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1

Tunicamycin Prevents Cellulose Microfibril Formation in Oocystis solitaria1  

PubMed Central

The effect of tunicamycin (TM) on the development of the cell wall in Oocystis solitaria has been investigated. It was found that 10 micromolar TM completely stops the assembly of new microfibrils as observed at the ultrastructural level. During cell wall formation, freeze fracture replicas of the E-face of the plasma membrane reveal two major substructures: the terminal complexes (TC), paired and unpaired, and the microfibril imprints extending from unpaired TCs. In cells treated for 3 hours or longer with TM, the TCs are no longer visible, whereas microfibril imprints are still present. Because of the reported highly selective mode of action of TM, our results implicate a role for lipid-intermediates in cellulose synthesis in O. solitaria. It is assumed that TM prevents the formation of a glycoprotein which probably is a fundamental part of the TCs and may act as a primer for the assembly of the microfibrils. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2

Quader, Hartmut

1984-01-01

2

Experimental study on the utilization of DIC by Oocystis solitaria Wittr and its influence on the precipitation of calcium carbonate in karst and non-karst waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The difference in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) utilization and calcium carbonate precipitation by Oocystis solitaria Wittr grown in closed systems of karst water and non-karst water was investigated by using a free pH-drift experiment. It was found\\u000a that the HCO3\\u000a ? as carbon resource of Oocystis solitaria Wittr photosynthesis was catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase to CO2 at low CO2 concentration.

Yan Liu; Zaihua Liu; Jinliu Zhang; Yuanyuan He; Hailong Sun

2010-01-01

3

Silver release from decomposed hyperaccumulating Amanita solitaria fruit-body biomass strongly affects soil microbial community.  

PubMed

Interaction of Ag with communities of soil saprotrophic organisms was studied in two different soils using a metagenomic approach. Three levels of Ag were applied to the soil samples: 0, 0.008 and 0.505 ?g Ag/g soil. Silver was applied in mineral form as well as naturally bound in dry fruit-body biomass of the Ag-hyperaccumulating ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita solitaria. Contrasting behavior of fungi and bacteria in reaction to Ag dosages was observed. The majority of bacterial ribotypes tended to prefer the soil with low doses of Ag, the ribotypes of fungi were more abundant in untreated soils and soils treated with the highest Ag concentration. Organically bound and mineral forms of Ag did not differ substantially in their effects on microbes in samples. The results indicate that decomposing Ag-rich fungal biomass can significantly alter the soil microbiota. This can contribute to formation of spot-like non-homogeneities in soil microbial distribution. PMID:22684239

Gryndler, Milan; Hršelová, Hana; Soukupová, Lucie; Borovi?ka, Jan

2012-10-01

4

Vulnerability of the Vulnerability Thesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reexamines Callahan's book, "Education and the Cult of Efficiency" (1962), and his vulnerability thesis regarding school superintendents, discussing recommendations it made and highlighting public education in the 1990s. Callahan's recommendations were well-received but not well-heeded, and the vulnerability thesis did not provide the stimulus for…

Lutz, Frank W.

1996-01-01

5

Infrastructure Network Vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work presented in this paper aims to propose a methodology of analyzing infrastructure network vulnerability in the field of prevention or reduction of the natural disaster consequences. After a state of the art on vulnerability models in the academic literature, the various vulnerability factors are classified and discussed. Eventually, a general model of vulnerability analysis including societal parameters is

Kamissoko Daouda; Zarate Pascale; Pérès Francois

2011-01-01

6

Software Vulnerability Taxonomy Consolidation  

SciTech Connect

In today's environment, computers and networks are increasing exposed to a number of software vulnerabilities. Information about these vulnerabilities is collected and disseminated via various large publicly available databases such as BugTraq, OSVDB and ICAT. Each of these databases, individually, do not cover all aspects of a vulnerability and lack a standard format among them, making it difficult for end-users to easily compare various vulnerabilities. A central database of vulnerabilities has not been available until today for a number of reasons, such as the non-uniform methods by which current vulnerability database providers receive information, disagreement over which features of a particular vulnerability are important and how best to present them, and the non-utility of the information presented in many databases. The goal of this software vulnerability taxonomy consolidation project is to address the need for a universally accepted vulnerability taxonomy that classifies vulnerabilities in an unambiguous manner. A consolidated vulnerability database (CVDB) was implemented that coalesces and organizes vulnerability data from disparate data sources. Based on the work done in this paper, there is strong evidence that a consolidated taxonomy encompassing and organizing all relevant data can be achieved. However, three primary obstacles remain: lack of referencing a common ''primary key'', un-structured and free-form descriptions of necessary vulnerability data, and lack of data on all aspects of a vulnerability. This work has only considered data that can be unambiguously extracted from various data sources by straightforward parsers. It is felt that even with the use of more advanced, information mining tools, which can wade through the sea of unstructured vulnerability data, this current integration methodology would still provide repeatable, unambiguous, and exhaustive results. Though the goal of coalescing all available data, which would be of use to system administrators, software developers and vulnerability researchers is not yet achieved, this work has resulted in the most exhaustive collection of vulnerability data to date.

Polepeddi, S

2004-12-08

7

Software Vulnerability Taxonomy Consolidation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In today's environment, computers and networks are increasing exposed to a number of software vulnerabilities. Information about these vulnerabilities is collected and disseminated via various large publicly available databases such as BugTraq, OSVDB and ...

S. Polepeddi

2005-01-01

8

Predicting vulnerable software components  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce Vulture, a new approach and tool to predict vulnerable components in large software systems. Vulture relates a software project's version archive to its vulnerability database to find those components that had vulnerabilities in the past. It then analyzes the import structure of software com- ponents and uses a support vector machine to learn and predict which imports are

Stephan Neuhaus; Thomas Zimmermann; Christian Holler; Andreas Zeller

2007-01-01

9

Improving vulnerability discovery models  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Security researchers are applying software reliability models to vulnerability data, in an attempt to model the vulnera- bility discovery process. I show that most current work on these vulnerability discovery models (VDMs) is theoretically unsound. I propose a standard set of definitions relevant to measuring characteristics of vulnerabilities and their discov- ery process. I then describe the theoretical requirements

Andy Ozment

2007-01-01

10

What Does Vulnerability Mean?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Protection of those deemed vulnerable has received increasing attention since 2000. This article reports on care staff views of vulnerability using original data from a research study (Parley. "Vulnerability and abuse: an exploration of views of care staff working with people who have learning disabilities," PhD Thesis, 2007) in which care staff…

Parley, Fiona F

2011-01-01

11

Measuring Similarity for Security Vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the number of software vulnerabilities increases year by year, software vulnerability becomes a focusing point in information security. This paper proposes a vulnerability similarity measurement to compare different vulnerabilities according to a set of criteria. Our approach is based on the structural hierarchy of vulnerabilities, and the similarity is defined using established mathematical models. The National Vulnerability Database and

Ju An Wang; Linfeng Zhou; Minzhe Guo; Hao Wang; Jairo Camargo

2010-01-01

12

Measuring of network vulnerability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of computer network has mushroomed with the networking manufacture, networking instruments and etc. The ability of the production or system that can endures the breakage and the fault is a very important performance index. Especially today, the problems by reason of information security including hidden failures and defects in the system directly threaten the security and performance of system. This performance index to indicate these cases is the vulnerability. Networks vulnerability is defined as the abilities of network which to endure attacks, destroy and faults, also being called invulnerability of network. Vulnerability is often measured by the degree of vulnerability, which directly indicates the magnitude of invulnerability. This paper firstly introduces the conception of networks vulnerability, and distinct the analysis methods of networks vulnerability. The results of this paper are being looked forward to giving much direction on the system analysis and synthesis too.

Wang, Xianpei; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Quande

2003-09-01

13

Superintendent Vulnerability and Mobility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined Callahan's vulnerability thesis to determine its ability to explain the mobility of superintendents in Texas between 1985 and 1990. Questionnaire and interview data indicated that, at least in Texas where superintendent mobility reached 50% in that time period, vulnerability did not appear to account for much of superintendent mobility.…

Parker, Phyllis

1996-01-01

14

Spectroscopy of Urban Vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the considerable work carried out in risk management, vulnerability indexes and aggregative assessments remain a serious issue. The main challenges facing vulnerability assessment are the collection, integration, and synthesis of large quantities of heterogeneous data to provide reliable estimations. This situation has led to the neglect of all significant interactions between the considered indicators, despite their being essential to

Samuel Rufat

2012-01-01

15

Network vulnerability analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing volume of attacks on the Internet has increased the demand for sophisticated tools for vulnerability analysis, intrusion detection, forensic investigations, and possible responses. Current hacker tools and technologies warrant reengineering to address cyber crime and homeland security. The creation of network scanners is necessary to secure the information infrastructure by gathering network topology, intelligence, internal\\/external vulnerability analysis, and

B. Skaggs; B. Blackburn; G. Manes; S. Shenoi

2002-01-01

16

Vulnerability for Depression.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The vulnerability to depression and the antecedents for depression were collected and analyzed for an epidemiological pilot study of depression. Results of one test showed those categorized as 'invulnerables' as having a more positive opinion of their soc...

P. M. Lewinsohn

1980-01-01

17

The Laws of Vulnerabilities: Which security vulnerabilities really matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

New security vulnerabilities are discovered on a daily basis. With each new announcement, the same questions arise. How significant is this vulnerability? How prevalent? How easy is it to exploit? Due to a lack of global vulnerability data, answers are hard to find and risk rating is even more difficult. The Laws of Vulnerabilities are the conclusions of analyzing statistical

Gerhard Eschelbeck

2005-01-01

18

Energy vulnerability relationships  

SciTech Connect

The US consumption of crude oil resources has been a steadily growing indicator of the vitality and strength of the US economy. At the same time import diversity has also been a rapidly developing dimension of the import picture. In the early 1970`s, embargoes of crude oil from Organization of Producing and Exporting Countries (OPEC) created economic and political havoc due to a significant lack of diversity and a unique set of economic, political and domestic regulatory circumstances. The continued rise of imports has again led to concerns over the security of our crude oil resource but threats to this system must be considered in light of the diversity and current setting of imported oil. This report develops several important issues concerning vulnerability to the disruption of oil imports: (1) The Middle East is not the major supplier of oil to the United States, (2) The US is not vulnerable to having its entire import stream disrupted, (3) Even in stable countries, there exist vulnerabilities to disruption of the export stream of oil, (4) Vulnerability reduction requires a focus on international solutions, and (5) DOE program and policy development must reflect the requirements of the diverse supply. Does this increasing proportion of imported oil create a {open_quotes}dependence{close_quotes}? Does this increasing proportion of imported oil present a vulnerability to {open_quotes}price shocks{close_quotes} and the tremendous dislocations experienced during the 1970`s? Finally, what is the vulnerability of supply disruptions from the current sources of imported oil? If oil is considered to be a finite, rapidly depleting resource, then the answers to these questions must be {open_quotes}yes.{close_quotes} However, if the supply of oil is expanding, and not limited, then dependence is relative to regional supply sources.

Shaw, B.R.; Boesen, J.L.

1998-02-01

19

Vulnerability of dynamic systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Directed graphs are associated with dynamic systems in order to determine in any given system if each state can be reached by at least one input (input reachability), or can each state reach at least one output (output reachability). Then, the structural perturbations of a dynamic system are identified as lines or points removals from the corresponding digraph, and a system is considered vulnerable at those lines or points of the digraph whose removal destroys its input or output reachability. A suitable framework is formulated for resolving the problems of reachability and vulnerability which applies to both linear and nonlinear systems alike.

Siljak, D. D.

1976-01-01

20

Surf Zone Mine Vulnerability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The long-term goals of the mine vulnerability task are to: (1) Identify key damage mechanisms leading to the development of kill criteria for explosive neutralization of a variety of anti-tank, and antipersonnel Surf Zone (SZ) threat mines, (2) develop an...

J. Gaspin J. Goeller M. Karen

1998-01-01

21

Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

Schuckit, Marc A.

1987-01-01

22

Ageing and neuronal vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Everyone ages, but only some will develop a neurodegenerative disorder in the process. Disease might occur when cells fail to respond adaptively to age-related increases in oxidative, metabolic and ionic stress, thereby resulting in the accumulation of damaged proteins, DNA and membranes. Determinants of neuronal vulnerability might include cell size and location, metabolism of disease-specific proteins and a repertoire of

Tim Magnus; Mark P. Mattson

2006-01-01

23

Vulnerability Assessment of Power System Using Various Vulnerability Indices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vulnerability assessment in power systems is important so as to determine how vulnerable a power system in case of any unforeseen catastrophic events. To assess the level of system strength or weakness relative to the occurrence of an undesired event, a quantitative measure based on vulnerability index is often considered. The objective of this paper is to investigate and compare

A. M. A. Haidar; A. Mohamed; A. Hussain

2006-01-01

24

Mapping vulnerability to climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a methodology for regional disaggregated estimation and mapping of the areas that are ex-ante the most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change and variability and applies it to Tajikistan, a mountainous country highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. The authors construct the vulnerability index as a function of exposure to climate variability and natural

Rasmus Heltberg; Misha Bonch-Osmolovskiy

2011-01-01

25

Security and Vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Part of being a competent web application developer is having a solid awareness of web security issues at the level of HTTP\\u000a requests and responses. All web applications are potentially vulnerable to a familiar set of attacks—such as cross-site scripting\\u000a (XSS), cross-site request forgery (CSRF), and SQL injection—but we can mitigate each of these types of attacks by understanding\\u000a them

Adam Freeman; Steven Sanderson

26

HEPA Filter Vulnerability Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This assessment of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter vulnerability was requested by the USDOE Office of River Protection (ORP) to satisfy a DOE-HQ directive to evaluate the effect of filter degradation on the facility authorization basis assumptions. Within the scope of this assessment are ventilation system HEPA filters that are classified as Safety-Class (SC) or Safety-Significant (SS) components that perform an accident mitigation function. The objective of the assessment is to verify whether HEPA filters that perform a safety function during an accident are likely to perform as intended to limit release of hazardous or radioactive materials, considering factors that could degrade the filters. Filter degradation factors considered include aging, wetting of filters, exposure to high temperature, exposure to corrosive or reactive chemicals, and exposure to radiation. Screening and evaluation criteria were developed by a site-wide group of HVAC engineers and HEPA filter experts from published empirical data. For River Protection Project (RPP) filters, the only degradation factor that exceeded the screening threshold was for filter aging. Subsequent evaluation of the effect of filter aging on the filter strength was conducted, and the results were compared with required performance to meet the conditions assumed in the RPP Authorization Basis (AB). It was found that the reduction in filter strength due to aging does not affect the filter performance requirements as specified in the AB. A portion of the HEPA filter vulnerability assessment is being conducted by the ORP and is not part of the scope of this study. The ORP is conducting an assessment of the existing policies and programs relating to maintenance, testing, and change-out of HEPA filters used for SC/SS service. This document presents the results of a HEPA filter vulnerability assessment conducted for the River protection project as requested by the DOE Office of River Protection.

GUSTAVSON, R.D.

2000-05-11

27

Aging and Neuronal Vulnerability  

PubMed Central

Everyone ages, but only some will acquire a neurodegenerative disorder in the process. Disease might occur when cells fail to respond adaptively to age-related increases in oxidative, metabolic and ionic stress resulting in excessive accumulation of damaged proteins, DNA and membranes. Determinants of neuronal vulnerability might include cell size and location, metabolism of disease-specific proteins, and repertoire of signal transduction pathways and stress resistance mechanisms. Emerging evidence on protein interaction networks that monitor and respond to the normal aging process suggests that successful neural aging is possible for most, but also cautions that cures for neurodegenerative disorders are unlikely in the near future.

Mattson, Mark P.; Magnus, Tim

2011-01-01

28

Classification of vulnerability information  

SciTech Connect

The current upgrading of security measures at sensitive Department of Energy (DOE) facilities reflects the continuing concern over possible terrorist and other criminal acts against these facilities. Security reviews are periodically conducted at DOE facilities, deficiencies are identified, and corrective actions are recommended. While security upgrades are initiated as soon as possible, the process of securing funding and the construction or other activities necessary to complete upgrades can cause delays in correcting security vulnerabilities. Details of security weaknesses at important DOE facilities are classified in order to deny valuable information to terrorists and other malefactors.

Gibson, W.G.

1984-07-01

29

Beyond 'vulnerable groups': contexts and dynamics of vulnerability.  

PubMed

This paper reviews approaches to vulnerability in public health, introducing a series of 10 papers addressing vulnerability in health in Africa. We understand vulnerability as simultaneously a condition and a process. Social inequalities are manifest in and exacerbate three key dimensions of vulnerability: the initial level of wellbeing, the degree of exposure to risk, and the capacity to manage risk effectively. We stress the dynamic interactions linking material and social deprivation, poverty, powerlessness and ill health: risks or shocks and their health impacts are intimately interconnected and reinforce each other in a cycle which in the absence of effective interventions, increases vulnerability. An inductive process which does not begin with an a priori definition or measurement of 'vulnerability' and which does not assume the existence of fixed 'vulnerable groups' allowed us both to re-affirm core aspects of existing conceptual frameworks, and to engage in new ways with literature specifically addressing vulnerability and resilience at the population level as well as with literature - for example in ecology, and on the concept of frailty in research on aging - with which researchers on health and poverty in Africa may not be familiar. We invite conceptual and empirical work on vulnerability in complex systems frameworks. These perspectives emphasize contexts and nonlinear causality thus supporting analyses of vulnerability and resilience as both markers and emergent properties of dynamic interactions. We accept a working definition of vulnerability, and recognize that some definable groups of people are more likely than others to suffer harm from exposure to health risks. But we suggest that the real work - at both intellectual and policy/political levels - lies in understanding and responding to the dynamics, meanings and power relations underlying actual instances and processes of vulnerability and harm. PMID:23549696

Zarowsky, Christina; Haddad, Slim; Nguyen, Vinh-Kim

2013-03-01

30

REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF STREAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Regional Vulnerability Assessment program (ReVA) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has a goal of determining "the present and probable future extent and distribution of vulnerable ecosystems". Accomplishment of these goals has four basic requirements: 1) as...

31

Structured Approach to Classifying Security Vulnerabilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Understanding vulnerabilities is critical to understanding the threats they represent. Vulnerabilities classification enables collection of frequency data; trend analysis of vulnerabilities; correlation with incidents, exploits, and artifacts; and evaluat...

R. C. Seacord A. D. Householder

2005-01-01

32

Critical Analysis of Vulnerability Taxonomies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Computer vulnerabilities seem to be omnipresent. In every system fielded programming errors configuration errors and operation errors have allowed unauthorized users to enter systems or authorized users to take unauthorized actions. Efforts to eliminate t...

M. Bishop D. Bailey

1996-01-01

33

Mitigating program security vulnerabilities: Approaches and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Programs are implemented in a variety of languages and contain serious vulnerabilities which might be exploited to cause security breaches. These vulnerabilities have been exploited in real life and caused damages to related stakeholders such as program users. As many security vulnerabilities belong to program code, many techniques have been applied to mitigate these vulnerabilities before program deployment. Unfortunately, there

Hossain Shahriar; Mohammad Zulkernine

2012-01-01

34

Vulnerability scoring for security configuration settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The best-known vulnerability scoring standard, the Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS), is designed to quantify the severity of security-related software flaw vulnerabilities. This paper describes our efforts to determine if CVSS could be adapted for use with a different type of vulnerability: security configuration settings. We have identified significant differences in scoring configuration settings and software flaws and have proposed

Karen Scarfone; Peter Mell

2008-01-01

35

Vulnerability Take Grant (VTG): An efficient approach to analyze network vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeling and analyzing information system vulnerabilities help predict possible attacks to computer networks using vulnerabilities information and the network configuration. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive approach to analyze network vulnerabilities in order to answer the safety problem focusing on vulnerabilities. The approach which is called Vulnerability Take Grant (VTG) is a graph-based model consists of subject\\/objects as nodes

Hamid Reza Shahriari; Rasool Jalili

2007-01-01

36

Land tenure, disasters and vulnerability.  

PubMed

Although often overlooked, land tenure is an important variable impacting on vulnerability to disaster. Vulnerability can occur either where land tenure is perceived to be insecure, or where insecure tenure results in the loss of land, especially when alternative livelihood and housing options are limited. Disasters often provide the catalyst for such loss. This paper avoids making generalisations about the security of particular types of tenure, but instead explores factors that mediate tenure security, particularly in the wake of a disaster. The paper identifies five mediating factors: (1) the local legal system; (2) government administrative authority; (3) the economy; (4) evidence of tenure, and; (5) custom and dominant social attitudes. It is shown that some mediating factors are more salient for particular types of tenure than others. The paper will highlight the importance of land tenure in any assessment of vulnerability, and conclude with suggestions for further research. PMID:20735460

Reale, Andreana; Handmer, John

2011-01-01

37

The Vulnerability of Science and the Science of Vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The events of September 11th shocked the nation and painfully illustrated our vulnerability to international terrorist attacks. Despite some of the most sophisticated models, monitoring systems, and science in the world, officials were unable to anticipate and predict these cascading events. The collective scientific ability to geographically represent environmental threats, map exposures, and map consequences is relatively straightforward when the

Susan L. Cutter

2003-01-01

38

US Vulnerability to Natural Disasters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural disasters result from the coincidence of natural events with the built environment. Our nation's infrastructure is growing at an exponential rate in many areas of high risk, and the Federal government's liability is increasing proportionally. By superimposing population density with predicted ground motion from earthquakes, historical hurricane tracks, historical tornado locations, and areas within the flood plain, we are able to identify locations of high vulnerability within the United States. We present a comprehensive map of disaster risk for the United States that is being produced for the Senate Natural Hazards Caucus. The map allows for the geographic comparison of natural disaster risk with past disaster declarations, the expenditure of Federal dollars for disaster relief, population increase, and variations of GDP. Every state is vulnerable to natural disasters. Although their frequency varies considerably, the annualized losses for disaster relief from hurricanes, earthquakes, and floods are approximately equivalent. While fast-growing states such as California and Florida remain highly vulnerable, changes in the occurrence of natural events combined with population increases are making areas such as Texas, North Carolina, and the East Coast increasingly vulnerable.

van der Vink, G.; Apgar, S.; Batchelor, A.; Carter, C.; Gail, D.; Jarrett, A.; Levine, N.; Morgan, W.; Orlikowski, M.; Pray, T.; Raymar, M.; Siebert, A.; Shawa, T. W.; Wallace, C.

2002-05-01

39

Policy responses to economic vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper was prepared by Ms. Willene Johnson, member of the Committee for Development Committee, as a background paper for deliberations by the Committee at its eighth session. This study reviews policy efforts to advance growth and development in the least developed countries, in particular those efforts aimed at promoting well-being by reducing vulnerability to economic shocks. The paper

Willene Johnson

2006-01-01

40

Vulnerability Discovery with Attack Injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing reliance put on networked computer systems demands higher levels of dependability. This is even more relevant as new threats and forms of attack are constantly being revealed, compromising the security of systems. This paper addresses this problem by presenting an attack injection methodology for the automatic discovery of vulnerabilities in software components. The proposed methodology, implemented in AJECT,

João Antunes; Nuno Ferreira Neves; Miguel Correia; Paulo Veríssimo; Rui Neves

2010-01-01

41

Cognitive Vulnerability to Persistent Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The account of cognitive vulnerability to depression offered by Beck's cognitive model is summarised. As this account currently lacks consistent empirical support, an alternative, related, account is presented. This proposes that, once a person is initially depressed, an important factor that determines whether their depression remains mild or transient, or becomes more severe and persistent, is the nature of the

John D. Teasdale

1988-01-01

42

Compounding Vulnerability: Pregnancy and Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predominant ethical framework for addressing reproductive decisions in the maternal–fetal relationship is respect for the woman's autonomy. However, when a pregnant schizophrenic woman lacks such autonomy, healthcare providers try to both protect her and respect her preferences. By delineating etic (objective) and emic (subjective) perspectives on vulnerability, I argue that options which balance both perspectives are preferable and that

Denise M. Dudzinski

2006-01-01

43

MID-ATLANTIC REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

ORD's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (REVA) Program is developing and demonstrating approaches to assess current and future environmental vulnerabilities so that risk management activities can be targeted. The sister program to EMA.P (Environmental Monitoring Assessment Progr...

44

Multi-Discipline Network Vulnerability Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to prevent disruption of the critical networks in Space Command, a vulnerability assessment must be performed. This thesis proposes a technique for vulnerability assessment of a multi-disciplined network consisting of components that satisfy prim...

K. Wallace

1999-01-01

45

A comparative analysis of several vulnerability concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative analysis of six vulnerability models aims to identify differences and similarities between several approaches\\u000a towards understanding vulnerability. The analysis yields a set of characteristics for explaining the condition of vulnerability\\u000a (multiple contexts, multiple dimensions, temporal variability, multiple scales and scale-interdependency). In addition, ‘adaptation’\\u000a and ‘adaptive capacity’ are identified as key elements of vulnerability. The results of the analysis

Gabi Hufschmidt

2011-01-01

46

An automated framework for managing security vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to look at unpatched software which represents a significant problem for internet-based systems, with a myriad malware incidents and hacker exploits taking advantage of vulnerable targets. Unfortunately, vulnerability management is a non-trivial task, and is complicated by an increasing number of vulnerabilities and the workload implications associated with handling the associated security advisories and updates.

A. Al-ayed; Steven Furnell; D. Zhao; Paul Dowland

2005-01-01

47

Internet Security, Vulnerability Disclosure and Software Provision  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we examine how software vulnerabilities affect firms that license software and consumers that purchase software. In particular, we model three decisions of the firm: (i) an upfront investment in the quality of the software to reduce potential vulnerabilities; (ii) a policy decision whether to announce vulnerabilities; and (iii) a price for the software. We also model two

Jay-Pil Choi; Chaim Fershtman; Neil Gandal

2005-01-01

48

Spatial differences in drought vulnerability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drought causes the highest economic losses among all hydro-meteorological events in Croatia. It is the most frequent hazard, which produces the highest damages in the agricultural sector. The climate assessment in Croatia according to the aridity index (defined as the ratio of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration) shows that the susceptibility to desertification is present in the warm part of the year and it is mostly pronounced in the Adriatic region and the eastern Croatia lowland. The evidence of more frequent extreme drought events in the last decade is apparent. These facts were motivation to study the drought risk assessment in Croatia. One step in this issue is the construction of the vulnerability map. This map is a complex combination of the geomorphologic and climatological inputs (maps) that are presumed to be natural factors which modify the amount of moisture in the soil. In this study, the first version of the vulnerability map is followed by the updated one that additionally includes the soil types and the land use classes. The first input considered is the geomorphologic slope angle calculated from the digital elevation model (DEM). The SRTM DEM of 100 m resolution is used. The steeper slopes are more likely to lose water and to become dryer. The second climatological parameter, the solar irradiation map, gives for the territory of Croatia the maximum irradiation on the coast. The next meteorological parameter that influences the drought vulnerability is precipitation which is in this assessment included through the precipitation variability expressed by the coefficient of variation. Larger precipitation variability is related with the higher drought vulnerability. The preliminary results for Croatia, according to the recommended procedure in the framework of Drought Management Centre for Southeastern Europe (DMCSEE project), show the most sensitive areas to drought in the southern Adriatic coast and eastern continental lowland.

Per?ec Tadi?, M.; Cindi?, K.; Gaji?-?apka, M.; Zaninovi?, K.

2012-04-01

49

Metadata for selecting or submitting generic seismic vulnerability functions via GEM's vulnerability database  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This memo lays out a procedure for the GEM software to offer an available vulnerability function for any acceptable set of attributes that the user specifies for a particular building category. The memo also provides general guidelines on how to submit the vulnerability or fragility functions to the GEM vulnerability repository, stipulating which attributes modelers must provide so that their vulnerability or fragility functions can be queried appropriately by the vulnerability database. An important objective is to provide users guidance on limitations and applicability by providing the associated modeling assumptions and applicability of each vulnerability or fragility function.

Jaiswal, Kishor

2013-01-01

50

Dynamics of immune system vulnerabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adaptive immune system can be viewed as a complex system, which adapts, over time, to reflect the history of infections experienced by the organism. Understanding its operation requires viewing it in terms of tradeoffs under constraints and evolutionary history. It typically displays "robust, yet fragile" behavior, meaning common tasks are robust to small changes but novel threats or changes in environment can have dire consequences. In this dissertation we use mechanistic models to study several biological processes: the immune response, the homeostasis of cells in the lymphatic system, and the process that normally prevents autoreactive cells from entering the lymphatic system. Using these models we then study the effects of these processes interacting. We show that the mechanisms that regulate the numbers of cells in the immune system, in conjunction with the immune response, can act to suppress autoreactive cells from proliferating, thus showing quantitatively how pathogenic infections can suppress autoimmune disease. We also show that over long periods of time this same effect can thin the repertoire of cells that defend against novel threats, leading to an age correlated vulnerability. This vulnerability is shown to be a consequence of system dynamics, not due to degradation of immune system components with age. Finally, modeling a specific tolerance mechanism that normally prevents autoimmune disease, in conjunction with models of the immune response and homeostasis we look at the consequences of the immune system mistakenly incorporating pathogenic molecules into its tolerizing mechanisms. The signature of this dynamic matches closely that of the dengue virus system.

Stromberg, Sean P.

51

Scenarios for coastal vulnerability assessment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coastal vulnerability assessments tend to focus mainly on climate change and especially on sea-level rise. Assessment of the influence of nonclimatic environmental change or socioeconomic change is less well developed and these drivers are often completely ignored. Given that the most profound coastal changes of the twentieth century due to nonclimate drivers are likely to continue through the twenty-first century, this is a major omission. It may result in not only overstating the importance of climate change but also overlooking significant interactions of climate change and other drivers. To support the development of policies relating to climate change and coastal management, integrated assessments of climatic change in coastal areas are required, including the effects of all the relevant drivers. This chapter explores the development of scenarios (or "plausible futures") of relevant climate and nonclimate drivers that can be used for coastal analysis, with an emphasis on the nonclimate drivers. It shows the importance of analyzing the impacts of climate change and sea-level rise in a broader context of coastal change and all its drivers. This will improve the analysis of impacts, key vulnerabilities, and adaptation needs and, hence, inform climate and coastal policy. Stakeholder engagement is important in the development of scenarios, and the underlying assumptions need to be explicit, transparent, and open to scientific debate concerning their uncertainties/realism and likelihood.

Nicholls, Robert J.; Woodroffe, Colin D.; Burkett, Virginia; Hay, John; Wong, Poh Poh; Nurse, Leonard

2011-01-01

52

Assessing human vulnerability: Daytime residential distribution as a vulnerability indicator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural hazard risk management is based on detailed information on potential impacts of natural hazards. Especially concerning fast onset hazards such as flash floods, earthquakes but also debris flows and landslides, knowing potential hotspots of impact to both, assets and human lives is essential. This information is important for emergency management and decision making in the response phase of the disaster management cycle. Emergency managers are in need of information regarding not only the number of humans being potentially affected but also the respective vulnerability of the group affected based on characteristics such as age, income, health condition, mobility, etc. regarding a certain hazard. The analysis presented focuses on the distribution of the population, assuming a certain pattern of people in a certain radius of action. The method applied is based on a regular pattern of movement of different groups of people and a pattern of presence in certain units, e.g. schools, businesses or residential buildings. The distribution is calculated on a minimum of available data including the average household size, as well as information on building types. The study area is located in the Southwest of Lower Austria, Austria. The city of Waidhofen/Ybbs can be regarded as a regional center providing basic infrastructure, shops and schools. The high concentration of buildings combining shops and residential units leads to a high damage potential throughout the whole study area. The presented results indicate the population distribution within the study area on an average working day. It is clear that explicitly high numbers of people are located in specific buildings (e.g. schools and hospitals) which also include highly vulnerable groups especially to fast onset hazards. The results provide emergency services with the information that they need in order to intervene directly where large numbers of victims or people that need to be evacuated are located. In this way, emergency services can focus and prioritize their actions in order to save lives and reduce the number of potential victims.

Gokesch, Karin; Promper, Catrin; Papathoma-Köhle, Maria; Glade, Thomas

2014-05-01

53

Healthcare vulnerabilities to electromagnetic pulse.  

PubMed

The U.S. healthcare system is particularly vulnerable to the effects of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) attack because of the system's technological sophistication, but while national defense planners prepare for the considerable threat that EMP poses, there has been little or no recognition of this threat within the US healthcare community, and neither has there been any significant healthcare planning to deal with such an eventuality. Recognition of the risk presented by EMP, and advance institution of appropriate strategies to mitigate its effects on the healthcare system, could enable the preservation of much of that system's function in the face of EMP-related disruptions, and will greatly further all-hazards disaster preparations. PMID:19202885

Ross, Lenard H; Mihelic, F Matthew

2008-01-01

54

Proliferation Vulnerability Red Team report  

SciTech Connect

This report is the product of a four-month independent technical assessment of potential proliferation vulnerabilities associated with the plutonium disposition alternatives currently under review by DOE/MD. The scope of this MD-chartered/Sandia-led study was limited to technical considerations that could reduce proliferation resistance during various stages of the disposition processes below the Stored Weapon/Spent Fuel standards. Both overt and covert threats from host nation and unauthorized parties were considered. The results of this study will be integrated with complementary work by others into an overall Nonproliferation and Arms Control Assessment in support of a Secretarial Record of Decision later this year for disposition of surplus U.S. weapons plutonium.

Hinton, J.P.; Barnard, R.W.; Bennett, D.E. [and others

1996-10-01

55

Saudis awaken to their vulnerability  

SciTech Connect

Saudi Arabia is becoming aware that it is vulnerable to internal and external pressures which threaten its security. The strains of rapid modernization and threats from hostile neighbors are undermining the consensus which has held the widely diverse country together in a system of open communication. Influence by the Bedouin (ruling) and the ulama (religious) groups has predominated a traditional society determined to modernize and still remain conservative. Members of the ruling class are seeking to profit from the modernization process, but the common Saudi resists becoming an industrial laborer. Recent events in Mecca, Afghanistan and elsewhere illustrate how political pressures are affecting the country's leadership in the threat of armed conflicts over its oil supplies. (DCK)

Tinnin, D.B.

1980-03-10

56

Training Security Assurance Teams Using Vulnerability Injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Writing secure Web applications is a complex task. In fact, a vast majority of Web applications are likely to have security vulnerabilities that can be exploited using simple tools like a common Web browser. This represents a great danger as the attacks may have disastrous consequences to organizations, harming their assets and reputation. To mitigate these vulnerabilities, security code inspections

José Fonseca; Marco Vieira; Henrique Madeira; M. Henrique

2008-01-01

57

Using supervision to protect vulnerable families.  

PubMed

Sandwell Health Visiting Service identified difficulties in recruiting and retaining health visiting staff and fully meeting the needs of vulnerable families. Following the Laming report, the decision was made to introduce health visiting supervision leads. This resulted in improvements in record keeping and care planning and in better protection and support for vulnerable families. PMID:24371880

Sagoo, Mandy; O'Reilly, Jane; Rawlings, Monique

58

Model-Based Analysis of Configuration Vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vulnerability analysis is concerned with the problem of identifying weaknesses in computer systems that can be exploited to compromise their security. In this paper we describe a new approach to vulnerability analysis based on model checking. Our approach involves: • Formal specification of desired security properties. An example of such a property is \\

C. R. Ramakrishnan; R. C. Sekar

2002-01-01

59

Infrastructure Vulnerability Assessment Model (I-VAM).  

PubMed

Quantifying vulnerability to critical infrastructure has not been adequately addressed in the literature. Thus, the purpose of this article is to present a model that quantifies vulnerability. Vulnerability is defined as a measure of system susceptibility to threat scenarios. This article asserts that vulnerability is a condition of the system and it can be quantified using the Infrastructure Vulnerability Assessment Model (I-VAM). The model is presented and then applied to a medium-sized clean water system. The model requires subject matter experts (SMEs) to establish value functions and weights, and to assess protection measures of the system. Simulation is used to account for uncertainty in measurement, aggregate expert assessment, and to yield a vulnerability (Omega) density function. Results demonstrate that I-VAM is useful to decisionmakers who prefer quantification to qualitative treatment of vulnerability. I-VAM can be used to quantify vulnerability to other infrastructures, supervisory control and data acquisition systems (SCADA), and distributed control systems (DCS). PMID:17640208

Ezell, Barry Charles

2007-06-01

60

Callahan's Vulnerability Thesis and "Dissatisfaction Theory."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In discussing school superintendent vulnerability, the paper addresses diverse meanings among scholars of Callahan's vulnerability thesis, highlighting other articles within this theme issue. The paper reflects on discussions of Callahan's "Education and the Cult of Efficacy" before its 1962 publication and investigates the relation between…

Iannaccone, Laurence

1996-01-01

61

Network Security Vulnerabilities in SCADA and EMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power system deregulation brings broader reliance on information systems and telecommunication network to share the critical and non-critical data. In par with the network system expansion in power system, network security vulnerabilities have increased tremendously. Utilities are currently more vulnerable for external attacks due to integration of cooperate network and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system at modern utilities.

M. T. O. Amanullah; A. Kalam; A. Zayegh

2005-01-01

62

Ecosystem Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vulnerability is the degree to which human and environmental systems are likely to experience harm due to a perturbation or a stress. In the last years, it has become a central focus of the global change (including climate change). The climate change literature contains many explanations of vulnerability, stemming from the notion of sensitivity to more complex ideas, yet taking

Romain Lardy; Raphaël Martin; Bruno Bachelet; David R. C. Hill; Gianni Bellocchi

2012-01-01

63

learning security QA from the vulnerability researchers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every day, vulnerability researchers find and publicly disclose new vulnera- bilities for software products. Many of these products are made by vendors who assure us that they know how to create secure software. What makes it possible for a vulnerability researcher, who usually doesn't have access to design documentation or source code, to find these problems? He would seem to

Chris Wysopal

2003-01-01

64

6 CFR 27.400 - Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information. 27.400 Section... § 27.400 Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information. (a) Applicability...that constitute Chemical-terrorism Vulnerability Information (CVI), as...

2009-01-01

65

6 CFR 27.400 - Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information. 27.400 Section... § 27.400 Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information. (a) Applicability...that constitute Chemical-terrorism Vulnerability Information (CVI), as...

2010-01-01

66

6 CFR 27.215 - Security vulnerability assessments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-01-01 false Security vulnerability assessments. 27.215 Section...Security Program § 27.215 Security vulnerability assessments. (a) Initial Assessment...the facility must complete a Security Vulnerability Assessment. A Security...

2009-01-01

67

6 CFR 27.215 - Security vulnerability assessments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Security vulnerability assessments. 27.215 Section...Security Program § 27.215 Security vulnerability assessments. (a) Initial Assessment...the facility must complete a Security Vulnerability Assessment. A Security...

2010-01-01

68

Vulnerable populations and multicentred research.  

PubMed

There are many challenges facing researchers with projects requiring multicentred ethics approval. Achieving ethical approval at multiple sites, whether statewide or nationally, is a complex and time-consuming experience, compounded by the research process itself, as well as the recruitment of clinical sites and participants. Human ethics and research committees act as research gatekeepers and, as many research activities involve multiple applications and multiple approvals, can considerably delay the commencement of a project. A delay in ethics approval results in delays recruiting staff and participants, delays in the utilization of funding, and in delays regarding the progress and completion of projects. Such problems are additional problems for researchers of vulnerable populations, such as those in mental health or palliative care, where multicentred research is necessary to ensure the validity of the project itself. A current example of work that has required multicentred human ethics and research approval from around Australia is the establishment of the National Register of Antipsychotic Medication in Pregnancy. The guidelines for embarking on such a project with the requirement of multicentred ethical approval are described. Some of the issues, recommendations, and guidelines presented by the authors are taken from their experiences in establishing multicentred research projects. PMID:19290974

McCauley-Elsom, Kay; Gurvich, Caroline; Lee, Susan; Elsom, Stephen; O'Connor, Margaret; Kulkarni, Jayashri

2009-04-01

69

Spatial scan statistics in vulnerability assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the European Alps the concept of risk has increasingly been applied in order to reduce the susceptibility of society to mountain hazards. Risk is defined as a function of the magnitude and frequency of a hazard process times consequences; the latter being quantified by the value of elements at risk exposed and their vulnerability. Vulnerability means the degree of loss to a given element at risk resulting from the impact of a natural hazard. Recent empirical studies suggested a dependency of the degree of loss on the hazard impact, and respective vulnerability (or damage-loss) functions were developed. However, until now only little information is available on the spatial characteristics of vulnerability on a local scale; considerable ranges in the loss ratio for medium process intensities only provide a hint that there might me mutual reasons for lower or higher loss rates. In this paper we therefore focus on the spatial dimension of vulnerability by searching for spatial clusters in the damage ratio of elements at risk exposed. By using the software SaTScan, we applied an ordinal data model and a normal data model in order to detect spatial distribution patterns of five individual torrent events in Austria. For both models, we detected some significant clusters of high damage ratios, and consequently high vulnerability. Moreover, secondary clusters of high and low values were found. Based on our results, the assumption that lower process intensities result in lower damage ratios, and therefore in lower vulnerability, and vice versa, has to be partly rejected. The spatial distribution of vulnerability is not only dependent on the process intensities but also on the overall land use pattern and the individual constructive characteristics of the buildings exposed. Generally we suggest the use of a normal data model for test sites exceeding a minimum of 30 elements at risk exposed. As such, the study enhanced our understanding of spatial vulnerability patterns on a local scale.

Fuchs, Sven; Ornetsmüller, Christine

2013-04-01

70

Vulnerability of networks of interacting Markov chains.  

PubMed

The concept of vulnerability is introduced for a model of random, dynamical interactions on networks. In this model, known as the influence model, the nodes are arranged in an arbitrary network, while the evolution of the status at a node is according to an internal Markov chain, but with transition probabilities that depend not only on the current status of that node but also on the statuses of the neighbouring nodes. Vulnerability is treated analytically and numerically for several networks with different topological structures, as well as for two real networks--the network of infrastructures and the EU power grid--identifying the most vulnerable nodes of these networks. PMID:20368242

Kocarev, L; Zlatanov, N; Trajanov, D

2010-05-13

71

ICBM vulnerability: Calculations, predictions, and error bars  

SciTech Connect

The theory of intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) silo vulnerability is reviewed, and the present and probable future (mid-1990s) vulnerability of US silos is analyzed. The analysis emphasizes methodology, sources of information, and uncertainties. US ICBMs might still be survivable today but they will certainly be vulnerable to ICBM attack, and perhaps even to submarine-launched ballistic missile attack, by the mid-1990s. These calculations are presented not only for their immediate importance but also to introduce other physicists to some of the quantitative methods that can be used to analyze international security topics.

Hobson, A.

1988-09-01

72

Anatomy of Cyberterrorism: Is America Vulnerable.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States is vulnerable to attacks from cyberterrorists. A 'Digital World Trade Center Attack', possibly killing thousands and causing billions of dollars in damage. This paper will provide fundamental background information on what cyberterror is...

B. K. Ashley

2003-01-01

73

The Evolving Vulnerability of Electric Power Grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A perspective is provided on design decisions in the electric power grid infrastructure and the formative role this has had in greatly increasing the vulnerability of this critical infrastructure to space weather disturbances.

John Kappenman

2004-01-01

74

Global health, vulnerable populations, and law.  

PubMed

Given the fragility of individual and population wellbeing in an interdependent world threatened by many overlapping crises, the suggestion is made that new legal mechanisms have the robust potential to reduce human vulnerability locally and globally. PMID:23581656

Benatar, Solomon R

2013-01-01

75

Using vulnerability assessments to define upgrade actions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Determining appropriate and cost-effective upgrades for safeguards and security (S&S) systems is demanding activity. The process requires that specific weaknesses be recognized through a vulnerability assessment (VA), candidate upgrades be identified, thr...

