Science.gov

Sample records for placental multipotent mesenchymal

  1. Placentomegaly and placental mesenchymal dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Rohilla, Minakshi; Siwatch, Sujata; Jain, Vanita; Nijhawan, Raje

    2012-01-01

    A 23-year-old primigravida presented to the labour ward at 37 weeks gestation referred with intrauterine growth restriction, oligohydramnios and placentomegaly. Differential diagnoses of placentomegaly were considered. Her antenatal blood screening tests were normal. There were no fetal malformations. However, triple screen and fetal karyotype were not done as patient presented late in pregnancy. The patient soon went into spontaneous labour and delivered a girl weighing 2.15 kg with a normal Apgar score. The cord was long and twisted; placenta was bulky, 1.7 kg, with prominent grape-like vesicles involving whole placenta with a rim of normal placenta at the periphery. Microscopy showed some areas of multiple villi with marked hydropic changes and myxoid degeneration, preserved vasculature and no trophoblastic proliferation. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia was thus diagnosed. The baby had no evidence of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. The child is now 3 years old with normal development and is doing well. PMID:23266781

  2. Functional Characteristics of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Pituitary Adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Megnis, Kaspars; Mandrika, Ilona; Petrovska, Ramona; Stukens, Janis; Rovite, Vita; Balcere, Inga; Jansone, Laima Sabine; Peculis, Raitis; Pirags, Valdis

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas are one of the most common endocrine and intracranial neoplasms. Although they are theoretically monoclonal in origin, several studies have shown that they contain different multipotent cell types that are thought to play an important role in tumor initiation, maintenance, and recurrence after therapy. In the present study, we isolated and characterized cell populations from seven pituitary somatotroph, nonhormonal, and lactotroph adenomas. The obtained cells showed characteristics of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells as observed by cell morphology, cell surface marker CD90, CD105, CD44, and vimentin expression, as well as differentiation to osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. They are capable of growth and passaging under standard laboratory cell culture conditions and do not manifest any hormonal cell characteristics. Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells are present in pituitary adenomas regardless of their clinical manifestation and show no considerable expression of somatostatin 1–5 and dopamine 2 receptors. Most likely obtained cells are a part of tissue-supportive cells in pituitary adenoma microenvironment. PMID:27340409

  3. Functional Characteristics of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Pituitary Adenomas.

    PubMed

    Megnis, Kaspars; Mandrika, Ilona; Petrovska, Ramona; Stukens, Janis; Rovite, Vita; Balcere, Inga; Jansone, Laima Sabine; Peculis, Raitis; Pirags, Valdis; Klovins, Janis

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas are one of the most common endocrine and intracranial neoplasms. Although they are theoretically monoclonal in origin, several studies have shown that they contain different multipotent cell types that are thought to play an important role in tumor initiation, maintenance, and recurrence after therapy. In the present study, we isolated and characterized cell populations from seven pituitary somatotroph, nonhormonal, and lactotroph adenomas. The obtained cells showed characteristics of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells as observed by cell morphology, cell surface marker CD90, CD105, CD44, and vimentin expression, as well as differentiation to osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. They are capable of growth and passaging under standard laboratory cell culture conditions and do not manifest any hormonal cell characteristics. Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells are present in pituitary adenomas regardless of their clinical manifestation and show no considerable expression of somatostatin 1-5 and dopamine 2 receptors. Most likely obtained cells are a part of tissue-supportive cells in pituitary adenoma microenvironment. PMID:27340409

  4. [Therapeutic Effects of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells after Irradiation].

    PubMed

    Kalmykova, N V; Alexandrova, S A

    2016-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are now considered to be a perspective multifunctional treatment option for radiation side effects. At present.a great number of sufficient evidence has been collected in favor of therapeutic effects of MSCs in acute radiation reactions. It has been shown that MSC-based products injected locally or systemically have therapeutic effects on irradiated organs and tissues. This review presents summarized experimental and clinical data about protective and regenerative effects of MSCs on different radiation-injured organs and tissues; the main probable therapeutic mechanisms of their action are also discussed. PMID:27534063

  5. The adult human brain harbors multipotent perivascular mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Paul, Gesine; Özen, Ilknur; Christophersen, Nicolaj S; Reinbothe, Thomas; Bengzon, Johan; Visse, Edward; Jansson, Katarina; Dannaeus, Karin; Henriques-Oliveira, Catarina; Roybon, Laurent; Anisimov, Sergey V; Renström, Erik; Svensson, Mikael; Haegerstrand, Anders; Brundin, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    Blood vessels and adjacent cells form perivascular stem cell niches in adult tissues. In this perivascular niche, a stem cell with mesenchymal characteristics was recently identified in some adult somatic tissues. These cells are pericytes that line the microvasculature, express mesenchymal markers and differentiate into mesodermal lineages but might even have the capacity to generate tissue-specific cell types. Here, we isolated, purified and characterized a previously unrecognized progenitor population from two different regions in the adult human brain, the ventricular wall and the neocortex. We show that these cells co-express markers for mesenchymal stem cells and pericytes in vivo and in vitro, but do not express glial, neuronal progenitor, hematopoietic, endothelial or microglial markers in their native state. Furthermore, we demonstrate at a clonal level that these progenitors have true multilineage potential towards both, the mesodermal and neuroectodermal phenotype. They can be epigenetically induced in vitro into adipocytes, chondroblasts and osteoblasts but also into glial cells and immature neurons. This progenitor population exhibits long-term proliferation, karyotype stability and retention of phenotype and multipotency following extensive propagation. Thus, we provide evidence that the vascular niche in the adult human brain harbors a novel progenitor with multilineage capacity that appears to represent mesenchymal stem cells and is different from any previously described human neural stem cell. Future studies will elucidate whether these cells may play a role for disease or may represent a reservoir that can be exploited in efforts to repair the diseased human brain. PMID:22523602

  6. Isolation of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Cryopreserved Human Umbilical Cord Tissue.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Yu A; Balashova, E E; Volgina, N E; Kabaeva, N V; Dugina, T N; Sukhikh, G T

    2016-02-01

    Umbilical cord stroma is an easily available, convenient, and promising source of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells for regenerative medicine. Cryogenic storage of umbilical cord tissue provides more possibilities for further isolation of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells for autologous transplantation or scientific purposes. Here we developed a protocol for preparation of the whole umbilical cord tissue for cryogenic storage that in combination with the previously described modified method of isolation of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells allowed us to isolate cells with high proliferative potential, typical phenotype, and preserved differentiation potencies. PMID:26902359

  7. [Multipotent mesenchymal stromal and immune cells interaction: reciprocal effects].

    PubMed

    Andreeva, E R; Buravkova, L B

    2012-12-01

    Adult multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MMSCs) are considered now as one of the key players in physiological and pathological tissue remodeling. Clarification of the mechanisms that mediate MMSC functions, is one of the most intriguing issues in modern cell physiology. Present Review summarizes current understanding of the MMSC effects on different types of immune cells. The realization of MMSC immunomodulatory capacity is considered as a contribution of direct cell-to-cell contacts, soluble mediators and of local microenvironmental factors, the most important of which is the partial pressure of oxygen. MMSCs and immune cells interaction is discussed in the terms of reciprocal effects, modifying properties of all "partner cells". Special attention is paid to the influence of immune cells on the MMSCs. "Immunosuppressive" phenomenon of MMSCs is considered as the integral part of the "response to injury" mechanism. PMID:23461191

  8. Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Possible Culprits in Solid Tumors?

    PubMed Central

    Johann, Pascal David; Müller, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    The clinical use of bone marrow derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) in different settings ranging from tissue engineering to immunotherapies has prompted investigations on the properties of these cells in a variety of other tissues. Particularly the role of MSCs in solid tumors has been the subject of many experimental approaches. While a clear phenotypical distinction of tumor associated fibroblasts (TAFs) and MSCs within the tumor microenvironment is still missing, the homing of bone marrow MSCs in tumor sites has been extensively studied. Both, tumor-promoting and tumor-inhibiting effects of BM-MSCs have been described in this context. This ambiguity requires a reappraisal of the different studies and experimental methods employed. Here, we review the current literature on tumor-promoting and tumor-inhibiting effects of BM-MSCs with a particular emphasis on their interplay with components of the immune system and also highlight a potential role of MSCs as cell of origin for certain mesenchymal tumors. PMID:26273308

  9. Mesenchymal stem cells/multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs): potential role in healing cutaneous chronic wounds.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ji-Ping; Huang, Sha; Peng, Yan; Liu, Hong-Wei; Cheng, Biao; Fu, Xiao-Bing; Xiang, Xiao-Fei

    2012-12-01

    Chronic wounds remain a major challenge in modern medicine and represent a significant health care burden. Several treatments have been suggested, but without a full understanding of the exact mechanism by which chronic wound occurs. Numerous studies have shown that mesenchymal stem cells/multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) may have therapeutic potential in healing cutaneous chronic wounds through various mechanisms. So far, a series of hypotheses have been proposed, but a holistic image of them is lacking. This review provides a systematic analysis of recent research in animal models and preclinical or clinic trails to evaluate the potential role of MSCs in chronic cutaneous wound healing. Most important, we highlight how mesenchymal stem cells could potentially revolutionize our approach to treating cutaneous chronic wounds. Special attention should be focused on ongoing research regarding the challenges in using and prospects of MSCs in clinical settings. PMID:23222159

  10. CONCISE REVIEW Micro RNA Expression in Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmipathy, Uma; Hart, Ronald P.

    2009-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) isolated from various adult tissue sources have the capacity to self-renew and to differentiate into multiple lineages. Both of these processes are tightly regulated by genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. Emerging evidence indicates that the class of single-stranded non-coding RNAs known as “microRNAs” also plays a critical role in this process. First described in nematodes and plants, microRNAs have been shown to modulate major regulatory mechanisms in eukaryotic cells involved in a broad array of cellular functions. Studies with various types of embryonic as well as adult stem cells indicate an intricate network of microRNAs regulating key transcription factors and other genes which in turn determine cell fate. In addition, expression of unique microRNAs in specific cell types serves as a useful diagnostic marker to define a particular cell type. MicroRNAs are also found to be regulated by extracellular signaling pathways that are important for differentiation into specific tissues, suggesting that they play a role in specifying tissue identity. In this review we describe the importance of microRNAs in stem cells focusing on our current understanding of microRNAs in MSC and their derivatives. PMID:17991914

  11. [Effects of growth factors on multipotent bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells].

    PubMed

    Molchanova, E A; Paiushina, O V; Starostin, V I

    2008-01-01

    Multipotent bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells are progenitors of various cell types capable of long-term self-maintenance. These cells are an adequate model for studying the most important problems in cell biology, such as self-maintenance of stem cells and regulation of their differentiation. Moreover, these cells are a promising resource for regenerative medicine. In this context, isolation of the earliest multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells, their in vitro maintenance in an undifferentiated state, and stimulation of their differentiation in a desired direction appear to be most important. To successfully use the multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells both in fundamental studies and in therapy, it is necessary to modify and standardize the composition of culture medium, replacing blood serum with certain growth factors. These factors have influence on the proliferation and differentiation of most cell types, including multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells. This paper is a review of available data concerning the effects of some growth factors on the multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells of the bone marrow. PMID:19198070

  12. Effect of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Erythropoietin on Functional Activity of Fibroblasts and Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Bondarenko, N A; Nikonorova, Yu V; Surovtseva, M A; Lykov, A P; Poveshchenko, O V; Poveshchenko, A F; Pokushalov, E A; Romanov, A B; Konenkov, V I

    2016-02-01

    The study examined the effect of VEGF and erythropoietin on proliferative and migratory activities of skin fibroblasts and multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells of human adipose tissue. VEGF stimulated proliferation and migration of fi broblasts, but produced no significant effect on functional activity of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells. Erythropoietin stimulated proliferation of both cell types, but did not affect their migration. PMID:26899850

  13. Anemia in a neonate with placental mesenchymal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Satoshi; Morikawa, Mamoru; Umazume, Takeshi; Yamada, Takahiro; Kanno, Hiromi; Takakuwa, Emi; Minakami, Hisanori

    2016-05-01

    Causes of intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) are uncertain in most placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) cases. Our case showed high α-fetoprotein levels in the maternal circulation, markedly dilated subchorionic vessels, and neonatal hemoglobin concentration of 8.4 g/dL, suggesting that fetal anemia may explain some adverse outcomes in PMD pregnancies. PMID:27190607

  14. Neural crest stem cell multipotency requires Foxd3 to maintain neural potential and repress mesenchymal fates.

    PubMed

    Mundell, Nathan A; Labosky, Patricia A

    2011-02-01

    Neural crest (NC) progenitors generate a wide array of cell types, yet molecules controlling NC multipotency and self-renewal and factors mediating cell-intrinsic distinctions between multipotent versus fate-restricted progenitors are poorly understood. Our earlier work demonstrated that Foxd3 is required for maintenance of NC progenitors in the embryo. Here, we show that Foxd3 mediates a fate restriction choice for multipotent NC progenitors with loss of Foxd3 biasing NC toward a mesenchymal fate. Neural derivatives of NC were lost in Foxd3 mutant mouse embryos, whereas abnormally fated NC-derived vascular smooth muscle cells were ectopically located in the aorta. Cranial NC defects were associated with precocious differentiation towards osteoblast and chondrocyte cell fates, and individual mutant NC from different anteroposterior regions underwent fate changes, losing neural and increasing myofibroblast potential. Our results demonstrate that neural potential can be separated from NC multipotency by the action of a single gene, and establish novel parallels between NC and other progenitor populations that depend on this functionally conserved stem cell protein to regulate self-renewal and multipotency. PMID:21228004

  15. Neural crest stem cell multipotency requires Foxd3 to maintain neural potential and repress mesenchymal fates

    PubMed Central

    Mundell, Nathan A.; Labosky, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    Neural crest (NC) progenitors generate a wide array of cell types, yet molecules controlling NC multipotency and self-renewal and factors mediating cell-intrinsic distinctions between multipotent versus fate-restricted progenitors are poorly understood. Our earlier work demonstrated that Foxd3 is required for maintenance of NC progenitors in the embryo. Here, we show that Foxd3 mediates a fate restriction choice for multipotent NC progenitors with loss of Foxd3 biasing NC toward a mesenchymal fate. Neural derivatives of NC were lost in Foxd3 mutant mouse embryos, whereas abnormally fated NC-derived vascular smooth muscle cells were ectopically located in the aorta. Cranial NC defects were associated with precocious differentiation towards osteoblast and chondrocyte cell fates, and individual mutant NC from different anteroposterior regions underwent fate changes, losing neural and increasing myofibroblast potential. Our results demonstrate that neural potential can be separated from NC multipotency by the action of a single gene, and establish novel parallels between NC and other progenitor populations that depend on this functionally conserved stem cell protein to regulate self-renewal and multipotency. PMID:21228004

  16. Response of hemopoietic, progenitor, and multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells to administration of ketanserin during pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Dygai, A M; Skurikhin, E G; Pershina, O V; Stepanova, I E; Khmelevskaya, E S; Ermakova, N N; Reztsova, A M; Krupin, V A; Reikhart, D V; Goldberg, V E

    2014-11-01

    We studied the effect of ketanserin on hemopoietic progenitor cells (Lin(-)Sca-1(+)c-Kit(+)CD34- and Lin(-)Sca-1(+)c-Kit(+)CD34(+)), progenitor hemopoietic cells (Lin(-)Sca-1(+)c-kit(+)), and multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (CD45(-)CD73(+)CD106(+)) in C57Bl/6 mice during pulmonary fibrosis. It was shown that the blocker of 5-HT2A receptors lowers the activity of bleomycin-induced inflammation in the lungs and prevents the infiltration of alveolar interstitium and alveolar ducts by hemopoietic stem and hemopoietic progenitor cells; in this case, they are more numerous in the bone marrow of sick animals. Ketanserin reduces the capacity for self-renewal of lung multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells in the fibrotic phase of the disease and inhibits their differentiation into stromal cell lines (adipocytes, chondrocytes, and fibroblasts) simultaneously with the decrease in the percentage of connective tissue in the lung parenchyma. PMID:25403389

  17. Nanoscale surfaces for the long-term maintenance of mesenchymal stem cell phenotype and multipotency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMurray, Rebecca J.; Gadegaard, Nikolaj; Tsimbouri, P. Monica; Burgess, Karl V.; McNamara, Laura E.; Tare, Rahul; Murawski, Kate; Kingham, Emmajayne; Oreffo, Richard O. C.; Dalby, Matthew J.

    2011-08-01

    There is currently an unmet need for the supply of autologous, patient-specific stem cells for regenerative therapies in the clinic. Mesenchymal stem cell differentiation can be driven by the material/cell interface suggesting a unique strategy to manipulate stem cells in the absence of complex soluble chemistries or cellular reprogramming. However, so far the derivation and identification of surfaces that allow retention of multipotency of this key regenerative cell type have remained elusive. Adult stem cells spontaneously differentiate in culture, resulting in a rapid diminution of the multipotent cell population and their regenerative capacity. Here we identify a nanostructured surface that retains stem-cell phenotype and maintains stem-cell growth over eight weeks. Furthermore, the study implicates a role for small RNAs in repressing key cell signalling and metabolomic pathways, demonstrating the potential of surfaces as non-invasive tools with which to address the stem cell niche.

  18. Unique multipotent cells in adult human mesenchymal cell populations

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Yasumasa; Kitada, Masaaki; Wakao, Shohei; Nishikawa, Kouki; Tanimura, Yukihiro; Makinoshima, Hideki; Goda, Makoto; Akashi, Hideo; Inutsuka, Ayumu; Niwa, Akira; Shigemoto, Taeko; Nabeshima, Yoko; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Nabeshima, Yo-ichi; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori; Dezawa, Mari

    2010-01-01

    We found adult human stem cells that can generate, from a single cell, cells with the characteristics of the three germ layers. The cells are stress-tolerant and can be isolated from cultured skin fibroblasts or bone marrow stromal cells, or directly from bone marrow aspirates. These cells can self-renew; form characteristic cell clusters in suspension culture that express a set of genes associated with pluripotency; and can differentiate into endodermal, ectodermal, and mesodermal cells both in vitro and in vivo. When transplanted into immunodeficient mice by local or i.v. injection, the cells integrated into damaged skin, muscle, or liver and differentiated into cytokeratin 14-, dystrophin-, or albumin-positive cells in the respective tissues. Furthermore, they can be efficiently isolated as SSEA-3(+) cells. Unlike authentic ES cells, their proliferation activity is not very high and they do not form teratomas in immunodeficient mouse testes. Thus, nontumorigenic stem cells with the ability to generate the multiple cell types of the three germ layers can be obtained through easily accessible adult human mesenchymal cells without introducing exogenous genes. These unique cells will be beneficial for cell-based therapy and biomedical research. PMID:20421459

  19. Intra-Arterial Administration of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Promotes Functional Recovery of the Brain After Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Silachev, D N; Plotnikov, E Yu; Babenko, V A; Danilina, T I; Zorov, L D; Pevzner, I B; Zorov, D B; Sukhikh, G T

    2015-08-01

    We compared the efficiency of delivery of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells into the brain after their intravenous and intra-arterial injection. Analysis of the therapeutic effects of cells after experimental traumatic brain injury revealed improvement of the neurological status and motor functions of the damaged hemisphere, the effect being more pronounced after intraarterial injection of cells. Intra-arterial administration was followed by rapid infiltration of the cells into the brain tissue and their number considerably surpassed that after intravenous infusion. Targeted delivery of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells into the brain after their injection into the carotid arteries substantially potentiated their neuroprotective effects in traumatic brain injury. PMID:26388566

  20. Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells: A promising strategy to manage alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Ezquer, Fernando; Bruna, Flavia; Calligaris, Sebastián; Conget, Paulette; Ezquer, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption is a major cause of liver disease. The term alcoholic liver disease (ALD) refers to a spectrum of mild to severe disorders including steatosis, steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. With limited therapeutic options, stem cell therapy offers significant potential for these patients. In this article, we review the pathophysiologic features of ALD and the therapeutic mechanisms of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells, also referred to as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), based on their potential to differentiate into hepatocytes, their immunomodulatory properties, their potential to promote residual hepatocyte regeneration, and their capacity to inhibit hepatic stellate cells. The perfect match between ALD pathogenesis and MSC therapeutic mechanisms, together with encouraging, available preclinical data, allow us to support the notion that MSC transplantation is a promising therapeutic strategy to manage ALD onset and progression. PMID:26755858

  1. [The influence of extreme factors on homing multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells].

    PubMed

    Maklakova, I Yu; Grebnev, Y D; Yastrebov, A P

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we studied homing multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells under influence of extreme factors: after radiation exposure, acute blood loss. Absorbed dose ionizing radiation amounted to 4.0 C (causes acute radiation sickness in mice), acute blood loss was caused by bleeding from the tail vein of the mouse in the amount of 2% of the body weight of the animal. Label MMSC used fluorochrome DAPI, ready to use. The experiments were performed on 60 Mature mice (males) age 6-8 months, weighing 20-25 g. Experiments on the culture of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells from the placenta (chorion) performed on laboratory mice female at the age of 3-4 months in the gestation period of 14 days. Introduction suspensions of MMSC was carried out at a dose of 6 million cells/mouse, suspended in 0.2 ml 0.9% NaCl solution. The control group of laboratory animals MMSC transplantation was carried out also in the amount of 6 million cells/mouse. The assessment was made of tissue chimerism in the peripheral blood, bone marrow, spleen, small intestine, liver, lung, kidney, heart after 1 and 24 hours after transplantation of labeled cells. It was found a significant decrease in the content of labeled MMSC in the peripheral blood at extreme impact, indicating a migration of the transplanted cells in the damaged tissue. Homing transplanted MMSC is realized mainly in those tissues that underwent the most damage. PMID:27116883

  2. Effect of spiperone on mesenchymal multipotent stromal and hemopoietic stem cells under conditions of pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Skurikhin, E G; Khmelevskaya, E S; Ermakova, N N; Pershina, O V; Reztsova, A M; Krupin, V A; Stepanova, I E; Reztsova, V M; Reikhart, D V; Dygai, A M

    2014-05-01

    The antifibrotic properties of spiperone and its effect on stem and progenitor cells were studied on the model of reversible bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in C57Bl/6 mice. Spiperone reduced infiltration of the alveolar interstitium and alveolar ducts with inflammatory cells and prevented the growth of the connective tissue in the parenchyma of bleomycin lungs. Apart from anti-inflammatory effect, spiperone suppressed bone marrow hemopoietic cells (CD3, CD45R (B220), Ly6C, Ly6G (Gr1), CD11b (Mac1), TER-119)-, Sca-1+, c-Kit+, CD34- and progenitor hemopoietic cells (granulocyte-erythroid-macrophage-megakaryocytic and granulocyte CFU). Spiperone-induced disturbances of fi brogenesis were paralleled by restoration of endothelial cells in the lung parenchyma, reduction of the number of circulating bone marrow cells and lung mesenchymopoietic cells (mesenchymal multipotent stromal cells (CD31-, CD34-, CD45-, CD44+, CD73+, CD90+, CD106+) and progenitor fi broblast cells), and suppression of multilineage differentiation of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (including fi broblast-lineage cells). PMID:24913578

  3. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia associated with spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Davoudian, Payam

    2015-01-01

    Placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) is a rare disorder of unknown aetiology characterised by placentomegaly, serpiginous surface blood vessels and large cystic villi. Although a mimic of molar pregnancies and other entities, it can be distinguished from them by its association with intrauterine growth restriction or death of a relatively normal fetus and its characteristic histopathology. We report the case of a 20-year-old primigravida who presented at 16 weeks with heavy clotty vaginal bleeding and subsequent miscarriage. The placenta was grossly abnormal and resembled a partial molar pregnancy. PMD was confirmed by microscopic examination. Postmiscarriage, ultrasound revealed enlarged and multicystic ovaries similar to those seen in ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), which returned to normal a few weeks after miscarriage. This is the first report of PMD associated with OHSS, and we hypothesise that the most likely pathogenesis is ovarian stimulation from PMD-derived vascular endothelial growth factor. PMID:25920736

  4. Differentiation of adipocytes and osteocytes from human adipose and placental mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Zahra; Afshari, Jalil Tavakkol; Keramati, Mohammad Reza; Alamdari, Daryoush Hamidi; Ganjibakhsh, Meysam; Zarmehri, Azam Moradi; Jangjoo, Ali; Sadeghian, Mohammad Hadi; Ameri, Masoumeh Arab; Moinzadeh, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) can be isolated from adult tissues such as adipose tissue and other sources. Among these sources, adipose tissue (because of easy access) and placenta (due to its immunomodulatory properties, in addition to other useful properties), have attracted more attention in terms of research. The isolation and comparison of MSC from these two sources provides a proper source for clinical experimentation. The aim of this study was to compare the characteristics of MSC isolated from human adipose tissue and placenta. Materials and Methods: Adipose and placental MSC were isolated from the subcutaneous adipose tissues of 10 healthy women (25 to 40 years) and from a fresh term placenta (n= 1), respectively. Stem cells were characterized and compared by flow cytometry using CD29, CD31, CD34, CD44, CD45, CD105, CD166 and HLA-DR markers. Osteocytes and adipocytes were differentiated from isolated human mesenchymal stem cells (HMSC). Results: Adipose and placenta-derived MSC exhibited the same morphological features. ADSC differentiated faster than placenta; however, both were differentiated, taking up to 21 days for osteocyte and 14 days for adipocyte differentiation. About 90% of PLC-MSC and ADSC were positive for CD29, CD44, CD105, and CD166; and negative for CD31, CD34, CD45, and HLA-DR. Conclusion: The two sources of stem cells showed similar surface markers, morphology and differentiation potential and because of their multipotency for differentiating to adipocytes and osteocytes, they can be applied as attractive sources of MSC for regenerative medicine. PMID:25945239

  5. Influence of Factors of Cryopreservation and Hypothermic Storage on Survival and Functional Parameters of Multipotent Stromal Cells of Placental Origin.

