate. Many of the papers included here explore the interrelated issues of groundwater resources, climate-related changes and vulnerabilities at a regional scale in different continents and globally. See the PDF for the full text of the editorial. Focus on Groundwater Resources, Climate and Vulnerability Contents Groundwater: from mystery to management T N Narasimhan Simulated response of groundwater to predicted recharge in a semi-arid region using a scenario of modelled climate change M W Toews and D M Allen Long-term climatic change and sustainable ground water resources management Hugo A Loáiciga Climate change and groundwater: India's opportunities for mitigation and adaptation Tushaar Shah Vulnerability to the impact of climate change on renewable groundwater resources: a global-scale assessment Petra Döll Influence of soil heterogeneity on evapotranspiration under shallow water table conditions: transient, stochastic simulations Stefan J Kollet Nutrient cycling and N2O emissions in a changing climate: the subsurface water system role Georgia Destouni and Amélie Darracq Rainfall intensity and groundwater recharge: empirical evidence from the Upper Nile Basin M Owor, R G Taylor, C Tindimugaya and D Mwesigwa This focus issue is not yet complete, there are still letters at press and in review.

Bovolo, C. Isabella; Parkin, Geoff; Sophocleous, Marios

2009-09-01

258

EDITORIAL: Groundwater resources, climate and vulnerability Groundwater resources, climate and vulnerability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater is an important component of the freshwater system and its role is becoming even more prominent as the more accessible surface water resources become increasingly exploited to support increasing populations and development. Yet despite its significance, there has been comparatively little research conducted on groundwater relative to surface water resources, particularly in the context of climate change impact assessment. This focus issue has therefore been assembled to expand upon the currently limited knowledge of groundwater systems and their links with climate. Many of the papers included here explore the interrelated issues of groundwater resources, climate-related changes and vulnerabilities at a regional scale in different continents and globally. See the PDF for the full text of the editorial. Focus on Groundwater Resources, Climate and Vulnerability Contents Groundwater: from mystery to management T N Narasimhan Simulated response of groundwater to predicted recharge in a semi-arid region using a scenario of modelled climate change M W Toews and D M Allen Long-term climatic change and sustainable ground water resources management Hugo A Loáiciga Climate change and groundwater: India's opportunities for mitigation and adaptation Tushaar Shah Vulnerability to the impact of climate change on renewable groundwater resources: a global-scale assessment Petra Döll Influence of soil heterogeneity on evapotranspiration under shallow water table conditions: transient, stochastic simulations Stefan J Kollet Nutrient cycling and N2O emissions in a changing climate: the subsurface water system role Georgia Destouni and Amélie Darracq Rainfall intensity and groundwater recharge: empirical evidence from the Upper Nile Basin M Owor, R G Taylor, C Tindimugaya and D Mwesigwa

Bovolo, C. Isabella; Parkin, Geoff; Sophocleous, Marios

2009-09-01

259

Vulnerability Assessment for Cascading Failures in Electric Power Systems  

SciTech Connect

Cascading failures present severe threats to power grid security, and thus vulnerability assessment of power grids is of significant importance. Focusing on analytic methods, this paper reviews the state of the art of vulnerability assessment methods in the context of cascading failures in three categories: steady-state modeling based analysis; dynamic modeling analysis; and non-traditional modeling approaches. The impact of emerging technologies including phasor technology, high-performance computing techniques, and visualization techniques on the vulnerability assessment of cascading failures is then addressed, and future research directions are presented.

Baldick, R.; Chowdhury, Badrul; Dobson, Ian; Dong, Zhao Yang; Gou, Bei; Hawkins, David L.; Huang, Zhenyu; Joung, Manho; Kim, Janghoon; Kirschen, Daniel; Lee, Stephen; Li, Fangxing; Li, Juan; Li, Zuyi; Liu, Chen-Ching; Luo, Xiaochuan; Mili, Lamine; Miller, Stephen; Nakayama, Marvin; Papic, Milorad; Podmore, Robin; Rossmaier, John; Schneider, Kevin P.; Sun, Hongbin; Sun, Kai; Wang, David; Wu, Zhigang; Yao, Liangzhong; Zhang, Pei; Zhang, Wenjie; Zhang, Xiaoping

2008-09-10

260

Perfectionism and Depression: Vulnerabilities Nurses Need to Understand  

PubMed Central

Striving for excellence is an admirable goal. Adaptive or healthy perfectionism can drive ambition and lead to extraordinary accomplishments. High-achieving people often show signs of perfectionism. However, maladaptive, unhealthy, or neurotic perfectionism, where anything less than perfect is unacceptable, can leave individuals vulnerable to depression. In both personal and professional relationships, nurses need to understand how accepting only perfection in self and others is likely to lead to emotional distress. This paper reviews perfectionism as a personality style, comments on perfectionism and high achievement, discusses vulnerabilities to depression, identifies how to recognize perfectionists, and presents balancing strategies perfectionists can implement to lessen their vulnerability to depression.

Melrose, Sherri

2011-01-01

261

Early-Life Conditions And Mechanisms Of Population Health Vulnerabilities  

PubMed Central

The social status of groups is key to determining health vulnerability at the population level. The impact of material and psychological stresses imposed by social inequities and marginalization is felt most intensely during perinatal/early childhood and puberty/adolescent periods, when developmental genes are expressed and interact with social-physical environments. The influence of chronic psychosocial stresses on gene expression via neuroendocrine regulatory dysfunction is crucial to understanding the biological bases of adult health vulnerability. Studying childhood biology vulnerabilities to neighborhood environments will aid the crafting of multifaceted, multilevel public policy interventions providing immediate benefits and compounded long-term population health yields.

Furumoto-Dawson, Alice; Gehlert, Sarah; Sohmer, Dana; Olopade, Olufunmilayo; Sacks, Tina

2008-01-01

262

Early Brain Vulnerability in Wolfram Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Wolfram Syndrome (WFS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, optic nerve atrophy, diabetes insipidus, deafness, and neurological dysfunction leading to death in mid-adulthood. WFS is caused by mutations in the WFS1 gene, which lead to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated cell death. Case studies have found widespread brain atrophy in late stage WFS. However, it is not known when in the disease course these brain abnormalities arise, and whether there is differential vulnerability across brain regions and tissue classes. To address this limitation, we quantified regional brain abnormalities across multiple imaging modalities in a cohort of young patients in relatively early stages of WFS. Children and young adults with WFS were evaluated with neurological, cognitive and structural magnetic resonance imaging measures. Compared to normative data, the WFS group had intact cognition, significant anxiety and depression, and gait abnormalities. Compared to healthy and type 1 diabetic control groups, the WFS group had smaller intracranial volume and preferentially affected gray matter volume and white matter microstructural integrity in the brainstem, cerebellum and optic radiations. Abnormalities were detected in even the youngest patients with mildest symptoms, and some measures did not follow the typical age-dependent developmental trajectory. These results establish that WFS is associated with smaller intracranial volume with specific abnormalities in the brainstem and cerebellum, even at the earliest stage of clinical symptoms. This pattern of abnormalities suggests that WFS has a pronounced impact on early brain development in addition to later neurodegenerative effects, representing a significant new insight into the WFS disease process. Longitudinal studies will be critical for confirming and expanding our understanding of the impact of ER stress dysregulation on brain development.

Hershey, Tamara; Lugar, Heather M.; Shimony, Joshua S.; Rutlin, Jerrel; Koller, Jonathan M.; Perantie, Dana C.; Paciorkowski, Alex R.; Eisenstein, Sarah A.; Permutt, M. Alan

2012-01-01

263

Bone marrow osteoblast vulnerability to chemotherapy.  

PubMed

Osteoblasts are a major component of the bone marrow microenvironment, which provide support for hematopoietic cell development. Functional disruption of any element of the bone marrow niche, including osteoblasts, can potentially impair hematopoiesis. We have studied the effect of two widely used drugs with different mechanisms of action, etoposide (VP16) and melphalan, on murine osteoblasts at distinct stages of maturation. VP16 and melphalan delayed maturation of preosteoblasts and altered CXCL12 protein levels, a key regulator of hematopoietic cell homing to the bone marrow. Sublethal concentrations of VP16 and melphalan also decreased the levels of several transcripts which contribute to the composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) including osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OCN), and collagen 1A1 (Col1a1). The impact of chemotherapy on message and protein levels for some targets was not always aligned, suggesting differential responses at the transcription and translation or protein stability levels. As one of the main functions of a mature osteoblast is to synthesize ECM of a defined composition, disruption of the ratio of its components may be one mechanism by which chemotherapy affects the ability of osteoblasts to support hematopoietic recovery coincident with altered marrow architecture. Collectively, these observations suggest that the osteoblast compartment of the marrow hematopoietic niche is vulnerable to functional dysregulation by damage imposed by agents frequently used in clinical settings. Understanding the mechanistic underpinning of chemotherapy-induced changes on the hematopoietic support capacity of the marrow microenvironment may contribute to improved strategies to optimize patient recovery post-transplantation. PMID:23551534

Gencheva, Marieta; Hare, Ian; Kurian, Susan; Fortney, Jim; Piktel, Debbie; Wysolmerski, Robert; Gibson, Laura F

2013-05-03

264

Nuclear Weapon Burst Parameters Governing Urban Fire Vulnerability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The weapon burst parameters governing thermal effects from nuclear weapon explosions are reviewed as part of the OCD program for assessing urban vulnerability to fire from nuclear bursts. The most important burst parameters are weapon yield, burst height,...

R. E. Jones S. B. Martin R. H. Renner

1967-01-01

265

VULCAN: A Vulnerability Calculation Method for Process Safety Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Microprocessors are increasingly replacing electromechanical relays in safety systems in the process industry. A new method for VULnerability Calculation (VULCAN) is presented which may serve as a tool for identification of cost-effective configurations a...

L. Bodsberg

1993-01-01

266

Soft Error Vulnerability of Iterative Linear Algebra Methods  

SciTech Connect

Devices are increasingly vulnerable to soft errors as their feature sizes shrink. Previously, soft error rates were significant primarily in space and high-atmospheric computing. Modern architectures now use features so small at sufficiently low voltages that soft errors are becoming important even at terrestrial altitudes. Due to their large number of components, supercomputers are particularly susceptible to soft errors. Since many large scale parallel scientific applications use iterative linear algebra methods, the soft error vulnerability of these methods constitutes a large fraction of the applications overall vulnerability. Many users consider these methods invulnerable to most soft errors since they converge from an imprecise solution to a precise one. However, we show in this paper that iterative methods are vulnerable to soft errors, exhibiting both silent data corruptions and poor ability to detect errors. Further, we evaluate a variety of soft error detection and tolerance techniques, including checkpointing, linear matrix encodings, and residual tracking techniques.

Bronevetsky, G; de Supinski, B

2008-01-19

267

Personal Vulnerability to Victimization of People with Mental Retardation  

Microsoft Academic Search

People with mental retardation are more vulnerable to victimization. This is a con- sequence of cultural, institutional, and other environmental circumstances but may include victim characteristics. To recognize this is not \\

TED NETTELBECK; CARLENE WILSON

2002-01-01

268

A vulnerable population: families of patients in adult critical care.  

PubMed

Families of patients in adult critical care are susceptible to physiological symptoms, emotional distress, persuasion, burden, and postintensive care syndrome-family, as defined by the Society of Critical Care Medicine. The specific aims of this article are to (1) describe the state of science about the concept of vulnerability of families of patients in adult critical care, through analysis and synthesis of relevant literature; (2) explore resources available to reduce or prevent vulnerability of this population; and (3) propose considerations for research with this population. Concept analysis and synthesis strategies support the definition of this concept through review of the literature to describe antecedents, defining characteristics, and consequences of the vulnerability of families of patients in adult critical care. The authors present resources for both families and health care professionals and recommendations for potential collaborative efforts that could reduce risks and promote the health of this vulnerable population. PMID:23615010

Baumhover, Nancy C; May, Kathleen M

269

Energy Security: Reducing Vulnerabilities to Global Energy Networks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the age of globalization the vulnerability of energy networks, particularly oil and gas networks, has increased due to multiple factors, the least of which include: the presence of non-state, transnational terrorist networks, political and economic aim...

J. K. Pritchard M. Moon

2009-01-01

270

Involving vulnerable populations of youth in HIV prevention clinical research.  

PubMed

Adolescents continue to be at high risk for HIV infection, with young men who have sex with men and youth with drug abuse and/or mental health problems at particularly high risk. Multiple factors may interact to confer risk for these youth. Engaging vulnerable youth in HIV prevention research can present unique challenges in the areas of enrollment, retention, and trial adherence. Examples of successful engagement with vulnerable youth offer encouraging evidence for the feasibility of including these youth in clinical trials. Ethical challenges must be taken into consideration before embarking on biomedical HIV prevention studies with vulnerable youth, especially in the global context. Given the many individual and contextual factors that contribute to their high-risk status, it is essential that vulnerable youth populations be included in HIV prevention clinical research studies. PMID:20571422

Borek, Nicolette; Allison, Susannah; Cáceres, Carlos F

2010-07-01

271

New Foundations for Tank Vulnerability Analysis (with 1991 Appendix).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this report, the need for new foundations is the subject under consideration. The traditional Ballistic Research Laboratory approach to tank vulnerability analysis is described, problems with that approach are discussed, and the case is made that a pro...

M. W. Starks

1991-01-01

272

Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure o...

1994-01-01

273

Measuring vulnerability to natural hazards: a macro framework.  

PubMed

The measurement of vulnerability--defined here as the asymmetric response of disaster occurrences to hazardous events--signifies a key step towards effective disaster risk reduction and the promotion of a culture of disaster resilience. One of the reasons for not being able to do the same in a wider context is related to conceptual, definitional, and operational issues. This paper presents an operationally feasible framework for conducting this task and measures revealed macro vulnerability as a function of disaster risk and hazard probability. The probabilities of hazard and its perceived disaster risk were obtained from past data and from probability distributions. In this paper, the corresponding analytical framework is constructed using the case study of floods in Assam, India. The proposed indicator will help policymakers to draw on available macro-level data to identify the regions that are vulnerable to disasters, where micro-level disaster vulnerability assessments could be performed in greater detail. PMID:23278301

Joseph, Jacquleen

2012-12-27

274

Nuclear Power Plant Security and Vulnerabilities. Updated March 18, 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The physical security of nuclear power plants and their vulnerability to deliberate acts of terrorism was elevated to a national security concern following the September 11, 2001 attacks. Since then, Congress has repeatedly focused oversight and legislati...

A. Andrews M. Holt

2009-01-01

275

Vulnerability of Oregon hydrologic landscapes and streamflow to climate change  

EPA Science Inventory

Hydrologic classification systems can provide a basis for broadscale assessments of the hydrologic functions of landscapes and watersheds and their responses to stressors. Such assessments could be particularly useful in determining hydrologic vulnerability from climate change. ...

276

Exploitable Vulnerabilities of Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As the government of the Islamic Republic of Iran s center of gravity, the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) critical strengths are both vulnerable and exploitable. The IRGC s accumulation of considerable influence in Iranian domestic politics, med...

S. J. Corrigan

2011-01-01

277

Evaluation Of The Seismic Vulnerability of Fortified Structures  

SciTech Connect

In the paper a prompt method to evaluate the seismic vulnerability of an ancient structure has been applied to the seismic vulnerability of the fortified structures in Italy, having as basics the elaboration of rather gross information about the state, the consistency and the history of the considered population of fabrics. The procedure proves to be rather effective and able to produce reliable results, despite the poor initial data.

Baratta, Alessandro; Corbi, Ileana [Department of Structural Engineering, University of Naples 'Federico II', Via Claudio 21, Naples (Italy); Coppari, Sandro [Department of Civil Protection, Ministry Council, Via Vitorchiano 4, 00189 Rome (Italy)

2008-07-08

278

Vulnerability of larval white perch, Morone americana , to fish predation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis  The vulnerability of white perch, Morone americana, larvae to yearling bluegill, Lepomis macrochira, predators was examined in relation to larval size, nutritional condition and relative abundance of alternative prey. Short-term\\u000a (15 min) predation trials were conducted in 381 tanks in the laboratory. Larval vulnerability was measured as the proportion\\u000a of larvae killed and the proportion of successful attacks per predator

Daniel Margulies

1990-01-01

279

Depressive Self-Schemas, Life Stress, and Vulnerability to Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vulnerability model of depression was tested by hypothesizing that depressogenic self-schemas that interact with schema-congruent negative life events will be associated with depression. Ninety-three college students were followed prospectively for four monthly assessments of both interview- and questionnaire-measured stressful life events, and clinical interview- and questionnaire-measured depression. An information-processing schema model of vulnerability was used to define subgroups of

Constance Hammen; Terry Marks; Arlene Mayol; Robert deMayo

1985-01-01

280

Optimal worm-scanning method using vulnerable-host distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Most Internet worms use random scanning. The distribution of vulnerable hosts on the Internet, however, is highly non-uniform over the IP-address space. This implies that random scanning wastes many scans on invulnerable addresses, and more virulent scanning schemes may take advantage of the non-uniformity of a vulnerable-host distribution. Questions then arise as to how attackers may exploit such informa-tion

Zesheng Chen; Chuanyi Ji

2007-01-01

281

Importance-scanning worm using vulnerable-host distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most Internet worms use random scanning. The distribution of vulnerable hosts on the Internet, however, is highly non-uniform over the IP-address space. This implies that random scanning wastes many scans on invulnerable addresses, and more virulent scanning schemes may take advantage of the non-uniformity of a vulnerable-host distribution. Questions then arise how attackers may make use of such information, and

Zesheng Chen; Chuanyi Ji

2005-01-01

282

Relationship Patterns Associated with Dimensions of Vulnerability to Psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Associations between vulnerability to psychopathology and atypical ways of perceiving and conducting relationships were investigated\\u000a in a study of 350 undergraduates. Self-report measures of traits associated with vulnerability to depression, bipolar disorder\\u000a and psychosis were used to predict atypical relationships with family members, close friends, student peers, and authority\\u000a figures. Tendencies to implement four basic relational models in personal relationships

Nicholas B. Allen; Nick Haslam; Assaf Semedar

2005-01-01

283

Modeling Active Cyber Attack for Network Vulnerability Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we considered active cyber attack model to assess vulnerability in network system. As we simulate cyber attack\\u000a model in the network system, we can identify vulnerabilities, and provide appropriate countermeasures against them. Our model\\u000a consists of two agents, two modules, and action controller on on-line system, and attack damage assessment analyzer on off-line\\u000a system. We can minimize

Jung-ho Eom; Young-ju Han; Tai-myoung Chung

2006-01-01

284

Gauging the Vulnerability of Local Water Systems to Extreme Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water utilities that rely on surface water may be vulnerable to future droughts and floods, a vulnerability that may be magnified by climate perturbations as well as shorter-term and, in some cases, ongoing changes in the political and regulatory environment in which utilities operate. Unfortunately, day-to-day responsibilities currently occupy most utility operators, leaving little time to plan for inherently uncertain

Robert Hersh; Kris Wernstedt

2002-01-01

285

Air pollution and vulnerability: solving the puzzle of prioritization.  