C. J. Udell M. P. Billings B. J. Layman R. A. Schultheiss

1990-01-01

76

Survey of Satellite Communications System Vulnerabilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. military's increasing reliance on commercial and military communications satellites to enable widely-dispersed, mobile forces to communicate makes these space assets increasingly vulnerable to attack by adversaries. Attacks on these satellites co...

J. A. Steinberger

2008-01-01

77

Managing the Health Needs of Vulnerable Children.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project applied qualitative methods to gain insight into the experiences of vulnerable childrens families: how they define their childrens health needs, decisions regarding where and when to seek care, and their experiences with care received.

E. J. Sobo M. Seid

2003-01-01

78

Chimpanzees as vulnerable subjects in research.  

PubMed

Using an approach developed in the context of human bioethics, we argue that chimpanzees in research can be regarded as vulnerable subjects. This vulnerability is primarily due to communication barriers and situational factors-confinement and dependency-that make chimpanzees particularly susceptible to risks of harm and exploitation in experimental settings. In human research, individuals who are deemed vulnerable are accorded special protections. Using conceptual and moral resources developed in the context of research with vulnerable humans, we show how chimpanzees warrant additional safeguards against harm and exploitation paralleling those for human subjects. These safeguards should include empowering third parties to act as surrogate decision makers for chimpanzees, ensuring participant "assent," and avoiding recruitment of animal subjects based merely on convenience. PMID:24610230

Johnson, Jane; Barnard, Neal D

2014-04-01

79

Community vulnerability to volcanic hazard consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores some psychological aspects of community vulnerability following the 1995 and 1996 eruptions at Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand. A model comprising three psychological factors (sense of community, coping style and self-efficacy) is used to investigate this issue. The results suggest that self-efficacy and problem-focused coping reduce vulnerability and that this model has a role to play in identifying

Marian Miller; Douglas Paton; David Johnston

1999-01-01

80

Configuration Fuzzing for Software Vulnerability Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Many,software security vulnerabilities only reveal themselves under certain conditions, i.e., particular configu- rations of the software,together,with its particular runtime environment.,One approach,to detecting these vulnerabilities is fuzz testing, which feeds a range of randomly modified inputs to a software application while monitoring,it for failures. However, typical fuzz testing makes no guarantees regarding the syntactic and semantic validity of the input, or

Huning Dai; Christian Murphy; Gail E. Kaiser

2010-01-01

81

CYBER\\/PHYSICAL SECURITY VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT INTEGRATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This internally funded Laboratory-Directed R&D project by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in conjunction with QinetiQ North America, is intended to identify and properly assess areas of overlap (and interaction) in the vulnerability assessment process between cyber security and physical protection. Existing vulnerability analysis (VA) processes and software tools exist, and these are heavily utilized in the determination of predicted

Douglas G. MacDonald; Brad Key; Samuel L. Clements; William J. Hutton; Philip A. Craig; Scott W. Patrick; Cary E. Crawford

2011-01-01

82

Vulnerable or Resilient? A Multi-Scale Assessment of Climate Impacts and Vulnerability in Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the issue of climate vulnerability in Norway, an affluent country that is generally considered to be resilient\\u000a to the impacts of climate change. In presenting a multi-scale assessment of climate change impacts and vulnerability in Norway,\\u000a we show that the concept of vulnerability depends on the scale of analysis. Both exposure and the distribution of climate\\u000a sensitive

Karen O'Brien; Linda Sygna; Jan Erik Haugen

2004-01-01

83

Vulnerability assessment of mining subsidence hazards.  

PubMed

Between 1996 and 1999, five mining subsidence events occurred in the iron-ore field in Lorraine, France, and damaged several hundred buildings. Because of the thousand hectares of undermined areas, an assessment of the vulnerability of buildings and land is necessary for risk management. Risk assessment methods changed from initial risk management decisions that took place immediately after the mining subsidence to the risk assessment studies that are currently under consideration. These changes reveal much about the complexity of the vulnerability concept and about difficulties in developing simple and relevant methods for its assessment. The objective of this article is to present this process, suggest improvements on the basis of theoretical definitions of the vulnerability, and give an operational example of vulnerability assessment in the seismic field. The vulnerability is divided into three components: weakness, stakes value, and resilience. Final improvements take into account these three components and constitute an original method of assessing the vulnerability of a city to subsidence. PMID:19473313

Deck, Olivier; Verdel, Thierry; Salmon, Romuald

2009-10-01

84

Drought vulnerability assesssment and mapping in Morocco  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drought vulnerability assessment and mapping in Morocco Authors: Yasmina Imani 1, Ouiam Lahlou 1, Si Bennasser Alaoui 1 Paulo Barbosa 2, Jurgen Vogt 2, Gustavo Naumann 2 1: Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II (IAV Hassan II), Rabat Morocco. 2: European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Environment and Sustainability (IES), Ispra, Italy. In Morocco, nearly 50% of the population lives in rural areas. They are mostly small subsistent farmers whose production depends almost entirely on rainfall. They are therefore very sensitive to drought episodes that may dramatically affect their incomes. Although, as a consequence of the increasing frequency, length and severity of drought episodes in the late 90's, the Moroccan government decided, to move on from a crisis to a risk management approach, drought management remains in practice mainly reactive and often ineffective. The lack of effectiveness of public policy is in part a consequence of the poor understanding of drought vulnerability at the rural community level, which prevents the development of efficient mitigation actions and adaptation strategies, tailored to the needs and specificities of each rural community. Thus, the aim of this study is to assess and map drought vulnerability at the rural commune level in the Oum Er-Rbia basin which is a very heterogeneous basin, showing a big variability of climates, landscapes, cropping systems and social habits. Agricultural data collected from the provincial and local administrations of Agriculture and socio-economic data from the National Department of Statistics were used to compute a composite vulnerability index (DVI) integrating four different components: (i) the renewable natural capacity, (ii) the economic capacity, (iii) human and civic resources, and (iv) infrastructure and technology. The drought vulnerability maps that were derived from the computation of the DVI shows that except very specific areas, most of the Oum er Rbia basin is highly vulnerable to drought. The mountainous areas present the most favorable annual rainfall. That contributes to explain their low DVI. In the provinces that present the highest vulnerability to drought, spots presenting a lower vulnerability correspond to large irrigated perimeters. Overall, the main output of this study were to show how the DVI can allow detecting the differences in vulnerability in the different rural communes providing, therefore, a tool for more effective drought management practices. The analysis of the 4 dimensions of the DVI showed that at the river basin level, the mean annual rainfall, the percentage of irrigated lands, The Cereal / Fruit trees and market crops ratio, the land status, the farm's sizes, the adult literacy rate and the access to improved drinking water represent the major drivers of vulnerability. They may therefore be targeted in priority by mitigation and adaptation actions.

Imani, Yasmina; Lahlou, Ouiam; Bennasser Alaoui, Si; Naumann, Gustavo; Barbosa, Paulo; Vogt, Juergen

2014-05-01

85

A Practical Framework for Dynamically Immunizing Software Security Vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many security attacks are caused by software vulnerabilities such as buffer overflow. How to eliminate or mitigate these vulnerabilities, in particular with unstoppable software, is a great challenge for security researchers and practitioners. In this paper, we propose a practical framework to immunize software security vulnerabilities on the fly. We achieve the vulnerability immunization by using a security antibody, which

Zhiqiang Lin; Bing Mao; Li Xie

2006-01-01

86

Memsherlock: an automated debugger for unknown memory corruption vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software vulnerabilities have been the main contributing factor to the Internet security problems such as fast spread- ing worms. Among these software vulnerabilities, memory corruption vulnerabilities such as buffer overflow and for- mat string bugs have been the most common ones exploited by network-based attacks. Many security countermeasures (e.g., patching, automatic signature generation for intrusion detection systems) require vulnerability information

Emre Can Sezer; Peng Ning; Chongkyung Kil; Jun Xu

2007-01-01

87

Research of Security Vulnerability in the Computer Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to solve the problem of security vulnerability in the computer network radically, it was studied for the cause of vulnerability. Solving scheme was put forward aim at one kind of vulnerability, that is, by the special scan and encryption techniques, it makes attacker can't bypass its access control. In this way, it can avoid the vulnerability caused by

Cuijiao Fu

2010-01-01

88

Drawing the line between targeting and patronizing: how “vulnerable” are the vulnerable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This article aims to address the nature of vulnerability and the basis for protecting certain audiences from targeted goods and services. It aims to evaluate the need for protection as well as marketers' defense that protection merely patronizes audiences. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This article cites published research that offers guidelines for determining vulnerability in the marketplace and examines conclusions

Joyce M. Wolburg

2005-01-01

89

Creativity and psychopathology: a shared vulnerability model.  

PubMed

Creativity is considered a positive personal trait. However, highly creative people have demonstrated elevated risk for certain forms of psychopathology, including mood disorders, schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and alcoholism. A model of shared vulnerability explains the relation between creativity and psychopathology. This model, supported by recent findings from neuroscience and molecular genetics, suggests that the biological determinants conferring risk for psychopathology interact with protective cognitive factors to enhance creative ideation. Elements of shared vulnerability include cognitive disinhibition (which allows more stimuli into conscious awareness), an attentional style driven by novelty salience, and neural hyperconnectivity that may increase associations among disparate stimuli. These vulnerabilities interact with superior meta-cognitive protective factors, such as high IQ, increased working memory capacity, and enhanced cognitive flexibility, to enlarge the range and depth of stimuli available in conscious awareness to be manipulated and combined to form novel and original ideas. PMID:21443821

Carson, Shelley H

2011-03-01

90

A framework for modeling rail transport vulnerability  

SciTech Connect

Railroads represent one of the most efficient methods of long-haul transport for bulk commodities, from coal to agricultural products. Over the past fifty years, the rail network has contracted while tonnage has increased. Service, geographically, has been abandoned along short haul routes and increased along major long haul routes, resulting in a network that is more streamlined. The current rail network may be very vulnerable to disruptions, like the failure of a trestle. This paper proposes a framework to model rail network vulnerability and gives an application of this modeling framework in analyzing rail network vulnerability for the State of Washington. It concludes with a number of policy related issues that need to be addressed in order to identify, plan, and mitigate the risks associated with the sudden loss of a bridge or trestle.

Peterson, Steven K [ORNL; Church, Richard L. [University of California, Santa Barbara

2008-01-01

91

Automatic Vulnerability Locating in Binary Patches  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an approach to locate the patched vulnerability by analyzing the differences between two versions of an executable file. The approach comprises two parts: finding the differences and auditing the differences. To find the differences, a heuristically method is presented to compute an isomorphism between two callgraphs, based on the definitions of similarity between functions, and the similarity

Yang Song; Yuqing Zhang; Yingfei Sun

2009-01-01

92

USMLE Step 1 Examination: Legal Vulnerability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1994 the Federation of State Medical Boards and the National Board of Medical Examiners instituted a three-step U.S. Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE). Step one of the USMLE may be vulnerable to legal challenge on the basis of minority group bias and lack of construct validity. (SLD)

Templeton, Bryce

1996-01-01

93

Security market: incentives for disclosure of vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previous paper by the author proposed a model for when disclosure helps or hurts security, and provided reasons why computer security is often different in this respect than physical security. This paper examines the incentives of actors to disclose vulnerabilities. A chief point of this paper is that the incentives of disclosure depend on two, largely independent, assessments -

Peter P. Swire

2005-01-01

94

Analysis of vulnerabilities in Internet firewalls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Firewalls protect a trusted network from an untrusted network by filtering traffic according to a specified security policy A diverse set of firewalls is being used today As it is infeasible to examine and test each firewall for all possible potential problems, a taxonomy is needed to understand firewall vulnerabilities in the context of firewall operations This paper describes

Seny Kamara; Sonia Fahmy; E. Eugene Schultz; Florian Kerschbaum; Michael Frantzen

2003-01-01

95

ANALYSING FLOOD VULNERABLE AREAS WITH MULTICRITERIA EVALUATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell-based Multicriteria Evaluation (MCE) methods are used to analyse the flood vulnerable areas. Flood disaster has a very special place in natural hazards. Its effect area is not bounded; it is an unusual event of a river basin. The aim in integrating Multicriteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) is to provide more flexible and more accurate decisions

G. Yalcin; Z. Akyurek

96

Modelling Community Evacuation Vulnerability Using GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method for systematically identifying neighbourhoods that may face transportation di Yculties during an evacuation. A classi® cation of this nature o Vers a unique approach to assessing community vulnerability in regions subject to fast-moving hazards of uncertain spatial impact (e.g., urban ® restorms and toxic spills on highways). The approach is founded on an integer programming (IP)

Thomas J. Cova; Richard L. Church

1997-01-01

97

Selective neuronal vulnerability during experimental scrapie infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal was to test whether all neurons are equally susceptible to degeneration in response to PrPSc scrapie infection. We tested this by immunogold GABA labeling. Our ultrastructural results indicates that GABAergic neurons are less vulnerable than other neuronal populations. This conclusion is supported by our findings: (1) reversal of the normal ratio of non-GABAergic to GABAergic neurons in the

Essia Bouzamondo; Antonia M. Milroy; Henry J. Ralston III; Stephen J. DeArmond

2000-01-01

98

Electric power grid structural vulnerability assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid development of economy and the increasing interdependence between national infrastructures, power system is becoming more and more complicated. Moreover, because of the deregulation of power system and the impact of power market, the deteriorated natural environment and the potential terrorism attack, power system is facing with more challenges and becomes more vulnerable than ever. So, It is

Mao Anji; Yu Jiaxi; Guo Zhizhong

2006-01-01

99

Protection and Fundamental Vulnerability of GNSS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—An increasing number of mobile applications and services require that devices are aware of their location. Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are the predominant en- abling technology. But location information provided by com- mercial GNSS is not secure, unlike what is the usual assumption. There are only few exceptions in the literature that present GNSS vulnerabilities. In this paper, we

Panagiotis Papadimitratos; Aleksandar Jovanovic

2008-01-01

100

REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT: A CONCEPTUAL APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (REVA) project is developing and testing an approach to conducting comparative ecological risk assessments at the regional scale. I't seeks an objective and quantifiable answer to answer the question, "What are the greatest threaten accompa...

101

Vulnerability Assessment of Cybersecurity for SCADA Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vulnerability assessment is a requirement of NERC's cybersecurity standards for electric power systems. The purpose is to study the impact of a cyber attack on supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. Compliance of the requirement to meet the standard has become increasingly challenging as the system becomes more dispersed in wide areas. Interdependencies between computer communication system and the

Chee-Wooi Ten; Chen-Ching Liu; Govindarasu Manimaran

2008-01-01

102

Climatic variability and vegetation vulnerability in Amazônia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models of climate change predict close coupling between increases in aridity and conversion of Amazonian forests to savanna. Here we assess the vulnerability and resilience of Amazonian vegetation to climate change by analyzing observed climate-vegetation relationships using climate data, observed vegetation distributions, and evapotranspiration rates inferred from eddy flux data. We found that drought frequency is an excellent predictor of

L. R. Hutyra; J. W. Munger; C. A. Nobre; S. R. Saleska; S. A. Vieira; S. C. Wofsy

2005-01-01

103

Scalable, graph-based network vulnerability analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even well administered networks are vulnerable to attack. Recent work in network security has focused on the fact that combinations of exploits are the typical means by which an attacker breaks into a network. Researchers have proposed a variety of graph-based algorithms to generate attack trees (or graphs). Either structure represents all possible sequences of exploits, where any given exploit

Paul Ammann; Duminda Wijesekera; Saket Kaushik

2002-01-01

104

Perceptions of Control in Vulnerable Populations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This journal issue brings together research on perceptions of control of several vulnerable populations, specifically children, lower level employees, the ill, and the aged. This introduction discusses positive outcomes associated with sense of control and identifies common themes found in work in this area. (SLD)

Thompson, Suzanne C.; Spacapan, Shirlynn

1991-01-01

105

Evaluating Youth Work with Vulnerable Young People.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the results of an 18-month research project that studied the effectiveness of youth work with vulnerable young people. The research, representing six distinct geographical areas of Scotland characterized by disadvantage, focused on young people aged 13 to 16. In each neighborhood, the project examined the experiences of young…

Furlong, Andy; Cartmel, Fred; Powney, Janet; Hall, Stuart

106

Perceived Vulnerability to Disease Predicts Environmental Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigating predictors of environmental attitudes may bring valuable benefits in terms of improving public awareness about biodiversity degradation and increased pro-environmental behaviour. Here we used an evolutionary approach to study environmental attitudes based on disease-threat model. We hypothesized that people vulnerable to diseases may…

Prokop, Pavol; Kubiatko, Milan

2014-01-01

107

Integrated methodology for sabotage vulnerability assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A methodology that provides an estimate of vulnerability to sabotage involving multiple targets in different locations is developed. The technique is a synthesis of fault tree analysis and a pathing algorithm. The fault tree is used to identify cut sets o...

T. A. Edmunds

1992-01-01

108

Who's Vulnerable in Infant Child Care Centers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that infants and toddlers, parents, and child caregivers are vulnerable to a variety of infectious diseases from infant-toddler child care centers. These diseases include infectious diarrhea; rubella; cytomeglovirus; hepatitis A, and haemophilus influenza type B. Suggests ways to prevent the spread of such diseases. (BB)

Kendall, Earline D.; Moukaddem, Virginia E.

1992-01-01

109

Measuring Quality of Care for Vulnerable Children.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research sought to develop and test measures of quality of care for vulnerable children through two aims: (1) To validate the PedsQL(trademark) as an outcome measure of quality of healthcare services; (2) To develop and validate a non-categorical mea...

M. Seid

2002-01-01

110

Statistics Hacking - Exploiting Vulnerabilities in News Websites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We analyze and discuss a vulnerability in leading news websites, that can lead to modification of the system statistics by malicious users (statistics hacking). We outline two broad categories of methods that can counter statistics hacking. The first category consists of many methods already available to distinguish human users from computers. We compare the different methods within this category

Amrinder Arora

2007-01-01

111

Web vulnerability study of online pharmacy sites.  

PubMed

Consumers are increasingly using online pharmacies, but these sites may not provide an adequate level of security with the consumers' personal data. There is a gap in this research addressing the problems of security vulnerabilities in this industry. The objective is to identify the level of web application security vulnerabilities in online pharmacies and the common types of flaws, thus expanding on prior studies. Technical, managerial and legal recommendations on how to mitigate security issues are presented. The proposed four-step method first consists of choosing an online testing tool. The next steps involve choosing a list of 60 online pharmacy sites to test, and then running the software analysis to compile a list of flaws. Finally, an in-depth analysis is performed on the types of web application vulnerabilities. The majority of sites had serious vulnerabilities, with the majority of flaws being cross-site scripting or old versions of software that have not been updated. A method is proposed for the securing of web pharmacy sites, using a multi-phased approach of technical and managerial techniques together with a thorough understanding of national legal requirements for securing systems. PMID:21208091

Kuzma, Joanne

2011-01-01

112

Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group Report  

SciTech Connect

This report marks the culmination of a 4-month review conducted to identify chemical safety vulnerabilities existing at DOE facilities. This review is an integral part of DOE's efforts to raise its commitment to chemical safety to the same level as that for nuclear safety.

Not Available

1994-09-01

113

DEMONSTRATING APPLICATIONS OF REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This task is designed to respond to 2 Congressional earmarks of $1,000,000 to the Canaan Valley Institute (CVI) to work in close coordination with the Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) initiative to develop research and educational tools using integrative technologies to p...

114

77 FR 28894 - Maritime Vulnerability Self-Assessment Tool  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...must conduct a vulnerability assessment and submit a security plan...specifically to meet the security assessment requirements mandated by MTSA...loss of life, environmental damage, transportation system disruption...support their vulnerability assessments. However, usage has...

2012-05-16

115

On the Library and Information Literacy Education of Vulnerable Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper defines and classifies vulnerable groups, elaborates the necessity of information literacy education of vulnerable groups, analyzes the feasibility for the library to carry out the education, and then discusses specific measures taken by the library to fulfill it.

Zhu, Tian-hui

2009-01-01

116

Vulnerability Assessment Using a Fuzzy Logic Based Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis demonstrates the feasibility of using qualitative analysis methods to evaluate computer security vulnerabilities. Although many risk analysis systems exist, few provide for the adequate analysis of identified vulnerabilities. While the main fo...

R. W. Fleming

1993-01-01

117

An empirical investigation into open source web applications' implementation vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current web applications have many inherent vulnerabilities; in fact, in 2008, over 63% of all documented vulnerabilities\\u000a are for web applications. While many approaches have been proposed to address various web application vulnerability issues,\\u000a there has not been a study to investigate whether these vulnerabilities share any common properties. In this paper, we use\\u000a an approach similar to the Goal-Question-Metric

Toan Huynh; James Miller

2010-01-01

118

Vendor System Vulnerability Testing Test Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) prepared this generic test plan to provide clients (vendors, end users, program sponsors, etc.) with a sense of the scope and depth of vulnerability testing performed at the INL’s Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Test Bed and to serve as an example of such a plan. Although this test plan specifically addresses vulnerability testing of systems applied to the energy sector (electric/power transmission and distribution and oil and gas systems), it is generic enough to be applied to control systems used in other critical infrastructures such as the transportation sector, water/waste water sector, or hazardous chemical production facilities. The SCADA Test Bed is established at the INL as a testing environment to evaluate the security vulnerabilities of SCADA systems, energy management systems (EMS), and distributed control systems. It now supports multiple programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, other government agencies, and private sector clients. This particular test plan applies to testing conducted on a SCADA/EMS provided by a vendor. Before performing detailed vulnerability testing of a SCADA/EMS, an as delivered baseline examination of the system is conducted, to establish a starting point for all-subsequent testing. The series of baseline tests document factory delivered defaults, system configuration, and potential configuration changes to aid in the development of a security plan for in depth vulnerability testing. The baseline test document is provided to the System Provider,a who evaluates the baseline report and provides recommendations to the system configuration to enhance the security profile of the baseline system. Vulnerability testing is then conducted at the SCADA Test Bed, which provides an in-depth security analysis of the Vendor’s system.b a. The term System Provider replaces the name of the company/organization providing the system being evaluated. This can be the system manufacturer, a system user, or a third party organization such as a government agency. b. The term Vendor (or Vendor’s) System replaces the name of the specific SCADA/EMS being tested.

James R. Davidson

2005-01-01

119

Reconceptualizing Vulnerability in Personal Narrative Writing with Youths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through a student/teacher classroom conflict, the author explores ways adults produce student writers as vulnerable. Drawing on post-structural concepts of adolescence, identity production, interrogation, and vulnerability, the author details how an English teacher invited students to perform vulnerability in personal narratives about issues like…

Johnson, Elisabeth

2014-01-01

120

An Empirical Measure of Computer Security Strength for Vulnerability Remediation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Remediating all vulnerabilities on computer systems in a timely and cost effective manner is difficult given that the window of time between the announcement of a new vulnerability and an automated attack has decreased. Hence, organizations need to prioritize the vulnerability remediation process on their computer systems. The goal of this…

Villegas, Rafael

2010-01-01

121

A new vulnerability evaluation model to electric power grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

With scale spreading continually and components complicating gradually, security analysis to electric power grid had been a focus. Based on existing researches of electric power grid vulnerability, respectively definitions and new evaluation models of running state vulnerability and structural vulnerability were presented. Then a new evaluation thought combining intensity of state variable and structural character of component was proposed, and

Zhenbo Wei; Junyong Liu; Mai He; Guojun Zhu

2009-01-01

122

Organizational vulnerability: New perspective in risk management research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we argue that vulnerability is a new perspective in risk management. Organizational vulnerability is identified by lack of adaptive capacity and resilience and these two elements determine the success of organizational risk management simultaneously. We believe that emerging insights into organizational vulnerability complement and can significantly add to a converging research agenda on the challenges faced by

Wenwen Liu; Yongjie Zhu; Yihua Wang

2011-01-01

123

Why different interpretations of vulnerability matter in climate change discourses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we discuss how two interpretations of vulnerability in the climate change literature are manifestations of different discourses and framings of the climate change problem. The two differing interpretations, conceptualized here as ‘outcome vulnerability’ and ‘contextual vulnerability’, are linked respectively to a scientific framing and a human-security framing. Each framing prioritizes the production of different types of knowledge,

KAREN OBRIEN; SIRI ERIKSEN; LYNN P. NYGAARD; ANE SCHJOLDEN

2007-01-01

124

The Hazards of Indicators: Insights from the Environmental Vulnerability Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early 1990s a number of projects have developed indexes to measure vulnerability to environmental change. This article investigates the key conceptual and methodological problems associated with such indexes. It examines in detail an index that explicitly addresses environmental change as an issue of vulnerability, the Environmental Vulnerability Index (EVI) developed by the South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC).

Jon Barnett; Simon Lambert; Ian Fry

2008-01-01

125

Assessing Vulnerabilities in Apache and IIS HTTP Servers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the feasibility of quantitatively characterizing the vulnerabilities in the two major HTTP servers. In particular, we investigate the applicability of quantitative empirical models to the vulnerabilities discovery process for these servers. Such models can allow us to predict the number of vulnerabilities that may potentially be present in a server but may not yet have been found. The

Sung-whan Woo; Omar H. Alhazmi; Yashwant K. Malaiya

2006-01-01

126

Influence of microcalcifications on vulnerable plaque mechanics using FSI modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudden heart attacks remain one of the primary causes of premature death in the developed world. Asymptomatic vulnerable plaques that rupture are believed to prompt such fatal heart attacks and strokes. The role of microcalcifications in the vulnerable plaque rupture mechanics is still debated. Recent studies suggest the microcalcifications increase the plaque vulnerability. In this manuscript we present a numerical

Danny Bluestein; Yared Alemu; Idit Avrahami; Morteza Gharib; Kris Dumont; John J. Ricotta; Shmuel Einav

127

Information systems vulnerability: A systems analysis perspective  

SciTech Connect

Vulnerability analyses for information systems are complicated because the systems are often geographically distributed. Sandia National Laboratories has assembled an interdisciplinary team to explore the applicability of probabilistic logic modeling (PLM) techniques (including vulnerability and vital area analysis) to examine the risks associated with networked information systems. The authors have found that the reliability and failure modes of many network technologies can be effectively assessed using fault trees and other PLM methods. The results of these models are compatible with an expanded set of vital area analysis techniques that can model both physical locations and virtual (logical) locations to identify both categories of vital areas simultaneously. These results can also be used with optimization techniques to direct the analyst toward the most cost-effective security solution.

Wyss, G.D.; Daniel, S.L.; Schriner, H.K.; Gaylor, T.R.

1996-07-01

128

Contributions of Serotonin in Addiction Vulnerability  

PubMed Central

The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) system has long been associated with mood and its dysregulation implicated in the pathophysiology of mood and anxiety disorders. While modulation of 5-HT neurotransmission by drugs of abuse is also recognized, its role in drug addiction and vulnerability to drug relapse is a more recent focus of investigation. First, we review preclinical data supporting the serotonergic raphe nuclei and their forebrain projections as targets of drugs of abuse, with emphasis on the effects of psychostimulants, opioids and ethanol. Next, we examine the role of 5-HT receptors in impulsivity, a core behavior that contributes to the vulnerability to addiction and relapse. Finally, we discuss evidence for serotonergic dysregulation in comorbid mood and addictive disorders and suggest novel serotonergic targets for the treatment of addiction and the prevention of drug relapse.

Kirby, LG; Zeeb, FD; Winstanley, CA

2011-01-01

129

The Vulnerable Faces of Pathological Gambling  

PubMed Central

Pathological gambling is an emerging psychiatric disorder that has medical, psychiatric, and social consequences. Recently, research has been focusing on identifying which portions of the population are most vulnerable to developing problems related to ongoing gambling. Specific populations of interest have included adolescents, elderly, minorities, those with comorbid psychiatric or substance use disorders, and gender differences. Each group possesses unique biological, psychological, and/or social characteristics that confer a vulnerability to develop pathological gambling behaviors. Being able to recognize those who are at risk to become pathological gamblers is the first step toward developing effective prevention and early intervention programs. This is Part Two of a three-part series on pathological gambling. Part One appeared in the March issue of Psychiatry 2005.

2005-01-01

130

Vulnerability assessment in avalanche hazardous areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until a few decades ago, damages and human losses related to the avalanche risk represented only a small part of the destructive effects produced each year by natural events. Nowadays, on the contrary, the situation has considerably changed due to growing of the built-up areas and human presence in the mountain environment: this fact increases the current avalanche risk and puts snow avalanches and hydro-geological risks (floods, landslides, rock falls, etc…) at the same importance level. To mitigate the effects, Authorities provide both specific policies for urban development and mountain land use and simple but reliable methodologies to define the avalanche risk. As is well known, risk can be defined as the product of three factors: the environmental danger P (probability that a given phenomenon with its catastrophic intensity occurs in a specific area and time), the vulnerability V (degree of loss of one or more elements by a natural phenomenon of a known magnitude) and the exposure E (measure of the exposed value for each vulnerable element). A novel approach for the evaluation of the "Vulnerability factor" of a new or existing building under avalanche hazard by considering its structural (materials, strength and robustness, etc…) and architectural (shape, exposure, etc…) peculiarities is presented. A real avalanche event occurred in December, 2008 in Aosta Valley, which caused the total collapse of a building is taken as an example for tesing the effectiveness of the proposed risk assessment. By means of photographical analysis on undamaged parts, local surveys and debris arrangement, the impact pressure and the collapse dynamics are back-analyzed. The results are commented and comparisons between the damages and Vulnerability factor are made.

Frigo, B.; De Biagi, V.; Chiaia, B.

2012-04-01

131

Gene therapy for the vulnerable plaque  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rupture of coronary atherosclerotic plaque and subsequent formation of an occlusive intracoronary thrombus (Figure 410-1)\\u000a are the major events precipitating acute coronary syndromes [1–6]. The vulnerable plaque is smaller in size [7], richer in lipids [1],[2], and more infiltrated with macrophages [2,3,8–10] than the stable, fibromuscular lesion. Therefore, lowering the lipid and\\/or macrophage pools stored in the plaque may “stabilize”

Douglas W. Losordo; Jeffrey M. Isner

132

Enhancement of myocardial vulnerability by atrial fibrillation.  

PubMed

Certain groups are known to have an increased risk for sudden cardiac death. Epidemiologic studies have suggested that patients with atrial fibrillation may be at higher risk. The authors hypothesize that atrial fibrillation may increase myocardial vulnerability. To test this hypothesis, 37 dogs were studied using programmed electrical stimulation techniques to determine myocardial vulnerability as assessed by the ability to provoke ventricular tachycardia. Prior to atrial fibrillation, programmed electrical stimulation did not induce ventricular tachycardia. Aconitine was then topically applied to the right atrial appendage with care taken not to make contact with the ventricle. Application of aconitine caused atrial fibrillation with an increase in ventricular rate, but did not affect arterial blood pressure. Ventricular tachycardia was induced by programmed electrical stimulation studies in 25 of 26 dogs in atrial fibrillation. The enhanced vulnerability was noted following atrial fibrillation, not after aconitine application to the great veins, which did not cause atrial fibrillation. To further exclude the possibility that aconitine application may cause changes in ventricular threshold, atrial fibrillation was induced by pacing techniques in five dogs. Prior to atrial fibrillation induction, programmed electrical stimulation did not induce ventricular tachycardia. Following atrial fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia could be repeatedly induced. Mean heart rate following atrial fibrillation increased, while pacing animals at this increment in rate did not change the noninducibility of dogs in sinus rhythm. Six patients with a history of atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia were studied to determine if AF lowered myocardial threshold to VT induction. Ventricular tachycardia could only be induced by PES techniques in four of five patients when the patients' rhythm was AF (P < 0.05). This study suggests that atrial fibrillation lowers myocardial threshold for ventricular tachycardia induction and thus enhances myocardial vulnerability. The association of AF with a higher incidence of sudden death may be due to an enhanced electrical instability. PMID:14704594

Somberg, John C; Torres, Vilma; Keren, Gad; Butler, Brenda; Tepper, David; Kleinbaum, Herman; Molnar, Janos

2004-01-01

133

Intravascular Thermography for Assessing Vulnerable Plaques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atherosclerosis and its cardiovascular complications remain the leading cause of death in developed countries. Current knowledge\\u000a of coronary artery disease progression has significantly evolved and the interest has been focused on the development of new\\u000a imaging techniques for the early detection of vulnerable lesions. Intracoronary thermography is a method that detects local\\u000a plaque inflammation. Clinical studies with intracoronary thermography have

Konstantinos Toutouzas; Maria Drakopoulou; Andreas Synetos; Christodoulos Stefanadis

2010-01-01

134

Current status of vulnerable plaque detection.  

PubMed

Critical coronary stenoses have been shown to contribute to only a minority of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and sudden cardiac death. Autopsy studies have identified a subgroup of high-risk patients with disrupted vulnerable plaque and modest stenosis. Consequently, a clinical need exists to develop methods to identify these plaques prospectively before disruption and clinical expression of disease. Recent advances in invasive and noninvasive imaging techniques have shown the potential to identify these high-risk plaques. The anatomical characteristics of the vulnerable plaque such as thin cap fibroatheroma and lipid pool can be identified with angioscopy, high frequency intravascular ultrasound, intravascular MRI, and optical coherence tomography. Efforts have also been made to recognize active inflammation in high-risk plaques using intravascular thermography. Plaque chemical composition by measuring electromagnetic radiation using spectroscopy is also an emerging technology to detect vulnerable plaques. Noninvasive imaging with MRI, CT, and PET also holds the potential to differentiate between low and high-risk plaques. However, at present none of these imaging modalities are able to detect vulnerable plaque neither has been shown to definitively predict outcome. Nevertheless in contrast, there has been a parallel development in the physiological assessment of advanced atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. Thus recent trials using fractional flow reserve in patients with modest non flow-limiting stenoses have shown that deferral of PCI with optimal medical therapy in these patients is superior to coronary intervention. Further trials are needed to provide more information regarding the natural history of high-risk but non flow-limiting plaque to establish patient-specific targeted therapy and to refine plaque stabilizing strategies in the future. PMID:19670307

Sharif, Faisal; Murphy, Ross T

2010-01-01

135

Space Station Program threat and vulnerability analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An examination has been made of the physical security of the Space Station Program at the Kennedy Space Center in a peacetime environment, in order to furnish facility personnel with threat/vulnerability information. A risk-management approach is used to prioritize threat-target combinations that are characterized in terms of 'insiders' and 'outsiders'. Potential targets were identified and analyzed with a view to their attractiveness to an adversary, as well as to the consequentiality of the resulting damage.

Van Meter, Steven D.; Veatch, John D.

1987-01-01

136

Vulnerable populations and the transition to adulthood.  

PubMed

D. Wayne Osgood, E. Michael Foster, and Mark E. Courtney examine the transition to adulthood for youth involved in social service and justice systems during childhood and adolescence. They survey the challenges faced by youth in the mental health system, the foster care system, the juvenile justice system, the criminal justice system, and special education, and by youth with physical disabilities and chronic illness, as well as runaway and homeless youth. One problem is that the services these vulnerable populations receive from these systems as children and adolescents often end abruptly as they transition to adulthood, even though the need for them continues. Youth must leave systems tailored for clients their age and, if they are eligible for further services at all, enter adult systems that are not equipped to address their needs. One exception is the special education system, whose services extend into early adulthood and are designed for individuals' needs. The authors review current public policies directed toward vulnerable youth in transition and find problems in four areas: eligibility criteria that exclude youth from services that might benefit them, inadequate funding for transition services, a lack of coordination across service systems, and inadequate training about young-adult developmental issues for service professionals. The authors then discuss policy options that can help create a developmentally appropriate and socially inclusive system of support for vulnerable youth. Among the options are strengthening all programs for youth in transition, improving the existing systems of care for children and adolescents, addressing the loss of access to services at the age of majority, and coordinating today's multiple systems into a single coherent system. The authors see heightened governmental interest in better supports for vulnerable young adults, both through expanding the federal role in their lives and through improving coordination of the systems that serve them. The Fostering Connections Act of 2008, for example, extended services to adolescents in foster care from the age of eighteen to the age of twenty-one. PMID:20364628

Osgood, D Wayne; Foster, E Michael; Courtney, Mark E

2010-01-01

137

Individualized preventive psychiatry: syndrome and vulnerability diagnostics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of prevention and treatment strategies of psychiatric disorders will depend on a more profound knowledge of\\u000a the complex relationships between gene-environment interactions, particularly the interplay of vulnerability and resilience\\u000a factors within a person’s biography. In this article, the advantages and limitations of the current psychiatric classification\\u000a systems will be discussed. New directions for a future multiaxial system including

Franz Müller-Spahn

2008-01-01

138

Detecting Format String Vulnerabilities with Type Qualifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new system for automatically detecting format string security vulnerabilities in C programs using a constraint-based type-inference engine. We describe new techniques for presenting the results of such an analysis to the user in a form that makes bugs easier to find and to fix. The system has been implemented and tested on several real-world software packages. Our

Umesh Shankar; Kunal Talwar; Jeffrey S. Foster; David Wagner

2001-01-01

139

Quantitative Measures of Resilience and Vulnerability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resilience and vulnerability of co-evolving systems such as soils and vegetation, vegetation and climate, etc. are strongly dependent on the balance of the positive and negative feedbacks of interactions. Under stress, these feedbacks breakdown and result in runaway dynamics until new equilibrium is established. While these notions are now well-understood, quantitative characterization of both resilience and vulnerability remain elusive, or are only available for deterministic systems. We develop a probabilistic framework for quantifying resilience and vulnerability and develop a number of alternate measures and evaluate the behavior of these measures. We note that a given resilience measure yields different values when a system is subject to different disturbances. This disturbance may be related to changes in magnitude, timing, frequency, duration, or sequencing of external events. Our quantitative approach allows us to reveal that different measures may respond differently to the same disturbance. Under certain conditions disturbance and dynamics intertwine to create new dynamic regimes or exclude dynamical possibilities. This quantitative approach also allows us to develop the notion of iso-resilience curves that can be used for control and maintenance of systems exhibiting alternate dynamic regimes. Iso-resilience curves connect points that have identical resilience values and allow us to find an optimum path of travel in the resilience landscape for management of these systems. Application of these ideas to natural systems with co-evolutionary dynamics and alternate dynamic regimes will be presented.

Kumar, Praveen; Srinivasan, Venkatraman

2014-05-01

140

NASA's Research in Aircraft Vulnerability Mitigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since its inception in 1958, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) role in civil aeronautics has been to develop high-risk, high-payoff technologies to meet critical national aviation challenges. Following the events of Sept. 11, 2001, NASA recognized that it now shared the responsibility for improving homeland security. The NASA Strategic Plan was modified to include requirements to enable a more secure air transportation system by investing in technologies and collaborating with other agencies, industry, and academia. NASA is conducting research to develop and advance innovative and commercially viable technologies that will reduce the vulnerability of aircraft to threats or hostile actions, and identify and inform users of potential vulnerabilities in a timely manner. Presented in this paper are research plans and preliminary status for mitigating the effects of damage due to direct attacks on civil transport aircraft. The NASA approach to mitigation includes: preventing loss of an aircraft due to a hit from man-portable air defense systems; developing fuel system technologies that prevent or minimize in-flight vulnerability to small arms or other projectiles; providing protection from electromagnetic energy attacks by detecting directed energy threats to aircraft and on/off-board systems; and minimizing the damage due to high-energy attacks (explosions and fire) by developing advanced lightweight, damage-resistant composites and structural concepts. An approach to preventing aircraft from being used as weapons of mass destruction will also be discussed.

Allen, Cheryl L.

2005-01-01

141

Network vulnerability assessment using Bayesian networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While computer vulnerabilities have been continually reported in laundry-list format by most commercial scanners, a comprehensive network vulnerability assessment has been an increasing challenge to security analysts. Researchers have proposed a variety of methods to build attack trees with chains of exploits, based on which post-graph vulnerability analysis can be performed. The most recent approaches attempt to build attack trees by enumerating all potential attack paths, which are space consuming and result in poor scalability. This paper presents an approach to use Bayesian network to model potential attack paths. We call such graph as "Bayesian attack graph". It provides a more compact representation of attack paths than conventional methods. Bayesian inference methods can be conveniently used for probabilistic analysis. In particular, we use the Bucket Elimination algorithm for belief updating, and we use Maximum Probability Explanation algorithm to compute an optimal subset of attack paths relative to prior knowledge on attackers and attack mechanisms. We tested our model on an experimental network. Test results demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

Liu, Yu; Man, Hong

2005-03-01

142

Vulnerability assessment using two complementary analysis tools  

SciTech Connect

To analyze the vulnerability of nuclear materials to theft or sabotage, Department of Energy facilities have been using, since 1989, a computer program called ASSESS, Analytic System and Software for Evaluation of Safeguards and Security. During the past year Sandia National Laboratories has began using an additional program, SEES, Security Exercise Evaluation Simulation, enhancing the picture of vulnerability beyond what either program achieves alone. ASSESS analyzes all possible paths of attack on a target and, assuming that an attack occurs, ranks them by the probability that a response force of adequate size can interrupt the attack before theft or sabotage is accomplished. A Neutralization module pits, collectively, a security force against the interrupted adversary force in a fire fight and calculates the probability that the adversaries are defeated. SEES examines a single scenario and simulates in detail the interactions among all combatants. Its output includes shots fired between shooter and target, and the hits and kills. Whereas ASSESS gives breadth of analysis, expressed statistically and performed relatively quickly, SEES adds depth of detail, modeling tactical behavior. ASSESS finds scenarios that exploit the greatest weaknesses of a facility. SEES explores these scenarios to demonstrate in detail how various tactics to nullify the attack might work out. Without ASSESS to find the facility weaknesses, it is difficult to focus SEES objectively on scenarios worth analyzing. Without SEES to simulate the details of response vs. adversary interaction, it is not possible to test tactical assumptions and hypotheses. Using both programs together, vulnerability analyses achieve both breadth and depth.

Paulus, W.K.

1993-07-01

143

Unified Approach to Vulnerability Analysis of Web Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Web vulnerabilities in web-based applications may be detected, classified and documented. Several Web scanners exist for vulnerabilities in Web applications implemented via different technologies. However, none of them provides the technology-independent, generic coverage of possible vulnerabilities. In this project that is funded by Mindef Singapore, we propose a new approach for Web application security and vulnerability analysis. The design addresses the categorization of scanner results with a generic data model and the design of a language-independent rule-based engine that detects, analyses and reports suspected vulnerabilities in web-based applications.

Le, H. T.; Loh, P. K. K.

2008-11-01

144

Technical Papers on Target Vulnerability Analysis Intended for a Briefing to Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four technical papers on the subject of Target Vulnerability are presented. The first paper Vulnerability Overview discusses the scope of vulnerability analysis and vulnerability reduction and their application to military equipment. The second paper disc...

A. J. Hoffman B. E. Cummings T. Shirata W. S. Vikestad

1975-01-01

145

Evaluating regional vulnerability to climate change: purposes and methods  

SciTech Connect

As the emphasis in climate change research, international negotiations, and developing-country activities has shifted from mitigation to adaptation, vulnerability has emerged as a bridge between impacts on one side and the need for adaptive changes on the other. Still, the term vulnerability remains abstract, its meaning changing with the scale, focus, and purpose of each assessment. Understanding regional vulnerability has advanced over the past several decades, with studies using a combination of indicators, case studies and analogues, stakeholder-driven processes, and scenario-building methodologies. As regions become increasingly relevant scales of inquiry for bridging the aggregate and local, for every analysis, it is perhaps most appropriate to ask three “what” questions: “What/who is vulnerable?,” “What is vulnerability?,” and “Vulnerable to what?” The answers to these questions will yield different definitions of vulnerability as well as different methods for assessing it.

Malone, Elizabeth L.; Engle, Nathan L.

2011-03-15

146

Insights into the composition of household vulnerability from multicriteria decision analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vulnerability is a multidimensional concept associated with high uncertainty in measurement and classification. Developing a vulnerability index from the diverse and often incommensurate data that form the basis of vulnerability assessments is often a core challenge of vulnerability research. Problematically, many vulnerability indices are based on the implicit or explicit assumption that each indicator of vulnerability is of equal importance.