    PubMed

    Pogozhykh, Denys; Prokopyuk, Volodymyr; Pogozhykh, Olena; Mueller, Thomas; Prokopyuk, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Human placenta is a highly perspective source of multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) both for the purposes of patient specific auto-banking and allogeneic application in regenerative medicine. Implementation of new GMP standards into clinical practice enforces the search for relevant methods of cryopreservation and short-term hypothermic storage of placental MSCs. In this paper we analyze the effect of different temperature regimes and individual components of cryoprotective media on viability, metabolic and culture properties of placental MSCs. We demonstrate (I) the possibility of short-term hypothermic storage of these cells; (II) determine DMSO and propanediol as the most appropriate cryoprotective agents; (III) show the possibility of application of volume expanders (plasma substituting solutions based on dextran or polyvinylpyrrolidone); (IV) reveal the priority of ionic composition over the serum content in cryopreservation media; (V) determine a cooling rate of 1°C/min down to -40°C followed by immersion into liquid nitrogen as the optimal cryopreservation regime for this type of cells. This study demonstrates perspectives for creation of new defined cryopreservation methods towards GMP standards. PMID:26431528

  6. Influence of Factors of Cryopreservation and Hypothermic Storage on Survival and Functional Parameters of Multipotent Stromal Cells of Placental Origin

    PubMed Central

    Pogozhykh, Olena; Mueller, Thomas; Prokopyuk, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Human placenta is a highly perspective source of multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) both for the purposes of patient specific auto-banking and allogeneic application in regenerative medicine. Implementation of new GMP standards into clinical practice enforces the search for relevant methods of cryopreservation and short-term hypothermic storage of placental MSCs. In this paper we analyze the effect of different temperature regimes and individual components of cryoprotective media on viability, metabolic and culture properties of placental MSCs. We demonstrate (I) the possibility of short-term hypothermic storage of these cells; (II) determine DMSO and propanediol as the most appropriate cryoprotective agents; (III) show the possibility of application of volume expanders (plasma substituting solutions based on dextran or polyvinylpyrrolidone); (IV) reveal the priority of ionic composition over the serum content in cryopreservation media; (V) determine a cooling rate of 1°C/min down to -40°C followed by immersion into liquid nitrogen as the optimal cryopreservation regime for this type of cells. This study demonstrates perspectives for creation of new defined cryopreservation methods towards GMP standards. PMID:26431528

  7. Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell therapy in renal disease and kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Reinders, Marlies E J; Fibbe, Willem E; Rabelink, Ton J

    2010-01-01

    Cell therapies aim at differentiation of stem cells into the specific cell type required to repair damaged or destroyed cells or tissues. Over recent years, cell therapy has been introduced in a variety of application areas, including cardiovascular repair, diabetes, musculoskeletal disorders and renal repair. Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), often referred to as mesenchymal stem cells, are of particular interest as a cell therapy model, as this is one of the few cell types that are on the brink of entering the clinical arena in different areas of application. MSCs can be differentiated in vitro and in vivo into various cell types of mesenchymal origin such as bone, fat and cartilage. They have important effects on the innate and adaptive immune system and possess striking anti-inflammatory properties that make them attractive for potential use in diseases characterized by autoimmunity and inflammation. In addition, MSCs have been shown to migrate to sites of tissue injury and to enhance repair by secreting anti-fibrotic and pro-angiogenic factors. In this review, evidence for the renoprotective mechanisms of MSCs as well as their therapeutic possibilities and potential hazards in acute and chronic renal disease and allograft rejection is summarized. PMID:19861311

  8. Fetal muscle development, mesenchymal multipotent cell differentiation and associated signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Du, Min; Zhao, Jun X.; Yan, Xu; Huang, Yan; Nicodemus, Lander V.; Zhu, Mei J.

    2014-01-01

    Meat animals are raised for their carcasses, and carcasses are composed from muscle, fat and bone. Enhancing muscle growth and reducing fat accumulation improve the efficiency of animal production. Fetal stage is crucial for skeletal muscle development. Due to extensive efforts to increase lean growth, marbling (intramuscular fat) is reducing in beef, pork and chicken breast, which impairs the eating quality of meat. Because fat is the major contributor to meat flavor, the presence of intramuscular fat is indispensible for the high eating quality of meat. However, up to now, our understanding of adipogenesis (formation of fat cells) in skeletal muscle is limited. Adipocyte differentiation in skeletal muscle initiates from mesenchymal multipotent cells, which are abundant in skeletal muscle at early developmental stages. In this review, the known cellular mechanisms regulating adipogenesis from multipotent cells are summarized, which include hedgehog, Wingless and Int (Wnt)/α-catenin, and bone morphogenesis protein (BMP) mediated signaling pathways, as well as AMP-activated protein kinase. Promoting adipogenesis inside skeletal muscle will dramatically increase intramuscular fat, improving the quality of meat. PMID:20852073

  9. Immunological characteristics of human mesenchymal stem cells and multipotent adult progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Sandra A; Roobrouck, Valerie D; Verfaillie, Catherine M; Van Gool, Stefaan W

    2013-01-01

    Somatic, also termed adult, stem cells are highly attractive biomedical cell candidates because of their extensive replication potential and functional multilineage differentiation capacity. They can be used for drug and toxicity screenings in preclinical studies, as in vitro model to study differentiation or for regenerative medicine to aid in the repair of tissues or replace tissues that are lost upon disease, injury or ageing. Multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are two types of adult stem cells derived from bone marrow that are currently being used clinically for tissue regeneration and for their immunomodulatory and trophic effects. This review will give an overview of the phenotypic and functional differences between human MAPCs and MSCs, with a strong emphasis on their immunological characteristics. Finally, we will discuss the clinical studies in which MSCs and MAPCs are already used. PMID:23295415

  10. Multipotent Mesenchymal Stem Cell Treatment for Discogenic Low Back Pain and Disc Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zeckser, Jeffrey; Wolff, Michael; Tucker, Jason; Goodwin, Josh

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain with resultant loss of function, decreased productivity, and high economic costs is burdensome for both the individual and the society. Evidence suggests that intervertebral disc pathology is a major contributor to spine-related pain and degeneration. When commonly used conservative therapies fail, traditional percutaneous or surgical options may be beneficial for pain relief but are suboptimal because of their inability to alter disc microenvironment catabolism, restore disc tissue, and/or preserve native spine biomechanics. Percutaneously injected Multipotent Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) therapy has recently gained clinical interest for its potential to revolutionarily treat disc-generated (discogenic) pain and associated disc degeneration. Unlike previous therapies to date, MSCs may uniquely offer the ability to improve discogenic pain and provide more sustained improvement by reducing disc microenvironment catabolism and regenerating disc tissue. Consistent treatment success has the potential to create a paradigm shift with regards to the treatment of discogenic pain and disc degeneration. PMID:26880958

  11. Characteristics of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Isolated from Human Endometrium and Endometriosis Lesions.

    PubMed

    Savilova, A M; Yushina, M N; Rudimova, Yu V; Khabas, G N; Chuprynin, V D; Sukhikh, G T

    2016-08-01

    Cell cultures isolated from endometriosis lesions by enzymatic dissociation consisted of fibroblast-like cells expressing CD90, CD73, and CD105; cell viability in these cultures was >90%, but this parameter decreased by passage 3. Zero passage cultures contained 10-25% epithelial cells expressing cytokeratin-7, but by passage 2, the cultures became more homogeneous and epithelial cells disappeared. The proportion of proliferating cells and population doubling level increased from passage 1 to passage 3. The cultures from the endometrium were induced to adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation in vitro. The cultures derived from ectopic endometrium have properties of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells that exhibited in vitro similarities and differences from cell cultures from eutopic endometrium, which allows using this cell model for the search and testing of new drugs and technologies aimed at suppression of the growth and spread of endometriosis lesions. PMID:27590769

  12. Human fallopian tube: a new source of multipotent adult mesenchymal stem cells discarded in surgical procedures

    PubMed Central

    Jazedje, Tatiana; Perin, Paulo M; Czeresnia, Carlos E; Maluf, Mariangela; Halpern, Silvio; Secco, Mariane; Bueno, Daniela F; Vieira, Natassia M; Zucconi, Eder; Zatz, Mayana

    2009-01-01

    Background The possibility of using stem cells for regenerative medicine has opened a new field of investigation. The search for sources to obtain multipotent stem cells from discarded tissues or through non-invasive procedures is of great interest. It has been shown that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) obtained from umbilical cords, dental pulp and adipose tissue, which are all biological discards, are able to differentiate into muscle, fat, bone and cartilage cell lineages. The aim of this study was to isolate, expand, characterize and assess the differentiation potential of MSCs from human fallopian tubes (hFTs). Methods Lineages of hFTs were expanded, had their karyotype analyzed, were characterized by flow cytometry and underwent in vitro adipogenic, chondrogenic, osteogenic, and myogenic differentiation. Results Here we show for the first time that hFTs, which are discarded after some gynecological procedures, are a rich additional source of MSCs, which we designated as human tube MSCs (htMSCs). Conclusion Human tube MSCs can be easily isolated, expanded in vitro, present a mesenchymal profile and are able to differentiate into muscle, fat, cartilage and bone in vitro. PMID:19538712

  13. Intrauterine Growth Restriction Associated with Hematologic Abnormalities: Probable Manifestations of Placental Mesenchymal Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Payo, Cristina; Bernabeu, Rocio Alvarez; Villar, Isabel Salas; Goy, Enrique Iglesias

    2015-10-01

    Introduction Placental mesenchymal dysplasia is a rare vascular disease associated with intrauterine growth restriction, fetal demise as well as Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Some neonates present hematologic abnormalities possibly related to consumptive coagulopathy and hemolytic anemia in the placental circulation. Case report We present a case of placental mesenchymal dysplasia in a fetus with intrauterine growth restriction and cerebellar hemorrhagic injury diagnosed in the 20th week of pregnancy. During 26th week, our patient had an intrauterine fetal demise in the context of gestational hypertension. We have detailed the ultrasound findings that made us suspect the presence of hematologic disorders during 20th week. Discussion We believe that the cerebellar hematoma could be the consequence of thrombocytopenia accompanied by anemia. If hemorrhagic damage during fetal life is found, above all associates with an anomalous placental appearance and with intrauterine growth restriction, PMD should be suspected along other etiologies. PMID:26495159

  14. Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells from human subacromial bursa: potential for cell based tendon tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Song, Na; Armstrong, April D; Li, Feng; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Niyibizi, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Rotator cuff injuries are a common clinical problem either as a result of overuse or aging. Biological approaches to tendon repair that involve use of scaffolding materials or cell-based approaches are currently being investigated. The cell-based approaches are focused on applying multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) mostly harvested from bone marrow. In the present study, we focused on characterizing cells harvested from tissues associated with rotator cuff tendons based on an assumption that these cells would be more appropriate for tendon repair. We isolated MSCs from bursa tissue associated with rotator cuff tendons and characterized them for multilineage differentiation in vitro and in vivo. Human bursa was obtained from patients undergoing rotator cuff surgery and cells within were isolated using collagenase and dispase digestion. The cells isolated from the tissues were characterized for osteoblastic, adipogenic, chondrogenic, and tenogenic differentiation in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that the cells isolated from bursa tissue exhibited MSCs characteristics as evidenced by the expression of putative cell surface markers attributed to MSCs. The cells exhibited high proliferative capacity and differentiated toward cells of mesenchymal lineages with high efficiency. Bursa-derived cells expressed markers of tenocytes when treated with bone morphogenetic protein-12 (BMP-12) and assumed aligned morphology in culture. Bursa cells pretreated with BMP-12 and seeded in ceramic scaffolds formed extensive bone, as well as tendon-like tissue in vivo. Bone formation was demonstrated by histological analysis and immunofluorescence for DMP-1 in tissue sections made from the scaffolds seeded with the cells. Tendon-like tissue formed in vivo consisted of parallel collagen fibres typical of tendon tissues. Bursa-derived cells also formed a fibrocartilagenous tissue in the ceramic scaffolds. Taken together, the results demonstrate a new source of MSCs with a

  15. Multipotent Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Subacromial Bursa: Potential for Cell Based Tendon Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Song, Na; Armstrong, April D.; Li, Feng; Ouyang, Hongsheng

    2014-01-01

    Rotator cuff injuries are a common clinical problem either as a result of overuse or aging. Biological approaches to tendon repair that involve use of scaffolding materials or cell-based approaches are currently being investigated. The cell-based approaches are focused on applying multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) mostly harvested from bone marrow. In the present study, we focused on characterizing cells harvested from tissues associated with rotator cuff tendons based on an assumption that these cells would be more appropriate for tendon repair. We isolated MSCs from bursa tissue associated with rotator cuff tendons and characterized them for multilineage differentiation in vitro and in vivo. Human bursa was obtained from patients undergoing rotator cuff surgery and cells within were isolated using collagenase and dispase digestion. The cells isolated from the tissues were characterized for osteoblastic, adipogenic, chondrogenic, and tenogenic differentiation in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that the cells isolated from bursa tissue exhibited MSCs characteristics as evidenced by the expression of putative cell surface markers attributed to MSCs. The cells exhibited high proliferative capacity and differentiated toward cells of mesenchymal lineages with high efficiency. Bursa-derived cells expressed markers of tenocytes when treated with bone morphogenetic protein-12 (BMP-12) and assumed aligned morphology in culture. Bursa cells pretreated with BMP-12 and seeded in ceramic scaffolds formed extensive bone, as well as tendon-like tissue in vivo. Bone formation was demonstrated by histological analysis and immunofluorescence for DMP-1 in tissue sections made from the scaffolds seeded with the cells. Tendon-like tissue formed in vivo consisted of parallel collagen fibres typical of tendon tissues. Bursa-derived cells also formed a fibrocartilagenous tissue in the ceramic scaffolds. Taken together, the results demonstrate a new source of MSCs with a

  16. Could donor multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells prevent or delay the onset of diabetic retinopathy?

    PubMed

    Ezquer, Fernando; Ezquer, Marcelo; Arango-Rodriguez, Martha; Conget, Paulette

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disease that has become a global epidemic with more than 285 million cases worldwide. Major medical advances over the past decades have substantially improved its management, extending patients' survival. The latter is accompanied by an increased risk of developing chronic macro- and microvascular complications. Amongst them, diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common and frightening. Furthermore, during the past two decades, it has become the leading cause of visual loss. Irrespective of the type of diabetes, DR follows a well-known clinical and temporal course characterized by pericytes and neuronal cell loss, formation of acellular-occluded capillaries, occasional microaneurysms, increased leucostasis and thickening of the vascular basement membrane. These alterations progressively affect the integrity of retinal microvessels, leading to the breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier, widespread haemorrhage and neovascularization. Finally, tractional retinal detachment occurs leading to blindness. Nowadays, there is growing evidence that local inflammation and oxidative stress play pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of DR. Both processes have been associated with pericytes and neuronal degeneration observed early during DR progression. They may also be linked to sustained retinal vasculature damage that results in abnormal neovascularization. Currently, DR therapeutic options depend on highly invasive surgical procedures performed only at advanced stages of the disease, and which have proved to be ineffective to restore visual acuity. Therefore, the availability of less invasive and more effective strategies aimed to prevent or delay the onset of DR is highly desirable. Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells, also referred to as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), are promising healing agents as they contribute to tissue regeneration by pleiotropic mechanisms, with no evidence of significant adverse events. Here, we revise the

  17. Active control of the nucleation temperature enhances freezing survival of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Lauterboeck, L; Hofmann, N; Mueller, T; Glasmacher, B

    2015-12-01

    Cryopreservation is a technique that has been extensively used for storage of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in regenerative medicine. Therefore, improving current cryopreservation procedures in terms of increasing cell viability and functionality is important. In this study, we optimized the cryopreservation protocol of MSCs derived from the common marmoset Callithrix jacchus (cj), which can be used as a non-human primate model in various pathological and transplantation studies and have a great potential for regenerative medicine. We have investigated the effect of the active control of the nucleation temperature using induced nucleation at a broad range of temperatures and two different dimethylsulfoxide concentrations (Me2SO, 5% (v/v) and 10%, (v/v)) to evaluate the overall effect on the viability, metabolic activity and recovery of cells after thawing. Survival rate and metabolic activity displayed an optimum when ice formation was induced at -10 °C. Cryomicroscopy studies indicated differences in ice crystal morphologies as well as differences in intracellular ice formation with different nucleation temperatures. High subzero nucleation temperatures resulted in larger extracellular ice crystals and cellular dehydration, whereas low subzero nucleation temperatures resulted in smaller ice crystals and intracellular ice formation. PMID:26499840

  18. Toward Brain Tumor Gene Therapy Using Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Bexell, Daniel; Scheding, Stefan; Bengzon, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Gene therapy of solid cancers has been severely restricted by the limited distribution of vectors within tumors. However, cellular vectors have emerged as an effective migratory system for gene delivery to invasive cancers. Implanted and injected multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have shown tropism for several types of primary tumors and metastases. This capacity of MSCs forms the basis for their use as a gene vector system in neoplasms. Here, we review the tumor-directed migratory potential of MSCs, mechanisms of the migration, and the choice of therapeutic transgenes, with a focus on malignant gliomas as a model system for invasive and highly vascularized tumors. We examine recent findings demonstrating that MSCs share many characteristics with pericytes and that implanted MSCs localize primarily to perivascular niches within tumors, which might have therapeutic implications. The use of MSC vectors in cancer gene therapy raises concerns, however, including a possible MSC contribution to tumor stroma and vasculature, MSC-mediated antitumor immune suppression, and the potential malignant transformation of cultured MSCs. Nonetheless, we highlight the novel prospects of MSC-based tumor therapy, which appears to be a promising approach. PMID:20407426

  19. Human Olfactory Mucosa Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Promote Survival, Proliferation, and Differentiation of Human Hematopoietic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Solano, Dylana; Wittig, Olga; Ayala-Grosso, Carlos; Pieruzzini, Rosalinda

    2012-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from the human olfactory mucosa (OM) are cells that have been proposed as a niche for neural progenitors. OM-MSCs share phenotypic and functional properties with bone marrow (BM) MSCs, which constitute fundamental components of the hematopoietic niche. In this work, we investigated whether human OM-MSCs may promote the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). For this purpose, human bone marrow cells (BMCs) were co-cultured with OM-MSCs in the absence of exogenous cytokines. At different intervals, nonadherent cells (NACs) were harvested from BMC/OM-MSC co-cultures, and examined for the expression of blood cell markers by flow cytometry. OM-MSCs supported the survival (cell viability >90%) and proliferation of BMCs, after 54 days of co-culture. At 20 days of co-culture, flow cytometric and microscopic analyses showed a high percentage (73%) of cells expressing the pan-leukocyte marker CD45, and the presence of cells of myeloid origin, including polymorphonuclear leukocytes, monocytes, basophils, eosinophils, erythroid cells, and megakaryocytes. Likewise, T (CD3), B (CD19), and NK (CD56/CD16) cells were detected in the NAC fraction. Colony-forming unit–granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM) progenitors and CD34+ cells were found, at 43 days of co-culture. Reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) studies showed that OM-MSCs constitutively express early and late-acting hematopoietic cytokines (i.e., stem cell factor [SCF] and granulocyte- macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF]). These results constitute the first evidence that OM-MSCs may provide an in vitro microenvironment for HSCs. The capacity of OM-MSCs to support the survival and differentiation of HSCs may be related with the capacity of OM-MSCs to produce hematopoietic cytokines. PMID:22471939

  20. FGF8 signaling sustains progenitor status and multipotency of cranial neural crest-derived mesenchymal cells in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shao, Meiying; Liu, Chao; Song, Yingnan; Ye, Wenduo; He, Wei; Yuan, Guohua; Gu, Shuping; Lin, Congxin; Ma, Liang; Zhang, Yanding; Tian, Weidong; Hu, Tao; Chen, YiPing

    2015-10-01

    The cranial neural crest (CNC) cells play a vital role in craniofacial development and regeneration. They are multi-potent progenitors, being able to differentiate into various types of tissues. Both pre-migratory and post-migratory CNC cells are plastic, taking on diverse fates by responding to different inductive signals. However, what sustains the multipotency of CNC cells and derivatives remains largely unknown. In this study, we present evidence that FGF8 signaling is able to sustain progenitor status and multipotency of CNC-derived mesenchymal cells both in vivo and in vitro. We show that augmented FGF8 signaling in pre-migratory CNC cells prevents cell differentiation and organogenesis in the craniofacial region by maintaining their progenitor status. CNC-derived mesenchymal cells with Fgf8 overexpression or control cells in the presence of exogenous FGF8 exhibit prolonged survival, proliferation, and multi-potent differentiation capability in cell cultures. Remarkably, exogenous FGF8 also sustains the capability of CNC-derived mesenchymal cells to participate in organogenesis such as odontogenesis. Furthermore, FGF8-mediated signaling strongly promotes adipogenesis but inhibits osteogenesis of CNC-derived mesenchymal cells in vitro. Our results reveal a specific role for FGF8 in the maintenance of progenitor status and in fate determination of CNC cells, implicating a potential application in expansion and fate manipulation of CNC-derived cells in stem cell-based craniofacial regeneration. PMID:26243590

  1. THREE DIMENSIONAL SONOGRAPHIC IMAGING OF PLACENTAL MESENCHYMAL DYSPLASIA AND ITS DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSES

    PubMed Central

    Vaisbuch, Edi; Romero, Roberto; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Erez, Offer; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Gotsch, Francesca; Kim, Chong Jai; Kim, Jung-Sun; Yeo, Lami; Hassan, Sonia S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) is an uncommon vascular anomaly of the placenta characterized by mesenchymal stem villous hyperplasia. Its main sonographic features is a thickened placenta with hypoechoic areas, and an accurate sonographic diagnosis is challenging. The aim of this study was to report two cases of PMD, and discuss the differential diagnosis of its sonographic features. Methods Cases of placental masses studied by two-dimensional (2D), three-dimensional (3D) and Color Doppler imaging. Results Case 1 - a thick placenta with multiple hypoechoic areas was noted at 13 weeks of gestation. At 19 weeks, the multi-cystic area, clearly demarcated from a normal looking placenta, measured 6.5×8.5cm and enlarged gradually. The patient delivered a 625 gram female after a spontaneous labor at almost 26 weeks’ gestation. Case 2 - a first sonographic examination at 25 weeks’ gestation revealed a thickened placenta with hypoechoic areas and a fetus with a single umbilical artery and a ventricular septal defect. At 27 weeks, the abnormal area of the placenta measured 14.5×7.5cm. At 32 weeks’ gestation, a caesarean section was performed due to non-reassuring fetal heart tracing and a 1415 gram female infant was delivered. Both cases were evaluated by 2D, 3D and Color Doppler imaging and the pathologic features of both placentas were consistent with PMD. Conclusions Placental mesenchymal dysplasia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of every placental mass, especially in cases of multi-cystic placental lesion with lack of high velocity signals inside the lesion, and a normal karyotype. PMID:19244073

  2. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia, a case of intrauterine sudden death in a normal-sized fetus

    PubMed Central

    Sudano, Maria Chiara; D’Emidio, Laura; Mangiafico, Lucia; Mobili, Luisa; Giorlandino, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) is a rare placental anomaly characterized by placentomegaly and grape-like vesicles which resemble molar pregnancy. Case we report the case of 33-year-old woman (1-gravid) who visited our clinic at 11 weeks of gestation due to a suspected molar pregnancy. Ultrasound examination showed an enlarged placenta with multiple vesicular lesions. Maternal human chorionic gonadotropin level was normal and chorionic villus sampling showed a normal male karyotype (46 XY). The fetus exhibited no specific anomalies and fetal growth was normal during pregnancy with no signs of fetal suffering. At 31 weeks, the pregnancy ended owing to intrauterine fetal death (IUFD). The patient delivered a normal-sized male fetus (1800 g) with no definite anomalies. A pathological examination led to a diagnosis of placental mesenchymal dysplasia. Conclusion in the presence of placental ultrasound anomalies with no other sign of fetal suffering, the pregnancy should be considered at risk and, therefore, should be monitored carefully including the option of hospitalization. PMID:23741541

  3. Multipotent neurogenic fate of mesenchymal stem cell is determined by Cdk4-mediated hypophosphorylation of Smad-STAT3.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Young; Lee, Janet; Kang, Dongrim; Lee, Do-Hyeong; Kim, Yoon-Ja; Hwang, Sang-Gu; Kim, Dong-Ik; Lee, Chang-Woo; Lee, Kyung-Hoon

    2016-07-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) in complex with a corresponding cyclin plays a pivotal role in neurogenic differentiation. In particular, Cdk4 activity acts as a signaling switch to direct human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to neural transdifferentiation. However, the molecular evidence of how Cdk4 activity converts MSCs to neurogenic lineage remains unknown. Here, we found that Cdk4 inhibition in human MSCs enriches the populations of neural stem and progenitor pools rather than differentiated glial and neuronal cell pools. Interestingly, Cdk4 inhibition directly inactivates Smads and subsequently STAT3 signaling by hypophosphorylation, and both Cdk4 and Smads levels are linked during the processes of neural transdifferentiation and differentiation. In summary, our results provide novel molecular evidence in which Cdk4 inhibition leads to directing human MSCs to a multipotent neurogenic fate by inactivating Smads-STAT3 signaling. PMID:27192561

  4. Comparative Quantification of the Surfaceome of Human Multipotent Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Holley, Rebecca J.; Tai, Guangping; Williamson, Andrew J.K.; Taylor, Samuel; Cain, Stuart A.; Richardson, Stephen M.; Merry, Catherine L.R.; Whetton, Anthony D.; Kielty, Cay M.; Canfield, Ann E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Mesenchymal progenitor cells have great therapeutic potential, yet incomplete characterization of their cell-surface interface limits their clinical exploitation. We have employed subcellular fractionation with quantitative discovery proteomics to define the cell-surface interface proteome of human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) and human umbilical cord perivascular cells (HUCPVCs). We compared cell-surface-enriched fractions from MSCs and HUCPVCs (three donors each) with adult mesenchymal fibroblasts using eight-channel isobaric-tagging mass spectrometry, yielding relative quantification on >6,000 proteins with high confidence. This approach identified 186 upregulated mesenchymal progenitor biomarkers. Validation of 10 of these markers, including ROR2, EPHA2, and PLXNA2, confirmed upregulated expression in mesenchymal progenitor populations and distinct roles in progenitor cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Our approach has delivered a cell-surface proteome repository that now enables improved selection and characterization of human mesenchymal progenitor populations. PMID:25684225

  5. Cell Surface Glycan Changes in the Spontaneous Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Equine Amniotic Multipotent Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Lange-Consiglio, Anna; Accogli, Gianluca; Cremonesi, Fausto; Desantis, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Amniotic epithelial cells (AECs) spontaneously transform into amniotic mesenchymal cells (AMCs) in vitro during cell culture. Glycocalyx was analyzed to identify the glycan pattern in AECs, AMCs and epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiated cells (EMTCs). Pure cell cultures were derived using cloned AEC and AMC cell lines obtained by the dilution technique from amniotic membranes. Mesenchymal cells generated by differentiation of clonal epithelial cells were considered transdifferentiated. Immunocytoscreen, in vitro multipotent differentiation and molecular characterization of EMTCs were performed. In combination with saponification and sialidase digestion, a panel of 12 lectins was used to analyze the glycan pattern of AEC, AMC and EMTC glycocalyx. Cytokeratin cell markers were lost in EMTCs and typical mesenchymal markers, such as vimentin, appeared. These cells retained their differentiation potential. Lectin histochemistry revealed a cell-specific glycan profile. Galactose (Gal)β1,4GlcNAc, Neu5Acα2,6Gal/GalNAc and N-acetyl neuraminic (sialic) acid (NeuNAc)α2,3Galβ1,3(±NeuNAcα2,6)GalNAc were highly expressed on the surface of all the amniotic cell cultures. AECs expressed asialoglycans with terminal GalNAc and GlcNAc. More highly mannosylated N-linked glycans and NeuNAcα2,3Galβ1,3GalNAc in O-linked glycans were expressed by EMTCs, but these cells had fewer glycans ending with fucose (Fuc), Gal, GlcNAc and GalNAc than AECs. GlcNAc- and GalNAc-terminating glycans were similarly expressed on the glycocalyx of the mesenchymal cell populations (EMTCs and AMCs). These results demonstrate for the first time that the spontaneous epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of equine amnion cells is characterized by cell surface glycan remodeling and that glycosylation changes result in a cell type-specific glycan profile. The glycopattern of equine amnion spontaneous EMTCs differs from EMT of tumoral cells. PMID:26337136

  6. Identification of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells in the reactive stroma of a prostate cancer xenograft by side population analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Santamaria-Martinez, Albert; Barquinero, Jordi; Barbosa-Desongles, Anna; Hurtado, Antoni; Pinos, Tomas; Seoane, Joan; Poupon, Marie-France; Morote, Joan; Reventos, Jaume; Munell, Francina

    2009-10-15

    Cancer stem cells are a distinct cellular population that is believed to be responsible for tumor initiation and maintenance. Recent data suggest that solid tumors also contain another type of stem cells, the mesenchymal stem cells or multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), which contribute to the formation of tumor-associated stroma. The Hoechst 33342 efflux assay has proved useful to identify a rare cellular fraction, named Side Population (SP), enriched in cells with stem-like properties. Using this assay, we identified SP cells in a prostate cancer xenograft containing human prostate cancer cells and mouse stromal cells. The SP isolation, subculture and sequential sorting allowed the generation of single-cell-derived clones of murine origin that were recognized as MSC by their morphology, plastic adherence, proliferative potential, adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation ability and immunophenotype (CD45{sup -}, CD81{sup +} and Sca-1{sup +}). We also demonstrated that SP clonal cells secrete transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) and that their inhibition reduces proliferation and accelerates differentiation. These results reveal the existence of SP cells in the stroma of a cancer xenograft, and provide evidence supporting their MSC nature and the role of TGF-{beta}1 in maintaining their proliferation and undifferentiated status. Our data also reveal the usefulness of the SP assay to identify and isolate MSC cells from carcinomas.