PubMed

While ambient air pollution levels in excess of prescribed health standards are generally unacceptable, the exceedance is even more serious in areas where people reside. Vulnerability caused by poverty, disease, lack of education, and poor living conditions exacerbates the problem. Air quality management plans identify prioritized strategies for improved air quality independent of consideration of vulnerability. A population exposure and vulnerability risk prioritization framework comprising five themes (air pollution sources; air pollution levels; air pollution potential; community awareness, observations, perceptions, and actions; and vulnerability factors) was proposed and applied to the eThekwini Municipality (Durban, South Africa). Data were scored according to predetermined risk threshold values to ascertain at-risk communities. While those urban wards located in a known air pollution hotspot had the highest air pollution levels, a periurban ward with moderate exposure levels was most vulnerable. This framework will prove invaluable for the development of focused interventions to reduce vulnerability and air pollution-associated adverse health impacts. PMID:21306095

Wright, Caradee Y; Diab, Roseanne

286

The Vulnerable Plaque: the Real Villain in Acute Coronary Syndromes  

PubMed Central

The term "vulnerable plaque" refers to a vascular lesion that is prone to rupture and may result in life-threatening events which include myocardial infarction. It consists of thin-cap fibroatheroma and a large lipid core which is highly thrombogenic. Acute coronary syndromes often result from rupture of vulnerable plaques which frequently are only moderately stenosed and not visible by conventional angiography. Several invasive and non-invasive strategies have been developed to assess the burden of vulnerable plaques. Intravascular ultrasound provides a two-dimensional cross-sectional image of the arterial wall and can help assess the plaque burden and composition. Optical coherent tomography offers superior resolution over intravascular ultrasound. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging provides non-invasive imaging for visualizing fibrous cap thickness and rupture in plaques. In addition, it may be of value in assessing the effects of treatments, such as lipid-lowering therapy. Technical issues however limit its clinical applicability. The role of multi-slice computed tomography, a well established screening tool for coronary artery disease, remains to be determined. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) may provide physiological functional assessment of plaque vulnerability; however, its role in the management of vulnerable plaque requires further studies. Treatment of the vulnerable patient may involve systemic therapy which currently include statins, ACE inhibitors, beta-blockers, aspirin, and calcium-channel blockers and in the future local therapeutic options such as drug-eluting stents or photodynamic therapy.

Liang, Michael; Puri, Aniket; Devlin, Gerard

2011-01-01

287

Malware Sandbox Analysis for Secure Observation of Vulnerability Exploitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exploiting vulnerabilities of remote systems is one of the fundamental behaviors of malware that determines their potential hazards. Understanding what kind of propagation tactics each malware uses is essential in incident response because such information directly links with countermeasures such as writing a signature for IDS. Although recently malware sandbox analysis has been studied intensively, little work is done on securely observing the vulnerability exploitation by malware. In this paper, we propose a novel sandbox analysis method for securely observing malware's vulnerability exploitation in a totally isolated environment. In our sandbox, we prepare two victim hosts. We first execute the sample malware on one of these hosts and then let it attack the other host which is running multiple vulnerable services. As a simple realization of the proposed method, we have implemented a sandbox using Nepenthes, a low-interaction honeypot, as the second victim. Because Nepenthes can emulate a variety of vulnerable services, we can efficiently observe the propagation of sample malware. In the experiments, among 382 samples whose scan capabilities are confirmed, 381 samples successfully started exploiting vulnerabilities of the second victim. This indicates the certain level of feasibility of the proposed method.

Yoshioka, Katsunari; Inoue, Daisuke; Eto, Masashi; Hoshizawa, Yuji; Nogawa, Hiroki; Nakao, Koji

288

Multimodal spectroscopy detects features of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque  

PubMed Central

Early detection and treatment of rupture-prone vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is critical to reducing patient mortality associated with cardiovascular disease. The combination of reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopy—termed multimodal spectroscopy (MMS)—provides detailed biochemical information about tissue and can detect vulnerable plaque features: thin fibrous cap (TFC), necrotic core (NC), superficial foam cells (SFC), and thrombus. Ex vivo MMS spectra are collected from 12 patients that underwent carotid endarterectomy or femoral bypass surgery. Data are collected by means of a unitary MMS optical fiber probe and a portable clinical instrument. Blinded histopathological analysis is used to assess the vulnerability of each spectrally evaluated artery lesion. Modeling of the ex vivo MMS spectra produce objective parameters that correlate with the presence of vulnerable plaque features: TFC with fluorescence parameters indicative of collagen presence; NC?SFC with a combination of diffuse reflectance ?-carotene?ceroid absorption and the Raman spectral signature of lipids; and thrombus with its Raman signature. Using these parameters, suspected vulnerable plaques can be detected with a sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 72%. These encouraging results warrant the continued development of MMS as a catheter-based clinical diagnostic technique for early detection of vulnerable plaques.

Scepanovic, Obrad R.; Fitzmaurice, Maryann; Miller, Arnold; Kong, Chae-Ryon; Volynskaya, Zoya; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Kramer, John R.; Feld, Michael S.

2011-01-01

289

Coastal vulnerability: climate change and natural hazards perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction Studying coastal zones as a territorial concept (Integrated coastal zone management) is an essential issue for managers, as they have to consider many different topics (natural hazards, resources management, tourism, climate change…). The recent approach in terms of "coastal vulnerability" studies (since the 90's) is the main tool used nowadays to help them in evaluating impacts of natural hazards on coastal zones, specially considering climate change. This present communication aims to highlight the difficulties in integrating this concept in risk analysis as it is usually practiced in natural hazards sciences. 1) Coastal vulnerability as a recent issue The concept of coastal vulnerability mainly appears in the International panel on climate change works of 1992 (IPCC. 2001), where it is presented as essential for climate change adaptation. The concept has been defined by a common methodology which proposes the assessment of seven indicators, in regards to a sea level rise of 1m in 2100: people affected, people at risk, capital value at loss, land at loss, wetland at loss, potential adaptation costs, people at risk assuming this adaptation. Many national assessments have been implemented (Nicholls, et al. 1995) and a global assessment was proposed for three indicators (Nicholls, et al. 1999). The DINAS-Coast project reuses this methodology to produce the DIVA-tool for coastal managers (Vafeidis, et al. 2004). Besides, many other methodologies for national or regional coastal vulnerability assessments have been developed (review by (UNFCCC. 2008). The use of aggregated vulnerability indicators (including geomorphology, hydrodynamics, climate change…) is widespread: the USGS coastal vulnerability index is used worldwide and was completed by a social vulnerability index (Boruff, et al. 2005). Those index-based methods propose a vulnerability mapping which visualise indicators of erosion, submersion and/or socio economic sensibility in coastal zones. This concept is a great tool for policy makers to help managing their action and taking into account climate change (McFadden, et al. 2006). However, in those approaches, vulnerability is the output itself (cost of effective impacts, geomorphologic impacts…), but is not integrated it in a risk analysis. Furthermore, those studies emerged from a climatic perspective, which leads to consider climate change as a hazard or pressure whereas risk studies commonly consider hazards such as erosion and flooding, where climate change modifies the drivers of the hazard. 2) The natural hazards and socio economic perspectives In order to reduce impacts of natural hazards, decision makers need a complete risk assessment (probability of losses). Past studies on natural risks (landslide, earthquake...) highlighted the pertinence of defining risk as a combination of : (1)hazard occurrence and intensity, (2) exposition and (3)vulnerability of assets and population to this hazard (e.g. Douglas. 2007, Sarewitz, et al. 2003). Following the Renn and Klinke risk assessment frame, high uncertainties associated with coastal risks considering climatic and anthropic change highlights the importance of working on that concept of "vulnerability" (Klinke and Renn. 2002). Past studies on vulnerability assessment showed a frequently mentioned gap between "impact based" and "human based" points of view. It is nowadays a great issue for natural risk sciences. Many research efforts in FP7 projects such as MOVE and ENSURE focus on integrating the different dimensions of vulnerability (Turner, et al. 2003, Birkmann. 2006). Coastal risk studies highlight another issue of concern. We previously detailed the different use of the term "vulnerability" in the coastal context, quite different of the "natural risk's" use. Interaction of social, economic and physical sciences is considered within two french research projects (Vulsaco, Miseeva), in order to identify the vulnerability of a system to flooding or erosion (i.e. its characteristics th

Romieu, E.; Vinchon, C.

2009-04-01

290

Debating space security: Capabilities and vulnerabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. position in the debate on space security has been that (1) space-based systems could be developed and used to obtain decisive warfighting superiority over an adversary, and (2) these space-based systems, because they might give such an inordinate advantage over any adversary, will be attacked. The Russians and Chinese, in contrast, claim to be threatened by U.S. aspirations in space but deny that they pose a serious threat to U.S. space-based systems. They view the development of advanced military space systems by the United States as evidence of a growing gap of military capabilities limited only by technological—not political—constraints. They argue that U.S. missile defense systems operating in coordination with advanced satellite sensors would weaken their nuclear retaliatory potential. This dissertation argues that the positions held by both of these parties are more extreme than warranted. An analytical evaluation quickly narrows the touted capabilities and assumed vulnerabilities of space systems to a much smaller set of concerns that can be addressed by collaboration. Chapter 2: Operationally Responsive Space (ORS): Is 24/7 Warfighter Support Feasible? demonstrates the infeasibility of dramatically increasing U.S. warfighting superiority by using satellites. Chapter 3: What Can be Achieved by Attacking Satellites? makes the case that although U.S. armed forces rely extensively on its satellite infrastructure, that does not immediately make them desirable targets. The functions performed by military satellites are diffused among large constellations with redundancies. Also, some of the functions performed by these satellites can be substituted for by other terrestrial and aerial systems. Chapter 4: The Limits of Chinese Anti-Satellite Missiles demonstrates that anti-satellite (ASAT) intercepts are very complex under realistic conditions and that a potential adversary with space capabilities comparable to China's has very limited capability to use ASATs in a real-world battle scenario. Finally, in order to evaluate the chief concern raised by the Russians and Chinese, chapter 5: Satellites, Missile Defense and Space Security simulates a boost-phase missile defense system cued by the advanced Space Tracking and Surveillance (STSS) sensors. It demonstrates that even under best case assumptions, the STSS sensors are not good enough for the boost-phase missile defense system to successfully intercept and destroy an ICBM. Together, these chapters aim to narrow the contentions in the debate on space security thereby fostering the international colloboration and data sharing needed to ensure safe operations in space.

Sankaran, Jaganath

291

Assessment Framework for Vulnerability and Exposure Based on Landslide Hazard Mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis This paper describes the relationships between exposure, hazard mapping, and vulnerability analysis, and represents the initial hazard mapping results of the exposure analysis. Based on different scales, vulnerability can be divided into five layers. Several connections of these five layers, the levels of vulnerability are defined, as vulnerability of the individual, village, country, and central government. Landslide susceptibility is

Tingyeh WU; Kaoru TAKARA

2008-01-01

292

Improving CVSS-based vulnerability prioritization and response with context information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing number of software security vulnerabilities is an ever-increasing challenge for organizations. As security managers in the industry have to operate within limited budgets they also have to prioritize their vulnerability responses. The Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) aids in such prioritization by providing a metric for the severity of vulnerabilities. In its most prominent application, as the severity

Christian Frühwirth; Tomi Männistö

2009-01-01

293

Buffer overflows: attacks and defenses for the vulnerability of the decade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buffer overflows have been the most common form of security vulnerability for the last ten years. More over, buffer overflow vulnerabilities dominate the area of remote network penetration vulnerabilities, where an anonymous Internet user seeks to gain partial or total control of a host. If buffer overflow vulnerabilities could be effectively eliminated, a very large portion of the most serious

Crispin Cowan; Perry Wagle; Calton Pu; Steve Beattie; Jonathan Walpole

2003-01-01

294

Buffer Overflows: Attacks and Defenses for the Vulnerability of the Decade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buffer overflows have been the most common form of security vulnerability for the last ten years. More over, buffer overflow vulnerabilities dominate the area of remote network penetra- tion vulnerabilities, where an anonymous Inter- net user seeks to gain partial or total control of a host. If buffer overflow vulnerabilities could be effectively eliminated, a very large portion of the

Crispin Cowan; Perry Wagle; Calton Pu; Steve Beattie; Jonathan Walpole

1999-01-01

295

Buffer overflows: attacks and defenses for the vulnerability of the decade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buffer overflows have been the most common form of security vulnerability for the last ten years. Moreover, buffer overflow vulnerabilities dominate the area of remote network penetration vulnerabilities, where an anonymous Internet user seeks to gain partial or total control of a host. If buffer overflow vulnerabilities could be effectively eliminated, a very large portion of the most serious security

C. Cowan; P. Wagle; S. Beattic; S. Beattie; J. Walpole

2000-01-01

296

A Vulnerability Assessment Approach for Dams of Mississippi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of a state-wide effort to characterize the vulnerability of Mississippi's dams, we are developing a new set of vulnerability assessment tools. Our vulnerability assessment methods will consider earlier attempts to develop risk indexing methods for dams, but will be designed to be applied to Mississippi's entire database of over 3,700 dams. Unlike earlier efforts to dams, which emphasized hazards posed by the dams, our methods will be designed to consider intrinsic and extrinsic vulnerability, and consider consequences as well. Intrinsic sources of vulnerability consider such factors as the potential for unstable slopes, piping, and spillway inadequacy. Extrinsic sources of vulnerability will include features such as the potential for intentional or unintentional human acts. Other factors that will be included will be the potential for neglect of maintenance of the dam and susceptibility to interference from wildlife. Consequences will be assessed by considering the downstream population and economic resources that may be at risk due to an uncontrolled release of the reservoir. The analysis of these vulnerabilities and consequences is being calculated using a GIS-based database of all of Mississippi's dams along with population distribution, terrain, and economic resources across the state. Conventional methods of analysis of a dam breach or other uncontrolled release will still be necessary, but the extent to which downstream features and population are affected can be more readily identified. This approach facilitates assessment and decision making on a large dam inventory to permit resources within the state to be directed efficiently to dams that merit attention.

Kuszmaul, J. S.; Gunter, B.; McGregor, G.; Holt, R. M.; Pickens, J.; Holtz, T.; Jones, T.; Phillips, P.

2007-12-01

297

An empirical property-based model for vulnerability analysis and evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents an empirical property-based model to describe Web-based vulnerability. We define a web application using a new descriptive model with pre-condition, behavior, entity and communication property sets. The vulnerable property relationship graph (VPRG) defines a vulnerability as vulnerable properties in application with relations to other properties in cause- and consequence-relationships. The Vulnerable Property Relationship Matrix (VPRM) is used

Ha-Thanh Le; Deepak Subramanian; Wen-Jing Hsu; Peter Kok Keong Loh

2009-01-01

298

The Effect of Identifying Vulnerabilities and Patching Software on the Utility of Network Intrusion Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vulnerability scanning and installing software patches for known vulnerabilities greatly affects the utility of network-based intrusion detection systems that use signatures to detect system compromises. A detailed timeline analysis of important remote-to-local vulnerabilities demonstrates (1) Vulner- abilities in widely-used server software are discovered infrequently (at most 6 times a year) and (2) Software patches to prevent vulnerabilities from being ex-

Richard Lippmann; Seth E. Webster; Douglas Stetson

2002-01-01

299

A unified framework for addiction: Vulnerabilities in the decision process  

PubMed Central

The understanding of decision-making systems has come together in recent years to form a unified theory of decision-making in the mammalian brain as arising from multiple, interacting systems (a planning system, a habit system, and a situation-recognition system). This unified decision-making system has multiple potential access points through which it can be driven to make maladaptive choices, particularly choices that entail seeking of certain drugs or behaviors. We identify 10 key vulnerabilities in the system: (1) moving away from homeostasis, (2) changing allostatic set points, (3) euphorigenic “reward-like” signals, (4) overvaluation in the planning system, (5) incorrect search of situation-action-outcome relationships, (6) misclassification of situations, (7) overvaluation in the habit system, (8) a mismatch in the balance of the two decision systems, (9) over-fast discounting processes, and (10) changed learning rates. These vulnerabilities provide a taxonomy of potential problems with decision-making systems. Although each vulnerability can drive an agent to return to the addictive choice, each vulnerability also implies a characteristic symptomology. Different drugs, different behaviors, and different individuals are likely to access different vulnerabilities. This has implications for an individual’s susceptibility to addiction and the transition to addiction, for the potential for relapse, and for the potential for treatment.

Redish, A. David; Jensen, Steve; Johnson, Adam

2013-01-01

300

Prey behavior, age-dependent vulnerability, and predation rates.  

PubMed

Variation in the temporal pattern of vulnerability can provide important insights into predator-prey relationships and the evolution of antipredator behavior. We illustrate these points with a system that has coyotes (Canis latrans) as a predator and two species of congeneric deer (Odocoileus spp.) as prey. The deer employ different antipredator tactics (aggressive defense vs. flight) that result in contrasting patterns of age-dependent vulnerability in their probability of being captured when encountered by coyotes. We use long-term survival data and a simple mathematical model to show that (1) species differences in age-dependent vulnerability are reflected in seasonal predation rates and (2) seasonal variation in prey vulnerability and predator hunt activity, which can be associated with the availability of alternative prey, interact to shape seasonal and annual predation rates for each prey species. Shifting hunt activity from summer to winter, or vice versa, alleviated annual mortality on one species and focused it on the other. Our results indicate that seasonal variation in prey vulnerability and hunt activity interact to influence the impact that a predator has on any particular type of prey. Furthermore, these results indicate that seasonal variation in predation pressure is an important selection pressure shaping prey defenses. PMID:18840071

Lingle, Susan; Feldman, Alex; Boyce, Mark S; Wilson, W Finbarr

2008-11-01

301

Climate variability and climate change vulnerability and adaptation. Workshop summary  

SciTech Connect

Representatives from fifteen countries met in Prague, Czech Republic, on September 11-15, 1995, to share results from the analysis of vulnerability and adaptation to global climate change. The workshop focused on the issues of global climate change and its impacts on various sectors of a national economy. The U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), which has been signed by more than 150 governments worldwide, calls on signatory parties to develop and communicate measures they are implementing to respond to global climate change. An analysis of a country`s vulnerability to changes in the climate helps it identify suitable adaptation measures. These analyses are designed to determine the extent of the impacts of global climate change on sensitive sectors such as agricultural crops, forests, grasslands and livestock, water resources, and coastal areas. Once it is determined how vulnerable a country may be to climate change, it is possible to identify adaptation measures for ameliorating some or all of the effects.The objectives of the vulnerability and adaptation workshop were to: The objectives of the vulnerability and adaptation workshop were to: Provide an opportunity for countries to describe their study results; Encourage countries to learn from the experience of the more complete assessments and adjust their studies accordingly; Identify issues and analyses that require further investigation; and Summarize results and experiences for governmental and intergovernmental organizations.

Bhatti, N.; Cirillo, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Dixon, R.K. [U.S. Country Studies Program, Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31

302

Soft Error Vulnerability of Iterative Linear Algebra Methods  

SciTech Connect

Devices become increasingly vulnerable to soft errors as their feature sizes shrink. Previously, soft errors primarily caused problems for space and high-atmospheric computing applications. Modern architectures now use features so small at sufficiently low voltages that soft errors are becoming significant even at terrestrial altitudes. The soft error vulnerability of iterative linear algebra methods, which many scientific applications use, is a critical aspect of the overall application vulnerability. These methods are often considered invulnerable to many soft errors because they converge from an imprecise solution to a precise one. However, we show that iterative methods can be vulnerable to soft errors, with a high rate of silent data corruptions. We quantify this vulnerability, with algorithms generating up to 8.5% erroneous results when subjected to a single bit-flip. Further, we show that detecting soft errors in an iterative method depends on its detailed convergence properties and requires more complex mechanisms than simply checking the residual. Finally, we explore inexpensive techniques to tolerate soft errors in these methods.