Hallie Eakin; Luis A. Bojórquez-Tapia

2008-01-01

147

Ruptures of vulnerability: Linda Stein's Knight Series.  

PubMed

Drawing on the work of Monique Wittig, this article understands Linda Stein's Knight Series as a lacunary writing communicating both her challenges to come to representation and her creative registration of subjectivity. The argument is grounded in an exploration of the rich interplay of power and vulnerability across the series as against the discourse of escapist fashion. Specifically, Stein's critical contradictions of inside and outside, conflated temporality, disjunctions between decoration and abstraction, and fluidity of sex and gender are examined. The discussion is elaborated through consideration of the work of Julia Kristeva, Elizabeth Grosz, and Hayao Miyazaki. PMID:20408009

Bible, Ann Vollmann

2010-01-01

148

Recoverability and Vulnerability of Desert Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

USGS scientists are taking an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the physical and biological processes that influence the vulnerability of the desert ecosystem to disturbance and its ability to recover. They are studying historical information, conducting experimental studies on physical and biological processes, and mapping and modeling the existing landscape. These data can be synthesized into maps and predictive models that show how ecosystem components respond to imposed stress, providing valuable tools for desert land managers. Such tools will help land managers make decisions that sustain the desert even as economic, recreation, and military uses continue. The site includes links to publications, maps, a glossary and links to other materials on Mojave desert ecosystems.

149

Children of Darfur: a vulnerable population.  

PubMed

Four years of intense war in Darfur has created an entire generation of children who might never recover. Children in this region are particularly vulnerable and suffer from issues including physical and psychological illness, malnutrition, rape and unlawful military recruitment. This international crisis is among the most important public health issues in the world. The responsibility of the international community to these children is significant and required to break this cycle. This paper will discuss the concerns surrounding these children, how current strategies are failing and proposed public health nursing interventions. PMID:18190487

Chaikin, Jennifer

2008-02-01

150

Evaluating intensity parameters for debris flow vulnerability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In mountain regions natural hazard processes such as debris flows or hyper-concentrated flows repeatedly lead to high damages. After an event, detailed documentation of the meteorological, hydrological and geomorphological indicators are standardized, and additional data on debris covering run out areas, indicators for processes velocity and transported volumes are gathered. Information on deposition height of debris is an important parameter to estimate the intensity of the process impacting the buildings and infrastructure and hence to establish vulnerability curves. However, the deposition height of mobilized material in settlements and on infrastructure is mostly not directly evaluated because recovery work starts immediately or even during the event leading to a removal of accumulated material. Different approaches exist to reconstruct deposition heights after torrent events, such as mind mapping, comparison of LIDAR-based DEM before and after the event as well as the reconstruction by using photo documentation and the estimation of deposition heights according to standardised elements at buildings and infrastructure. In our study, these different approaches to estimate deposition height and the spatial distribution of the accumulated material are applied and compared against each other by using the case study of the debris flow event in Brienz (Switzerland) which occurred during the serve flood events of August 2005 in the Alps. Within the analysis, different factors including overall costs and time consumption (manpower, equipment), accuracy and preciseness are compared and evaluated to establish optimal maps of the extent and deposition depth after torrent events and to integrate this information in the vulnerability analysis.

Keiler, Margreth

2014-05-01

151

Market mechanisms protect the vulnerable brain  

PubMed Central

Markets are mechanisms of social exchange, intended to facilitate trading. However, the question remains as to whether markets would help or hurt individuals with decision-makings deficits, as is frequently encountered in the case of cognitive aging. Essential for predicting future gains and losses in monetary and social domains, the striatal nuclei in the brain undergo structural, neurochemical, and functional decline with age. We correlated the efficacy of market mechanisms with dorsal striatal decline in an aging population, by using market based trading in the context of the 2008 U.S Presidential Elections (primary cycle). Impaired decision-makers displayed higher prediction error (difference between their prediction and actual outcome). Lower in vivo caudate volume was also associated with higher prediction error. Importantly, market-based trading protected older adults with lower caudate volume to a greater extent from their own poorly calibrated predictions. Counterintuitive to the traditional public perception of the market as a fickle, risky proposition where vulnerable traders are most surely to be burned, we suggest that market-based mechanisms protect individuals with brain-based decision-making vulnerabilities.

Ramchandran, Kanchna; Nayakankuppam, Dhananjay; Berg, Joyce; Tranel, Daniel

2011-01-01

152

Passenger Deletions Generate Therapeutic Vulnerabilities in Cancer  

PubMed Central

Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes via homozygous deletion is a prototypic event in the cancer genome, yet such deletions often encompass neighboring genes. We hypothesized that homozygous deletions in such passenger genes can expose cancer-specific therapeutic vulnerabilities in the case where the collaterally deleted gene is a member of a functionally redundant family of genes exercising an essential function. The glycolytic gene Enolase 1 (ENO1) in the 1p36 locus is deleted in Glioblastoma (GBM), which is tolerated by expression of ENO2. We demonstrate that shRNA-mediated extinction of ENO2 selectively inhibits growth, survival, and tumorigenic potential of ENO1-deleted GBM cells and that the enolase inhibitor phosphonoacetohydroxamate (PhAH) is selectively toxic to ENO1-deleted GBM cells relative to ENO1-intact GBM cells or normal astrocytes. The principle of collateral vulnerability should be applicable to other passenger deleted genes encoding functionally-redundant essential activities and provide an effective treatment strategy for cancers harboring such genomic events.

Muller, Florian L.; Colla, Simona; Aquilanti, Elisa; Manzo, Veronica; Genovese, Giannicola; Lee, Jaclyn; Eisenson, Dan; Narurkar, Rujuta; Deng, Pingna; Nezi, Luigi; Lee, Michelle; Hu, Baoli; Hu, Jian; Sahin, Ergun; Ong, Derrick; Fletcher-Sananikone, Eliot; Ho, Dennis; Kwong, Lawrence; Brennan, Cameron; Wang, Y. Alan; Chin, Lynda; DePinho, Ronald A.

2013-01-01

153

Vulnerability analysis methods for road networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Road networks rank among the most important lifelines of modern society. They can be damaged by either random or intentional events. Roads are also often affected by natural hazards, the impacts of which are both direct and indirect. Whereas direct impacts (e.g. roads damaged by a landslide or due to flooding) are localized in close proximity to the natural hazard occurrence, the indirect impacts can entail widespread service disabilities and considerable travel delays. The change in flows in the network may affect the population living far from the places originally impacted by the natural disaster. These effects are primarily possible due to the intrinsic nature of this system. The consequences and extent of the indirect costs also depend on the set of road links which were damaged, because the road links differ in terms of their importance. The more robust (interconnected) the road network is, the less time is usually needed to secure the serviceability of an area hit by a disaster. These kinds of networks also demonstrate a higher degree of resilience. Evaluating road network structures is therefore essential in any type of vulnerability and resilience analysis. There are a range of approaches used for evaluation of the vulnerability of a network and for identification of the weakest road links. Only few of them are, however, capable of simulating the impacts of the simultaneous closure of numerous links, which often occurs during a disaster. The primary problem is that in the case of a disaster, which usually has a large regional extent, the road network may remain disconnected. The majority of the commonly used indices use direct computation of the shortest paths or time between OD (origin - destination) pairs and therefore cannot be applied when the network breaks up into two or more components. Since extensive break-ups often occur in cases of major disasters, it is important to study the network vulnerability in these cases as well, so that appropriate steps can be taken in order to make it more resilient. Performing such an analysis of network break-ups requires consideration of the network as a whole, ideally identifying all the cases generated by simultaneous closure of multiple links and evaluating them using various criteria. The spatial distribution of settlements, important companies and the overall population in the nodes of the network are several factors, apart from the topology of the network which could be taken into account when computing vulnerability indices and identifying the weakest links and/or weakest link combinations. However, even for small networks (i.e., hundreds of nodes and links), the problem of break-up identification becomes extremely difficult to resolve. The naive approaches of the brute force examination consequently fail and more elaborated algorithms have to be applied. We address the problem of evaluating the vulnerability of road networks in our work by simulating the impacts of the simultaneous closure of multiple roads/links. We present an ongoing work on a sophisticated algorithm focused on the identification of network break-ups and evaluating them by various criteria.

Bíl, Michal; Vodák, Rostislav; Kube?ek, Jan; Rebok, Tomáš; Svoboda, Tomáš

2014-05-01

154

“Depressed” mothers' perceptions of their preschool children's vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Depressed” mothers who scored in the depression range on the Beck Depression Inventory when their infants were 3-months-old\\u000a were asked to complete the Vulnerable Child Scale when their children were preschool age. Depressed versus non-depressed mothers\\u000a rated their preschool children as being more vulnerable (as did an independent observer) as well as having more behavior problems.\\u000a The vulnerability ratings were

Debra Bendell; Tiffany Field; Regina Yando; Claudia Lang; Alex Martinez; Jeff Pickens

1994-01-01

155

Assessing Vulnerability to Drought on a pan-European scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past decade, a number of theoretical frameworks have been defined within the Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change communities to assess drought vulnerability at different scales, sectors, socio-political contexts, and geo-climatic conditions. However, there is still little consensus around the criteria, dimensions and factors used in these assessments; and none of them has been applied at a pan-European scale. This is due to a triple complexity. Firstly, drought as a natural hazard is a complex phenomenon due to the difficulty of determining its onset and its multiscale, multifaceted and dynamic nature. Secondly, there is an on-going debate regarding the concept of vulnerability and its constitutive elements, together with an important diversity of theoretical approaches to assess it. Finally, Europe's diversity in bioclimatic conditions, national water use practice and water use policies adds a challenging characteristic for working on pan-European scale. This work addresses the challenge of defining a methodological approach to the assessment of vulnerability factors to drought at a pan-European scale. For this purpose, we first review existing conceptual frameworks as well as of past initiatives for drought vulnerability assessment. The literature review showed that the high complexity of drought vulnerability assessment requires a clear definition of the concept of vulnerability and the associated terms, and that, before undertaking any assessment, it is necessary to clearly define the "vulnerable unit" i.e. replying to the questions 'whose vulnerability is being assessed?' and 'vulnerability to what type of impact?'. In this context, this work proposes the application of a factor-based approach, consisting in the analysis of significant factors that influence vulnerability in the context of specific situations of potential vulnerability. Those situations are framed within the specific drought characteristics of four different geoclimatic macro -regions in Europe (Southern Europe; Central Europe; Eastern Europe; Northern Europe), to allow for comparison among similar vulnerability units within each region. These 'situations' are proposed as a suitable way to delimit vulnerability conditions, as they make explicit under which assumptions are we operating when undertaking the assessment. Vulnerability factors were determined based on literature review and expert-based validation while the vulnerability situations were derived from a database of registered drought impacts by sectors (European Drought Impact Report Inventory, EDII). The resulting picture is both informative and diagnostic: it provides guidance for the identification of areas and sectors where drought impact needs to be mitigated, and allows for the identification of issues (e.g. adaptive capacity features) that should be addressed to achieve that mitigation of drought impact. The approach is being tested for drought vulnerability assessment on a pan-European scale.

Urquijo, Julia; De Stefano, Lucia; González-Tánago, Itziar; Blauhut, Veit; Stahl, Kerstin

2014-05-01

156

Intravascular probe for detection of vulnerable plaque  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coronary angiography is unable to define the status of the atheroma, and only measures the luminal dimensions of the blood vessel, without providing information about plaque content. Up to 70% of heart attacks are caused by minimally obstructive vulnerable plaques, which are too small to be detected adequately by angiography. We have developed an intravascular imaging detector to identify vulnerable coronary artery plaques. The detector works by sensing beta or conversion electron radiotracer emissions from plaque-binding radiotracers. The device overcomes the technical constraints of size, sensitivity and conformance to the intravascular environment. The detector at the distal end of the catheter uses six 7mm long by 0.5mm diameter scintillation fibers coupled to 1.5m long plastic fibers. The fibers are offset from each other longitudinally by 6mm and arranged spirally around a guide wire in the catheter. At the proximal end of the catheter the optical fibers are coupled to an interface box with a snap on connector. The interface box contains a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT) to decode the individual fibers. The whole detector assembly fits into an 8-French (2.7 mm in diameter) catheter. The PSPMT image is further decoded with software to give a linear image, the total instantaneous count rate and an audio output whose tone corresponds to the count rate. The device was tested with F-18 and Tl-204 sources. Spectrometric response, spatial resolution, sensitivity and beta to background ratio were measured. System resolution is 6 mm and the sensitivity is >500 cps / micrometers Ci when the source is 1 mm from the detector. The beta to background ratio was 11.2 for F-18 measured on a single fiber. The current device will lead to a system allowing imaging of labeled vulnerable plaque in coronary arteries. This type of signature is expected to enable targeted and cost effective therapies to prevent acute coronary artery diseases such as: unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.

Patt, Bradley E.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; MacDonald, Lawrence R.; Yamaguchi, Yuko; Tull, Carolyn R.; Janecek, Martin; Hoffman, Edward J.; Strauss, H. William; Tsugita, Ross; Ghazarossian, Vartan

2001-12-01

157

Neuronal vulnerability, pathogenesis and Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Although there have been significant advances, pathogenesis in Parkinson’s disease (PD) is still poorly understood. Potential clues about pathogenesis that have not been systematically pursued are suggested by the restricted pattern of neuronal pathology in the disease. In addition to dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), a significant number of other central and peripheral neuronal populations exhibit Lewy pathology (LP), phenotypic dysregulation or frank degeneration in PD patients. Drawing on this literature, there appears to be a small number of risk factors contributing to vulnerability. These include autonomous activity, broad action potentials, low intrinsic calcium buffering capacity, poorly myelinated long highly branched axons and terminal fields, and use of a monoamine neurotransmitter, often with the catecholamine-derived neuromelanin pigment. Of these phenotypic traits, only the physiological ones appear to provide a reachable therapeutic target at present.

Sulzer, David; Surmeier, D. James

2012-01-01

158

Exploiting epigenetic vulnerabilities for cancer therapeutics.  

PubMed

Epigenetic deregulation is a hallmark of cancer, and there has been increasing interest in therapeutics that target chromatin-modifying enzymes and other epigenetic regulators. The rationale for applying epigenetic drugs to treat cancer is twofold. First, epigenetic changes are reversible, and drugs could therefore be used to restore the normal (healthy) epigenetic landscape. However, it is unclear whether drugs can faithfully restore the precancerous epigenetic state. Second, chromatin regulators are often mutated in cancer, making them attractive drug targets. However, in most instances it is unknown whether cancer cells are addicted to these mutated chromatin proteins, or whether their mutation merely results in epigenetic instability conducive to the selection of secondary aberrations. An alternative incentive for targeting chromatin regulators is the exploitation of cancer-specific vulnerabilities, including synthetic lethality, caused by epigenetic deregulation. We review evidence for the hypothesis that mechanisms other than oncogene addiction are a basis for the application of epigenetic drugs, and propose future research directions. PMID:24529765

Mair, Barbara; Kubicek, Stefan; Nijman, Sebastian M B

2014-03-01

159

Disability pornography: the fetishization of women's vulnerabilities.  

PubMed

This paper offers a critical exploration of a form of pornography consisting in sexual abuse and exploitation of women and girls with disabilities. This practice allows men to create and maintain their sexual dominance over the female gender. Disability pornography, like all other forms of pornography, but in its own way, contributes to the second-class status of all women, particularly those who are suffering from limitations in mobility and other disabilities. By promoting the castrating, dominant, violent image of women, pornography allows men to justify their abusive behaviors toward women. This form of pornography preys on the vulnerability of disabled women and increases the possibility that they will be abused. The sexually explicit lack of physical mobility is as celebrated in disability pornography as the political mobility of women is condemned in all genres of pornography. Amputee pornography is just one example of this brutal practice. PMID:12319742

Elman, R A

1997-06-01

160

Hydration, morbidity, and mortality in vulnerable populations.  

PubMed

Both acute and chronic fluid deficits have been shown to be associated with a number of adverse health outcomes. At the extreme, deprivation of water for more than a few days inevitably leads to death, but even modest fluid deficits may precipitate adverse events, especially in young children, in the frail elderly and in those with poor health. Epidemiological studies have shown an association, although not necessarily a causal one, between a low habitual fluid intake and some chronic diseases, including urolithiasis, constipation, asthma, cardiovascular disease, diabetic hyperglycemia, and some cancers. Acute hypohydration may be a precipitating factor in a number of acute medical conditions in elderly persons. Increased mortality, especially in vulnerable populations, is commonly observed during periods of abnormally warm weather, with at least part of this effect due to failure to increase water intake, and this may have some important implications for those responsible for forward planning in healthcare facilities. PMID:23121352

Maughan, Ronald J

2012-11-01

161

Shield: vulnerability-driven network filters for preventing known vulnerability exploits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software patching has not been effective as a first-line defense against large-scale worm attacks, even when patches have long been available for their corresponding vulnerabilities. Generally, people have been reluctant to patch their systems immediately, because patches are perceived to be unreliable and disruptive to apply. To address this problem, we propose a first-line worm defense in the network stack,

Helen J. Wang; Chuanxiong Guo; Daniel R. Simon; Alf Zugenmaier

2004-01-01

162

Automatic diagnosis and response to memory corruption vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyber attacks against networked computers have become relentless in recent years. The most common attack method is to exploit memory corruption vulnerabilities such as buffer overflow and format string bugs. This paper presents a technique to automatically identify both known and unknown memory corruption vulnerabilities. Based on the observation that a randomized program usually crashes upon a memory corruption attack,

Jun Xu; Peng Ning; Chongkyung Kil; Yan Zhai; Christopher Bookholt

2005-01-01

163

Competition and Patching of Security Vulnerabilities: An Empirical Analysis 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We empirically estimate the effect of competition on vendor patching of software defects by exploiting variation in number of vendors that share a common flaw or common vulnerabilities. We distinguish between two effects: the direct competition effect when vendors in the same market share a vulnerability, and the indirect effect, which operates through non-rivals that operate in different markets but

Ashish Arora; Chris Forman; Anand Nandkumar; Rahul Telang

164

Desertification Vulnerability Map of Tavoliere, Apulia (Southern Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Please click here to download the map associated with this article.Desertification strongly affects Southern Italy. One of the most vulnerable areas to desertification is the Northern Apulia, known as Tavoliere, which is also one of the more arid zones in Italy. In this study we have produced a desertification vulnerability map at a scale of 1: 25,000 of Tavoliere by

Francesco Frattaruolo; Luigi Pennetta; Marco Piccarreta

2009-01-01

165

VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF CIVIL INFRASTRUCTURE SYSTEMS: A NETWORK APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable work has been carried out in recent years on vulnerability assessment of Critical Infrastructure Systems (CIS). Recent man-introduced hazard, including the 9\\/11 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) in New York highlighted critical need to assess and evaluate the vulnerably of CIS with a focus on providing well coordinated and integrated strategies for public safety and property

O. Moselhi; A. Hammad; S. Alkass; M. Debbabi

2005-01-01

166

Study on space evacuation vulnerability in city emergency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before city emergencies happen, one of the most important tasks is to develop contingency plans, and reasonable analysis of space evacuation vulnerability is an important part of contingency plans. Based on the analysis of evacuation vulnerability of emergency area, this article develops a critical evacuation cluster model, and searches for the critical cluster of evacuation area by heuristic searching algorithm.

Fanliang Bu; Hui Fang

2010-01-01

167

A climate change vulnerability assessment methodology for coastal tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal and marine environments are among the most popular areas for outdoor recreation and tourism. Coastal areas have also been identified as the most vulnerable to climate change, for example as a result of extreme events and sea-level rise. It will be increasingly important for coastal tourism destination managers to understand their vulnerability to climatic changes and to devise appropriate

Alvaro Moreno; Susanne Becken

2009-01-01

168

The Vulnerable Child. Caring for Children, Number Five.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The booklet addresses the problems of vulnerable children with suggestions child care center workers may use both for recognizing signs of handicaps in children and helping children overcome existing handicaps. The vulnerable child is defined as a child who may be overwhelmed by physical and/or emotional handicaps and thus is at risk of later…

Murphy, Lois B.; Leeper, Ethel M.

169

Development and Demography of Perceived Vulnerability in Youngsters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to assess children's perceived vulnerability to health problems, a longitudinal study was designed to observe third and seventh graders at five intervals over a 2-year period. The hypotheses tested concerned relationships between perceived vulnerability to health problems and age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Data were obtained from a…

Gochman, David S.

170

New Method for Vulnerability Assessment of Power System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vulnerability assessment in power systems is to determine a power system`s ability to continue to provide service in case of an unforeseen catastrophic contingency. It combines information on the level of system security as well as information on a wide range of scenarios, events and contingencies. To assess the level of system strength or weakness relative to the occurrence of an undesired event, a quantitative measure based on vulnerability index is often considered. In this study, a new vulnerability assessment method is proposed based on total power system loss which considers power generation loss due to generation outage, power line loss due to line outage, increase in total load and amount of load disconnected. The objective of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of the new proposed method in assessing the vulnerability of power system when subject to various contingencies. The performance of the proposed vulnerability assessment method is compared with other known vulnerability assessment methods based on anticipated loss of load as well as comprehensive system information of individual system components. In this study, vulnerability analysis was carried out on the IEEE 24 bus test system using the Power System Analysis and Toolbox (PSAT) and the vulnerability indices were calculated using the Matlab program. Obtained results, indicate the efficiency of proposed method.

Haidar, Ahmed M. A.; Mohamed, Azah; Hussain, Aini

171

Degraded States Vulnerability Analysis of a Foreign Armored Fighting Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since 1990, the Ballistic Vulnerability/Lethality Division (BVLD) of the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) (formerly the Vulnerability/Lethality Division VLD of the U.S. Army Ballistic Research laboratory BRL, and the U.S. Army Materiel Systems Analysis...

M. D. Burdeshaw J. M. Abell S. K. Price L. K. Roach

1993-01-01

172

International Space Station: Meteoroid/Orbital Debris Survivability and Vulnerability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the surviability and vulnerability of the International Space Station (ISS) from the threat posed by meteoroid and orbital debris. The topics include: (1) Space station natural and induced environments (2) Meteoroid and orbital debris threat definition (3) Requirement definition (4) Assessment methods (5) Shield development and (6) Component vulnerability

Graves, Russell

2000-01-01

173

Measuring the Vulnerability for Classes of Intersection Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general method for the computation of various parameters measuring the vulnerability of a graph is introduced. Four measures of vulnerability are considered, i.e., the toughness, scattering number, ve rtex integrity and the size of a minimum balanced separator. We show how to compute these parameters by polynomial time algorithms for various classes of intersec- tion graphs like permutation graphs,

Dieter Kratsch; Ton Kloks; Haiko Müller

1997-01-01

174

Taking the uncertainty in climate-change vulnerability assessment seriously  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate-change vulnerability assessment has become a frequently employed tool, with the purpose of informing policy-makers attempting to adapt to global change conditions. However, we suggest that there are three reasons to suspect that vulnerability assessment often promises more certainty, and more useful results, than it can deliver. First, the complexity of the system it purports to describe is greater than

Anthony Patt; Richard J. T. Klein; Anne de la Vega-Leinert

2005-01-01

175

Vulnerability Assessment, Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Measures in Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In relation to the priority tasks of the climate change measures, the Republic of Slovenia estimates that special attention needs to be devoted to the following sectors in general: - sectors that currently indicate a strong vulnerability for the current climate variability (for instance, agriculture), - sectors where the vulnerability for climate change is increased by current trends (for instance,

T. Cegnar

2010-01-01

176

Climate change and poverty in Africa: Mapping hotspots of vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change and increasing climate variability threaten the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), and some of the worst effects on human health and agriculture will be in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in vulnerable regions. The relationships between climate change and the vulnerability of resource-poor croppers and livestock keepers and their resilience to current and future climate variability need to

Philip K. Thornton; Peter G. Jones; Tom Owiyo; Russell L. Kruska; Mario Herrero; Victor Orindi; Suruchi Bhadwal; Patricia Kristjanson; An Notenbaert; Nigat Bekele; Abisalom Omolo

2008-01-01

177

Vulnerability, Adaptation and Climate Disasters: A Conceptual Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

* (MDGs) and to secure fairer trade as part of the Doha Development Agenda will also be strengthened in 2005. After the media headlines have faded, what impact will these frameworks have on the lives of the poor and others vulnerable to climate impacts? Will climate vulnerabilities be integrated in all these frameworks with lasting benefits? Will the interests and

Farhana Yamin; Atiq Rahman; Saleemul Huq

2005-01-01

178

Vulnerability assessment for the Gaza Strip, Palestine using DRASTIC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main usefulness of groundwater vulnerability assessment maps is their ability to be an effective preliminary tool for planning, policy, and operational levels of decision-making. DRASTIC is one such assessment method. The DRASTIC index is made up of a calculated sum of products rating and weights for seven hydrogeological parameters that contribute to aquifer vulnerability. With the help of GIS,

H. Baalousha

2006-01-01

179

SEISMIC VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT USING AMBIENT VIBRATIONS: METHOD AND VALIDATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic vulnerability in wide areas is usually assessed in the basis of inventories of structural parameters of the building stock, especially in high hazard countries like USA or Italy. France is a country with moderate seismicity so that it requires lower-cost methods. Ambient vibrations analyses seem to be an alternative way to determine the vulnerability of buildings. The modal parameters

Clotaire Michel; Philippe Guéguen

180

The Na?ve nurse: revisiting vulnerability for nursing  

PubMed Central

Background Nurses in the Western world have given considerable attention to the concept of vulnerability in recent decades. However, nurses have tended to view vulnerability from an individualistic perspective, and have rarely taken into account structural or collective dimensions of the concept. As the need grows for health workers to engage in the global health agenda, nurses must broaden earlier works on vulnerability, noting that conventional conceptualizations and practical applications on the notion of vulnerability warrant extension to include more collective conceptualizations thereby making a more complete understanding of vulnerability in nursing discourse. Discussion The purpose of this paper is to examine nursing contributions to the concept of vulnerability and consider how a broader perspective that includes socio-political dimensions may assist nurses to reach beyond the immediate milieu of the patient into the dominant social, political, and economic structures that produce and sustain vulnerability. Summary By broadening nurse’s conceptualization of vulnerability, nurses can obtain the consciousness needed to move beyond a peripheral role of nursing that has been dominantly situated within institutional settings to contribute in the larger arena of social, economic, political and global affairs.

2012-01-01

181

A model for how to disclose physical security vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

When security vulnerabilities are discovered, it is often unclear how much public disclosure of the vulnerabilities is prudent. This is especially true for physical security vis a vis cyber security. We never want to help the 'bad guys' more than the 'good guys', but if the good guys aren't made aware of the problems, they are unlikely to fix them.

Roger G. Johnston

2009-01-01

182

Adversarial safety analysis: Borrowing the methods of security vulnerability assessments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Safety and security share numerous attributes. The author, who heads the (Security) Vulnerability Assessment Team at Los Alamos National Laboratory, therefore argues that techniques used to optimize security might be useful for optimizing safety. Optimizing Security: There are three main ways to attempt to improve security—security surveys, risk assessment (or “design basis threat”), and vulnerability assessments. The latter is

Roger G Johnston

2004-01-01

183

Security Data Mining in an Ontology for Vulnerability Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information security is such a complex topic that the sheer scope and volume of available security data overwhelms security professionals and managers alike. This paper discusses the rationale of applying semantic technology to information security with a focus on software vulnerability management. With semantic technologies, we can describe the pattern of external threats and internal vulnerabilities formally and precisely. Based

Ju An Wang; Minzhe Guo

2009-01-01

184

Analyses Of Two End-User Software Vulnerability Exposure Metrics  

SciTech Connect

The risk due to software vulnerabilities will not be completely resolved in the near future. Instead, putting reliable vulnerability measures into the hands of end-users so that informed decisions can be made regarding the relative security exposure incurred by choosing one software package over another is of importance. To that end, we propose two new security metrics, average active vulnerabilities (AAV) and vulnerability free days (VFD). These metrics capture both the speed with which new vulnerabilities are reported to vendors and the rate at which software vendors fix them. We then examine how the metrics are computed using currently available datasets and demonstrate their estimation in a simulation experiment using four different browsers as a case study. Finally, we discuss how the metrics may be used by the various stakeholders of software and to software usage decisions.

Jason L. Wright; Miles McQueen; Lawrence Wellman

2012-08-01

185

Vulnerable subjects? The case of nonhuman animals in experimentation.  

PubMed

The concept of vulnerability is deployed in bioethics to, amongst other things, identify and remedy harms to participants in research, yet although nonhuman animals in experimentation seem intuitively to be vulnerable, this concept and its attendant protections are rarely applied to research animals. I want to argue, however, that this concept is applicable to nonhuman animals and that a new taxonomy of vulnerability developed in the context of human bioethics can be applied to research animals. This taxonomy does useful explanatory work, helping to pinpoint the limitations of the 3Rs/welfare approach currently adopted in the context of animal experimentation. On this account, the 3Rs/welfare approach fails to deliver for nonhuman animals in experimentation because it effectively addresses only one element of their vulnerability (inherent) and paradoxically through the institution of Animal Ethics Committees intended to protect experimental animals in fact generates new vulnerabilities that exacerbate their already precarious situation. PMID:24197931

Johnson, Jane

2013-12-01

186

[Assessment of eco-environmental vulnerability of Hainan Island, China].  

PubMed

Based on the assessment method of environmental vulnerability constructed by SOPAC and UNEP, this paper constructed an indicator system from three sub-themes including hazard, resistance, and damage to assess the eco-environmental vulnerability of Hainan Island. The results showed that Hainan Island was suffering a middling level eco-environmental hazard, and the main hazards came from some intensive human activities such as intensive agriculture, mass tourism, mining, and a mass of solid wastes thrown by islanders and tourists. Some geographical characters such as larger land area, larger altitude range, integrated geographical form, and abundant habitat types endowed Hainan Island higher resistance to environmental hazards. However, disturbed by historical accumulative artificial and natural hazards, the Island ecosystem had showed serious ecological damage, such as soil degradation and biodiversity loss. Comprehensively considered hazard, resistance, damage, and degradation, the comprehensive environmental vulnerability of the Island was at a middling level. Some indicators showed lower vulnerability, but some showed higher vulnerability. PMID:19637604

Huang, Bao-rong; Ouyang, Zhi-yun; Zhang, Hui-zhi; Zhang, Li-hua; Zheng, Hua

2009-03-01

187

Vulnerability assessment for the Gaza Strip, Palestine using DRASTIC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main usefulness of groundwater vulnerability assessment maps is their ability to be an effective preliminary tool for planning, policy, and operational levels of decision-making. DRASTIC is one such assessment method. The DRASTIC index is made up of a calculated sum of products rating and weights for seven hydrogeological parameters that contribute to aquifer vulnerability. With the help of GIS, and based on the available data, maps of DRASTIC parameters were prepared for the Gaza Strip area in a case study. Each map was given a proper rate and a special weight factor developed. The final vulnerability map was obtained as a summation of the seven maps after multiplying each one with the appropriate weight. The vulnerability map was checked against the actual pollution potential in the area and nitrate concentration. The obtained vulnerability map is strongly correlated to known pollution values in the area.

Baalousha, H.

2006-06-01

188

Transplanting Supersites of HIV-1 Vulnerability  

PubMed Central

One strategy for isolating or eliciting antibodies against a specific target region on the envelope glycoprotein trimer (Env) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) involves the creation of site transplants, which present the target region on a heterologous protein scaffold with preserved antibody-binding properties. If the target region is a supersite of HIV-1 vulnerability, recognized by a collection of broadly neutralizing antibodies, this strategy affords the creation of “supersite transplants”, capable of binding (and potentially eliciting) antibodies similar to the template collection of effective antibodies. Here we transplant three supersites of HIV-1 vulnerability, each targeted by effective neutralizing antibodies from multiple donors. To implement our strategy, we chose a single representative antibody against each of the target supersites: antibody 10E8, which recognizes the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) on the HIV-1 gp41 glycoprotein; antibody PG9, which recognizes variable regions one and two (V1V2) on the HIV-1 gp120 glycoprotein; and antibody PGT128 which recognizes a glycopeptide supersite in variable region 3 (glycan V3) on gp120. We used a structural alignment algorithm to identify suitable acceptor proteins, and then designed, expressed, and tested antigenically over 100-supersite transplants in a 96-well microtiter-plate format. The majority of the supersite transplants failed to maintain the antigenic properties of their respective template supersite. However, seven of the glycan V3-supersite transplants exhibited nanomolar affinity to effective neutralizing antibodies from at least three donors and recapitulated the mannose9-N-linked glycan requirement of the template supersite. The binding of these transplants could be further enhanced by placement into self-assembling nanoparticles. Essential elements of the glycan V3 supersite, embodied by as few as 3 N-linked glycans and ?25 Env residues, can be segregated into acceptor scaffolds away from the immune-evading capabilities of the rest of HIV-1 Env, thereby providing a means to focus the immune response on the scaffolded supersite.

Yang, Yongping; Gorman, Jason; Ofek, Gilad; Srivatsan, Sanjay; Druz, Aliaksandr; Lees, Christopher R.; Lu, Gabriel; Soto, Cinque; Stuckey, Jonathan; Burton, Dennis R.; Koff, Wayne C.; Connors, Mark; Kwon, Peter D.

2014-01-01

189

77 FR 6548 - Notice of Availability of Ballistic Survivability, Lethality and Vulnerability Analyses  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ballistic survivability, lethality and vulnerability (SLV) analyses. ARL/SLAD conducts SLV analyses, using the MUVES-S2 vulnerability model, to quantify system, subsystem and/or component level vulnerabilities of ground and air vehicles....

2012-02-08

190

Theory and Techniques for Automatic Generation of Vulnerability-Based Signatures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, we explore the problem of creating vulnerability signatures. A vulnerability signature matches all exploits of a given vulnerability, including polymorphic and metamorphic variants. Our work departs from previous approaches by focusing on t...

D. Brumley D. Song H. Wang J. Newsome S. Jha

2006-01-01

191

6 CFR 27.240 - Review and approval of security vulnerability assessments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Review and approval of security vulnerability assessments. 27.240 Section...240 Review and approval of security vulnerability assessments. (a) Review and Approval...and approve in writing all Security Vulnerability Assessments that satisfy the...

2009-01-01

192

6 CFR 27.240 - Review and approval of security vulnerability assessments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Review and approval of security vulnerability assessments. 27.240 Section...240 Review and approval of security vulnerability assessments. (a) Review and Approval...and approve in writing all Security Vulnerability Assessments that satisfy the...

2010-01-01

193

Vulnerability of streams to legacy nitrate sources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The influence of hydrogeologic setting on the susceptibility of streams to legacy nitrate was examined at seven study sites having a wide range of base flow index (BFI) values. BFI is the ratio of base flow to total streamflow volume. The portion of annual stream nitrate loads from base flow was strongly correlated with BFI. Furthermore, dissolved oxygen concentrations in streambed pore water were significantly higher in high BFI watersheds than in low BFI watersheds suggesting that geochemical conditions favor nitrate transport through the bed when BFI is high. Results from a groundwater-surface water interaction study at a high BFI watershed indicate that decades old nitrate-laden water is discharging to this stream. These findings indicate that high nitrate levels in this stream may be sustained for decades to come regardless of current practices. It is hypothesized that a first approximation of stream vulnerability to legacy nutrients may be made by geospatial analysis of watersheds with high nitrogen inputs and a strong connection to groundwater (e.g., high BFI).

Tesoriero, Anthony J.; Du?, John H.; Saad, David A.; Spahr, Norman E.; Wolock, David M.

2013-01-01

194

Tracking Nile Delta Vulnerability to Holocene Change  

PubMed Central

Understanding deltaic resilience in the face of Holocene climate change and human impacts is an important challenge for the earth sciences in characterizing the full range of present and future wetland responses to global warming. Here, we report an 8000-year mass balance record from the Nile Delta to reconstruct when and how this sedimentary basin has responded to past hydrological shifts. In a global Holocene context, the long-term decrease in Nile Delta accretion rates is consistent with insolation-driven changes in the ‘monsoon pacemaker’, attested throughout the mid-latitude tropics. Following the early to mid-Holocene growth of the Nile’s deltaic plain, sediment losses and pronounced erosion are first recorded after ~4000 years ago, the corollaries of falling sediment supply and an intensification of anthropogenic impacts from the Pharaonic period onwards. Against the backcloth of the Saharan ‘depeopling’, reduced river flow underpinned by a weakening of monsoonal precipitation appears to have been particularly conducive to the expansion of human activities on the delta by exposing productive floodplain lands for occupation and irrigation agriculture. The reconstruction suggests that the Nile Delta has a particularly long history of vulnerability to extreme events (e.g. floods and storms) and sea-level rise, although the present sediment-starved system does not have a direct Holocene analogue. This study highlights the importance of the world’s deltas as sensitive archives to investigate Holocene geosystem responses to climate change, risks and hazards, and societal interaction.

Marriner, Nick; Flaux, Clement; Morhange, Christophe; Stanley, Jean-Daniel

2013-01-01

195

Children of alcoholics: helping a vulnerable group.  

PubMed Central

There are 28 million children of alcoholics in the United States--1 of every 8 Americans. They are more likely than others to suffer from alcoholism and a wide range of physical, emotional, and mental health problems. It is probable that an inherited predisposition for the disease of alcoholism exists. Most children of alcoholics do not become alcoholic, but they are at increased risk for many other health problems. Records of the use of services provided by health maintenance organizations and of health insurance claims show that children of alcoholics use more medical and hospital services than other children. Children of alcoholics are more likely to have problems in school and to abuse alcohol and other drugs. Their mental and physical health problems persist into adulthood. Clinical findings show that life in an alcoholic family is often characterized by pain, guilt, fear, tension, and insecurity. Children do not know that alcoholism is a disease which they cannot cause, control, or cure. Because alcoholism is a family secret, children rarely seek help, even as adults. Because the children of alcoholics are in many medical and social service systems, greater awareness and understanding by health and human service professionals can lead to identification and help for this vulnerable group. It is critical for family physicians, obstetricians, pediatricians, nurses, social workers, hospital staff, and others to incorporate questions about family alcoholism in routine screening procedures for youth and adults. Recommendations and useful materials are discussed.

Woodside, M

1988-01-01

196

An Extreme-Value Approach to Anomaly Vulnerability Identification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this paper is to present a method for importance analysis in parametric probabilistic modeling where the result of interest is the identification of potential engineering vulnerabilities associated with postulated anomalies in system behavior. In the context of Accident Precursor Analysis (APA), under which this method has been developed, these vulnerabilities, designated as anomaly vulnerabilities, are conditions that produce high risk in the presence of anomalous system behavior. The method defines a parameter-specific Parameter Vulnerability Importance measure (PVI), which identifies anomaly risk-model parameter values that indicate the potential presence of anomaly vulnerabilities, and allows them to be prioritized for further investigation. This entails analyzing each uncertain risk-model parameter over its credible range of values to determine where it produces the maximum risk. A parameter that produces high system risk for a particular range of values suggests that the system is vulnerable to the modeled anomalous conditions, if indeed the true parameter value lies in that range. Thus, PVI analysis provides a means of identifying and prioritizing anomaly-related engineering issues that at the very least warrant improved understanding to reduce uncertainty, such that true vulnerabilities may be identified and proper corrective actions taken.

Everett, Chris; Maggio, Gaspare; Groen, Frank

2010-01-01

197

Coping with seismic vulnerability: small manufacturing firms in western Athens.  

PubMed

This paper attempts to contribute to international discourse on the responsibility of macro structures (economic and political) and private agencies for the production and distribution of vulnerability. It does so by focusing on an individual economic entity, small manufacturing firms (SMFs), in a specific location, western Athens, Greece. By evaluating the losses that SMFs sustained in the earthquake of 7 September 1999, the paper points to variations in vulnerability levels among such firms and highlights the 'sources' of vulnerability they confront. Furthermore, the SMF recovery cycle is systematically monitored in parallel with relevant public policies and state reactions to private recovery methods. The analysis illustrates processes that externalise recovery costs, alter the relationship between physical and socio-economic vulnerability and shift the vulnerability load from macro structures to individual agencies or vice versa. It is based on two methodological approaches: the division of vulnerability into three constituent components (exposure, resistance and resilience); and the conceptual split between producers and carriers of vulnerability. PMID:15910649

Sapountzaki, Kalliopi

2005-06-01

198

Assessing the vulnerability of buildings to tsunami in Sydney  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Australia is vulnerable to the impacts of tsunamis and exposure along the SE coast of New South Wales is especially high. Significantly, this is the same area reported to have been affected by repeated large magnitude tsunamis during the Holocene. Efforts are under way to complete probabilistic risk assessments for the region but local government planners and emergency risk managers need information now about building vulnerability in order to develop appropriate risk management strategies. We use the newly revised PTVA-3 Model (Dall'Osso et al., 2009) to assess the relative vulnerability of buildings to damage from a "worst case tsunami" defined by our latest understanding of regional risk - something never before undertaken in Australia. We present selected results from an investigation of building vulnerability within the local government area of Manly - an iconic coastal area of Sydney. We show that a significant proportion of buildings (in particular, residential structures) are classified as having "High" and "Very High" Relative Vulnerability Index scores. Furthermore, other important buildings (e.g., schools, nursing homes and transport structures) are also vulnerable to damage. Our results have serious implications for immediate emergency risk management, longer-term land-use zoning and development, and building design and construction standards. Based on the work undertaken here, we recommend further detailed assessment of the vulnerability of coastal buildings in at risk areas, development of appropriate risk management strategies and a detailed program of community engagement to increase overall resilience.

Dall'Osso, F.; Gonella, M.; Gabbianelli, G.; Withycombe, G.; Dominey-Howes, D.

2009-12-01

199

A model for how to disclose physical security vulnerabilities.  

SciTech Connect

When security vulnerabilities are discovered, it is often unclear how much public disclosure of the vulnerabilities is prudent. This is especially true for physical security vis a vis cyber security. We never want to help the 'bad guys' more than the 'good guys', but if the good guys aren't made aware of the problems, they are unlikely to fix them. This paper presents a unique semi-quantitative tool, called the 'Vulnerability Disclosure Index' (VDI), to help determine how much disclosure of vulnerabilities is warranted and in what forum. The VDI certainly does not represent the final, definitive answer to this complex issue. It does, however, provide a starting point for thinking about some of the factors that must go into making such a decision. Moreover, anyone using the VDI tool can at least claim to have shown some degree of responsibility in contemplating disclosure issues. The purpose of this paper is to provide a tool to help decide if and how security vulnerabilities should be disclosed. This tool, called the Vulnerability Disclosure Index (VDI), is not presented here as the ultimate, authoritative method for dealing with this complex issue. It is offered instead as a first step, and as a vehicle for thinking about and discussing some of the factors that need to be pondered when vulnerability disclosures are being considered.

Johnston, R. G. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2009-01-01

200

Volcanic risk assessment: Quantifying physical vulnerability in the built environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents structured and cost-effective methods for assessing the physical vulnerability of at-risk communities to the range of volcanic hazards, developed as part of the MIA-VITA project (2009–2012). An initial assessment of building and infrastructure vulnerability has been carried out for a set of broadly defined building types and infrastructure categories, with the likelihood of damage considered separately for projectile impact, ash fall loading, pyroclastic density current dynamic pressure and earthquake ground shaking intensities. In refining these estimates for two case study areas: Kanlaon volcano in the Philippines and Fogo volcano in Cape Verde, we have developed guidelines and methodologies for carrying out physical vulnerability assessments in the field. These include identifying primary building characteristics, such as construction material and method, as well as subsidiary characteristics, for example the size and prevalence of openings, that may be important in assessing eruption impacts. At-risk buildings around Kanlaon were found to be dominated by timber frame buildings that exhibit a high vulnerability to pyroclastic density currents, but a low vulnerability to failure from seismic shaking. Around Fogo, the predominance of unreinforced masonry buildings with reinforced concrete slab roofs suggests a high vulnerability to volcanic earthquake but a low vulnerability to ash fall loading. Given the importance of agriculture for local livelihoods around Kanlaon and Fogo, we discuss the potential impact of infrastructure vulnerability for local agricultural economies, with implications for volcanic areas worldwide. These methodologies and tools go some way towards offering a standardised approach to carrying out future vulnerability assessments for populated volcanic areas.