  7. ZBTB16 as a Downstream Target Gene of Osterix Regulates Osteoblastogenesis of Human Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Onizuka, Satoru; Iwata, Takanori; Park, Sung-Joon; Nakai, Kenta; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo; Izumi, Yuichi

    2016-10-01

    Human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) possess the ability to differentiate into osteoblasts, and they can be utilized as a source for bone regenerative therapy. Osteoinductive pretreatment, which induces the osteoblastic differentiation of hMSCs in vitro, has been widely used for bone tissue engineering prior to cell transplantation. However, the molecular basis of osteoblastic differentiation induced by osteoinductive medium (OIM) is still unknown. Therefore, we used a next-generation sequencer to investigate the changes in gene expression during the osteoblastic differentiation of hMSCs. The hMSCs used in this study possessed both multipotency and self-renewal ability. Whole-transcriptome analysis revealed that the expression of zinc finger and BTB domain containing 16 (ZBTB16) was significantly increased during the osteoblastogenesis of hMSCs. ZBTB16 mRNA and protein expression was enhanced by culturing the hMSCs with OIM. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated gene silencing of ZBTB16 decreased the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP); the expression of osteogenic genes, such as osteocalcin (OCN) and bone sialoprotein (BSP), and the mineralized nodule formation induced by OIM. siRNA-mediated gene silencing of Osterix (Osx), which is known as an essential regulator of osteoblastic differentiation, markedly downregulated the expression of ZBTB16. In addition, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays showed that Osx associated with the ZBTB16 promoter region containing the GC-rich canonical Sp1 sequence, which is the specific Osx binding site. These findings suggest that ZBTB16 acts as a downstream transcriptional regulator of Osx and can be useful as a late marker of osteoblastic differentiation. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2423-2434, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27335174

  8. Rare fetal complications associated with placental mesenchymal dysplasia: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Jimbo, Tomoka; Fujita, Yasuyuki; Yumoto, Yasuo; Fukushima, Kotaro; Kato, Kiyoko

    2015-02-01

    Placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) is a rare disease that may be difficult to distinguish from molar pregnancy. The disease is associated with major fetal complications, including Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, fetal growth restriction and intrauterine fetal death. Rarely, fetal hematological disorders and liver tumors also may occur. Two patients were referred to our hospital during their second trimesters because of suspected molar pregnancies. Fetal karyotyping and maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin level determinations led to the PMD diagnoses. In one case, the maternal clinical course was normal, but the neonate suffered from disseminated intravascular coagulation and needed a platelet transfusion. In the second case, the PMD decreased during pregnancy, but a gradually increasing fetal liver tumor appeared. The tumor was diagnosed as mesenchymal hamartoma, based on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging studies. The neonate was delivered without cardiovascular compromise. Due to the difficulty of immediate surgical treatment, expectant management, with close follow-up, was chosen. PMID:25227997

  9. Maintenance of high proliferation and multipotent potential of human hair follicle-derived mesenchymal stem cells by growth factors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueyan; Wang, Yimei; Gao, Yunhe; Liu, Xuejuan; Bai, Tingting; Li, Meiying; Li, Lisha; Chi, Guanfan; Xu, Hui; Liu, Feilin; Liu, Jin Yu; Li, Yulin

    2013-04-01

    Cell therapy and cell-based tissue engineering is becoming increasingly important in regenerative medicine. Stem cells that are characterized by self-renewal, high proliferation and multiple differentiation potentials have attracted attention in cell-based regenerative medicine. Maintaining the aforementioned characteristics of stem cells is the first key step in cell-based regenerative medicine. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a well-known growth factor that efficiently maintains the self-renewal, high proliferation and multilineage differentiation potential of stem cells. Whether or not other growth factors, such as acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) have similar effects has yet to be fully elucidated. Human hair follicle-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HF-MSCs) were obtained by organ culture. They exhibited surface markers of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells as shown by positive staining for CD44, CD73, CD90 and CD105, and they also displayed trilineage differentiation potentials into adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteoblasts by cytochemistry and qRT-PCR. Flow cytometry analysis showed that up to 70% of HF-MSCs cultured in the presence of aFGF, bFGF or EGF stayed at the G0/G1 phase. Proliferation analysis showed that both bFGF and EGF at as low as 1 ng/ml and aFGF at above 5 ng/ml levels significantly increased the proliferation of HF-MSCs by cell counting. Consistent with proliferation analysis, immunofluorescence staining showed that more than 95% of HF-MSCs cultured in the presence of aFGF, bFGF and EGF were positively stained for proliferating cell nuclear antigen. HF-MSCs cultured in the presence of aFGF, bFGF or EGF retained marked trilineage differentiation potentials. By contrast, HF-MSCs cultured in the absence of bFGF, aFGF and EGF lost multipotency. PMID:23403715

  10. Phenotypic and Functional Characterization of Mesenchymal Stem/Multipotent Stromal Cells From Decidua Parietalis of Human Term Placenta.

    PubMed

    Abumaree, Mohamed H; Abomaray, F M; Alshehri, N A; Almutairi, A; AlAskar, A S; Kalionis, B; Al Jumah, M A

    2016-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem/multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) from the human placenta show stem cell-like properties useful for regenerative medicine. Previously, we reported that MSCs isolated from the fetal part of human term placentae have characteristics, which make them a potential candidate for regenerative medicine. In this study, we characterized MSC isolated from the maternal part of human term placenta. The MSCs were isolated from the decidua parietalis (DPMSCs) of human placenta using a digestion method and characterized by colony-forming unit assay and the expression of MSC markers by flow cytometry technique. In addition, DPMSC differentiation into the 3 mesenchymal lineages was also performed. Moreover, the gene and protein expression profiles of DPMSCs were identified by real-time polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry techniques, respectively. Furthermore, proteins secreted by DPMSCs were detected by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Finally, the proliferation and migration potentials of DPMSCs were also determined. The DPMSCs were positive for MSC markers and negative for hematopoietic and endothelial markers, as well as costimulatory molecules and HLA-DR. Functionally, DPMSCs formed colonies and differentiated into chondrocytes, osteocytes, and adipocytes. In addition, they proliferated and migrated in response to different stimuli. Finally, they expressed and secreted many biological and immunological factors with multiple functions. Here, we carry out an extensive characterization of DPMSCs of human placenta. We report that these cells express and secrete a wide range of molecules with multiple functions, and therefore, we suggest that these cells could be an attractive candidate for cell-based therapy. PMID:26902429

  11. The pro-inflammatory peptide LL-37 promotes ovarian tumor progression through recruitment of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Coffelt, Seth B; Marini, Frank C; Watson, Keri; Zwezdaryk, Kevin J; Dembinski, Jennifer L; LaMarca, Heather L; Tomchuck, Suzanne L; Honer zu Bentrup, Kerstin; Danka, Elizabeth S; Henkle, Sarah L; Scandurro, Aline B

    2009-03-10

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells or multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been shown to engraft into the stroma of several tumor types, where they contribute to tumor progression and metastasis. However, the chemotactic signals mediating MSC migration to tumors remain poorly understood. Previous studies have shown that LL-37 (leucine, leucine-37), the C-terminal peptide of human cationic antimicrobial protein 18, stimulates the migration of various cell types and is overexpressed in ovarian, breast, and lung cancers. Although there is evidence to support a pro-tumorigenic role for LL-37, the function of the peptide in tumors remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that neutralization of LL-37 in vivo significantly reduces the engraftment of MSCs into ovarian tumor xenografts, resulting in inhibition of tumor growth as well as disruption of the fibrovascular network. Migration and invasion experiments conducted in vitro indicated that the LL-37-mediated migration of MSCs to tumors likely occurs through formyl peptide receptor like-1. To assess the response of MSCs to the LL-37-rich tumor microenvironment, conditioned medium from LL-37-treated MSCs was assessed and found to contain increased levels of several cytokines and pro-angiogenic factors compared with controls, including IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-6, IL-10, CCL5, VEGF, and matrix metalloproteinase-2. Similarly, Matrigel mixed with LL-37, MSCs, or the combination of the two resulted in a significant number of vascular channels in nude mice. These data indicate that LL-37 facilitates ovarian tumor progression through recruitment of progenitor cell populations to serve as pro-angiogenic factor-expressing tumor stromal cells. PMID:19234121

  12. The pro-inflammatory peptide LL-37 promotes ovarian tumor progression through recruitment of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Coffelt, Seth B.; Marini, Frank C.; Watson, Keri; Zwezdaryk, Kevin J.; Dembinski, Jennifer L.; LaMarca, Heather L.; Tomchuck, Suzanne L.; zu Bentrup, Kerstin Honer; Danka, Elizabeth S.; Henkle, Sarah L.; Scandurro, Aline B.

    2009-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells or multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been shown to engraft into the stroma of several tumor types, where they contribute to tumor progression and metastasis. However, the chemotactic signals mediating MSC migration to tumors remain poorly understood. Previous studies have shown that LL-37 (leucine, leucine-37), the C-terminal peptide of human cationic antimicrobial protein 18, stimulates the migration of various cell types and is overexpressed in ovarian, breast, and lung cancers. Although there is evidence to support a pro-tumorigenic role for LL-37, the function of the peptide in tumors remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that neutralization of LL-37 in vivo significantly reduces the engraftment of MSCs into ovarian tumor xenografts, resulting in inhibition of tumor growth as well as disruption of the fibrovascular network. Migration and invasion experiments conducted in vitro indicated that the LL-37-mediated migration of MSCs to tumors likely occurs through formyl peptide receptor like-1. To assess the response of MSCs to the LL-37-rich tumor microenvironment, conditioned medium from LL-37-treated MSCs was assessed and found to contain increased levels of several cytokines and pro-angiogenic factors compared with controls, including IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-6, IL-10, CCL5, VEGF, and matrix metalloproteinase-2. Similarly, Matrigel mixed with LL-37, MSCs, or the combination of the two resulted in a significant number of vascular channels in nude mice. These data indicate that LL-37 facilitates ovarian tumor progression through recruitment of progenitor cell populations to serve as pro-angiogenic factor-expressing tumor stromal cells. PMID:19234121

  13. The therapeutic potential of human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells combined with pharmacologically active microcarriers transplanted in hemi-parkinsonian rats.

    PubMed

    Delcroix, Gaëtan J-R; Garbayo, Elisa; Sindji, Laurence; Thomas, Olivier; Vanpouille-Box, Claire; Schiller, Paul C; Montero-Menei, Claudia N

    2011-02-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) raise great interest for brain cell therapy due to their ease of isolation from bone marrow, their immunomodulatory and tissue repair capacities, their ability to differentiate into neuronal-like cells and to secrete a variety of growth factors and chemokines. In this study, we assessed the effects of a subpopulation of human MSCs, the marrow-isolated adult multilineage inducible (MIAMI) cells, combined with pharmacologically active microcarriers (PAMs) in a rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD). PAMs are biodegradable and non-cytotoxic poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres, coated by a biomimetic surface and releasing a therapeutic protein, which acts on the cells conveyed on their surface and on their microenvironment. In this study, PAMs were coated with laminin and designed to release neurotrophin 3 (NT3), which stimulate the neuronal-like differentiation of MIAMI cells and promote neuronal survival. After adhesion of dopaminergic-induced (DI)-MIAMI cells to PAMs in vitro, the complexes were grafted in the partially dopaminergic-deafferented striatum of rats which led to a strong reduction of the amphetamine-induced rotational behavior together with the protection/repair of the nigrostriatal pathway. These effects were correlated with the increased survival of DI-MIAMI cells that secreted a wide range of growth factors and chemokines. Moreover, the observed increased expression of tyrosine hydroxylase by cells transplanted with PAMs may contribute to this functional recovery. PMID:21074844

  14. Simple surface engineering of polydimethylsiloxane with polydopamine for stabilized mesenchymal stem cell adhesion and multipotency

    PubMed Central

    Chuah, Yon Jin; Koh, Yi Ting; Lim, Kaiyang; Menon, Nishanth V.; Wu, Yingnan; Kang, Yuejun

    2015-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has been extensively exploited to study stem cell physiology in the field of mechanobiology and microfluidic chips due to their transparency, low cost and ease of fabrication. However, its intrinsic high hydrophobicity renders a surface incompatible for prolonged cell adhesion and proliferation. Plasma-treated or protein-coated PDMS shows some improvement but these strategies are often short-lived with either cell aggregates formation or cell sheet dissociation. Recently, chemical functionalization of PDMS surfaces has proved to be able to stabilize long-term culture but the chemicals and procedures involved are not user- and eco-friendly. Herein, we aim to tailor greener and biocompatible PDMS surfaces by developing a one-step bio-inspired polydopamine coating strategy to stabilize long-term bone marrow stromal cell culture on PDMS substrates. Characterization of the polydopamine-coated PDMS surfaces has revealed changes in surface wettability and presence of hydroxyl and secondary amines as compared to uncoated surfaces. These changes in PDMS surface profile contribute to the stability in BMSCs adhesion, proliferation and multipotency. This simple methodology can significantly enhance the biocompatibility of PDMS-based microfluidic devices for long-term cell analysis or mechanobiological studies. PMID:26647719

  15. Simple surface engineering of polydimethylsiloxane with polydopamine for stabilized mesenchymal stem cell adhesion and multipotency.

    PubMed

    Chuah, Yon Jin; Koh, Yi Ting; Lim, Kaiyang; Menon, Nishanth V; Wu, Yingnan; Kang, Yuejun

    2015-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has been extensively exploited to study stem cell physiology in the field of mechanobiology and microfluidic chips due to their transparency, low cost and ease of fabrication. However, its intrinsic high hydrophobicity renders a surface incompatible for prolonged cell adhesion and proliferation. Plasma-treated or protein-coated PDMS shows some improvement but these strategies are often short-lived with either cell aggregates formation or cell sheet dissociation. Recently, chemical functionalization of PDMS surfaces has proved to be able to stabilize long-term culture but the chemicals and procedures involved are not user- and eco-friendly. Herein, we aim to tailor greener and biocompatible PDMS surfaces by developing a one-step bio-inspired polydopamine coating strategy to stabilize long-term bone marrow stromal cell culture on PDMS substrates. Characterization of the polydopamine-coated PDMS surfaces has revealed changes in surface wettability and presence of hydroxyl and secondary amines as compared to uncoated surfaces. These changes in PDMS surface profile contribute to the stability in BMSCs adhesion, proliferation and multipotency. This simple methodology can significantly enhance the biocompatibility of PDMS-based microfluidic devices for long-term cell analysis or mechanobiological studies. PMID:26647719

  16. Optimization and Scale-up Culture of Human Endometrial Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Potential for Clinical Application

    PubMed Central

    Rajaraman, Gayathri; White, Jacinta; Tan, Ker Sin; Ulrich, Daniela; Rosamilia, Anna; Werkmeister, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    We have previously identified and purified multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-like cells in the highly regenerative endometrial lining of the human uterus (eMSC) as CD140b+CD146+ cells. Due to ease of accessibility with minimal morbidity via biopsy, we are proposing to use eMSC in cell-based therapies; however, culture conditions compliant with Good Manufacturing Practice have not been established for eMSC. The aim of this study was to optimize serum-free and xeno-free culture conditions for expansion of eMSC for potential clinical use. Real-time cell assessment (Xcelligence) and MTS viability assays were used to measure attachment and proliferation of freshly isolated, flow cytometry-sorted CD140b+CD146+ eMSC cultured in several commercially available and in-house serum-free and xeno-free media in combination with five attachment matrices (fibronectin, collagen, gelatin, laminin, and Cell Start-XF®). Comparisons were made with a standard serum-containing medium, DMEM/F-12/10% fetal bovine serum. Under all conditions examined, eMSC attachment and proliferation was greatest using a fibronectin matrix, with Lonza TP-SF® and our in-house DMEM/SF/FGF2/EGF serum-free xeno-product-containing medium similar to serum-containing medium. Hypoxia increased eMSC proliferation in the DMEM/SF/FGF2/EGF serum-free medium. Culture of eMSC for 7 days on a fibronectin matrix in DMEM/SF/FGF2/EGF serum-free media in 5% O2 maintained greater numbers of undifferentiated eMSC expressing CD140b, CD146, and W5C5 compared to culture under similar conditions in Lonza TP-SF medium. However, the percentage of cells expressing typical MSC phenotypic markers, CD29, CD44, CD73, and CD105, were similar for both media. EMSC showed greater expansion in 2D compared to 3D culture on fibronectin-coated microbeads using the optimized DMEM/SF/FGF2/EGF medium in 5% O2. In the optimized 2D culture conditions, eMSC retained CFU activity, multipotency, and MSC surface phenotype, representing the

  17. Optimization and scale-up culture of human endometrial multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells: potential for clinical application.

    PubMed

    Rajaraman, Gayathri; White, Jacinta; Tan, Ker Sin; Ulrich, Daniela; Rosamilia, Anna; Werkmeister, Jerome; Gargett, Caroline E

    2013-01-01

    We have previously identified and purified multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-like cells in the highly regenerative endometrial lining of the human uterus (eMSC) as CD140b⁺CD146⁺ cells. Due to ease of accessibility with minimal morbidity via biopsy, we are proposing to use eMSC in cell-based therapies; however, culture conditions compliant with Good Manufacturing Practice have not been established for eMSC. The aim of this study was to optimize serum-free and xeno-free culture conditions for expansion of eMSC for potential clinical use. Real-time cell assessment (Xcelligence) and MTS viability assays were used to measure attachment and proliferation of freshly isolated, flow cytometry-sorted CD140b⁺CD146⁺ eMSC cultured in several commercially available and in-house serum-free and xeno-free media in combination with five attachment matrices (fibronectin, collagen, gelatin, laminin, and Cell Start-XF®). Comparisons were made with a standard serum-containing medium, DMEM/F-12/10% fetal bovine serum. Under all conditions examined, eMSC attachment and proliferation was greatest using a fibronectin matrix, with Lonza TP-SF® and our in-house DMEM/SF/FGF2/EGF serum-free xeno-product-containing medium similar to serum-containing medium. Hypoxia increased eMSC proliferation in the DMEM/SF/FGF2/EGF serum-free medium. Culture of eMSC for 7 days on a fibronectin matrix in DMEM/SF/FGF2/EGF serum-free media in 5% O₂ maintained greater numbers of undifferentiated eMSC expressing CD140b, CD146, and W5C5 compared to culture under similar conditions in Lonza TP-SF medium. However, the percentage of cells expressing typical MSC phenotypic markers, CD29, CD44, CD73, and CD105, were similar for both media. EMSC showed greater expansion in 2D compared to 3D culture on fibronectin-coated microbeads using the optimized DMEM/SF/FGF2/EGF medium in 5% O₂. In the optimized 2D culture conditions, eMSC retained CFU activity, multipotency, and MSC surface phenotype

  18. Ultrastructural assessment of the differentiation potential of human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Pasquinelli, Gianandrea; Valente, Sabrina

    2013-10-01

    Mesenchymal stromal (stem) cells (MSCs) are defined by plastic adherent growth, multiple phenotype expressions, and tripotential mesodermal capability. The authors report examples where electron microscopy (EM) plays a role in stem cell research. MSCs isolated from human arteries are ultrastructurally heterogeneous and become more homogenous after plastic adhesion. EM shows a moderate complement of organelles, mainly mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and glycogen aggregates. Clear vacuoles and vesicles are prominent when cells are recovered from plates using an enzymatic method. Since the mesengenic plasticity is the single most important criterion to define a cell as mesenchymal stromal, the authors induced experimentally adipogenic, leiomyogenic, cardiomyogenic, osteo-chondrogenic differentiations. In no case did EM reveal the achievement of complete differentiation. The authors obtained multivacuolated pre-adipocytes and never univacuolated adipocytes typical of mature white fat; myofibroblast and rhabdomyoblast morphotypes, where contractile filaments were not organized to form functional complexes, i.e., dense bodies and sarcomeres. Chondrogenesis and osteogenesis assays resulted in extracellular matrix changes. Collagen and proteoglycan filament/particle deposition was seen when chondrogenesis was promoted. Hydroxyapatite crystals, psammoma bodies, and plaque-like calcified matrix deposits were found in the osteogenic matrix. EM provides detailed structural information on the degree of differentiation induced in stem cells and demonstrates that the methods so far developed are not able to promote complete cell differentiation. These observations contribute to explain why clinical applications with hMSCs have produced results far lower than initial expectations. PMID:24047349

  19. Resveratrol augments the canonical Wnt signaling pathway in promoting osteoblastic differentiation of multipotent mesenchymal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Haibin; Shang, Linshan; Li, Xi; Zhang, Xiyu; Gao, Guimin; Guo, Chenhong; Chen, Bingxi; Liu, Qiji; Gong, Yaoqin; Shao, Changshun

    2009-10-15

    Resveratrol has been shown to possess many health-benefiting effects, including the promotion of bone formation. In this report we investigated the mechanism by which resveratrol promotes osteoblastic differentiation from pluripotent mesenchymal cells. Since Wnt signaling is well documented to induce osteoblastogenesis and bone formation, we characterized the factors involved in Wnt signaling in response to resveratrol treatment. Resveratrol treatment of mesenchymal cells led to an increase in stabilization and nuclear accumulation of {beta}-catenin dose-dependently and time-dependently. As a consequence of the increased nuclear accumulation of {beta}-catenin, the ability to activate transcription of {beta}-catenin-TCF/LEF target genes that are required for osteoblastic differentiation was upregulated. However, resveratrol did not affect the initial step of the Wnt signaling pathway, as resveratrol was as effective in upregulating the activity of {beta}-catenin in cells in which Lrp5 was knocked down as in control cells. In addition, while conditioned medium enriched in Wnt signaling antagonist Dkk1 was able to inhibit Wnt3a-induced {beta}-catenin upregulation, this inhibitory effect can be abolished in resveratrol-treated cells. Furthermore, we showed that the level of glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}), which phosphorylates and destabilizes {beta}-catenin, was reduced in response to resveratrol treatment. The phosphorylation of GSK-3{beta} requires extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2. Together, our data indicate that resveratrol promotes osteoblastogenesis and bone formation by augmenting Wnt signaling.

  20. Derivation of Functional Smooth Muscle Cells from Multipotent Human Hair Follicle Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin Yu; Peng, Hao Fan; Gopinath, Siddhita; Tian, Jun

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the potential of human hair follicle cells for multilineage differentiation and as a source of functional smooth muscle cells (SMCs). We report that human hair follicle stem cells (HFCs) isolated from individual follicles expressed surface markers that are characteristic of mesenchymal stem cells such as CD44, CD49b, CD73, CD90, and CD105 but lacked hematopoietic markers CD45 and CD34. In addition, HFCs differentiated toward adipocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, or SMCs in the appropriate induction medium. Treatment with basic fibroblast growth factor increased proliferation and prevented myogenic differentiation, suggesting that basic fibroblast growth factor can be used to expand the population of undifferentiated HFCs to the large numbers needed for therapeutic applications. SMCs were isolated from HFCs using tissue-specific promoters and flow cytometry sorting. Cylindrical vascular constructs engineered with HF-SMCs showed remarkable contractility in response to receptor and nonreceptor agonists such KCl, endothelin-1, and the thromboxane mimetic, U46619, as well as superior mechanical properties compared to their counterparts with human vascular SMCs. Our results suggest that HF is a rich source of mesenchymal stem cells with great potential for myogenic differentiation providing functional SMCs for tissue regeneration and cell therapies. PMID:20236033

  1. Comparative cellular and molecular analyses of pooled bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells during continuous passaging and after successive cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Mamidi, Murali Krishna; Nathan, Kavitha Ganesan; Singh, Gurbind; Thrichelvam, Saratha Thevi; Mohd Yusof, Nurul Ain Nasim; Fakharuzi, Noor Atiqah; Zakaria, Zubaidah; Bhonde, Ramesh; Das, Anjan Kumar; Majumdar, Anish Sen

    2012-10-01

    The clinical application of human bone marrow derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) requires expansion, cryopreservation, and transportation from the laboratory to the site of cell implantation. The cryopreservation and thawing process of MSCs may have important effects on the viability, growth characteristics and functionality of these cells both in vitro and in vivo. More importantly, MSCs after two rounds of cryopreservation have not been as well characterized as fresh MSCs from the transplantation perspective. The objective of this study was to determine if the effect of successive cryopreservation of pooled MSCs during the exponential growth phase could impair their morphology, phenotype, gene expression, and differentiation capabilities. MSCs cryopreserved at passage 3 (cell bank) were thawed and expanded up to passage 4 and cryopreserved for the second time. These cells (passive) were then thawed and cultured up to passage 6, and, at each passage MSCs were characterized. As control, pooled passage 3 cells (active) after one round of cryopreservation were taken all the way to passage 6 without cryopreservation. We determined the growth rate of MSCs for both culture conditions in terms of population doubling number (PDN) and population doubling time (PDT). Gene expression profiles for pluripotency markers and tissue specific markers corresponding to neuroectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm lineages were also analyzed for active and passive cultures of MSC. The results show that in both culture conditions, MSCs exhibited similar growth properties, phenotypes and gene expression patterns as well as similar differentiation potential to osteo-, chondro-, and adipo-lineages in vitro. To conclude, it appears that successive or multiple rounds of cryopreservation of MSCs did not alter the fundamental characteristics of these cells and may be used for clinical therapy. PMID:22615164

  2. Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells promote tumor growth in distinct colorectal cancer cells by a β1-integrin-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Widder, Miriam; Lützkendorf, Jana; Caysa, Henrike; Unverzagt, Susanne; Wickenhauser, Claudia; Benndorf, Ralf A; Schmoll, Hans-Joachim; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Müller, Thomas; Müller, Lutz P

    2016-02-15

    Tumor-stroma interactions play an essential role in the biology of colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) may represent a pivotal part of the stroma in CRC, but little is known about the specific interaction of MSC with CRC cells derived from tumors with different mutational background. In previous studies we observed that MSC promote the xenograft growth of the CRC cell-line DLD1. In the present study, we aimed to analyze the mechanisms of MSC-promoted tumor growth using various in vitro and in vivo experimental models and CRC cells of different mutational status. MSC specifically interacted with distinct CRC cells and supported tumor seeding in xenografts. The MSC-CRC interaction facilitated three-dimensional spheroid formation in CRC cells with dysfunctional E-cadherin system. Stable knock-downs revealed that the MSC-facilitated spheroid formation depended on β1-integrin in CRC cells. Specifically in α-catenin-deficient CRC cells this β1-integrin-dependent interaction resulted in a MSC-mediated promotion of early tumor growth in vivo. Collagen I and other extracellular matrix compounds were pivotal for the functional MSC-CRC interaction. In conclusion, our data demonstrate a differential interaction of MSC with CRC cells of different mutational background. Our study is the first to show that MSC specifically compared to normal fibroblasts impact early xenograft growth of distinct α-catenin deficient CRC cells possibly through secretion of extracellular matrix. This mechanism could serve as a future target for therapy and metastasis prevention. PMID:26356035

  3. Comparative immunophenotyping of equine multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells: an approach toward a standardized definition.