Bronevetsky, G; de Supinski, B

2007-12-15

303

Cascade vulnerability for risk analysis of water infrastructure.  

PubMed

One of the major tasks in urban water management is failure-free operation for at least most of the time. Accordingly, the reliability of the network systems in urban water management has a crucial role. The failure of a component in these systems impacts potable water distribution and urban drainage. Therefore, water distribution and urban drainage systems are categorized as critical infrastructure. Vulnerability is the degree to which a system is likely to experience harm induced by perturbation or stress. However, for risk assessment, we usually assume that events and failures are singular and independent, i.e. several simultaneous events and cascading events are unconsidered. Although failures can be causally linked, a simultaneous consideration in risk analysis is hardly considered. To close this gap, this work introduces the term cascade vulnerability for water infrastructure. Cascade vulnerability accounts for cascading and simultaneous events. Following this definition, cascade risk maps are a merger of hazard and cascade vulnerability maps. In this work cascade vulnerability maps for water distribution systems and urban drainage systems based on the 'Achilles-Approach' are introduced and discussed. It is shown, that neglecting cascading effects results in significant underestimation of risk scenarios. PMID:22020483

Sitzenfrei, R; Mair, M; Möderl, M; Rauch, W

2011-01-01

304

The Department of Defense energy vulnerabilities: Potential problems and observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Department of Defense is almost entirely dependent on civilian energy supplies to meet its needs in both peacetime and periods of heightened conflict. There are a number of potential vulnerabilities to the continual and timely supply of energy to both the civilian and military sectors. These include denial of the energy resources themselves, disruption of critical transportation networks, destruction of storage facilities, and interruption of electrical power. This report briefly reviews the present situation for provision of energy from the civilian sector to the military. General vulnerabilities of the existing energy supply system are identified, along with the potential for armed aggression (including terrorist and sabotage activities) against the energy network. Conclusions and some tentative observations are made as to a proper response to the existing vulnerabilities.

Freiwald, D. A.; Berger, M. E.; Roach, J. F.

1982-08-01

305

Detecting Network Vulnerabilities Through Graph TheoreticalMethods  

SciTech Connect

Identifying vulnerabilities in power networks is an important problem, as even a small number of vulnerable connections can cause billions of dollars in damage to a network. In this paper, we investigate a graph theoretical formulation for identifying vulnerabilities of a network. We first try to find the most critical components in a network by finding an optimal solution for each possible cutsize constraint for the relaxed version of the inhibiting bisection problem, which aims to find loosely coupled subgraphs with significant demand/supply mismatch. Then we investigate finding critical components by finding a flow assignment that minimizes the maximum among flow assignments on all edges. We also report experiments on IEEE 30, IEEE 118, and WSCC 179 benchmark power networks.

Cesarz, Patrick; Pomann, Gina-Maria; Torre, Luis de la; Villarosa, Greta; Flournoy, Tamara; Pinar, Ali; Meza Juan

2007-09-30

306

Reducing the vulnerability of network by inserting modular topologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a strategy whose purpose is to reduce the vulnerability of a network via inserting modular topologies. The modular topologies are generated as WS small-world random network, which is relatively highly robust. Using betweenness and betweenness centrality as the vulnerability measurement, the strategy searches for remote nodes with low betweenness in the network and sets these nodes to be connected to the modular topologies. We test our strategy on some basis networks and the results show sufficient availability of our strategy. And by comparing with other methods of adding topologies into the network, we show that our strategy is especially efficient in reducing the vulnerability of the critical network components.

Zou, Zhiyun; Lai, Junyi; Gao, Jianzhi

2013-03-01

307

Reducing US oil vulnerability: Energy policy for the 1980's  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current Federal energy policies and programs are asked in light of recent events and in light of what are believed to be the most reliable available projections of the future. Additional steps are outlined that could reduce our vulnerability to an oil import disruption during the next decade. Specifically, the study seeks to answer three questions: as a base case, what levels of US energy consumption, production, and imports might we anticipate for 1985 and 1990 under existing statutes, policies, and programs; considering both our own and our allies dependence on oil imports, how vulnerable does this leave the United States to foreign supply disruptions; considering the likely effects of government policies and programs which already exist to reduce our vulnerability (through reduction of US oil imports or by any other means), are there additional initiatives that could be undertaken to give us greater protection - especially between now and 1990.

1980-11-01

308

Relation between perceived vulnerability to HIV and precautionary sexual behavior.  

PubMed

Although virtually all major theories of health-protective behavior assume that precautionary behavior is related to perceived vulnerability, the applicability of this assumption to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) preventive behavior has recently been called into question. This article uses qualitative and quantitative methods to review and integrate the literature relevant to the relation between perceived vulnerability to HIV and precautionary sexual behavior. Specifically, the purpose of the article is to determine whether the extent research supports 2 hypotheses regarding this relation; (a) Perceptions of personal vulnerability to HIV are reflections of current and recent risk and precautionary behavior, and (b) these perceptions motivate precautionary sexual behavior. In addition, it examines the conceptual and methodological strengths and weaknesses of the empirical literature on these questions and provides recommendations for future research. PMID:8668745

Gerrard, M; Gibbons, F X; Bushman, B J

1996-05-01

309

Analyzing precipitationsheds to understand the vulnerability of rainfall dependent regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that rivers connect upstream and downstream ecosystems within watersheds. Here we describe the concept of precipitationsheds to show how upwind terrestrial evaporation source areas contribute moisture for precipitation to downwind sink regions. We illustrate the importance of upwind land cover in precipitationsheds to sustain precipitation in critically water stressed downwind areas, specifically dryland agricultural areas. We first identify seven regions where rainfed agriculture is particularly vulnerable to reductions in precipitation, and then map their precipitationsheds. We then develop a framework for qualitatively assessing the vulnerability of precipitation for these seven agricultural regions. We illustrate that the sink regions have varying degrees of vulnerability to changes in upwind evaporation rates depending on the extent of the precipitationshed, source region land use intensity and expected land cover changes in the source region.

Keys, P. W.; van der Ent, R. J.; Gordon, L. J.; Hoff, H.; Nikoli, R.; Savenije, H. H. G.

2012-02-01

310

Analyzing precipitationsheds to understand the vulnerability of rainfall dependent regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that rivers connect upstream and downstream ecosystems within watersheds. Here we describe the concept of precipitationsheds to show how upwind terrestrial evaporation source areas contribute moisture for precipitation in downwind sink regions. We illustrate the importance of upwind land cover in precipitationsheds to sustain precipitation in critically water stressed downwind areas, i.e. dryland agricultural areas. We first identify seven regions where rainfed agriculture is particularly vulnerable to reductions in precipitation, and then map their precipitationsheds. We further develop a framework for qualitatively assessing the vulnerability of precipitation for these seven agricultural regions. We illustrate that the sink regions have varying degrees of vulnerability to changes in upwind evaporation rates depending on the extent of the precipitationshed, source region land use intensity and expected land cover changes in the source region.

Keys, P. W.; van der Ent, R. J.; Gordon, L. J.; Hoff, H.; Nikoli, R.; Savenije, H. H. G.

2011-10-01

311

Vulnerability in Clinical Research with Patients in Pain  

PubMed Central

Some have characterized patients living with intractable pain as a vulnerable population in both clinical and research settings. Labeling the population as vulnerable, however, does not provide clarity regarding the potential risks that they face when they participate in research. Instead, research vulnerability for patients in pain is a function of an interaction between their pain conditions and elements of the research enterprise. Therefore, the identification of potential risks requires consideration not only of characteristics of patients with chronic pain, but also consideration of features of researchers, the quality of institutional oversight, and the medical/social environment within which the research is conducted. This paper provides an analysis of those risks and provides some suggestions as to how the risks might be better managed.

Tait, Raymond C.

2011-01-01

312

Imaging of coronary atherosclerosis and identification of the vulnerable plaque  

PubMed Central

Identification of the vulnerable plaque responsible for the occurrence of acute coronary syndromes and acute coronary death is a prerequisite for the stabilisation of this vulnerable plaque. Comprehensive coronary atherosclerosis imaging in clinical practice should involve visualisation of the entire coronary artery tree and characterisation of the plaque, including the three-dimensional morphology of the plaque, encroachment of the plaque on the vessel lumen, the major tissue components of the plaque, remodelling of the vessel and presence of inflammation. Obviously, no single diagnostic modality is available that provides such comprehensive imaging and unfortunately no diagnostic tool is available that unequivocally identifies the vulnerable plaque. The objective of this article is to discuss experience with currently available diagnostic modalities for coronary atherosclerosis imaging. In addition, a number of evolving techniques will be briefly discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7

de Feyter, P.J.; Serruys, P. W.; Nieman, K.; Mollet, N.; Cademartiri, F.; van Geuns, R. J.; Slager, C.; van der Steen, A.F.W.; Krams, R.; Schaar, J.A.; Wielopolski, P.; Pattynama, P.M.T.; Arampatzis, A.; van der Lugt, A.; Regar, E.; Ligthart, J.; Smits, P.

2003-01-01

313

Reducing the Vulnerability of Space Systems to Small Debris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of debris in space is continuously increasing. While debris larger than 10 cm can be tracked and debris smaller than 1mm are usually taken into account, small debris with size in between remains a significant threat for the space assets. A European FP7 project, entitled ReVuS, commenced in 2011 with the objective to define design solutions to reduce the vulnerability of future low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites to small sized debris. At first, the vulnerability of a current LEO satellite to these types of debris is assessed. Then, systems and satellite architecture solutions to minimise the vulnerability of the satellites will be analysed and assessed. The use of shielding protection appears as one of the main satellite architecture solutions, and shielding materials will be developed and tested during the project. The paper describes the activities that will be carried out during the project

Cougnet, C.; Oswald, M.

2012-01-01

314

Improving tag/seal technologies: the vulnerability assessment component  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE), specifically the Office of Nonproliferation and National Security, has sponsored the development of numerous tag and seal technologies for high-security/high-valued applications. One important component in this technology development effort has been the continuous integration of vulnerability assessments. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has been the lead laboratory for vulnerability assessments of fiber-optic-based tag/seal technologies. This paper presents a brief historical overview and the current status of the DOE high-security tag/seal development program and discusses INEL`s adversarial role and assessment philosophy. Verification testing criteria used to define ``successful`` tampering attempts/attacks are discussed. Finally, the advantages of integrating a vulnerability assessment into the development of commercial security tag/seals are presented.

Jones, J.L.

1996-02-01

315

Vulnerability Management for an Enterprise Resource Planning System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems are commonly used in technical educational institutions(TEIs). ERP systems should continue providing services to its users irrespective of the level of failure. There could be many types of failures in the ERP systems. There are different types of measures or characteristics that can be defined for ERP systems to handle the levels of failure. Here in this paper, various types of failure levels are identified along with various characteristics which are concerned with those failures. The relation between all these is summarized. The disruptions causing vulnerabilities in TEIs are identified .A vulnerability management cycle has been suggested along with many commercial and open source vulnerability management tools. The paper also highlights the importance of resiliency in ERP systems in TEIs.

Goel, Shivani; Kiran, Ravi; Garg, Deepak

2012-09-01

316

[Elements of adolescents' individual vulnerability to HIV/AIDS].  

PubMed

Adolescence is characterized by experimentation and discovery, the development of autonomy and close search of sexuality. The objective of this study was to identify the scientific evidences of literature on the elements of the individual dimension of adolescents' vulnerability of to the HIV/AIDS. Through the integrative review, in electronic data bases (Cinahl PubMed, Scopus, LILACS, Adolec, Dedalus, Digital Library of Brazilian of Teses and Dissertações (BDTD) and Portal of Thesis of University of São Paulo), works published between 1996 and 2006 were tracked. 41 studies compose the final sample. The most frequent element of individual vulnerability in the studies was the degree and quality of the knowledge on HI V/AIDS. The revision allowed identifying excellent scientific evidences of the individual vulnerability for the planning of the actions of prevention to the infection for the HIV in adolescents. PMID:21755225

Toledo, Melina Mafra; Takahashi, Renata Ferreira; De-La-Torre-Ugarte-Guanilo, Mónica Cecilia

317

Flood hazard, vulnerability, and risk assessment for human life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood risk assessment is an important issue for the countries suffering tropical cyclones and monsoon. Taiwan is located in the hot zone of typhoon tracks in the Western Pacific. There are three to five typhoons landing Taiwan every year. Typhoons and heavy rainfalls often cause inundation disaster rising with the increase of population and the development of social economy. The purpose of this study is to carry out the flood hazard, vulnerability and risk in term of human life. Based on the concept that flood risk is composed by flood hazard and vulnerability, a inundation simulation is performed to evaluate the factors of flood hazard for human life according to base flood (100-year return period). The flood depth, velocity and rising ratio are the three factors of flood hazards. Furthermore, the factors of flood vulnerability are identified in terms of human life that are classified into two main factors, residents and environment. The sub factors related to residents are the density of population and the density of vulnerable people including elders, youngers and disabled persons. The sub factors related to environment include the the number of building floors, the locations of buildings, the and distance to rescue center. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is adopted to determine the weights of these factors. The risk matrix is applied to show the risk from low to high based on the evaluation of flood hazards and vulnerabilities. The Tseng-Wen River watershed is selected as the case study because a serious flood was induced by Typhoon Morakot in 2009, which produced a record-breaking rainfall of 2.361mm in 48 hours in the last 50 years. The results of assessing the flood hazard, vulnerability and risk in term of human life could improve the emergency operation for flood disaster to prepare enough relief goods and materials during typhoon landing.

Pan, T.; Chang, T.; Lai, J.; Hsieh, M.; Tan, Y.; Lin, Y.

2011-12-01

318

Poplar vulnerability to xylem cavitation acclimates to drier soil conditions.  

PubMed

Xylem vulnerability to cavitation differs between tree species according to their drought resistance, more xerophilous species being more resistant to xylem cavitation. Variability in xylem vulnerability to cavitation is also found within species, especially between in situ populations. The origin of this variability has not been clearly identified. Here we analyzed the response of xylem hydraulic traits of Populus tremula x Populus alba trees to three different soil water regimes. Stem xylem vulnerability was scored as the xylem water potential causing 12, 50 and 88% loss of conductivity (P(12), P(50) and P(88)). Vulnerability to cavitation was found to acclimate to growing conditions under different levels of soil water content, with P(50) values of -1.82, -2.03 and -2.45 MPa in well-watered, moderately water-stressed and severely water-stressed poplars, respectively. The value of P(12), the xylem tension at which cavitation begins, was correlated with the lowest value of midday leaf water potential (psi m) experienced by each plant, the difference between the two parameters being approximately 0.5 MPa, consistent with the absence of any difference in embolism level between the different water treatments. These results support the hypothesis that vulnerability to cavitation is a critical trait for resistance to drought. The decrease in vulnerability to cavitation under growing conditions of soil drought was correlated with decreased vessel diameter, increased vessel wall thickness and a stronger bordered pit field (t/b)(2). The links between these parameters are discussed. PMID:20210873

Awad, Hosam; Barigah, Tete; Badel, Eric; Cochard, Herve; Herbette, Stephane

2010-02-19

319

Selective Neuronal Vulnerability to Oxidative Stress in the Brain  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress (OS), caused by the imbalance between the generation and detoxification of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), plays an important role in brain aging, neurodegenerative diseases, and other related adverse conditions, such as ischemia. While ROS/RNS serve as signaling molecules at physiological levels, an excessive amount of these molecules leads to oxidative modification and, therefore, dysfunction of proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids. The response of neurons to this pervasive stress, however, is not uniform in the brain. While many brain neurons can cope with a rise in OS, there are select populations of neurons in the brain that are vulnerable. Because of their selective vulnerability, these neurons are usually the first to exhibit functional decline and cell death during normal aging, or in age-associated neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. Understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms of selective neuronal vulnerability (SNV) to OS is important in the development of future intervention approaches to protect such vulnerable neurons from the stresses of the aging process and the pathological states that lead to neurodegeneration. In this review, the currently known molecular and cellular factors that contribute to SNV to OS are summarized. Included among the major underlying factors are high intrinsic OS, high demand for ROS/RNS-based signaling, low ATP production, mitochondrial dysfunction, and high inflammatory response in vulnerable neurons. The contribution to the selective vulnerability of neurons to OS by other intrinsic or extrinsic factors, such as deficient DNA damage repair, low calcium-buffering capacity, and glutamate excitotoxicity, are also discussed.

Wang, Xinkun; Michaelis, Elias K.

2010-01-01

320

Global Losses and Declining Vulnerability to Tropical Cyclones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Approach An extreme environmental event may generate different losses for different societies. If the physical exposure to an event is held fixed, then the magnitude of a society's loss defines its vulnerability to that event. Competing hypotheses suggest that social and economic developments could make vulnerability rise or fall over time, but previous studies have been unable to reject either hypothesis because they lacked accurate data on societies' physical exposure to extreme events. We address this problem for a specific type of event by reconstructing the exposure of 233 countries to every tropical cyclone (TC) on the planet between 1950 and 2008 in making use of the Limited Information Cyclone Reconstruction and Integration for Climate and Economics (LICRICE) model [Hsiang, 2010]. By filling a critical data gap, this reconstruction enables us to compare how revenue losses, damages, and deaths from physically similar events change over time. Our approach contrasts with a large literature, which relies almost exclusively on self-reporting data of TC damages compiled by the Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT)[OFDA/CRED, 2009]. Results On a global scale, we find that populations rapidly mitigate certain TC risks, reducing their reported damages from a TC of low intensity by a remarkable 9.4% yr-1 and death rates by 5.1% yr-1 (Figure 1). However, these rapid reductions in vulnerability are not evident for the highest intensity TCs and lost agricultural revenues, which are more difficult to observe than deaths or damages, exhibit non-declining vulnerability for events of all intensities. Because the vulnerability of agriculture has remained high while vulnerability to damages has declined rapidly, our results indicate that lost agricultural revenues have dominated TC losses ever since ˜1990. References Hsiang, S. M. (2010). Temperatures and cyclones strongly associated with economic production in the Caribbean and Central America. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(35):15367-15372. OFDA/CRED (2009). The International Disaster Database.

Narita, D.; Hsiang, S. M.

2011-12-01

321

Trait vulnerability and coping strategies in the transition to motherhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a prospective design, we explored the role of approach and emotional\\/avoidance-coping strategies in the relations between\\u000a dependent and self-critical trait vulnerabilities and postpartum depressive symptoms among first-time mothers. It was assumed\\u000a that dependency and self-criticism associate with approach and emotional\\/ avoidance strategies respectively, and that approach-coping\\u000a strategies moderate trait vulnerabilities to depressive symptoms after childbirth. One hundred forty-six first

Avi Besser; Beatriz Priel

2003-01-01

322

Vulnerability Analysis Considerations for the Transportation of Special Nuclear Material  

SciTech Connect

The vulnerability analysis methodology developed for fixed nuclear material sites has proven to be extremely effective in assessing associated transportation issues. The basic methods and techniques used are directly applicable to conducting a transportation vulnerability analysis. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that the same physical protection elements (detection, delay, and response) are present, although the response force plays a dominant role in preventing the theft or sabotage of material. Transportation systems are continuously exposed to the general public whereas the fixed site location by its very nature restricts general public access.

Nicholson, Lary G.; Purvis, James W.

1999-07-21

323

Balancing in moments of vulnerability while dancing the dialectic.  