Jenkins, S. F.; Spence, R. J. S.; Fonseca, J. F. B. D.; Solidum, R. U.; Wilson, T. M.

2014-04-01

201

Attending to social vulnerability when rationing pandemic resources.  

PubMed

Pandemic plans are increasingly attending to groups experiencing health disparities and other social vulnerabilities. Although some pandemic guidance is silent on the issue, guidance that attends to socially vulnerable groups ranges widely, some procedural (often calling for public engagement), and some substantive. Public engagement objectives vary from merely educational to seeking reflective input into the ethical commitments that should guide pandemic planning and response. Some plans that concern rationing during a severe pandemic recommend ways to protect socially vulnerable groups without prioritizing access to scarce resources based on social vulnerability per se. The Minnesota Pandemic Ethics Project (MPEP), a public engagement project on rationing scarce health resources during a severe influenza pandemic, agrees and recommends an integrated set of ways to attend to the needs of socially vulnerable people and avoid exacerbation of health disparities during a severe influenza pandemic. Among other things, MPEP recommends: 1. Engaging socially vulnerable populations to clarify unique needs and effective strategies; 2. Engaging socially vulnerable populations to elicit ethical values and perspectives on rationing; 3. Rejecting rationing based on race, socioeconomic class, citizenship, quality of life, length of life-extension and first-come, first-served; 4. Prioritizing those in the general population for access to resources based on combinations of risk (of death or severe complications from influenza, exposure to influenza, transmitting influenza to vulnerable groups) and the likelihood of responding well to the resource in question. 5. Protecting critical infrastructures on which vulnerable populations and the general public rely; 6. Identifying and removing access barriers during pandemic planning and response; and 7. Collecting and promptly analyzing data during the pandemic to identify groups at disproportionate risk of influenza-related mortality and serious morbidity and to optimize the distribution of resources. PMID:21595354

Vawter, Dorothy E; Garrett, J Eline; Gervais, Karen G; Prehn, Angela Witt; DeBruin, Debra A

2011-01-01

202

EDITORIAL: Groundwater resources, climate and vulnerability Groundwater resources, climate and vulnerability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater is an important component of the freshwater system and its role is becoming even more prominent as the more accessible surface water resources become increasingly exploited to support increasing populations and development. Yet despite its significance, there has been comparatively little research conducted on groundwater relative to surface water resources, particularly in the context of climate change impact assessment. This focus issue has therefore been assembled to expand upon the currently limited knowledge of groundwater systems and their links with climate. Many of the papers included here explore the interrelated issues of groundwater resources, climate-related changes and vulnerabilities at a regional scale in different continents and globally. See the PDF for the full text of the editorial. Focus on Groundwater Resources, Climate and Vulnerability Contents Groundwater: from mystery to management T N Narasimhan Simulated response of groundwater to predicted recharge in a semi-arid region using a scenario of modelled climate change M W Toews and D M Allen Long-term climatic change and sustainable ground water resources management Hugo A Loáiciga Climate change and groundwater: India's opportunities for mitigation and adaptation Tushaar Shah Vulnerability to the impact of climate change on renewable groundwater resources: a global-scale assessment Petra Döll Influence of soil heterogeneity on evapotranspiration under shallow water table conditions: transient, stochastic simulations Stefan J Kollet Nutrient cycling and N2O emissions in a changing climate: the subsurface water system role Georgia Destouni and Amélie Darracq Rainfall intensity and groundwater recharge: empirical evidence from the Upper Nile Basin M Owor, R G Taylor, C Tindimugaya and D Mwesigwa

Bovolo, C. Isabella; Parkin, Geoff; Sophocleous, Marios

2009-09-01

203

EDITORIAL: Groundwater resources, climate and vulnerability Groundwater resources, climate and vulnerability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater is an important component of the freshwater system and its role is becoming even more prominent as the more accessible surface water resources become increasingly exploited to support increasing populations and development. Yet despite its significance, there has been comparatively little research conducted on groundwater relative to surface water resources, particularly in the context of climate change impact assessment. This focus issue has therefore been assembled to expand upon the currently limited knowledge of groundwater systems and their links with climate. Many of the papers included here explore the interrelated issues of groundwater resources, climate-related changes and vulnerabilities at a regional scale in different continents and globally. See the PDF for the full text of the editorial. Focus on Groundwater Resources, Climate and Vulnerability Contents Groundwater: from mystery to management T N Narasimhan Simulated response of groundwater to predicted recharge in a semi-arid region using a scenario of modelled climate change M W Toews and D M Allen Long-term climatic change and sustainable ground water resources management Hugo A Loáiciga Climate change and groundwater: India's opportunities for mitigation and adaptation Tushaar Shah Vulnerability to the impact of climate change on renewable groundwater resources: a global-scale assessment Petra Döll Influence of soil heterogeneity on evapotranspiration under shallow water table conditions: transient, stochastic simulations Stefan J Kollet Nutrient cycling and N2O emissions in a changing climate: the subsurface water system role Georgia Destouni and Amélie Darracq Rainfall intensity and groundwater recharge: empirical evidence from the Upper Nile Basin M Owor, R G Taylor, C Tindimugaya and D Mwesigwa This focus issue is not yet complete, there are still letters at press and in review.

Bovolo, C. Isabella; Parkin, Geoff; Sophocleous, Marios

2009-09-01

204

Automated Vulnerability Detection for Compiled Smart Grid Software  

SciTech Connect

While testing performed with proper experimental controls can provide scientifically quantifiable evidence that software does not contain unintentional vulnerabilities (bugs), it is insufficient to show that intentional vulnerabilities exist, and impractical to certify devices for the expected long lifetimes of use. For both of these needs, rigorous analysis of the software itself is essential. Automated software behavior computation applies rigorous static software analysis methods based on function extraction (FX) to compiled software to detect vulnerabilities, intentional or unintentional, and to verify critical functionality. This analysis is based on the compiled firmware, takes into account machine precision, and does not rely on heuristics or approximations early in the analysis.

Prowell, Stacy J [ORNL; Pleszkoch, Mark G [ORNL; Sayre, Kirk D [ORNL; Linger, Richard C [ORNL

2012-01-01

205

Drought vulnerability assessment for prioritising drought warning implementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drought warning provides a potentially efficient approach to mitigation of drought impacts, and should be targeted at areas most vulnerable to being adversely impacted. Assessing drought vulnerability is, however, complex and needs to consider susceptibility to drought impact as well as the capacity to cope with drought. In this paper a Drought Vulnerability Index (DVI) is proposed that considers four primary components that reflect the capacity of society to adapt to drought; the renewable natural capital, the economic capacity, the human and civic resources, and the available infrastructure and technology. The DVI is established as a weighted combination of these four components, each a composite of selected indicators. Constituent indicators are calculated based on national and/or regional census data and statistics, and while the resulting DVI should not be considered an absolute measure of drought vulnerability it does provide for a prioritisation of areas that can be used to target drought warning efforts. Sensitivity analysis of weights applied show the established DVI to be robust. Through the DVI the development of drought forecasting and warning can be targeted at the most vulnerable areas. The proposed DVI is applied at both the continental scale in Africa to assess drought vulnerability of the different nations across Africa, and at the national level in Kenya, allowing for prioritisation of the counties within Kenya to drought vulnerability. Results show the relative vulnerability of countries and counties vulnerable to drought. At the continental scale, Somalia, Burundi, Niger, Ethiopia, Mali and Chad are found to be the countries most vulnerable to drought. At the national level, the relative vulnerability of the counties across Kenya is found, with counties in the North-East of Kenya having the highest values of DVI. At the country level results were compared with drought disaster information from the EM-DAT disaster database, showing a good agreement between recorded drought impact and the established DVI classes. Kenya counties most vulnerable to drought are primarily located in the North-East of the country, showing a reasonable agreement with the spatial distribution of impacts of the 2010/2011 drought, despite the drought itself being more widespread.

Naumann, Gustavo; Faneca Sànchez, Marta; Mwangi, Emmah; Barbosa, Paulo; Iglesias, Ana; Garrote, Luis; Werner, Micha

2014-05-01

206

Ethics seminars: vulnerable populations in emergency medicine research.  

PubMed

Regulatory bodies and institutional review boards are increasingly considering human subjects who are vulnerable to research not because of their intrinsic characteristics, but because of the particular situations or circumstances that they bring with them as potential research participants. Several subsets of emergency department patients may be considered vulnerable in the research setting. This may include patients who are vulnerable because of a medical condition, a baseline limitation of intellectual function, a social setting, psychosocial stressors, or other factors. These issues should be carefully considered when including such patients in research protocols. Special efforts should be made to ensure voluntary participation and understanding of the purposes and risks of participation. PMID:14597508

Quest, Tammie; Marco, Catherine A

2003-11-01

207

Vulnerability Assessment for Cascading Failures in Electric Power Systems  

SciTech Connect

Cascading failures present severe threats to power grid security, and thus vulnerability assessment of power grids is of significant importance. Focusing on analytic methods, this paper reviews the state of the art of vulnerability assessment methods in the context of cascading failures in three categories: steady-state modeling based analysis; dynamic modeling analysis; and non-traditional modeling approaches. The impact of emerging technologies including phasor technology, high-performance computing techniques, and visualization techniques on the vulnerability assessment of cascading failures is then addressed, and future research directions are presented.

Baldick, R.; Chowdhury, Badrul; Dobson, Ian; Dong, Zhao Yang; Gou, Bei; Hawkins, David L.; Huang, Zhenyu; Joung, Manho; Kim, Janghoon; Kirschen, Daniel; Lee, Stephen; Li, Fangxing; Li, Juan; Li, Zuyi; Liu, Chen-Ching; Luo, Xiaochuan; Mili, Lamine; Miller, Stephen; Nakayama, Marvin; Papic, Milorad; Podmore, Robin; Rossmaier, John; Schneider, Kevin P.; Sun, Hongbin; Sun, Kai; Wang, David; Wu, Zhigang; Yao, Liangzhong; Zhang, Pei; Zhang, Wenjie; Zhang, Xiaoping

2008-09-10

208

Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city Bruno Barroca1, Damien Serre2 1Laboratory of Urban Engineering, Environment and Building (L G U E H) - Université de Marne-la-Vallée - Pôle Ville, 5, Bd Descartes - Bâtiment Lavoisier - 77454 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 - France 2City of Paris Engineering School, Construction - Environment Department, 15 rue Fénelon, 75010 Paris, France In France, as in Europe and more generally throughout the world, river floods have been increasing in frequency and severity over the last ten years, and there are more instances of rivers bursting their banks, aggravating the impact of the flooding of areas supposedly protected by flood defenses. Despite efforts made to well maintain the flood defense assets, we often observe flood defense failures leading to finally increase flood risk in protected area during major flood events. Furthermore, flood forecasting models, although they benefit continuous improvements, remain partly inaccurate due to uncertainties populated all along data calculation processes. These circumstances obliged stakeholders and the scientific communities to manage flood risk by integrating new concepts like stakes management, vulnerability assessments and more recently urban resilience development. Definitively, the goal is to reduce flood risk by managing of course flood defenses and improving flood forecasting models, but also stakes and vulnerability of flooded areas to achieve urban resilience face to flood events. Vulnerability to flood is essentially concentrated in urban areas. Assessing vulnerability of a city is very difficult. Indeed, urban area is a complex system composed by a sum of technical sub-systems as complex as the urban area itself. Assessing city vulnerability consists in talking into account each sub system vulnerability and integrating all direct and indirect impacts generally depending from city shape and city spatial organization. At this time, although some research activities have been undertaken, there are no specific methods and tools to assess flood vulnerability at the scale of the city. Indeed, by studying literature we can list some vulnerability indicators and a few Geographic Information System (GIS) tools. But generally indicators and GIS are not developed specifically at the city scale: often a regional scale is used. Analyzing vulnerability at this scale needs more accurate and formalized indicators and GIS tools. The second limit of existing GIS is temporal: even if vulnerability could be assessed and localized through GIS, such tools cannot assist city managers in their decision to efficiency recover after a severe flood event. Due to scale and temporal limits, methods and tools available to assess urban vulnerability need large improvements. Talking into account all these considerations and limits, our research is focusing on: • vulnerability indicators design; • recovery scenarios design; • GIS for city vulnerability assessment and recovery scenarios. Dealing with vulnerability indicators, the goal is to design a set of indicators of city sub systems. Sub systems are seen like assets of high value and complex and interdependent infrastructure networks (i.e. power supplies, communications, water, transport etc.). The infrastructure networks are critical for the continuity of economic activities as well as for the people's basic living needs. Their availability is also required for fast and effective recovery after flood disasters. The severity of flood damage therefore largely depends on the degree that both high value assets and critical urban infrastructure are affected, either directly or indirectly. To face the challenge of designing indicators, a functional model of the city system (and sub systems) has to be built to analyze the system response to flood solicitation. Then, a coherent and an efficient set of vulnerability of indicators could be built up. With such methods city stakeholders will be informed on how and how much their systems are vulnerable. It is a first level of inform

Serre, D.; Barroca, B.

2009-04-01

209

Early Brain Vulnerability in Wolfram Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Wolfram Syndrome (WFS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, optic nerve atrophy, diabetes insipidus, deafness, and neurological dysfunction leading to death in mid-adulthood. WFS is caused by mutations in the WFS1 gene, which lead to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated cell death. Case studies have found widespread brain atrophy in late stage WFS. However, it is not known when in the disease course these brain abnormalities arise, and whether there is differential vulnerability across brain regions and tissue classes. To address this limitation, we quantified regional brain abnormalities across multiple imaging modalities in a cohort of young patients in relatively early stages of WFS. Children and young adults with WFS were evaluated with neurological, cognitive and structural magnetic resonance imaging measures. Compared to normative data, the WFS group had intact cognition, significant anxiety and depression, and gait abnormalities. Compared to healthy and type 1 diabetic control groups, the WFS group had smaller intracranial volume and preferentially affected gray matter volume and white matter microstructural integrity in the brainstem, cerebellum and optic radiations. Abnormalities were detected in even the youngest patients with mildest symptoms, and some measures did not follow the typical age-dependent developmental trajectory. These results establish that WFS is associated with smaller intracranial volume with specific abnormalities in the brainstem and cerebellum, even at the earliest stage of clinical symptoms. This pattern of abnormalities suggests that WFS has a pronounced impact on early brain development in addition to later neurodegenerative effects, representing a significant new insight into the WFS disease process. Longitudinal studies will be critical for confirming and expanding our understanding of the impact of ER stress dysregulation on brain development.

Hershey, Tamara; Lugar, Heather M.; Shimony, Joshua S.; Rutlin, Jerrel; Koller, Jonathan M.; Perantie, Dana C.; Paciorkowski, Alex R.; Eisenstein, Sarah A.; Permutt, M. Alan

2012-01-01

210

Early brain vulnerability in Wolfram syndrome.  

PubMed

Wolfram Syndrome (WFS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, optic nerve atrophy, diabetes insipidus, deafness, and neurological dysfunction leading to death in mid-adulthood. WFS is caused by mutations in the WFS1 gene, which lead to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated cell death. Case studies have found widespread brain atrophy in late stage WFS. However, it is not known when in the disease course these brain abnormalities arise, and whether there is differential vulnerability across brain regions and tissue classes. To address this limitation, we quantified regional brain abnormalities across multiple imaging modalities in a cohort of young patients in relatively early stages of WFS. Children and young adults with WFS were evaluated with neurological, cognitive and structural magnetic resonance imaging measures. Compared to normative data, the WFS group had intact cognition, significant anxiety and depression, and gait abnormalities. Compared to healthy and type 1 diabetic control groups, the WFS group had smaller intracranial volume and preferentially affected gray matter volume and white matter microstructural integrity in the brainstem, cerebellum and optic radiations. Abnormalities were detected in even the youngest patients with mildest symptoms, and some measures did not follow the typical age-dependent developmental trajectory. These results establish that WFS is associated with smaller intracranial volume with specific abnormalities in the brainstem and cerebellum, even at the earliest stage of clinical symptoms. This pattern of abnormalities suggests that WFS has a pronounced impact on early brain development in addition to later neurodegenerative effects, representing a significant new insight into the WFS disease process. Longitudinal studies will be critical for confirming and expanding our understanding of the impact of ER stress dysregulation on brain development. PMID:22792385

Hershey, Tamara; Lugar, Heather M; Shimony, Joshua S; Rutlin, Jerrel; Koller, Jonathan M; Perantie, Dana C; Paciorkowski, Alex R; Eisenstein, Sarah A; Permutt, M Alan

2012-01-01

211

Vulnerability of critical infrastructures : identifying critical nodes.  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research was the development of tools and techniques for the identification of critical nodes within critical infrastructures. These are nodes that, if disrupted through natural events or terrorist action, would cause the most widespread, immediate damage. This research focuses on one particular element of the national infrastructure: the bulk power system. Through the identification of critical elements and the quantification of the consequences of their failure, site-specific vulnerability analyses can be focused at those locations where additional security measures could be effectively implemented. In particular, with appropriate sizing and placement within the grid, distributed generation in the form of regional power parks may reduce or even prevent the impact of widespread network power outages. Even without additional security measures, increased awareness of sensitive power grid locations can provide a basis for more effective national, state and local emergency planning. A number of methods for identifying critical nodes were investigated: small-world (or network theory), polyhedral dynamics, and an artificial intelligence-based search method - particle swarm optimization. PSO was found to be the only viable approach and was applied to a variety of industry accepted test networks to validate the ability of the approach to identify sets of critical nodes. The approach was coded in a software package called Buzzard and integrated with a traditional power flow code. A number of industry accepted test networks were employed to validate the approach. The techniques (and software) are not unique to power grid network, but could be applied to a variety of complex, interacting infrastructures.

Cox, Roger Gary; Robinson, David Gerald

2004-06-01

212

Towards a definition of orphaned and vulnerable children.  

PubMed

The HIV epidemic presents challenges including orphans and a large mass of children rendered vulnerable by the epidemic and other societal forces. Focus on orphaned and vulnerable children (OVC) is important, but needs accurate definition. Twelve focus group interviews of service providers, leaders in these communities, OVC and their caretakers were conducted at six project sites across Botswana, South Africa and Zimbabwe to extend this definition. The loss of a parent through death or desertion is an important aspect of vulnerability. Additional factors leading to vulnerability included severe chronic illness of a parent or caregiver, poverty, hunger, lack of access to services, inadequate clothing or shelter, overcrowding, deficient caretakers, and factors specific to the child, including disability, direct experience of physical or sexual violence, or severe chronic illness. Important questions raised in this research include the long-term implications for the child and community, and the contribution of culture systems. PMID:16639543

Skinner, Donald; Tsheko, N; Mtero-Munyati, S; Segwabe, M; Chibatamoto, P; Mfecane, S; Chandiwana, B; Nkomo, N; Tlou, S; Chitiyo, G

2006-11-01

213

Depression following pegylated interferon-alpha: Characteristics and vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveInterferon-?2 (IFN-?) injections may be capable of triggering depression in some individuals. The first objective was to further characterize this depression and, secondly, to examine whether pre-treatment temperament was correlated with subsequent vulnerability to IFN-?.

Francis E. Lotrich; Mordechai Rabinovitz; Patricia Gironda; Bruce G. Pollock

2007-01-01

214

Explosive Containment Chamber Vulnerability to Chemical Munition Fragment Impact.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Scenarios in which the explosive burster charge in a chemical munition accidentally detonates inside demilitarization containment chambers are analyzed. The vulnerability of an inner Auxiliary Pressure Vessel and the primary Explosive Containment Chamber ...

R. A. Benham S. H. Fischer M. E. Kipp R. R. Martinez

1999-01-01

215

Atmospheric energy cycle: a regional indicator of the climate vulnerability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The assessment of the vulnerability of densely populated regions to major natural disasters, including climatic variations, is a topic of intense investigation. Indices of vulnerability have been developed based on social, economic and climatic factors. However, the relative importance of the processes involved is still subject of debate. Here, we investigate the possibility to employ the Lorentz energy cycle as an indicator of the climatic conditions. We compute the energy and energy conversion for a period of 30 years for regions that are already defined as vulnerable to climate variations. The atmospheric energetics of São Paulo is calculated climatically and highlighted the periods occurrence of floods. From detailed studies of energy during periods posted some regional indicators of the climate vulnerabilities are suggested for cities studied, showing the importance of atmospheric dynamics in defining these indicators. This work is supported by FAPESP under the grant agreement no. 2008/58161-1 (PFPMCG - Projeto Temático) and no. 2011/13976-0.

Da Silva, L. A.; Marengo, J. A.; Vieira, L. A.; Chan, C. S.; Lyra, A.

2013-05-01

216

Soft Error Vulnerability of Iterative Linear Algebra Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Devices become increasingly vulnerable to soft errors as their feature sizes shrink. Previously, soft errors primarily caused problems for space and highatmospheric computing applications. Modern architectures now use features so small at sufficiently low...

B. de Supinski G. Bronevetsky

2007-01-01

217

A Mathematical Model for Assessing Target Vulnerability Research Efforts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The methodology developed in this study is intended to provide a research engineer with a systematic approach for evaluating the merits and orientation of a target vulnerability research program. The methodology emphasizes consideration of fundamental par...

G. C. Binninger

1978-01-01

218

Screening for Intimate Partner Violence and Abuse of Vulnerable Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... might mean for you. IPV, also known as domestic violence, is physical, sexual, or psychological harm by a ... Disease Control and Prevention) Screening for Intimate Partner Violence and Abuse of Elderly and Vulnerable Adults

219

7 CFR 1730.27 - Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA).  

...1730.27 Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA). ...destroyed would cause significant risk to the safety and health of the public; (3) Critical...section; (6) Criticality and risk level of the borrower's...

2014-01-01

220

Using Game Theory to Reveal Vulnerability for Complex Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a method to identify network vulnerability based on Monte Carlo sampling and game theory. A two-player (attacker vs. immunizer), non-cooperative, constant-sum game model is used to obtain a mixed Nash equilibrium strategy. In this strategy, each node has a probability of being selected by the immunizer. These probabilities reflect the vulnerabilities of network nodes. With the implementation

Xiaoying Zhang; Chi Guo; Lina Wang

2010-01-01

221

Depressive Self-Schemas, Life Stress, and Vulnerability to Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vulnerability model of depression was tested by hypothesizing that depressogenic self-schemas that interact with schema-congruent negative life events will be associated with depression. Ninety-three college students were followed prospectively for four monthly assessments of both interview- and questionnaire-measured stressful life events, and clinical interview- and questionnaire-measured depression. An information-processing schema model of vulnerability was used to define subgroups of

Constance Hammen; Terry Marks; Arlene Mayol; Robert deMayo

1985-01-01

222

Pixy: A static analysis tool for detecting Web application vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The number,and the importance of Web applications have increased rapidly over the last years. At the same time, the quantity and impact of security vulnerabilities in such applications have grown as well. Since manual code reviews are time-consuming, error-prone and costly, the need for automated solutions has become evident. In this paper, we address the problem of vulnerable Web

N. Jovanovic; C. Kruegel; E. Kirda

2006-01-01

223

Vulnerability-attention analysis for space-related activities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques for representing and analyzing trouble spots in structures and processes are discussed. Identification of vulnerable areas usually depends more on particular and often detailed knowledge than on algorithmic or mathematical procedures. In some cases, machine inference can facilitate the identification. The analysis scheme proposed first establishes the geometry of the process, then marks areas that are conditionally vulnerable. This provides a basis for advice on the kinds of human attention or machine sensing and control that can make the risks tolerable.

Ford, Donnie; Hays, Dan; Lee, Sung Yong; Wolfsberger, John

1988-01-01

224

Towards Improving SCADA Control Systems Security with Vulnerability Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cyber security threats and attacks are greatly affecting the security of critical infrastructure, industrial control systems,\\u000a and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) control systems. Despite growing awareness of security issues especially\\u000a in SCADA networks, there exist little or scarce information about SCADA vulnerabilities and attacks. This research addresses\\u000a the issues regarding security and performs a vulnerability analysis. Modeling of

Giovanni Cagalaban; Seoksoo Kim

225

Understanding vulnerability of coastal communities to climate change related risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

DOLAN, A.H., and WALKER, I.J., 2003. Understanding vulnerability of coastal communities to climate change related risks. Journal of Coastal Research, SI 39 (Proceedings of the 8th International Coastal Symposium), pg - pg. Itajaí, SC - Brazil, ISSN 0749-0208 This paper discusses the concept of vulnerability as characterized in the climate change literature and presents a framework for assessing adaptive capacity.

A. H. Dolan; I. J. Walker

2004-01-01

226

Molecular mechanisms and therapeutic strategies of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque rupture leading to thrombosis is the major cause of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Studies\\u000a on the pathophysiologic mechanism of both ACS and plaque stabilizing treatment are driving the development of animal models\\u000a of vulnerable plaque. In our laboratory, we established animal models of plaque rupture and thrombosis in rabbits and mice\\u000a that are similar to human plaque

Wen-Qiang Chen; Yun Zhang

2010-01-01

227

A quantitative vulnerability function for fluvial sediment transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

In quantitative risk assessment, risk is expressed as a function of hazard, elements at risk exposed, and vulnerability. Vulnerability\\u000a is defined as the expected degree of loss for an element at risk as a consequence of a certain event, following a natural-scientific\\u000a approach combined with economic methods of loss appraisal. The resulting value ranges from 0 (no damage) to 1

Reinhold Totschnig; Walter Sedlacek; Sven Fuchs

2011-01-01

228

Latin hypercube approach to estimate uncertainty in ground water vulnerability  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A methodology is proposed to quantify prediction uncertainty associated with ground water vulnerability models that were developed through an approach that coupled multivariate logistic regression with a geographic information system (GIS). This method uses Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) to illustrate the propagation of input error and estimate uncertainty associated with the logistic regression predictions of ground water vulnerability. Central to the proposed method is the assumption that prediction uncertainty in ground water vulnerability models is a function of input error propagation from uncertainty in the estimated logistic regression model coefficients (model error) and the values of explanatory variables represented in the GIS (data error). Input probability distributions that represent both model and data error sources of uncertainty were simultaneously sampled using a Latin hypercube approach with logistic regression calculations of probability of elevated nonpoint source contaminants in ground water. The resulting probability distribution represents the prediction intervals and associated uncertainty of the ground water vulnerability predictions. The method is illustrated through a ground water vulnerability assessment of the High Plains regional aquifer. Results of the LHS simulations reveal significant prediction uncertainties that vary spatially across the regional aquifer. Additionally, the proposed method enables a spatial deconstruction of the prediction uncertainty that can lead to improved prediction of ground water vulnerability. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

Gurdak, J. J.; McCray, J. E.; Thyne, G.; Qi, S. L.

2007-01-01

229

Coastal vulnerability: climate change and natural hazards perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction Studying coastal zones as a territorial concept (Integrated coastal zone management) is an essential issue for managers, as they have to consider many different topics (natural hazards, resources management, tourism, climate change…). The recent approach in terms of "coastal vulnerability" studies (since the 90's) is the main tool used nowadays to help them in evaluating impacts of natural hazards on coastal zones, specially considering climate change. This present communication aims to highlight the difficulties in integrating this concept in risk analysis as it is usually practiced in natural hazards sciences. 1) Coastal vulnerability as a recent issue The concept of coastal vulnerability mainly appears in the International panel on climate change works of 1992 (IPCC. 2001), where it is presented as essential for climate change adaptation. The concept has been defined by a common methodology which proposes the assessment of seven indicators, in regards to a sea level rise of 1m in 2100: people affected, people at risk, capital value at loss, land at loss, wetland at loss, potential adaptation costs, people at risk assuming this adaptation. Many national assessments have been implemented (Nicholls, et al. 1995) and a global assessment was proposed for three indicators (Nicholls, et al. 1999). The DINAS-Coast project reuses this methodology to produce the DIVA-tool for coastal managers (Vafeidis, et al. 2004). Besides, many other methodologies for national or regional coastal vulnerability assessments have been developed (review by (UNFCCC. 2008). The use of aggregated vulnerability indicators (including geomorphology, hydrodynamics, climate change…) is widespread: the USGS coastal vulnerability index is used worldwide and was completed by a social vulnerability index (Boruff, et al. 2005). Those index-based methods propose a vulnerability mapping which visualise indicators of erosion, submersion and/or socio economic sensibility in coastal zones. This concept is a great tool for policy makers to help managing their action and taking into account climate change (McFadden, et al. 2006). However, in those approaches, vulnerability is the output itself (cost of effective impacts, geomorphologic impacts…), but is not integrated it in a risk analysis. Furthermore, those studies emerged from a climatic perspective, which leads to consider climate change as a hazard or pressure whereas risk studies commonly consider hazards such as erosion and flooding, where climate change modifies the drivers of the hazard. 2) The natural hazards and socio economic perspectives In order to reduce impacts of natural hazards, decision makers need a complete risk assessment (probability of losses). Past studies on natural risks (landslide, earthquake...) highlighted the pertinence of defining risk as a combination of : (1)hazard occurrence and intensity, (2) exposition and (3)vulnerability of assets and population to this hazard (e.g. Douglas. 2007, Sarewitz, et al. 2003). Following the Renn and Klinke risk assessment frame, high uncertainties associated with coastal risks considering climatic and anthropic change highlights the importance of working on that concept of "vulnerability" (Klinke and Renn. 2002). Past studies on vulnerability assessment showed a frequently mentioned gap between "impact based" and "human based" points of view. It is nowadays a great issue for natural risk sciences. Many research efforts in FP7 projects such as MOVE and ENSURE focus on integrating the different dimensions of vulnerability (Turner, et al. 2003, Birkmann. 2006). Coastal risk studies highlight another issue of concern. We previously detailed the different use of the term "vulnerability" in the coastal context, quite different of the "natural risk's" use. Interaction of social, economic and physical sciences is considered within two french research projects (Vulsaco, Miseeva), in order to identify the vulnerability of a system to flooding or erosion (i.e. its characteristics th

Romieu, E.; Vinchon, C.

2009-04-01

230

Debating space security: Capabilities and vulnerabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. position in the debate on space security has been that (1) space-based systems could be developed and used to obtain decisive warfighting superiority over an adversary, and (2) these space-based systems, because they might give such an inordinate advantage over any adversary, will be attacked. The Russians and Chinese, in contrast, claim to be threatened by U.S. aspirations in space but deny that they pose a serious threat to U.S. space-based systems. They view the development of advanced military space systems by the United States as evidence of a growing gap of military capabilities limited only by technological—not political—constraints. They argue that U.S. missile defense systems operating in coordination with advanced satellite sensors would weaken their nuclear retaliatory potential. This dissertation argues that the positions held by both of these parties are more extreme than warranted. An analytical evaluation quickly narrows the touted capabilities and assumed vulnerabilities of space systems to a much smaller set of concerns that can be addressed by collaboration. Chapter 2: Operationally Responsive Space (ORS): Is 24/7 Warfighter Support Feasible? demonstrates the infeasibility of dramatically increasing U.S. warfighting superiority by using satellites. Chapter 3: What Can be Achieved by Attacking Satellites? makes the case that although U.S. armed forces rely extensively on its satellite infrastructure, that does not immediately make them desirable targets. The functions performed by military satellites are diffused among large constellations with redundancies. Also, some of the functions performed by these satellites can be substituted for by other terrestrial and aerial systems. Chapter 4: The Limits of Chinese Anti-Satellite Missiles demonstrates that anti-satellite (ASAT) intercepts are very complex under realistic conditions and that a potential adversary with space capabilities comparable to China's has very limited capability to use ASATs in a real-world battle scenario. Finally, in order to evaluate the chief concern raised by the Russians and Chinese, chapter 5: Satellites, Missile Defense and Space Security simulates a boost-phase missile defense system cued by the advanced Space Tracking and Surveillance (STSS) sensors. It demonstrates that even under best case assumptions, the STSS sensors are not good enough for the boost-phase missile defense system to successfully intercept and destroy an ICBM. Together, these chapters aim to narrow the contentions in the debate on space security thereby fostering the international colloboration and data sharing needed to ensure safe operations in space.

Sankaran, Jaganath

231

Dealing with contextual vulnerabilities in code: distinguishing between solutions and pseudosolutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vulnerabilities in objects in various operating systems or add-ons continue to surface at a rapid rate, posing a unique security problem, one with which vendors appear to be struggling. Patching a vulnerability discovered in a default system binary, such as the highly publicized sendmail debug vulnerability (this vulnerability has been discussed extensively in the literature and was even exploited in

Jesper M. Johansson; E. Eugene Schultz

2003-01-01

232

Testing and assessing web vulnerability scanners for persistent SQL injection attacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web application security scanners are automated tools used to detect security vulnerabilities in web applications. Recent research has shown that detecting persistent SQL injection vulnerabilities, one of the most critical web application vulnerabilities, is a major challenge for black-box scanners. In this paper, we evaluate three state of art black-box scanners that support detecting persistent SQL injection vulnerabilities. We developed

Nidal Khoury; Pavol Zavarsky; Dale Lindskog; Ron Ruhl

2011-01-01

233

Improving CVSS-based vulnerability prioritization and response with context information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing number of software security vulnerabilities is an ever-increasing challenge for organizations. As security managers in the industry have to operate within limited budgets they also have to prioritize their vulnerability responses. The Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) aids in such prioritization by providing a metric for the severity of vulnerabilities. In its most prominent application, as the severity

Christian Frühwirth; Tomi Männistö

2009-01-01

234

Prediction of individualized therapeutic vulnerabilities in cancer from genomic profiles  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Somatic homozygous deletions of chromosomal regions in cancer, while not necessarily oncogenic, may lead to therapeutic vulnerabilities specific to cancer cells compared with normal cells. A recently reported example is the loss of one of the two isoenzymes in glioblastoma cancer cells such that the use of a specific inhibitor selectively inhibited growth of the cancer cells, which had become fully dependent on the second isoenzyme. We have now made use of the unprecedented conjunction of large-scale cancer genomics profiling of tumor samples in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and of tumor-derived cell lines in the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia, as well as the availability of integrated pathway information systems, such as Pathway Commons, to systematically search for a comprehensive set of such epistatic vulnerabilities. Results: Based on homozygous deletions affecting metabolic enzymes in 16 TCGA cancer studies and 972 cancer cell lines, we identified 4104 candidate metabolic vulnerabilities present in 1019 tumor samples and 482 cell lines. Up to 44% of these vulnerabilities can be targeted with at least one Food and Drug Administration-approved drug. We suggest focused experiments to test these vulnerabilities and clinical trials based on personalized genomic profiles of those that pass preclinical filters. We conclude that genomic profiling will in the future provide a promising basis for network pharmacology of epistatic vulnerabilities as a promising therapeutic strategy. Availability and implementation: A web-based tool for exploring all vulnerabilities and their details is available at http://cbio.mskcc.org/cancergenomics/statius/ along with supplemental data files. Contact: statius@cbio.mskcc.org Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Aksoy, Bulent Arman; Demir, Emek; Babur, Ozgun; Wang, Weiqing; Jing, Xiaohong; Schultz, Nikolaus; Sander, Chris

2014-01-01

235

Probabilistic seismic vulnerability and risk assessment of stone masonry structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquakes represent major natural hazards that regularly impact the built environment in seismic prone areas worldwide and cause considerable social and economic losses. The high losses incurred following the past destructive earthquakes promoted the need for assessment of the seismic vulnerability and risk of the existing buildings. Many historic buildings in the old urban centers in Eastern Canada such as Old Quebec City are built of stone masonry and represent un-measurable architectural and cultural heritage. These buildings were built to resist gravity loads only and generally offer poor resistance to lateral seismic loads. Seismic vulnerability assessment of stone masonry buildings is therefore the first necessary step in developing seismic retrofitting and pre-disaster mitigation plans. The objective of this study is to develop a set of probability-based analytical tools for efficient seismic vulnerability and uncertainty analysis of stone masonry buildings. A simplified probabilistic analytical methodology for vulnerability modelling of stone masonry building with systematic treatment of uncertainties throughout the modelling process is developed in the first part of this study. Building capacity curves are developed using a simplified mechanical model. A displacement based procedure is used to develop damage state fragility functions in terms of spectral displacement response based on drift thresholds of stone masonry walls. A simplified probabilistic seismic demand analysis is proposed to capture the combined uncertainty in capacity and demand on fragility functions. In the second part, a robust analytical procedure for the development of seismic hazard compatible fragility and vulnerability functions is proposed. The results are given by sets of seismic hazard compatible vulnerability functions in terms of structure-independent intensity measure (e.g. spectral acceleration) that can be used for seismic risk analysis. The procedure is very efficient for conducting rapid vulnerability assessment of stone masonry buildings. With modification of input structural parameters, it can be adapted and applied to any other building class. A sensitivity analysis of the seismic vulnerability modelling is conducted to quantify the uncertainties associated with each of the input parameters. The proposed methodology was validated for a scenario-based seismic risk assessment of existing buildings in Old Quebec City. The procedure for hazard compatible vulnerability modelling was used to develop seismic fragility functions in terms of spectral acceleration representative of the inventoried buildings. A total of 1220 buildings were considered. The assessment was performed for a scenario event of magnitude 6.2 at distance 15km with a probability of exceedance of 2% in 50 years. The study showed that most of the expected damage is concentrated in the old brick and stone masonry buildings.

Abo El Ezz, Ahmad

236

Climate variability and climate change vulnerability and adaptation. Workshop summary  

SciTech Connect

Representatives from fifteen countries met in Prague, Czech Republic, on September 11-15, 1995, to share results from the analysis of vulnerability and adaptation to global climate change. The workshop focused on the issues of global climate change and its impacts on various sectors of a national economy. The U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), which has been signed by more than 150 governments worldwide, calls on signatory parties to develop and communicate measures they are implementing to respond to global climate change. An analysis of a country`s vulnerability to changes in the climate helps it identify suitable adaptation measures. These analyses are designed to determine the extent of the impacts of global climate change on sensitive sectors such as agricultural crops, forests, grasslands and livestock, water resources, and coastal areas. Once it is determined how vulnerable a country may be to climate change, it is possible to identify adaptation measures for ameliorating some or all of the effects.The objectives of the vulnerability and adaptation workshop were to: The objectives of the vulnerability and adaptation workshop were to: Provide an opportunity for countries to describe their study results; Encourage countries to learn from the experience of the more complete assessments and adjust their studies accordingly; Identify issues and analyses that require further investigation; and Summarize results and experiences for governmental and intergovernmental organizations.

Bhatti, N.; Cirillo, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Dixon, R.K. [U.S. Country Studies Program, Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31

237

Cascade vulnerability for risk analysis of water infrastructure.  

PubMed

One of the major tasks in urban water management is failure-free operation for at least most of the time. Accordingly, the reliability of the network systems in urban water management has a crucial role. The failure of a component in these systems impacts potable water distribution and urban drainage. Therefore, water distribution and urban drainage systems are categorized as critical infrastructure. Vulnerability is the degree to which a system is likely to experience harm induced by perturbation or stress. However, for risk assessment, we usually assume that events and failures are singular and independent, i.e. several simultaneous events and cascading events are unconsidered. Although failures can be causally linked, a simultaneous consideration in risk analysis is hardly considered. To close this gap, this work introduces the term cascade vulnerability for water infrastructure. Cascade vulnerability accounts for cascading and simultaneous events. Following this definition, cascade risk maps are a merger of hazard and cascade vulnerability maps. In this work cascade vulnerability maps for water distribution systems and urban drainage systems based on the 'Achilles-Approach' are introduced and discussed. It is shown, that neglecting cascading effects results in significant underestimation of risk scenarios. PMID:22020483

Sitzenfrei, R; Mair, M; Möderl, M; Rauch, W

2011-01-01

238

A unified framework for addiction: Vulnerabilities in the decision process  

PubMed Central

The understanding of decision-making systems has come together in recent years to form a unified theory of decision-making in the mammalian brain as arising from multiple, interacting systems (a planning system, a habit system, and a situation-recognition system). This unified decision-making system has multiple potential access points through which it can be driven to make maladaptive choices, particularly choices that entail seeking of certain drugs or behaviors. We identify 10 key vulnerabilities in the system: (1) moving away from homeostasis, (2) changing allostatic set points, (3) euphorigenic “reward-like” signals, (4) overvaluation in the planning system, (5) incorrect search of situation-action-outcome relationships, (6) misclassification of situations, (7) overvaluation in the habit system, (8) a mismatch in the balance of the two decision systems, (9) over-fast discounting processes, and (10) changed learning rates. These vulnerabilities provide a taxonomy of potential problems with decision-making systems. Although each vulnerability can drive an agent to return to the addictive choice, each vulnerability also implies a characteristic symptomology. Different drugs, different behaviors, and different individuals are likely to access different vulnerabilities. This has implications for an individual’s susceptibility to addiction and the transition to addiction, for the potential for relapse, and for the potential for treatment.

Redish, A. David; Jensen, Steve; Johnson, Adam

2013-01-01

239

Assessing groundwater vulnerability to agrichemical contamination in the Midwest US  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Agrichemicals (herbicides and nitrate) are significant sources of diffuse pollution to groundwater. Indirect methods are needed to assess the potential for groundwater contamination by diffuse sources because groundwater monitoring is too costly to adequately define the geographic extent of contamination at a regional or national scale. This paper presents examples of the application of statistical, overlay and index, and process-based modeling methods for groundwater vulnerability assessments to a variety of data from the Midwest U.S. The principles for vulnerability assessment include both intrinsic (pedologic, climatologic, and hydrogeologic factors) and specific (contaminant and other anthropogenic factors) vulnerability of a location. Statistical methods use the frequency of contaminant occurrence, contaminant concentration, or contamination probability as a response variable. Statistical assessments are useful for defining the relations among explanatory and response variables whether they define intrinsic or specific vulnerability. Multivariate statistical analyses are useful for ranking variables critical to estimating water quality responses of interest. Overlay and index methods involve intersecting maps of intrinsic and specific vulnerability properties and indexing the variables by applying appropriate weights. Deterministic models use process-based equations to simulate contaminant transport and are distinguished from the other methods in their potential to predict contaminant transport in both space and time. An example of a one-dimensional leaching model linked to a geographic information system (GIS) to define a regional metamodel for contamination in the Midwest is included.

Burkart, M. R.; Kolpin, D. W.; James, D. E.

1999-01-01

240

[Spatial patterns of eco-environmental vulnerability in Daqing City].  

PubMed

This paper established an index system for the assessment of eco-environmental vulnerability in Daqing City, from the aspects of sensitivity and response capability, and aiming at the major disturbances from crude oil exploitation and production activities. The improved entropy method was adopted to evaluate the weights of the indices, and the spatial patterns of eco-environment vulnerability in the City were analyzed, according to the model functions. In 2009, the more sensitive areas of the eco-environment in the City were mainly concentrated in the intensive regions of crude oil exploitation, processing, and petrochemical industry, and the ecological problems such as land salinization were the secondary causes for this higher sensitivity. The overall response capability of the eco-environment to unfavorable disturbances was relatively high, which reduced the eco-environment vulnerability to some extent. There was a great spatial difference in the eco-environment vulnerability in the City. The vulnerability was comparatively higher in the districts of Honggang, Sartu and Longfeng, with the degree being 0.80, 0.71 and 0.68, but lower in Ranghulu and Datong, with the degree of 0.20 and 0.04, respectively. PMID:22384598

Li, Jing; Zhang, Ping-Yu; Li, He; Su, Fei

2011-12-01

241

Mechanical vulnerability explains size-dependent mortality of reef corals.  