    PubMed

    Paebst, Felicitas; Piehler, Daniel; Brehm, Walter; Heller, Sandra; Schroeck, Carmen; Tárnok, Attila; Burk, Janina

    2014-08-01

    Horses are an approved large animal model for therapies of the musculoskeletal system. Especially for tendon disease where cell-based therapy is commonly used in equine patients, the translation of achieved results to human medicine would be a great accomplishment. Immunophenotyping of equine mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) remains the last obstacle to meet the criteria of the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) definition of human MSCs. Therefore, the surface antigen expression of CD 29, CD 44, CD 73, CD 90, CD 105, CD 14, CD 34, CD 45, CD 79α, and MHC II in equine MSCs from adipose tissue, bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, umbilical cord tissue, and tendon tissue was analyzed using flow cytometry. Isolated cells from the different sources and donors varied in their expression pattern of MSC-defining antigens. In particular, CD 90 and 105 showed most heterogeneity. However, cells from all samples were robustly positive for CD 29 and CD 44, while being mostly negative for CD 73 and the exclusion markers CD 14, CD 34, CD 45, CD 79α and MHC II. Furthermore, it was evident that enzymes used for cell detachment after in vitro-culture affected the detection of antigen expression. These results emphasize the need of standardization of MSC isolation, culturing, and harvesting techniques. As the equine MSCs did not meet all criteria the ISCT defined for human MSCs, further investigations for a better characterization of the cell type should be conducted. PMID:24894974

  4. Rho/MRTF-A-Induced Integrin Expression Regulates Angiogenesis in Differentiated Multipotent Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Man; Zhang, Li-Nan; Guo, Zhi-Xia; Luo, Xue-Gang; Zhou, Hao; He, Hong-Peng; Zhang, Tong-Cun

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to undergo endothelial differentiation in response to treatment with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), but their angiogenic ability is poorly characterized. In the present study, we aimed to further investigate the role of Rho/MRTF-A in angiogenesis by MSCs and the effect of the Rho/MRTF-A pathway on the expression of integrins α1β1 and α5β1, which are known to mediate physiological and pathological angiogenesis. Our results showed that increased expression of α1, α5, and β1 was observed during angiogenesis of differentiated MSCs, and the Rho/MRTF-A signaling pathway was demonstrated to be involved in regulating the expression of integrins α1, α5, and β1. Luciferase reporter assay and ChIP assay determined that MRTF-A could bind to and transactivate the integrin α1 and α5 promoters. Treatment with the Rho inhibitor C3 transferase, the Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y27632 or with shMRTF-A inhibited both the upregulation of α1, α5, and β1 as well as angiogenesis. Furthermore, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), MRTF-A deletion led to marked reductions in cell migration and vessel network formation compared with the control. These data demonstrate that Rho/MRTF-A signaling is an important mediator that controls integrin gene expression during MSC-mediated angiogenic processes. PMID:25949242

  5. Cytomegalovirus infection impairs immunosuppressive and antimicrobial effector functions of human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Meisel, Roland; Heseler, Kathrin; Nau, Julia; Schmidt, Silvia Kathrin; Leineweber, Margret; Pudelko, Sabine; Wenning, Johannes; Zimmermann, Albert; Hengel, Hartmut; Sinzger, Christian; Degistirici, Özer; Sorg, Rüdiger Volker; Däubener, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) possess immunosuppressive and antimicrobial effects that are partly mediated by the tryptophan-catabolizing enzyme indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). Therefore MSC represent a promising novel cellular immunosuppressant which has the potential to control steroid-refractory acute graft versus host disease (GvHD). In addition, MSC are capable of reducing the risk of infection in patients after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HST). Recent data indicate that signals from the microenvironment including those from microbes may modulate MSC effector functions. As Cytomegalovirus (CMV) represents a prominent pathogen in immunocompromised hosts, especially in patients following HST, we investigated the impact of CMV infection on MSC-mediated effects on the immune system. We demonstrate that CMV-infected MSC lose their cytokine-induced immunosuppressive capacity and are no longer able to restrict microbial growth. IDO expression is substantially impaired following CMV infection of MSC and this interaction critically depends on intact virus and the number of MSC as well as the viral load. Since overt CMV infection may undermine the clinical efficacy of MSC in the treatment of GvHD in transplant patients, we recommend that patients scheduled for MSC therapy should undergo thorough evaluation for an active CMV infection and receive CMV-directed antiviral therapy prior to the administration of MSC. PMID:24782599

  6. Brief report: The potential role of epigenetics on multipotent cell differentiation capacity of mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Yannarelli, Gustavo; Pacienza, Natalia; Cuniberti, Luis; Medin, Jeffrey; Davies, John; Keating, Armand

    2013-01-01

    Human umbilical cord perivascular cells (HUCPVCs) are a readily available source of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for cell therapy. We were interested in understanding how differences from human bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs might yield insights into MSC biology. We found that HUCPVCs exhibited increased telomerase activity and longer telomeres compared with BM-MSCs. We also observed enhanced expression of the pluripotency factors OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG in HUCPVCs. The methylation of OCT4 and NANOG promoters was similar in both cell types, indicating that differences in the expression of pluripotency factors between the MSCs were not associated with epigenetic changes. MSC methylation at these loci is greater than reported for embryonic stem cells but less than in dermal fibroblasts, suggesting that multipotentiality of MSCs is epigenetically restricted. These results are consistent with the notion that the MSC population (whether BM- or HUCPV-derived) exhibits higher proliferative capacity and contains more progenitor cells than do dermal fibroblasts. PMID:23097343

  7. In vitro cell motility as a potential mesenchymal stem cell marker for multipotency.

    PubMed

    Bertolo, Alessandro; Gemperli, Armin; Gruber, Marco; Gantenbein, Benjamin; Baur, Martin; Pötzel, Tobias; Stoyanov, Jivko

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are expected to have a fundamental role in future cell-based therapies because of their high proliferative ability, multilineage potential, and immunomodulatory properties. Autologous transplantations have the "elephant in the room" problem of wide donor variability, reflected by variability in MSC quality and characteristics, leading to uncertain outcomes in the use of these cells. We propose life imaging as a tool to characterize populations of human MSCs. Bone marrow MSCs from various donors and in vitro passages were evaluated for their in vitro motility, and the distances were correlated to the adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic differentiation potentials and the levels of senescence and cell size. Using life-image measuring of track lengths of 70 cells per population for a period of 24 hours, we observed that slow-moving cells had the higher proportion of senescent cells compared with fast ones. Larger cells moved less than smaller ones, and spindle-shaped cells had an average speed. Both fast cells and slow cells were characterized by a low differentiation potential, and average-moving cells were more effective in undergoing all three lineage differentiations. Furthermore, heterogeneity in single cell motility within a population correlated with the average-moving cells, and fast- and slow-moving cells tended toward homogeneity (i.e., a monotonous moving pattern). In conclusion, in vitro cell motility might be a useful tool to quickly characterize and distinguish the MSC population's differentiation potential before additional use. PMID:25473086

  8. Flow cytometric characterization of culture expanded multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from horse adipose tissue: towards the definition of minimal stemness criteria.

    PubMed

    Pascucci, L; Curina, G; Mercati, F; Marini, C; Dall'Aglio, C; Paternesi, B; Ceccarelli, P

    2011-12-15

    In the last decades, multipotent mesenchymal progenitor cells have been isolated from many adult tissues of different species. The International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) has recently established that multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is the currently recommended designation. In this study, we used flow cytometry to evaluate the expression of several molecules related to stemness (CD90, CD44, CD73 and STRO-1) in undifferentiated, early-passaged MSCs isolated from adipose tissue of four donor horses (AdMSCs). The four populations unanimously expressed high levels of CD90 and CD44. On the contrary, they were unexpectedly negative to CD73. A small percentage of the cells, finally, showed the expression of STRO-1. This last result might be due to the existence of a small subpopulation of STRO-1+ cells or to a poor cross-reactivity of the antibody. A remarkable donor-to-donor consistency and reproducibility of these findings was demonstrated. The data presented herein support the idea that equine AdMSCs may be easily isolated and selected by adherence to tissue culture plastic and exhibit a surface profile characterized by some peculiar differences in comparison to those described in other species. Continued characterization of these cells will help to clarify several aspects of their biology and may ultimately enable the isolation of specific, purified subpopulations. PMID:21839521

  9. Clonal multipotency and effect of long-term in vitro expansion on differentiation potential of human hair follicle derived mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Vivek K.; Mistriotis, Panagiotis; Andreadis, Stelios T.

    2011-01-01

    Hair follicle harbors a rich stem cell pool with mesenchymal lineage differentiation potential. Although previous studies with rodent cells demonstrated that hair follicle sheath and papilla cells possess multi-lineage differentiation potential, human hair follicle derived mesenchymal stem cells (hHF-MSCs) have not been characterized in detail in terms of their multipotency. In addition, it is not clear whether these cells are true stem cells that can differentiate along multiple lineages or whether they represent a collection of progenitor cells with restricted differentiation potential. Here we report that hHF-MSCs are highly proliferative cells that can be maintained in culture for ~45 population doublings before they start to show signs of cellular senescence. Under appropriate culture conditions, hHF-MSCs differentiated along the myogenic, osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic lineages, as demonstrated by kinetic gene expression profiling and functional assays. Interestingly, the differentiation potential decreased with time in culture in a lineage-specific manner. Specifically, myogenesis and chondrogenesis showed a moderate decrease over time; osteogenesis was maximum at intermediate passages and adipogenesis was highly sensitive to long-term culture and was diminished at late passages. Finally, hHF-MSCs were clonally multipotent as the majority of hHF-MSCs clones (73%) demonstrated bi- or tri-lineage differentiation potential. These results suggest that hHF-MSCs may present an alternative source of easily accessible, autologous stem cells for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:22099022

  10. Porphyromonas gingivalis within Placental Villous Mesenchyme and Umbilical Cord Stroma Is Associated with Adverse Pregnancy Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Vanterpool, Sizzle F.; Been, Jasper V.; Houben, Michiel L.; Nikkels, Peter G. J.; De Krijger, Ronald R.; Zimmermann, Luc J. I.; Kramer, Boris W.; Progulske-Fox, Ann; Reyes, Leticia

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), a common oral pathobiont, is implicated in preterm birth. Our aim was to determine if the location of Pg within placental and/or umbilical cord sections was associated with a specific delivery diagnosis at preterm delivery (histologic chorioamnionitis, chorioamnionitis with funisitis, preeclampsia, and preeclampsia with HELLP-syndrome, small for gestational age). The prevalence and location of Pg within archived placental and umbilical cord specimens from preterm (25 to 32 weeks gestation) and term control cohorts were evaluated by immunofluorescent histology. Detection of Pg was performed blinded to pregnancy characteristics. Multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate independent effects of gestational age, being small for gestational age, specific preterm delivery diagnosis, antenatal steroids, and delivery mode, on the odds of having Pg in the preterm tissue. Within the preterm cohort, 49 of 97 (51%) placentas and 40 of 97 (41%) umbilical cord specimens were positive for Pg. Pg within the placenta was significantly associated with shorter gestation lengths (OR 0.63 (95%CI: 0.48–0.85; p = 0.002) per week) and delivery via caesarean section (OR 4.02 (95%CI: 1.15–14.04; p = 0.03), but not with histological chorioamnionitis or preeclampsia. However, the presence of Pg in the umbilical cord was significantly associated with preeclampsia: OR 6.73 (95%CI: 1.31–36.67; p = 0.02). In the term cohort, 2 of 35 (6%) placentas and no umbilical cord term specimens were positive for Pg. The location of Pg within the placenta was different between preterm and term groups in that Pg within the villous mesenchyme was only detected in the preterm cohort, whereas Pg associated with syncytiotrophoblasts was found in both preterm and term placentas. Taken together, our results suggest that the presence of Pg within the villous stroma or umbilical cord may be an important determinant in Pg-associated adverse pregnancy

  11. Packed Bed Bioreactor for the Isolation and Expansion of Placental-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Osiecki, Michael J.; Michl, Thomas D.; Kul Babur, Betul; Kabiri, Mahboubeh; Atkinson, Kerry; Lott, William B.; Griesser, Hans J.; Doran, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Large numbers of Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are required for clinical relevant doses to treat a number of diseases. To economically manufacture these MSCs, an automated bioreactor system will be required. Herein we describe the development of a scalable closed-system, packed bed bioreactor suitable for large-scale MSCs expansion. The packed bed was formed from fused polystyrene pellets that were air plasma treated to endow them with a surface chemistry similar to traditional tissue culture plastic. The packed bed was encased within a gas permeable shell to decouple the medium nutrient supply and gas exchange. This enabled a significant reduction in medium flow rates, thus reducing shear and even facilitating single pass medium exchange. The system was optimised in a small-scale bioreactor format (160 cm2) with murine-derived green fluorescent protein-expressing MSCs, and then scaled-up to a 2800 cm2 format. We demonstrated that placental derived MSCs could be isolated directly within the bioreactor and subsequently expanded. Our results demonstrate that the closed system large-scale packed bed bioreactor is an effective and scalable tool for large-scale isolation and expansion of MSCs. PMID:26660475

  12. Vascular Wall-Resident Multipotent Stem Cells of Mesenchymal Nature within the Process of Vascular Remodeling: Cellular Basis, Clinical Relevance, and Implications for Stem Cell Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Until some years ago, the bone marrow and the endothelial cell compartment lining the vessel lumen (subendothelial space) were thought to be the only sources providing vascular progenitor cells. Now, the vessel wall, in particular, the vascular adventitia, has been established as a niche for different types of stem and progenitor cells with the capacity to differentiate into both vascular and nonvascular cells. Herein, vascular wall-resident multipotent stem cells of mesenchymal nature (VW-MPSCs) have gained importance because of their large range of differentiation in combination with their distribution throughout the postnatal organism which is related to their existence in the adventitial niche, respectively. In general, mesenchymal stem cells, also designated as mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), contribute to the maintenance of organ integrity by their ability to replace defunct cells or secrete cytokines locally and thus support repair and healing processes of the affected tissues. This review will focus on the central role of VW-MPSCs within vascular reconstructing processes (vascular remodeling) which are absolute prerequisite to preserve the sensitive relationship between resilience and stability of the vessel wall. Further, a particular advantage for the therapeutic application of VW-MPSCs for improving vascular function or preventing vascular damage will be discussed. PMID:26880936

  13. Proliferation, Migration, and Production of Nitric Oxide by Bone Marrow Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Wistar Rats in Hypoxia and Hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Lykov, A P; Nikonorova, Yu V; Bondarenko, N A; Poveshchenko, O V; Kim, I I; Poveshchenko, A F; Konenkov, V I

    2015-08-01

    We studied proliferation, migration, and secretion of NO by bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells from Wistar rats during conditioning under hypoxic and hyperglycemic conditions and the effect of erythropoietin on these parameters. A stimulating effect of erythropoietin on cell proliferation under normal conditions and activation of cell proliferation under conditions of hypoxia and hyperglycemia were demonstrated. Erythropoietin abolishes suppression of cell proliferation in culture with normal glucose level under conditions of H2O2-induced hypoxia, while under conditions of hyperglycemia, inhibition of cell proliferation becomes more pronounced. Hypoxia promotes activation of cell migration along the growth factor concentration gradient and addition of erythropoietin to the nutrient medium leads to a decrease in cell migration activity. Erythropoietin stimulates NO production by cells cultured under the conditions of hypoxia and hyperglycemia. PMID:26388580

  14. Human mesenchymal and murine stromal cells support human lympho-myeloid progenitor expansion but not maintenance of multipotent haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Radtke, Stefan; Görgens, André; Liu, Bing; Horn, Peter A; Giebel, Bernd

    2016-02-16

    A major goal in haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) research is to define conditions for the expansion of HSCs or multipotent progenitor cells (MPPs). Since human HSCs/MPPs cannot be isolated, NOD/SCID repopulating cell (SRC) assays emerged as the standard for the quantification of very primitive haematopoietic cell. However, in addition to HSCs/MPPs, lympho-myeloid primed progenitors (LMPPs) were recently found to contain SRC activities, challenging this assay as clear HSC/MPP readout. Because our revised model of human haematopoiesis predicts that HSCs/MPPs can be identified as CD133(+)CD34(+) cells containing erythroid potentials, we investigated the potential of human mesenchymal and conventional murine stromal cells to support expansion of HSCs/MPPs. Even though all stromal cells supported expansion of CD133(+)CD34(+) progenitors with long-term myeloid and long-term lymphoid potentials, erythroid potentials were exclusively found within erythro-myeloid CD133(low)CD34(+) cell fractions. Thus, our data demonstrate that against the prevailing assumption co-cultures on human mesenchymal and murine stromal cells neither promote expansion nor maintenance of HSCs and MPPs. PMID:26818432

  15. The osteogenic properties of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells in cultures on TiO₂ sol-gel-derived biomaterial.

    PubMed

    Marycz, Krzysztof; Śmieszek, Agnieszka; Grzesiak, Jakub; Siudzińska, Anna; Marędziak, Monika; Donesz-Sikorska, Anna; Krzak, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    The biocompatibility of the bone implants is a crucial factor determining the successful tissue regeneration. The aim of this work was to compare cellular behavior and osteogenic properties of rat adipose-derived multipotent stromal cells (ASCs) and bone marrow multipotent stromal cells (BMSCs) cultured on metallic substrate covered with TiO2 sol-gel-derived nanolayer. The morphology, proliferation rate, and osteogenic differentiation potential of both ASCs and BMSCs propagated on the biomaterials were examined. The potential for osteogenic differentiation of ASCs and BMSCs was determined based on the presence of specific markers of osteogenesis, that is, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteopontin (OPN), and osteocalcin (OCL). Additionally, the concentration of calcium and phosphorus in extracellular matrix was determined using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). Obtained results showed that TiO2 layer influenced proliferation activity of ASCs, which manifested by shortening of population doubling time and increase of OPN secretion. However, characteristic features of cells morphology and growth pattern of cultures prompted us to conclude that ultrathin TiO2 layer might also enhance osteodifferentiation of BMSCs. Therefore in our opinion, both populations of MSCs should be used for biological evaluation of biomaterials compatibility, such results may enhance the area of investigations related to regenerative medicine. PMID:25710015

  16. The Osteogenic Properties of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Cultures on TiO2 Sol-Gel-Derived Biomaterial

    PubMed Central

    Marycz, Krzysztof; Śmieszek, Agnieszka; Grzesiak, Jakub; Siudzińska, Anna; Marędziak, Monika; Donesz-Sikorska, Anna; Krzak, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    The biocompatibility of the bone implants is a crucial factor determining the successful tissue regeneration. The aim of this work was to compare cellular behavior and osteogenic properties of rat adipose-derived multipotent stromal cells (ASCs) and bone marrow multipotent stromal cells (BMSCs) cultured on metallic substrate covered with TiO2 sol-gel-derived nanolayer. The morphology, proliferation rate, and osteogenic differentiation potential of both ASCs and BMSCs propagated on the biomaterials were examined. The potential for osteogenic differentiation of ASCs and BMSCs was determined based on the presence of specific markers of osteogenesis, that is, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteopontin (OPN), and osteocalcin (OCL). Additionally, the concentration of calcium and phosphorus in extracellular matrix was determined using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). Obtained results showed that TiO2 layer influenced proliferation activity of ASCs, which manifested by shortening of population doubling time and increase of OPN secretion. However, characteristic features of cells morphology and growth pattern of cultures prompted us to conclude that ultrathin TiO2 layer might also enhance osteodifferentiation of BMSCs. Therefore in our opinion, both populations of MSCs should be used for biological evaluation of biomaterials compatibility, such results may enhance the area of investigations related to regenerative medicine. PMID:25710015

  17. In vitro cultivation of canine multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells on collagen membranes treated with hyaluronic acid for cell therapy and tissue regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wodewotzky, T.I.; Lima-Neto, J.F.; Pereira-Júnior, O.C.M.; Sudano, M.J.; Lima, S.A.F.; Bersano, P.R.O.; Yoshioka, S.A.; Landim-Alvarenga, F.C.

    2012-01-01

    Support structures for dermal regeneration are composed of biodegradable and bioresorbable polymers, animal skin or tendons, or are bacteria products. The use of such materials is controversial due to their low efficiency. An important area within tissue engineering is the application of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) to reparative surgery. The combined use of biodegradable membranes with stem cell therapy may lead to promising results for patients undergoing unsuccessful conventional treatments. Thus, the aim of this study was to test the efficacy of using membranes composed of anionic collagen with or without the addition of hyaluronic acid (HA) as a substrate for adhesion and in vitro differentiation of bone marrow-derived canine MSCs. The benefit of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on the differentiation of cells in culture was also tested. MSCs were collected from dog bone marrow, isolated and grown on collagen scaffolds with or without HA. Cell viability, proliferation rate, and cellular toxicity were analyzed after 7 days. The cultured cells showed uniform growth and morphological characteristics of undifferentiated MSCs, which demonstrated that MSCs successfully adapted to the culture conditions established by collagen scaffolds with or without HA. This demonstrates that such scaffolds are promising for applications to tissue regeneration. bFGF significantly increased the proliferative rate of MSCs by 63% when compared to groups without the addition of the growth factor. However, the addition of bFGF becomes limiting, since it has an inhibitory effect at high concentrations in culture medium. PMID:22983182

  18. Effect of Metformin on Viability, Morphology, and Ultrastructure of Mouse Bone Marrow-Derived Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells and Balb/3T3 Embryonic Fibroblast Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Śmieszek, Agnieszka; Czyrek, Aleksandra; Basinska, Katarzyna; Trynda, Justyna; Skaradzińska, Aneta; Siudzińska, Anna; Marędziak, Monika; Marycz, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Metformin, a popular drug used to treat diabetes, has recently gained attention as a potentially useful therapeutic agent for treating cancer. In our research metformin was added to in vitro cultures of bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) and Balb/3T3 fibroblast at concentration of 1 mM, 5 mM, and 10 mM. Obtained results indicated that metformin negatively affected proliferation activity of investigated cells. The drug triggered the formation of autophagosomes and apoptotic bodies in all tested cultures. Additionally, we focused on determination of expression of genes involved in insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) signaling pathway. The most striking finding was that the mRNA level of IGF2 was constant in both BMSCs and Balb/3T3. Further, the analysis of IGF2 concentration in cell supernatants showed that it decreased in BMSC cultures after 5 and 10 mM metformin treatments. In case of Balb/3T3 the concentration of IGF2 in culture supernatants decreased after 1 and 5 mM and increased after 10 mM of metformin. Our results suggest that metformin influences the cytophysiology of somatic cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner causing inhibition of proliferation and abnormalities of their morphology and ultrastructure. PMID:26064951

  19. Long-term engraftment of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells that differentiate to form myogenic cells in dogs with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Nitahara-Kasahara, Yuko; Hayashita-Kinoh, Hiromi; Ohshima-Hosoyama, Sachiko; Okada, Hironori; Wada-Maeda, Michiko; Nakamura, Akinori; Okada, Takashi; Takeda, Shin'ichi

    2012-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an incurable genetic disease with early mortality. Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are of interest because of their ability to differentiate to form myogenic cells in situ. In the present study, methods were developed to expand cultures of MSCs and to promote the myogenic differentiation of these cells, which were then used in a new approach for the treatment of DMD. MSC cultures enriched in CD271(+) cells grew better than CD271-depleted cultures. The transduction of CD271(+) MSCs with MyoD caused myogenic differentiation in vitro and the formation of myotubes expressing late myogenic markers. CD271(+) MSCs in the myogenic cell lineage transplanted into dog leukocyte antigen (DLA)-identical dogs formed clusters of muscle-like tissue. Intra-arterial injection of the CD271(+) MSCs resulted in engraftment at the site of the cardiotoxin (CTX)-injured muscle. Dogs affected by X-linked muscular dystrophy in Japan (CXMD(J)) treated with an intramuscular injection of CD271(+) MSCs similarly developed muscle-like tissue within 8-12 weeks in the absence of immunosuppression. In the newly formed tissues, developmental myosin heavy chain (dMyHC) and dystrophin were upregulated. These findings demonstrate that a cell transplantation strategy using CD271(+) MSCs may offer a promising treatment approach for patients with DMD. PMID:21934652

  20. Effect of Metformin on Viability, Morphology, and Ultrastructure of Mouse Bone Marrow-Derived Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells and Balb/3T3 Embryonic Fibroblast Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Czyrek, Aleksandra; Basinska, Katarzyna; Trynda, Justyna; Skaradzińska, Aneta; Siudzińska, Anna; Marycz, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Metformin, a popular drug used to treat diabetes, has recently gained attention as a potentially useful therapeutic agent for treating cancer. In our research metformin was added to in vitro cultures of bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) and Balb/3T3 fibroblast at concentration of 1 mM, 5 mM, and 10 mM. Obtained results indicated that metformin negatively affected proliferation activity of investigated cells. The drug triggered the formation of autophagosomes and apoptotic bodies in all tested cultures. Additionally, we focused on determination of expression of genes involved in insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) signaling pathway. The most striking finding was that the mRNA level of IGF2 was constant in both BMSCs and Balb/3T3. Further, the analysis of IGF2 concentration in cell supernatants showed that it decreased in BMSC cultures after 5 and 10 mM metformin treatments. In case of Balb/3T3 the concentration of IGF2 in culture supernatants decreased after 1 and 5 mM and increased after 10 mM of metformin. Our results suggest that metformin influences the cytophysiology of somatic cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner causing inhibition of proliferation and abnormalities of their morphology and ultrastructure. PMID:26064951

  1. Endothelial Progenitor Cell Migration-Enhancing Factors in the Secretome of Placental-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kamprom, Witchayaporn; Kheolamai, Pakpoom; U-Pratya, Yaowalak; Supokawej, Aungkura; Wattanapanitch, Methichit; Laowtammathron, Chuti; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Issaragrisil, Surapol

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic potentials of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) depend largely on their ability to secrete cytokines or factors that modulate immune response, enhance cell survival, and induce neovascularization in the target tissues. We studied the secretome profile of gestational tissue-derived MSCs and their effects on functions of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), another angiogenic cell type that plays an important role during the neovascularization. MSCs derived from placental tissues (PL-MSCs) significantly enhanced EPC migration while BM-MSCs, which are the standard source of MSCs for various clinical applications, did not. By using protein fractionation and mass spectrometry analysis, we identified several novel candidates for EPC migration enhancing factor in PL-MSCs secretome that could be used to enhance neovascularization in the injured/ischemic tissues. We recommend that the strategy developed in our study could be used to systematically identify therapeutically useful molecules in the secretomes of other MSC sources for the clinical applications. PMID:26880942

  2. Phenotypic and Functional Characterization of Mesenchymal Stem/Multipotent Stromal Cells from Decidua Basalis of Human Term Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Abomaray, F. M.; Al Jumah, M. A.; Alsaad, K. O.; Jawdat, D.; Al Khaldi, A.; AlAskar, A. S.; Al Harthy, S.; Al Subayyil, A. M.; Khatlani, T.; Alawad, A. O.; Alkushi, A.; Kalionis, B.; Abumaree, M. H.