PubMed

Questions about the existence of horizontal violence and the forms it takes dominate the literature. To move the dialogue forward, this article proffers the thesis that it is through a deeper understanding of moments of vulnerability and adult epistemological development that we may best alter the occurrence and continuance of horizontal violence in the nursing profession. The constructive development tradition has laid important groundwork for considering moments of vulnerability wherein which horizontal violence may begin and be perpetuated and explains how it has become so pervasive in the nursing field. New solutions are proposed and directions for further inquiry suggested. PMID:21822071

Saltzberg, Christine W

324

Protection of Freedoms Act 2012: safeguarding vulnerable groups.  

PubMed

In last month's article on changes to the law protecting vulnerable adults from harm by health and social care professionals, Richard Griffith and Cassam Tengnah discussed changes to be made to Criminal Records Bureau checks. This month's article discusses the changes to the vetting and barring scheme to be introduced under the Protection of Freedoms Act 2012, which mean that people currently working in regulated activities with vulnerable groups, such as district nurses, will no longer need to register and be monitored by the independent safeguarding authority or its replacement, the Disclosure and Barring Service. PMID:22875217

Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam

2012-08-01

325

Low vulnerability explosives (LOVEX) for mass-use warheads  

SciTech Connect

There is an ongoing effort at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to develop explosives with a significantly lower vulnerability to battlefield environments (bullets, fragments, sympathetic detonation) than current explosives (TNT and Comp B) without sacrificing performance or increasing costs. The approach taken is to develop a composite explosive which is comprised of inexpensive fillers such as RDX, NaNO{sub 3}, Al and a low modulus binder system. The binder system uses nitroglycerin/triacetin as an energetic plasticizer. This paper discusses the experimental results to date in vulnerability, performance and processing. 7 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

Pruneda, C.; Jessop, E.; McGuire, R.

1990-03-13

326

Validating vulnerability functions for buildings exposed to Alpine torrent processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vulnerability assessment is generally seen as an important component in the framework of risk assessment. Focusing on the physical vulnerability and following a natural science perspective, vulnerability functions can be used to quantify vulnerability by setting up a mathematical relationship between the degree of loss of an element at risk exposed and the corresponding intensity of the hazardous process. The examined elements at risk were defined as those buildings that were firstly located on the torrent fans of individual Austrian test sites and secondly characterised by mixed types of construction composed from brick masonry and concrete, however used for different purposes (private residential and commercial accommodation buildings). The degree of loss was calculated as the ratio between the damage and the reconstruction value of the corresponding building. The damage was quantitatively registered in terms of monetary loss after the event by professional damage appraisers. The reconstruction values were calculated based on an insurance approach using unit prices per m2. The intensity of the process (fluvial sediment transport and debris flow) was proxied for each individual building in terms of deposition height. Additionally, a relative intensity, composed from a ratio between the deposition height and the height of the affected building, was used to compensate the influence of different building heights on the degree of loss at a given process intensity. The determination of the degree of loss as well as the corresponding intensity yields a scatterplot of vulnerability values for each individual building; illustrating both the degree of loss (ordinate) and the process intensity (abscissa). Nonlinear regression approaches in terms of cumulative distribution functions were applied to derive the mathematical relation between process intensities and degrees of loss. The corresponding parameters were estimated by using a sequential quadratic programming algorithm based on a nonlinear least squares estimation. Based on first results published for fluvial sediment transport in torrents, this study pursued the following aims: (1) testing the possibility to merge the data based on different processes or building types to derive an overall vulnerability function for torrent processes; and (2) validating the final functions to show their practical applicability in Alpine areas outside of Austria. The conducted statistical tests confirmed that in case of absolute intensity a pooling of the vulnerability values for fluvial sediment transport and debris flows as well as for the two building types and the calculation of a joint vulnerability function is justifiable. In the case of relative intensity, commercial accommodation buildings showed higher vulnerability values than private residential buildings considering low intensity values of process intensities. Therefore, based on relative intensity, individual vulnerability functions are proposed for private residential and commercial accommodation buildings. Using data from an Italian validation test site, the broader applicability of the proposed vulnerability functions was confirmed.

Totschnig, R.; Fuchs, S.

2012-04-01

327

Vulnerability assessment and risk perception: the case of the Arie? River Middle Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vulnerability assessment is influenced by a number of factors, including risk perception. This paper investigates the vulnerability of people living in the middle basin of the Aries river region, a former mining area, to natural and technologic hazards. The mining industry lead to significant environmental changes, which combined with the social problems caused by its decline (high unemployment rate, low income and old age) raised the level of the vulnerability in the area. This case study is unique, as it includes an evaluation of risk perception and its influence on the social vulnerability and resilience of local communities to disasters. Key words: vulnerability assessment, natural hazards, social vulnerability, risk perception

Ozunu, Al.; Botezan, C.

2012-04-01

328

Autobiographical Memory as a Predictor of Depression Vulnerability in Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Overgeneral autobiographical memory (AM), the tendency to recall categories of events when asked to provide specific instances from one's life, is purported to be a marker of depression vulnerability that develops in childhood. Although early adolescence is a period of risk for depression onset especially among girls, prospective examination of…

Hipwell, Alison E.; Sapotichne, Brenna; Klostermann, Susan; Battista, Deena; Keenan, Kate

2011-01-01

329

Recognition as: Intersubjective Vulnerability in the Psychoanalytic Dialogue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent focus on mutual recognition in contemporary psychoanalysis has several roots: infant research, self psychology, feminism, Hegel, and Winnicott. This article argues that recognition is best understood as a type of acknowledgment and acceptance of our mutual vulnerability in the treatment process. It also suggests that resituating Winnicott's “use of an object” in the larger context of his work

Donna M. Orange

2008-01-01

330

Vulnerability Assessment of Cybersecurity for SCADA Systems Using Attack Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

By penetrating the SCADA system, an intruder may remotely operate a power system using supervisory control privileges. Hence, cybersecurity has been recognized as a major threat due to the potential intrusion to the online system. This paper proposes a methodology to evaluate the cybersecurity vulnerability using attack trees. The attack tree formulation based on power system control networks is used

Chee-Wooi Ten; Chen-Ching Liu; Manimaran Govindarasu

2007-01-01

331

CIAC Binary Inspector Tool (BIT): A nonintrusive vulnerability detection mechanism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper discusses the problem of detecting and fixing computer operating system and network vulnerabilities. A variety of methods have been tired in the past, and some are still in use these include: creating a specialized team or department and distri...

D. S. Brown

1991-01-01

332

Vulnerable Cyborgs: Learning to Live with our Dragons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transhumanist visions appear to aim at invulnerability. We are invited to fight the dragon of death and disease, to shed our old, human bodies, and to live on as invulnerable minds or cyborgs. This paper argues that even if we managed to enhance humans in one of these ways, we would remain highly vulnerable entities given the fundamentally relational and

Mark Coeckelbergh

2011-01-01

333

Selection for Vulnerability to Angling in Largemouth Bass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although a great deal of effort has been expended to try to understand the consequences of fishing-induced selection by commercial fisheries, relatively little effort has been put into trying to understand the selective effects of recreational angling. We conducted a long-term selection experiment to assess the heritability of vulnerability to angling in largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides. Three successive generations of

David P. Philipp; Steven J. Cooke; Julie E. Claussen; Jeffrey B. Koppelman; Cory D. Suski; Dale P. Burkett

2009-01-01

334

Stressful Segregation Housing and Psychosocial Vulnerability in Prison Suicide Ideators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Psychosocially vulnerable prisoners under stressful conditions of confinement are ill prepared to cope and at risk for developing suicide intention. The present study examined the relationships of depression, hopelessness, reasons for living, mental health problem history, suicide attempt lethality history, and stressful segregation housing with…

Bonner, Ronald L.

2006-01-01

335

Vulnerability Analysis of a Mixed-Oxide Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To determine the degree of protection obtainable with the Controllable Unit Approach (CUA) to nuclear material control, a vulnerability analysis was performed on a proposed PuO2-UO1 mixed-oxide fuel plant. Diversion scenarios were developed for each poten...

K. W. Foster H. A. Woltermann

1980-01-01

336

Graph-based system for network-vulnerability analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents a graph-based approach to network vulnerability analysis. The method is flexible, allowing analysis of attacks from both outside and inside the network. It can analyze risks to a specific network asset, or examine the universe of possi...

L. P. Swiler C. Phillips

1998-01-01

337

Modeling TCP\\/IP Networks Topology for Network Vulnerability Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distributed nature and complexity of computer networks and various services provided via them, makes the networks vulnerable to numerous attacks. The TCP\\/IP presumptions which are based on using this protocol to provide a simple, open communication infrastructure in an academic and collaborative environment, causes this protocol lack of built-in mechanisms for authentication, integrity and privacy. Even though in the

R. Zakeri; H. R. Shahriari; R. Jalili; R. Sadoddin

2005-01-01

338

A graph-based system for network-vulnerability analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a graph-based approach to network vulnerability analysis. The method is flexible, allowing analysis of attacks from both outside and inside the network. It can analyze risks to a specific network asset, or examine the universe of possible consequences following a successful attack. The graph-based tool can identify the set of attack paths that have a high probability

Cynthia A. Phillips; Laura Painton Swiler

1998-01-01

339

REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT: CREATING A CONTEXT FOR EVALUATING STREAM ACIDIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

USEPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) program is designed to identify ecosystems that are likely to vary beyond the range of natural variability and thereby experience reduced ecological integrity as a result of natural and human-induced stressors. ReVA makes use of r...

340

Host-Centric Model Checking for Network Vulnerability Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has successfully applied model checking, a formal verification technique, to automatically generate chains of vulnerability exploits that an attacker can use to reach his goal. Due to the combinatorial explosion of the chain generation problem space, model checkers do not scale well to networks containing a large number of hosts. This paper proposes a methodology that uses a host-centric

Rattikorn Hewett; Phongphun Kijsanayothin

2008-01-01

341

Importance and exposure in road network vulnerability analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reliability and vulnerability of critical infrastructures have attracted a lot of attention recently. In order to assess these issues quantitatively, operational measures are needed. Such measures can also be used as guidance to road administrations in their prioritisation of maintenance and repair of roads, as well as for avoiding causing unnecessary disturbances in the planning of roadwork. The concepts

Erik Jenelius; Tom Petersen; Lars-Göran Mattsson

2006-01-01

342

The Vulnerable System: An Analysis of the Tenerife Air Disaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tenerife air disaster, in which a KLM 747 and a Pan Am 747 collided with a loss of 583 lives, is examined as a prototype of system vulnerability to crisis. It is concluded that the combination of interruption of important routines among interdependent systems, interdependencies that become tighter, a loss of cognitive efficiency due to autonomic arousal, and a

Karl E. Weick

1990-01-01

343

Tsunami Mortality Estimates and Vulnerability Mapping in Aceh, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We aimed to quantify tsunami mortality and compare approaches to mortality assessment in the emergency context in Aceh, Indonesia, where the impact of the 2004 tsunami was greatest. Methods. Mortality was estimated using geographic information systems-based vulnerability models and demographic methods from surveys of tsunami- displaced populations. Results. Tsunami mortality in Aceh as estimated by demographic models was 131

Shannon Doocy; Yuri Gorokhovich; Gilbert Burnham; Deborah Balk; Courtland Robinson

2007-01-01

344

Psychological Distress and Mortality: Are Women More Vulnerable?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Does psychological distress increase mortality risk? If it does, are women more vulnerable than men to the effect of distress on mortality? Drawing from cumulative disadvantage theory, these questions are addressed with data from a 20-year follow-up of a national sample of adults ages 25-74. Event history analyses were performed to examine…

Ferraro, Kenneth F.; Nuriddin, Tariqah A.

2006-01-01

345

Vulnerability and discrimination among women, children and ethnic minorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This purpose of this paper is to introduce the special issue on vulnerability and discrimination among women, children and ethnic minorities. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper discusses the articles in the special issue which employ a variety of individual-level data, some of which are newly available, and of econometric methods for the analysis of the determinants of labour supply

Floro Ernesto Caroleo; Gianna Claudia Giannelli; Francesco Pastore

2010-01-01

346

CONFU: Configuration Fuzzing Testing Framework for Software Vulnerability Detection  

PubMed Central

Many software security vulnerabilities only reveal themselves under certain conditions, i.e., particular configurations and inputs together with a certain runtime environment. One approach to detecting these vulnerabilities is fuzz testing. However, typical fuzz testing makes no guarantees regarding the syntactic and semantic validity of the input, or of how much of the input space will be explored. To address these problems, we present a new testing methodology called Configuration Fuzzing. Configuration Fuzzing is a technique whereby the configuration of the running application is mutated at certain execution points, in order to check for vulnerabilities that only arise in certain conditions. As the application runs in the deployment environment, this testing technique continuously fuzzes the configuration and checks “security invariants” that, if violated, indicate a vulnerability. We discuss the approach and introduce a prototype framework called ConFu (CONfiguration FUzzing testing framework) for implementation. We also present the results of case studies that demonstrate the approach’s feasibility and evaluate its performance.

Dai, Huning; Murphy, Christian; Kaiser, Gail

2010-01-01

347

Climate variability and climate change vulnerability and adaptation. Workshop summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Representatives from fifteen countries met in Prague, Czech Republic, on September 11-15, 1995, to share results from the analysis of vulnerability and adaptation to global climate change. The workshop focused on the issues of global climate change and its impacts on various sectors of a national economy. The U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), which has been signed by

N. Bhatti; R. R. Cirillo; R. K. Dixon

1995-01-01

348

Organizational memory and forgetfulness generating vulnerabilities in complex environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes the relationship between organizational memory and forgetfulness in the generation of operational vulnerabilities, based on a case study carried out with a highly specialized technical team from a multinational company of the automotive sector. The article starts with the presentation of the complexity context of the Brazilian automotive sector in the last decades. It then goes on

Robson Quinello; Fundação Escola de Comércio; Álvares Penteado

2006-01-01

349

On the vulnerability of electric power to geomagnetic storms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geomagnetic storms associated with sunspot and solar flare activity can disturb communications and disrupt electric power. A severe geomagnetic storm could cause a major blackout with an economic impact of several billion dollars. The vulnerability of electric power systems in the northeast United States will likely increase during the 1990's due to the trend of wheeling large amounts of power

P. R. Barnes; J. W. Van Dyke

1990-01-01

350

Childhood Cancer and Vulnerability for Significant Academic Underachievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Learning difficulties related to childhood cancer were examined by comparison of 22 oncology patients and 22 children (6 to 17 years old) referred for psychiatric/psychological evaluation. Findings demonstrated, among children undergoing treatment of cancer, some academic vulnerabilities for which psychosocial aspects may not fully account.…

Ott, Jeanne S.; And Others

1982-01-01

351

MUNITIONS VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT ALONG THEIR LIFE CYCLE - METHODS & RESULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Munitions vulnerability assessment is performed during development programs to demonstrate the IMness requirements. Today, many new munitions pass these criteria. Nevertheless, no evaluation is done to prove that munitions keep their IM signature along their life cycle. In this paper, we propose some methods to predict IMness behaviour of ageing munitions. These predictions are based on the knowledge of energetic

Y. GUENGANT

352

Finding behavioral and network indicators of brain vulnerability  

PubMed Central

Resilience research has usually focused on identifying protective factors associated with specific stress conditions (e.g., war, trauma) or psychopathologies (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD]). Implicit in this research is the concept that resilience is a global construct, invariant to the unfavorable circumstances or the psychopathologies that may develop (i.e., the mechanisms underlying the resilience of an individual in all cases are expected to be similar). Here we contribute to the understanding of resilience—and its counterpart, vulnerability—by employing an approach that makes use of this invariant quality. We outline two main characteristics that we would expect from indicators of a vulnerable state: that they should appear across disorders regardless of specific circumstances, and that they should appear much before the disorder is evident. Next, we identify two sets of factors that exhibit this pattern of association with psychopathological states. The first was a set of “low-level” sensory, motor and regulatory irregularities that have been reported across the clinical literature; we suggest that these can serve as behavioral indicators of a vulnerable state. The second was the set of aberrations in network metrics that have been reported in the field of systems neuroscience; we suggest that these can serve as network indicators of a vulnerable state. Finally, we explore how behavioral indicators may be related to network indicators and discuss the clinical and research-related implications of our work.

Levit-Binnun, Nava; Golland, Yulia

2011-01-01

353

Application of vulnerability analysis in electric power communication network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electric power communication network is special for the electric power network. Research on its essential vulnerability is advantageous to strengthen the toughness of the electric system. Take the complex network theory as the foundation, research on topology modeling, the basic parameters and network characteristic, take the service feature and the characteristics of the network structure into account, revising the

Hui-Sheng Gao; Jing Guo

2009-01-01

354

Vulnerability of the US to future sea level rise  

SciTech Connect

The differential vulnerability of the conterminous United States to future sea level rise from greenhouse climate warming is assessed, using a coastal hazards data base. This data contains information on seven variables relating to inundation and erosion risks. High risk shorelines are characterized by low relief, erodible substrate, subsidence, shoreline retreat, and high wave/tide energies. Very high risk shorelines on the Atlantic Coast (Coastal Vulnerability Index {ge}33.0) include the outer coast of the Delmarva Peninsula, northern Cape Hatteras, and segments of New Jersey, Georgia and South Carolina. Louisiana and sections of Texas are potentially the most vulnerable, due to anomalously high relative sea level rise and erosion, coupled with low elevation and mobile sediments. Although the Pacific Coast is generally the least vulnerable, because of its rugged relief and erosion-resistant substrate, the high geographic variability leads to several exceptions, such as the San Joaquin-Sacramento Delta area, the barrier beaches of Oregon and Washington, and parts of the Puget Sound Lowlands. 31 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Gornitz, V. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, New York, NY (USA). Goddard Inst. for Space Studies); White, T.W.; Cushman, R.M. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1991-01-01

355

[Hegemonic masculinity, vulnerability and the prevention of HIV/AIDS].  