PubMed

Understanding life history and demographic variation among species within communities is a central ecological goal. Mortality schedules are especially important in ecosystems where disturbance plays a major role in structuring communities, such as coral reefs. Here, we test whether a trait-based, mechanistic model of mechanical vulnerability in corals can explain mortality schedules. Specifically, we ask whether species that become increasingly vulnerable to hydrodynamic dislodgment as they grow have bathtub-shaped mortality curves, whereas species that remain mechanically stable have decreasing mortality rates with size, as predicted by classical life history theory for reef corals. We find that size-dependent mortality is highly consistent between species with the same growth form and that the shape of size-dependent mortality for each growth form can be explained by mechanical vulnerability. Our findings highlight the feasibility of predicting assemblage-scale mortality patterns on coral reefs with trait-based approaches. PMID:24894390

Madin, Joshua S; Baird, Andrew H; Dornelas, Maria; Connolly, Sean R

2014-08-01

242

Modelling the elements of country vulnerability to earthquake disasters.  

PubMed

Earthquakes have probably been the most deadly form of natural disaster in the past century. Diversity of earthquake specifications in terms of magnitude, intensity and frequency at the semicontinental scale has initiated various kinds of disasters at a regional scale. Additionally, diverse characteristics of countries in terms of population size, disaster preparedness, economic strength and building construction development often causes an earthquake of a certain characteristic to have different impacts on the affected region. This research focuses on the appropriate criteria for identifying the severity of major earthquake disasters based on some key observed symptoms. Accordingly, the article presents a methodology for identification and relative quantification of severity of earthquake disasters. This has led to an earthquake disaster vulnerability model at the country scale. Data analysis based on this model suggested a quantitative, comparative and meaningful interpretation of the vulnerability of concerned countries, and successfully explained which countries are more vulnerable to major disasters. PMID:18958916

Asef, M R

2008-09-01

243

Utilizing geospatial technologies to access heat-related health vulnerability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme heat is a leading cause of weather-related morbidity and mortality within the United States. This is expected to increase in relationship to climate change and the past two North American summers have offered a prelude. These facts place an increased emphasis on the determination of those that are most vulnerable to the effects of extreme heat in order to develop and implement mitigation strategies. Geospatial technologies, including remote sensing and geostatistical algorithms offer a unique perspective on the spatio-temporal nature of human vulnerability to natural hazards. This will be demonstrated in 4 cities within the United States where current efforts are underway to merge satellite derived information within emergency planning. Results have so far have been positive and encouraging for the utilization of this unique data within vulnerability studies.

Johnson, D.; Lulla, V.

2012-12-01

244

Regional hazard analysis for use in vulnerability and risk assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for supporting an operational regional risk and vulnerability analysis for hydrological hazards is suggested and applied in the Island of Cyprus. The method aggregates the output of a hydrological flow model forced by observed temperatures and precipitations, with observed discharge data. A scheme supported by observed discharge is applied for model calibration. A comparison of different calibration schemes indicated that the same model parameters can be used for the entire country. In addition, it was demonstrated that, for operational purposes, it is sufficient to rely on a few stations. Model parameters were adjusted to account for land use and thus for vulnerability of elements at risk by comparing observed and simulated flow patterns, using all components of the hydrological model. The results can be used for regional risk and vulnerability analysis in order to increase the resilience of the affected population.

Maris, Fotis; Kitikidou, Kyriaki; Paparrizos, Spyridon; Karagiorgos, Konstantinos; Potouridis, Simeon; Fuchs, Sven

2014-05-01

245

The Department of Defense energy vulnerabilities: Potential problems and observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Department of Defense is almost entirely dependent on civilian energy supplies to meet its needs in both peacetime and periods of heightened conflict. There are a number of potential vulnerabilities to the continual and timely supply of energy to both the civilian and military sectors. These include denial of the energy resources themselves, disruption of critical transportation networks, destruction of storage facilities, and interruption of electrical power. This report briefly reviews the present situation for provision of energy from the civilian sector to the military. General vulnerabilities of the existing energy supply system are identified, along with the potential for armed aggression (including terrorist and sabotage activities) against the energy network. Conclusions and some tentative observations are made as to a proper response to the existing vulnerabilities.

Freiwald, D. A.; Berger, M. E.; Roach, J. F.

1982-08-01

246

Vulnerability Management for an Enterprise Resource Planning System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems are commonly used in technical educational institutions(TEIs). ERP systems should continue providing services to its users irrespective of the level of failure. There could be many types of failures in the ERP systems. There are different types of measures or characteristics that can be defined for ERP systems to handle the levels of failure. Here in this paper, various types of failure levels are identified along with various characteristics which are concerned with those failures. The relation between all these is summarized. The disruptions causing vulnerabilities in TEIs are identified .A vulnerability management cycle has been suggested along with many commercial and open source vulnerability management tools. The paper also highlights the importance of resiliency in ERP systems in TEIs.

Goel, Shivani; Kiran, Ravi; Garg, Deepak

2012-09-01

247

Imaging of coronary atherosclerosis and identification of the vulnerable plaque  

PubMed Central

Identification of the vulnerable plaque responsible for the occurrence of acute coronary syndromes and acute coronary death is a prerequisite for the stabilisation of this vulnerable plaque. Comprehensive coronary atherosclerosis imaging in clinical practice should involve visualisation of the entire coronary artery tree and characterisation of the plaque, including the three-dimensional morphology of the plaque, encroachment of the plaque on the vessel lumen, the major tissue components of the plaque, remodelling of the vessel and presence of inflammation. Obviously, no single diagnostic modality is available that provides such comprehensive imaging and unfortunately no diagnostic tool is available that unequivocally identifies the vulnerable plaque. The objective of this article is to discuss experience with currently available diagnostic modalities for coronary atherosclerosis imaging. In addition, a number of evolving techniques will be briefly discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7

de Feyter, P.J.; Serruys, P. W.; Nieman, K.; Mollet, N.; Cademartiri, F.; van Geuns, R. J.; Slager, C.; van der Steen, A.F.W.; Krams, R.; Schaar, J.A.; Wielopolski, P.; Pattynama, P.M.T.; Arampatzis, A.; van der Lugt, A.; Regar, E.; Ligthart, J.; Smits, P.

2003-01-01

248

Economic vulnerability of timber resources to forest fires.  

PubMed

The temporal-spatial planning of activities for a territorial fire management program requires knowing the value of forest ecosystems. In this paper we extend to and apply the economic valuation principle to the concept of economic vulnerability and present a methodology for the economic valuation of the forest production ecosystems. The forest vulnerability is analyzed from criteria intrinsically associated to the forest characterization, and to the potential behavior of surface fires. Integrating a mapping process of fire potential and analytical valuation algorithms facilitates the implementation of fire prevention planning. The availability of cartography of economic vulnerability of the forest ecosystems is fundamental for budget optimization, and to help in the decision making process. PMID:22343614

y Silva, Francisco Rodríguez; Molina, Juan Ramón; González-Cabán, Armando; Machuca, Miguel Ángel Herrera

2012-06-15

249

Reducing the Vulnerability of Space Systems to Small Debris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of debris in space is continuously increasing. While debris larger than 10 cm can be tracked and debris smaller than 1mm are usually taken into account, small debris with size in between remains a significant threat for the space assets. A European FP7 project, entitled ReVuS, commenced in 2011 with the objective to define design solutions to reduce the vulnerability of future low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites to small sized debris. At first, the vulnerability of a current LEO satellite to these types of debris is assessed. Then, systems and satellite architecture solutions to minimise the vulnerability of the satellites will be analysed and assessed. The use of shielding protection appears as one of the main satellite architecture solutions, and shielding materials will be developed and tested during the project. The paper describes the activities that will be carried out during the project

Cougnet, C.; Oswald, M.

2012-01-01

250

Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains the Executive summary; Introduction; Summary of vulnerabilities; Management systems weaknesses; Commendable practices; Summary of management response plan; Conclusions; and a Glossary of chemical terms.

Not Available

1994-09-01

251

African American adolescent perceptions of vulnerability and resilience to HIV.  

PubMed

HIV/AIDS is growing at a disproportional rate among African American adolescents. This trend has occurred despite the fact that 89% of schools have educational programs on HIV/AIDS. Barriers to effective HIV prevention may be related to a failure to develop educational programs based on the cultural competencies of vulnerable populations such as adolescents who are at risk for HIV. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore African American adolescent perceptions of vulnerability and resilience to HIV/AIDS within a cultural competency paradigm. A group of 8 adolescents at an African American church participated in a focus group to discuss vulnerability and resilience to HIV. To facilitate discussion, the adolescents developed collages from pictures in African American magazines. Content analysis was used to identify themes. The themes revealed were confidence, safe social activities, innocence, image, music/drug culture, and peer pressure. PMID:18445759

Glenn, Betty L; Wilson, Kathleen P

2008-07-01

252

Detecting Network Vulnerabilities Through Graph TheoreticalMethods  

SciTech Connect

Identifying vulnerabilities in power networks is an important problem, as even a small number of vulnerable connections can cause billions of dollars in damage to a network. In this paper, we investigate a graph theoretical formulation for identifying vulnerabilities of a network. We first try to find the most critical components in a network by finding an optimal solution for each possible cutsize constraint for the relaxed version of the inhibiting bisection problem, which aims to find loosely coupled subgraphs with significant demand/supply mismatch. Then we investigate finding critical components by finding a flow assignment that minimizes the maximum among flow assignments on all edges. We also report experiments on IEEE 30, IEEE 118, and WSCC 179 benchmark power networks.

Cesarz, Patrick; Pomann, Gina-Maria; Torre, Luis de la; Villarosa, Greta; Flournoy, Tamara; Pinar, Ali; Meza Juan

2007-09-30

253

The role of mechanoelectric feedback in vulnerability to electric shock  

PubMed Central

Experimental and clinical studies have shown that ventricular dilatation is associated with increased arrhythmogenesis and elevated defibrillation threshold; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The goal of the present study was to test the hypothesis that 1) stretch-activated channel (SAC) recruitment and 2) geometrical deformations in organ shape and fiber architecture lead to increased arrhythmogenesis by electric shocks following acute ventricular dilatation. To elucidate the contribution of these two factors, the study employed, for the first time, a combined electro-mechanical simulation approach. Acute dilatation was simulated in a model of rabbit ventricular mechanics by raising the LV end-diastolic pressure from 0.6 (control) to 4.2 kPa (dilated). The output of the mechanics model was used in the electrophysiological model. Vulnerability to shocks was examined in the control, the dilated ventricles and in the dilated ventricles that also incorporated currents through SAC as a function of local strain, by constructing vulnerability grids. Results showed that dilatation-induced deformation alone decreased upper limit of vulnerability (ULV) slightly and did not result in increased vulnerability. With SAC recruitment in the dilated ventricles, the number of shock-induced arrhythmia episodes increased by 37% (from 41 to 56) and low limit of vulnerability (LLV) decreased from 9 to 7 V/cm, while ULV did not change. The heterogeneous activation of SAC caused by the heterogeneous fiber strain in the ventricular walls was the main reason for increased vulnerability to electric shocks since it caused dispersion of electrophysiological properties in the tissue, resulting in postshock unidirectional block and establishment of reentry.

Li, Weihui; Gurev, Viatcheslav; McCulloch, Andrew D.; Trayanova, Natalia A.

2008-01-01

254

Improvements to the DRASTIC ground-water vulnerability mapping method  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground-water vulnerability maps are designed to show areas of greatest potential for ground-water contamination on the basis of hydrogeologic and anthropogenic (human) factors. The maps are developed by using computer mapping hardware and software called a geographic information system (GIS) to combine data layers such as land use, soils, and depth to water. Usually, ground-water vulnerability is determined by assigning point ratings to the individual data layers and then adding the point ratings together when those layers are combined into a vulnerability map. Probably the most widely used ground-water vulnerability mapping method is DRASTIC, named for the seven factors considered in the method: Depth to water, net Recharge, Aquifer media, Soil media, Topography, Impact of vadose zone media, and hydraulic Conductivity of the aquifer (Aller and others, 1985, p. iv). The DRASTIC method has been used to develop ground-water vulnerability maps in many parts of the Nation; however, the effectiveness of the method has met with mixed success (Koterba and others, 1993, p. 513; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1993; Barbash and Resek, 1996; Rupert, 1997). DRASTIC maps usually are not calibrated to measured contaminant concentrations. The DRASTIC ground-water vulnerability mapping method was improved by calibrating the point rating scheme to measured nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen (NO2+NO3–N) concentrations in ground water on the basis of statistical correlations between NO2+NO3–N concentrations and land use, soils, and depth to water (Rupert, 1997). This report describes the calibration method developed by Rupert and summarizes the improvements in results of this method over those of the uncalibrated DRASTIC method applied by Rupert and others (1991) in the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho.

Rupert, Michael G.

1999-01-01

255

Research on vulnerability assessments of the Huanghe (Yellow River) delta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal zone located at the juncture of the sea, river and land, and under the influence of both land and ocean (including atmosphere), especially the sea-level rise and human activities, are vulnerable to environment and ecology. At highest risk are coastal zone of South, Southeast and East Asia with dense populations, low elevations and inadequate adaptive capacity. In China, more than 40% of the population live on the 15% of the land in coastal area and more than 70% cities located around the coastal area. The Chinese coastal region, especially river delta area has been experienced erosion, seawater intrusion and decrease in biodiversity under the combined influence of sea-level rise, tectonic subsidence and flooding. Furthermore, some kinds of human activity, such as land use, building, dam construction, reclamation from the sea and waste dumping strengthen the vulnerability of environment and ecosystem in coastal region. The coastal hazards (e.g. coastal erosion, seawater intrusion, land subsidence) and vulnerability of the Huanghe (Yelllow River) delta area are studied during the past several years. A systematic coastal assessment index is built and an evaluation model is developed using the development platform of Visual studio.Net 2005. The assessment index system includes two parts, inherent (sea level rise rate, elevation, morphology, water and sediment discharge, mean tidal range, mean wave height etc) and specific vulnerability index (population density, GDP, land utilization, protection structures etc). The assessment index are determined the weight using Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method. Based on the research results, we better understand the current status and future change of coastal vulnerability and hazards, discuss the impact of the natural possess and human activities. Furthermore, we provide defending strategies for coastal zone vulnerability and typical coastal hazards.

qiao, shuqing; shi, xuefa

2014-05-01

256

Balancing in moments of vulnerability while dancing the dialectic.  

PubMed

Questions about the existence of horizontal violence and the forms it takes dominate the literature. To move the dialogue forward, this article proffers the thesis that it is through a deeper understanding of moments of vulnerability and adult epistemological development that we may best alter the occurrence and continuance of horizontal violence in the nursing profession. The constructive development tradition has laid important groundwork for considering moments of vulnerability wherein which horizontal violence may begin and be perpetuated and explains how it has become so pervasive in the nursing field. New solutions are proposed and directions for further inquiry suggested. PMID:21822071

Saltzberg, Christine W

2011-01-01

257

Vulnerability Analysis Considerations for the Transportation of Special Nuclear Material  

SciTech Connect

The vulnerability analysis methodology developed for fixed nuclear material sites has proven to be extremely effective in assessing associated transportation issues. The basic methods and techniques used are directly applicable to conducting a transportation vulnerability analysis. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that the same physical protection elements (detection, delay, and response) are present, although the response force plays a dominant role in preventing the theft or sabotage of material. Transportation systems are continuously exposed to the general public whereas the fixed site location by its very nature restricts general public access.

Nicholson, Lary G.; Purvis, James W.

1999-07-21

258

Low vulnerability explosives (LOVEX) for mass-use warheads  

SciTech Connect

There is an ongoing effort at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to develop explosives with a significantly lower vulnerability to battlefield environments (bullets, fragments, sympathetic detonation) than current explosives (TNT and Comp B) without sacrificing performance or increasing costs. The approach taken is to develop a composite explosive which is comprised of inexpensive fillers such as RDX, NaNO{sub 3}, Al and a low modulus binder system. The binder system uses nitroglycerin/triacetin as an energetic plasticizer. This paper discusses the experimental results to date in vulnerability, performance and processing. 7 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

Pruneda, C.; Jessop, E.; McGuire, R.

1990-03-13

259

Assessing environmental vulnerability in EIA-The content and context of the vulnerability concept in an alternative approach to standard EIA procedure  

SciTech Connect

In the traditional EIA procedure environmental vulnerability is only considered to a minor extent in the early stages when project alternatives are worked out. In Norway, an alternative approach to EIA, an integrated vulnerability model (IVM), emphasising environmental vulnerability and alternatives development in the early stages of EIA, has been tried out in a few pilot cases. This paper examines the content and use of the vulnerability concept in the IVM approach, and discusses the concept in an EIA context. The vulnerability concept is best suited to overview analyses and large scale spatial considerations. The concept is particularly useful in the early stages of EIA when alternatives are designed and screened. By introducing analyses of environmental vulnerability at the start of the EIA process, the environment can be a more decisive issue for the creation of project alternatives as well as improving the basis for scoping. Vulnerability and value aspects should be considered as separate dimensions. There is a need to operate with a specification between general and specific vulnerability. The concept of environmental vulnerability has proven useful in a wide range of disciplines. Different disciplines have different lengths of experience regarding vulnerability. In disciplines such as landscape planning and hydrogeology we find elements suitable as cornerstones in the further development of an interdisciplinary methodology. Further development of vulnerability criteria in different disciplines and increased public involvement in the early stages of EIA are recommended.

Kvaerner, Jens [Bioforsk-Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Soil and Environmental Division, Frederik A. Dahls vei 20, N-1432 As (Norway)]. E-mail: jens.kvarner@bioforsk.no; Swensen, Grete [NIKU, Norwegian Institute for Cultural Heritage Research, Storgata 2, P.O. Box 736, Sentrum, N-0105 Oslo (Norway)]. E-mail: grete.swensen@niku.no; Erikstad, Lars [NINA, Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Dronningens gt. 13., P.O. Box 736, Sentrum, N-0105 Oslo (Norway)]. E-mail: lars.erikstad@nina.no

2006-07-15

260

Perceptions about prenatal care: views of urban vulnerable groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In the United States, infant mortality rates remain more than twice as high for African Americans as compared to other racial groups. Lack of adherence to prenatal care schedules in vulnerable, hard to reach, urban, poor women is associated with high infant mortality, particularly for women who abuse substances, are homeless, or live in communities having high poverty and

Renee Milligan; Barbara K Wingrove; Leslie Richards; Margaret Rodan; Lillie Monroe-Lord; Velishie Jackson; Barbara Hatcher; Cynthia Harris; Cassandra Henderson; Allan A Johnson

2002-01-01

261

Recruiting Vulnerable Populations for Research: Revisiting the Ethical Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethical conflicts may arise when health care professionals control researchers' access to vulnerable populations. Collaboration and dialogue among researchers, health care providers, and potential subjects are essential in order to recruit enough subjects to maintain research integrity while ensuring their protection. (Contains 41 references.) (SK)

Sutton, Laura Bond; Erlen, Judith A.; Glad, JoAnn M.; Siminoff, Laura A.

2003-01-01

262

Enhancing Automated Detection of Vulnerabilities in Java Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Java-based systems are built from components from various providers that are integrated together. Generic coding best practices are gaining momentum, but no tool is availableso far that guarantees that the interactions between these components are performed in a secure manner. We propose the 'Weak Component Analysis' (WCA) tool, which performs static analysis of the component code to identify exploitable vulnerabilities.

Pierre Parrend

2009-01-01

263

CIAC Binary Inspector Tool (BIT): A nonintrusive vulnerability detection mechanism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper discusses the problem of detecting and fixing computer operating system and network vulnerabilities. A variety of methods have been tired in the past, and some are still in use these include: creating a specialized team or department and distri...

D. S. Brown

1991-01-01

264

A Study and Implementation of Vulnerability Assessment and Misconfiguration Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to a study from Gartner Group, mostly successful attacks exploit software applications and operating systems that were not properly configured or vulnerability patched. Regarding enterprises, there are far reaching consequences if their online services are attacked and compromised. As a result, making their systems safer is becoming a higher priority. In this paper, we proposed a system to resolve

Ching-Huang Lin; Chih-Hao Chen; Chi-Sung Laih

2008-01-01

265

Wireless Network Security Policy Based on Integrated Vulnerability Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most security issues of wireless network are focused on preventing attacks from the outsiders or wireless users. However, these authorized wireless users have no right to take part in the drawing up security policy of an organization. Besides, the larger network scales the more difficulty to be maintained. Patching and managing the mass of computer vulnerabilities are a timely but

Gu Yue-sheng; Zhang Bao-jian; Yu Zhou

2009-01-01

266

Talc: using desktop graffiti to fight software vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the proliferation of computer security threats on the Internet, especially threats such as worms that automatically exploit software flaws, it is becoming more and more important that home users keep their computers secure from known software vulnerabilities. Unfortunately, keeping software up-to-date is notoriously difficult for home users. This paper introduces TALC, a system to encourage and help home users

Kandha Sankarapandian; Travis Little; W. Keith Edwards

2008-01-01

267

Livelihoods, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in Morogoro, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines farmers’ livelihood responses and vulnerability to climate variability and other stressors in Morogoro, Tanzania, to understand their implications for adaptation to climate change by agricultural households in developing world more generally. In Morogoro, agricultural households have extended cultivation, intensified agriculture, diversified livelihoods and migrated to gain access to land, markets and employment as a response to climatic

Jouni Paavola

2008-01-01

268

Modeling TCP\\/IP Networks Topology for Network Vulnerability Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distributed nature and complexity of computer networks and various services provided via them, makes the networks vulnerable to numerous attacks. The TCP\\/IP presumptions which are based on using this protocol to provide a simple, open communication infrastructure in an academic and collaborative environment, causes this protocol lack of built-in mechanisms for authentication, integrity and privacy. Even though in the

R. Zakeri; H. R. Shahriari; R. Jalili; R. Sadoddin

2005-01-01

269

Vulnerability of Zigbee to impulsive noise in electricity substations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vulnerability of Zigbee technology to noise in an electricity substation environment is assessed. Substation noise obtained from a measurement campaign is modelled as a Symmetric ?-Stable process. The parameters of the model are estimated from the measurements and the resulting model is used to investigate the likely BER performance of Zigbee technology deployed in a substation. 1. Introduction The

S A Bhatti; Qingshan Shan; R Atkinson; M Vieira; I A Glover

2011-01-01

270

Small island developing states: natural disaster vulnerability and global change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper sets out an examination of natural disaster amongst small island developing states (SIDS), and presents a framework for assessing the interaction of global pressures and local dynamics in the production of human vulnerability. Change at the global level is found to be a source of new opportunities as well as constraints on building local resilience to natural disaster.

Mark Pelling; Juha I. Uitto

2001-01-01

271

Improving satellite vulnerability assessment to untrackable orbital debris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The projected growth in the untrackable orbital debris population will place an increased emphasis on satellite vulnerability assessments during both design and mission operations. This study presents an enhanced method for assessing satellite vulnerability to untrackable orbital debris that expands on traditional practices. By looking beyond structural penetration of the spacecraft, the method predicts the survivability of individual components and the associated degradation of system functionality resulting from untrackable debris impacts. A new risk assessment tool, the Particle Impact Risk and Vulnerability Assessment Tool (PIRAT), has been developed based on this method and is also presented here. It interfaces with both the NASA ORDEM2000 and ESA MASTER-2009 debris models and has been validated against the benchmark test cases from the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC). This study concludes with an example vulnerability assessment using PIRAT for a generic Earth observation satellite in a Sun-synchronous low-Earth orbit. The results illustrate the additional insight provided by this method that can be used to improve the robustness of future satellite designs and mitigate the overall mission risk posed by untrackable orbital debris.

Welty, Nathan; Schaefer, Frank; Rudolph, Martin; Destefanis, Roberto; Grassi, Lilith

2012-07-01

272

Psychosocial Factors in Heart Surgery: Presurgical Vulnerability and Postsurgical Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Distress and low perceived social support were examined as indicators of psychosocial vulnerability in patients about to undergo heart surgery. Design: A total of 550 study patients underwent heart surgeries, including bypass grafting and valve procedures. Psychosocial interviews were conducted about five days before surgery, and biomedical data were obtained from hospital records. Main Outcome Measures: Sociodemographic, personality, religious,

Richard J. Contrada; David A. Boulifard; Eric B. Hekler; Ellen L. Idler; Tanya M. Spruill; Erich W. Labouvie; Tyrone J. Krause

2008-01-01

273

The Vulnerable System: An Analysis of the Tenerife Air Disaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tenerife air disaster, in which a KLM 747 and a Pan Am 747 collided with a loss of 583 lives, is examined as a prototype of system vulnerability to crisis. It is concluded that the combination of interruption of important routines among interdependent systems, interdependencies that become tighter, a loss of cognitive efficiency due to autonomic arousal, and a

Karl E. Weick

1990-01-01

274

Assessing Vulnerable and Strategic Positions in a Criminal Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on individual positioning within an illegal drug distribution network surrounding a reputed criminal organization (the Quebec Hells Angels). The aim is to distinguish between participants who were positioned vulnerably and\\/or strategically during a period when the network was targeted by an intensive law-enforcement investigation. Two centrality measures are used throughout the analysis. Degree centrality accounts for the

Carlo Morselli

2010-01-01

275

Autobiographical Memory as a Predictor of Depression Vulnerability in Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Overgeneral autobiographical memory (AM), the tendency to recall categories of events when asked to provide specific instances from one's life, is purported to be a marker of depression vulnerability that develops in childhood. Although early adolescence is a period of risk for depression onset especially among girls, prospective examination of…

Hipwell, Alison E.; Sapotichne, Brenna; Klostermann, Susan; Battista, Deena; Keenan, Kate

2011-01-01

276

Extreme seismicity and disaster risks: Hazard versus vulnerability (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the extreme nature of earthquakes has been known for millennia due to the resultant devastation from many of them, the vulnerability of our civilization to extreme seismic events is still growing. It is partly because of the increase in the number of high-risk objects and clustering of populations and infrastructure in the areas prone to seismic hazards. Today an earthquake may affect several hundreds thousand lives and cause significant damage up to hundred billion dollars; it can trigger an ecological catastrophe if occurs in close vicinity to a nuclear power plant. Two types of extreme natural events can be distinguished: (i) large magnitude low probability events, and (ii) the events leading to disasters. Although the first-type events may affect earthquake-prone countries directly or indirectly (as tsunamis, landslides etc.), the second-type events occur mainly in economically less-developed countries where the vulnerability is high and the resilience is low. Although earthquake hazards cannot be reduced, vulnerability to extreme events can be diminished by monitoring human systems and by relevant laws preventing an increase in vulnerability. Significant new knowledge should be gained on extreme seismicity through observations, monitoring, analysis, modeling, comprehensive hazard assessment, prediction, and interpretations to assist in disaster risk analysis. The advanced disaster risk communication skill should be developed to link scientists, emergency management authorities, and the public. Natural, social, economic, and political reasons leading to disasters due to earthquakes will be discussed.

Ismail-Zadeh, A.

2013-12-01

277

On Developing A Methodology for Managing Security Vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poor product designs and testing as well as weak physical and social structures can contribute to insecurities. However, a large percentage of the computer security vulnerabilities that end up being exploited are due to human errors or negligence in configuration and administration. How can these business-threatening, widespread deficiencies be overcome? IT security organizations need to establish a security configuration baseline

Vijay Masurkar

2004-01-01

278

Evolving Successful Stack Overflow Attacks for Vulnerability Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work presented in this paper is intended to test crucial system services against stack overflow vulnerabilities. The focus of the test is the user-accessible variables, that is to say, the inputs from the user as specified at the command line or in a configuration file. The tester is defined as a process for automatically generating a wide variety of

Hilmi Günes Kayacik; A. Nur Zincir-heywood; Malcolm I. Heywood

2005-01-01

279

Challenges of disaster vulnerability reduction in Lagos Megacity Area, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this research is to identify the factors responsible for the inability of authorities in rapidly growing megacities in developing countries to integrate disaster risk vulnerability reduction strategies effectively with their development plans. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study followed a qualitative research strategy. A survey research approach with pre-tested questionnaires as key data collection instrument was used

Eziyi Offia Ibem

2011-01-01

280

Smaller hippocampal volume predicts pathologic vulnerability to psychological trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

In animals, exposure to severe stress can damage the hippocampus. Recent human studies show smaller hippocampal volume in individuals with the stress-related psychiatric condition posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Does this represent the neurotoxic effect of trauma, or is smaller hippocampal volume a pre-existing condition that renders the brain more vulnerable to the development of pathological stress responses? In monozygotic twins

Martha E. Shenton; Aleksandra Ciszewski; Kiyoto Kasai; Natasha B. Lasko; Scott P. Orr; Roger K. Pitman; Mark W. Gilbertson

2002-01-01

281

International Student-Workers in Australia: A New Vulnerable Workforce  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the period immediately preceding the 2007 Australian election, much attention was accorded to the impact of the nation's labour laws on vulnerable employees. This debate centred on specific groups including women, youth, migrants and workers on individual employment contracts. International students, by contrast, were ignored in the debate.…

Nyland, Chris; Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Marginson, Simon; Ramia, Gaby; Sawir, Erlenawati; Smith, Sharon

2009-01-01

282

EPA'S REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT PROGRAM (REVA) DEMONSTRATING RESULTS THROUGH PARTNERSHIPS  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) program, a regional-scale comparative risk research effort, has been under development since 1998 with a pilot study focused on the Mid- Atlantic region. ReVA is part of the interagency Integrated Science for Ecosystem Challenges ini...

283

Our Shared Future: Social Media, Leadership, Vulnerability, and Digital Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social media have challenged us in our journey to support our students. Administrators have entered into new web-based conversations with one another and with their students. Personal branding has created a sense of performativity that conflicts with a growing trend towards online vulnerability. Our leaders have increasingly been engaged in…

Stoller, Eric

2013-01-01

284

Vulnerability Assessment of Cybersecurity for SCADA Systems Using Attack Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

By penetrating the SCADA system, an intruder may remotely operate a power system using supervisory control privileges. Hence, cybersecurity has been recognized as a major threat due to the potential intrusion to the online system. This paper proposes a methodology to evaluate the cybersecurity vulnerability using attack trees. The attack tree formulation based on power system control networks is used

Chee-Wooi Ten; Chen-Ching Liu; Manimaran Govindarasu

2007-01-01

285

Cybersecurity of SCADA Systems: Vulnerability assessment and mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this panel presentation, we will discuss our proposed framework for cyber security vulnerability assessment and mitigation based on our recent work [1-3]. We will demonstrate how a probabilistic cyber security index can be calculated for a cyber-power system. A risk measure is determined using an integrated SCADA model and the steady state power flow program. Future research needs in

Chen-Ching Liu; Chee-Wooi Ten; Manimaran Govindarasu

2009-01-01

286

REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT: CREATING A CONTEXT FOR EVALUATING STREAM ACIDIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

USEPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) program is designed to identify ecosystems that are likely to vary beyond the range of natural variability and thereby experience reduced ecological integrity as a result of natural and human-induced stressors. ReVA makes use of r...

287

Anxious attachment may be a vulnerability factor for developing embitterment.  

PubMed

By predisposing to ego-defensive strategies in social situations, a negative attachment history may promote embitterment. The present study identified attachment anxiety - more than attachment avoidance - as a possible vulnerability factor for the development and maintenance of embitterment. This factor should be considered in theories and in interventions of embitterment. PMID:23080527

Blom, David; van Middendorp, Henriët; Geenen, Rinie

2012-12-01

288

Recruiting vulnerable populations for research: Revisiting the ethical issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful recruitment of participants is essential to the research process. To increase the rate of subject participation, investigators have to rely on help from health care providers who often serve as gatekeepers to potential research study subjects. These well-meaning professionals may limit subject participation in a study involving vulnerable populations under the guise of protecting these individuals from harm.

Laura Bond Sutton; Judith A. Erlen; JoAnn M. Glad; Laura A. Siminoff

2003-01-01

289

Early Detection of Security Misconfiguration Vulnerabilities in Web Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a web-based tool to supple- ment defense against security misconfiguration vulnerabilities in web applications. The tool automatically audits security con- figuration settings of server environments in web application development and deployment. It also offers features to automat- ically adjust security configuration settings and quantitatively rates level of safety for server environments before deploying web applications. Using the

Birhanu Eshete; Adolfo Villafiorita; Komminist Weldemariam

2011-01-01

290

Identifying Cross Site Scripting Vulnerabilities in Web Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross site scripting (XSS) is a vulnerability of a Web application that is essentially caused by the failure of the application to check up on user input before returning it to the client's Web browser. Without an adequate validation, user input may include malicious code that may be sent to other clients and unexpectedly executed by their browsers, thus causing

Giuseppe A. Di Lucca; Anna Rita Fasolino; M. Mastoianni; Porfirio Tramontana

2004-01-01

291

Vulnerability analysis for complex networks using aggressive abstraction.  

SciTech Connect

Large, complex networks are ubiquitous in nature and society, and there is great interest in developing rigorous, scalable methods for identifying and characterizing their vulnerabilities. This paper presents an approach for analyzing the dynamics of complex networks in which the network of interest is first abstracted to a much simpler, but mathematically equivalent, representation, the required analysis is performed on the abstraction, and analytic conclusions are then mapped back to the original network and interpreted there. We begin by identifying a broad and important class of complex networks which admit vulnerability-preserving, finite state abstractions, and develop efficient algorithms for computing these abstractions. We then propose a vulnerability analysis methodology which combines these finite state abstractions with formal analytics from theoretical computer science to yield a comprehensive vulnerability analysis process for networks of realworld scale and complexity. The potential of the proposed approach is illustrated with a case study involving a realistic electric power grid model and also with brief discussions of biological and social network examples.

Colbaugh, Richard; Glass, Kristin L.

2010-06-01

292

Intravascular Modalities for Detection of Vulnerable Plaque Current Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease is dependent on a greater understanding of the mechanisms of coronary plaque progression. Autopsy studies have characterized a subgroup of high-risk, or vulnerable, plaques that result in acute coronary syndromes or sudden cardiac death. These angiographically modest plaques share certain pathologic characteristics: a thin, fibrous cap, lipid-rich core,

Briain D. MacNeill; Harry C. Lowe; Masamichi Takano; Valentin Fuster; Ik-Kyung Jang

293

Teachers' Professional Vulnerability and Cultural Tradition: A Chinese Paradox  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper explores the issue of teachers' professional vulnerability using a range of messages from an online teachers' community on the Chinese mainland. The study reveals how macro changes at policy level impact on teachers' professional relationships and in turn their professional identities in teacher discussants' perceptions. Furthermore, the…

Gao, Xuesong

2008-01-01

294

Development of hazard-compatible building fragility and vulnerability models  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present a methodology for transforming the structural and non-structural fragility functions in HAZUS into a format that is compatible with conventional seismic hazard analysis information. The methodology makes use of the building capacity (or pushover) curves and related building parameters provided in HAZUS. Instead of the capacity spectrum method applied in HAZUS, building response is estimated by inelastic response history analysis of corresponding single-degree-of-freedom systems under a large number of earthquake records. Statistics of the building response are used with the damage state definitions from HAZUS to derive fragility models conditioned on spectral acceleration values. Using the developed fragility models for structural and nonstructural building components, with corresponding damage state loss ratios from HAZUS, we also derive building vulnerability models relating spectral acceleration to repair costs. Whereas in HAZUS the structural and nonstructural damage states are treated as if they are independent, our vulnerability models are derived assuming "complete" nonstructural damage whenever the structural damage state is complete. We show the effects of considering this dependence on the final vulnerability models. The use of spectral acceleration (at selected vibration periods) as the ground motion intensity parameter, coupled with the careful treatment of uncertainty, makes the new fragility and vulnerability models compatible with conventional seismic hazard curves and hence useful for extensions to probabilistic damage and loss assessment.

Karaca, E.; Luco, N.

2008-01-01

295

The Vulnerable Researcher: Some Unanticipated Challenges of Doctoral Fieldwork  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper draws explicitly on the field experiences of two doctoral researchers in geography to elucidate some of the challenges and issues related to researcher vulnerability that are especially acute for graduate students. In spite of significant differences in context, both researchers experienced an unanticipated degree of professional…

Ballamingie, Patricia; Johnson, Sherrill

2011-01-01

296

Assessing application vulnerability to radiation-induced SEUs in memory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the goals of the Remote Exploration and Experimentation (REE) project at JPL is to determine how vulnerable applications are to single event upsets (SEUs) when run in low radiation space environments using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components.

Springer, P. L.

2001-01-01

297

Doubly Vulnerable: The Paradox of Disability and Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parker Palmer's comment that teaching is a "daily exercise in vulnerability" might just as easily be said about living with a disability. As much as the person with a disability might want to hide his or her differences, it is often difficult to do so. Something as commonplace as walking through a grocery store without being stared at is often…

Stewart, Meredith

2010-01-01

298

Software Vulnerability Design and Approaches for Securing SCADA Control Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite growing awareness of security issues especially in SCADA networks, there exist little or scarce information about SCADA vulnerabilities and attacks. Where security has been a consideration, there has been no clear methodology to assess the security impacts brought about by attacks. Worst, there have been no or very little security tools that have been released publicly. This research aims

Giovanni A. Cagalaban; Jae-gu Song; Sungmo Jung

2009-01-01

299

Paranoid schizophrenia: non-specificity of neuropsychological vulnerability markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

During stages of remission, patients with paranoid schizophrenia seldom show severe attentional or information-processing dysfunctions, except in cases of long-term chronicity. The diagnostic specificity of four putative psychological vulnerability indicators of schizophrenia — the Span of Apprehension, the degraded stimulus Continuous Performance Test (dsCPT), the degraded stimulus visual backward masking task and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) — was

Thomas Suslow; Volker Arolt

1997-01-01

300

Youth Work with Vulnerable Young People. Interchange No. 51.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research was conducted in Scotland to evaluate the effectiveness of youth work with vulnerable young people, primarily between the ages of 13 and 16. Four complementary methods were adopted: (1) a survey of secondary school students; (2) a series of focus group interviews with young people with experience of youth work; (3) interviews with…

Powney, Janet; Furlong, Andy; Cartmel, Fred; Hall, Stuart

301

Reflecting on a Difficult Life: Narrative Construction in Vulnerable Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined narrative processes of identity development as they related to desistance from delinquent behavior in a sample of vulnerable adolescents. Building on a robust theoretical and empirical foundation in the field of narrative identity, we examined processes of meaning-making and agency in relation to desistance. Thirty-one adolescents were…

McLean, Kate C.; Wood, Becky; Breen, Andrea V.

2013-01-01

302

Exploring Faculty Perceptions toward Working with Academically Vulnerable College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is an exploratory study of faculty members' knowledge and perceptions toward of with academically vulnerable college students who are specifically experiencing reading and writing difficulties. Data were gathered from 174 college faculty at six higher education institutions throughout northwestern Pennsylvania via an online…

Quick, Robin L.

2013-01-01

303

Climate variability and climate change vulnerability and adaptation. Workshop summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Representatives from fifteen countries met in Prague, Czech Republic, on September 11-15, 1995, to share results from the analysis of vulnerability and adaptation to global climate change. The workshop focused on the issues of global climate change and its impacts on various sectors of a national economy. The U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), which has been signed by

N. Bhatti; R. R. Cirillo; R. K. Dixon

1995-01-01

304

REGIONAL CLIMATE CHANGE SCENARIOS FOR VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTATION ASSESSMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the regional climate change scenarios that are recommended for use in the U.S. Country Studies Program (CSP) and evaluates how well four general circulation models (GCMs) simulate current climate over Europe. Under the umbrella of the CSP, 50 countries with varying skills and experience in developing climate change scenarios are assessing vulnerability and adaptation. We considered the

Joel B. Smith; Gregory J. Pitts

1997-01-01

305

Conflict and social vulnerability to climate change: Lessons from Gaza  

Microsoft Academic Search

In societies marred by conflict, the propensity of populations to be harmed by climate hazards is likely to be increased by their exposure to violence and other coercive practices. Stakeholder assessments of climate vulnerability, as reported here for the Gaza Strip, can capture the qualitative experience of harm caused by conflict-related practices as these relate to, and interact with, forecasted

Michael Mason; Mark Zeitoun; Rebhy El Sheikh

2011-01-01

306

Modelling Climate Change Impacts and Vulnerability in Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the methodological background in climate change impact assessment, focusing on the coupling and co-action between the climate system, the biosphere, and human activities. The aim of this study is to shape a methodological framework to assess regional sensitivity\\/ vulnerability to climate change, by introducing the ombrothermic diagram technique as a basis for analysis. Some aspects of the

Ana Priceputu; Hubert Greppin

307

Potential vulnerability of Namaqualand plant diversity to anthropogenic climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a position paper, using a brief literature review and some new modelling results for a subset of succulent plant species, which explores why Namaqualand plant diversity might be particularly vulnerable to anthropogenic climate change despite presumed species resilience under arid conditions, and therefore a globally important test-bed for adaptive conservation strategies. The Pleistocene climate-related evolutionary history of this

G. F. Midgley; W. Thuiller

2007-01-01

308

Guiding Climate Change Adaptation Within Vulnerable Natural Resource Management Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change has the potential to compromise the sustainability of natural resources in Mediterranean climatic systems, such that short-term reactive responses will increasingly be insufficient to ensure effective management. There is a simultaneous need for both the clear articulation of the vulnerabilities of specific management systems to climate risk, and the development of appropriate short- and long-term strategic planning responses

Douglas K. Bardsley; Susan M. Sweeney

2010-01-01

309

Managing vulnerabilities of information systems to security incidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information security-conscious managers of organizations have the responsibility to advise their senior management of the level of risks faced by the information systems. This requires managers to conduct vulnerability assessment as the first step of a risk analysis approach. However, a lack of real world data classification of security threats and develops a three-axis view of the threat space. It

Fariborz Farahmand; Shamkant B. Navathe; Philip H. Enslow Jr.; Gunter P. Sharp

2003-01-01

310

Family and social vulnerability: a study with octogenarians.  

PubMed

In order to guide the development of dementia-related public policies for the elderly, it is important to identify factors that vary together with the social vulnerability of this population. This study aimed to identify the relationship between the São Paulo Social Vulnerability Index (IPVS) and various indicators of family support for elderly people over 80 years of age, who presented cognitive alterations (N=49). All ethical guidelines were followed. Data were collected at the homes of the elderly people. A large majority of the respondents lived with family members (88%). In half of the cases, the respondents lived with one (41%) or two (9%) other elderly persons. On average, there was one more non-elderly person living in the high vulnerability family context (M = 3.6, sd = 1.70) than in contexts of very low vulnerability (M = 2.4, sd = 1.07), F(2.43) = 3.364, p < 0.05. However, the functionality of the support provided by these family members needs to be verified, in each of these contexts. PMID:19669049

Pavarini, Sofia Cristina Iost; Barha, Elizabeth Joan; Mendiondo, Marisa Silvana Zazzetta de; Filizola, Carmen Lucia Alves; Petrilli Filho, José Fernando; Santos, Ariene Angelini Dos

2009-01-01

311

Derrida's Responsibility: Autobiography, the Teaching of the Vulnerable, Diary Fragments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper responds to Jacques Derrida's essay on Paul de Man, discussing three aspects of responsibility and exploring their implications with respect to teaching: responsibility as vulnerability, responsibility as autobiography and memory, and responsibility as the structure of iterability in writing. (SM)

Gregoriou, Zelia

1995-01-01

312

Tsunami Mortality Estimates and Vulnerability Mapping in Aceh, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We aimed to quantify tsunami mortality and compare approaches to mortality assessment in the emergency context in Aceh, Indonesia, where the impact of the 2004 tsunami was greatest. Methods. Mortality was estimated using geographic information systems-based vulnerability models and demographic methods from surveys of tsunami- displaced populations. Results. Tsunami mortality in Aceh as estimated by demographic models was 131

Shannon Doocy; Yuri Gorokhovich; Gilbert Burnham; Deborah Balk; Courtland Robinson

2007-01-01

313

CONFU: Configuration Fuzzing Testing Framework for Software Vulnerability Detection  

PubMed Central

Many software security vulnerabilities only reveal themselves under certain conditions, i.e., particular configurations and inputs together with a certain runtime environment. One approach to detecting these vulnerabilities is fuzz testing. However, typical fuzz testing makes no guarantees regarding the syntactic and semantic validity of the input, or of how much of the input space will be explored. To address these problems, we present a new testing methodology called Configuration Fuzzing. Configuration Fuzzing is a technique whereby the configuration of the running application is mutated at certain execution points, in order to check for vulnerabilities that only arise in certain conditions. As the application runs in the deployment environment, this testing technique continuously fuzzes the configuration and checks “security invariants” that, if violated, indicate a vulnerability. We discuss the approach and introduce a prototype framework called ConFu (CONfiguration FUzzing testing framework) for implementation. We also present the results of case studies that demonstrate the approach’s feasibility and evaluate its performance.