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapies for the treatment of diseases associated with inflammation and oxidative stress employ primarily bone marrow MSCs (BMMSCs) and other MSC types such as MSC from the chorionic villi of human term placentae (pMSCs). These MSCs are not derived from microenvironments associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, unlike MSCs from the decidua basalis of the human term placenta (DBMSCs). DBMSCs were isolated and then extensively characterized. Differentiation of DBMSCs into three mesenchymal lineages (adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes) was performed. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and flow cytometry techniques were also used to characterize the gene and protein expression profiles of DBMSCs, respectively. In addition, sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed to detect proteins secreted by DBMSCs. Finally, the migration and proliferation abilities of DBMSCs were also determined. DBMSCs were positive for MSC markers and HLA-ABC. DBMSCs were negative for hematopoietic and endothelial markers, costimulatory molecules, and HLA-DR. Functionally, DBMSCs differentiated into three mesenchymal lineages, proliferated, and migrated in response to a number of stimuli. Most importantly, these cells express and secrete a distinct combination of cytokines, growth factors, and immune molecules that reflect their unique microenvironment. Therefore, DBMSCs could be attractive, alternative candidates for MSC-based therapies that treat diseases associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:27087815

  3. Isolation method and xeno-free culture conditions influence multipotent differentiation capacity of human Wharton’s jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Human Wharton’s jelly (WJ) has become a preferred source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) whose clinical applications are limited by the use of adequate xeno-free (XF), in vitro manipulation conditions. Therefore, the objective of our study was to characterize WJ-derived MSCs (WJ-MSCs), isolated by different methods and cultured in a commercially available, MSC XF medium, not least of all by investigating their endothelial differentiation capacity. Methods WJ explants and enzymatically dissociated WJ cells were cultured in a defined, XF medium for MSCs. Adherent cells at passages 2 and 5 were characterized as MSCs by flow cytometry, MTT, real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR, and functional multipotent differentiation assays. The endothelial differentiation capacity of MSCs isolated and expanded until passage 2 in the MSC XF medium, and then subcultured for five passages in a commercially available endothelial growth medium (group A), was assessed over serial passages, as compared to adherent WJ-derived cells isolated and expanded for five consecutive passages in the endothelial medium (group B). Results The MSC phenotype of WJ explant- and pellet-derived cells, isolated and expanded in the MSC XF medium, was proven based on the expression of CD44/CD73/CD90/CD105 surface markers and osteo-/adipo-/chondrogenic multipotent differentiation potential, which differed according to the isolation method and/or passage number. Upon exposure to endothelial differentiation cues, cells belonging to group A did not exhibit endothelial cell characteristics over serial passages; by contrast, WJ pellet-derived cells belonging to group B expressed endothelial characteristics at gene, protein and functional levels, potentially due to culture conditions favoring the isolation of other stem/progenitor cell types than MSCs, able to give rise to an endothelial progeny. Conclusions The use of defined, MSC XF media for isolation and expansion of human WJ-MSCs is

  4. Immunological characterization of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells--The International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) working proposal.

    PubMed

    Krampera, Mauro; Galipeau, Jacques; Shi, Yufang; Tarte, Karin; Sensebe, Luc

    2013-09-01

    Cultured mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) possess immune regulatory properties and are already used for clinical purposes, although preclinical data (both in vitro and in vivo in animal models) are not always homogeneous and unequivocal. However, the various MSC-based clinical approaches to treat immunological diseases would be significantly validated and strengthened by using standardized immune assays aimed at obtaining shared, reproducible and consistent data. Thus, the MSC Committee of the International Society for Cellular Therapy has decided to put forward for general discussion a working proposal for a standardized approach based on a critical view of literature data. PMID:23602578

  5. Isolation, Characterization, and Transduction of Endometrial Decidual Tissue Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells from Menstrual Blood

    PubMed Central

    Rossignoli, Filippo; Caselli, Anna; Grisendi, Giulia; Piccinno, Serena; Burns, Jorge S.; Murgia, Alba; Veronesi, Elena; Loschi, Pietro; Masini, Cristina; Conte, Pierfranco; Paolucci, Paolo; Horwiz, Edwin M.; Dominici, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) reveal progenitor cells-like features including proliferation and differentiation capacities. One of the most historically recognized sources of MSC has been the bone marrow, while other sources recently include adipose tissue, teeth, bone, muscle, placenta, liver, pancreas, umbilical cord, and cord blood. Frequently, progenitor isolation requires traumatic procedures that are poorly feasible and associated with patient discomfort. In the attempt to identify a more approachable MSC source, we focused on endometrial decidual tissue (EDT) found within menstrual blood. Based also on recent literature findings, we hypothesized that EDT may contain heterogeneous populations including some having MSC-like features. Thus, we here sought to isolate EDT-MSC processing menstrual samples from multiple donors. Cytofluorimetric analyses revealed that resulting adherent cells were expressing mesenchymal surface markers, including CD56, CD73, CD90, CD105 and CD146, and pluripotency markers such as SSEA-4. Moreover, EDT-MSC showed a robust clonogenic potential and could be largely expanded in vitro as fibroblastoid elements. In addition, differentiation assays drove these cells towards osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic lineages. Finally, for the first time, we were able to gene modify these progenitors by a retroviral vector carrying the green fluorescent protein. From these data, we suggest that EDT-MSC could represent a new promising tool having potential within cell and gene therapy applications. PMID:23607099

  6. Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Synergize With Costimulation Blockade in the Inhibition of Immune Responses and the Induction of Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tibell, Annika; Ljung, Karin; Saito, Yu; Gronlund, Anna; Osterholm, Cecilia; Holgersson, Jan; Lundgren, Torbjörn; Ericzon, Bo-Göran; Corbascio, Matthias; Kumagai-Braesch, Makiko

    2014-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) therapy and costimulation blockade are two immunomodulatory strategies being developed concomitantly for the treatment of immunological diseases. Both of these strategies have the capacity to inhibit immune responses and induce regulatory T cells; however, their ability to synergize remains largely unexplored. In order to study this, MSCs from C57BL/6 (H2b) mice were infused together with fully major histocompatibility complex-mismatched Balb/c (H2d) allogeneic islets into the portal vein of diabetic C57BL/6 (H2b) mice, which were subsequently treated with costimulation blockade for the first 10 days after transplantation. Mice receiving both recipient-type MSCs, CTLA4Ig, and anti-CD40L demonstrated indefinite graft acceptance, just as did most of the recipients receiving MSCs and CTLA4Ig. Recipients of MSCs only rejected their grafts, and fewer than one half of the recipients treated with costimulation blockade alone achieved permanent engraftment. The livers of the recipients treated with MSCs plus costimulation blockade contained large numbers of islets surrounded by Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. These recipients showed reduced antidonor IgG levels and a glucose tolerance similar to that of naïve nondiabetic mice. Intrahepatic lymphocytes and splenocytes from these recipients displayed reduced proliferation and interferon-γ production when re-exposed to donor antigen. MSCs in the presence of costimulation blockade prevented dendritic cell maturation, inhibited T cell proliferation, increased Foxp3+ regulatory T cell numbers, and increased indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity. These results indicate that MSC infusion and costimulation blockade have complementary immune-modulating effects that can be used for a broad number of applications in transplantation, autoimmunity, and regenerative medicine. PMID:25313200

  7. Allogeneic Transplantation of Periodontal Ligament-Derived Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Sheets in Canine Critical-Size Supra-Alveolar Periodontal Defect Model.

    PubMed

    Tsumanuma, Yuka; Iwata, Takanori; Kinoshita, Atsuhiro; Washio, Kaoru; Yoshida, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Azusa; Takagi, Ryo; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo; Izumi, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that induces the destruction of tooth-supporting tissues, followed by tooth loss. Although several approaches have been applied to periodontal regeneration, complete periodontal regeneration has not been accomplished. Tissue engineering using a combination of cells and scaffolds is considered to be a viable alternative strategy. We have shown that autologous transplantation of periodontal ligament-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell (PDL-MSC) sheets regenerates periodontal tissue in canine models. However, the indications for autologous cell transplantation in clinical situations are limited. Therefore, this study evaluated the safety and efficacy of allogeneic transplantation of PDL-MSC sheets using a canine horizontal periodontal defect model. Canine PDL-MSCs were labeled with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and were cultured on temperature-responsive dishes. Three-layered cell sheets were transplanted around denuded root surfaces either autologously or allogeneically. A mixture of β-tricalcium phosphate and collagen gel was placed on the bone defects. Eight weeks after transplantation, dogs were euthanized and subjected to microcomputed tomography and histological analyses. RNA and DNA were extracted from the paraffin sections to verify the presence of EGFP at the transplantation site. Inflammatory markers from peripheral blood sera were quantified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Periodontal regeneration was observed in both the autologous and the allogeneic transplantation groups. The allogeneic transplantation group showed particularly significant regeneration of newly formed cementum, which is critical for the periodontal regeneration. Serum levels of inflammatory markers from peripheral blood sera showed little difference between the autologous and allogeneic groups. EGFP amplicons were detectable in the paraffin sections of the allogeneic group. These results suggest that

  8. Allogeneic Transplantation of Periodontal Ligament-Derived Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Sheets in Canine Critical-Size Supra-Alveolar Periodontal Defect Model

    PubMed Central

    Tsumanuma, Yuka; Iwata, Takanori; Kinoshita, Atsuhiro; Washio, Kaoru; Yoshida, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Azusa; Takagi, Ryo; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo; Izumi, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that induces the destruction of tooth-supporting tissues, followed by tooth loss. Although several approaches have been applied to periodontal regeneration, complete periodontal regeneration has not been accomplished. Tissue engineering using a combination of cells and scaffolds is considered to be a viable alternative strategy. We have shown that autologous transplantation of periodontal ligament-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell (PDL-MSC) sheets regenerates periodontal tissue in canine models. However, the indications for autologous cell transplantation in clinical situations are limited. Therefore, this study evaluated the safety and efficacy of allogeneic transplantation of PDL-MSC sheets using a canine horizontal periodontal defect model. Canine PDL-MSCs were labeled with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and were cultured on temperature-responsive dishes. Three-layered cell sheets were transplanted around denuded root surfaces either autologously or allogeneically. A mixture of β-tricalcium phosphate and collagen gel was placed on the bone defects. Eight weeks after transplantation, dogs were euthanized and subjected to microcomputed tomography and histological analyses. RNA and DNA were extracted from the paraffin sections to verify the presence of EGFP at the transplantation site. Inflammatory markers from peripheral blood sera were quantified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Periodontal regeneration was observed in both the autologous and the allogeneic transplantation groups. The allogeneic transplantation group showed particularly significant regeneration of newly formed cementum, which is critical for the periodontal regeneration. Serum levels of inflammatory markers from peripheral blood sera showed little difference between the autologous and allogeneic groups. EGFP amplicons were detectable in the paraffin sections of the allogeneic group. These results suggest

  9. Brief Report: Elastin Microfibril Interface 1 and Integrin-Linked Protein Kinase Are Novel Markers of Islet Regenerative Function in Human Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Jessie R; Creskey, Marybeth M; Muradia, Gauri; Bell, Gillian I; Sherman, Stephen E; Gao, Jun; Stewart, Duncan J; Cyr, Terry D; Hess, David A; Rosu-Myles, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) transplantation is proposed as a novel therapy for treating diabetes by promoting the regeneration of damaged islets. The clinical promise of such treatments may be hampered by a high degree of donor-related variability in MSC function and a lack of standards for comparing potency. Here, we set out to identify markers of cultured human MSCs directly associated with islet regenerative function. Stromal cultures from nine separate bone marrow donors were demonstrated to have differing capacities to reduce hyperglycemia in the NOD/SCID streptozotocin-induced diabetic model. Regenerative (R) and non-regenerative (NR) MSC cultures were directly compared using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomics. A total of 1,410 proteins were quantified resulting in the identification of 612 upregulated proteins and 275 downregulated proteins by ± 1.2-fold in R-MSC cultures. Elastin microfibril interface 1 (EMILIN-1), integrin-linked protein kinase (ILK), and hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) were differentially expressed in R-MSCs, and Ingenuity Pathway Analyses revealed each candidate as known regulators of integrin signaling. Western blot validation of EMILIN-1, ILK, and HDGF not only showed significantly higher abundance levels in R-MSCs, as compared with NR-MSCs, but also correlated with passage-induced loss of islet-regenerative potential. Generalized estimating equation modeling was applied to examine the association between each marker and blood glucose reduction. Both EMILIN-1 and ILK were significantly associated with blood glucose lowering function in vivo. Our study is the first to identify EMILIN-1 and ILK as prospective markers of islet regenerative function in human MSCs. Stem Cells 2016;34:2249-2255. PMID:27090767

  10. Frequent mechanical stress suppresses proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells from human bone marrow without loss of multipotency.

    PubMed

    Frank, Viktoria; Kaufmann, Stefan; Wright, Rebecca; Horn, Patrick; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Y; Wuchter, Patrick; Madsen, Jeppe; Lewis, Andrew L; Armes, Steven P; Ho, Anthony D; Tanaka, Motomu

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence indicated that human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are responsive not only to biochemical but also to physical cues, such as substrate topography and stiffness. To simulate the dynamic structures of extracellular environments of the marrow in vivo, we designed a novel surrogate substrate for marrow derived hMSCs based on physically cross-linked hydrogels whose elasticity can be adopted dynamically by chemical stimuli. Under frequent mechanical stress, hMSCs grown on our hydrogel substrates maintain the expression of STRO-1 over 20 d, irrespective of the substrate elasticity. On exposure to the corresponding induction media, these cultured hMSCs can undergo adipogenesis and osteogenesis without requiring cell transfer onto other substrates. Moreover, we demonstrated that our surrogate substrate suppresses the proliferation of hMSCs by up to 90% without any loss of multiple lineage potential by changing the substrate elasticity every 2nd days. Such "dynamic in vitro niche" can be used not only for a better understanding of the role of dynamic mechanical stresses on the fate of hMSCs but also for the synchronized differentiation of adult stem cells to a specific lineage. PMID:27080570

  11. Frequent mechanical stress suppresses proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells from human bone marrow without loss of multipotency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Viktoria; Kaufmann, Stefan; Wright, Rebecca; Horn, Patrick; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Y.; Wuchter, Patrick; Madsen, Jeppe; Lewis, Andrew L.; Armes, Steven P.; Ho, Anthony D.; Tanaka, Motomu

    2016-04-01

    Mounting evidence indicated that human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are responsive not only to biochemical but also to physical cues, such as substrate topography and stiffness. To simulate the dynamic structures of extracellular environments of the marrow in vivo, we designed a novel surrogate substrate for marrow derived hMSCs based on physically cross-linked hydrogels whose elasticity can be adopted dynamically by chemical stimuli. Under frequent mechanical stress, hMSCs grown on our hydrogel substrates maintain the expression of STRO-1 over 20 d, irrespective of the substrate elasticity. On exposure to the corresponding induction media, these cultured hMSCs can undergo adipogenesis and osteogenesis without requiring cell transfer onto other substrates. Moreover, we demonstrated that our surrogate substrate suppresses the proliferation of hMSCs by up to 90% without any loss of multiple lineage potential by changing the substrate elasticity every 2nd days. Such “dynamic in vitro niche” can be used not only for a better understanding of the role of dynamic mechanical stresses on the fate of hMSCs but also for the synchronized differentiation of adult stem cells to a specific lineage.

  12. Frequent mechanical stress suppresses proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells from human bone marrow without loss of multipotency

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Viktoria; Kaufmann, Stefan; Wright, Rebecca; Horn, Patrick; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Y.; Wuchter, Patrick; Madsen, Jeppe; Lewis, Andrew L.; Armes, Steven P.; Ho, Anthony D.; Tanaka, Motomu

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence indicated that human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are responsive not only to biochemical but also to physical cues, such as substrate topography and stiffness. To simulate the dynamic structures of extracellular environments of the marrow in vivo, we designed a novel surrogate substrate for marrow derived hMSCs based on physically cross-linked hydrogels whose elasticity can be adopted dynamically by chemical stimuli. Under frequent mechanical stress, hMSCs grown on our hydrogel substrates maintain the expression of STRO-1 over 20 d, irrespective of the substrate elasticity. On exposure to the corresponding induction media, these cultured hMSCs can undergo adipogenesis and osteogenesis without requiring cell transfer onto other substrates. Moreover, we demonstrated that our surrogate substrate suppresses the proliferation of hMSCs by up to 90% without any loss of multiple lineage potential by changing the substrate elasticity every 2nd days. Such “dynamic in vitro niche” can be used not only for a better understanding of the role of dynamic mechanical stresses on the fate of hMSCs but also for the synchronized differentiation of adult stem cells to a specific lineage. PMID:27080570

  13. In vitro alteration of physiological parameters do not hamper the growth of human multipotent vascular wall-mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Ciavarella, Carmen; Fittipaldi, Silvia; Pedrini, Silvia; Vasuri, Francesco; Gallitto, Enrico; Freyrie, Antonio; Stella, Andrea; Gostjeva, Elena; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with multilineage potential and anti-inflammatory property can be isolated from different human tissues, representing promising candidates in regenerative medicine. Despite the common criteria of characterization, many factors contribute to MSC heterogeneity (i.e., tissue origin, coexistence of cell subsets at different stage of differentiation, epigenetic) and no standard methods have been approved to characterize MSCs in cell culture. Aim: The present study aimed to test whether MSCs resist adverse chemical and physical culture conditions, surviving MSC subpopulations are endowed with the stemness abilities; to characterize MMP expression in AAA-MSCs under the adverse experimental conditions. Methods and Results: MSCs enzymatically isolated from human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA-MSCs) were exposed to media acidification, hypoxia, starving, drying and hypothermia through the following strategies: (1) low-density seeding in closed flasks; (2) exposure to a chemical hypoxia inducer, cobalt chloride; (3) exposure to a dry environment with growing medium deprivation and culture at 4°C. None of these conditions affected MSC viability and stemness profile, as evidenced by NANOG, OCT-4, and SOX-2 mRNA expression in surviving cells. A significant MMP-9 decrease, especially when AAA-MSCs were exposed to hypothermia, was associated with stress resistant stem cells. Conclusions: AAA-MSCs survive to extremely adverse culture conditions, keeping their morphology and stemness features. Besides MMP-9 role in pathological tissue remodeling, this protease may be related to MSC survival. Future studies on MSCs derived from other tissues will be necessary to refine our culture protocol, which can represent an empirical method to demonstrate MSC stemness, with potential implications for their clinical use. PMID:26090364

  14. Multipotent human stromal cells isolated from cord blood, term placenta and adult bone marrow show distinct differences in gene expression pattern.

    PubMed

    Matigian, Nicholas; Brooke, Gary; Zaibak, Faten; Rossetti, Tony; Kollar, Katarina; Pelekanos, Rebecca; Heazlewood, Celena; Mackay-Sim, Alan; Wells, Christine A; Atkinson, Kerry

    2015-03-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells derived from human placenta (pMSCs), and unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSCs) derived from cord blood share many properties with human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (bmMSCs) and are currently in clinical trials for a wide range of clinical settings. Here we present gene expression profiles of human cord blood-derived unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSCs), human placental-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hpMSCs), and human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (bmMSCs), all derived from four different donors. The microarray data are available on the ArrayExpress database (www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress) under accession number E-TABM-880. Additionally, the data has been integrated into a public portal, www.stemformatics.org. Our data provide a resource for understanding the differences in MSCs derived from different tissues. PMID:26484151

  15. Multipotent human stromal cells isolated from cord blood, term placenta and adult bone marrow show distinct differences in gene expression pattern

    PubMed Central

    Matigian, Nicholas; Brooke, Gary; Zaibak, Faten; Rossetti, Tony; Kollar, Katarina; Pelekanos, Rebecca; Heazlewood, Celena; Mackay-Sim, Alan; Wells, Christine A.; Atkinson, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells derived from human placenta (pMSCs), and unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSCs) derived from cord blood share many properties with human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (bmMSCs) and are currently in clinical trials for a wide range of clinical settings. Here we present gene expression profiles of human cord blood-derived unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSCs), human placental-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hpMSCs), and human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (bmMSCs), all derived from four different donors. The microarray data are available on the ArrayExpress database (www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress) under accession number E-TABM-880. Additionally, the data has been integrated into a public portal, www.stemformatics.org. Our data provide a resource for understanding the differences in MSCs derived from different tissues. PMID:26484151

  16. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia, a case of intrauterine sudden death of fetus with rupture of cirsoid periumbilical chorionic vessels

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We report a 32-year-old woman (1-gravid, 1-para) with a vesicular lesion in her uterus that was pointed out on ultrasound at 8 weeks' gestation. Amniocentesis at 15 weeks' gestation showed a normal female karyotype, 46XX. As the pregnancy advanced, the mole-like lesion became relatively reduced. Throughout gestation, the maternal human chorionic gonadotropin level was normal, but the serum alpha fetoprotein level rose as her pregnancy progressed. Her fetus did not exhibit any remarkable anomalies. The patient visited our hospital complaining of a diminished feeling of fetal movements at 36 weeks 5 days' gestation, and intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) was confirmed. She delivered a 2336-g female without any definite anomalies. A pathological examination led to a diagnosis of placental mesenchymal dysplasia, and androgenetic/biparental mosaicism in the placenta was identified using p57kip2 immunohistochemical staining. And it also revealed that the rupture of the cirsoid chorionic vessels had led to IUFD. PMID:21513565

  17. An Exploratory Clinical Trial for Idiopathic Osteonecrosis of Femoral Head by Cultured Autologous Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Augmented with Vascularized Bone Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Aoyama, Tomoki; Goto, Koji; Kakinoki, Ryosuke; Ikeguchi, Ryosuke; Ueda, Michiko; Kasai, Yasunari; Maekawa, Taira; Tada, Harue; Teramukai, Satoshi; Nakamura, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic osteonecrosis of femoral head (ION) is a painful disorder that progresses to collapse of the femoral head and destruction of the hip joint. Although its precise pathology remains unknown, the loss of blood supply causing the loss of living bone-forming cells is a hallmark of the pathophysiology of osteonecrosis. Transplantation of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is a promising tool for regenerating the musculoskeletal system. The aim of the present study was to assess the safety and efficacy of transplantation of cultured autologous bone marrow-derived MSCs mixed with β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) in combination with vascularized bone grafts for the treatment of advanced stage ION in a clinical trial. Ten patients with stage 3 ION were enrolled in this study. Autologous bone marrow-derived MSCs were cultured with autologous serum, and cells (0.5–1.0×108) were transplanted after mixing with β-TCP granules in combination with vascularized iliac bone grafts. Patients were assessed 24 months after treatment. The primary and secondary endpoints were progression of the radiological stage and changes in bone volume at the femoral head, and clinical score, respectively. Nine of ten patients completed the protocol, seven of whom remained at stage 3, and the remaining two cases progressed to stage 4. The average bone volume increased from 56.5±8.5 cm3 to 57.7±10.6 cm3. The average clinical score according to the Japan Orthopaedic Association improved from 65.6±25.5 points to 87.9±19.0 points. One severe adverse event was observed, which was not related to the clinical trial. Although the efficacy of cell transplantation was still to be determined, all procedures were successfully performed and some young patients with extensive necrotic lesions with pain demonstrated good bone regeneration with amelioration of symptoms. Further improvements in our method using MSCs and the proper selection of patients will open a new approach for the

  18. Different Procoagulant Activity of Therapeutic Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Derived from Bone Marrow and Placental Decidua.

    PubMed

    Moll, Guido; Ignatowicz, Lech; Catar, Rusan; Luecht, Christian; Sadeghi, Behnam; Hamad, Osama; Jungebluth, Philipp; Dragun, Duska; Schmidtchen, Artur; Ringdén, Olle

    2015-10-01

    While therapeutic mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) have usually been obtained from bone marrow, perinatal tissues have emerged as promising new sources of cells for stromal cell therapy. In this study, we present a first safety follow-up on our clinical experience with placenta-derived decidual stromal cells (DSCs), used as supportive immunomodulatory and regenerative therapy for patients with severe complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We found that DSCs are smaller, almost half the volume of MSCs, which may favor microvascular passage. DSCs also show different hemocompatibility, with increased triggering of the clotting cascade after exposure to human blood and plasma in vitro. After infusion of DSCs in HSCT patients, we observed a weak activation of the fibrinolytic system, but the other blood activation markers remained stable, excluding major adverse events. Expression profiling identified differential levels of key factors implicated in regulation of hemostasis, such as a lack of prostacyclin synthase and increased tissue factor expression in DSCs, suggesting that these cells have intrinsic blood-activating properties. The stronger triggering of the clotting cascade by DSCs could be antagonized by optimizing the cell graft reconstitution before infusion, for example, by use of low-dose heparin anticoagulant in the cell infusion buffer. We conclude that DSCs are smaller and have stronger hemostatic properties than MSCs, thus triggering stronger activation of the clotting system, which can be antagonized by optimizing the cell graft preparation before infusion. Our results highlight the importance of hemocompatibility safety testing for every novel cell therapy product before clinical use, when applied using systemic delivery. PMID:26192403

  19. Increased SCF/c-kit by hypoxia promotes autophagy of human placental chorionic plate-derived mesenchymal stem cells via regulating the phosphorylation of mTOR.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youjin; Jung, Jieun; Cho, Kyung Jin; Lee, Seoung-Kwan; Park, Jong-Wan; Oh, Il-Hoan; Kim, Gi Jin

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia triggers physiological and pathological cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, and death, in several cell types. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from various tissues have self-renewal activity and can differentiate towards multiple lineages. Recently, it has been reported that hypoxic conditions tip the balance between survival and death by hypoxia-induced autophagy, although the underlying mechanism is not clear. The objectives of this study are to compare the effect of hypoxia on the self-renewal of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and placental chorionic plate-derived mesenchymal stem cells (CP-MSCs) and to investigate the regulatory mechanisms of self-renewal in each MSC type during hypoxia. The expression of self-renewal markers (e.g., Oct4, Nanog, Sox2) was assessed in both cell lines. PI3K and stem cell factor (SCF) expression gradually increased in CP-MSCs but were markedly downregulated in BM-MSCs by hypoxia. The phosphorylation of ERK and mTOR was augmented by hypoxia in CP-MSCs compared to control. Also, the expression of LC3 II, a component of the autophagosome and the hoof-shaped autophagosome was detected more rapidly in CP-MSCs than in BM-MSCs under hypoxia. Hypoxia induced the expression of SCF in CP-MSCs and increased SCF/c-kit pathway promotes the self-renewal activities of CP-MSCs via an autocrine/paracrine mechanism that balances cell survival and cell death events by autophagy. These activities occur to a greater extent in CP-MSCs than in BM-MSCs through regulating the phosphorylation of mTOR. These findings will provide useful guidelines for better understanding the function of SCF/c-kit in the self-renewal and autophagy-regulated mechanisms that promote of MSC survival. PMID:22833529

  20. Utilizing Autologous Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells and β-Tricalcium Phosphate Scaffold in Human Bone Defects: A Prospective, Controlled Feasibility Trial

    PubMed Central

    Šponer, Pavel; Kučera, Tomáš; Brtková, Jindra; Urban, Karel; Palička, Vladimír; Kočí, Zuzana; Syka, Michael; Syková, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective controlled study was to compare healing quality following the implantation of ultraporous β-tricalcium phosphate, containing either expanded autologous mesenchymal stromal cells (trial group, 9 patients) or β-tricalcium phosphate alone (control group, 9 patients), into femoral defects during revision total hip arthroplasty. Both groups were assessed using the Harris Hip Score, radiography, and DEXA scanning at 6 weeks and 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. A significant difference in the bone defect healing was observed between both groups of patients (P < 0.05). In the trial group, trabecular remodeling was found in all nine patients and in the control group, in 1 patient only. Whereas, over the 12-month follow-up period, no significant difference was observed between both groups of patients in terms of the resorption of β-tricalcium phosphate, the significant differences were documented in the presence of radiolucency and bone trabeculation through the defect (P < 0.05). Using autologous mesenchymal stromal cells combined with a β-tricalcium phosphate scaffold is a feasible, safe, and effective approach for management of bone defects with compromised microenvironment. The clinical trial was registered at the EU Clinical Trials Register before patient recruitment has begun (EudraCT number 2012-005599-33). PMID:27144159

  1. Intravenous administration of bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells enhances the recruitment of CD11b(+) myeloid cells to the lungs and facilitates B16-F10 melanoma colonization.