PubMed

The study aims to examine the relationship between masculinity, vulnerability and the prevention of HIV/AIDS, based on reports from young men from the so-called urban working classes, taking into account not only the meanings attributed to prevention by these subjects, but also considering the dialectical relationship between the individual and society. The conceptual framework encompasses the three main aspects of hegemonic masculinity, prevention and vulnerability. This involves qualitative research based on the perspective of dialectical hermeneutics that uses the method of interpretation of meanings. The analysis yielded two main results, namely hegemonic masculinity as a vulnerability factor, and myths and prejudices as factors of vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. By way of conclusion, it reinforces the need for discussion of prevention encompassing the need to put on the agenda the construction of the sex/gender system around which to articulate the social meanings of masculinity and femininity that influence the structural plan of affective sexual relations in general and HIV/AIDS in particular. PMID:22267045

Marques, Joilson Santana; Gomes, Romeu; do Nascimento, Elaine Ferreira

2012-02-01

356

FROM VULNERABILITY TO RESILIENCY: ASSESSING IMPACTS AND RESPONSES TO DISASTER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hurricane Katrina devastated the social, economic, and physical infrastructure of communities along the Gulf Coast, and many organizations responded in a massive effort t o me et their needs. Building f rom a livelihoods th eoretical framework emphasizing the vulnerability-resiliency c ontinuum, this re search n ote focuses on informing services provided during post-disaster relief, recovery, and redevelopment. Based on

JOHN J. GREEN; DEL TA S TA; U NI V ER S I TY; DUANE A. GILL; ANNA M. KLEINER; S O UTHEA; S TER N L O UI S I ANA

357

The vulnerability of Brazilian female prisoners to HIV infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to determine the vulnerability of women in prison to HIV infection. The study was carried out from August to October 2000 in a São Paulo State Penitentiary, where 299 female prisoners were serving time. We interviewed and obtained a blood sample from 290 females who agreed to enter the study. Sera were tested

L. Strazza; R. S. Azevedo; H. B. Carvalho; E. Massad

2004-01-01

358

‘Iraq Water Treatment Vulnerabilities’: a Challenge to Public Health Ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A formerly classified US document, ‘Iraq Water Treatment Vulnerabilities,’ provides evidence that ill health was knowingly induced in the population of Iraq through the ruination of that country's water purification system. We believe that the uncovering of this document should stimulate the public health community to clarify principles of public health ethics and to formulate statements giving voice to these

Graeme MacQueen; Thomas Nagy; Joanna Santa Barbara; Claudia Raichle

2004-01-01

359

Challenges of disaster vulnerability reduction in Lagos Megacity Area, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this research is to identify the factors responsible for the inability of authorities in rapidly growing megacities in developing countries to integrate disaster risk vulnerability reduction strategies effectively with their development plans. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study followed a qualitative research strategy. A survey research approach with pre-tested questionnaires as key data collection instrument was used

Eziyi Offia Ibem

2011-01-01

360

Managing energy vulnerability: Brazil's adjustments to oil dependency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategies developed to cope with energy vulnerabilities provide a critical measure to evaluate a state's capacity to adapt to changes in the international environment. This article examines the conditions shaping these strategies. The author argues that the requirements of domestic ruling coalitions underpin the selection of certain instruments and not others. Brazil's domestic response, given the political requirements of rapid

Etel Solingen

1991-01-01

361

Assessing the Vulnerability of the Fiber Infrastructure to Disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication networks are vulnerable to natural disasters, such as earthquakes or floods, as well as to physical attacks, such as an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) attack. Such real-world events happen in specific geographical locations and disrupt specific parts of the network. Therefore, the geographical layout of the network determines the impact of such events on the network's connectivity. In this paper,

Sebastian Neumayer; Gil Zussman; Reuven Cohen; Eytan Modiano

2011-01-01

362

Assessing the Vulnerability of the Fiber Infrastructure to Disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Communication networks are vulnerable to natural disasters, such as earthquakes or floods, as well as to physical attacks, such as an Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) attack. Such real- world events happen in specific geographical locations and disrupt specific parts of the network. Therefore, the geographical layout of the network determines the impact of such events on the network’s connectivity. In this

Sebastian Neumayer; Gil Zussman; Reuven Cohen; Eytan Modiano

2009-01-01

363

Advanced composites: electromagnetic properties, vulnerabilities, and protective measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A measurement and analysis program for assessing the electromagnetic (EM) properties and vulnerabilities of, and protective measures for, advanced composite materials for aerospace vehicles is discussed. The main purpose of the report is to suggest areas of investigation and the kinds of data required to compile a technical data base to accomplish this assessment. Instrumentation and techniques are needed that

Hiebert

1977-01-01

364

Participation, social capital and vulnerability to urban flooding in Guyana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tension between international agencies, national and local institutions of the Global South has received much recent attention. This paper contributes to the debate by contrasting contemporary participatory models of management for the built environment with local experience of social capacity building and vulnerability to local flooding. It draws on field data collected in 1995-96 and is set within the

Mark Pelling

1998-01-01

365

Intergenerational Transmission of Sexual Victimization Vulnerability as Mediated via Parenting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objectives: Previous research suggests that women's early sexual victimization experiences may influence their parenting behaviors and increase the vulnerability of their children to being sexually victimized. The current study considered whether mother's sexual victimization experiences, in childhood and after age 14, were associated with the…

Testa, Maria; Hoffman, Joseph H.; Livingston, Jennifer A.

2011-01-01

366

VULNERABLE ADOLESCENT MOTHERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF MATERNAL ROLE AND HIV RISK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pregnant adolescents and young mothers living in Los Angeles County are vulnerable to acquiring HIV\\/AIDS through sexual transmission because they lack the resources, social status, and power to protect themselves. In this article we describe adolescent mothers’ (n = 76) responses to an HIV prevention program. The design of the study was based in ethnography, the anthropological tradition of qualitative

Janna Lesser; Rachel Oakes; Deborah Koniak-Griffin

2003-01-01

367

Smaller hippocampal volume predicts pathologic vulnerability to psychological trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

In animals, exposure to severe stress can damage the hippocampus. Recent human studies show smaller hippocampal volume in individuals with the stress-related psychiatric condition posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Does this represent the neurotoxic effect of trauma, or is smaller hippocampal volume a pre-existing condition that renders the brain more vulnerable to the development of pathological stress responses? In monozygotic twins

Martha E. Shenton; Aleksandra Ciszewski; Kiyoto Kasai; Natasha B. Lasko; Scott P. Orr; Roger K. Pitman; Mark W. Gilbertson

2002-01-01

368

The Linneweil Affair: A Study in Adolescent Vulnerability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Details the case of Elizabeth Linneweil, a Jewish child who was persuaded by her guardians to convert to Catholicism. The motives of the emotionally vulnerable adolescent--desire to conform, to please guardians, and to cement social bonding in the community--are discussed. (JAC)

Isser, Natalie

1984-01-01

369

BUILDING VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT USING PUSHOVER METHODS - A TURKISH CASE STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-linear static pushover analysis forms one key element of current methodologies of performance-based seismic design. It is also central to the estimates of building vulnerability used by the HAZUS earthquake loss methodology. However, despite the theoretical appeal of the methodology, recent comparisons of predictions using HAZUS with damaged recorded in the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake have shown poor agreement, not significantly

Edmund BOOTH; Juliet BIRD; Robin SPENCE

370

Religion and vulnerability among low-risk adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of resilient youth have documented the helpful influence of religion in their lives. In the absence of positive influences among high-risk youth, religion and religious organizations in particular often serve to promote prosocial outcomes. This study, on the other hand, investigates whether religion and religious change are comparably effective influences in reducing the vulnerability of low-risk youth to drinking,

Mark D Regnerus; Glen H Elder

2003-01-01

371

An Asia Pacific Natural Hazards and Vulnerabilities Atlas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Asia Pacific region, home to over half of the world's population, experiences a disproportionate share of loss of life from natural disaster. To provide greater awareness of the risks of natural hazards in the region, the Pacific Disaster Center (PDC) has developed the Asia Pacific Natural Hazards and Vulnerabilities Atlas (http:\\/\\/atlas.pdc.org). The Hazards Atlas provides a dynamic geospatial framework

C. Chiesa; C. Laben; R. Cicone

372

Vulnerability Assessment of Selected Buildings Designated as Shelters: Dominica.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Educational facilities in the Caribbean often serve roles as shelters during natural hazards, but they often sustain as much damage as other buildings. This study investigated the physical vulnerability of schools located on Dominica to wind forces, torrential rain, and seismic forces in order to provide relevant local agencies with some of the…

Agency for International Development (IDCA), Washington, DC.

373

Vulnerability Assessment of Selected Buildings Designated as Shelters: Grenada.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Educational facilities in the Caribbean often serve as shelters during natural hazards, but they often sustain as much damage as other buildings. This study investigated the physical vulnerability of schools, located in Grenada, to wind forces, torrential rain, and seismic forces in order to provide relevant local agencies with some of the input…

Gibbs, Tony

374

Vulnerability Assessment of Selected Buildings Designated as Shelters: Anguilla.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Educational facilities in the Caribbean often serve roles as shelters during natural hazards, but they often sustain as much damage as other buildings. This study investigated the physical vulnerability of schools located on Anguilla to wind forces, torrential rain, and seismic forces in order to provide relevant local agencies with some of the…

Gibbs, Tony

375

Measuring Vulnerability to U.S. Foreign Economic Sanctions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic sanctions are an important instrument of U.S. foreign policy. While politicians look favorably on unilateral economic sanctions as a policy instrument, many scholars attribute significant long-term economic costs to the United States and have doubts about their effectiveness. We outline a simple approach to assess the vulnerability of target countries to sanctions in order to develop focused sanctions and

Hossein Askari; John Forrer; Jiawen Yang; Tarek Hachem

2005-01-01

376

Understanding heat wave vulnerability in nursing and residential homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency, intensity and duration of heat waves affecting the UK (and other parts of the world) is set to increase as the climate changes with potentially serious implications for future heat-related mortality. Epidemiological research has shown that in England and Wales older people in nursing and residential homes are among those most vulnerable to the impacts of hot weather.

Sam Brown; Gordon Walker

2008-01-01

377

TOMORROW'S HUNGER: A FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSING VULNERABILITY TO FOOD INSECURITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whilst traditional food security analysis offers an ex post view on who the food insecure are and why they are so, looking at food insecurity from a vulnerability perspective provides a dynamic and forward looking way of analysing causes and more importantly options for reducing food insecurity. This can help improving policy responses to food insecurity. The paper seeks to

Christian Romer Løvendal; Marco Knowles

378

Potential vulnerability of Namaqualand plant diversity to anthropogenic climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a position paper, using a brief literature review and some new modelling results for a subset of succulent plant species, which explores why Namaqualand plant diversity might be particularly vulnerable to anthropogenic climate change despite presumed species resilience under arid conditions, and therefore a globally important test-bed for adaptive conservation strategies. The Pleistocene climate-related evolutionary history of this

G. F. Midgley; W. Thuiller

2007-01-01

379

Improving communication during volcanic crises on small, vulnerable islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased exposure to volcanic hazard, particularly at vulnerable small islands, is driving an urgent and growing need for improved communication between monitoring scientists, emergency managers and the media, in advance of and during volcanic crises. Information gathering exercises undertaken on volcanic islands (Guadeloupe, St. Vincent and Montserrat) in the Lesser Antilles (eastern Caribbean), which have recently experienced – or are

W. J. McGuire; M. C. Solana; C. R. J Kilburn; D. Sanderson

2009-01-01

380

Small island developing states: natural disaster vulnerability and global change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper sets out an examination of natural disaster amongst small island developing states (SIDS), and presents a framework for assessing the interaction of global pressures and local dynamics in the production of human vulnerability. Change at the global level is found to be a source of new opportunities as well as constraints on building local resilience to natural disaster.

Mark Pelling; Juha I. Uitto

2001-01-01

381

Paranoid schizophrenia: non-specificity of neuropsychological vulnerability markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

During stages of remission, patients with paranoid schizophrenia seldom show severe attentional or information-processing dysfunctions, except in cases of long-term chronicity. The diagnostic specificity of four putative psychological vulnerability indicators of schizophrenia — the Span of Apprehension, the degraded stimulus Continuous Performance Test (dsCPT), the degraded stimulus visual backward masking task and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) — was

Thomas Suslow; Volker Arolt

1997-01-01

382

Talc: using desktop graffiti to fight software vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the proliferation of computer security threats on the Internet, especially threats such as worms that automatically exploit software flaws, it is becoming more and more important that home users keep their computers secure from known software vulnerabilities. Unfortunately, keeping software up-to-date is notoriously difficult for home users. This paper introduces TALC, a system to encourage and help home users

Kandha Sankarapandian; Travis Little; W. Keith Edwards

2008-01-01

383

Teachers' Professional Vulnerability and Cultural Tradition: A Chinese Paradox  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The paper explores the issue of teachers' professional vulnerability using a range of messages from an online teachers' community on the Chinese mainland. The study reveals how macro changes at policy level impact on teachers' professional relationships and in turn their professional identities in teacher discussants' perceptions. Furthermore,…

Gao, Xuesong

2008-01-01

384

Assessment of groundwater vulnerability in the Río Artiguas basin, Nicaragua  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Río Artiguas basin in central Nicaragua shows a distinctive case of environmental deterioration due to anthropogenic activities. Heavy metals used in gold mining and other wastes are continuously released into the rivers, representing a threat to the water quality. This article aims to evaluate the groundwater intrinsic vulnerability in the Río Artiguas basin and to provide information for sustainable

J. A. Mendoza; G. Barmen

2006-01-01

385

Childhood Cancer and Vulnerability for Significant Academic Underachievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning difficulties related to childhood cancer were examined by comparison of 22 oncology patients and 22 children (6 to 17 years old) referred for psychiatric/psychological evaluation. Findings demonstrated, among children undergoing treatment of cancer, some academic vulnerabilities for which psychosocial aspects may not fully account.…

Ott, Jeanne S.; And Others

1982-01-01

386

Protecting the vulnerable: testing times for clinical research ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a number of historical breaches of research ethics. Typically the victims of such breaches belong to vulnerable populations, such as prisoners, mentally disabled people, women and people in developing countries. This article provides a brief introduction to the main ethical approaches in bioethics. Subsequently it looks at a number of currently discussed ethical issues in clinical research

Udo Schüklenk

2000-01-01

387

The collaborative edge: patient empowerment for vulnerable populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The problems with access to care and the special needs for educational outreach for disadvantage or vulnerable populations of patients require innovation. This paper describes Baby CareLink use of information technology to support communication, consultation, and collaboration among colleagues as well as with patients, their families, and community resources. Methods: In response to the educational, emotional and communication needs

Charles Safran

2003-01-01

388

Nicotine and Familial Vulnerability to Schizophrenia: A Discordant Twin Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tobacco use is significantly associated with schizophrenia. However, it is not clear if smoking is associated with the illness itself, treatment, or underlying vulnerability to the disease. Smoking was studied in a sample of schizophrenic probands (n = 24), their unaffected co-twins (n = 24), and controls (n = 3,347). Unaffected co-twins had higher rates of daily smoking than controls.

Michael J. Lyons; Jessica L. Bar; William S. Kremen; Rosemary Toomey; Seth A. Eisen; Jack Goldberg; Stephen V. Faraone; Ming Tsuang

2002-01-01

389

Protecting Commodity Operating System Kernels from Vulnerable Device Drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Device drivers on commodity operating systems execute with kernel privilege and have unfettered access to kernel data structures. Several recent attacks demonstrate that such poor isolation exposes kernel data to exploits against vulner- able device drivers, for example through bu er overruns in packet processing code. Prior architectures to isolate kernel data from driver code either sacrifice performance, execute too

Shakeel Butt; Vinod Ganapathy; Michael M. Swift; Chih-cheng Chang

2009-01-01

390

Protecting Commodity OS Kernels from Vulnerable Device Drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Device drivers on commodity operating systems execute with kernel privilege and have unfettered access to kernel data structures. Several recent attacks demonstrate that such poor isolation exposes kernel data to exploits against vulnerable device drivers, for example through bu er overruns in packet processing code. Prior architectures to isolate kernel data from driver code either sacrifice performance, execute too much

Shakeel Butt; Chih-Cheng Chang; Vinod Ganapathy; Michael M. Swift

391

Seismic Vulnerability of Strutted-Column Bridge Bents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this work, the seismic vulnerability of bridges with strutted-column bents is assessed. The assessment is based on: (1) a review of the characteristics and the construction details of the strutted-column bents in a 39-bridge inventory in Washington Sta...

G. J. Pappas M. L. Marsh

1995-01-01

392

Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city Bruno Barroca1, Damien Serre2 1Laboratory of Urban Engineering, Environment and Building (L G U E H) - Université de Marne-la-Vallée - Pôle Ville, 5, Bd Descartes - Bâtiment Lavoisier - 77454 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 - France 2City of Paris Engineering School, Construction - Environment Department, 15 rue Fénelon,

D. Serre; B. Barroca

2009-01-01

393

Vulnerability and interdependency of critical infrastructure: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

As infrastructures play an key role in the normal operation of economy and society, more and more concerns are given to all aspects of the infrastructures, including construction processes, investment and fund-raising affairs, protection issues and so on. Nevertheless, critical infrastructure is of the first rank, it comprises of some fundamental infrastructures for daily production and living, so the vulnerability

Li Xiao-Juan; Huang Li-Zhen

2010-01-01

394

Global warming, elevational ranges and the vulnerability of tropical biota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical species with narrow elevational ranges may be thermally specialized and vulnerable to global warming. Local studies of distributions along elevational gradients reveal small-scale patterns but do not allow generalizations among geographic regions or taxa. We critically assessed data from 249 studies of species elevational distributions in the American, African, and Asia-Pacific tropics. Of these, 150 had sufficient data quality,

William F. Laurance; D. Carolina Useche; Luke P. Shoo; Sebastian K. Herzog; Michael Kessler; Federico Escobar; Gunnar Brehm; Jan C. Axmacher; I-Ching Chen; Lucrecia Arellano Gámez; Peter Hietz; Konrad Fiedler; Tomasz Pyrcz; Jan Wolf; Christopher L. Merkord; Catherine Cardelus; Andrew R. Marshall; Claudine Ah-Peng; Gregory H. Aplet; M. del Coro Arizmendi; William J. Baker; John Barone; Carsten A. Brühl; Rainer W. Bussmann; Daniele Cicuzza; Gerald Eilu; Mario E. Favila; Andreas Hemp; Claudia Hemp; Jürgen Homeier; Johanna Hurtado; Jill Jankowski; Gustavo Kattán; Jürgen Kluge; Thorsten Krömer; David C. Lees; Marcus Lehnert; John T. Longino; Jon Lovett; Patrick H. Martin; Bruce D. Patterson; Richard G. Pearson; Kelvin S.-H. Peh; Barbara Richardson; Michael Richardson; Michael J. Samways; Feyera Senbeta; Thomas B. Smith; Timothy M. A. Utteridge; James E. Watkins; Rohan Wilson; Stephen E. Williams; Chris D. Thomas

2011-01-01

395

The vulnerability of ecosystem services to land use change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrestrial ecosystems provide a number of vital services for people and society, such as biodiversity, food, fibre, water resources, carbon sequestration, and recreation. The future capability of ecosystems to provide these services is determined by changes in socio-economic characteristics, land use, biodiversity, atmospheric composition and climate. Most published impact assessments do not address the vulnerability of the human–environment system under

M. J. Metzger; M. D. A. Rounsevell; L. Acosta-Michlik; R. Leemans; D. Schröter

2006-01-01

396

ON THE SEISMIC VULNERABILITY OF EXISTING UNREINFORCED MASONRY BUILDINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large part of the building population in Switzerland is made of unreinforced masonry. For the assessment of the seismic risk the evaluation of the seismic vulnerability of existing unreinforced masonry buildings is therefore crucial. In this paper a method to evaluate existing buildings, which was developed for the earthquake scenario project for Switzerland, is briefly introduced and discussed in

K. LANG; H. BACHMANN

2003-01-01

397

A METHODOLOGY FOR SEISMIC VULNERABILITY OF MASONRY ARCH BRIDGE WALLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Notwithstanding its potentially high level, the seismic vulnerability of masonry arch bridges has yet to be completely perceived, possibly due to the relatively scarce damage evidence collected after recent earthquakes. The dearth of research studies on this topic is thus one of the main motivations behind the current endeavour, which aims at a better understanding of the dynamic interaction between

M. Rota; A. Pecker; D. Bolognini; R. Pinho

2005-01-01

398

Improving satellite vulnerability assessment to untrackable orbital debris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The projected growth in the untrackable orbital debris population will place an increased emphasis on satellite vulnerability assessments during both design and mission operations. This study presents an enhanced method for assessing satellite vulnerability to untrackable orbital debris that expands on traditional practices. By looking beyond structural penetration of the spacecraft, the method predicts the survivability of individual components and the associated degradation of system functionality resulting from untrackable debris impacts. A new risk assessment tool, the Particle Impact Risk and Vulnerability Assessment Tool (PIRAT), has been developed based on this method and is also presented here. It interfaces with both the NASA ORDEM2000 and ESA MASTER-2009 debris models and has been validated against the benchmark test cases from the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC). This study concludes with an example vulnerability assessment using PIRAT for a generic Earth observation satellite in a Sun-synchronous low-Earth orbit. The results illustrate the additional insight provided by this method that can be used to improve the robustness of future satellite designs and mitigate the overall mission risk posed by untrackable orbital debris.