Dai, Huning; Murphy, Christian; Kaiser, Gail

2010-01-01

314

Node Vulnerability under Finite Perturbations in Complex Networks  

PubMed Central

A measure to quantify vulnerability under perturbations (attacks, failures, large fluctuations) in ensembles (networks) of coupled dynamical systems is proposed. Rather than addressing the issue of how the network properties change upon removal of elements of the graph (the strategy followed by most of the existing methods for studying the vulnerability of a network based on its topology), here a dynamical definition of vulnerability is introduced, referring to the robustness of a collective dynamical state to perturbing events occurring over a fixed topology. In particular, we study how the collective (synchronized) dynamics of a network of chaotic units is disrupted under the action of a finite size perturbation on one of its nodes. Illustrative examples are provided for three systems of identical chaotic oscillators coupled according to three distinct well-known network topologies. A quantitative comparison between the obtained vulnerability rankings and the classical connectivity/centrality rankings is made that yields conclusive results. Possible applications of the proposed strategy and conclusions are also discussed.

Gutierrez, Ricardo; del-Pozo, Francisco; Boccaletti, Stefano

2011-01-01

315

Participation, social capital and vulnerability to urban flooding in Guyana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tension between international agencies, national and local institutions of the Global South has received much recent attention. This paper contributes to the debate by contrasting contemporary participatory models of management for the built environment with local experience of social capacity building and vulnerability to local flooding. It draws on field data collected in 1995-96 and is set within the

Mark Pelling

1998-01-01

316

How to reduce the vulnerability of properties threatened by flood?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last 20 or 30 years, increasing flood damage has compelled stakeholders to reconsider flood prevention. Indeed, the increase in damage emphasizes the failure of the current flood management policies based on river channel management instead of the mitigation of the flood risk. In the aftermath of the recent disasters in France and Europe, national and local authorities fostered an increasing number of initiatives geared towards reducing risks and rectifying the way of managing flood risks. All experts are now convinced that we must reduce risk through the mitigation of vulnerability. In this purpose, the French government and some river basin authorities try to develop programmes and laws intended to reduce the vulnerability of flood-prone buildings, mostly by retrofitting them. Through the results of field studies conducted in France, this presentation focuses on pros and cons of retrofitting. As of now, if many assessment of the vulnerability of buildings have been conducted, only a few huge retrofitting programmes have actually been implemented. Many bottlenecks emerge when implementing concrete measures. These difficulties include technical problems, cost, and the reluctance of many property owners... On the long run, retrofitting may be an efficient way to prevent damage to buildings threatened by floodwater. However current programmes fail to address the specificities of the local context in which such actions are implemented, e.g. accurate appraisal of flooding conditions, awareness of risk, vulnerability of people... The key is to involve all local actors including people threatened by flooding rather than to impose general and inappropriate measures.

Vinet, Freddy; Leone, Frederic; Pelletier, Hugo; Queral, Fanny

2010-05-01

317

Integrated vulnerability mapping for wards in Mid-Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The future climate of Norway is expected to become “warmer, wetter, and wilder”, and it is anticipated that this will cause more extreme weather events. Local authorities therefore need to increase their ability to assess weather-related hazards such as flooding and landslide, as well as peoples’ capacities to cope with such events. Any evaluation of future vulnerability towards natural hazards

Jan Ketil Rød; Ivar Berthling; Haakon Lein; Päivi Lujala; Geir Vatne; Linda Marie Bye

2012-01-01

318

Structural adjustment, urban systems, and disaster vulnerability in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural adjustment (SA) — or macroeconomic reform — has become a dominant characteristic especially in developing countries, where national economies are being reshaped to a common discipline regardless of local circumstances. Within this context, the paper examines the impact of structural adjustment on disaster vulnerability in the urban sector, through examining some structural considerations which underpin forms of technical guidance

Mohamed Hamza; Roger Zetter

1998-01-01

319

Coastal Vulnerability as Discourse About Meanings and Values  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that any approach to defining vulnerability is a social act, and is expressive of and grounded in some assumptions about the nature and purpose of language. Managing a complex environment such as the coastal zone is necessarily about choice and conflicts. A purpose of language is to persuade others to adopt the course of action that the

Colin Green; Loraine McFadden

2007-01-01

320

Stressful Segregation Housing and Psychosocial Vulnerability in Prison Suicide Ideators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychosocially vulnerable prisoners under stressful conditions of confinement are ill prepared to cope and at risk for developing suicide intention. The present study examined the relationships of depression, hopelessness, reasons for living, mental health problem history, suicide attempt lethality history, and stressful segregation housing with…

Bonner, Ronald L.

2006-01-01

321

CONFU: Configuration Fuzzing Testing Framework for Software Vulnerability Detection.  

PubMed

Many software security vulnerabilities only reveal themselves under certain conditions, i.e., particular configurations and inputs together with a certain runtime environment. One approach to detecting these vulnerabilities is fuzz testing. However, typical fuzz testing makes no guarantees regarding the syntactic and semantic validity of the input, or of how much of the input space will be explored. To address these problems, we present a new testing methodology called Configuration Fuzzing. Configuration Fuzzing is a technique whereby the configuration of the running application is mutated at certain execution points, in order to check for vulnerabilities that only arise in certain conditions. As the application runs in the deployment environment, this testing technique continuously fuzzes the configuration and checks "security invariants" that, if violated, indicate a vulnerability. We discuss the approach and introduce a prototype framework called ConFu (CONfiguration FUzzing testing framework) for implementation. We also present the results of case studies that demonstrate the approach's feasibility and evaluate its performance. PMID:21037923

Dai, Huning; Murphy, Christian; Kaiser, Gail

2010-01-01

322

Intravascular photoacoustic imaging: a new tool for vulnerable plaque identification.  

PubMed

The vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque is believed to be at the root of the majority of acute coronary events. Even though the exact origins of plaque vulnerability remain elusive, the thin-cap fibroatheroma, characterized by a lipid-rich necrotic core covered by a thin fibrous cap, is considered to be the most prominent type of vulnerable plaque. No clinically available imaging technique can characterize atherosclerotic lesions to the extent needed to determine plaque vulnerability prognostically. Intravascular photoacoustic imaging (IVPA) has the potential to take a significant step in that direction by imaging both plaque structure and composition. IVPA is a natural extension of intravascular ultrasound that adds tissue type specificity to the images. IVPA utilizes the optical contrast provided by the differences in the absorption spectra of plaque components to image composition. Its capability to image lipids in human coronary atherosclerosis has been shown extensively ex vivo and has recently been translated to an in vivo animal model. Other disease markers that have been successfully targeted are calcium and inflammatory markers, such as macrophages and matrix metalloproteinase; the latter two through application of exogenous contrast agents. By simultaneously displaying plaque morphology and composition, IVPA can provide a powerful prognostic marker for disease progression, and as such has the potential to transform the current practice in percutaneous coronary intervention. PMID:24631379

Jansen, Krista; van Soest, Gijs; van der Steen, Antonius F W

2014-06-01

323

Vulnerability and Responsible in Presidential Disaster Management, 1953 to 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article extends work begun by the author in 1993 on presidential decision-making in disaster policy. The earlier work (Daniels and Clark-Daniels, 2002) focused on the Ford and Carter Administration and examined the effect of the competing goals of political responsiveness and comprehensive vulnerability management on gubernatorial and presidential decisions to seek and grant federal disaster assistance to states and

R. Steven Daniels

324

PROBABILISTIC METHOD FOR SEISMIC VULNERABILITY RANKING OF CANADIAN HYDROPOWER DAMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A probabilistic method was developed for ranking Canadian hydropower dams according to their seismic vulnerability. The method is based on the probabilistic seismic hazard at the dam location, the seismic fragility of the dam, and the construction date of the dam. The seismic hazard is represented by the peak ground acceleration of seismic motions at the dam location for a

Lan Lin; John Adams

325

SEISMIC VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF A RAILWAY OVERBRIDGE USING FRAGILITY CURVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this paper is to develop the fragility curves for typical a railway overbridge by analytical approach. In this study, a sample three span, two lane railway overbridge, situated in a highly seismic region in the country, is considered for development of fragility curve for seismic vulnerability assessment. Capacity of the bridge has been determined by static

Shinoj A. Kurian; Sajal K. De; Anjan Dutta

326

Vulnerability of the United States' Oil Supply to Terrorist Attack.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper examines the vulnerability of the U.S. oil supply infrastructure (domestic and international) to terrorist sabotage, and the economic implications of such an attack. The U.S. possesses only 3% of the world's total oil reserves, yet uses approxi...

J. J. Stower

2005-01-01

327

Improving communication during volcanic crises on small, vulnerable islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased exposure to volcanic hazard, particularly at vulnerable small islands, is driving an urgent and growing need for improved communication between monitoring scientists, emergency managers and the media, in advance of and during volcanic crises. Information gathering exercises undertaken on volcanic islands (Guadeloupe, St. Vincent and Montserrat) in the Lesser Antilles (eastern Caribbean), which have recently experienced – or are

W. J. McGuire; M. C. Solana; C. R. J Kilburn; D. Sanderson

2009-01-01

328

Vulnerability analysis for a drought Early Warning System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early Warning Systems (EWS) for drought are often based on risk models that do not, or marginally, take into account the vulnerability factor. The multifaceted nature of drought (hydrological, meteorological, and agricultural) is source of coexistence for different ways to measure this phenomenon and its effects. The latter, together with the complexity of impacts generated by this hazard, causes the current underdevelopment of drought EWS compared to other hazards. In Least Developed Countries, where drought events causes the highest numbers of affected people, the importance of correct monitoring and forecasting is considered essential. Existing early warning and monitoring systems for drought produced at different geographic levels, provide only in a few cases an actual spatial model that tries to describe the cause-effect link between where the hazard is detected and where impacts occur. Integrate vulnerability information in such systems would permit to better estimate affected zones and livelihoods, improving the effectiveness of produced hazard-related datasets and maps. In fact, the need of simplification and, in general, of a direct applicability of scientific outputs is still a matter of concern for field experts and early warning products end-users. Even if the surplus of hazard related information produced right after catastrophic events has, in some cases, led to the creation of specific data-sharing platforms, the conveyed meaning and usefulness of each product has not yet been addressed. The present work is an attempt to fill this gap which is still an open issue for the scientific community as well as for the humanitarian aid world. The study aims at conceiving a simplified vulnerability model to embed into an existing EWS for drought, which is based on the monitoring of vegetation phenological parameters and the Standardized Precipitation Index, both produced using free satellite derived datasets. The proposed vulnerability model includes (i) a pure agricultural vulnerability and (ii) a systemic vulnerability. The first considers the agricultural potential of terrains, the diversity of cultivated crops and the percentage of irrigated area as main driving factors. The second vulnerability aspect consists of geographic units in which a set of socio-economic factors are modeled geographically on the basis of the physical accessibility to market centers in one case, and according to a spatial gravity model of market areas in another case. Results of the model applied to a case study (Niger) and evaluated with food insecurity data, are presented.

Angeluccetti, Irene; Demarchi, Alessandro; Perez, Francesca

2014-05-01

329

Calibration of the DRASTIC ground water vulnerability mapping method  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground water vulnerability maps developed using the DRASTIC method have been produced in many parts of the world. Comparisons of those maps with actual ground water quality data have shown that the DRASTIC method is typically a poor predictor of ground water contamination. This study significantly improved the effectiveness of a modified DRASTIC ground water vulnerability map by calibrating the point rating schemes to actual ground water quality data by using nonparametric statistical techniques and a geographic information system. Calibration was performed by comparing data on nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen (NO2 + NO3-N) concentrations in ground water to land-use, soils, and depth to first-encountered ground water data. These comparisons showed clear statistical differences between NO2 + NO3-N concentrations and the various categories. Ground water probability point ratings for NO2 + NO3-N contamination were developed from the results of these comparisons, and a probability map was produced. This ground water probability map was then correlated with an independent set of NO2 + NO3-N data to demonstrate its effectiveness in predicting elevated NO2 + NO3-N concentrations in ground water. This correlation demonstrated that the probability map was effective, but a vulnerability map produced with the uncalibrated DRASTIC method in the same area and using the same data layers was not effective. Considerable time and expense have been outlaid to develop ground water vulnerability maps with the DRASTIC method. This study demonstrates a cost-effective method to improve and verify the effectiveness of ground water vulnerability maps.

Rupert, M. G.

2001-01-01

330

Repeated Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Mechanisms of Cerebral Vulnerability  

PubMed Central

Abstract Among the 3.5 million annual new head injury cases is a subpopulation of children and young adults who experience repeated traumatic brain injury (TBI). The duration of vulnerability after a single TBI remains unknown, and biomarkers have yet to be determined. Decreases in glucose metabolism (cerebral metabolic rate of glucose [CMRglc]) are consistently observed after experimental and human TBI. In the current study, it is hypothesized that the duration of vulnerability is related to the duration of decreased CMRglc and that a single mild TBI (mTBI) increases the brain's vulnerability to a second insult for a period, during which a subsequent mTBI will worsen the outcome. Postnatal day 35 rats were given sham, single mTBI, or two mTBI at 24-h or 120-h intervals. 14C-2-deoxy-D-glucose autoradiography was conducted at 1 or 3 days post-injury to calculate CMRglc. At 24?h after a single mTBI, CMRglc is decreased by 19% in both the parietal cortex and hippocampus, but approached sham levels by 3 days post-injury. When a second mTBI is introduced during the CMRglc depression of the first injury, the consequent CMRglc is depressed (36.5%) at 24?h and remains depressed (25%) at 3 days. In contrast, when the second mTBI is introduced after the metabolic recovery of the first injury, the consequent CMRglc depression is similar to that seen with a single injury. Results suggest that the duration of metabolic depression reflects the time-course of vulnerability to second injury in the juvenile brain and could serve as a valuable biomarker in establishing window of vulnerability guidelines.

Alexander, Daya; Giza, Christopher C.; Hovda, David A.

2013-01-01

331

Do the Most Vulnerable People Live in the Worst Slums? A Spatial Analysis of Accra, Ghana  

PubMed Central

Slums are examples of localized communities within third world urban systems representing a range of vulnerabilities and adaptive capacities. This study examines vulnerability in relation to flooding, environmental degradation, social-status, demographics, and health in the slums of Accra, Ghana by utilizing a place-based approach informed by fieldwork, remote sensing, census data, and geographically weighted regression. The study objectives are threefold: (1) to move slums from a dichotomous into a continuous classification and examine the spatial patterns of the gradient, (2) develop measures of vulnerability for a developing world city and model the relationship between slums and vulnerability, and (3) to assess if the most vulnerable individuals live in the worst slums. A previously developed slum index is utilized, and four new measures of vulnerability are developed through principle components analysis, including a novel component of health vulnerability based on child mortality. Visualizations of the vulnerability measures assess spatial patterns of vulnerability in Accra. Ordinary least squares, spatial, and geographically weighted regression model the ability of the slum index to predict the four vulnerability measures. The slum index performs well for three of the four vulnerability measures, but is least able to predict health vulnerability underscoring the complex relationship between slums and child mortality in Accra. Finally, quintile analysis demonstrates the elevated prevalence of high vulnerability in places with high slum index scores.

Jankowska, Marta M.; Weeks, John R.; Engstrom, Ryan

2011-01-01

332

Cities’ capacity to manage climate vulnerability: experiences from participatory vulnerability assessments in the lower Göta Älv Catchment, Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the scope of this project, tools for conducting systematic and integrated climate vulnerability and sustainability assessments have been developed. Two municipalities in the lower Göta Älv catchment were selected as study cases. Together with representatives from key municipal departments and national government agencies, the interdisciplinary research team designed and conducted a co-production process. Results obtained using the developed tools

Anna C. Jonsson; Mattias Hjerpe; Yvonne Andersson-Sköld; Erik Glaas; Karin André; Louise Simonsson

2012-01-01

333

State Vulnerability to Disaster: a BioQUEST Summer Workshop Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using the paper Katrina and Vulnerability: the Geography of Stress (Curtis, Mills, Leitner, 2010), we explored vulnerability using multiple stress factors in order to make an assessment of the impact of disaster.

Stacey Kiser (Lane Community College;Biology); Joyce Cadwallader (Saint-Mary-of-the-Woods College;Biology)

2010-06-18

334

Development of New Standard Vulnerability Metrics for Training and Analytical Combat Models & Simulations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This handout describes the rationale for development of new standard vulnerability metrics for training and analytical combat models and simulations. It covers the current traditional vulnerability metrics and the present status of proposed new vulnerabil...

K. Steiner

2000-01-01

335

Redox Abnormalities as a Vulnerability Phenotype for Autism and Related Alterations in CNS Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We hypothesize that low systemic redox potential (GSH/GSSG; cysteine/cystine) reflects a vulnerability phenotype that is associated with regressive autism and is predictive of the risk of developing autism. The redox vulnerability phenotype is associated ...

S. J. James

2009-01-01

336

An OVAL-based active vulnerability assessment system for enterprise computer networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Many security problems,are caused by vulner- abilities hidden in enterprise computer,networks. It is very important for system,administrators to have,knowledge about the security vulnerabilities. However, current vulner- ability assessment,methods,may,encounter the issues of high false positive rates, long computational time, and requirement of developing attack codes. Moreover, they are only capable of locating individual vulnerabilities on a single host without considering

Xiuzhen Chen; Qinghua Zheng; Xiaohong Guan

2008-01-01

337

VuWiki: An Ontology-Based Semantic Wiki for Vulnerability Assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of vulnerability, as well as its implementation in vulnerability assessments, is used in various disciplines and contexts ranging from disaster management and reduction to ecology, public health or climate change and adaptation, and a corresponding multitude of ideas about how to conceptualize and measure vulnerability exists. Three decades of research in vulnerability have generated a complex and growing body of knowledge that challenges newcomers, practitioners and even experienced researchers. To provide a structured representation of the knowledge field "vulnerability assessment", we have set up an ontology-based semantic wiki for reviewing and representing vulnerability assessments: VuWiki, www.vuwiki.org. Based on a survey of 55 vulnerability assessment studies, we first developed an ontology as an explicit reference system for describing vulnerability assessments. We developed the ontology in a theoretically controlled manner based on general systems theory and guided by principles for ontology development in the field of earth and environment (Raskin and Pan 2005). Four key questions form the first level "branches" or categories of the developed ontology: (1) Vulnerability of what? (2) Vulnerability to what? (3) What reference framework was used in the vulnerability assessment?, and (4) What methodological approach was used in the vulnerability assessment? These questions correspond to the basic, abstract structure of the knowledge domain of vulnerability assessments and have been deduced from theories and concepts of various disciplines. The ontology was then implemented in a semantic wiki which allows for the classification and annotation of vulnerability assessments. As a semantic wiki, VuWiki does not aim at "synthesizing" a holistic and overarching model of vulnerability. Instead, it provides both scientists and practitioners with a uniform ontology as a reference system and offers easy and structured access to the knowledge field of vulnerability assessments with the possibility for any user to retrieve assessments using specific research criteria. Furthermore, Vuwiki can serve as a collaborative knowledge platform that allows for the active participation of those generating and using the knowledge represented in the wiki.

Khazai, Bijan; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Büscher, Christian; Wegner, Antje

2014-05-01

338

Local Vulnerability Assessment of Climate Change and Its Implications: The Case of Gyeonggi-Do, Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper provides a set of vulnerability indicators appropriate for municipalities and gives the results of their application\\u000a to 31 municipalities in Gyeonggi-Do, the largest provincial government in Korea. The vulnerability assessment aims to identify\\u000a relative vulnerability across municipalities. Expert consultations and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to derive\\u000a indicators and determine their weightings. The definition of vulnerability

Jaekyung Koh

339

Climate Change and Infrastructure, Urban Systems, and Vulnerabilities  

SciTech Connect

This Technical Report on Climate Change and Infrastructure, Urban Systems, and Vulnerabilities has been prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in support of the U.S. National Climate Assessment (NCA). It is a summary of the currently existing knowledge base on its topic, nested within a broader framing of issues and questions that need further attention in the longer run. The report arrives at a number of assessment findings, each associated with an evaluation of the level of consensus on that issue within the expert community, the volume of evidence available to support that judgment, and the section of the report that provides an explanation for the finding. Cross-sectoral issues related to infrastructures and urban systems have not received a great deal of attention to date in research literatures in general and climate change assessments in particular. As a result, this technical report is breaking new ground as a component of climate change vulnerability and impact assessments in the U.S., which means that some of its assessment findings are rather speculative, more in the nature of propositions for further study than specific conclusions that are offered with a high level of confidence and research support. But it is a start in addressing questions that are of interest to many policymakers and stakeholders. A central theme of the report is that vulnerabilities and impacts are issues beyond physical infrastructures themselves. The concern is with the value of services provided by infrastructures, where the true consequences of impacts and disruptions involve not only the costs associated with the clean-up, repair, and/or replacement of affected infrastructures but also economic, social, and environmental effects as supply chains are disrupted, economic activities are suspended, and/or social well-being is threatened. Current knowledge indicates that vulnerability concerns tend to be focused on extreme weather events associated with climate change that can disrupt infrastructure services, often cascading across infrastructures because of extensive interdependencies threatening health and local economies, especially in areas where human populations and economic activities are concentrated in urban areas. Vulnerabilities are especially large where infrastructures are subject to multiple stresses, beyond climate change alone; when they are located in areas vulnerable to extreme weather events; and if climate change is severe rather than moderate. But the report also notes that there are promising approaches for risk management, based on emerging lessons from a number of innovative initiatives in U.S. cities and other countries, involving both structural and non-structural (e.g., operational) options.

Wilbanks, Thomas J [ORNL] [ORNL; Fernandez, Steven J [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

340

Depression Vulnerabilities in Patients with Different Levels of Depressive Symptoms after Acute Coronary Syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cognitive, behavioral, and interpersonal vulnerabilities have been studied in patients fulfilling diagnostic criteria for major depression and dysthymia. The extent to which these vulnerabilities are present in cardiac patients with mild to moderate depressive symptoms – a risk factor for mortality – is unknown. Moreover, few studies have examined interrelations among depression vulnerabilities. Methods: A consecutive cohort of 314

Nina Rieckmann; Matthew M. Burg; William Gerin; William F. Chaplin; Lynn Clemow; Karina W. Davidson

2006-01-01

341

A Novel Method of Software Vulnerability Detection based on Fuzzing Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buffer overflow vulnerabilities can cause attacks that result in serious consequences. However the techniques of buffer overflow vulnerability detection are limited to manual analysis, binary-patch comparison, fuzzing and so on. They rely on manual analysis, thus cause high overhead. In this paper, we propose a novel method of detection of buffer overflow vulnerabilities, which is based on fuzzing, data-flow dynamic

Xiao-Song Zhang; Lin Shao; Jiong Zheng

2008-01-01

342

Maximizing an Organization's Information Security Posture by Distributedly Assessing and Remedying System Vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Updating systems for security vulnerabilities has become a cumbersome yet necessary evil in today's environment of zero-day exploits and ever-changing threat matrix. The current state of affairs for the vulnerability and threat management functions are in dire need of a solution that can rapidly assess systems for vulnerabilities and fix them expeditiously. This will guarantee the effective reconnaissance of critical

Yonesy F. Nunez

2008-01-01

343

Research of Vulnerability-Patch Associated Repair Model Based on SVM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores from the security problems about whether fix patches and selective repair of the vulnerabilities, which takes computer vulnerabilities and patches associated into comprehensive consideration. Through selecting some key factors as attributes vectors, I propose the selective vulnerability - patch associated repair model by using support vector machine (SVM) classification method in data mining, and use the Matlab

Lin He; Ling Gao; Dongqi Chen; Ruyi Wang

2011-01-01

344

Using the vulnerability information of computer systems to improve the network security  

Microsoft Academic Search

In these years, the security problem becomes more important to everyone using computers. However, vulnerabilities on computers are found so frequently that system managers can not patch up all these vulnerabilities on hosts within the network in no time. They need to perform a risk evaluation in order to determine the priority of patching-up vulnerabilities. Besides, they may not have

Yeu-pong Lai; Po-lun Hsia

2007-01-01

345

Vulnerable Children, Communities and Schools: Lessons from Three HIV/AIDS Affected Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The growing number of children made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS threatens the achievement of Education for All (EFA) and Millennium Development goals. Policy recommendations assign schools key roles in meeting the needs of vulnerable children, but there is a dearth of evidence about how vulnerable children and schools interact in AIDS affected…

Kendall, Nancy; O'Gara, Chloe

2007-01-01

346

Theory and Practice in Assessing Vulnerability to Climate Change andFacilitating Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss approaches to the assessment of vulnerability to climatevariability and change andattempt to clarify the relationship between the concepts of vulnerability andadaptation. In searchof a robust, policy-relevant framework, we define vulnerability in terms ofthe capacity ofindividuals and social groups to respond to, that is, to cope with, recoverfrom or adapt to, anyexternal stress placed on their livelihoods and well-being.

P. M. Kelly; W. N. Adger

2000-01-01

347

A Framework for Understanding Vulnerabilities in Firewalls Using a Dataflow Model of Firewall Internals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vulnerabilities in vendor as well as freeware implementations of firewalls continue to emerge at a rapid pace. Each vulnerability superficially appears to be the result of something such as a coding flaw in one case, or a configuration weakness in another. Given the large number of firewall vulnerabilities that have surfaced in recent years, it is important to develop a

Michael Frantzen; Florian Kerschbaum; E. Eugene Schultz; Sonia Fahmy

2001-01-01

348

Local spatial and temporal factors influencing population and societal vulnerability to natural disasters.  

PubMed

The identification of societal vulnerable counties and regions and the factors contributing to social vulnerability are crucial for effective disaster risk management. Significant advances have been made in the study of social vulnerability over the past two decades, but we still know little regarding China's societal vulnerability profiles, especially at the county level. This study investigates the county-level spatial and temporal patterns in social vulnerability in China from 1980 to 2010. Based on China's four most recent population censuses of 2,361 counties and their corresponding socioeconomic data, a social vulnerability index for each county was created using factor analysis. Exploratory spatial data analysis, including global and local autocorrelations, was applied to reveal the spatial patterns of county-level social vulnerability. The results demonstrate that the dynamic characteristics of China's county-level social vulnerability are notably distinct, and the dominant contributors to societal vulnerability for all of the years studied were rural character, development (urbanization), and economic status. The spatial clustering patterns of social vulnerability to natural disasters in China exhibited a gathering-scattering-gathering pattern over time. Further investigations indicate that many counties in the eastern coastal area of China are experiencing a detectable increase in social vulnerability, whereas the societal vulnerability of many counties in the western and northern areas of China has significantly decreased over the past three decades. These findings will provide policymakers with a sound scientific basis for disaster prevention and mitigation decisions. PMID:24673569

Zhou, Yang; Li, Ning; Wu, Wenxiang; Wu, Jidong; Shi, Peijun

2014-04-01

349

Perceptions of Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS: A Comparison of Two College Cohorts, 1990 and 2005  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theories of preventive health behavior posit that perceived vulnerability to health threats motivates self-protective behavior. Fifteen years after an initial study of college students' perceptions of their vulnerability to HIV, a replication was conducted on the same campus in 2005. Comparisons between cohorts on vulnerability judgements were…

Teague, Susan M.

2009-01-01

350

Hotep's Story: Exploring the Wounds of Health Vulnerability in the US  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide variety of forms of domination hasresulted in a highly heterogeneous health riskcategory, ``the vulnerable.'' The study of healthinequities sheds light on forces thatgenerate, sustain, and alter vulnerabilities toillness, injury, suffering and death. Thispaper analyzes the case of a high-risk teenfrom a Boston ghetto that illuminatesintersections between ``race'' and class in theconstruction of vulnerability in the US.Exploration of his

Ken Fox

2002-01-01

351

A Static Analysis Tool for Detecting Web Application Injection Vulnerabilities for ASP Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Publicly reported vulnerability in recent years strong growth of the Web Application , Cross-site scripting (XSS) and SQL injection have been the most dominant class of web vulnerabilities, Web application security has been a great challenge. For the case, the static analysis tools ASPWC presented in this paper to detect XSS attacks and SQL injection vulnerabilities based on taint analysis,

Xin-hua Zhang; Zhi-jian Wang

2010-01-01

352

Global Vulnerability Assessment in Santa María Tixmadeje, Estado de México, México  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Santa María Tixmadejé (SMT), Estado de México, Mexico is a town located very close to the Acambay-Tixmadejé fault. This fault is located in the middle of the Trans Volcanic Belt in the center of the Mexican territory and generated a large seismic event in 1912 with magnitude 6.9 which combined with the local vulnerability, caused a disaster. In this work we measure the different vulnerabilities of the SMT community: structural, economical, social and educational. In addition, we determinate the total vulnerability, by summing all estimated vulnerabilities, for the critical facilities identified in this town. Vulnerability was determined using the methodology proposed by National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and by Disaster Prevention National Center (CENAPRED). Besides, we considered a minimum sample statistically significant of the total houses with a random sampling for our survey. Our results indicate that 50% of the critical facilities have high and very high and the other 50% between low and moderate level of total vulnerability. The results for independent vulnerabilities are as follows: (1) Near to 75% of the community has high and very high level of social vulnerability and the range for the another 25% is between low and moderate; (2) About 43% of the community has high and very high economical vulnerability and 57% low and moderate; (3) Approximately 38% of the population has high and very high educational vulnerability. The 62% present low and moderate vulnerability; and (4) About 42% of the community has very high structural vulnerability and 58% between low and moderate.

Monroy Salazar, S.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.

2010-12-01

353

Development and application of a methodology for vulnerability assessment of climate change in coastal cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research is based on the need to develop methodology for climate change vulnerability assessment in coastal cities. While there have been some studies on the development of methodologies for vulnerability assessment on a national scale, there have been few attempts to develop a method for local vulnerability assessment with application to coastal cities. The objective of this study was

Gayoung Yoo; Jin Hwan Hwang; Choongik Choi

2011-01-01

354

Climate change vulnerability and adaptation in Asia and the Pacific: Workshop summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Regional Workshop on Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment in Asia and the Pacific metto present and discuss assessments of vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in agriculture, forests, coastal resources, and water resources. Discussions were held in breakout and plenary sessions about the state of the science for vulnerability and adaptation assessment, conclusions that can be drawn about

L. Amadore; W. C. Bolhofer; R. V. Cruz; R. B. Feir; C. A. Freysinger; S. Guill; K. F. Jalal; A. Iglesias; A. Jose; S. Leatherman; S. Lenhart; S. Mukherjee; J. B. Smith; J. Wisniewski

1996-01-01

355

Climate Change Impact and Vulnerability Assessment for Air Quality over Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vulnerability assessment plays a vital role in setting up climate change adaptation polices, although vulnerability itself is conceptually difficult to be objectively quantified due to its wide-range of variations by many variables such as climate exposure, biophysical variables, socioeconomic ones and so on. This study focused on assessing current and future vulnerability of air quality by climate change over Korean

Jaebum Lee; Chang-Keun Song; Kyung-Jung Moon; Sung-Cheol Hong; Dukrae Kim; Jin-Young Choi; Cheol-Hwan Bang; Seung-Yeon Kim; Wonjun Choi; Jeonga Yoo

2010-01-01

356

Putting vulnerability to climate change on the map: a review of approaches, benefits, and risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing demand among stakeholders across public and private institutions for spatially-explicit information regarding vulnerability to climate change at the local scale. However, the challenges associated with mapping the geography of climate change vulnerability are non-trivial, both conceptually and technically, suggesting the need for more critical evaluation of this practice. Here, we review climate change vulnerability mapping in the

Benjamin L

2011-01-01

357

A Regional and Geospatial-based Approach TO ASSESS the Vulnerability of Watersheds to Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term vulnerability has been extensively defined and discussed in the literatu re. While there are several dissimilarities on how it is used under different contexts or when described by various researchers of diverse disciplines, vulnerability has remained significant in understanding both environmental and climatic changes. Numerous studies on vulnerability assessment have demonstrated the ability of such approach in evaluating

Cristino Tiburan Jr; Shintaro Kobayashi; Kei Mizuno; Izuru Saizen

2009-01-01

358

Vulnerability to atrial fibrillation under stretch can be explained by stretch-activated channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental studies show an increased vulnerability to atrial fibrillation (AF) in acutely dilated atria. By application of a stretch-activated channel (SAC) blocker, vulnerability to AF decreases significantly, indicating a role for SACs in the initiation of AF. Using a computer model of cardiac electromechanics, we investigate the hypothesis that increased vulnerability to AF may be attributed to SACs.In our model,

N. H. L. Kuijpers; R. J. Rijken; H. M. M. ten Eikelder; P. A. J. Hilbers

2007-01-01

359

On deriving unknown vulnerabilities from zero-day polymorphic and metamorphic worm exploits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vulnerabilities that allow worms to hijack the control flow of each host that they spread to are typically discovered months before the worm outbreak, but are also typically discovered by third party researchers. A determined attacker could discover vulnerabilities as easily and create zero-day worms for vulnerabilities unknown to network defenses. It is important for an analysis tool to be

Jedidiah R. Crandall; Zhendong Su; Shyhtsun Felix Wu; Frederic T. Chong

2005-01-01

360

Measuring and Enhancing Prediction Capabilities of Vulnerability Discovery Models for Apache and IIS HTTP Servers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prediction of the number of vulnerabilities in an HTTP server can allow us to evaluate the security risk associated with its use. Vulnerability discovery models have recently been proposed which can be used to estimate the future number of vulnerabilities expected to be discovered. A detailed analysis of the prediction capabilities of two models termed AML and LVD for

Omar H. Alhazmi; Yashwant K. Malaiya

2006-01-01

361

Perceptions of Quality of Life Effects of Diabetes Treatments Among Vulnerable and Non-Vulnerable Older Patients Running title: Perceptions of Diabetes Treatments  

PubMed Central

Objectives Geriatric diabetes care guidelines recommend that treatment intensity be based on patient preferences and clinical criteria such as limited life expectancy and functional decline (i.e., vulnerability). We assessed whether patient perceptions of diabetes treatments differed by vulnerability. Design Cross-sectional survey Setting Clinics affiliated with two Chicago-area hospitals Participants Patients 65 and over, living with type 2 diabetes (N=332). Measurements We assessed utilities, preference ratings on a scale from 0 to 1, for nine treatment states using time trade-off questions and queried patients about specific concerns regarding medications. Vulnerability was defined by the Vulnerable Elders Scale. Results One third (36%) of patients were vulnerable. Vulnerable patients were older (77 vs. 73 years of age) and had a longer duration of diabetes (13 vs. 10 years) (p’s < 0.05). Vulnerable patients reported lower utilities than non-vulnerable patients for most individual treatment states (e.g., Intensive Glucose Control, mean 0.61 vs. 0.72, p<0.01) but within group variation was large for both groups (e.g., standard deviations >0.25). While mean individual state utilities differed across groups, we found no significant differences in how vulnerable and non-vulnerable patients compared intensive and conventional treatment states (e.g., Intensive versus Conventional Glucose Control). In multivariable analyses, the association between vulnerability and individual treatment state utilities became non-significant except for the cholesterol pill. Conclusions Older patients’ preferences for diabetes treatment intensity vary widely and are not closely associated with vulnerability. This observation underscores the importance of involving older patients in diabetes treatment decisions, irrespective of clinical status.

Brown, Sydney E.S.; Meltzer, David O.; Chin, Marshall H.

2008-01-01

362

Humanitarian responses to mass violence perpetrated against vulnerable populations.  

PubMed Central

This multidisciplinary review links three areas of legitimate inquiry for practitioners of medicine and public health. The first is occurrences of mass violence or genocide perpetrated against vulnerable populations, with a focus on the failure of national and international mechanisms to prevent or predict such violence. The second is evolving concepts of national sovereignty and an emerging framework in which the imperative to assist vulnerable populations supersedes a state's right to self determination. The last is how medical, public health, and other systems of surveillance and rapid assessment of mass violence can accelerate public awareness and facilitate structured, consistent political decision making to prevent mass violence and to provide international humanitarian assistance. Images p1000-a

Gellert, G. A.

1995-01-01

363

Integrating Climate and Ocean Change Vulnerability into Conservation Planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical coastal and marine ecosystems are particularly vulnerable to ocean warming, ocean acidification, and sea-level rise. Yet these projected climate and ocean change impacts are rarely considered in conservation planning due to the lack of guidance on how existing climate and ocean change models, tools, and data can be applied. We address this gap by describing how conservation planning can use available tools and data for assessing the vulnerability of tropical marine ecosystems to key climate threats. Additionally, we identify limitations of existing tools and provide recommendations for future research to improve integration of climate and ocean change information and conservation planning. Such information is critical for developing a conservation response that adequately protects these ecosystems and dependent coastal communities in the face of climate and ocean change.

Mcleod, E.; Green, A.; Game, E.; Anthony, K.; Cinner, J.; Heron, S. F.; Kleypas, J. A.; Lovelock, C.; Pandolfi, J.; Pressey, B.; Salm, R.; Schill, S.; Woodroffe, C. D.

2013-05-01

364

Cognitive Vulnerabilities as Mediators between Emotional Abuse and Depressive Symptoms.  

PubMed

This study tested whether childhood parental emotional abuse and peer emotional bullying serve as antecedents of depression in adolescence and identified the cognitive mechanisms involved in this process. It was hypothesized that the experience of emotional abuse would predict depressive symptoms via development of rumination and negative inferences. A 3-wave longitudinal study was carried out with 998 adolescents (471 girls and 526 boys) between 13 and 17 years of age. Results showed that emotional abuse by parents and peers at Time 1 predicted a worsening of several cognitive vulnerabilities at Time 2. In addition, brooding mediated between the experiences of abuse and the increase of depressive symptoms at Time 3. Thus, findings suggest that the experiences of childhood emotional abuse by parents and peers serve as antecedents to develop a negative cognitive style, vulnerability that, once developed, is a risk factor for the onset of depressive symptoms in adolescence. PMID:24292965

Padilla Paredes, Patricia; Calvete, Esther

2014-07-01

365

Comprehensive care for vulnerable elderly veterans during disasters.  

PubMed

Despite problematic evacuation and sheltering of nursing home residents during Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, an exploration of the experiences of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) nursing homes (VANHs) is necessary for a comprehensive examination of the healthcare community's response to these disasters. VANH evacuations during these hurricanes have not been widely studied. This exploratory project aimed to provide information about the evacuation experiences and characteristics of vulnerable nursing home residents. Interviews with key informants from VHA facilities with nursing home staff and representatives revealed that physical harm, psychological distress, cognitive decline and increased social isolation were areas that deserved special attention for this vulnerable population. Moreover, physical, psychological and social needs were interconnected in that each influenced the others. Findings contribute to the general conversation about meeting the biopsychosocial needs of nursing home residents in an integrated healthcare delivery system and more broadly, the role of long-term care facilities in general in planning for future disasters. PMID:22901664

Claver, Maria; Dobalian, Aram; Fickel, Jacqueline J; Ricci, Karen A; Mallers, Melanie Horn

2013-01-01

366

Diversity Strategies to Mitigate Postulated Common Cause Failure Vulnerabilities  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an approach to establish effective mitigating strategies that can resolve potential common-cause failure (CCF) vulnerabilities in instrumentation and control (I&C) systems at nuclear power plants. A particular objective in the development of these strategies, which consist of combinations of diversity attributes and their associated criteria, is to address the unique characteristics of digital technology that can contribute to CCF concerns. The research approach employed to establish diversity strategies involves investigation of available documentation on diversity usage and experience from nuclear power and non-nuclear industries, capture of expert knowledge and lessons learned, determination of common practices, and assessment of the nature of CCFs and compensating diversity attributes. The resulting diversity strategies address considerations such as the effect of technology choices, the nature of CCF vulnerabilities, and the prospective impact of each diversity type. In particular, the impact of each attribute and criterion on the purpose, process, product, and performance aspects of diverse systems are considered.

Wood, Richard Thomas [ORNL

2010-01-01

367

Attitude before method: disability in vulnerability and capacity assessment.  

PubMed

Many agencies working on disaster risk reduction use vulnerability and capacity assessment (VCA) to identify vulnerable groups, to assess their needs and capacities, and to develop appropriate programmes and policies. In theory, VCA offers a good opportunity to incorporate disabled people's needs and resources in counter-disaster programming. This paper seeks to establish and explain the extent to which disability is included in VCA in practice. It reviews VCA reports and findings, formal VCA guidance, and other methodological literature. The review indicates that disability is a neglected issue in VCA practice and that manuals and guidelines, while promoting the general ideal of inclusiveness, are insufficiently aware of the challenges to achieving this in practice and do not offer enough guidance on how to reach and include disabled people. Ways of overcoming these problems are suggested. However, the real challenge may be to change core attitudes and perceptions of disability within implementing organisations. PMID:24905706

Twigg, John

2014-07-01

368

Human donor milk for the vulnerable infant: a Canadian perspective  

PubMed Central

Breast milk is the normal way to feed infants and is accepted worldwide as the optimal first source of nutrition. Though the majority intend to breastfeed, many mothers of sick, hospitalized newborns, particularly those of very low birth weight, are unable to provide a full volume of milk due to numerous physical and emotional barriers to breastfeeding. This vulnerable population of infants may benefit most from receiving breast milk nutrition and thus pasteurized donor milk should be the first consideration for supplementation when there is an inadequate supply of mother’s own milk. This commentary will briefly review the history of milk banking in Canada, as well as the best available evidence for donor milk use in the very low birth weight population, including available economic analyses, with a view to advocate for its use in these vulnerable infants.

2014-01-01

369

Human donor milk for the vulnerable infant: a Canadian perspective.  

PubMed

Breast milk is the normal way to feed infants and is accepted worldwide as the optimal first source of nutrition. Though the majority intend to breastfeed, many mothers of sick, hospitalized newborns, particularly those of very low birth weight, are unable to provide a full volume of milk due to numerous physical and emotional barriers to breastfeeding. This vulnerable population of infants may benefit most from receiving breast milk nutrition and thus pasteurized donor milk should be the first consideration for supplementation when there is an inadequate supply of mother's own milk. This commentary will briefly review the history of milk banking in Canada, as well as the best available evidence for donor milk use in the very low birth weight population, including available economic analyses, with a view to advocate for its use in these vulnerable infants. PMID:24742283

Panczuk, Julia; Unger, Sharon; O'Connor, Deborah; Lee, Shoo K

2014-01-01

370

An Experimental Study of Security Vulnerabilities Caused by Errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an experimental study which shows that, for the Intel x86 architecture, single-bit control flow errors in the authentication sections of targeted applica- tions can result in significant security vulnerabilities. The experiment targets two well-known Internet server applica- tions: FTP and SSH (secure shell), injecting single-bit con- trol flow errors into user authentication sections of the ap- plications.

Jun Xu; Shuo Chen; Zbigniew Kalbarczyk; Ravishankar K. Iyer

2001-01-01

371

Country Stakes in Climate Change Negotiations. Two Dimensions of Vulnerability  

SciTech Connect

Using a comprehensive geo-referenced database of indicators relating to global change and energy, the paper assesses countries' likely attitudes with respect to international treaties that regulate carbon emissions. The authors distinguish between source and impact vulnerability and classify countries according to these dimensions. The findings show clear differences in the factors that determine likely negotiating positions. This analysis and the resulting detailed, country level information help to explain the incentives required to make the establishment of such agreements more likely.