    PubMed

    Souza, Lucas E B; Almeida, Danilo C; Yaochite, Juliana N U; Covas, Dimas T; Fontes, Aparecida M

    2016-07-15

    The discovery that the regenerative properties of bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) could collaterally favor neoplastic progression has led to a great interest in the function of these cells in tumors. However, the effect of BM-MSCs on colonization, a rate-limiting step of the metastatic cascade, is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of BM-MSCs on metastatic outgrowth of B16-F10 melanoma cells. In in vitro experiments, direct co-culture assays demonstrated that BM-MSCs stimulated the proliferation of B16-F10 cells in a dose-dependent manner. For in vivo experiments, luciferase-expressing B16-F10 cells were injected through tail vein and mice were subsequently treated with four systemic injections of BM-MSCs. In vivo bioluminescent imaging during 16 days demonstrated that BM-MSCs enhanced the colonization of lungs by B16-F10 cells, which correlated with a 2-fold increase in the number of metastatic foci. Flow cytometry analysis of lungs demonstrated that although mice harboring B16-F10 metastases displayed more endothelial cells, CD4 T and CD8 T lymphocytes in the lungs in comparison to metastases-free mice, BM-MSCs did not alter the number of these cells. Interestingly, BM-MSCs inoculation resulted in a 2-fold increase in the number of CD11b(+) myeloid cells in the lungs of melanoma-bearing animals, a cell population previously described to organize "premetastatic niches" in experimental models. These findings indicate that BM-MSCs provide support to B16-F10 cells to overcome the constraints that limit metastatic outgrowth and that these effects might involve the interplay between BM-MSCs, CD11b(+) myeloid cells and tumor cells. PMID:26027946

  2. Optimization of in vitro expansion of human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells for cell-therapy approaches: further insights in the search for a fetal calf serum substitute.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, M E; Avanzini, M A; Perotti, C; Cometa, A M; Moretta, A; Lenta, E; Del Fante, C; Novara, F; de Silvestri, A; Amendola, G; Zuffardi, O; Maccario, R; Locatelli, F

    2007-04-01

    There is great interest in mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for cell-therapy and tissue engineering approaches. MSCs are currently expanded in vitro in the presence of fetal calf serum (FCS); however, FCS raises concerns when used in clinical grade preparations. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether MSCs expanded in medium supplemented with platelet-lysate (PL), already shown to promote MSC growth, are endowed with biological properties appropriate for cell-therapy approaches. We confirm previously published data showing that MSCs expanded in either FCS or PL display comparable morphology, phenotype, and differentiation capacity, while PL-MSCs were superior in terms of clonogenic efficiency and proliferative capacity. We further extended these data by investigating the immune-regulatory effect of MSCs on the alloantigen-specific immune response in mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC). We found that MSCs-PL are comparable to MSCs-FCS in their capacity to: (i) decrease alloantigen-induced cytotoxic activity; (ii) favor differentiation of CD4+ T-cell subsets expressing a Treg phenotype; (iii) increase early secretion of IL-10 in MLC supernatant, as well as induce a striking augmentation of IL-6 production. As compared with MSCs-PL, MSCs-FCS were more efficient in suppressing alloantigen-induced lymphocyte subset proliferation and reducing early IFNgamma-secretion. Resistance to spontaneous transformation into tumor cells of expanded MSCs was demonstrated by molecular karyotyping and maintenance of normal morphology/phenotype after prolonged in vitro culture. Our data support the immunological functional plasticity of MSCs and suggest that MSCs-PL can be used as an alternative to MSCs-FCS, although these latter cells might be more suitable for preventing/treating alloreactivity-related immune complications. PMID:17187344

  3. Multipotent adult progenitor cells on an allograft scaffold facilitate the bone repair process

    PubMed Central

    LoGuidice, Amanda; Houlihan, Alison; Deans, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Multipotent adult progenitor cells are a recently described population of stem cells derived from the bone marrow stroma. Research has demonstrated the potential of multipotent adult progenitor cells for treating ischemic injury and cardiovascular repair; however, understanding of multipotent adult progenitor cells in orthopedic applications remains limited. In this study, we evaluate the osteogenic and angiogenic capacity of multipotent adult progenitor cells, both in vitro and loaded onto demineralized bone matrix in vivo, with comparison to mesenchymal stem cells, as the current standard. When compared to mesenchymal stem cells, multipotent adult progenitor cells exhibited a more robust angiogenic protein release profile in vitro and developed more extensive vasculature within 2 weeks in vivo. The establishment of this vascular network is critical to the ossification process, as it allows nutrient exchange and provides an influx of osteoprogenitor cells to the wound site. In vitro assays confirmed the multipotency of multipotent adult progenitor cells along mesodermal lineages and demonstrated the enhanced expression of alkaline phosphatase and production of calcium-containing mineral deposits by multipotent adult progenitor cells, necessary precursors for osteogenesis. In combination with a demineralized bone matrix scaffold, multipotent adult progenitor cells demonstrated enhanced revascularization and new bone formation in vivo in an orthotopic defect model when compared to mesenchymal stem cells on demineralized bone matrix or demineralized bone matrix–only control groups. The potent combination of angiogenic and osteogenic properties provided by multipotent adult progenitor cells appears to create a synergistic amplification of the bone healing process. Our results indicate that multipotent adult progenitor cells have the potential to better promote tissue regeneration and healing and to be a functional cell source for use in orthopedic applications

  4. Multipotent adult progenitor cells on an allograft scaffold facilitate the bone repair process.

    PubMed

    LoGuidice, Amanda; Houlihan, Alison; Deans, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Multipotent adult progenitor cells are a recently described population of stem cells derived from the bone marrow stroma. Research has demonstrated the potential of multipotent adult progenitor cells for treating ischemic injury and cardiovascular repair; however, understanding of multipotent adult progenitor cells in orthopedic applications remains limited. In this study, we evaluate the osteogenic and angiogenic capacity of multipotent adult progenitor cells, both in vitro and loaded onto demineralized bone matrix in vivo, with comparison to mesenchymal stem cells, as the current standard. When compared to mesenchymal stem cells, multipotent adult progenitor cells exhibited a more robust angiogenic protein release profile in vitro and developed more extensive vasculature within 2 weeks in vivo. The establishment of this vascular network is critical to the ossification process, as it allows nutrient exchange and provides an influx of osteoprogenitor cells to the wound site. In vitro assays confirmed the multipotency of multipotent adult progenitor cells along mesodermal lineages and demonstrated the enhanced expression of alkaline phosphatase and production of calcium-containing mineral deposits by multipotent adult progenitor cells, necessary precursors for osteogenesis. In combination with a demineralized bone matrix scaffold, multipotent adult progenitor cells demonstrated enhanced revascularization and new bone formation in vivo in an orthotopic defect model when compared to mesenchymal stem cells on demineralized bone matrix or demineralized bone matrix-only control groups. The potent combination of angiogenic and osteogenic properties provided by multipotent adult progenitor cells appears to create a synergistic amplification of the bone healing process. Our results indicate that multipotent adult progenitor cells have the potential to better promote tissue regeneration and healing and to be a functional cell source for use in orthopedic applications. PMID

  5. The Effect of Purified Multi-potent Human Bone-marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Rotator Cuff Tendon Healing in an Athymic Rat

    PubMed Central

    Degen, Ryan; Carbone, Andrew; Carballo, Camilia; Zong, Jianchun; Chen, Tony; Ying, Lilly; Lebaschi, Amir; Deng, Xiang-Hua; Rodeo, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Bone marrow concentrates are being used to augment soft tissue healing. However, only 0.01% of these cells meet the criteria of a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC), which likely accounts for the variability in reported results. Previous studies using an established rat rotator cuff repair model have demonstrated that bone marrow-derived MSCs had no effect on healing. In this study we evaluated the effect of purified human MSCs on rotator cuff healing in an athymic rat model. Our hypothesis is that purified human MSCs added to the repair site will improve biomechanical strength and fibrocartilage formation of the healing tendon. Methods: Fifty-two athymic rats underwent unilateral detachment and repair of the supraspinatus tendon with either fibrin glue (control) or fibrin glue with 106 hMSCs (experimental) applied at the repair site. Flow cytometry verified the stem cell phenotype of the cells as CD73+, CD90+, CD105+, CD 14-, CD34- and CD45-. Rats were sacrificed at 2 and 4 weeks, with 10 used for biomechanical testing and 3 for histologic analysis from each group. Results: Biomechanical testing revealed a significant increase in failure load (11.5±2.4 N vs. 8.5±2.4 N, p=0.002) and stiffness (7.1±1.2 N/mm vs. 5.7±2.1 N/mm, p>0.17).Biomechanical testing revealed a significant increase in failure load (11.5±2.4 N vs. 8.5±2.4 N, p=0.002) and stiffness (7.1±1.2 N/mm vs. 5.7±2.1 N/mm, p<0.001) in the experimental group compared with the control group at 2 weeks. Similarly, safranin-O staining identified increased fibrocartilage formation at the repair site at 2 weeks in the hMSC group (18.6±2.9% vs. 9.1±1.6%, p=0.026). These effects dissipated by 4 weeks, with no significant biomechanical or histologic differences between groups (p>0.17). Conclusion: These data demonstrate the potential for stem cells to augment tendon healing. This is the first study to use purified stem cells, rather than simple bone marrow concentrate. In the future, cell

  6. Isolation and characterization of multipotent cells from human fetal dermis.

    PubMed

    Chinnici, Cinzia Maria; Amico, Giandomenico; Monti, Marcello; Motta, Stefania; Casalone, Rosario; Petri, Sergio Li; Spada, Marco; Gridelli, Bruno; Conaldi, Pier Giulio

    2014-01-01

    We report that cells from human fetal dermis, termed here multipotent fetal dermal cells, can be isolated with high efficiency by using a nonenzymatic, cell outgrowth method. The resulting cell population was consistent with the definition of mesenchymal stromal cells by the International Society for Cellular Therapy. As multipotent fetal dermal cells proliferate extensively, with no loss of multilineage differentiation potential up to passage 25, they may be an ideal source for cell therapy to repair damaged tissues and organs. Multipotent fetal dermal cells were not recognized as targets by T lymphocytes in vitro, thus supporting their feasibility for allogenic transplantation. Moreover, the expansion protocol did not affect the normal phenotype and karyotype of cells. When compared with adult dermal cells, fetal cells displayed several advantages, including a greater cellular yield after isolation, the ability to proliferate longer, and the retention of differentiation potential. Interestingly, multipotent fetal dermal cells expressed the pluripotency marker SSEA4 (90.56 ± 3.15% fetal vs. 10.5 ± 8.5% adult) and coexpressed mesenchymal and epithelial markers (>80% CD90(+)/CK18(+) cells), coexpression lacking in the adult counterparts isolated under the same conditions. Multipotent fetal dermal cells were able to form capillary structures, as well as differentiate into a simple epithelium in vitro, indicating skin regeneration capabilities. PMID:23768775

  7. MiR-133b promotes neural plasticity and functional recovery after treatment of stroke with multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells in rats via transfer of exosome-enriched extracellular particles

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Hongqi; Li, Yi; Liu, Zhongwu; Wang, Xinli; Shang, Xia; Cui, Yisheng; Zhang, Zheng Gang; Chopp, Michael

    2013-01-01

    To test, in vivo, the hypothesis that exosomes from multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) mediate microRNA 133b (miR-133b) transfer which promotes neurological recovery from stroke, we employed knock-in and knock-down technologies to up-regulate or down-regulate the miR-133b level in MSCs (miR-133b+MSCs or miR-133b−MSCs) and their corresponding exosomes, respectively. Rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) and were treated with naïve MSCs, miR-133b+MSCs, or miR-133b−MSC at one day after MCAo. Compared with controls, rats receiving naïve MSC treatment significantly improved functional recovery, and exhibited increased axonal plasticity and neurite remodeling in the ischemic boundary zone (IBZ) at day 14 after MCAo. The outcomes were significantly enhanced with miR-133b+MSC treatment, and were significantly decreased with miR-133b−MSC treatment, compared to naïve MSC treatment. The miR-133b level in exosomes collected from the cerebral spinal fluid was significantly increased after miR-133b+MSC treatment, and was significantly decreased after miR-133b−MSC treatment at day 14 after MCAo, compared to naïve MSC treatment. Tagging exosomes with green fluorescent protein demonstrated that exosomes-enriched extracellular particles were released from MSCs and transferred to adjacent astrocytes and neurons. The expression of selective targets for miR-133b, connective tissue growth factor and ras homolog gene family member A, were significantly decreased in the IBZ after miR-133b+MSC treatment, while their expression remained at similar elevated levels after miR-133b−MSC treatment, compared to naïve MSC treatment. Collectively, our data suggest that exosomes from MSCs mediate the miR-133b transfer to astrocytes and neurons, which regulate gene expression, subsequently benefit neurite remodeling and functional recovery after stroke. PMID:23630198

  8. Therapeutic potential of transplanted placental mesenchymal stem cells in treating Chinese miniature pigs with acute liver failure

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Stem cell-based therapy to treat liver diseases is a focus of current research worldwide. So far, most such studies depend on rodent hepatic failure models. The purpose of this study was to isolate mesenchymal stem cells from human placenta (hPMSCs) and determine their therapeutic potential for treating Chinese experimental miniature pigs with acute liver failure (ALF). Methods hPMSCs were isolated and analyzed for their purity and differentiation potential before being employed as the donor cells for transplantation. ALF models of Chinese experimental miniature pigs were established and divided into four groups: no cell transplantation; hPMSCs transplantation via the jugular vein; X-ray-treated hPMSCs transplantation via the portal vein; and hPMSCs transplantation via the portal vein. The restoration of biological functions of the livers receiving transplantation was assessed via a variety of approaches such as mortality rate determination, serum biochemical analysis, and histological, immunohistochemical, and genetic analysis. Results hPMSCs expressed high levels of CD29, CD73, CD13, and CD90, had adipogenic, osteogenic, and hepatic differentiation potential. They improved liver functions in vivo after transplantation into the D-galactosamine-injured pig livers as evidenced by the fact that ALT, AST, ALP, CHE, TBIL, and TBA concentrations returned to normal levels in recipient ALF pigs. Meanwhile, histological data revealed that transplantation of hPMSCs via the portal vein reduced liver inflammation, decreased hepatic denaturation and necrosis, and promoted liver regeneration. These ameliorations were not found in the other three groups. The result of 7-day survival rates suggested that hPMSCs transplantation via the portal vein was able to significantly prolong the survival of ALF pigs compared with the other three groups. Histochemistry and RT-PCR results confirmed the presence of transplanted human cells in recipient pig livers (Groups III, IV

  9. A conserved germline multipotency program

    PubMed Central

    Juliano, Celina E.; Swartz, S. Zachary; Wessel, Gary M.

    2010-01-01

    The germline of multicellular animals is segregated from somatic tissues, which is an essential developmental process for the next generation. Although certain ecdysozoans and chordates segregate their germline during embryogenesis, animals from other taxa segregate their germline after embryogenesis from multipotent progenitor cells. An overlapping set of genes, including vasa, nanos and piwi, operate in both multipotent precursors and in the germline. As we propose here, this conservation implies the existence of an underlying germline multipotency program in these cell types that has a previously underappreciated and conserved function in maintaining multipotency. PMID:21098563

  10. The Comparison of Adipose Stem Cell and Placental Stem Cell in Secretion Characteristics and in Facial Antiaging.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Guo, Shilei; Wei, Cui; Li, Honglan; Chen, Lei; Yin, Chang; Zhang, Chuansen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Mesenchymal stem cells are the most commonly used seed cells in biomedical research and tissue engineering. Their secretory proteins have also been proven to play an important role in tissue healing. Methods. We isolated adipose stem cells and placental stem cells and performed analysis examining characteristics. The secretory proteins were extracted from conditioned medium and analyzed by MALDI-TOF/TOF. The antiaging effect of conditioned mediums was evaluated by the results of facial skin application. Results. Adipose stem cells and placental stem cells were found to be very similar in their surface markers and multipotency. The specific proteins secreted from adipose stem cells were more adept at cell adhesion, migration, wound healing, and tissue remodeling, while the proteins secreted by placental stem cells were more adept at angiogenesis, cell proliferation, differentiation, cell survival, immunomodulation, and collagen degradation. While these two types of conditioned medium could improve the facial index, the improvement of Melanin index after injection of the adipose stem cell conditioned medium was much more significant. Conclusion. The results suggest that the secreted proteins are ideal cell-free substances for regeneration medicine, especially in the antiaging field. PMID:27057176

  11. The Comparison of Adipose Stem Cell and Placental Stem Cell in Secretion Characteristics and in Facial Antiaging

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan; Guo, Shilei; Wei, Cui; Li, Honglan; Chen, Lei; Yin, Chang; Zhang, Chuansen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Mesenchymal stem cells are the most commonly used seed cells in biomedical research and tissue engineering. Their secretory proteins have also been proven to play an important role in tissue healing. Methods. We isolated adipose stem cells and placental stem cells and performed analysis examining characteristics. The secretory proteins were extracted from conditioned medium and analyzed by MALDI-TOF/TOF. The antiaging effect of conditioned mediums was evaluated by the results of facial skin application. Results. Adipose stem cells and placental stem cells were found to be very similar in their surface markers and multipotency. The specific proteins secreted from adipose stem cells were more adept at cell adhesion, migration, wound healing, and tissue remodeling, while the proteins secreted by placental stem cells were more adept at angiogenesis, cell proliferation, differentiation, cell survival, immunomodulation, and collagen degradation. While these two types of conditioned medium could improve the facial index, the improvement of Melanin index after injection of the adipose stem cell conditioned medium was much more significant. Conclusion. The results suggest that the secreted proteins are ideal cell-free substances for regeneration medicine, especially in the antiaging field. PMID:27057176

  12. Labeling and Imaging Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Quantum Dots

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells with the potential to differentiate into bone, cartilage, adipose and muscle cells. Adult derived MSCs are being actively investigated because of their potential to be utilized for therapeutic cell-based transplantation. Methods...

  13. Successful immortalization of mesenchymal progenitor cells derived from human placenta and the differentiation abilities of immortalized cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xiaohong; Soda, Yasushi; Takahashi, Kenji; Bai, Yuansong; Mitsuru, Ayako; Igura, Koichi; Satoh, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Tani, Kenzaburo; Tojo, Arinobu; Takahashi, Tsuneo A. . E-mail: takahasi@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2006-12-29

    We reported previously that mesenchymal progenitor cells derived from chorionic villi of the human placenta could differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes under proper induction conditions and that these cells should be useful for allogeneic regenerative medicine, including cartilage tissue engineering. However, similar to human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), though these placental cells can be isolated easily, they are difficult to study in detail because of their limited life span in vitro. To overcome this problem, we attempted to prolong the life span of human placenta-derived mesenchymal cells (hPDMCs) by modifying hTERT and Bmi-1, and investigated whether these modified hPDMCs retained their differentiation capability and multipotency. Our results indicated that the combination of hTERT and Bmi-1 was highly efficient in prolonging the life span of hPDMCs with differentiation capability to osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic cells in vitro. Clonal cell lines with directional differentiation ability were established from the immortalized parental hPDMC/hTERT + Bmi-1. Interestingly, hPDMC/Bmi-1 showed extended proliferation after long-term growth arrest and telomerase was activated in the immortal hPDMC/Bmi-1 cells. However, the differentiation potential was lost in these cells. This study reports a method to extend the life span of hPDMCs with hTERT and Bmi-1 that should become a useful tool for the study of mesenchymal stem cells.

  14. Equine placentation.

    PubMed

    Allen, W R; Stewart, F

    2001-01-01

    A tough, elastic glycoprotein capsule envelops the equine blastocyst between Days 6 and 23 after ovulation. It maintains the spherical configuration of, and provides physical support for, the embryo as it traverses the entire uterine lumen during Days 6-17, propelled by myometrial contractions that are stimulated by pulsatile release of prostaglandin F2alpha and prostaglandin E2. The capsule also accumulates constituents of the exocrine secretions of the endometrial glands ('uterine milk') as nutrients for the mobile embryo as it releases its antiluteolytic maternal recognition-of-pregnancy signal to the whole of the surface of the endometrium. Mobility ceases abruptly on Day 17 with a sudden increase in uterine tonicity that 'fixes' the conceptus at the base of one of the uterine horns. At Day 35, the trophoblast of the spherical conceptus has separated into its invasive and non-invasive components. The former, distinguished as the thickened, annulate chorionic girdle, invades the maternal endometrium to form the unique endometrial cups. These secrete a chorionic gonadotrophin that synergizes with pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone to induce secondary luteal development in the maternal ovaries. The cup cells express foreign fetal antigens that stimulate strong maternal humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, which curtail their lifespan. The non-invasive trophoblast of the allantochorion establishes a stable microvillous contact with the endometrial epithelium around Day 40 and, over the next 100 days, develops a complex multibranched interdigitation with the endometrium to form the microcotyledonary haemotrophic exchange units that cover the entire surface of the diffuse epitheliochorial placenta. Reduction in the effective total area of fetomaternal contact at this placental interface, by competition between twin conceptuses for the limited area of available endometrium, by attachment of the allantochorion to an imperfect endometrium in a mare with

  15. Monolayered mesenchymal stem cells repair scarred myocardium after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Miyahara, Yoshinori; Nagaya, Noritoshi; Kataoka, Masaharu; Yanagawa, Bobby; Tanaka, Koichi; Hao, Hiroyuki; Ishino, Kozo; Ishida, Hideyuki; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Kangawa, Kenji; Sano, Shunji; Okano, Teruo; Kitamura, Soichiro; Mori, Hidezo

    2006-04-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent cells that can differentiate into cardiomyocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Here we show, using cell sheet technology, that monolayered mesenchymal stem cells have multipotent and self-propagating properties after transplantation into infarcted rat hearts. We cultured adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells characterized by flow cytometry using temperature-responsive culture dishes. Four weeks after coronary ligation, we transplanted the monolayered mesenchymal stem cells onto the scarred myocardium. After transplantation, the engrafted sheet gradually grew to form a thick stratum that included newly formed vessels, undifferentiated cells and few cardiomyocytes. The mesenchymal stem cell sheet also acted through paracrine pathways to trigger angiogenesis. Unlike a fibroblast cell sheet, the monolayered mesenchymal stem cells reversed wall thinning in the scar area and improved cardiac function in rats with myocardial infarction. Thus, transplantation of monolayered mesenchymal stem cells may be a new therapeutic strategy for cardiac tissue regeneration. PMID:16582917

  16. Characteristics and multipotency of equine dedifferentiated fat cells

    PubMed Central

    MURATA, Daiki; YAMASAKI, Atsushi; MATSUZAKI, Shouta; SUNAGA, Takafumi; FUJIKI, Makoto; TOKUNAGA, Satoshi; MISUMI, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells have been shown to be multipotent, similar to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this study, we aimed to establish and characterize equine DFAT cells. Equine adipocytes were ceiling cultured, and then dedifferentiated into DFAT cells by the seventh day of culture. The number of DFAT cells was increased to over 10 million by the fourth passage. Flow cytometry of DFAT cells showed that the cells were strongly positive for CD44, CD90, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I; moderately positive for CD11a/18, CD105, and MHC class II; and negative for CD34 and CD45. Moreover, DFAT cells were positive for the expression of sex determining region Y-box 2 as a marker of multipotency. Finally, we found that DFAT cells could differentiate into osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic lineages under specific nutrient conditions. Thus, DFAT cells could have clinical applications in tissue regeneration, similar to MSCs derived from adipose tissue. PMID:27330399

  17. Mesenchymal dysplasia of placenta.

    PubMed

    Balachandran Nair, Krishna G; Srinish, Minu; Balan, Preesha; Sadasivan, Santha

    2015-01-01

    A rare case of placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) in a 26-year-old patient is reported. Ultrasound scan at 17 weeks of gestation showed placenta with multiple cystic spaces and a normal appearing fetus. Following delivery of a term live baby, histological examination of the placenta was suggestive of PMD. The early recognition of this rare condition by characteristic ultrasonographic findings is herein emphasized and hence that PMD is distinguished from molar pregnancy. PMID:26275269

  18. In Brief: Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Duffhues, Gonzalo; Orlova, Valeria; Ten Dijke, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Recent evidence has highlighted the role of endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) in the onset and progression of a number of human pathologies. EndoMT involves the loss of an endothelial signature to generate unspecialized mesenchymal-like cells, susceptible to being re-differentiated into mesodermal cell types, including osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. Therefore, modulation of the molecular pathways controlling EndoMT can be considered as a therapeutic approach for particular human diseases. In addition, EndoMT may be harnessed for tissue engineering by producing multipotent mesenchymal cells able to differentiate into mutiple cell types. PMID:26446982

  19. Six2 defines and regulates a multipotent self-renewing nephron progenitor population throughout mammalian kidney development

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Akio; Valerius, M. Todd; Mugford, Joshua W.; Carroll, Thomas J.; Self, Michelle; Oliver, Guillermo; McMahon, Andrew P.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Nephrons, the basic functional units of the kidney, are generated repetitively during kidney organogenesis from a mesenchymal progenitor population. Which cells within this pool give rise to nephrons and how multiple nephron lineages form during this protracted developmental process is unclear. We demonstrate that the Six2-expressing cap mesenchyme represents a multipotent nephron progenitor population. Six2-expressing cells give rise to all cell-types of the main body of the nephron, during all stages of nephrogenesis. Pulse labeling of Six2-expressing nephron progenitors at the onset of kidney development suggests that the Six2-expressing population is maintained by self-renewal. Clonal analysis indicates that at least some Six2-expressing cells are multipotent, contributing to multiple domains of the nephron. Furthermore, Six2 functions cell-autonomously to maintain a progenitor cell status, as cap mesenchyme cells lacking Six2 activity contribute to ectopic nephron tubules, a mechanism dependent on a Wnt9b inductive signal. Taken together, our observations suggest that Six2 activity cell-autonomously regulates a multipotent nephron progenitor population. PMID:18682239

  20. Six2 defines and regulates a multipotent self-renewing nephron progenitor population throughout mammalian kidney development.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Akio; Valerius, M Todd; Mugford, Joshua W; Carroll, Thomas J; Self, Michelle; Oliver, Guillermo; McMahon, Andrew P

    2008-08-01

    Nephrons, the basic functional units of the kidney, are generated repetitively during kidney organogenesis from a mesenchymal progenitor population. Which cells within this pool give rise to nephrons and how multiple nephron lineages form during this protracted developmental process are unclear. We demonstrate that the Six2-expressing cap mesenchyme represents a multipotent nephron progenitor population. Six2-expressing cells give rise to all cell types of the main body of the nephron during all stages of nephrogenesis. Pulse labeling of Six2-expressing nephron progenitors at the onset of kidney development suggests that the Six2-expressing population is maintained by self-renewal. Clonal analysis indicates that at least some Six2-expressing cells are multipotent, contributing to multiple domains of the nephron. Furthermore, Six2 functions cell autonomously to maintain a progenitor cell status, as cap mesenchyme cells lacking Six2 activity contribute to ectopic nephron tubules, a mechanism dependent on a Wnt9b inductive signal. Taken together, our observations suggest that Six2 activity cell-autonomously regulates a multipotent nephron progenitor population. PMID:18682239