Welty, Nathan; Schaefer, Frank; Rudolph, Martin; Destefanis, Roberto; Grassi, Lilith

2012-07-01

399

Reconciling supply chain vulnerability, risk and supply chain management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supply chain vulnerability has become a fashionable area of management research. The purpose of this paper is to provide a critique of the extant canon and to review of the positioning of research in the field, together with literature drawn from several relevant and overlapping fields of research and practice. The aim is to foster a more explicit understanding of

H. Peck

2006-01-01

400

Recruiting Vulnerable Populations for Research: Revisiting the Ethical Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Ethical conflicts may arise when health care professionals control researchers' access to vulnerable populations. Collaboration and dialogue among researchers, health care providers, and potential subjects are essential in order to recruit enough subjects to maintain research integrity while ensuring their protection. (Contains 41 references.)…

Sutton, Laura Bond; Erlen, Judith A.; Glad, JoAnn M.; Siminoff, Laura A.

2003-01-01

401

Trade Openness and Vulnerability in Central and Eastern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers a substantive contribution to the debate on the role of international trade on the development of emerging countries. The aim is to detect empirically the phenomenon of vulnerability induced by trade openness. The methodology adopts a forward-looking approach and tries to fill a missing link in the theory between trade shocks, volatility, and the wellbeing of countries,

Pierluigi Montalbano; Alessandro Federici; Umberto Triulzi; Carlo Pietrobelli

2005-01-01

402

A Framework for Analysing Vulnerability to Food Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whilst traditional food security analysis offers an ex post view on who the food insecure are and why they are so, looking at food insecurity from a vulnerability perspective provides a dynamic and forward looking way of analysing causes and more importantly options for reducing food insecurity. This can help improving policy responses to food insecurity. The paper seeks to

Christian Romer Lovendal; Macro Knowles

403

How to reduce the vulnerability of properties threatened by flood?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last 20 or 30 years, increasing flood damage has compelled stakeholders to reconsider flood prevention. Indeed, the increase in damage emphasizes the failure of the current flood management policies based on river channel management instead of the mitigation of the flood risk. In the aftermath of the recent disasters in France and Europe, national and local authorities fostered an increasing number of initiatives geared towards reducing risks and rectifying the way of managing flood risks. All experts are now convinced that we must reduce risk through the mitigation of vulnerability. In this purpose, the French government and some river basin authorities try to develop programmes and laws intended to reduce the vulnerability of flood-prone buildings, mostly by retrofitting them. Through the results of field studies conducted in France, this presentation focuses on pros and cons of retrofitting. As of now, if many assessment of the vulnerability of buildings have been conducted, only a few huge retrofitting programmes have actually been implemented. Many bottlenecks emerge when implementing concrete measures. These difficulties include technical problems, cost, and the reluctance of many property owners... On the long run, retrofitting may be an efficient way to prevent damage to buildings threatened by floodwater. However current programmes fail to address the specificities of the local context in which such actions are implemented, e.g. accurate appraisal of flooding conditions, awareness of risk, vulnerability of people... The key is to involve all local actors including people threatened by flooding rather than to impose general and inappropriate measures.

Vinet, Freddy; Leone, Frederic; Pelletier, Hugo; Queral, Fanny

2010-05-01

404

Derrida's Responsibility: Autobiography, the Teaching of the Vulnerable, Diary Fragments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper responds to Jacques Derrida's essay on Paul de Man, discussing three aspects of responsibility and exploring their implications with respect to teaching: responsibility as vulnerability, responsibility as autobiography and memory, and responsibility as the structure of iterability in writing. (SM)

Gregoriou, Zelia

1995-01-01

405

Youth Work with Vulnerable Young People. Interchange No. 51.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research was conducted in Scotland to evaluate the effectiveness of youth work with vulnerable young people, primarily between the ages of 13 and 16. Four complementary methods were adopted: (1) a survey of secondary school students; (2) a series of focus group interviews with young people with experience of youth work; (3) interviews with…

Powney, Janet; Furlong, Andy; Cartmel, Fred; Hall, Stuart

406

Youth Work with Vulnerable Young People. Interchange No. 51.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research was conducted in Scotland to evaluate the effectiveness of youth work with vulnerable young people, primarily between the ages of 13 and 16. Four complementary methods were adopted: (1) a survey of secondary school students; (2) a series of focus group interviews with young people with experience of youth work; (3) interviews with…

Powney, Janet; Furlong, Andy; Cartmel, Fred; Hall, Stuart

407

A First Step Towards Automated Detection of Buffer Overrun Vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a new technique for finding potential buffer overrun vulnerabilities in security-critical C code. The k ey to success is to use static analysis: we formulate detec- tion of buffer overruns as an integer range analysis prob- lem. One major advantage of static analysis is that secu- rity bugs can be eliminated before code is deployed. We have implemented

David Wagner; Jeffrey S. Foster; Eric A. Brewer; Alexander Aiken

2000-01-01

408

Injecting drug use and HIV vulnerability in Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thesis addresses injecting drug users and their vulnerability to HIV in Nepal. Injecting drug use (IDU) remains the major factor contributes to the increase of the HIV epidemic throughout the country. Injecting drug users (IDUs) function as a ‘core group’ that bridge HIV transmission between at-most risk groups and general population. The main objective of this thesis is to

T. Ramtel

2008-01-01

409

Vulnerability analysis for complex networks using aggressive abstraction.  

SciTech Connect

Large, complex networks are ubiquitous in nature and society, and there is great interest in developing rigorous, scalable methods for identifying and characterizing their vulnerabilities. This paper presents an approach for analyzing the dynamics of complex networks in which the network of interest is first abstracted to a much simpler, but mathematically equivalent, representation, the required analysis is performed on the abstraction, and analytic conclusions are then mapped back to the original network and interpreted there. We begin by identifying a broad and important class of complex networks which admit vulnerability-preserving, finite state abstractions, and develop efficient algorithms for computing these abstractions. We then propose a vulnerability analysis methodology which combines these finite state abstractions with formal analytics from theoretical computer science to yield a comprehensive vulnerability analysis process for networks of realworld scale and complexity. The potential of the proposed approach is illustrated with a case study involving a realistic electric power grid model and also with brief discussions of biological and social network examples.

Colbaugh, Richard; Glass, Kristin L.

2010-06-01

410

Selective Prevention: Addressing Vulnerability to Problem Drug Use in Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Following the 2003 publication of the European Union (EU) Council Recommendations and the 2005-2008 and 2009-2012 EU Drugs Action Plans, increasing attention has been given in EU member states' drug policies to populations that are vulnerable to problem drug use (PDU). Monitoring data reported to the EMCDDA by designated agencies from 30…

Burkhart, Gregor; Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Bo, Alessandra

2011-01-01

411

Vulnerability of the United States' Oil Supply to Terrorist Attack.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper examines the vulnerability of the U.S. oil supply infrastructure (domestic and international) to terrorist sabotage, and the economic implications of such an attack. The U.S. possesses only 3% of the world's total oil reserves, yet uses approxi...

J. J. Stower

2005-01-01

412

Unipolar Depression, Life Context Vulnerabilities, and Drinking to Cope  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study followed baseline samples of 424 unipolar depressed patients and 424 community controls across 10 years to investigate the association between depression and alcohol-related coping and to examine how life context vulnerabilities underlie the risk for depressed individuals to rely on drinking to cope. Findings supported all hypotheses.…

Holahan, Charles J.; Moos, Rudolf H.; Holahan, Carole K.; Cronkite, Ruth C.; Randall, Patrick K.

2004-01-01

413

Flood risk and vulnerability in the changing world  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world has been rapidly changing - this is a common truth. An important driver for global change is the population growth with consequences to food, resource use, settlements, land- use change, etc. There is no wonder that flood risk and vulnerability have also been changing, mostly in adverse way. Global flood losses have recently shown a rapid growth tendency,

Zbigniew W. Kundzewicz; Lucas Menzel

414

Assessing Ground-Water Vulnerability Using Logistic Regression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determining the likelihood that ground water contains elevated concentrations of contaminants can help water resource managers protect drinking water supplies. For example, this information is useful for selecting new sites for drinking water sources and designing more cost-effective monitoring strategies for existing sources. Ground-water vulnerability has typically been assessed using largely qualitative methods and expressed as relative measures of risk.

Anthony J. Tesoriero; Emily L. Inkpen; Frank D. Voss

415

Assessing tsunami vulnerability, an example from Herakleio, Crete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent tsunami have caused massive loss of life, destruction of coastal infrastructures and disruption to economic activity. To date, tsunami hazard studies have concentrated on determining the frequency and magnitude of events and in the production of simplistic flood maps. In general, such maps appear to have assumed a uniform vulnerability of population, infrastructure and business. In reality however, a complex set of factors interact to produce a pattern of vulnerability that varies spatially and temporally. A new vulnerability assessment approach is described, that incorporates multiple factors (e.g. parameters relating to the natural and built environments and socio-demographics) that contribute to tsunami vulnerability. The new methodology is applied on a coastal segment in Greece and, in particular, in Crete, westof the city of Herakleio. The results are presented within a Geographic Information System (GIS). The application of GIS ensures the approach is novel for tsunami studies, since it permits interrogation of the primary database by several different end-users. For example, the GIS may be used: (1) to determine immediate post-tsunami disaster response needs by the emergency services; (2) to preplan tsunami mitigation measures by disaster planners; (3) as a tool for local planning by the municipal authorities or; (4) as a basis for catastrophe modelling by insurance companies. We show that population density varies markedly with the time of the year and that 30% of buildings within the inundation zone are only single story thus increasing the vulnerability of their occupants. Within the high inundation depth zone, 11% of buildings are identified as in need of reinforcement and this figure rises to 50% within the medium inundation depth zone. 10% of businesses are located within the high inundation depth zone and these may need to consider their level of insurance cover to protect against primary building damage, contents loss and business interruption losses.

Papathoma, M.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Zong, Y.; Smith, D.

416

Antifeedant and Toxicity Effects of Some Plant Extracts on Thaumetopoae solitaria Frey. (Lep.: Thaumetopoeidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The insecticidal and antifeedant activity of extracts derived from different plants of Aesculus hippocastanum L. (Hippocastanaceae), Viscum album L. (Loranthaceae), Sambucus nigra L. (Caprifoliaceae), Buxus sempervirens L. (Buxaceae), Diospyros kaki L. (Ebenaceae), Artemisia absinthum L. (Compositae), Alnus glutiosa Goertn. (Betulaceae), Origanum vulgare L., (Labiatae), Hypericum androsaemum L. (Hypericaceae) and Ocimum basilicum L. (Labiatae) are reported. The 95% ethanol extracts of

Ömer ERTÜRK

417

Grundvattenmodellergin och Sarbarhetsanalys foer Utoe Skjutfaelt (Groundwater Modelling and Vulnerability Analysis of Utoe Shooting Range).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A groundwater modeling and a vulnerability analysis were performed for the Uto shooting range. The result is presented in map form, the map showing modeled vulnerability of groundwater to contamination, and the flow direction. In addition the result is de...

J. O. Moberg J. Burman

2004-01-01

418

Redox Abnormalities as a Vulnerability Phenotype for Autism and Related Alterations in CNS Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We hypothesize that low systemic redox potential (GSH/GSSG; cysteine/cystine) reflects a vulnerability phenotype that is associated with regressive autism and is predictive of the risk of developing autism. The redox vulnerability phenotype is associated ...

S. J. James

2010-01-01

419

Redox Abnormalities as a Vulnerability Phenotype for Autism and Related Alterations in CNS Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We hypothesize that low systemic redox potential (GSH/GSSG; cysteine/cystine) reflects a vulnerability phenotype that is associated with regressive autism and is predictive of the risk of developing autism. The redox vulnerability phenotype is associated ...

S. J. James

2009-01-01

420

Redox Abnormalities as a Vulnerability Phenotype for Autism and Related Alterations in CNS Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We hypothesize that low systemic redox potential (GSH/GSSG; cysteine/cystine) reflects a vulnerability phenotype that is associated with regressive autism and is predictive of the risk of developing autism. The redox vulnerability phenotype is associated ...

S. J. James

2012-01-01

421

MINIMIZING THE VULNERABILITY OF WATER SUPPLIES TO NATURAL AND TERRORIST THREATS  

EPA Science Inventory

There is increasing concern that drinking water utilities may be vulnerable to attacks by terrorists. In the US the President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection has concluded the US drinking water utilities are vulnerable to physical, cyber and biological terroris...

422

Critical Infrastructure Protection: How to Assess and Provide Remedy to Vulnerabilities in Telecom Hotels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

America's open society includes a vast array of critical infrastructure and key resources that are vulnerable to terrorist attacks. While it is not possible to protect or eliminate vulnerabilities of all critical infrastructures in the United States, stra...

M. A. Ordonez

2006-01-01

423

Detection and Therapy of Vulnerable Plaque with Fluorescent and/or Radiolabeled Compositions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to methods for selectively targeting Photodynamic Therapy ('PDT') to inflammatory components of vulnerable plaques. As such, the present invention provides methods for the identification of vulnerable plaques, using fluoresce...

A. Fischman A. Tawakol J. Muller M. R. Hamblin T. Hasan

2002-01-01

424

Vulnerability assessment at a national level in Georgia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vulnerability assessment at a national level in Georgia Nino Tsereteli, Vakhtang Arabidze, Otar Varazanashvili, Tengiz Gugeshashvili The risk always exists when cities are built on. Population growth in cities and urbanization in natural hazard-prone zones leads to infrastructure expansion. The goal of the society is to construct natural hazards resistant infrastructure and minimize the expected losses. This is a complicated task as there is always knowledge deficiency on real seismic hazard and vulnerability. Assessment of vulnerability is vital in risk analysis, as vulnerability is defined in many different ways. Work presented here mostly deals with assessment of infrastructure's and population vulnerability at national level in Georgia. This work was initiated by NATO SFP project "seismic Hazard and Risk Assessment for Southern Caucasus - Eastern Turkey Energy Corridors" and the two work packages WP4 (seismic risk) and WP5 (city scenarios) of risk module of EMME (Earthquake Model of the Middle East Region) project. First step was creation databases (inventory) of elements at risk in GIS. Element at risk were the buildings, population, pipelines. The inventories was studied and Created in GIS for the following categories: Building material, number of stories, number of entrances, condition of building, building period. For pipelines pipe tipe (continous or segmented), material, pipe diameter. Very important is to estimate the initial cost of building for assessment of economic losses. From this purpose the attempt was done and the algorithm of this estimation were prepared taking into account obtained the inventory. Build quality, reliability and durability are of special importance to corresponding state agencies and include different aesthetic, engineering, practical, social, technological and economical aspects. The necessity that all of these aspects satisfy existing normative requirements becomes evident as the building and structures come into exploitation. The long term usage of building is very complex. It relates to the reliability and durability of buildings. The long term usage and durability of a building is determined by the concept of depreciation. Depreciation of an entire building is calculated by summing the products of individual construction unit' depreciation rates and the corresponding value of these units within the building. This method of calculation is based on an assumption that depreciation is proportional to the building's (constructions) useful life. We used this methodology to create a matrix, which provides a way to evaluate the depreciation rates of buildings with different type and construction period and to determine their corresponding value. Finely some attempt was done to investigate how these structures were damaged by various hazards. In other words vulnerability curves were constrained on the basis on the relation between various hazard intensities and damage data.

Tsereteli, N.; Arabidze, V.; Varazanashvili, O.; Gugeshashvili, T.

2012-04-01

425

Depression vulnerability predicts cigarette smoking among college students: Gender and negative reinforcement expectancies as contributing factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the association between vulnerability to depression and smoking behavior in 1214 college students (54% female), and evaluated gender and expectancies of negative affect reduction as moderators or mediators of this relationship. Depression vulnerability predicted smoking in females, but not males. The relationship between depression vulnerability and smoking status was mediated by expectancies of negative affect reduction in

Holly E. R. Morrell; Lee M. Cohen; Dennis E. McChargue

2010-01-01

426

On deriving unknown vulnerabilities from zero-day polymorphic and metamorphic worm exploits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vulnerabilities that allow worms to hijack the control flow of each host that they spread to are typically discovered months before the worm outbreak, but are also typically discovered by third party researchers. A determined attacker could discover vulnerabilities as easily and create zero-day worms for vulnerabilities unknown to network defenses. It is important for an analysis tool to be

Jedidiah R. Crandall; Zhendong Su; Shyhtsun Felix Wu; Frederic T. Chong

2005-01-01

427

Interpretive review of conceptual frameworks and research models that inform Australia's agricultural vulnerability to climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture in Australia is highly vulnerable to climate change. Understanding the sector’s vulnerability is critical to developing immediate policy for the future of the agricultural industries and their communities. This review aims to identify research priorities (frameworks and models) for assessing vulnerability of the Australian agriculture sector to climate change. It achieves this through three objectives: (i) review frameworks for

Leonie J. Pearson; Rohan Nelsonc; Steve Crimp; Jenny Langridge

2011-01-01

428

Vulnerability and Natural Disasters in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu and the Kyrgyz Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses vulnerability in Fiji, the Kyrgyz republic, Papua New Guinea and Vanuatu. In incorporating measures of vulnerability there is no major departure from the perspective of MDG 1 Analyses of vulnerability, like that in the present paper, emphasize the fact that the debates around poverty-growth elasticities are premised on the assumption of a state of world without any

Raghbendra Jha

2006-01-01

429

Hotep's Story: Exploring the Wounds of Health Vulnerability in the US  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide variety of forms of domination hasresulted in a highly heterogeneous health riskcategory, ``the vulnerable.'' The study of healthinequities sheds light on forces thatgenerate, sustain, and alter vulnerabilities toillness, injury, suffering and death. Thispaper analyzes the case of a high-risk teenfrom a Boston ghetto that illuminatesintersections between ``race'' and class in theconstruction of vulnerability in the US.Exploration of his

Ken Fox

2002-01-01

430

Towards a Flaw Function Heuristic Vulnerability Static Analysis Framework for Executable File  

Microsoft Academic Search

The misuse of flaw functions is one of the key reasons causing software vulnerabilites. In our study, this type of vulnerability is termed as MFFV (Vulnerability of Flaw Function Misusing). In this paper, we propose a novel framework for analyzing the flaw function heuristic vulnerabilities. In this framework, the procedure to analyze MFFV is composed of three stages: firstly, MFFV

Qiang Liu; Hua Chen; Yan Wen; Xiang Li

2011-01-01

431

Vulnerable Children, Communities and Schools: Lessons from Three HIV/AIDS Affected Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The growing number of children made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS threatens the achievement of Education for All (EFA) and Millennium Development goals. Policy recommendations assign schools key roles in meeting the needs of vulnerable children, but there is a dearth of evidence about how vulnerable children and schools interact in AIDS affected…

Kendall, Nancy; O'Gara, Chloe

2007-01-01

432

Depression Vulnerabilities in Patients with Different Levels of Depressive Symptoms after Acute Coronary Syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cognitive, behavioral, and interpersonal vulnerabilities have been studied in patients fulfilling diagnostic criteria for major depression and dysthymia. The extent to which these vulnerabilities are present in cardiac patients with mild to moderate depressive symptoms – a risk factor for mortality – is unknown. Moreover, few studies have examined interrelations among depression vulnerabilities. Methods: A consecutive cohort of 314

Nina Rieckmann; Matthew M. Burg; William Gerin; William F. Chaplin; Lynn Clemow; Karina W. Davidson

2006-01-01

433

Maximizing an Organization's Information Security Posture by Distributed Assessment and Remedy of System Vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Updating systems for security vulnerabilities has become a cumbersome yet necessary evil in today's environment of zero- day exploits and ever-changing threat matrix. The current state of affairs for the vulnerability and threat management functions are in dire need of a solution that can rapidly assess systems for vulnerabilities and fix them expeditiously. This will guarantee the effective reconnaissance of

Yonesy F. Nuñez

2009-01-01

434

Household vulnerability and children's activities : information needed from household surveys to measure their relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies that have been done on the relationships between poverty, vulnerability, risks and children's activities have shown that child work may not always be a consequence of poverty, and that some aspects of vulnerability may be more important in determining whether children work or not vis a vis others. In order to analyze the relationships between vulnerability, risk, and children's

Diane Steele

2005-01-01

435

Review How to evaluate plaque vulnerability in animal models of atherosclerosis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevention of heart attack and stroke depends on detection of vulnerable plaques and development of plaque-stabilizing therapies. In turn, progress in diagnostics and treatment is contingent on our understanding of molecular mechanisms of plaque vulnerability. Animal models are essential for testing mechanistic hypotheses in a controlled manner. Currently, there is no single, golden standard animal model of a vulnerable plaque.