Buys, P.; Deichmann, U.; Meisner, C. [Development Research Group, World Bank, Washington DC (United States); That, Thao Ton [UN Environment Programme, Geneva (Switzerland); Wheeler, D. [Center for Global Development, Washington DC (United States)

2007-08-15

372

Linkages between cigarette smoking outcome expectancies and negative emotional vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation examined whether smoking outcome expectancies, as measured by the Smoking Consequences Questionnaire (SCQ; [Brandon, T.H., & Baker, T.B., (1991). The Smoking Consequences Questionnaire: The subjective expected utility of smoking in college students. Psychological Assessment, 3, 484–491.]), were incrementally related to emotional vulnerability factors among an adult sample of 202 daily cigarette smokers (44.6% women; Mage=23.78 years, SD=9.69 years). After

Kirsten A. Johnson; Michael J. Zvolensky; Erin C. Marshall; Adam Gonzalez; Kenneth Abrams; Anka A. Vujanovic

2008-01-01

373

Cognitive vulnerability in children at risk for depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive, developmental, and psychodynamic theories all hypothesize that negative self-concepts acquired in childhood may induce vulnerability to depression. Children at risk because of maternal major affective disorder, compared with children of medically ill and normal mothers, were examined for evidence of negative cognitions about themselves, and were found to have more negative self-concept, less positive self-schemas, and more negative attributional

Carol Jaenicke; Constance Hammen; Brian Zupan; Donald Hiroto; David Gordon; Cheri Adrian; Dorli Burge I

1987-01-01

374

A vulnerability function for Mediterranean flash flood risk assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood risk is a major type of environmental hazard jeopardizing human development, and is usually defined as a functional relation between the hazard, such as the physical and statistical aspects of flooding (e.g. return period of a certain flow height, spatial extend of inundation), and the associated vulnerability, i.e. the exposure of people and assets to floods and the susceptibility of the elements at risk to suffer from flood damage. The assessment of vulnerability -from the quantitative point of view- expresses vulnerability as the expected degree of loss for a given element at risk as a consequence of a certain event. It is ranges on a scale from 0 (no damage) to 1 (complete destruction) and focuses on direct flood loss which is estimated by damage or loss functions. A methodology for the development of a vulnerability curve for Mediterranean flash flood risk assessment is presented. This curve is based on a relationship between the intensity of the process and the associated degree of loss of elements at risk. The computation procedure is based on a method combining spatially explicit loss data, data on the value of exposed elements at risk and data on flood intensities on an individual building scale (local scale). The developed methodology is applied for the district of East Attica in Greece, a Mediterranean region influenced by mountain and coastal characteristics of land development. The aim of the study is to provide a valuable tool for the local authorities and the decision makers, a necessary implementation of flood risk management emerging from the requirements laid down in the European Flood Directive, as well as for an assessment of potential costs emerging from future flood events in order to protect individual households.

Karagiorgos, Konstantinos; Hübl, Johannes; Thaler, Thomas; Fuchs, Sven

2014-05-01

375

Selective vulnerability in the gerbil hippocampus following transient ischemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following brief ischemia, the Mongolian gerbil is reported to develop unusual hippocampal cell injury (Brain Res 239:57–69, 1982). To further clarify this hippocampal vulnerability, gerbils were subjected to ischemia for 3, 5, 10, 20, and 30 min by bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries. They were perfusion-fixed after varying intervals of survival time ranging from 3 h up to

T. Kirino; K. Sano

1984-01-01

376

American Indian adolescent girls: vulnerability to sex trafficking, intervention strategies.  

PubMed

The Minnesota Indian Women's Resource Center offers harm reduction programming to at-risk adolescent American Indian girls, including outreach, case management, advocacy, healthy sexuality education, and support groups. To evaluate program impact, participants are assessed at intake and every 6 months afterward for current vulnerability to commercial sexual exploitation, violence, and addiction. Evaluation results indicate frequent exposure to sex traffickers and suggest that harm reduction methods can help girls reduce risk of commercial sexual exploitation. PMID:22569724

Pierce, Alexandra Sandi

2012-01-01

377

Climate change and coastal vulnerability assessment: scenarios for integrated assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal vulnerability assessments still focus mainly on sea-level rise, with less attention paid to other dimensions of climate\\u000a change. The influence of non-climatic environmental change or socio-economic change is even less considered, and is often\\u000a completely ignored. Given that the profound coastal changes of the twentieth century are likely to continue through the twenty-first\\u000a century, this is a major omission,

Robert J. Nicholls; Poh Poh Wong; Virginia Burkett; Colin D. Woodroffe; John Hay

2008-01-01

378

Guiding Climate Change Adaptation Within Vulnerable Natural Resource Management Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change has the potential to compromise the sustainability of natural resources in Mediterranean climatic systems,\\u000a such that short-term reactive responses will increasingly be insufficient to ensure effective management. There is a simultaneous\\u000a need for both the clear articulation of the vulnerabilities of specific management systems to climate risk, and the development\\u000a of appropriate short- and long-term strategic planning responses

Douglas K. Bardsley; Susan M. Sweeney

2010-01-01

379

BrowserShield: Vulnerability-driven filtering of dynamic HTML  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Vulnerability-driven filtering of network data can offer a fast and easy-to-deploy alternative or intermediary to software patching, as exemplified in Shield [43]. In this paper, we take Shield’s vision to a new domain, inspect- ing and cleansing not just static content, but also dy- namic,content. The dynamic,content we target is the dynamic HTML in web pages, which have become

Charles Reis; John Dunagan; Helen J. Wang; Opher Dubrovsky; Saher Esmeir

2007-01-01

380

BrowserShield: Vulnerability-Driven Filtering of Dynamic HTML  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vulnerability-driven filtering of network data can offer a fast and easy-to-deploy alternative or intermediary to software patching, as exemplified in Shield (43). In this paper, we take Shield's vision to a new domain, inspect- ing and cleansing not just static content, but also dy- namic content. The dynamic content we target is the dynamic HTML in web pages, which have

Charles Reis; John Dunagan; Helen J. Wang; Opher Dubrovsky; Saher Esmeir

2006-01-01

381

Chapter 2 Vulnerability of Marine Turtles to Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine turtles are generally viewed as vulnerable to climate change because of the role that temperature plays in the sex determination of embryos, their long life history, long age-to-maturity and their highly migratory nature. Extant species of marine turtles probably arose during the mid–late Jurassic period (180–150 Mya) so have survived past shifts in climate, including glacial periods and warm

Elvira S. Poloczanska; Colin J. Limpus; Graeme C. Hays

2009-01-01

382

Patient safety through RFID: vulnerabilities in recently proposed grouping protocols.  

PubMed

As RFID-tagged systems become ubiquitous, acceptance of this technology by the general public necessitates addressing related security/privacy issues. The past eight years have seen an increasing number of publications in this direction, specifically using cryptographic approaches. Recently, the Journal of Medical Systems published two papers addressing security/privacy issues through cryptographic protocols. We consider the proposed protocols and identify some existing vulnerabilities. PMID:20703708

Wickboldt, Anne-Katrin; Piramuthu, Selwyn

2012-04-01

383

The vulnerable coronary plaque: update on imaging technologies.  

PubMed

Several studies have been carried out on vulnerable plaque as the main culprit for ischaemic cardiac events. Historically, the most important diagnostic technique for studying coronary atherosclerotic disease was to determine the residual luminal diameter by angiographic measurement of the stenosis. However, it has become clear that vulnerable plaque rupture as well as thrombosis, rather than stenosis, triggers most acute ischaemic events and that the quantification of risk based merely on severity of the arterial stenosis is not sufficient. In the last decades, substantial progresses have been made on optimisation of techniques detecting the arterial wall morphology, plaque composition and inflammation. To date, the use of a single technique is not recommended to precisely identify the progression of the atherosclerotic process in human beings. In contrast, the integration of data that can be derived from multiple methods might improve our knowledge about plaque destabilisation. The aim of this narrative review is to update evidence on the accuracy of the currently available non-invasive and invasive imaging techniques in identifying components and morphologic characteristics associated with coronary plaque vulnerability. PMID:23803753

Rosa, Gian Marco; Bauckneht, Matteo; Masoero, Giovanni; Mach, François; Quercioli, Alessandra; Seitun, Sara; Balbi, Manrico; Brunelli, Claudio; Parodi, Antonello; Nencioni, Alessio; Vuilleumier, Nicolas; Montecucco, Fabrizio

2013-10-01

384

Improving delivery of primary care for vulnerable migrants  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To identify and prioritize innovative strategies to address the health concerns of vulnerable migrant populations. Design Modified Delphi consensus process. Setting Canada. Participants Forty-one primary care practitioners, including family physicians and nurse practitioners, who provided care for migrant populations. Methods We used a modified Delphi consensus process to identify and prioritize innovative strategies that could potentially improve the delivery of primary health care for vulnerable migrants. Forty-one primary care practitioners from various centres across Canada who cared for migrant populations proposed strategies and participated in the consensus process. Main findings The response rate was 93% for the first round. The 3 most highly ranked practice strategies to address delivery challenges for migrants were language interpretation, comprehensive interdisciplinary care, and evidence-based guidelines. Training and mentorship for practitioners, intersectoral collaboration, and immigrant community engagement ranked fourth, fifth, and sixth, respectively, as strategies to address delivery challenges. These strategies aligned with strategies coming out of the United States, Europe, and Australia, with the exception of the proposed evidence-based guidelines. Conclusion Primary health care practices across Canada now need to evolve to address the challenges inherent in caring for vulnerable migrants. The selected strategies provide guidance for practices and health systems interested in improving health care delivery for migrant populations.

Pottie, Kevin; Batista, Ricardo; Mayhew, Maureen; Mota, Lorena; Grant, Karen

2014-01-01

385

Assessment of floodplain vulnerability during extreme Mississippi River flood 2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Regional change in the variability and magnitude of flooding could be a major consequence of future global climate change. Extreme floods have the capacity to rapidly transform landscapes and expose landscape vulnerabilities through highly variable spatial patterns of inundation, erosion, and deposition. We use the historic activation of the Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway during the Mississippi and Ohio River Flooding of 2011 as a scientifically unique stress experiment to analyze indicators of floodplain vulnerability. We use pre- and postflood airborne Light Detection and Ranging data sets to locate erosional and depositional hotspots over the 540 km2 agricultural Floodway. While riparian vegetation between the river and the main levee breach likely prevented widespread deposition, localized scour and deposition occurred near the levee breaches. Eroded gullies nearly 1 km in length were observed at a low ridge of a relict meander scar of the Mississippi River. Our flow modeling and spatial mapping analysis attributes this vulnerability to a combination of erodible soils, flow acceleration associated with legacy fluvial landforms, and a lack of woody vegetation to anchor soil and enhance flow resistance. Results from this study could guide future mitigation and adaptation measures in cases of extreme flooding.

Goodwell, Allison E.; Zhu, Zhenduo; Dutta, Debsunder; Greenberg, Jonathan A.; Kumar, Praveen; Garcia, Marcelo H.; Rhoads, Bruce L.; Holmes, Robert R.; Parker, Gary; Berretta, David P.; Jacobson, Robert B.

2014-01-01

386

Assessment of floodplain vulnerability during extreme mississippi river flood 2011.  

PubMed

Regional change in the variability and magnitude of flooding could be a major consequence of future global climate change. Extreme floods have the capacity to rapidly transform landscapes and expose landscape vulnerabilities through highly variable spatial patterns of inundation, erosion, and deposition. We use the historic activation of the Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway during the Mississippi and Ohio River Flooding of 2011 as a scientifically unique stress experiment to analyze indicators of floodplain vulnerability. We use pre- and postflood airborne Light Detection and Ranging data sets to locate erosional and depositional hotspots over the 540 km(2) agricultural Floodway. While riparian vegetation between the river and the main levee breach likely prevented widespread deposition, localized scour and deposition occurred near the levee breaches. Eroded gullies nearly 1 km in length were observed at a low ridge of a relict meander scar of the Mississippi River. Our flow modeling and spatial mapping analysis attributes this vulnerability to a combination of erodible soils, flow acceleration associated with legacy fluvial landforms, and a lack of woody vegetation to anchor soil and enhance flow resistance. Results from this study could guide future mitigation and adaptation measures in cases of extreme flooding. PMID:24512322

Goodwell, Allison E; Zhu, Zhenduo; Dutta, Debsunder; Greenberg, Jonathan A; Kumar, Praveen; Garcia, Marcelo H; Rhoads, Bruce L; Holmes, Robert R; Parker, Gary; Berretta, David P; Jacobson, Robert B

2014-03-01

387

General Vulnerability and Exposure Profile to Tsunami in Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Puerto Rico archipelago, located in the seismically active Caribbean region, has been directly affected by tsunamis in the last two centuries. The M 7.3 tsunamigenic earthquake, which occurred on October 11, 1918, caused $29 million in damage, death of 116 people and 100 residents were reported as missing. Presently, deficiencies on urban planning have induced an increase on the number of vulnerable people living inside the tsunami flood areas. Tsunami-prone areas have been delimited for Puerto Rico based on numerical tsunami modeling. However, the demographic, social and physical (e.g. critical and essential facilities) characteristics of these areas have not been documented in detail. We are conducting a municipality and community-level tsunami vulnerability and exposure study using Geographical Information System (GIS) tool. The results of our study are being integrated into the Puerto Rico Disaster Decision Support Tool (DDST). The DDST is a tool that brings access, at no cost, to a variety of updated geo-referenced information for Puerto Rico. This tool provides internet-based scalable maps that will aid emergency managers and decision-makers on their responsibilities and will improve Puerto Rico communities' resilience against tsunami hazard. This project aims to provide an initial estimate of Puerto Rico vulnerability and exposure to tsunami and brings to the community a technological tool that will help increase their awareness of this hazard and to assist them on their decisions.

Ruiz, R.; Huérfano-Moreno, V.

2012-12-01

388

Report to Congress on Insular Area energy vulnerability  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared in response to Section 1406 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-486), which directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to ``conduct a study of the implications of the unique vulnerabilities of the insular areas to an oil supply disruption,`` and to ``outline how the insular areas shall gain access to vital oil supplies during times of national emergency.`` The Act defines the insular areas to be the US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico in the Caribbean, and Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), and Palau in the Pacific. In the study, ``unique vulnerabilities`` were defined as susceptibility to: (1) more frequent or more likely interruptions of oil supplies compared to the US Mainland, and/or (2) disproportionately larger or more likely economic losses in the event of an oil supply disruption. In order to assess unique vulnerabilities, the study examined the insular areas` experience during past global disruptions of oil supplies and during local emergencies caused by natural disasters. The effects of several possible future global disruptions and local emergencies were also analyzed. Analyses were based on historical data, simulations using energy and economic models, and interviews with officials in the insular governments and the energy industry.

Not Available

1994-05-01

389

Rapid Assessment of Seismic Vulnerability in Palestinian Refugee Camps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of historical and recorded earthquakes in Palestine demonstrate that damaging earthquakes are occurring frequently along the Dead Sea Transform: Earthquake of 11 July 1927 (ML 6.2), Earthquake of 11 February 2004 (ML 5.2). In order to reduce seismic vulnerability of buildings, losses in lives, properties and infrastructures, an attempt was made to estimate the percentage of damage degrees and losses at selected refugee camps: Al Ama`ri, Balata and Dhaishe. Assessing the vulnerability classes of building structures was carried out according to the European Macro-Seismic Scale 1998 (EMS-98) and the Fedral Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The rapid assessment results showed that very heavy structural and non structural damages will occur in the common buildings of the investigated Refugee Camps (many buildings will suffer from damages grades 4 and 5). Bad quality of buildings in terms of design and construction, lack of uniformity, absence of spaces between the building and the limited width of roads will definitely increase the seismic vulnerability under the influence of moderate-strong (M 6-7) earthquakes in the future.

Al-Dabbeek, Jalal N.; El-Kelani, Radwan J.

390

The concept of vulnerability and the protection of human subjects of research.  

PubMed

This article provides an overview of the concept of vulnerability through the lens of the U.S. federal regulations for the protection of human subjects of research. General issues that emerge for nurse researchers working with regulated vulnerable populations are identified. Points of current controversy in the application of the regulations and current discourse about vulnerable groups are highlighted. Suggestions for negotiating the tension between federally regulated human subject requirements and the realities of research with vulnerable subjects are given. The limitations of the designation of vulnerable as a protection for human subjects will also be discussed. PMID:17849649

Beattie, Elizabeth R A; VandenBosch, Terry M

2007-01-01

391

Governance in vulnerability assessment: the role of globalising decision-making networks in determining local vulnerability and adaptive capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community-based vulnerability assessment has often assumed that the local is the relevant level of adaptation to climate change.\\u000a This paper suggests that not only do a number of levels from the international to the regional influence which adaptations\\u000a can take place locally, but the governance network that is made up by actors on different levels may to a large extent

E. Carina H. Keskitalo; H. Keskitalo

2009-01-01

392

Putting vulnerability to climate change on the map: a review of approaches, benefits, and risks  

SciTech Connect

There is growing demand among stakeholders across public and private institutions for spatially-explicit information regarding vulnerability to climate change at the local scale. However, the challenges associated with mapping the geography of climate change vulnerability are non-trivial, both conceptually and technically, suggesting the need for more critical evaluation of this practice. Here, we review climate change vulnerability mapping in the context of four key questions that are fundamental to assessment design. First, what are the goals of the assessment? A review of published assessments yields a range of objective statements that emphasize problem orientation or decision-making about adaptation actions. Second, how is the assessment of vulnerability framed? Assessments vary with respect to what values are assessed (vulnerability of what) and the underlying determinants of vulnerability that are considered (vulnerability to what). The selected frame ultimately influences perceptions of the primary driving forces of vulnerability as well as preferences regarding management alternatives. Third, what are the technical methods by which an assessment is conducted? The integration of vulnerability determinants into a common map remains an emergent and subjective practice associated with a number of methodological challenges. Fourth, who participates in the assessment and how will it be used to facilitate change? Assessments are often conducted under the auspices of benefiting stakeholders, yet many lack direct engagement with stakeholders. Each of these questions is reviewed in turn by drawing on an illustrative set of 45 vulnerability mapping studies appearing in the literature. A number of pathways for placing vulnerability

Preston, Benjamin L [ORNL

2011-01-01

393

Study on the Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment in Sanjiang Plain in Northeast China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sanjiang Plain is located in eastern part of China's Heilongjiang Province.It's total area is 109 000 km2, with cultivated land area being 3.6677 million hm2. It is a major national commodity grain base. Rice planting area in Sanjiang Plain has been increasing year by year. Groundwater exploitation is increasing rapidly as a result of rapid increase of paddy field area. It is necessary to research and analyze spatial diversity of groundwater pollution vulnerability for Sanjiang Plain, so as to fulfill the goal of integrated planning, rational utilization of land and water resource, avoiding or minimizing groundwater contamination, and protecting grain security of China. Based on the commonly used DRASTIC method internationally, and according to hydrogeology, land use and other characteristics of Sanjiang Plain, this paper establishes groundwater vulnerability assessment index system. Since the Sanjiang Plain is an area that gives priority to agriculture, and impact of agricultural land and agricultural activity on groundwater vulnerability can not be ignored. Two indicators of agricultural land use rate (L) and population density (P) are increased in the DRASTC index system, the remaining 5 indicators are groundwater depth (D), aquifer net recharge(R), aquifer media type (A), soil type(S), aquifer hydraulic conductivity (C). Taking ArcGis as a calculation analysis platform to assess groundwater vulnerability of the Sanjiang Plain, by using hierarchical analysis method of the fuzzy mathematics method to calculate each index weigh of evaluation vulnerability. This paper applies 6 levels of assessment standard as follows: vulnerability index DI <2 stands for not vulnerable; 2 vulnerable; 4< DI ? 5 stands for more vulnerable; 5vulnerable; 7vulnerable; DI> 8 stands for extremely vulnerable. Groundwater vulnerably contaminated area is delineated based on the groundwater vulnerability spatial distribution of Sanjiang Plain. Reasonable land use plan should be made, and strictly groundwater protection measures should be taken to reduce the risk of groundwater contamination.

Tang, Y.; Tang, W. K.; Liu, C.

2012-12-01

394

Chemical plants remain vulnerable to terrorists: a call to action.  

PubMed

U.S. chemical plants currently have potentially catastrophic vulnerabilities as terrorist targets. The possible consequences of these vulnerabilities echo from the tragedies of the Bhopal incident in 1984 to the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001 and, most recently, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Findings from a 2004 nationwide participatory research study of 125 local union leaders at sites with very large volumes of highly hazardous chemicals suggest that voluntary efforts to achieve chemical plant security are not succeeding. Study respondents reported that companies had only infrequently taken actions that are most effective in preventing or in preparing to respond to a terrorist threat. In addition, companies reportedly often failed to involve key stakeholders, including workers, local unions, and the surrounding communities, in these efforts. The environmental health community thus has an opportunity to play a key role in advocating for and supporting improvements in prevention of and preparation for terrorist attacks. Policy-level recommendations to redress chemical site vulnerabilities and the related ongoing threats to the nation's security are as follows: a) specify detailed requirements for chemical site assessment and security ; b) mandate audit inspections supported by significant penalties for cases of noncompliance ; c) require progress toward achieving inherently safer processes, including the minimizing of storage of highly hazardous chemicals ; d) examine and require additional effective actions in prevention, emergency preparedness, and response and remediation ; e) mandate and fund the upgrading of emergency communication systems ; and f) involve workers and community members in plan creation and equip and prepare them to prevent and respond effectively to an incident. PMID:16966080

Lippin, Tobi Mae; McQuiston, Thomas H; Bradley-Bull, Kristin; Burns-Johnson, Toshiba; Cook, Linda; Gill, Michael L; Howard, Donna; Seymour, Thomas A; Stephens, Doug; Williams, Brian K

2006-09-01

395

Differential vulnerability of interneurons in the epileptic hippocampus  

PubMed Central

The loss of hippocampal interneurons has been considered as one reason for the onset of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) by shifting the excitation-inhibition balance. Yet, there are many different interneuron types which show differential vulnerability in the context of an epileptogenic insult. We used the intrahippocampal kainate (KA) mouse model for TLE in which a focal, unilateral KA injection induces status epilepticus (SE) followed by development of granule cell dispersion (GCD) and hippocampal sclerosis surrounding the injection site but not in the intermediate and temporal hippocampus. In this study, we characterized the loss of interneurons with respect to septotemporal position and to differential vulnerability of interneuron populations. To this end, we performed intrahippocampal recordings of the initial SE, in situ hybridization for glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) mRNA and immunohistochemistry for parvalbumin (PV) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the early phase of epileptogenesis at 2 days and at 21 days after KA injection, when recurrent epileptic activity and GCD have fully developed. We show that SE extended along the entire septotemporal axis of both hippocampi, but was stronger at distant sites than at the injection site. There was an almost complete loss of interneurons surrounding the injection site and expanding to the intermediate hippocampus already at 2 days but increasing until 21 days after KA. Furthermore, we observed differential vulnerability of PV- and NPY-expressing cells: while the latter were lost at the injection site but preserved at intermediate sites, PV-expressing cells were gone even at sites more temporal than GCD. In addition, we found upregulation of GAD67 mRNA expression in dispersed granule cells and of NPY staining in ipsilateral granule cells and ipsi- and contralateral mossy fibers. Our data thus indicate differential survival capacity of interneurons in the epileptic hippocampus and compensatory plasticity mechanisms depending on the hippocampal position.

Marx, Markus; Haas, Carola A.; Haussler, Ute

2013-01-01

396

Brain renin-angiotensin system and dopaminergic cell vulnerability  

PubMed Central

Although the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) was classically considered as a circulating system that regulates blood pressure, many tissues are now known to have a local RAS. Angiotensin, via type 1 receptors, is a major activator of the NADPH-oxidase complex, which mediates several key events in oxidative stress (OS) and inflammatory processes involved in the pathogenesis of major aging-related diseases. Several studies have demonstrated the presence of RAS components in the basal ganglia, and particularly in the nigrostriatal system. In the nigrostriatal system, RAS hyperactivation, via NADPH-oxidase complex activation, exacerbates OS and the microglial inflammatory response and contributes to progression of dopaminergic degeneration, which is inhibited by angiotensin receptor blockers and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Several factors may induce an increase in RAS activity in the dopaminergic system. A decrease in dopaminergic activity induces compensatory upregulation of local RAS function in both dopaminergic neurons and glia. In addition to its role as an essential neurotransmitter, dopamine may also modulate microglial inflammatory responses and neuronal OS via RAS. Important counterregulatory interactions between angiotensin and dopamine have also been observed in several peripheral tissues. Neurotoxins and proinflammatory factors may also act on astrocytes to induce an increase in RAS activity, either independently of or before the loss of dopamine. Consistent with a major role of RAS in dopaminergic vulnerability, increased RAS activity has been observed in the nigra of animal models of aging, menopause and chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, which also showed higher dopaminergic vulnerability. Manipulation of the brain RAS may constitute an effective neuroprotective strategy against dopaminergic vulnerability and progression of Parkinson’s disease.

Labandeira-Garcia, Jose L.; Garrido-Gil, Pablo; Rodriguez-Pallares, Jannette; Valenzuela, Rita; Borrajo, Ana; Rodriguez-Perez, Ana I.

2014-01-01

397

Approaches of Seismic Vulnerability Assessments in Near Real Time Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data on seismic vulnerability of existing building stock and other elements at risk are rather important for near real time earthquake loss estimations by global systems. These data together with information on regional peculiarities of seismic intensity attenuation and other factors contribute greatly to the reliability of strong event consequences estimated in emergency mode. There are different approaches for vulnerability functions' development and the empirical one is most often used. It is based on analysis of engineering consequences of past strong events when well documented descriptions of damage to different building types and other elements at risk are available for the earthquake prone area under consideration. In the case such data do not exist the information from macroseismic scales may be used. Any approach of vulnerability functions' development requires the proper classification of buildings and structures under consideration. According to national and international building codes, as well as macroseismic scales different buildings' classifications exist. As a result the global systems, such as Extremum and PAGER, as well as GEM project make use of the non-unified information on building stock distribution worldwide. The paper addresses the issues of buildings' classification and city models in terms of these classifications. Distribution of different buildings types in Extremum and PAGER/GEM systems is analyzed for earthquake prone countries. The comparison of city models revealed significant differences which influence greatly earthquake loss estimations in emergency mode. The paper describes the practice of city models' development which make use of space images and web technology in social networks. It is proposed to use the G8 country (and other) initiatives related to open data and transparency aimed at improving building stock distribution and global population databases.

Frolova, Nina; Larionov, Valery; Bonnin, Jean; Ugarov, Alexander

2014-05-01

398

Vulnerable windows define susceptibility to alternans and spatial discordance  

PubMed Central

Electrophysiological alternans is a beat-to-beat alternation of the action potential duration and/or Ca2+ transient amplitude and is linked to ventricular arrhythmias. We investigated the significance of various rate parameters under different experimental conditions with respect to alternans incidence and the propensity for spiral wave formation. Voltage and Ca2+ were optically mapped in monolayers of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. Alternans did not occur at physiological temperature, but its incidence increased significantly at lowered temperatures. Pacing cycle length for spatially concordant alternans onset (PCLC), PCL for spatially discordant alternans onset (PCLD), and minimum cycle length for loss of 1:1 or 2:2 capture (MCL) also significantly increased with lower temperature but in a way such that the differences between PCLC and MCL and between PCLD and MCL widened. These results provided the rationale to identify the former difference as the alternans vulnerable window (AVW; in ms) and the latter difference as the discordant alternans vulnerable window (AVWD; in ms). Computational simulations showed that interventions that widen AVW, including altered Ca2+ cycling and enhanced K+ currents, also promote alternans, regardless of whether PCLC or MCL increased or decreased. The simulation results were confirmed experimentally by addition of the ATP-sensitive K+ channel agonist pinacidil. Mathematical analysis provided a theoretical basis linking the size of AVW to the incidence of alternans. Finally, experiments showed that the size of AVWD is related to the incidence of spatially discordant alternans and, additionally, to the incidence of spiral wave formation. In conclusion, vulnerable windows can be defined that are strongly correlated with alternans incidence, spatial discordance, and spiral wave formation.

Weinberg, Seth; Malhotra, Neha

2010-01-01

399

Global convergence in the vulnerability of forests to drought.  

PubMed

Shifts in rainfall patterns and increasing temperatures associated with climate change are likely to cause widespread forest decline in regions where droughts are predicted to increase in duration and severity. One primary cause of productivity loss and plant mortality during drought is hydraulic failure. Drought stress creates trapped gas emboli in the water transport system, which reduces the ability of plants to supply water to leaves for photosynthetic gas exchange and can ultimately result in desiccation and mortality. At present we lack a clear picture of how thresholds to hydraulic failure vary across a broad range of species and environments, despite many individual experiments. Here we draw together published and unpublished data on the vulnerability of the transport system to drought-induced embolism for a large number of woody species, with a view to examining the likely consequences of climate change for forest biomes. We show that 70% of 226 forest species from 81 sites worldwide operate with narrow (<1?megapascal) hydraulic safety margins against injurious levels of drought stress and therefore potentially face long-term reductions in productivity and survival if temperature and aridity increase as predicted for many regions across the globe. Safety margins are largely independent of mean annual precipitation, showing that there is global convergence in the vulnerability of forests to drought, with all forest biomes equally vulnerable to hydraulic failure regardless of their current rainfall environment. These findings provide insight into why drought-induced forest decline is occurring not only in arid regions but also in wet forests not normally considered at drought risk. PMID:23172141

Choat, Brendan; Jansen, Steven; Brodribb, Tim J; Cochard, Hervé; Delzon, Sylvain; Bhaskar, Radika; Bucci, Sandra J; Feild, Taylor S; Gleason, Sean M; Hacke, Uwe G; Jacobsen, Anna L; Lens, Frederic; Maherali, Hafiz; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Mayr, Stefan; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Mitchell, Patrick J; Nardini, Andrea; Pittermann, Jarmila; Pratt, R Brandon; Sperry, John S; Westoby, Mark; Wright, Ian J; Zanne, Amy E

2012-11-29

400

Age-Related Psychophysiological Vulnerability to Phenylalanine in Phenylketonuria  

PubMed Central

Background: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by the inherited defect of the phenylalanine hydroxylase enzyme, which converts phenylalanine (Phe) into tyrosine (Tyr). Neonatal screening programs and early treatment have radically changed the natural history of PKU. Nevertheless, an increased risk of neurocognitive and psychiatric problems in adulthood remains a challenging aspect of the disease. In order to assess the vulnerability of complex skills to Phe, we explored: (a) the effect of a rapid increase in blood Phe levels on event-related potentials (ERP) in PKU subjects during their second decade of life; (b) the association (if existing) between psychophysiological and neurocognitive features. Methods: Seventeen early-treated PKU subjects, aged 10–20, underwent ERP [mismatch negativity, auditory P300, contingent negative variation (CNV), and Intensity Dependence of Auditory Evoked Potentials] recording before and 2?h after an oral loading of Phe. Neurocognitive functioning, historical and concurrent biochemical values of blood Phe, Tyr, and Phe/Tyr ratio, were all included in the statistical analysis. Results: Event-related potential components were normally detected in all the subjects. In subjects younger than 13 CNV amplitude, W2-CNV area, P3b latency, and reaction times in motor responses were negatively influenced by Phe-loading. Independently from the psychophysiological vulnerability, some neurocognitive skills were more impaired in younger patients. No correlation was found between biochemical alterations and neurocognitive and psychophysiological findings. Conclusion: The vulnerability of the emerging neurocognitive functions to Phe suggests a strict metabolic control in adolescents affected by PKU and a neurodevelopmental approach in the study of neurocognitive outcome in PKU.

Leuzzi, Vincenzo; Mannarelli, Daniela; Manti, Filippo; Pauletti, Caterina; Locuratolo, Nicoletta; Carducci, Carla; Carducci, Claudia; Vanacore, Nicola; Fattapposta, Francesco

2014-01-01

401

Socio-Economic Vulnerability to Climate Change in California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The western United States faces a range of impacts from global climate change, including increases in extreme heat, wildfires, and coastal flooding and erosion; changes are also likely to occur in air quality, water availability, and the spread of infectious diseases. To date, a great deal of research has been done to forecast the physical effects of climate change, while less attention has been given to the factors make different populations more or less vulnerable to harm from such changes. For example, mortality rates from Hurricane Audrey, which struck the coast of Louisiana in 1957, were more than eight times higher among blacks than among whites. While disaster events may not discriminate, impacts on human populations are shaped by "intervening conditions" that determine the human impact of the flood and the specific needs for preparedness, response, and recovery. In this study, we analyze the potential impacts of climate change by using recent downscaled climate model outputs, creating a variety of statistics and visualizations to communicate potential impacts to community groups and decision makers, after several meetings with these groups to ask, "What types of information are most useful to you for planning?" We relate climate impacts to social vulnerability - defined as the intersection of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of a person or group of people - with a focus on the U.S. state of California. Understanding vulnerability factors and the populations that exhibit these factors are critical for crafting effective climate change policies and response strategies. It is also important to the emerging study of climate justice, which is the concept that no group of people should disproportionately bear the burden of climate impacts or the costs of mitigation and adaptation.

Heberger, M. G.; Cooley, H.; Moore, E.; Garzon, C.

2011-12-01

402

Vulnerability of Mesostriatal Dopaminergic Neurons in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

The term vulnerability was first associated with the midbrain dopaminergic neurons 85 years ago, before they were identified as monoaminergic neurons, when Foix and Nicolesco (1925) reported the loss of neuromelanin containing neurons in the midbrain of patients with post-encephalitic Parkinson's disease (PD). A few years later, Hassler (1938) showed that degeneration is more intense in the ventral tier of the substantia nigra compacta than in its dorsal tier and the ventral tegmental area (VTA), outlining the concept of differential vulnerability of midbrain dopaminergic (DA-) neurons. Nowadays, we know that other neuronal groups degenerate in PD, but the massive loss of nigral DA-cells is its pathological hallmark, having a pivotal position in the pathophysiology of the disease as it is responsible for the motor symptoms. Data from humans as well as cellular and animal models indicate that DA-cell degeneration is a complex process, probably precipitated by the convergence of different risk factors, mediated by oxidative stress, and involving pathogenic factors arising within the DA-neuron (intrinsic factors), and from its environment and distant interconnected brain regions (extrinsic factors). In light of current data, intrinsic factors seem to be preferentially involved in the first steps of the degenerative process, and extrinsic factors in its progression. A controversial issue is the relative weight of the impairment of common cell functions, such as energy metabolism and proteostasis, and specific dopaminergic functions, such as pacemaking activity and DA handling, in the pathogenesis of DA-cell degeneration. Here we will review the current knowledge about the relevance of these factors at the beginning and during the progression of PD, and in the differential vulnerability of midbrain DA-cells.

Gonzalez-Hernandez, Tomas; Cruz-Muros, Ignacio; Afonso-Oramas, Domingo; Salas-Hernandez, Josmar; Castro-Hernandez, Javier

2010-01-01

403

Familiarity breeds contempt: the honeymoon effect and the role of legacy code in zero-day vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work on security vulnerabilities in software has primarily focused on three points in the software life-cycle: (1) finding and removing software defects, (2) patching or hardening software after vulnerabilities have been discovered, and (3) measuring the rate of vulnerability exploitation. This paper examines an earlier period in the software vulnerability life-cycle, starting from the release date of a version through

Sandy Clark; Stefan Frei; Matt Blaze; Jonathan M. Smith

2010-01-01

404

Are some groups more vulnerable to macroeconomic shocks than others? Hypothesis tests based on panel data from Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

Which socio-economic groups are most vulnerable to welfare declines during a macroeconomic shock? After clarifying the difference between poverty and vulnerability, this paper presents an analytical framework and applies it to panel data from Peru. Major findings are: (1) Households with better educated heads are less vulnerable; (2) Female headed households are no more vulnerable than male headed households; (3)

Paul Glewwe; Gillette Hall

1998-01-01

405

Importance of biometrics to addressing vulnerabilities of the U.S. infrastructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human identification technologies are important threat countermeasures in minimizing select infrastructure vulnerabilities. Properly targeted countermeasures should be selected and integrated into an overall security solution based on disciplined analysis and modeling. Available data on infrastructure value, threat intelligence, and system vulnerabilities are carefully organized, analyzed and modeled. Prior to design and deployment of an effective countermeasure; the proper role and appropriateness of technology in addressing the overall set of vulnerabilities is established. Deployment of biometrics systems, as with other countermeasures, introduces potentially heightened vulnerabilities into the system. Heightened vulnerabilities may arise from both the newly introduced system complexities and an unfocused understanding of the set of vulnerabilities impacted by the new countermeasure. The countermeasure's own inherent vulnerabilities and those introduced by the system's integration with the existing system are analyzed and modeled to determine the overall vulnerability impact. The United States infrastructure is composed of government and private assets. The infrastructure is valued by their potential impact on several components: human physical safety, physical/information replacement/repair cost, potential contribution to future loss (criticality in weapons production), direct productivity output, national macro-economic output/productivity, and information integrity. These components must be considered in determining the overall impact of an infrastructure security breach. Cost/benefit analysis is then incorporated in the security technology deployment decision process. Overall security risks based on system vulnerabilities and threat intelligence determines areas of potential benefit. Biometric countermeasures are often considered when additional security at intended points of entry would minimize vulnerabilities.

Arndt, Craig M.; Hall, Nathaniel A.

2004-08-01

406

Vulnerability Factors for the Psychiatric and Behavioral Effects of Cannabis  

PubMed Central

Cogent evidence shows that cannabis plays a variable role on behavioral regulation and the pathophysiology of most psychiatric conditions. Accordingly, cannabis has been alternatively shown to exacerbate or ameliorate mental symptoms, depending on its composition and route of consumption, as well as specific individual and contextual characteristics. The vulnerability to the psychological effects of cannabis is influenced by a complex constellation of genetic and environmental factors. In the present article, we will review the current evidence on the pharmacological, individual and situational factors that have been documented to affect the behavioral and psychiatric effects of cannabinoids.

Bortolato, Marco; Bini, Valentina; Tambaro, Simone

2010-01-01

407

Sexual health, vulnerabilities and risk behaviours among homeless adults.  

PubMed

It is well known that homeless individuals are at risk for a variety of health problems, including sexually transmissible infections. Optimisation of health services for the homeless requires knowledge of their sexual health. The sexual health and sexual vulnerability factors of 500 homeless adults (196 women) were assessed in a cross-sectional survey in three Canadian cities. Our data indicate that a significant proportion of individuals and more women than men reported multiple experiences that compromise their sexual health exponentially. These findings may inform health policies related to sexuality to foster positive sexual health outcomes for all people, including marginalised populations. PMID:24670303

Strehlau, Verena; Torchalla, Iris; Linden, Isabelle; Li, Kathy; Krausz, Michael

2014-03-01

408

[Major depressive disorder: factors of risk, vulnerability and protection].  

PubMed

Major depressive disorder is a disease whose course is often chronic because the prevalence of recurrence is high. Therefore, it is important to know the risk factors of relapse (number of previous episodes, persistence of residual depressive symptoms…). Moreover, identifying factors of vulnerability of the disease may help to detect very-high-risk subjects in order to prevent the disease onset. Many hypothesis are explored: serotonin dysfunction, axis of stress, alteration of brain structures. Finally, antidepressant treatment is a protective factor and is efficient to limit the risk of chronicity. PMID:21211630

Olié, E; Courtet, P

2010-12-01

409

Water vulnerabilities for existing coal-fired power plants.  

SciTech Connect

This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Water consumption by all users in the United States over the 2005-2030 time period is projected to increase by about 7% (from about 108 billion gallons per day [bgd] to about 115 bgd) (Elcock 2010). By contrast, water consumption by coal-fired power plants over this period is projected to increase by about 21% (from about 2.4 to about 2.9 bgd) (NETL 2009b). The high projected demand for water by power plants, which is expected to increase even further as carbon-capture equipment is installed, combined with decreasing freshwater supplies in many areas, suggests that certain coal-fired plants may be particularly vulnerable to potential water demand-supply conflicts. If not addressed, these conflicts could limit power generation and lead to power disruptions or increased consumer costs. The identification of existing coal-fired plants that are vulnerable to water demand and supply concerns, along with an analysis of information about their cooling systems and related characteristics, provides information to help focus future research and development (R&D) efforts to help ensure that coal-fired generation demands are met in a cost-effective manner that supports sustainable water use. This study identified coal-fired power plants that are considered vulnerable to water demand and supply issues by using a geographical information system (GIS) that facilitated the analysis of plant-specific data for more than 500 plants in the NETL's Coal Power Plant Database (CPPDB) (NETL 2007a) simultaneously with 18 indicators of water demand and supply. Two types of demand indicators were evaluated. The first type consisted of geographical areas where specific conditions can generate demand vulnerabilities. These conditions include high projected future water consumption by thermoelectric power plants, high projected future water consumption by all users, high rates of water withdrawal per square mile (mi{sup 2}), high projected population increases, and areas projected to be in a water crisis or conflict by 2025. The second type of demand indicator was plant specific. These indicators were developed for each plant and include annual water consumption and withdrawal rates and intensities, net annual power generation, and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. The supply indictors, which are also area based, include areas with low precipitation, high temperatures, low streamflow, and drought. The indicator data, which were in various formats (e.g., maps, tables, raw numbers) were converted to a GIS format and stored, along with the individual plant data from the CPPDB, in a single GIS database. The GIS database allowed the indicator data and plant data to be analyzed and visualized in any combination. To determine the extent to which a plant would be considered 'vulnerable' to a given demand or supply concern (i.e., that the plant's operations could be affected by water shortages represented by a potential demand or supply indicator), criteria were developed to categorize vulnerability according to one of three types: major, moderate, or not vulnerable. Plants with at least two major demand indicator values and/or at least four moderate demand indicator values were considered vulnerable to demand concerns. By using this approach, 144 plants were identified as being subject to demand concerns only. Plants with at least one major supply indicator value and/or at least two moderate supply indicator values were considered vulnerable to supply concerns. By using this approach, 64 plants were identified as being subject to supply concerns only. In addition, 139 plants were identified as subject to both demand and supply concerns. Therefore, a total of 347 plants were considere

Elcock, D.; Kuiper, J.; Environmental Science Division

2010-08-19

410

Structural vulnerability assessment using reliability of slabs in avalanche area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improvement of risk assessment or hazard zoning requires a better understanding of the physical vulnerability of structures. To consider natural hazard issue such as snow avalanches, once the flow is characterized, highlight on the mechanical behaviour of the structure is a decisive step. A challenging approach is to quantify the physical vulnerability of impacted structures according to various avalanche loadings. The main objective of this presentation is to introduce methodology and outcomes regarding the assessment of vulnerability of reinforced concrete buildings using reliability methods. Reinforced concrete has been chosen as it is one of the usual material used to build structures exposed to potential avalanche loadings. In avalanche blue zones, structures have to resist to a pressure up to 30kPa. Thus, by providing systematic fragility relations linked to the global failure of the structure, this method may serve the avalanche risk assessment. To do so, a slab was numerically designed. It represented the avalanche facing wall of a house. Different configuration cases of the element in stake have been treated to quantify numerical aspects of the problem, such as the boundary conditions or the mechanical behaviour of the structure. The structure is analysed according to four different limit states, semi-local and global failures are considered to describe the slab behaviour. The first state is attained when cracks appear in the tensile zone, then the two next states are described consistent with the Eurocode, the final state is the total collapse of the structure characterized by the yield line theory. Failure probability is estimated in accordance to the reliability framework. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to quantify the fragility to different loadings. Sensitivity of models in terms of input distributions were defined with statistical tools such as confidence intervals and Sobol's indexes. Conclusion and discussion of this work are established to well determine contributions, limits and future needs or developments of the research. First of all, this study provides spectrum of fragility curves of reinforced concrete structures which could be used to improve risk assessment. Second, the influence of the failure criterion picked up in this survey are discussed. Then, the weight of the statistical distribution choice is analysed. Finally, the limit between vulnerability and fragility relations is set up to establish the boundary use of our approach.