  1. Conditionally Immortalized Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts Retain Proliferative Activity without Compromising Multipotent Differentiation Potential

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Enyi; Bi, Yang; Jiang, Wei; Luo, Xiaoji; Yang, Ke; Gao, Jian-Li; Gao, Yanhong; Luo, Qing; Shi, Qiong; Kim, Stephanie H.; Liu, Xing; Li, Mi; Hu, Ning; Liu, Hong; Cui, Jing; Zhang, Wenwen; Li, Ruidong; Chen, Xiang; Shen, Jikun; Kong, Yuhan; Zhang, Jiye; Wang, Jinhua; Luo, Jinyong; He, Bai-Cheng; Wang, Huicong; Reid, Russell R.; Luu, Hue H.; Haydon, Rex C.; Yang, Li; He, Tong-Chuan

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells which reside in many tissues and can give rise to multiple lineages including bone, cartilage and adipose. Although MSCs have attracted significant attention for basic and translational research, primary MSCs have limited life span in culture which hampers MSCs' broader applications. Here, we investigate if mouse mesenchymal progenitors can be conditionally immortalized with SV40 large T antigen and maintain long-term cell proliferation without compromising their multipotency. Using the system which expresses SV40 large T antigen flanked with Cre/loxP sites, we demonstrate that mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) can be efficiently immortalized by SV40 large T antigen. The conditionally immortalized MEFs (iMEFs) exhibit an enhanced proliferative activity and maintain long-term cell proliferation, which can be reversed by Cre recombinase. The iMEFs express most MSC markers and retain multipotency as they can differentiate into osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic lineages under appropriate differentiation conditions in vitro and in vivo. The removal of SV40 large T reduces the differentiation potential of iMEFs possibly due to the decreased progenitor expansion. Furthermore, the iMEFs are apparently not tumorigenic when they are subcutaneously injected into athymic nude mice. Thus, the conditionally immortalized iMEFs not only maintain long-term cell proliferation but also retain the ability to differentiate into multiple lineages. Our results suggest that the reversible immortalization strategy using SV40 large T antigen may be an efficient and safe approach to establishing long-term cell culture of primary mesenchymal progenitors for basic and translational research, as well as for potential clinical applications. PMID:22384246

  2. Identification of a Multipotent Self-Renewing Stromal Progenitor Population during Mammalian Kidney Organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Akio; Mugford, Joshua W.; Krautzberger, A. Michaela; Naiman, Natalie; Liao, Jessica; McMahon, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The mammalian kidney is a complex organ consisting of multiple cell types. We previously showed that the Six2-expressing cap mesenchyme is a multipotent self-renewing progenitor population for the main body of the nephron, the basic functional unit of the kidney. However, the cellular mechanisms establishing stromal tissues are less clear. We demonstrate that the Foxd1-expressing cortical stroma represents a distinct multipotent self-renewing progenitor population that gives rise to stromal tissues of the interstitium, mesangium, and pericytes throughout kidney organogenesis. Fate map analysis of Foxd1-expressing cells demonstrates that a small subset of these cells contributes to Six2-expressing cells at the early stage of kidney outgrowth. Thereafter, there appears to be a strict nephron and stromal lineage boundary derived from Six2-expressing and Foxd1-expressing cell types, respectively. Taken together, our observations suggest that distinct multipotent self-renewing progenitor populations coordinate cellular differentiation of the nephron epithelium and renal stroma during mammalian kidney organogenesis. PMID:25358792

  3. Identification of a multipotent self-renewing stromal progenitor population during mammalian kidney organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Akio; Mugford, Joshua W; Krautzberger, A Michaela; Naiman, Natalie; Liao, Jessica; McMahon, Andrew P

    2014-10-14

    The mammalian kidney is a complex organ consisting of multiple cell types. We previously showed that the Six2-expressing cap mesenchyme is a multipotent self-renewing progenitor population for the main body of the nephron, the basic functional unit of the kidney. However, the cellular mechanisms establishing stromal tissues are less clear. We demonstrate that the Foxd1-expressing cortical stroma represents a distinct multipotent self-renewing progenitor population that gives rise to stromal tissues of the interstitium, mesangium, and pericytes throughout kidney organogenesis. Fate map analysis of Foxd1-expressing cells demonstrates that a small subset of these cells contributes to Six2-expressing cells at the early stage of kidney outgrowth. Thereafter, there appears to be a strict nephron and stromal lineage boundary derived from Six2-expressing and Foxd1-expressing cell types, respectively. Taken together, our observations suggest that distinct multipotent self-renewing progenitor populations coordinate cellular differentiation of the nephron epithelium and renal stroma during mammalian kidney organogenesis. PMID:25358792

  4. The effect of bisphosphonates on the endothelial differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Dileep; Hamlet, Stephen Mark; Petcu, Eugen Bogdan; Ivanovski, Saso

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of the local stem cell niche to providing an adequate vascular framework during healing cannot be overemphasized. Bisphosphonates (BPs) are known to have a direct effect on the local vasculature, but their effect on progenitor cell differentiation is unknown. This in vitro study evaluated the effect(s) of various BPs on the differentiation of human placental mesenchymal stem cells (pMSCs) along the endothelial lineage and their subsequent functional and morphogenic capabilities. pMSC multipotency was confirmed by successful differentiation into cells of both the osteogenic and endothelial lineages, as demonstrated by positive Alizarin Red S staining and Ac-LDL uptake. pMSC differentiation in the presence of non-cytotoxic BP concentrations showed that nitrogen containing BPs had a significant inhibitory effect on cell migration and endothelial marker gene expression, as well as compromised endothelial differentiation as demonstrated using von Willebrand factor immunofluorescence staining and tube formation assay. This in vitro study demonstrated that at non-cytotoxic levels, nitrogen-containing BPs inhibit differentiation of pMSCs into cells of an endothelial lineage and affect the downstream functional capability of these cells supporting a multi-modal effect of BPs on angiogenesis as pathogenic mechanism contributing to bone healing disorders such as bisphosphonate related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ). PMID:26857282

  5. The effect of bisphosphonates on the endothelial differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Dileep; Hamlet, Stephen Mark; Petcu, Eugen Bogdan; Ivanovski, Saso

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of the local stem cell niche to providing an adequate vascular framework during healing cannot be overemphasized. Bisphosphonates (BPs) are known to have a direct effect on the local vasculature, but their effect on progenitor cell differentiation is unknown. This in vitro study evaluated the effect(s) of various BPs on the differentiation of human placental mesenchymal stem cells (pMSCs) along the endothelial lineage and their subsequent functional and morphogenic capabilities. pMSC multipotency was confirmed by successful differentiation into cells of both the osteogenic and endothelial lineages, as demonstrated by positive Alizarin Red S staining and Ac-LDL uptake. pMSC differentiation in the presence of non-cytotoxic BP concentrations showed that nitrogen containing BPs had a significant inhibitory effect on cell migration and endothelial marker gene expression, as well as compromised endothelial differentiation as demonstrated using von Willebrand factor immunofluorescence staining and tube formation assay. This in vitro study demonstrated that at non-cytotoxic levels, nitrogen-containing BPs inhibit differentiation of pMSCs into cells of an endothelial lineage and affect the downstream functional capability of these cells supporting a multi-modal effect of BPs on angiogenesis as pathogenic mechanism contributing to bone healing disorders such as bisphosphonate related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ). PMID:26857282

  6. Human Myocardial Pericytes: Multipotent Mesodermal Precursors Exhibiting Cardiac Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, William C.W.; Baily, James E.; Corselli, Mirko; Diaz, Mary; Sun, Bin; Xiang, Guosheng; Gray, Gillian A.; Huard, Johnny; Péault, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Perivascular mesenchymal precursor cells (i.e. pericytes) reside in skeletal muscle where they contribute to myofiber regeneration; however, the existence of similar microvessel-associated regenerative precursor cells in cardiac muscle has not yet been documented. We tested whether microvascular pericytes within human myocardium exhibit phenotypes and multipotency similar to their anatomically and developmentally distinct counterparts. Fetal and adult human heart pericytes (hHPs) express canonical pericyte markers in situ, including CD146, NG2, PDGFRβ, PDGFRα, αSMA, and SM-MHC, but not CD117, CD133 and desmin, nor endothelial cell (EC) markers. hHPs were prospectively purified to homogeneity from ventricular myocardium by flow cytometry, based on a combination of positive- (CD146) and negative-selection (CD34, CD45, CD56, and CD117) cell lineage markers. Purified hHPs expanded in vitro were phenotypically similar to human skeletal muscle-derived pericytes (hSkMPs). hHPs express MSC markers in situ and exhibited osteo- chondro-, and adipogenic potentials but, importantly, no ability for skeletal myogenesis, diverging from pericytes of all other origins. hHPs supported network formation with/without ECs in Matrigel cultures; hHPs further stimulated angiogenic responses under hypoxia, markedly different from hSkMPs. The cardiomyogenic potential of hHPs was examined following 5-azacytidine treatment and neonatal cardiomyocyte co-culture in vitro, and intramyocardial transplantation in vivo. Results indicated cardiomyocytic differentiation in a small fraction of hHPs. In conclusion, human myocardial pericytes share certain phenotypic and developmental similarities with their skeletal muscle homologs, yet exhibit different antigenic, myogenic, and angiogenic properties. This is the first example of an anatomical restriction in the developmental potential of pericytes as native mesenchymal stem cells. PMID:25336400

  7. Differentiation of Multipotent Vascular Stem Cells Contributes to Vascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhenyu; Wang, Aijun; Yuan, Falei; Yan, Zhiqiang; Liu, Bo; Chu, Julia S.; Helms, Jill A.

    2012-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the de-differentiation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) from contractile to proliferative/synthetic phenotype has an important role during vascular remodeling and diseases. Here we provide evidence that challenges this theory. We identify a new type of multipotent vascular stem cell (MVSC) in blood vessel wall. MVSCs express markers including Sox17, Sox10 and S100β, are cloneable, have telomerase activity, and can differentiate into neural cells and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like cells that subsequently differentiate into SMCs. On the other hand, we use lineage tracing with smooth muscle myosin heavy chain as a marker to show that MVSCs and proliferative or synthetic SMCs do not arise from the de-differentiation of mature SMCs. Upon vascular injuries, MVSCs, instead of SMCs, become proliferative, and MVSCs can differentiate into SMCs and chondrogenic cells, thus contributing to vascular remodeling and neointimal hyperplasia. These findings support a new hypothesis that the differentiation of MVSCs, rather than the de-differentiation of SMCs, contributes to vascular remodeling and diseases. PMID:22673902

  8. Ultrasound in placental disorders.

    PubMed

    D'Antonio, Francesco; Bhide, Amar

    2014-04-01

    The definition of placenta previa based on ultrasound findings is more practical, and the traditional definition (implantation of the placenta in the lower uterine segment) needs to be revised. The term 'placenta previa' should only be used when the placental edge overlaps or is within 2 cm of the internal cervical orifice in late pregnancy. If the placental edge is located further than 2 cm but within 3.5 cm from the internal cervical orifice, the placenta should be termed 'low-lying'. Unless the placental edge at least reaches the internal orifice at mid-trimester, symptomatic placenta previa in the third trimester will not be encountered. Caesarean section is the recommended mode of delivery for placenta previa at term. Attempt at vaginal delivery is appropriate for low-lying placenta, but the possibility of post-partum haemorrhage should be kept in mind. The incidence of invasive placentation, such as placenta accrete, has progressively risen in the past 3 decades, possibly as a consequence of increasing caesarean section rates. Ultrasound has a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 97% for the identification of all forms of invasive placentation. Chorioangiomas are benign non-trophoblastic placental tumours with excessive vascular proliferation within the stroma of chronic villi. They are usually asymptomatic, although occasionally can be associated with adverse fetal outcomes. Chorioangiomas usually appear as well-circumscribed, rounded, hypo-echoic lesions next to the chorionic surface. Iatrogenic delivery or prenatal intervention are two options, if fetal compromise is present. Prenatal detection leads to a dramatic increase in survival compared with those cases unsuspected antenatally. PMID:24461676

  9. Entropy, Ergodicity, and Stem Cell Multipotency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridden, Sonya J.; Chang, Hannah H.; Zygalakis, Konstantinos C.; MacArthur, Ben D.

    2015-11-01

    Populations of mammalian stem cells commonly exhibit considerable cell-cell variability. However, the functional role of this diversity is unclear. Here, we analyze expression fluctuations of the stem cell surface marker Sca1 in mouse hematopoietic progenitor cells using a simple stochastic model and find that the observed dynamics naturally lie close to a critical state, thereby producing a diverse population that is able to respond rapidly to environmental changes. We propose an information-theoretic interpretation of these results that views cellular multipotency as an instance of maximum entropy statistical inference.

  10. Adult human adipose tissue contains several types of multipotent cells.

    PubMed

    Tallone, Tiziano; Realini, Claudio; Böhmler, Andreas; Kornfeld, Christopher; Vassalli, Giuseppe; Moccetti, Tiziano; Bardelli, Silvana; Soldati, Gianni

    2011-04-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a type of adult stem cells that can be easily isolated from various tissues and expanded in vitro. Many reports on their pluripotency and possible clinical applications have raised hopes and interest in MSCs. In an attempt to unify the terminology and the criteria to label a cell as MSC, in 2006 the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) proposed a standard set of rules to define the identity of these cells. However, MSCs are still extracted from different tissues, by diverse isolation protocols, are cultured and expanded in different media and conditions. All these variables may have profound effects on the selection of cell types and the composition of heterogeneous subpopulations, on the selective expansion of specific cell populations with totally different potentials and ergo, on the long-term fate of the cells upon in vitro culture. Therefore, specific molecular and cellular markers that identify MSCs subsets as well as standardization of expansion protocols for these cells are urgently needed. Here, we briefly discuss new useful markers and recent data supporting the rapidly emerging concept that many different types of progenitor cells are found in close association with blood vessels. This knowledge may promote the necessary technical improvements required to reduce variability and promote higher efficacy and safety when isolating and expanding these cells for therapeutic use. In the light of the discussed data, particularly the identification of new markers, and advances in the understanding of fundamental MSC biology, we also suggest a revision of the 2006 ISCT criteria. PMID:21327755

  11. Mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ding, Dah-Ching; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Lin, Shinn-Zong

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells have two features: the ability to differentiate along different lineages and the ability of self-renewal. Two major types of stem cells have been described, namely, embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Embryonic stem cells (ESC) are obtained from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst and are associated with tumorigenesis, and the use of human ESCs involves ethical and legal considerations. The use of adult mesenchymal stem cells is less problematic with regard to these issues. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are stromal cells that have the ability to self-renew and also exhibit multilineage differentiation. MSCs can be isolated from a variety of tissues, such as umbilical cord, endometrial polyps, menses blood, bone marrow, adipose tissue, etc. This is because the ease of harvest and quantity obtained make these sources most practical for experimental and possible clinical applications. Recently, MSCs have been found in new sources, such as menstrual blood and endometrium. There are likely more sources of MSCs waiting to be discovered, and MSCs may be a good candidate for future experimental or clinical applications. One of the major challenges is to elucidate the mechanisms of differentiation, mobilization, and homing of MSCs, which are highly complex. The multipotent properties of MSCs make them an attractive choice for possible development of clinical applications. Future studies should explore the role of MSCs in differentiation, transplantation, and immune response in various diseases. PMID:21396235

  12. CD271 antigen defines a subset of multipotent stromal cells with immunosuppressive and lymphohematopoietic engraftment-promoting properties

    PubMed Central

    Kuçi, Selim; Kuçi, Zyrafete; Kreyenberg, Hermann; Deak, Erika; Pütsch, Kathrin; Huenecke, Sabine; Amara, Chandrasekhar; Koller, Stefanie; Rettinger, Eva; Grez, Manuel; Koehl, Ulrike; Latifi-Pupovci, Hatixhe; Henschler, Reinhard; Tonn, Torsten; von Laer, Dorothee; Klingebiel, Thomas; Bader, Peter

    2010-01-01

    between these two mesenchymal stromal cell populations. Conclusions Our results indicate that CD271 antigen provides a versatile marker for prospective isolation and expansion of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells with immunosuppressive and lymphohematopoietic engraftment-promoting properties. The co-transplantation of such cells together with hematopoietic stem cells in patients with hematologic malignancies may prove valuable in the prevention of impaired/delayed T-cell recovery and graft-versus-host disease. PMID:20179086

  13. Multipotent pancreas progenitors: Inconclusive but pivotal topic.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fang-Xu; Morahan, Grant

    2015-12-26

    The establishment of multipotent pancreas progenitors (MPP) should have a significant impact not only on the ontology of the pancreas, but also for the translational research of glucose-responding endocrine β-cells. Deficiency of the latter may lead to the pandemic type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder. An ideal treatment of which would potentially be the replacement of destroyed or failed β-cells, by restoring function of endogenous pancreatic endocrine cells or by transplantation of donor islets or in vitro generated insulin-secreting cells. Thus, considerable research efforts have been devoted to identify MPP candidates in the pre- and post-natal pancreas for the endogenous neogenesis or regeneration of endocrine insulin-secreting cells. In order to advance this inconclusive but critical field, we here review the emerging concepts, recent literature and newest developments of potential MPP and propose measures that would assist its forward progression. PMID:26730269

  14. Multipotent pancreas progenitors: Inconclusive but pivotal topic

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Fang-Xu; Morahan, Grant

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of multipotent pancreas progenitors (MPP) should have a significant impact not only on the ontology of the pancreas, but also for the translational research of glucose-responding endocrine β-cells. Deficiency of the latter may lead to the pandemic type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder. An ideal treatment of which would potentially be the replacement of destroyed or failed β-cells, by restoring function of endogenous pancreatic endocrine cells or by transplantation of donor islets or in vitro generated insulin-secreting cells. Thus, considerable research efforts have been devoted to identify MPP candidates in the pre- and post-natal pancreas for the endogenous neogenesis or regeneration of endocrine insulin-secreting cells. In order to advance this inconclusive but critical field, we here review the emerging concepts, recent literature and newest developments of potential MPP and propose measures that would assist its forward progression. PMID:26730269

  15. Placental Aromatase Is Deficient in Placental Ischemia and Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Dobierzewska, Aneta; España-Perrot, Pedro P.; Venegas-Araneda, Pía; Guzmán-Rojas, Alejandra M.; González, María I.; Palominos-Rivera, Macarena; Irarrazabal, Carlos E.; Figueroa-Diesel, Horacio; Varas-Godoy, Manuel; Illanes, Sebastián E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Preeclampsia is a maternal hypertensive disorder with uncertain etiology and a leading cause of maternal and fetal mortality worldwide, causing nearly 40% of premature births delivered before 35 weeks of gestation. The first stage of preeclampsia is characterized by reduction of utero-placental blood flow which is reflected in high blood pressure and proteinuria during the second half of pregnancy. In human placenta androgens derived from the maternal and fetal adrenal glands are converted into estrogens by the enzymatic action of placental aromatase. This implies that alterations in placental steroidogenesis and, subsequently, in the functionality or bioavailability of placental aromatase may be mechanistically involved in the pathophysiology of PE. Methods Serum samples were collected at 32–36 weeks of gestation and placenta biopsies were collected at time of delivery from PE patients (n = 16) and pregnant controls (n = 32). The effect of oxygen tension on placental cells was assessed by incubation JEG–3 cells under 1% and 8% O2 for different time periods, Timed-mated, pregnant New Zealand white rabbits (n = 6) were used to establish an in vivo model of placental ischemia (achieved by ligature of uteroplacental vessels). Aromatase content and estrogens and androgens concentrations were measured. Results The protein and mRNA content of placental aromatase significantly diminished in placentae obtained from preeclamptic patients compared to controls. Similarly, the circulating concentrations of 17-β-estradiol/testosterone and estrone/androstenedione were reduced in preeclamptic patients vs. controls. These data are consistent with a concomitant decrease in aromatase activity. Aromatase content was reduced in response to low oxygen tension in the choriocarcinoma JEG–3 cell line and in rabbit placentae in response to partial ligation of uterine spiral arteries, suggesting that reduced placental aromatase activity in preeclamptic patients may be

  16. Malignant cancer and invasive placentation

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Alaric W.; Wagner, Günter P.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer metastasis is an invasive process that involves the transplantation of cells into new environments. Since human placentation is also invasive, hypotheses about a relationship between invasive placentation in eutherian mammals and metastasis have been proposed. The relationship between metastatic cancer and invasive placentation is usually presented in terms of antagonistic pleiotropy. According to this hypothesis, evolution of invasive placentation also established the mechanisms for cancer metastasis. Here, in contrast, we argue that the secondary evolution of less invasive placentation in some mammalian lineages may have resulted in positive pleiotropic effects on cancer survival by lowering malignancy rates. These positive pleiotropic effects would manifest themselves as resistance to cancer cell invasion. To provide a preliminary test of this proposal, we re-analyze data from Priester and Mantel (Occurrence of tumors in domestic animals. Data from 12 United States and Canadian colleges of veterinary medicine. J Natl Cancer Inst 1971;47:1333-44) about malignancy rates in cows, horses, cats and dogs. From our analysis we found that equines and bovines, animals with less invasive placentation, have lower rates of metastatic cancer than felines and canines in skin and glandular epithelial cancers as well as connective tissue sarcomas. We conclude that a link between type of placentation and species-specific malignancy rates is more likely related to derived mechanisms that suppress invasion rather than different degrees of fetal placental aggressiveness. PMID:25324490

  17. Mesenchymal stem cells in regenerative rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Nurkovic, Jasmin; Dolicanin, Zana; Mustafic, Fahrudin; Mujanovic, Rifat; Memic, Mensur; Grbovic, Vesna; Skevin, Aleksandra Jurisic; Nurkovic, Selmina

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] Regenerative medicine and rehabilitation contribute in many ways to a specific plan of care based on a patient's medical status. The intrinsic self-renewing, multipotent, regenerative, and immunosuppressive properties of mesenchymal stem cells offer great promise in the treatment of numerous autoimmune, degenerative, and graft-versus-host diseases, as well as tissue injuries. As such, mesenchymal stem cells represent a therapeutic fortune in regenerative medicine. The aim of this review is to discuss possibilities, limitations, and future clinical applications of mesenchymal stem cells. [Subjects and Methods] The authors have identified and discussed clinically and scientifically relevant articles from PubMed that have met the inclusion criteria. [Results] Direct treatment of muscle injuries, stroke, damaged peripheral nerves, and cartilage with mesenchymal stem cells has been demonstrated to be effective, with synergies seen between cellular and physical therapies. Over the past few years, several researchers, including us, have shown that there are certain limitations in the use of mesenchymal stem cells. Aging and spontaneous malignant transformation of mesenchymal stem cells significantly affect the functionality of these cells. [Conclusion] Definitive conclusions cannot be made by these studies because limited numbers of patients were included. Studies clarifying these results are expected in the near future. PMID:27390452

  18. Mesenchymal stem cells in regenerative rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Nurkovic, Jasmin; Dolicanin, Zana; Mustafic, Fahrudin; Mujanovic, Rifat; Memic, Mensur; Grbovic, Vesna; Skevin, Aleksandra Jurisic; Nurkovic, Selmina

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Regenerative medicine and rehabilitation contribute in many ways to a specific plan of care based on a patient’s medical status. The intrinsic self-renewing, multipotent, regenerative, and immunosuppressive properties of mesenchymal stem cells offer great promise in the treatment of numerous autoimmune, degenerative, and graft-versus-host diseases, as well as tissue injuries. As such, mesenchymal stem cells represent a therapeutic fortune in regenerative medicine. The aim of this review is to discuss possibilities, limitations, and future clinical applications of mesenchymal stem cells. [Subjects and Methods] The authors have identified and discussed clinically and scientifically relevant articles from PubMed that have met the inclusion criteria. [Results] Direct treatment of muscle injuries, stroke, damaged peripheral nerves, and cartilage with mesenchymal stem cells has been demonstrated to be effective, with synergies seen between cellular and physical therapies. Over the past few years, several researchers, including us, have shown that there are certain limitations in the use of mesenchymal stem cells. Aging and spontaneous malignant transformation of mesenchymal stem cells significantly affect the functionality of these cells. [Conclusion] Definitive conclusions cannot be made by these studies because limited numbers of patients were included. Studies clarifying these results are expected in the near future. PMID:27390452

  19. Distinct adipogenic differentiation phenotypes of human umbilical cord mesenchymal cells dependent on adipogenic conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The umbilical cord (UC) matrix is a source of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that have adipogenic potential and thus can be a model to study adipogenesis. However, existing variability in adipocytic differentiation outcomes may be due to discrepancies in methods utilized for adipogenic d...

  20. Pigment Cell Progenitors in Zebrafish Remain Multipotent through Metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajeet Pratap; Dinwiddie, April; Mahalwar, Prateek; Schach, Ursula; Linker, Claudia; Irion, Uwe; Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane

    2016-08-01

    The neural crest is a transient, multipotent embryonic cell population in vertebrates giving rise to diverse cell types in adults via intermediate progenitors. The in vivo cell-fate potential and lineage segregation of these postembryonic progenitors is poorly understood, and it is unknown if and when the progenitors become fate restricted. We investigate the fate restriction in the neural crest-derived stem cells and intermediate progenitors in zebrafish, which give rise to three distinct adult pigment cell types: melanophores, iridophores, and xanthophores. By inducing clones in sox10-expressing cells, we trace and quantitatively compare the pigment cell progenitors at four stages, from embryogenesis to metamorphosis. At all stages, a large fraction of the progenitors are multipotent. These multipotent progenitors have a high proliferation ability, which diminishes with fate restriction. We suggest that multipotency of the nerve-associated progenitors lasting into metamorphosis may have facilitated the evolution of adult-specific traits in vertebrates. PMID:27453500

  1. Slow and sustained nitric oxide releasing compounds inhibit multipotent vascular stem cell proliferation and differentiation without causing cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Brandon M.; Leix, Kyle Alexander; Ji, Yajing; Glaves, Richard Samuel Elliot; Ash, David E.; Mohanty, Dillip K.

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Multipotent vascular stem cells (MVSCs) proliferate and differentiate. • Nitric oxide inhibits proliferation of MVSCs. • Nitric oxide inhibits MVSC differentiation to mesenchymal-like stem cells (MSCs). • Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) neither de-differentiate nor proliferate. - Abstract: Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of cerebral and myocardial infarction. It is believed that neointimal growth common in the later stages of atherosclerosis is a result of vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) de-differentiation in response to endothelial injury. However, the claims of the SMC de-differentiation theory have not been substantiated by monitoring the fate of mature SMCs in response to such injuries. A recent study suggests that atherosclerosis is a consequence of multipotent vascular stem cell (MVSC) differentiation. Nitric oxide (NO) is a well-known mediator against atherosclerosis, in part because of its inhibitory effect on SMC proliferation. Using three different NO-donors, we have investigated the effects of NO on MVSC proliferation. Results indicate that NO inhibits MVSC proliferation in a concentration dependent manner. A slow and sustained delivery of NO proved to inhibit proliferation without causing cell death. On the other hand, larger, single-burst NO concentrations, inhibits proliferation, with concurrent significant cell death. Furthermore, our results indicate that endogenously produced NO inhibits MVSC differentiation to mesenchymal-like stem cells (MSCs) and subsequently to SMC as well.