Mark D. Rekhter

436

Using a Mixed Data Collection Strategy to Uncover Vulnerability Black Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information security researchers hypothesize that black markets exist for the trading of software vulnerabilities and zero-day exploits. Such markets would encourage the development and exploitation of vulnerabilities through direct attack, malware spread or extortion. It is hard to assess the presence of vulnerability black markets and their associated transactions, as they are naturally hidden from general view, with only insiders

Jaziar Radianti; Eliot Rich; J. Gonzalez

437

A methodology for vulnerability assessment of backup protection under cascading failures  

Microsoft Academic Search

To avoid undesired operation of backup protection caused by load encroachment under cascading failures, the methodology for vulnerability assessment of backup protection is studied. In this paper, the vulnerability assessment of backup protections is formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear programming problem, which is solved by the binary particle swarm optimization approach. The measurement index for assessing the vulnerability of

W. H. Yang; T. S. Bi; S. F. Huang; A. C. Xue; Q. X. Yang

2010-01-01

438

A Case Research on Vulnerability of logistics system in the Tianjin port  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the view of Analysis of port logistics system, this paper put forward the connotation of vulnerability and defined the contents of the port logistics system vulnerability studies. On this basis of above, I established the assessment methods on port logistics system vulnerability. Besides, take Tianjin for cases I analyses the geographical factor and the natural environment, infrastructure factors, port

Zhang Weixi; Xi Tianyu; zhang Ruifeng

2011-01-01

439

Watershed Vulnerability To Herbicide Transport in Northern Missouri and Southern Iowa Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbicide contamination of streams has been well documented, but little is currently known about the specific factors affecting watershed vulnerability to herbicide transport. The primary objectives of this study were (1) to document herbicide occurrence and transport from watersheds in the northern Missouri\\/ southern Iowa region; (2) to quantify watershed vulnerability to herbicide transport and relate vulnerability to soil properties;

R. N. Lerch; P. E. Blanchard

2003-01-01

440

Code based software security vulnerability analyzing and detecting based on similar characteristic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through comprehensive analysis of software security vulnerability, a novel vulnerability detecting method based on similar characteristic is proposed in this paper. The method aims at C Code security detection. Based on Case-based Reasoning technology, the method performs similarity matching between security characteristic of source code and the characteristic of known security vulnerabilities, and calculates the similarity to determine if the

Xifeng An; Weihua Li; Wei Pan

2008-01-01

441

Performance Impact of Connectivity Restrictions and Increased Vulnerability Presence on Automated Attack Graph Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current generation of network vulnerability detection software uses databases of known vulnerabilities and scans target networks for these weaknesses. The results can be voluminous and difficult to assess. Thus, the success of this technology has created a need for software to aid in network vulnerability analysis. Although research has shown the effectiveness of automated attack graph generation tools in

James Cullum; Cynthia Irvine; Tim Levin

442

Mitigations for Security Vulnerabilities Found in Control System Networks  

SciTech Connect

Industry is aware of the need for Control System (CS) security, but in on-site assessments, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has observed that security procedures and devices are not consistently and effectively implemented. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), National Cyber Security Division (NCSD), established the Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) at INL to help industry and government improve the security of the CSs used in the nation's critical infrastructures. One of the main CSSC objectives is to identify control system vulnerabilities and develop effective mitigations for them. This paper discusses common problems and vulnerabilities seen in on-site CS assessments and suggests mitigation strategies to provide asset owners with the information they need to better protect their systems from common security flows.

Trent D. Nelson

2006-05-01

443

Diversity Strategies to Mitigate Postulated Common Cause Failure Vulnerabilities  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an approach to establish effective mitigating strategies that can resolve potential common-cause failure (CCF) vulnerabilities in instrumentation and control (I&C) systems at nuclear power plants. A particular objective in the development of these strategies, which consist of combinations of diversity attributes and their associated criteria, is to address the unique characteristics of digital technology that can contribute to CCF concerns. The research approach employed to establish diversity strategies involves investigation of available documentation on diversity usage and experience from nuclear power and non-nuclear industries, capture of expert knowledge and lessons learned, determination of common practices, and assessment of the nature of CCFs and compensating diversity attributes. The resulting diversity strategies address considerations such as the effect of technology choices, the nature of CCF vulnerabilities, and the prospective impact of each diversity type. In particular, the impact of each attribute and criterion on the purpose, process, product, and performance aspects of diverse systems are considered.

Wood, Richard Thomas [ORNL

2010-01-01

444

Humanitarian responses to mass violence perpetrated against vulnerable populations.  

PubMed

This multidisciplinary review links three areas of legitimate inquiry for practitioners of medicine and public health. The first is occurrences of mass violence or genocide perpetrated against vulnerable populations, with a focus on the failure of national and international mechanisms to prevent or predict such violence. The second is evolving concepts of national sovereignty and an emerging framework in which the imperative to assist vulnerable populations supersedes a state's right to self determination. The last is how medical, public health, and other systems of surveillance and rapid assessment of mass violence can accelerate public awareness and facilitate structured, consistent political decision making to prevent mass violence and to provide international humanitarian assistance. PMID:7580643

Gellert, G A

1995-10-14

445

Probabilistic Vulnerability Assessment Based on Power Flow and Voltage Distribution  

SciTech Connect

Risk assessment of large scale power systems has been an important problem in power system reliability study. Probabilistic technique provides a powerful tool to solve the task. In this paper, we present the results of a study on probabilistic vulnerability assessment on WECC system. Cumulant based expansion method is applied to obtain the probabilistic distribution function (PDF) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) of power flows on transmission lines and voltage. Overall risk index based on the system vulnerability analysis is calculated using the WECC system. The simulation results based on WECC system is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. The methodology can be applied to the risk analysis on large scale power systems.

Ma, Jian; Huang, Zhenyu; Wong, Pak C.; Ferryman, Thomas A.

2010-04-30

446

Changes to criminal records checks used to safeguard vulnerable patients.  

PubMed

The Protection of Freedoms Act 2012 is introducing changes to the Criminal Records Bureau (CRB) checks carried out on those people who work with vulnerable groups. The new law is the coalition Government's response to the criticism of the Safeguarding Vulnerable Group Act 2006. It will merge the CRB and Independent Safeguarding Authority into a new Disclosure and Barring Service and will enhance the rights of applicants to challenge the CRB's right to disclose non-conviction information as part of an enhanced criminal records check. In the first of two articles on the Protection of Freedoms Act 2012, Richard Griffith and Cassam Tengnah discuss the current framework for disclosing criminal records and the impact of the changes on district nurses applying for new posts. PMID:22875189

Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam

2012-07-01

447

Humanitarian responses to mass violence perpetrated against vulnerable populations.  

PubMed Central

This multidisciplinary review links three areas of legitimate inquiry for practitioners of medicine and public health. The first is occurrences of mass violence or genocide perpetrated against vulnerable populations, with a focus on the failure of national and international mechanisms to prevent or predict such violence. The second is evolving concepts of national sovereignty and an emerging framework in which the imperative to assist vulnerable populations supersedes a state's right to self determination. The last is how medical, public health, and other systems of surveillance and rapid assessment of mass violence can accelerate public awareness and facilitate structured, consistent political decision making to prevent mass violence and to provide international humanitarian assistance. Images p1000-a

Gellert, G. A.

1995-01-01

448

Vulnerable populations: Hurricane Katrina as a case study.  

PubMed

Mitigating disaster impact requires identifying risk factors. The increased vulnerability of the physically fragile is easily understood. Less obvious are the socio-economic risk factors, especially within relatively affluent societies. Hurricane Katrina demonstrated many of these risks within the United States. These factors include poverty, home ownership, poor English language proficiency, ethnic minorities, immigrant status, and high-density housing. These risk factors must be considered when planning for disaster preparation, mitigation, and response. PMID:20405467

Zoraster, Richard M

449

Modelling the flood vulnerability of deltaic Kuching City, Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this writing is to present a practical way to envisage the flood vulnerability in deltaic region, particularly\\u000a on the concern of sea level rise. Kuching city of Malaysia is established on banks of Sarawak River, 30 km from the sea. Therefore,\\u000a it is subjected to fluvial and tidal floods. Kuching Bay experiences the highest King Tides in

Darrien Yau Seng Mah; Frederik Josep Putuhena; Sai Hin Lai

2011-01-01

450

Ecological vulnerability in risk assessment — A review and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the application of ecological vulnerability analysis in risk assessment and describes new developments in methodology. For generic non-site-specific assessments (e.g. for the requirements of most European directives on dangerous chemicals) risk is characterised just on the basis of the ratio between an effect indicator and an exposure indicator. However, when the actual risk for a specific ecosystem

H. J. De Lange; S. Sala; M. Vighi; J. H. Faber

2010-01-01

451

American Indian adolescent girls: vulnerability to sex trafficking, intervention strategies.  

PubMed

The Minnesota Indian Women's Resource Center offers harm reduction programming to at-risk adolescent American Indian girls, including outreach, case management, advocacy, healthy sexuality education, and support groups. To evaluate program impact, participants are assessed at intake and every 6 months afterward for current vulnerability to commercial sexual exploitation, violence, and addiction. Evaluation results indicate frequent exposure to sex traffickers and suggest that harm reduction methods can help girls reduce risk of commercial sexual exploitation. PMID:22569724

Pierce, Alexandra Sandi

2012-01-01

452

The Microcirculation Is a Vulnerable Organ in Sepsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microcirculation is a vulnerable organ in sepsis. At the same time, the diseased microcirculation fuels sepsis, leading\\u000a to organ failure. Direct monitoring of the microcirculation itself or at least some indicator of regional perfusion may, therefore,\\u000a be useful in assessing the course of disease.\\u000a \\u000a However, it should be noted that the effectiveness of many microcirculatory recruitment maneuvers has not

P. W. G. Elbers; C. Ince

453

Language use of depressed and depression-vulnerable college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essays written by currently-depressed, formerly-depressed, and never-depressed college students were examined for differences in language that might shed light on the cognitive operations associated with depression and depression-vulnerability. A text analysis program computed the incidence of words in predesignated categories. Consistent with Beck's cognitive model and with Pyczsinski and Greenberg's self-focus model of depression, depressed participants used more negatively valenced

Stephanie Rude; Eva-Maria Gortner; James Pennebaker

2004-01-01

454

Vulnerability Assessments of Colorado Ground Water to Nitrate Contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrate (NO3-N) contamination of ground water aquifers is an important problem in the United States and throughout the world, particularly as ground water resources become increasingly relied upon to support human needs. Cost effective methodologies are needed to facilitate decision-making for ground water protection. To aid ground water protection organizations, we designed two tools to assess aquifer vulnerability to NO3-N

Z. L. Ceplecha; R. M. Waskom; T. A. Bauder; J. L. Sharkoff; R. Khosla

2004-01-01

455

Correlates of vulnerability among arthropod species threatened by invasive ants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive species are causing population declines and extinctions of native species worldwide. Correlates of species vulnerability,\\u000a which help identify at-risk taxa, are not well developed for arthropods, particularly with respect to threats from invasive\\u000a species. At five sites undergoing invasion by ants in the Hawaiian Islands, we assessed body size, population density, trophic\\u000a role and provenance (introduced or endemic to

Paul D. KrushelnyckyRosemary; Rosemary G. Gillespie

2010-01-01

456

Special human vulnerability to low-cost collective punishment.  

PubMed

Guala notes that low-cost punishment is the main mechanism that deters free-riding in small human communities. This mechanism is complemented by unusual human vulnerability to gossip. Defenders of an evolutionary discontinuity supporting human sociality might seize on this as an alternative to enjoyment of moralistic aggression as a special adaptation. However, the more basic adaptation of language likely suffices. PMID:22289327

Ross, Don

2012-02-01

457

Guiding Climate Change Adaptation Within Vulnerable Natural Resource Management Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change has the potential to compromise the sustainability of natural resources in Mediterranean climatic systems,\\u000a such that short-term reactive responses will increasingly be insufficient to ensure effective management. There is a simultaneous\\u000a need for both the clear articulation of the vulnerabilities of specific management systems to climate risk, and the development\\u000a of appropriate short- and long-term strategic planning responses

Douglas K. Bardsley; Susan M. Sweeney

2010-01-01

458

Quantifying water vulnerability: a multi-dimensional approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In today’s uncertain world, vulnerability of water supplies is of increasing concern. A number of factors influence this,\\u000a ranging from physical conditions through to human management capacities. Across the Orange River Basin in southern Africa,\\u000a these threats arise from overpopulation and farming pressure, with agrochemical and industrial runoff as well as harsh weather\\u000a conditions giving rise to severe problems of

Caroline A. Sullivan

2011-01-01

459

[Espace Santé Jeunes, a medical care unit for vulnerable youth].  

PubMed

Adolescents, especially belonging to vulnerable groups, feel excluded from the health system. Indeed, they lack their own care service, between the child protection and the "social help" consultations. For five years now, the Espace santé jeunes (Young People Health Center) has tried to help them to regain control over their body, and to take care of their own health. Some patients only need to be reassured about their "normality", whereas others suffer from severe pathologies that were never treated before. PMID:15135445

Stheneur, C

2004-05-01

460

Reducing hazard vulnerability through local government engagement and action  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of a natural hazard is a human construct. It is the interaction with human communities and settlements that defines\\u000a a natural phenomenon as a natural hazard. Thus the end point of hazard mitigation and hazard vulnerability assessment must\\u000a involve an attempt to reduce, or mitigate, the impact of the natural hazard on human communities. The responsibility to mitigate

David King

2008-01-01

461

Automatic Detection of Interaction Vulnerabilities in an Executable Specification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach to providing designers with the means to detect Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) vulnerabilities\\u000a without requiring extensive HCI expertise. The goal of the approach is to provide timely, useful analysis results early in\\u000a the design process, when modifications are less expensive. The twin challenges of providing timely and useful analysis results\\u000a led to the development and evaluation

Michael Feary

2007-01-01

462

Vulnerability and Gambling Addiction: Psychosocial Benchmarks and Avenues for Intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defined by researchers as “a silent epidemic” the gambling phenomenon is a social problem that has a negative impact on individuals,\\u000a families and communities. Among these effects, there is exasperating evidence of comprised community networks, a deterioration\\u000a of family and social ties, psychiatric co-morbidity, suicides and more recently, homelessness. In this context, individual,\\u000a structural and social vulnerabilities become important markers

Amnon Jacob Suissa

2011-01-01

463

Nutritional Vulnerability Seen Within Asylum Seekers in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the extent of nutritional vulnerability seen in a cohort of asylum seekers in Australia. Twenty-one asylum seekers\\u000a (15 males, 6 females) that used a food bank were interviewed over a 6 week period at the Melbourne based Asylum Seeker Resource\\u000a Centre about foods consumed in the previous 24-h and any non food bank foods obtained. A basket audit was

Sharleen O’Reilly; Tess O’Shea; Sibusiso Bhusumane

464

Vulnerability to dysfunction and muscle injury after unloading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To test whether unloading increases vulnerability to eccentric exercise-induced dysfunction and muscle injury.Design: Before-after trial.Setting: General community.Patients or Other Participants: Two women and 5 men (73 ± 3kg [mean ± SE]) who were active college students but were not trained in lower body resistance exercise volunteered.Intervention: Five weeks of unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS), which has been shown to

Lori L. Ploutz-Snyder; Per A. Tesch; Bruce M. Hather; Gary A. Dudley

1996-01-01

465

Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Change and Global Market Developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a As many crops are sensitive to changes in temperature and precipitation, agriculture is especially vulnerable to climate events.\\u000a This may prove critical in tropical regions where most agriculture is in rain-fed systems and climate change may have a potentially\\u000a large influence on productivity. By adversely affecting food and water resources, climate change thus threatens progress and\\u000a efforts made in poverty

Franziska Mannke; Kathrin Rath

466

Patient safety through RFID: vulnerabilities in recently proposed grouping protocols.  

PubMed

As RFID-tagged systems become ubiquitous, acceptance of this technology by the general public necessitates addressing related security/privacy issues. The past eight years have seen an increasing number of publications in this direction, specifically using cryptographic approaches. Recently, the Journal of Medical Systems published two papers addressing security/privacy issues through cryptographic protocols. We consider the proposed protocols and identify some existing vulnerabilities. PMID:20703708

Wickboldt, Anne-Katrin; Piramuthu, Selwyn

2010-04-14

467

Chapter 2 Vulnerability of Marine Turtles to Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine turtles are generally viewed as vulnerable to climate change because of the role that temperature plays in the sex determination of embryos, their long life history, long age-to-maturity and their highly migratory nature. Extant species of marine turtles probably arose during the mid–late Jurassic period (180–150 Mya) so have survived past shifts in climate, including glacial periods and warm

Elvira S. Poloczanska; Colin J. Limpus; Graeme C. Hays

2009-01-01

468

A Cause-Based Approach to Preventing Software Vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Security is often an afterthought in software development, sometimes even bolted on during deployment or in maintenance through add-on security software and penetrate-and-patch maintenance. We think that security needs to be an integral part of software development and that preventing vulnerabilities by addressing their causes is as important as detecting and fixing them. In this paper we present a method

David Byers; Nahid Shahmehri

2008-01-01

469

Health outcomes assessment in vulnerable populations: measurement challenges and recommendations.  