Favier, Philomène; Bertrand, David; Eckert, Nicolas; Naaim, Mohamed

2013-04-01

411

How The New Medicare Drug Benefit Could Affect Vulnerable Populations  

PubMed Central

This study estimates how out-of-pocket drug costs could change for vulnerable populations (racial and ethnic minorities, the near-poor, and seniors with a greater burden of chronic conditions) who qualify for the standard Medicare drug benefit. Although the new benefit might be associated with modest-to-moderate declines in out-of-pocket spending for seniors who do not qualify for subsidies, the savings might not be shared equitably and therefore might not reduce financial barriers to medication use for these populations.

Gellad, Walid F.; Huskamp, Haiden A.; Phillips, Kathryn A.; Haas, Jennifer S.

2006-01-01

412

Multispectral optoacoustic tomography resolves smart probe activation in vulnerable plaques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we show, for the first time to our knowledge, that multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) can deliver high resolution images of activatable molecular probe's distribution, sensitive to matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), deep within optically scattering human carotid specimen. It is further demonstrated that this method can be used in order to provide accurate maps of vulnerable plaque formations in atherosclerotic disease. Moreover, optoacoustic images can simultaneously show the underlining plaque morphology for accurate localization of MMP activity in three dimensions. This performance directly relates to small animal screening applications and to clinical potential as well.

Razansky, Daniel; Harlaar, Niels J.; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Taruttis, Adrian; Herzog, Eva; Zeebregts, Clark; van Dam, Goitzen; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

2011-02-01

413

DNA deletions promote cancer, but collateral damage make it vulnerable  

Cancer.gov

Genomic deletions promote cancer by carving up or eliminating tumor-suppressor genes, but now scientists report in the journal Nature that the collateral damage they inflict on neighboring genes exposes cancer cells to vulnerabilities and new avenues for attack. Working with cell lines of glioblastoma multiforme, the most lethal type of brain tumor, researchers from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute at Harvard Medical School, and some now at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, found that collateral deletion of a gene vital to tumor metabolism allowed them to kill malignant cells by blocking another gene that redundantly performs the same function.

414

Electronic equipment vulnerability to fire released carbon fibers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vulnerability of electronic equipment to damage by carbon fibers released from burning aircraft type structural composite materials was investigated. Tests were conducted on commercially available stereo power amplifiers which showed that the equipment was damaged by fire released carbon fibers but not by the composite resin residue, soot and products of combustion of the fuel associated with burning the carbon fiber composites. Results indicate that the failure rates of the equipment exposed to the fire released fiber were consistent with predictions based on tests using virgin fibers.

Pride, R. A.; Mchatton, A. D.; Musselman, K. A.

1980-01-01

415

Genetic diversity and genetic vulnerability—an appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a Plant germplasm is among the most essential of the world’s natural resources. Its conservation merits far greater attention\\u000a than it is now receiving.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a Total genetic diversity does not provide insurance against genetic vulnerability. To be of use to the breeder, sources of\\u000a genetic diversity must include useful alleles not present in elite populations that carry resistance to

William L. Brown

1983-01-01

416

Regional risk assessment for contaminated sites part 1: vulnerability assessment by multicriteria decision analysis.  

PubMed

As highlighted in the EU Soil Communication, local contamination is one of the main soil threats and it is often related to present and past industrial activities which left a legacy of a high number of contaminated sites in Europe. These contaminated sites can be harmful to many different receptors according to their sensitivity/susceptibility to contamination, and specific vulnerability evaluations are needed in order to manage this widely spread environmental issue. In this paper a novel comprehensive vulnerability assessment framework to assess regional receptor susceptibility to contaminated site is presented. The developed methodology, which combines multi criteria decision analysis (MCDA) techniques and spatial analysis, can be applied to different receptors recognized as relevant for regional assessment. In order to characterize each receptor, picked parameters significant for the estimation of the vulnerability to contaminated sites have been selected, normalized and aggregated by means of multi criteria decision analysis (MCDA) techniques. The developed MCDA methodology, based on the Choquet integral, allows to include expert judgments for the elicitation of synergic and conflicting effects between involved criteria and is applied to all the geographical objects representing the identified receptors. To test the potential of the vulnerability methodology, it has been applied to a specific case study area in the upper Silesia region of Poland where it proved to be reliable and consistent with the environmental experts' expected results. The vulnerability assessment results indicate that groundwater is the most vulnerable receptor characterized by a wide area with vulnerability scores belonging to the highest vulnerability class. As far as the other receptors are concerned, human health and surface water are characterized by quite homogeneous vulnerability scores falling in the medium-high vulnerability classes, while protected areas resulted to be the less vulnerable receptor with only one protected area falling in the medium vulnerability class. The vulnerability assessment results will support the regional risk assessment for the ranking of potentially contaminated sites at regional scale. PMID:21723609

Zabeo, A; Pizzol, L; Agostini, P; Critto, A; Giove, S; Marcomini, A

2011-11-01

417

HIV vulnerabilities of sex-trafficked Indian women and girls  

PubMed Central

Objective To qualitatively explore potential mechanisms that may confer heightened risk for HIV infection among survivors of sex trafficking in India. Methods Case narratives of 61 repatriated women and girls who reported being trafficked into sex work and were receiving services at an NGO in Mysore, India, were reviewed. Narratives were analyzed to examine potential sources of HIV risk related to sex trafficking. Results Participants were aged 14–30 years. Among the 48 women and girls tested for HIV, 45.8% were HIV positive. Narratives described very low levels of autonomy, with control exacted by brothel managers and traffickers. Lack of control appeared to heighten trafficked women and girls’ vulnerability to HIV infection in the following ways: use of violent rape as a means of coercing initiation into sex work, inability to refuse sex, inability to use condoms or negotiate use, substance use as a coping strategy, and inadequate access to health care. Conclusion Sex trafficked women and girls lack autonomy and are rendered vulnerable to HIV infection through several means. Development of HIV prevention strategies specifically designed to deal with lack of autonomy and reach sex-trafficked women and girls is imperative.

Gupta, Jhumka; Raj, Anita; Decker, Michele R.; Reed, Elizabeth; Silverman, Jay G.

2009-01-01

418

Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 2 consists of seven appendices containing the following: Tasking memorandums; Project plan for the CSV Review; Field verification guide for the CSV Review; Field verification report, Lawrence Livermore National Lab.; Field verification report, Oak Ridge Reservation; Field verification report, Savannah River Site; and the Field verification report, Hanford Site.

Not Available

1994-09-01

419

A Methodology for Assessing the Seismic Vulnerability of Highway Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern society is totally dependent on a complex and articulated infrastructure network of vital importance for the existence of the urban settlements scattered on the territory. On these infrastructure systems, usually indicated with the term lifelines, are entrusted numerous services and indispensable functions of the normal urban and human activity. The systems of the lifelines represent an essential element in all the urbanised areas which are subject to seismic risk. It is important that, in these zones, they are planned according to opportune criteria based on two fundamental assumptions: a) determination of the best territorial localization, avoiding, within limits, the places of higher dangerousness; b) application of constructive technologies finalized to the reduction of the vulnerability. Therefore it is indispensable that in any modern process of seismic risk assessment the study of the networks is taken in the rightful consideration, to be integrated with the traditional analyses of the buildings. The present paper moves in this direction, dedicating particular attention to one kind of lifeline: the highway system, proposing a methodology of analysis finalized to the assessment of the seismic vulnerability of the system.

Cirianni, Francis; Leonardi, Giovanni; Scopelliti, Francesco

2008-07-01

420

Field information links permafrost carbon to physical vulnerabilities of thawing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep soil profiles containing permafrost (Gelisols) were characterized for organic carbon (C) and total nitrogen (N) stocks to 3 m depths. Using the Community Climate System Model (CCSM4) we calculate cumulative distributions of active layer thickness (ALT) under current and future climates. The difference in cumulative ALT distributions over time was multiplied by C and N contents of soil horizons in Gelisol suborders to calculate newly thawed C and N. Thawing ranged from 147 PgC with 10 PgN by 2050 (representative concentration pathway RCP scenario 4.5) to 436 PgC with 29 PgN by 2100 (RCP 8.5). Organic horizons that thaw are vulnerable to combustion, and all horizon types are vulnerable to shifts in hydrology and decomposition. The rates and extent of such losses are unknown and can be further constrained by linking field and modelling approaches. These changes have the potential for strong additional loading to our atmosphere, water resources, and ecosystems.

Harden, Jennifer W.; Koven, Charles D.; Ping, Chien-Lu; Hugelius, Gustaf; David McGuire, A.; Camill, Phillip; Jorgenson, Torre; Kuhry, Peter; Michaelson, Gary J.; O'Donnell, Jonathan A.; Schuur, Edward A. G.; Tarnocai, Charles; Johnson, Kristopher; Grosse, Guido

2012-08-01

421

Seismic vulnerability study Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF)  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF), located at TA-53 of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), features an 800 MeV proton accelerator used for nuclear physics and materials science research. As part of the implementation of DOE Order 5480.25 and in preparation for DOE Order 5480.28, a seismic vulnerability study of the structures, systems, and components (SSCs) supporting the beam line from the accelerator building through to the ends of die various beam stops at LAMPF has been performed. The study was accomplished using the SQUG GIP methodology to assess the capability of the various SSCs to resist an evaluation basis earthquake. The evaluation basis earthquake was selected from site specific seismic hazard studies. The goals for the study were as follows: (1) identify SSCs which are vulnerable to seismic loads; and (2) ensure that those SSCs screened during die evaluation met the performance goals required for DOE Order 5480.28. The first goal was obtained by applying the SQUG GIP methodology to those SSCS represented in the experience data base. For those SSCs not represented in the data base, information was gathered and a significant amount of engineering judgment applied to determine whether to screen the SSC or to classify it as an outlier. To assure the performance goals required by DOE Order 5480.28 are met, modifications to the SQUG GIP methodology proposed by Salmon and Kennedy were used. The results of this study ire presented in this paper.

Salmon, M. [EQE International, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States); Goen, L.K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1995-12-01

422

A comparative study on plaque vulnerability using constitutive equations.  

PubMed

Atherosclerosis is the most serious and common form of cardiovascular disease in which plaque builds up inside the arteries. Peak plaque stress is considered as the main reason for plaque rupture, which results in heart attack and stroke. In the current research, the finite element method is used to anticipate plaque vulnerability, using human samples. A total of 23 healthy and atherosclerotic human coronary arteries (14 healthy and 9 atherosclerotic) were removed within 5 h postmortem. The samples were mounted on a uniaxial tensile test machine and the obtained mechanical properties were used in finite element models. The peak plaque stresses for the Ogden hyperelastic model were compared to the Mooney-Rivlin and Neo-Hookean outcomes. The results indicated that hypocellular plaque in all three models has the highest stress values compared to the cellular and calcified ones and, as a result, is quite prone to rupture. The calcified plaque type, in contrast, has the lowest stress values and remains stable. The results can be used in plaque vulnerability prediction and have clinical implications for interventions and surgeries such as balloon-angioplasty, cardiopulmonary bypass and stenting. PMID:23999817

Karimi, A; Navidbakhsh, M; Faghihi, S

2014-03-01

423

Application of Satellite Gravimetry for Water Resource Vulnerability Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The force of Earth's gravity field varies in proportion to the amount of mass near the surface. Spatial and temporal variations in the gravity field can be measured via their effects on the orbits of satellites. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) is the first satellite mission dedicated to monitoring temporal variations in the gravity field. The monthly gravity anomaly maps that have been delivered by GRACE since 2002 are being used to infer changes in terrestrial water storage (the sum of groundwater, soil moisture, surface waters, and snow and ice), which are the primary source of gravity variability on monthly to decadal timescales after atmospheric and oceanic circulation effects have been removed. Other remote sensing techniques are unable to detect water below the first few centimeters of the land surface. Conventional ground based techniques can be used to monitor terrestrial water storage, but groundwater, soil moisture, and snow observation networks are sparse in most of the world, and the countries that do collect such data rarely are willing to share them. Thus GRACE is unique in its ability to provide global data on variations in the availability of fresh water, which is both vital to life on land and vulnerable to climate variability and mismanagement. This chapter describes the unique and challenging aspects of GRACE terrestrial water storage data, examples of how the data have been used for research and applications related to fresh water vulnerability and change, and prospects for continued contributions of satellite gravimetry to water resources science and policy.

Rodell, Matthew

2012-01-01

424

Corticosteroid-induced neural remodeling predicts behavioral vulnerability and resilience.  

PubMed

Neurons in distinct brain regions remodel in response to postnatal stressor exposure, and structural plasticity may underlie stress-related modifications in behavioral outcomes. Given the persistence of stress-related diseases such as depression, a critical next step in identifying the contributions of neural structure to psychopathology will be to identify brain circuits and cell types that fail to recover from stressor exposure. We enumerated dendritic spines during and after chronic stress hormone exposure in hippocampal CA1, deep-layer prefrontal cortex, and the basal amygdala and also reconstructed dendritic arbors of CA1 pyramidal neurons. Corticosterone modified dendritic spine density in these regions, but with the exception of the orbitofrontal cortex, densities normalized with a recovery period. Dendritic retraction of hippocampal CA1 neurons and anhedonic-like insensitivity to a sucrose solution also persisted despite a recovery period. Using mice with reduced gene dosage of p190rhogap, a cytoskeletal regulatory protein localized to dendritic spines, we next isolated structural correlates of both behavioral vulnerability (spine elimination) and resilience (spine proliferation) to corticosterone within the orbital cortex. Our findings provide novel empirical support for the perspective that stress-related structural reorganization of certain neuron populations can persist despite a "recovery" period from stressor exposure and that these modifications may lay a structural foundation for stressor vulnerability-or resiliency-across the lifespan. PMID:23407965

Gourley, Shannon L; Swanson, Andrew M; Koleske, Anthony J

2013-02-13

425

Vulnerability of supply basins to demand from multiple cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humans have appropriated more than half of the world's available water resources, and continued population growth and climate change threaten to put increasing pressure on remaining supplies. Many cities have constructed infrastructure to collect, transport from and store water at distant locations. Supply basins can become vulnerable if there are multiple users depending on the same supply system or network. Basin vulnerability assessments often only report the impacts of local demands on system health, but rarely account future stress from multi-urban demands. This study presents a global assessment of urban impacts on supply basins. Specifically, hydrologic and regulatory information are used to quantify the level of supply basin stress created by demand from multiple cities. The aim is to identify at-risk basins. This study focuses on large urban areas (generally over 1 million people) that use surface water (n=412). The stress on supply water basins by urban demand was based on three parameters: 1) the number of cities using a basin for water supply, 2) the number of alternative urban sources (e.g. lakes, reservoirs, rivers) within the supply basin, and 3) the percent of available surface water in each basin that is required to meet the total of urban and environmental demands. The degree of management within each basin is assessed using information on federal water policies and local basin management plans.

Padowski, J. C.; Gorelick, S.

2013-12-01

426

Assessing vulnerability of marine bird populations to offshore wind farms.  

PubMed

Offshore wind farms may affect bird populations through collision mortality and displacement. Given the pressures to develop offshore wind farms, there is an urgent need to assess population-level impacts on protected marine birds. Here we refine an approach to assess aspects of their ecology that influence population vulnerability to wind farm impacts, also taking into account the conservation importance of each species. Flight height appears to be a key factor influencing collision mortality risk but improved data on flight heights of marine birds are needed. Collision index calculations identify populations of gulls, white-tailed eagles, northern gannets and skuas as of particularly high concern in Scottish waters. Displacement index calculations identify populations of divers and common scoters as most vulnerable to population-level impacts of displacement, but these are likely to be less evident than impacts of collision mortality. The collision and displacement indices developed here for Scottish marine bird populations could be applied to populations elsewhere, and this approach will help in identifying likely impacts of future offshore wind farms on marine birds and prioritising monitoring programmes, at least until data on macro-avoidance rates become available. PMID:23454414

Furness, Robert W; Wade, Helen M; Masden, Elizabeth A

2013-04-15

427

The Vulnerability of Threatened Species: Adaptive Capability and Adaptation Opportunity  

PubMed Central

Global targets to halt the loss of biodiversity have not been met, and there is now an additional Aichi target for preventing the extinction of known threatened species and improving their conservation status. Climate change increasingly needs to be factored in to these, and thus there is a need to identify the extent to which it could increase species vulnerability. This paper uses the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity framework to assess the vulnerability of a selection of WWF global priority large mammals and marine species to climate change. However, it divides adaptive capacity into adaptive capability and adaptation opportunity, in order to identify whether adaptation is more constrained by the biology of the species or by its environmental setting. Lack of evidence makes it difficult to apply the framework consistently across the species, but it was found that, particularly for the terrestrial mammals, adaptation opportunities seems to be the greater constraint. This framework and analysis could be used by conservationists and those wishing to enhance the resilience of species to climate change.

Berry, Pam; Ogawa-Onishi, Yuko; McVey, Andrew

2013-01-01

428

Public Health Consequences on Vulnerable Populations from Acute Chemical Releases  

PubMed Central

Data from a large, multi-state surveillance system on acute chemical releases were analyzed to describe the type of events that are potentially affecting vulnerable populations (children, elderly and hospitalized patients) in order to better prevent and plan for these types of incidents in the future. During 2003–2005, there were 231 events where vulnerable populations were within ¼ mile of the event and the area of impact was greater than 200 feet from the facility/point of release. Most events occurred on a weekday during times when day care centers or schools were likely to be in session. Equipment failure and human error caused a majority of the releases. Agencies involved in preparing for and responding to chemical emergencies should work with hospitals, nursing homes, day care centers, and schools to develop policies and procedures for initiating appropriate protective measures and managing the medical needs of patients. Chemical emergency response drills should involve the entire community to protect those that may be more susceptible to harm.

Ruckart, Perri Zeitz; Orr, Maureen F.

2008-01-01

429

Assessing mechanical vulnerability in water distribution networks under multiple failures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

mechanical vulnerability of water distribution networks (WDN) is of direct relevance for water utilities since it entails two different purposes. On the one hand, it might support the identification of severe failure scenarios due to external causes (e.g., natural or intentional events) which result into the most critical consequences on WDN supply capacity. On the other hand, it aims at figure out the WDN portions which are more prone to be affected by asset disruptions. The complexity of such analysis stems from the number of possible scenarios with single and multiple simultaneous shutdowns of asset elements leading to modifications of network topology and insufficient water supply to customers. In this work, the search for the most disruptive combinations of multiple asset failure events is formulated and solved as a multiobjective optimization problem. The higher vulnerability failure scenarios are detected as those causing the lower supplied demand due to the lower number of simultaneous failures. The automatic detection of WDN topology, subsequent to the detachments of failed elements, is combined with pressure-driven analysis. The methodology is demonstrated on a real water distribution network. Results show that, besides the failures causing the detachment of reservoirs, tanks, or pumps, there are other different topological modifications which may cause severe WDN service disruptions. Such information is of direct relevance to support planning asset enhancement works and improve the preparedness to extreme events.

Berardi, Luigi; Ugarelli, Rita; Røstum, Jon; Giustolisi, Orazio

2014-03-01

430

Field information links permafrost carbon to physical vulnerabilities of thawing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Deep soil profiles containing permafrost (Gelisols) were characterized for organic carbon (C) and total nitrogen (N) stocks to 3m depths. Using the Community Climate System Model (CCSM4) we calculate cumulative probability functions (PDFs) for active layer depths under current and future climates. The difference in PDFs over time was multiplied by C and N contents of soil horizons in Gelisol suborders to calculate newly thawed C and N, Thawing ranged from 147 PgC with 10 PgN by 2050 (representative concentration pathway RCP scenario 4.5) to 436 PgC with 29 PgN by 2100 (RCP 8.5). Organic horizons that thaw are vulnerable to combustion, and all horizon types are vulnerable to shifts in hydrology and decomposition. The rates and extent of such losses are unknown and can be further constrained by linking field and modelling approaches. These changes have the potential for strong additional loading to our atmosphere, water resources, and ecosystems.

Harden, Jennifer W.; Koven, Charles; Ping, Chien-Lu; Hugelius, Gustaf; McGuire, A. David; Camill, P.; Jorgenson, Torre; Kuhry, Peter; Michaelson, Gary; O'Donnell, Jonathan A.; Schuur, Edward A. G.; Tamocai, Charles; Johnson, K.; Grosse, G.

2012-01-01

431

Climate Change, Health, and Vulnerability in Canadian Northern Aboriginal Communities  

PubMed Central

Background Canada has recognized that Aboriginal and northern communities in the country face unique challenges and that there is a need to expand the assessment of vulnerabilities to climate change to include these communities. Evidence suggests that Canada’s North is already experiencing significant changes in its climate—changes that are having negative impacts on the lives of Aboriginal people living in these regions. Research on climate change and health impacts in northern Canada thus far has brought together Aboriginal community members, government representatives, and researchers and is charting new territory. Methods and Results In this article we review experiences from two projects that have taken a community-based dialogue approach to identifying and assessing the effects of and vulnerability to climate change and the impact on the health in two Inuit regions of the Canadian Arctic. Conclusions The results of the two case projects that we present argue for a multi-stakeholder, participatory framework for assessment that supports the necessary analysis, understanding, and enhancement of capabilities of local areas to respond and adapt to the health impacts at the local level.

Furgal, Christopher; Seguin, Jacinthe

2006-01-01

432

Cyclone disaster vulnerability and response experiences in coastal Bangladesh.  

PubMed

For generations, cyclones and tidal surges have frequently devastated lives and property in coastal and island Bangladesh. This study explores vulnerability to cyclone hazards using first-hand coping recollections from prior to, during and after these events. Qualitative field data suggest that, beyond extreme cyclone forces, localised vulnerability is defined in terms of response processes, infrastructure, socially uneven exposure, settlement development patterns, and livelihoods. Prior to cyclones, religious activities increase and people try to save food and valuable possessions. Those in dispersed settlements who fail to reach cyclone shelters take refuge in thatched-roof houses and big-branch trees. However, women and children are affected more despite the modification of traditional hierarchies during cyclone periods. Instinctive survival strategies and intra-community cooperation improve coping post cyclone. This study recommends that disaster reduction programmes encourage cyclone mitigation while being aware of localised realities, endogenous risk analyses, and coping and adaptation of affected communities (as active survivors rather than helpless victims). PMID:20561338

Alam, Edris; Collins, Andrew E

2010-10-01

433

The Occurrence and Prevention of Foodborne Disease in Vulnerable People  

PubMed Central

Abstract In developed countries, such as the United Kingdom and the United States, between 15% and 20% of the population show greater susceptibility than the general population to foodborne disease. This proportion includes people with primary immunodeficiency, patients treated with radiation or with immunosuppressive drugs for cancer and diseases of the immune system, those with acquired immune-deficiency syndrome and diabetics, people suffering from liver or kidney disease or with excessive iron in the blood, pregnant women, infants, and the elderly. Malnutrition and use of antacids, particularly proton-pump inhibitors, also increase susceptibility. We review the occurrence of infection by foodborne pathogens in these groups of people and measures to prevent infection. The nature and use of low microbial diets to reduce the risk of foodborne disease in immunocompromised patients are very variable. Diets for vulnerable people in care should exclude higher-risk foods, and vulnerable people in the community should receive clear advice about food safety, in particular avoidance of higher-risk foods and substitution of safer, nutritious foods.

O'Brien, Sarah J.

2011-01-01

434

Seismic vulnerability and risk assessment of Kolkata City, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The city of Kolkata is one of the most urbanized and densely populated regions in the world, which is a major industrial and commercial hub of the Eastern and Northeastern region of India. In order to classify the seismic risk zones of Kolkata we used seismic hazard exposures on the vulnerability components namely, landuse/landcover, population density, building typology, age and height. We microzoned seismic hazard of the City by integrating seismological, geological and geotechnical themes in GIS which in turn is integrated with the vulnerability components in a logic-tree framework to estimate both the socio-economic and structural risk of the City. In both the risk maps, three broad zones have been demarcated as "severe", "high" and "moderate". There had also been a risk-free zone in the City. The damage distribution in the City due to the 1934 Bihar-Nepal Earthquake of Mw 8.1 well matches with the risk regime. The design horizontal seismic coefficients for the City have been worked out for all the predominant periods which indicate suitability of "A", "B" and "C" type of structures. The cumulative damage probabilities in terms of "slight", "moderate", "extensive" and "complete" have also been assessed for the significant four model building types viz. RM2L, RM2M, URML and URMM for each structural seismic risk zone in the City. Both the Seismic Hazard and Risk maps are expected to play vital roles in the earthquake inflicted disaster mitigation and management of the city of Kolkata.

Nath, S. K.; Adhikari, M. D.; Devaraj, N.; Maiti, S. K.

2014-04-01

435

Savannah River Site management response plan for chemical safety vulnerability field assessment. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) initiative to identify potential chemical safety vulnerabilities in the DOE complex, the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Core Working Group issued a field verification assessment report. While the report concluded that Savannah River Site (SRS) is moving in a positive direction, the report also identified five chemical safety vulnerabilities with broad programmatic impact that are not easily nor quickly remedied. The May 1994 SRS Management Response Plan addressed the five SRS vulnerabilities identified in the field assessment report. The SRS response plan listed observations supporting the vulnerabilities and any actions taken or planned toward resolution. Many of the observations were resolved by simple explanations, such as the existence of implementation plans for Safety Analysis Report updates. Recognizing that correcting individual observations does not suffice in remedying the vulnerabilities, a task team was assembled to address the broader programmatic issues and to recommend corrective actions.

Kahal, E.J.; Murphy, S.L.; Salaymeh, S.R.

1994-09-01

436

Is There a Universal Understanding of Vulnerability? Experiences with Russian and Romanian Trainees in Research Ethics  

PubMed Central

Vulnerability of participants in research and the provision of special protections for vulnerable research participants are key concepts in research ethics. Despite international consensus requiring special protections for vulnerable research participants, both the concept of vulnerability and the nature and adequacy of strategies to reduce vulnerability remain vague and, consequently, are subject to varying interpretations. We report on observations of the challenges faced in understanding this key concept by 20 Russian and Romanian trainees participating in a one-year M.A. training program in research ethics from 2000 through 2011. We describe how trainees’ understanding of and appreciation for the need for special protections of vulnerable research participants was nurtured. This paper is part of a collection of papers analyzing the Fogarty International Center's International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum Development program.

Loue, Sana; Loff, Bebe

2014-01-01

437

Is there a universal understanding of vulnerability? Experiences with Russian and Romanian trainees in research ethics.  

PubMed

Vulnerability of participants in research and the provision of special protections for vulnerable research participants are key concepts in research ethics. Despite international consensus requiring special protections for vulnerable research participants, both the concept of vulnerability and the nature and adequacy of strategies to reduce vulnerability remain vague and, consequently, are subject to varying interpretations. We report on observations of the challenges faced in understanding this key concept by 20 Russian and Romanian trainees participating in a one-year M.A. training program in research ethics from 2000 through 2011. We describe how trainees' understanding of and appreciation for the need for special protections of vulnerable research participants was nurtured. This paper is part of a collection of papers analyzing the Fogarty International Center's International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum Development program. PMID:24384513

Loue, Sana; Loff, Bebe

2013-12-01

438

Policies for reducing agricultural sector vulnerability to climate change in Mali  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mali agricultural sector and the country's food security are potentially vulnerable to climate change. Policies may be able to mitigate some of the climate change vulnerability. This article investigates several policy changes that may reduce vulnerability, including climate-specific and other policies. The policy set includes migration of cropping patterns, development of high-temperature-resistant cultivars, reduction in soil productivity loss, cropland

Tanveer A. Butt; Bruce A. McCarl; Alpha O. Kergna

2006-01-01

439

Putting vulnerability to climate change on the map: a review of approaches, benefits, and risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing demand among stakeholders across public and private institutions for spatially-explicit information regarding\\u000a vulnerability to climate change at the local scale. However, the challenges associated with mapping the geography of climate\\u000a change vulnerability are non-trivial, both conceptually and technically, suggesting the need for more critical evaluation\\u000a of this practice. Here, we review climate change vulnerability mapping in the

Benjamin L. PrestonEmma; Emma J. Yuen; Richard M. Westaway

2011-01-01

440

Vulnerabilities and migration in Small Island Developing States in the context of climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unique characteristics of Small Island Developing States and structural vulnerabilities they face in terms of development\\u000a have earned them particular consideration in the development agenda. This article sheds light on some of the vulnerabilities\\u000a that these countries face, making particular reference to their environmental and economic vulnerabilities. It then highlights\\u000a the ambiguous role that international migration plays in the

Alex Julca; Oliver Paddison

2010-01-01

441

Assessing patterns of vulnerability, adaptive capacity and resilience across urban centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Can repeated patterns of vulnerability and resilience be identified across urban areas? This question is addressed using a conceptualization of vulnerability developed by the climate community and applying a model-centered meta-analysis approach of 64 case studies on cities and vulnerability. In this meta-analysis the authors pull a minimum set of models or frameworks to go beyond existing case studies,

Patricia Romero Lankao; John L. Tribbia

442

IntPatch: Automatically Fix Integer-Overflow-to-Buffer-Overflow Vulnerability at Compile-Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Integer-Overflow-to-Buffer-Overflow (IO2BO) vulnerability is an underestimated threat. Automatically identifying and fixing this kind of vulnerability are critical\\u000a for software security. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of IntPatch, a compiler extension for automatically\\u000a fixing IO2BO vulnerabilities in C\\/C++ programs at compile time. IntPatch utilizes classic type theory and dataflow analysis\\u000a framework to identify potential IO2BO vulnerabilities,

Chao Zhang; Tielei Wang; Tao Wei; Yu Chen; Wei Zou

2010-01-01

443

Determinants of physician utilization, emergency room use, and hospitalizations among populations with multiple health vulnerabilities.  

PubMed

Understanding the factors that influence differing types of health care utilization within vulnerable groups can serve as a basis for projecting future health care needs, forecasting future health care expenditures, and influencing social policy. In this article the Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations is used to evaluate discretionary (physician visits) and non-discretionary (emergency room visits, and hospitalizations) health utilization patterns of a sample of 1466 respondents with one or more vulnerable health classification. Reported vulnerabilities include: (1) persons with substance disorders; (2) homeless persons; (3) persons with mental health problems; (4) victims of violent crime; (5) persons diagnosed with HIV/AIDS; (6) and persons in receipt of public benefits. Hierarchical logistic regression is used on three nested models to model factors that influence physician visits, emergency room visits, and hospitalizations. Additionally, bivariate logistic regression analyses are completed using a vulnerability index to evaluate the impact of increased numbers of vulnerability on all three forms of health care utilization. Findings from this study suggest the Behavioral Model of Vulnerable Populations be employed in future research regarding health care utilization patterns among vulnerable populations. This article encourages further research investigating the cumulative effect of health vulnerabilities on the use of non-discretionary services so that this behavior could be better understood and appropriate social policies and behavioral interventions implemented. PMID:21169208

Small, La Fleur F

2011-09-01

444

[Mapping environmental vulnerability from ETM + data in the Yellow River Mouth Area].  

PubMed

The environmental vulnerability retrieval is important to support continuing data. The spatial distribution of regional environmental vulnerability was got through remote sensing retrieval. In view of soil and vegetation, the environmental vulnerability evaluation index system was built, and the environmental vulnerability of sampling points was calculated by the AHP-fuzzy method, then the correlation between the sampling points environmental vulnerability and ETM + spectral reflectance ratio including some kinds of conversion data was analyzed to determine the sensitive spectral parameters. Based on that, models of correlation analysis, traditional regression, BP neural network and support vector regression were taken to explain the quantitative relationship between the spectral reflectance and the environmental vulnerability. With this model, the environmental vulnerability distribution was retrieved in the Yellow River Mouth Area. The results showed that the correlation between the environmental vulnerability and the spring NDVI, the September NDVI and the spring brightness was better than others, so they were selected as the sensitive spectral parameters. The model precision result showed that in addition to the support vector model, the other model reached the significant level. While all the multi-variable regression was better than all one-variable regression, and the model accuracy of BP neural network was the best. This study will serve as a reliable theoretical reference for the large spatial scale environmental vulnerability estimation based on remote sensing data. PMID:24409741

Wang, Rui-Yan; Yu, Zhen-Wen; Xia, Yan-Ling; Wang, Xiang-Feng; Zhao, Geng-Xing; Jiang, Shu-Qian

2013-10-01

445

Revealing the cerebral regions and networks mediating vulnerability to depression: Oxidative metabolism mapping of rat brain.  

PubMed

The large variety of available animal models has revealed much on the neurobiology of depression, but each model appears as specific to a significant extent, and distinction between stress response, pathogenesis of depression and underlying vulnerability is difficult to make. Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that depression occurs in biologically predisposed subjects under impact of adverse life events. We applied the diathesis-stress concept to reveal brain regions and functional networks that mediate vulnerability to depression and response to chronic stress by collapsing data on cerebral long term neuronal activity as measured by cytochrome c oxidase histochemistry in distinct animal models. Rats were rendered vulnerable to depression either by partial serotonergic lesion or by maternal deprivation, or selected for a vulnerable phenotype (low positive affect, low novelty-related activity or high hedonic response). Environmental adversity was brought about by applying chronic variable stress or chronic social defeat. Several brain regions, most significantly median raphe, habenula, retrosplenial cortex and reticular thalamus, were universally implicated in long-term metabolic stress response, vulnerability to depression, or both. Vulnerability was associated with higher oxidative metabolism levels as compared to resilience to chronic stress. Chronic stress, in contrast, had three distinct patterns of effect on oxidative metabolism in vulnerable vs. resilient animals. In general, associations between regional activities in several brain circuits were strongest in vulnerable animals, and chronic stress disrupted this interrelatedness. These findings highlight networks that underlie resilience to stress, and the distinct response to stress that occurs in vulnerable subjects. PMID:24662150

Harro, Jaanus; Kanarik, Margus; Kaart, Tanel; Matrov, Denis; Kõiv, Kadri; Mällo, Tanel; Del Río, Joaquin; Tordera, Rosa M; Ramirez, Maria J

2014-07-01

446

Climate change and Public health: vulnerability, impacts, and adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate Change plays a significant role in public health. Changes in climate affect weather conditions that we are accustomed to. Increases in the frequency or severity of extreme weather events such as storms could increase the risk of dangerous flooding, high winds, and other direct threats to people and property. Changes in temperature, precipitation patterns, and extreme events could enhance the spread of some diseases. According to studies by EPA, the impacts of climate change on health will depend on many factors. These factors include the effectiveness of a community's public health and safety systems to address or prepare for the risk and the behavior, age, gender, and economic status of individuals affected. Impacts will likely vary by region, the sensitivity of populations, the extent and length of exposure to climate change impacts, and society's ability to adapt to change. Transmissions of infectious disease have been associated with social, economic, ecological, health care access, and climatic factors. Some vector-borne diseases typically exhibit seasonal patterns in which the role of temperature and rainfall is well documented. Some of the infectious diseases that have been documented by previous studies, include the correlation between rainfall and drought in the occurrence of malaria, the influence of the dry season on epidemic meningococcal disease in the sub-Saharan African, and the importance of warm ocean waters in driving cholera occurrence in the Ganges River delta in Asia The rise of climate change has been a major concern in the public health sector. Climate change mainly affects vulnerable populations especially in developing countries; therefore, it's important that public health advocates are involve in the decision-making process in order to provide resources and preventative measures for the challenges that are associated with climate change. The main objective of this study is to assess the vulnerability and impact of climate change on public health and identify appropriate adaptation strategies. Several studies have evaluated the impact of climate change on health, which have included evaluating the current associations between the recent changes in climate, and the evidence base analysis of current, as well as projecting the future impacts of climate change on health. This study will document the use of building an integrated approach for sustainable management of climate, environmental, health surveillance and epidemiological data that will support the assessment of vulnerability, impact and adaption to climate change.

Guzzone, F.; Setegn, S.

2013-12-01

447

Vulnerability of networks: Fractional percolation on random graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a theoretical framework for understanding nonbinary, nonindependent percolation on networks with general degree distributions. The model incorporates a partially functional (PF) state of nodes so that both intensity and extensity of error are characterized. Two connected nodes in a PF state cannot sustain the load and therefore break their link. We give exact solutions for the percolation threshold, the fraction of giant cluster, and the mean size of small clusters. The robustness-fragility transition point for scale-free networks with a degree distribution pk?k-? is identified to be ? =3. The analysis reveals that scale-free networks are vulnerable to targeted attack at hubs: a more complete picture of their Achilles' heel turns out to be not only the hubs themselves but also the edges linking them together.

Shang, Yilun

2014-01-01

448

Epigenetics and the regulation of stress vulnerability and resilience.  

PubMed

The human brain has a remarkable capacity to adapt to and learn from a wide range of variations in the environment. However, environmental challenges can also precipitate psychiatric disorders in susceptible individuals. Why any given experience should induce one brain to adapt while another is edged toward psychopathology remains poorly understood. Like all aspects of psychological function, both nature (genetics) and nurture (life experience) sculpt the brain's response to stressful stimuli. Here we review how these two influences intersect at the epigenetic regulation of neuronal gene transcription, and we discuss how the regulation of genomic DNA methylation near key stress-response genes may influence psychological susceptibility or resilience to environmental stressors. Our goal is to offer a perspective on the epigenetics of stress responses that works to bridge the gap between the study of this molecular process in animal models and its potential usefulness for understanding stress vulnerabilities in humans. PMID:24333971

Zannas, A S; West, A E

2014-04-01

449

Sexual and reproductive health needs of vulnerable youth in Myanmar.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional survey of 56 youth, using participatory research methods, was conducted with the objective to identify the sexual and reproductive health needs among vulnerable youth in Pyin Oo Lwin town in terms of their livelihoods, perceptions about health and health risks, sex practices, perceived health information needs and preferred channels for health information, and visions for their future generation. The results indicated that a majority of young people of both sexes were deficient in knowledge of the locations and functions of reproductive organs. The majority of respondents of both sexes said that their main health concern was AIDS. Pre-marital sex among youth, 16-20 years of age, was identified in our study. Malaria and AIDS were mentioned as information needed by young people. TV and magazines/journals were prioritized as preferred channels of disseminating health messages. Almost all reported that education was the one thing that they wanted for their own children. PMID:19062705

Hla-Soe-Tint; Phyo-Maung-Thaw; Yin-Thet-Nu-Oo; Ko-Ko-Zaw; Than-Tun-Sein; Thein-Tun

2008-11-01

450

Relative vulnerability of female turtles to road mortality  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent studies suggest that freshwater turtle populations are becoming increasingly male-biased. A hypothesized cause is a greater vulnerability of female turtles to road mortality. We evaluated this hypothesis by comparing sex ratios from published and unpublished population surveys of turtles conducted on- versus off-roads. Among 38 166 turtles from 157 studies reporting sex ratios, we found a consistently larger female fraction in samples from on-roads (61%) than off-roads (41%). We conclude that female turtles are indeed more likely to cross roadways than are males, which may explain recently reported skewed sex ratios near roadways and signify eventual population declines as females are differentially eliminated. ?? 2006 The Zoological Society of London.

Steen, D. A.; Aresco, M. J.; Beilke, S. G.; Compton, B. W.; Condon, E. P.; Dodd, Jr. , C. K.; Forrester, H.; Gibbons, J. W.; Greene, J. L.; Johnson, G.; Langen, T. A.; Oldham, M. J.; Oxier, D. N.; Saumure, R. A.; Schueler, F. W.; Sleeman, J. M.; Smith, L. L.; Tucker, J. K.; Gibbs, J. P.

2006-01-01

451

Using vulnerability assessments to design facility safeguards and security systems  

SciTech Connect

The Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (WCR) Program is meant to prepare the Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex to meet the needs of the next century through construction of now facilities or upgrades-in-place at existing facilities. This paper describes how a vulnerability (VA) was used to identify potential S&S features for the conceptual design for a plutonium storage facility as part of the WCR Program. We distinguish those features of the design that need to be investigated at the conceptual stage from those that can be evaluated later. We also examined what protection features may allow reduced S&S operating costs, with the main focus on protective force costs. While some of these concepts hold the promise for significantly reducing life-cycle protective force costs, their use depends on resolving long-standing tradeoffs between S&S and safety, which are discussed in the study.

Snell, M.; Jaeger, C.

1994-08-01

452

SANITARY VULNERABILITY OF A TERRITORIAL SYSTEM IN HIGH SEISMIC AREAS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An evaluation procedure of sanitary vulnerability of a territorial system falling within a high seismic risk area, related to casualty treatment capability of hospitals after an earthquake, is proposed. The goal of the study is aimed at highlighting hospital criticalities for the arrangement of a prevention policy on the basis of territorial, demographic and sanitary type specific analyses of a given area. This is the first step of a procedure of territorial context reading within a damage scenario, addressed to a verification of preparedness level of the territorial system to a sanitary emergency referable both to a natural disaster and anthropic one. The results of carried out surveys are shown, at a different scale, on several sample areas of Messina Province (Italy) territory, evaluating the consistency of damage scenario with the number of casualties, medical doctors, available beds for the implementation of a emergency sanitary circuit.

Teramo, A.; Termini, D.; de Domenico, D.; Marino, A.; Marullo, A.; Saccà, C.; Teramo, M.

2009-12-01

453

Evaluating Common Privacy Vulnerabilities in Internet Service Providers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Privacy in electronic communications receives increased attention in both research and industry forums, stemming from both the users' needs and from legal and regulatory requirements in national or international context. Privacy in internet-based communications heavily relies on the level of security of the Internet Service Providers (ISPs), as well as on the security awareness of the end users. This paper discusses the role of the ISP in the privacy of the communications. Based on real security audits performed in national-wide ISPs, we illustrate privacy-specific threats and vulnerabilities that many providers fail to address when implementing their security policies. We subsequently provide and discuss specific security measures that the ISPs can implement, in order to fine-tune their security policies in the context of privacy protection.

Kotzanikolaou, Panayiotis; Maniatis, Sotirios; Nikolouzou, Eugenia; Stathopoulos, Vassilios

454

CT evaluation of vulnerable plaque: noninvasive fortune-telling?  

PubMed

Recently, cardiac CTA has been proposed as a promising noninvasive tool for identification of rupture-prone plaques prior to a subsequent coronary event. This task is particularly challenging but the reward is high: identification of high-risk lesions could preclude plaque thrombosis and possibly prevent acute coronary syndromes. We present a case of a borderline mixed plaque with positive remodeling in the proximal left anterior descending artery (LAD). After 6 months and despite aggressive medical therapy, the patient developed acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction caused by a thrombotic lesion in the proximal LAD. We review the literature on CT characteristics of vulnerable plaque and discuss the possible preventive interventions. PMID:21505956

Opolski, Maksymilian P; Kepka, Cezary; Witkowski, Adam

2012-10-01

455

The vulnerability of commercial aircraft avionics to carbon fibers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Avionics components commonly used in commercial aircraft were tested for vulnerability to failure when operated in an environment with a high density of graphite fibers. The components were subjected to a series of exposures to graphite fibers of different lengths. Lengths used for the tests were (in order) 1 mm, 3 mm, and 10 mm. The test procedure included subjecting the equipment to characteristic noise and shock environments. Most of the equipment was invulnerable or did not fail until extremely high average exposures were reached. The single exception was an air traffic control transponder produced in the early 1960's. It had the largest case open area through which fibers could enter and it had no coated boards.

Meyers, J. A.; Salmirs, S.

1980-01-01

456

Sensory and motor secondary symptoms as indicators of brain vulnerability  

PubMed Central

In addition to the primary symptoms that distinguish one disorder from the next, clinicians have identified, yet largely overlooked, another set of symptoms that appear across many disorders, termed secondary symptoms. In the emerging era of systems neuroscience, which highlights that many disorders share common deficits in global network features, the nonspecific nature of secondary symptoms should attract attention. Herein we provide a scholarly review of the literature on a subset of secondary symptoms––sensory and motor. We demonstrate that their pattern of appearance––across a wide range of psychopathologies, much before the full-blown disorder appears, and in healthy individuals who display a variety of negative symptoms––resembles the pattern of appearance of network abnormalities. We propose that sensory and motor secondary symptoms can be important indicators of underlying network aberrations and thus of vulnerable brain states putting individuals at risk for psychopathology following extreme circumstances.

2013-01-01