PubMed

With growing recognition that some population subgroups are particularly vulnerable to receiving suboptimal health care and achieving poor health outcomes, innovative techniques are required for collecting and evaluating health outcomes data. Research is also needed to better understand the causal pathways linking vulnerability with health outcomes. This article focuses on patients with a chronic illness (cancer) who also have low literacy and/or poor English language skills. We summarize the association among literacy, language, ethnicity, and health outcomes; describe innovative technologies to enhance communication; and discuss the advantages of using psychometric measurement models in health outcomes assessment. Results from our ongoing research projects are presented, including the development of an audiovisual computer-based testing platform for self-administration of questionnaires. Such innovative multimedia technologies allow patients with limited or even no reading ability to participate in outcomes assessment and have the potential to be incorporated into a clinical setting with minimal burden on staff and patients. Appropriate methods are also needed to evaluate measurement equivalence across diverse patient groups, that is, the extent to which items in a questionnaire perform similarly across groups. Item response theory measurement models provide a strategy for differentiating between measurement bias and real differences that may exist between groups. Recommendations for clinical practice and research are offered specifically to address medically underserved and vulnerable populations. PMID:12692770

Hahn, Elizabeth A; Cella, David

2003-04-01

470

Vulnerability to temperature-related mortality in Seoul, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies indicate that the mortality effects of temperature may vary by population and region, although little is known about the vulnerability of subgroups to these risks in Korea. This study examined the relationship between temperature and cause-specific mortality for Seoul, Korea, for the period 2000-7, including whether some subgroups are particularly vulnerable with respect to sex, age, education and place of death. The authors applied time-series models allowing nonlinear relationships for heat- and cold-related mortality, and generated exposure-response curves. Both high and low ambient temperatures were associated with increased risk for daily mortality. Mortality risk was 10.2% (95% confidence interval 7.43, 13.0%) higher at the 90th percentile of daily mean temperatures (25 °C) compared to the 50th percentile (15 °C). Mortality risk was 12.2% (3.69, 21.3%) comparing the 10th (-1 °C) and 50th percentiles of temperature. Cardiovascular deaths showed a higher risk to cold, whereas respiratory deaths showed a higher risk to heat effect, although the differences were not statistically significant. Susceptible populations were identified such as females, the elderly, those with no education, and deaths occurring outside of a hospital for heat- and cold-related total mortality. Our findings provide supportive evidence of a temperature-mortality relationship in Korea and indicate that some subpopulations are particularly vulnerable.

Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jong-Tae; Anderson, G. Brooke; Bell, Michelle L.

2011-07-01

471

Report to Congress on Insular Area energy vulnerability  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared in response to Section 1406 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-486), which directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to ``conduct a study of the implications of the unique vulnerabilities of the insular areas to an oil supply disruption,`` and to ``outline how the insular areas shall gain access to vital oil supplies during times of national emergency.`` The Act defines the insular areas to be the US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico in the Caribbean, and Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), and Palau in the Pacific. In the study, ``unique vulnerabilities`` were defined as susceptibility to: (1) more frequent or more likely interruptions of oil supplies compared to the US Mainland, and/or (2) disproportionately larger or more likely economic losses in the event of an oil supply disruption. In order to assess unique vulnerabilities, the study examined the insular areas` experience during past global disruptions of oil supplies and during local emergencies caused by natural disasters. The effects of several possible future global disruptions and local emergencies were also analyzed. Analyses were based on historical data, simulations using energy and economic models, and interviews with officials in the insular governments and the energy industry.

Not Available

1994-05-01

472

Subjectivity and vulnerability: reflections on the foundation of ethical sensibility.  

PubMed

This paper investigates the possibility of understanding the rudimentary elements of clinical sensitivity by investigating the works of Edmund Husserl and Emmanuel Levinas on sensibility. Husserl's theory of intentionality offers significant reflections on the role of pre-reflective and affective intuition as a condition for intentionality and reflective consciousness. These early works of Husserl, in particular his works on the constitution of phenomenological time and subjective time-consciousness, prove to be an important basis for Levinas' works on an ethics of alterity and infinite responsibility for the other person. In fact, it is difficult to understand the core of Levinasian ethics, of vulnerability as proximity, of ethical sensitivity as passivity and a suffering for the suffering of another, without understanding the influence from Husserl's work. Crucially, the paper will, on the basis of Levinasian ethics, establish an understanding of sensibility as vulnerability and receptivity that is fundamental also for understanding significant intuitions in clinical nursing. Clinical sensitivity and carefulness in nursing are shaped by the concrete and also bodily expressions of vulnerabilities in a receptivity that is pre-reflective and pre-ontological. PMID:12969452

Nortvedt, Per

2003-10-01

473

Family health narratives: midlife women's concepts of vulnerability to illness.  

PubMed

Perceptions of vulnerability to illness are strongly influenced by the salience given to personal experience of illness in the family. This article proposes that this salience is created through autobiographical narrative, both as individual life story and collectively shaped family history. The article focuses on responses related to health in the family drawn from semi-structured interviews with women in a qualitative study exploring midlife women's health. Uncertainty about the future was a major emergent theme. Most respondents were worried about a specified condition such as heart disease or breast cancer. Many women were uncertain about whether illness in the family was inherited. Some felt certain that illness in the family meant that they were more vulnerable to illness or that their relatives' ageing would be mirrored in their own inevitable decline, while a few expressed cautious optimism about the future. In order to elucidate these responses, we focused on narratives in which family members' appearance was discussed and compared to that of others in the family. The visualization of both kinship and the effects of illness led to strong similarities being seen as grounds for worry. This led to some women distancing themselves from the legacies of illness in their families. Women tended to look at the whole family as the context for their perceptions of vulnerability, developing complex patterns of resemblance or difference within their families. PMID:18579628

Lindenmeyer, Antje; Griffiths, Frances; Green, Eileen; Thompson, Diane; Tsouroufli, Maria

2008-07-01

474

Vulnerability to temperature-related mortality in Seoul, Korea  

PubMed Central

Studies indicate that the mortality effects of temperature may vary by population and region, although little is known about the vulnerability of subgroups to these risks in Korea. This study examined the relationship between temperature and cause-specific mortality for Seoul, Korea, for the period 2000–7, including whether some subgroups are particularly vulnerable with respect to sex, age, education and place of death. The authors applied time-series models allowing nonlinear relationships for heat- and cold-related mortality, and generated exposure–response curves. Both high and low ambient temperatures were associated with increased risk for daily mortality. Mortality risk was 10.2% (95% confidence interval 7.43, 13.0%) higher at the 90th percentile of daily mean temperatures (25 °C) compared to the 50th percentile (15 °C). Mortality risk was 12.2% (3.69, 21.3%) comparing the 10th (?1 °C) and 50th percentiles of temperature. Cardiovascular deaths showed a higher risk to cold, whereas respiratory deaths showed a higher risk to heat effect, although the differences were not statistically significant. Susceptible populations were identified such as females, the elderly, those with no education, and deaths occurring outside of a hospital for heat- and cold-related total mortality. Our findings provide supportive evidence of a temperature–mortality relationship in Korea and indicate that some subpopulations are particularly vulnerable.

Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jong-Tae; Anderson, G Brooke; Bell, Michelle L

2012-01-01

475

Predictive role of authenticity on psychological vulnerability in Turkish university students.  

PubMed

Authenticity is associated with adaptive psychological characteristics and may be predictive of psychological vulnerability. The study was conducted with Turkish university students (N = 303; 158 women, 145 men; M age = 20.1 yr.). Participants completed the Turkish version of Authenticity Scale and the Psychological Vulnerability Scale. Psychological vulnerability was correlated positively with two subfactors of authenticity, accepting external influence and self-alienation, and negatively with the authentic living factor of authenticity. Self-alienation, accepting external influence, and authentic living were related to psychological vulnerability, accounting for 33% of the variance collectively. Authenticity is an important predictor of psychological vulnerability. PMID:23833879

Satici, Seydi Ahmet; Kayis, Ahmet Rifat; Akin, Ahmet

2013-04-01

476

Spectral CT imaging of vulnerable plaque with two independent biomarkers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of a novel four-material decomposition technique for assessing the vulnerability of plaque with two contrast materials spectral computer tomography (CT) using two independent markers: plaque's inflammation and spotty calcification. A simulation study was conducted using an energy-sensitive photon-counting detector for k-edge imaging of the coronary arteries. In addition to detecting the inflammation status, which is known as a biological marker of a plaque's vulnerability, we use spotty calcium concentration as an independent marker to test a plaque's vulnerability. We have introduced a new method for detecting and quantifying calcium concentrations in the presence of two contrast materials (iodine and gold), calcium and soft tissue background. In this method, four-material decomposition was performed on a pixel-by-pixel basis, assuming there was an arbitrary mixture of materials in the voxel. The concentrations of iodine and gold were determined by the k-edge material decomposition based on the maximum likelihood method. The calibration curves of the attenuation coefficients, with respect to the concentrations of different materials, were used to separate the calcium signal from both contrast materials and different soft tissues in the mixtures. Three different materials (muscle, blood and lipid) were independently used as soft tissue. The simulations included both ideal and more realistic energy resolving detectors to measure the polychromatic photon spectrum in single slice parallel beam geometry. The ideal detector was used together with a 3 cm diameter digital phantom to demonstrate the decomposition method while a more realistic detector and a 33 × 24 cm2 digital chest phantom were simulated to validate the vulnerability assessment technique. A 120 kVp spectrum was generated to produce photon flux sufficient for detecting contrast materials above the k-edges of iodine (33.2 keV) and gold (80.7 keV). By performing simulations on a 3 cm diameter digital phantom, we successfully identified four materials that were simultaneously present in the mixture at different proportions and in multiple locations on the phantom. Quantitative analysis with a chest digital phantom showed that the results for iodine, gold and calcium were highly correlated with the known concentrations. The analysis revealed a potentially powerful technique for assessing a plaque's vulnerability with two independent markers. High correlation and low relative errors between calculated and known materials’ concentrations showed that the method is feasible. This technique can potentially have a high clinical impact.

Baturin, Pavlo; Alivov, Yahya; Molloi, Sabee

2012-07-01

477

Putting vulnerability to climate change on the map: a review of approaches, benefits, and risks  

SciTech Connect

There is growing demand among stakeholders across public and private institutions for spatially-explicit information regarding vulnerability to climate change at the local scale. However, the challenges associated with mapping the geography of climate change vulnerability are non-trivial, both conceptually and technically, suggesting the need for more critical evaluation of this practice. Here, we review climate change vulnerability mapping in the context of four key questions that are fundamental to assessment design. First, what are the goals of the assessment? A review of published assessments yields a range of objective statements that emphasize problem orientation or decision-making about adaptation actions. Second, how is the assessment of vulnerability framed? Assessments vary with respect to what values are assessed (vulnerability of what) and the underlying determinants of vulnerability that are considered (vulnerability to what). The selected frame ultimately influences perceptions of the primary driving forces of vulnerability as well as preferences regarding management alternatives. Third, what are the technical methods by which an assessment is conducted? The integration of vulnerability determinants into a common map remains an emergent and subjective practice associated with a number of methodological challenges. Fourth, who participates in the assessment and how will it be used to facilitate change? Assessments are often conducted under the auspices of benefiting stakeholders, yet many lack direct engagement with stakeholders. Each of these questions is reviewed in turn by drawing on an illustrative set of 45 vulnerability mapping studies appearing in the literature. A number of pathways for placing vulnerability

Preston, Benjamin L [ORNL

2011-01-01

478

The arctic water resource vulnerability index: An integrated assessment tool for community resilience and vulnerability with respect to freshwater  

USGS Publications Warehouse

People in the Arctic face uncertainty in their daily lives as they contend with environmental changes at a range of scales from local to global. Freshwater is a critical resource to people, and although water resource indicators have been developed that operate from regional to global scales and for midlatitude to equatorial environments, no appropriate index exists for assessing the vulnerability of Arctic communities to changing water resources at the local scale. The Arctic Water Resource Vulnerability Index (AWRVI) is proposed as a tool that Arctic communities can use to assess their relative vulnerability-resilience to changes in their water resources from a variety of biophysical and socioeconomic processes. The AWRVI is based on a social-ecological systems perspective that includes physical and social indicators of change and is demonstrated in three case study communities/watersheds in Alaska. These results highlight the value of communities engaging in the process of using the AWRVI and the diagnostic capability of examining the suite of constituent physical and social scores rather than the total AWRVI score alone. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Alessa, L.; Kliskey, A.; Lammers, R.; Arp, C.; White, D.; Hinzman, L.; Busey, R.

2008-01-01

479

Differences in Social Vulnerability among Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Williams Syndrome, and Down Syndrome.  

PubMed

Although individuals with disabilities are at increased risk of victimization, few studies examine persons with different disability conditions to determine whether distinctive cognitive-behavioral profiles are associated with different levels of social vulnerability. To determine the differences in social vulnerability and experiences of victimization, caregiver responses to a Social Vulnerability Questionnaire were examined for 103 caregivers of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Williams syndrome (WS), and Down syndrome (DS). Although all three groups experienced similar rates and types of victimization, the specific correlates of social vulnerability differed by disability. Individuals with ASD displayed less risk awareness and had less social protection; those with WS were rated higher on risk factors related to perceived vulnerability and parental independence; and those with DS had less risk awareness and were perceived to be more vulnerable. Safety interventions should be tailored to address each group's specific correlates of social vulnerability. PMID:23745132

Fisher, Marisa H; Moskowitz, Andrew L; Hodapp, Robert M

2013-08-01

480

[Vulnerability to depression in children and adolescents: update and perspectives].  

PubMed

Depression in children and adolescents is associated with poor psychosocial functioning, high psychiatric comorbidity, risk of recurrent episodes or onset of bipolar disorder. These findings emphasize the importance of early identification of children and adolescents having elevated risk for future depression and further development, evaluation and greater availability of prevention strategies. Our review aims an update about depressive vulnerability in children and adolescents in the perspective of better identification of at-risk populations and targeting of prevention programs. Psychopathology, in particular anxiety and disruptive disorders are well identified risk-factors for later depression. Subclinical depressive symptomatology, also termed "demoralization", also identifies high-risk populations, likely to become incident cases of depression. It is still unclear whether this condition is prodromal depression, a specific clinical entity or the expression of biological and/or cognitive vulnerability. Familial risk for depressive disorders involves both genetic and psychosocial factors. Marital discord, poor communication and dysfunctional parenting practices are often present in families with affective disorders and can be implicated in increased depressive vulnerability in the offspring. Research on individual vulnerability in children and adolescents has focused on temperamental and cognitive characteristics. Temperament traits describe individual differences in reactivity and behavior. High emotionality, defined as the tendency to become upset easily and intensely has been associated with an increased risk for subsequent major depression. However, as the majority of high scorers will not become depressive cases, emotionality should not be the only criterion for selection of at-risk populations. Cognitive style including poor self esteem, low social competence and negative attributions are also associated with increased likelihood of depressive symptoms, but their predictive value for the onset of clinical depressive episodes needs further investigation. Familial and individual vulnerability is likely to heighten the depressogenic impact of life events and psycho-social adversity. Prevention interventions have been developed in the United States for children and adolescents at-risk for depression. In France, clinicians witness growing demands from families with affective illness concerned with risk of parent-child transmission of depressive vulnerability, prevention and early identification of symptoms. To meet this kind of emerging needs and to prevent family dysfunction, a preventive program targets offspring of depressed parents and uses clinician-based family approaches. Family and individual sessions aim a better understanding of illness experience and encourage the parents to identify and foster resilience in their children. Another type of preventive intervention focuses on children and adolescents with subclinical depressive symptoms, eventually associated with behavioral problems ou high level of parental conflict, recruited in school settings. These school-based interventions combine cognitive and social problem-solving techniques. Both familial and school-based preventive interventions have proven applicable and promising in high-risk children and adolescents. Perspectives are more systematic identification of risk groups, including youngsters with past or current non affective symptoms who might benefit from depression prevention, long-term evaluation and cross-cultural applications of prevention programs. PMID:12091784

Purper-Ouakil, D; Michel, G; Mouren-Siméoni, M-C

481

Differential vulnerability of interneurons in the epileptic hippocampus.  

PubMed

The loss of hippocampal interneurons has been considered as one reason for the onset of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) by shifting the excitation-inhibition balance. Yet, there are many different interneuron types which show differential vulnerability in the context of an epileptogenic insult. We used the intrahippocampal kainate (KA) mouse model for TLE in which a focal, unilateral KA injection induces status epilepticus (SE) followed by development of granule cell dispersion (GCD) and hippocampal sclerosis surrounding the injection site but not in the intermediate and temporal hippocampus. In this study, we characterized the loss of interneurons with respect to septotemporal position and to differential vulnerability of interneuron populations. To this end, we performed intrahippocampal recordings of the initial SE, in situ hybridization for glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) mRNA and immunohistochemistry for parvalbumin (PV) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the early phase of epileptogenesis at 2 days and at 21 days after KA injection, when recurrent epileptic activity and GCD have fully developed. We show that SE extended along the entire septotemporal axis of both hippocampi, but was stronger at distant sites than at the injection site. There was an almost complete loss of interneurons surrounding the injection site and expanding to the intermediate hippocampus already at 2 days but increasing until 21 days after KA. Furthermore, we observed differential vulnerability of PV- and NPY-expressing cells: while the latter were lost at the injection site but preserved at intermediate sites, PV-expressing cells were gone even at sites more temporal than GCD. In addition, we found upregulation of GAD67 mRNA expression in dispersed granule cells and of NPY staining in ipsilateral granule cells and ipsi- and contralateral mossy fibers. Our data thus indicate differential survival capacity of interneurons in the epileptic hippocampus and compensatory plasticity mechanisms depending on the hippocampal position. PMID:24098270

Marx, Markus; Haas, Carola A; Häussler, Ute

2013-10-01

482

Socio-Economic Vulnerability to Climate Change in California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The western United States faces a range of impacts from global climate change, including increases in extreme heat, wildfires, and coastal flooding and erosion; changes are also likely to occur in air quality, water availability, and the spread of infectious diseases. To date, a great deal of research has been done to forecast the physical effects of climate change, while less attention has been given to the factors make different populations more or less vulnerable to harm from such changes. For example, mortality rates from Hurricane Audrey, which struck the coast of Louisiana in 1957, were more than eight times higher among blacks than among whites. While disaster events may not discriminate, impacts on human populations are shaped by "intervening conditions" that determine the human impact of the flood and the specific needs for preparedness, response, and recovery. In this study, we analyze the potential impacts of climate change by using recent downscaled climate model outputs, creating a variety of statistics and visualizations to communicate potential impacts to community groups and decision makers, after several meetings with these groups to ask, "What types of information are most useful to you for planning?" We relate climate impacts to social vulnerability - defined as the intersection of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of a person or group of people - with a focus on the U.S. state of California. Understanding vulnerability factors and the populations that exhibit these factors are critical for crafting effective climate change policies and response strategies. It is also important to the emerging study of climate justice, which is the concept that no group of people should disproportionately bear the burden of climate impacts or the costs of mitigation and adaptation.

Heberger, M. G.; Cooley, H.; Moore, E.; Garzon, C.

2011-12-01

483

Differential vulnerability of interneurons in the epileptic hippocampus  

PubMed Central

The loss of hippocampal interneurons has been considered as one reason for the onset of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) by shifting the excitation-inhibition balance. Yet, there are many different interneuron types which show differential vulnerability in the context of an epileptogenic insult. We used the intrahippocampal kainate (KA) mouse model for TLE in which a focal, unilateral KA injection induces status epilepticus (SE) followed by development of granule cell dispersion (GCD) and hippocampal sclerosis surrounding the injection site but not in the intermediate and temporal hippocampus. In this study, we characterized the loss of interneurons with respect to septotemporal position and to differential vulnerability of interneuron populations. To this end, we performed intrahippocampal recordings of the initial SE, in situ hybridization for glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) mRNA and immunohistochemistry for parvalbumin (PV) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the early phase of epileptogenesis at 2 days and at 21 days after KA injection, when recurrent epileptic activity and GCD have fully developed. We show that SE extended along the entire septotemporal axis of both hippocampi, but was stronger at distant sites than at the injection site. There was an almost complete loss of interneurons surrounding the injection site and expanding to the intermediate hippocampus already at 2 days but