  2. PDGF-AB and 5-Azacytidine induce conversion of somatic cells into tissue-regenerative multipotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chandrakanthan, Vashe; Yeola, Avani; Kwan, Jair C; Oliver, Rema A; Qiao, Qiao; Kang, Young Chan; Zarzour, Peter; Beck, Dominik; Boelen, Lies; Unnikrishnan, Ashwin; Villanueva, Jeanette E; Nunez, Andrea C; Knezevic, Kathy; Palu, Cintia; Nasrallah, Rabab; Carnell, Michael; Macmillan, Alex; Whan, Renee; Yu, Yan; Hardy, Philip; Grey, Shane T; Gladbach, Amadeus; Delerue, Fabien; Ittner, Lars; Mobbs, Ralph; Walkley, Carl R; Purton, Louise E; Ward, Robyn L; Wong, Jason W H; Hesson, Luke B; Walsh, William; Pimanda, John E

    2016-04-19

    Current approaches in tissue engineering are geared toward generating tissue-specific stem cells. Given the complexity and heterogeneity of tissues, this approach has its limitations. An alternate approach is to induce terminally differentiated cells to dedifferentiate into multipotent proliferative cells with the capacity to regenerate all components of a damaged tissue, a phenomenon used by salamanders to regenerate limbs. 5-Azacytidine (AZA) is a nucleoside analog that is used to treat preleukemic and leukemic blood disorders. AZA is also known to induce cell plasticity. We hypothesized that AZA-induced cell plasticity occurs via a transient multipotent cell state and that concomitant exposure to a receptive growth factor might result in the expansion of a plastic and proliferative population of cells. To this end, we treated lineage-committed cells with AZA and screened a number of different growth factors with known activity in mesenchyme-derived tissues. Here, we report that transient treatment with AZA in combination with platelet-derived growth factor-AB converts primary somatic cells into tissue-regenerative multipotent stem (iMS) cells. iMS cells possess a distinct transcriptome, are immunosuppressive, and demonstrate long-term self-renewal, serial clonogenicity, and multigerm layer differentiation potential. Importantly, unlike mesenchymal stem cells, iMS cells contribute directly to in vivo tissue regeneration in a context-dependent manner and, unlike embryonic or pluripotent stem cells, do not form teratomas. Taken together, this vector-free method of generating iMS cells from primary terminally differentiated cells has significant scope for application in tissue regeneration. PMID:27044077

  3. [Mesenchymal stem cells: from biology to clinical applications].

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo

    2003-11-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotent cells present in a variety of tissues during human development and in adults mainly in bone marrow. Mesenchymal stem cells may be isolated and expanded in vitro and they are capable to differentiate into a variety of tissues, including bone, cartilage, muscle and adipose tissue. In this review we briefly analyze the main biological features of MSC with particular attention to their interaction with hemopoietic system and to their differentiative properties. Finally, we focus on the main MSC applications both in the fields of genetic and tissue engineering. PMID:14679915

  4. Mesenchymal Stem Cells as Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Parekkadan, Biju; Milwid, Jack M.

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that are being clinically explored as a new therapeutic for treating a variety of immune-mediated diseases. First heralded as a regenerative therapy for skeletal tissue repair, MSCs have recently been shown to modulate endogenous tissue and immune cells. Preclinical studies of the mechanism of action suggest that the therapeutic effects afforded by MSC transplantation are short-lived and related to dynamic, paracrine interactions between MSCs and host cells. Therefore, representations of MSCs as drug-loaded particles may allow for pharmacokinetic models to predict the therapeutic activity of MSC transplants as a function of drug delivery mode. By integrating principles of MSC biology, therapy, and engineering, the field is armed to usher in the next generation of stem cell therapeutics. PMID:20415588

  5. [Morphological variability and placental function].

    PubMed

    Malassiné, A

    2001-01-01

    In mammals, the blastocyst defines with the maternal organism, a structure which allows embryonic development during gestation: the placenta. The structure of this organ varies remarkably across species. In this review the different type of placentation have been described in a comparative manner using terms of classification such as: placental materno-fetal interdigitation, matemofetal blood flow interrelationships, layers of the placental interhemal barrier, trophoblast invasiveness and decidual cell reaction, formation of syncytiotrophoblast. The human hemomonochorial placenta is characterized by a strong decidualization of the uterus and a major invasiveness of the extravillous trophoblast. Furthermore, there is a spectrum of placental endocrine activities across species. In some mammals (e.g., mouse and rat) the placenta eclipses the pituitary in the maintenance of ovarian function. In the human and in the sheep, horse, cat and guinea pig, the placenta acquires the ability to substitute for the ovaries in the maintenance of gestation at various time during pregnancy. The human placenta is characterized by a high rate of steroïdogenesis (progesterone and estrogens) and by the production of a primate specific trophoblastic hormone: human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Recently, it was demonstrated that mutation of many genes in mice results in embryonic mortality or fetal growth restriction, due to defects in placental development. Furthermore, distinct molecular pathways regulate the differentiation of various trophoblast cell subtype of the mouse placenta. An important question is whether or not placental differentiation in other mammals is regulated by the same molecular mechanisms. Due to the striking diversity in placental structure, endocrine function and gene expression, caution must be exercised in extrapolating findings regarding placental function and development from one species to another. PMID:11575143

  6. Placental Growth Factor Administration Abolishes Placental Ischemia-Induced Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Spradley, Frank T; Tan, Adelene Y; Joo, Woo S; Daniels, Garrett; Kussie, Paul; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Granger, Joey P

    2016-04-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder of new-onset hypertension. Unfortunately, the most effective treatment is early delivery of the fetus and placenta. Placental ischemia appears central to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia because placental ischemia/hypoxia induced in animals by reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) or in humans stimulates release of hypertensive placental factors into the maternal circulation. The anti-angiogenic factor soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), which antagonizes and reduces bioavailable vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor (PlGF), is elevated in RUPP rats and preeclampsia. Although PlGF and vascular endothelial growth factor are both natural ligands for sFlt-1, vascular endothelial growth factor also has high affinity to VEGFR2 (Flk-1) causing side effects like edema. PlGF is specific for sFlt-1. We tested the hypothesis that PlGF treatment reduces placental ischemia-induced hypertension by antagonizing sFlt-1 without adverse consequences to the mother or fetus. On gestational day 14, rats were randomized to 4 groups: normal pregnant or RUPP±infusion of recombinant human PlGF (180 μg/kg per day; AG31, a purified, recombinant human form of PlGF) for 5 days via intraperitoneal osmotic minipumps. On day 19, mean arterial blood pressure and plasma sFlt-1 were higher and glomerular filtration rate lower in RUPP than normal pregnant rats. Infusion of recombinant human PlGF abolished these changes seen with RUPP along with reducing oxidative stress. These data indicate that the increased sFlt-1 and reduced PlGF resulting from placental ischemia contribute to maternal hypertension. Our novel finding that recombinant human PlGF abolishes placental ischemia-induced hypertension, without major adverse consequences, suggests a strong therapeutic potential for this growth factor in preeclampsia. PMID:26831193

  7. Mesenchymal stem cells in osteoarticular diseases.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, Christian; Noël, Danièle

    2011-11-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are mainly isolated from bone marrow or fat tissue. Owing to their potential for multilineage differentiation towards bone, cartilage and fat tissue, they were initially evaluated in innovative strategies for tissue engineering. More recently, they have gained interest for their immunomodulatory properties and have been tested in various clinical trials that aim to modulate the host immune response in graft-versus-host disease or autoimmune diseases. MSC-mediated immunomodulation occurs through the secretion of soluble mediators. The clinical applications of MSCs for rheumatic diseases focus on their potential to promote tissue repair/regeneration and prevent inflammation. This article will focus on the mechanisms by which MSCs might exhibit a therapeutic potential in rheumatology. Special attention is given to their potential for innovative future strategies. PMID:21999261

  8. Mesenchymal stem cell-based therapy.

    PubMed

    Mundra, Vaibhav; Gerling, Ivan C; Mahato, Ram I

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent adult stem cells which have self-renewal capacity and differentiation potential into several mesenchymal lineages including bones, cartilages, adipose tissues and tendons. MSCs may repair tissue injuries and prevent immune cell activation and proliferation. Immunomodulation and secretion of growth factors by MSCs have led to realizing the true potential of MSC-based cell therapy. The use of MSCs as immunomodulators has been explored in cell/organ transplant, tissue repair, autoimmune diseases, and prevention of graft vs host disease (GVHD). This review focuses on the clinical applications of MSC-based cell therapy, with particular emphasis on islet transplantation for treating type I diabetes. PMID:23215004

  9. Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mundra, Vaibhav; Gerling, Ivan C.; Mahato, Ram I.

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent adult stem cells which have self-renewal capacity and differentiation potential into several mesenchymal lineages including bones, cartilages, adipose tissues and tendons. MSCs may repair tissue injuries and prevent immune cell activation and proliferation. Immunomodulation and secretion of growth factors by MSCs have led to realizing the true potential of MSC-based cell therapy. The use of MSCs as immunomdulators has been explored in cell/organ transplant, tissue repair, autoimmune diseases and prevention of graft vs. host disease (GVHD). This review focuses on the clinical applications of MSC-based cell therapy, with particular emphasis on islet transplantation for treating type I diabetes. PMID:23215004

  10. Muscle Extracellular Matrix Scaffold Is a Multipotent Environment

    PubMed Central

    Aulino, Paola; Costa, Alessandra; Chiaravalloti, Ernesto; Perniconi, Barbara; Adamo, Sergio; Coletti, Dario; Marrelli, Massimo; Tatullo, Marco; Teodori, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The multipotency of scaffolds is a new concept. Skeletal muscle acellular scaffolds (MAS) implanted at the interface of Tibialis Anterior/tibial bone and masseter muscle/mandible bone in a murine model were colonized by muscle cells near the host muscle and by bone-cartilaginous tissues near the host bone, thus highlighting the importance of the environment in directing cell homing and differentiation. These results unveil the multipotency of MAS and point to the potential of this new technique as a valuable tool in musculo-skeletal tissue regeneration. PMID:25897295

  11. CD271 as a marker to identify mesenchymal stem cells from diverse sources before culture

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Viejo, María; Menéndez-Menéndez, Yolanda; Otero-Hernández, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells, due to their characteristics are ideal candidates for cellular therapy. Currently, in culture these cells are defined by their adherence to plastic, specific surface antigen expression and multipotent differentiation potential. However, the in vivo identification of mesenchymal stem cells, before culture, is not so well established. Pre-culture identification markers would ensure higher purity than that obtained with selection based on adherence to plastic. Up until now, CD271 has been described as the most specific marker for the characterization and purification of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. This marker has been shown to be specifically expressed by these cells. Thus, CD271 has been proposed as a versatile marker to selectively isolated and expand multipotent mesenchymal stem cells with both immunosuppressive and lymphohematopoietic engraftment-promoting properties. This review focuses on this marker, specifically on identification of mesenchymal stem cells from different tissues. Literature revision suggests that CD271 should not be defined as a universal marker to identify mesenchymal stem cells before culture from different sources. In the case of bone marrow or adipose tissue, CD271 could be considered a quite suitable marker; however this marker seems to be inadequate for the isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from other tissues such as umbilical cord blood or wharton’s jelly among others. PMID:25815130

  12. CD271 as a marker to identify mesenchymal stem cells from diverse sources before culture.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Viejo, María; Menéndez-Menéndez, Yolanda; Otero-Hernández, Jesús

    2015-03-26

    Mesenchymal stem cells, due to their characteristics are ideal candidates for cellular therapy. Currently, in culture these cells are defined by their adherence to plastic, specific surface antigen expression and multipotent differentiation potential. However, the in vivo identification of mesenchymal stem cells, before culture, is not so well established. Pre-culture identification markers would ensure higher purity than that obtained with selection based on adherence to plastic. Up until now, CD271 has been described as the most specific marker for the characterization and purification of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. This marker has been shown to be specifically expressed by these cells. Thus, CD271 has been proposed as a versatile marker to selectively isolated and expand multipotent mesenchymal stem cells with both immunosuppressive and lymphohematopoietic engraftment-promoting properties. This review focuses on this marker, specifically on identification of mesenchymal stem cells from different tissues. Literature revision suggests that CD271 should not be defined as a universal marker to identify mesenchymal stem cells before culture from different sources. In the case of bone marrow or adipose tissue, CD271 could be considered a quite suitable marker; however this marker seems to be inadequate for the isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from other tissues such as umbilical cord blood or wharton's jelly among others. PMID:25815130

  13. Giant Placental Chorangioma: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amarjit; Bedi, Preet Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Chorangioma is a nontrophoblastic benign vascular tumour of the placenta, arising from the primitive chorionic mesenchyme. The clinical significance is related to the size of the tumours. Small chorangiomas, with a frequency of about 1%, are often asymptomatic. On the contrary, giant chorangiomas, greater than 5 cm in diameter, are rare tumours, with prevalence ranging from 1:9,000 to 1:50,000, and often associated with a variety of pregnancy complications and a poor perinatal outcome. We report a case of 26-year-old female who presented to us at 36 weeks of gestation with pain in the lower abdomen. Ultrasonograpy revealed polyhydramnios and a vascular tumour on the surface of placenta. Proper conservative antenatal management was done and a full term healthy baby was delievered. Histopathological examination of the extracted mass confirmed the diagnosis of chorangioma. The novelty of this report lies in the presence of large nontrophoblastic vascular placental tumour and the absence of any fetal complications. We emphasise the need of regular and timely antenatal management to diagnose and treat the complications of chorangioma at an early stage. PMID:27190814

  14. Giant Placental Chorangioma: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kataria, Nidhi; Singh, Amarjit; Bedi, Preet Kamal

    2016-04-01

    Chorangioma is a nontrophoblastic benign vascular tumour of the placenta, arising from the primitive chorionic mesenchyme. The clinical significance is related to the size of the tumours. Small chorangiomas, with a frequency of about 1%, are often asymptomatic. On the contrary, giant chorangiomas, greater than 5 cm in diameter, are rare tumours, with prevalence ranging from 1:9,000 to 1:50,000, and often associated with a variety of pregnancy complications and a poor perinatal outcome. We report a case of 26-year-old female who presented to us at 36 weeks of gestation with pain in the lower abdomen. Ultrasonograpy revealed polyhydramnios and a vascular tumour on the surface of placenta. Proper conservative antenatal management was done and a full term healthy baby was delievered. Histopathological examination of the extracted mass confirmed the diagnosis of chorangioma. The novelty of this report lies in the presence of large nontrophoblastic vascular placental tumour and the absence of any fetal complications. We emphasise the need of regular and timely antenatal management to diagnose and treat the complications of chorangioma at an early stage. PMID:27190814

  15. Sonographic spectrum of placental abruption.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, D A; Cyr, D R; Mack, L A; Wilson, D A; Shuman, W P

    1987-01-01

    Fifty-seven cases of placental abruption detected by sonography were retrospectively reviewed. The location of hemorrhage was subchorionic in 46 cases (81%), retroplacental in nine cases (16%), and preplacental in two cases (4%). Subchorionic hematomas were more frequently shown in the 33 patients presenting before 20 menstrual weeks (91%) than in the 24 patients presenting after 20 weeks (67%). The echogenicity of hemorrhage depended on the time the sonogram was performed relative to the onset of symptoms: Acute hemorrhage was hyperechoic to isoechoic compared with the placenta, while resolving hematomas became hypoechoic within 1 week and sonolucent within 2 weeks. Acute hemorrhage was occasionally difficult to distinguish from the adjacent placenta. This occurred in five retroplacental hematomas that showed only an abnormally thick and heterogeneous placenta. Nine cases of placental abruption were initially confused with other mass lesions. Placental abruption causes a wide spectrum of sonographic findings that may be overlooked or misdiagnosed. PMID:3538831

  16. Programming placental nutrient transport capacity

    PubMed Central

    Fowden, A L; Ward, J W; Wooding, F P B; Forhead, A J; Constancia, M

    2006-01-01

    Many animal studies and human epidemiological findings have shown that impaired growth in utero is associated with physiological abnormalities in later life and have linked this to tissue programming during suboptimal intrauterine conditions at critical periods of development. However, few of these studies have considered the contribution of the placenta to the ensuing adult phenotype. In mammals, the major determinant of intrauterine growth is the placental nutrient supply, which, in turn, depends on the size, morphology, blood supply and transporter abundance of the placenta and on synthesis and metabolism of nutrients and hormones by the uteroplacental tissues. This review examines the regulation of placental nutrient transfer capacity and the potential programming effects of nutrition and glucocorticoid over-exposure on placental phenotype with particular emphasis on the role of the Igf2 gene in these processes. PMID:16439433

  17. [Chronic placental insufficiency: incidence and causes].

    PubMed

    Fedorova, M V; Mariasheva, N V; Alekseevskiĭ, A V; Kotov, Iu B; Lukashenko, S Iu

    1990-08-01

    This population study has examined the incidence and determinants of placental insufficiency. Predictors of placental dysfunction were ascertained. They included somatic diseases, gestational complications, a positive obstetric and gynecologic history and a series of constitutional factors. Populations of primiparae+- and multigravidae at risk of placental insufficiency were identified. PMID:2260740

  18. Cartilage Engineering from Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goepfert, C.; Slobodianski, A.; Schilling, A. F.; Adamietz, P.; Pörtner, R.

    Mesenchymal progenitor cells known as multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells or mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been isolated from various tissues. Since they are able to differentiate along the mesenchymal lineages of cartilage and bone, they are regarded as promising sources for the treatment of skeletal defects. Tissue regeneration in the adult organism and in vitro engineering of tissues is hypothesized to follow the principles of embryogenesis. The embryonic development of the skeleton has been studied extensively with respect to the regulatory mechanisms governing morphogenesis, differentiation, and tissue formation. Various concepts have been designed for engineering tissues in vitro based on these developmental principles, most of them involving regulatory molecules such as growth factors or cytokines known to be the key regulators in developmental processes. Growth factors most commonly used for in vitro cultivation of cartilage tissue belong to the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) super-family, and the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) family. In this chapter, in vivo actions of members of these growth factors described in the literature are compared with in vitro concepts of cartilage engineering making use of these growth factors.

  19. Premigratory and migratory neural crest cells are multipotent in vivo.

    PubMed

    Baggiolini, Arianna; Varum, Sandra; Mateos, José María; Bettosini, Damiano; John, Nessy; Bonalli, Mario; Ziegler, Urs; Dimou, Leda; Clevers, Hans; Furrer, Reinhard; Sommer, Lukas

    2015-03-01

    The neural crest (NC) is an embryonic stem/progenitor cell population that generates a diverse array of cell lineages, including peripheral neurons, myelinating Schwann cells, and melanocytes, among others. However, there is a long-standing controversy as to whether this broad developmental perspective reflects in vivo multipotency of individual NC cells or whether the NC is comprised of a heterogeneous mixture of lineage-restricted progenitors. Here, we resolve this controversy by performing in vivo fate mapping of single trunk NC cells both at premigratory and migratory stages using the R26R-Confetti mouse model. By combining quantitative clonal analyses with definitive markers of differentiation, we demonstrate that the vast majority of individual NC cells are multipotent, with only few clones contributing to single derivatives. Intriguingly, multipotency is maintained in migratory NC cells. Thus, our findings provide definitive evidence for the in vivo multipotency of both premigratory and migrating NC cells in the mouse. PMID:25748934

  20. Reversine Increases the Plasticity of Long-Term Cryopreserved Fibroblasts to Multipotent Progenitor Cells through Activation of Oct4

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiangchen; Guo, Yu; Yao, Yaxin; Hua, Jinlian; Ma, Yuehui; Liu, Changqing; Guan, Weijun

    2016-01-01

    Reversine, a purine analog, had been evidenced that it could induce dedifferentiation of differentiated cells into multipotent progenitor cells. Here, we showed that reversine could increase the plasticity of long-term cryopreserved bovine fibroblasts, and reversine-treated cells achieved the ability to differentiate into all three germ layers cells, such as osteoblasts and adipocytes from mesoblast, neurocyte from ectoderm, hepatocytes and smooth muscle cells from endoderm. Moreover, treatment of reversine caused the grow arrest of fibroblasts at G2/M and distinct cell swelling resulting in the formation of polyploid cells. In parallel, reversine treatment induced a multipotency of fibroblasts might be attributed to the activation of histone modifications, especially the degression of DNA methylation. However, molecular and cellular experiments suggested that reversine treatment enhanced selectively the expression of pluripotent marker gene Oct4 and mesenchymal marker genes CD29, CD44 and CD73, but Sox2 and Nanog were not detected. Taken together, these results clearly demonstrate the ability of reversine to dedifferentiation of long-term cryopreserved somatic cells through activation of pluripotent gene Oct4. PMID:26722217

  1. The influence of hypoxia on the differentiation capacities and immunosuppressive properties of clonal mouse mesenchymal stromal cell lines.

    PubMed

    Prado-Lòpez, Sonia; Duffy, Michelle M; Baustian, Claas; Alagesan, Senthilkumar; Hanley, Shirley A; Stocca, Alessia; Griffin, Matthew D; Ceredig, Rhodri

    2014-08-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells are multipotent cells capable of differentiating into different mesodermal cell types. Enigmatically, mesenchymal stromal cells present in the bone marrow support early lymphopoiesis yet can inhibit mature lymphocyte growth. Critical features of the bone marrow microenvironment, such as the level of oxygen, play an important role in mesenchymal stromal cell biology. Herein, we show that a panel of continuously growing mouse mesenchymal stromal cell lines, namely OP9, MS5, PA6, ST2 and B16-14, exhibit mesenchymal stromal cell characteristic phenotypes and respond physiologically to oxygen deprivation. Culturing freshly isolated bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells or cell lines at 5% O2 resulted in a dramatic increase in expression of hypoxia-inducible factor family members and of key genes involved in their differentiation. Phenotypically, their osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation capacity was generally improved in hypoxia, whereas their inhibitory effects on in vitro T-cell proliferation were preserved. Taken together, we conclude that these continuously growing mouse cell lines behave as canonical mesenchymal stromal cells and respond physiologically to hypoxia, thereby providing a potent tool for the study of different aspects of mesenchymal stromal cell biology. PMID:24777310

  2. Comparative proteome approach demonstrates that platelet-derived growth factor C and D efficiently induce proliferation while maintaining multipotency of hMSCs

    SciTech Connect

    Sotoca, Ana M.; Roelofs-Hendriks, Jose; Boeren, Sjef; Kraan, Peter M. van der; Vervoort, Jacques; Zoelen, Everardus J.J. van; Piek, Ester

    2013-10-15

    This is the first study that comprehensively describes the effects of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) isoforms C and D during in vitro expansion of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Our results show that PDGFs can enhance proliferation of hMSCs without affecting their multipotency. It is of great value to culture and expand hMSCs in a safe and effective manner without losing their multipotency for manipulation and further development of cell-based therapies. Moreover, differential effects of PDGF isoforms have been observed on lineage-specific differentiation induced by BMP2 and Vitamin D3. Based on label-free LC-based quantitative proteomics approach we have furthermore identified specific pathways induced by PDGFs during the proliferation process, showing the importance of bioinformatics tools to study cell function. - Highlights: • PDGFs (C and D) significantly increased the number of multipotent undifferentiated hMSCs. • Enhanced proliferation did not impair the ability to undergo lineage-specific differentiation. • Proteomic analysis confirmed the overall signatures of the ‘intact’ cells.

  3. Placental Adaptations in Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Song; Regnault, Timothy R.H.; Barker, Paige L.; Botting, Kimberley J.; McMillen, Isabella C.; McMillan, Christine M.; Roberts, Claire T.; Morrison, Janna L.

    2015-01-01

    The placenta is the primary interface between the fetus and mother and plays an important role in maintaining fetal development and growth by facilitating the transfer of substrates and participating in modulating the maternal immune response to prevent immunological rejection of the conceptus. The major substrates required for fetal growth include oxygen, glucose, amino acids and fatty acids, and their transport processes depend on morphological characteristics of the placenta, such as placental size, morphology, blood flow and vascularity. Other factors including insulin-like growth factors, apoptosis, autophagy and glucocorticoid exposure also affect placental growth and substrate transport capacity. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is often a consequence of insufficiency, and is associated with a high incidence of perinatal morbidity and mortality, as well as increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in later life. Several different experimental methods have been used to induce placental insufficiency and IUGR in animal models and a range of factors that regulate placental growth and substrate transport capacity have been demonstrated. While no model system completely recapitulates human IUGR, these animal models allow us to carefully dissect cellular and molecular mechanisms to improve our understanding and facilitate development of therapeutic interventions. PMID:25580812

  4. Proangiogenic Features of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Their Therapeutic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Hongyan; Han, Zhibo; Han, Zhong Chao; Li, Zongjin

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown their therapeutic potency for treatment of cardiovascular diseases owing to their low immunogenicity, ease of isolation and expansion, and multipotency. As multipotent progenitors, MSCs have revealed their ability to differentiate into various cell types and could promote endogenous angiogenesis via microenvironmental modulation. Studies on cardiovascular diseases have demonstrated that transplanted MSCs could engraft at the injured sites and differentiate into cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells as well. Accordingly, several clinical trials using MSCs have been performed and revealed that MSCs may improve relevant clinical parameters in patients with vascular diseases. To fully comprehend the characteristics of MSCs, understanding their intrinsic property and associated modulations in tuning their behaviors as well as functions is indispensable for future clinical translation of MSC therapy. This review will focus on recent progresses on endothelial differentiation and potential clinical application of MSCs, with emphasis on therapeutic angiogenesis for treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26880933

  5. In vitro differentiation of human skin-derived multipotent stromal cells into putative endothelial-like cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Multipotent stem cells have been successfully isolated from various tissues and are currently utilized for tissue-engineering and cell-based therapies. Among the many sources, skin has recently emerged as an attractive source for multipotent cells because of its abundance. Recent literature showed that skin stromal cells (SSCs) possess mesoderm lineage differentiation potential; however, the endothelial differentiation and angiogenic potential of SSC remains elusive. In our study, SSCs were isolated from human neonatal foreskin (hNFSSCs) and adult dermal skin (hADSSCs) using explants cultures and were compared with bone marrow (hMSC-TERT) and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSCs) for their potential differentiation into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and endothelial cells. Results Concordant with previous studies, both MSCs and SSCs showed similar morphology, surface protein expression, and were able to differentiate into osteoblasts and adipocytes. Using an endothelial induction culture system combined with an in vitro matrigel angiogenesis assay, hNFSSCs and hADSSCs exhibited the highest tube-forming capability, which was similar to those formed by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), with hNFSSCs forming the most tightly packed, longest, and largest diameter tubules among the three cell types. CD146 was highly expressed on hNFSSCs and HUVEC followed by hADSSCs, and hMSC-TERT, while its expression was almost absent on hADMSCs. Similarly, higher vascular density (based on the expression of CD31, CD34, vWF, CD146 and SMA) was observed in neonatal skin, followed by adult dermal skin and adipose tissue. Thus, our preliminary data indicated a plausible relationship between vascular densities, and the expression of CD146 on multipotent cells derived from those tissues. Conclusions Our data is the first to demonstrate that human dermal skin stromal cells can be differentiated into endothelial lineage. Hence, SSCs represents a novel

  6. Isolation of blood-vessel-derived multipotent precursors from human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Chen, William C W; Saparov, Arman; Corselli, Mirko; Crisan, Mihaela; Zheng, Bo; Péault, Bruno; Huard, Johnny

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs), the native identity and localization of MSCs have been obscured by their retrospective isolation in culture. Recently, using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), we and other researchers prospectively identified and purified three subpopulations of multipotent precursor cells associated with the vasculature of human skeletal muscle. These three cell populations: myogenic endothelial cells (MECs), pericytes (PCs), and adventitial cells (ACs), are localized respectively to the three structural layers of blood vessels: intima, media, and adventitia. All of these human blood-vessel-derived stem cell (hBVSC) populations not only express classic MSC markers but also possess mesodermal developmental potentials similar to typical MSCs. Previously, MECs, PCs, and ACs have been isolated through distinct protocols and subsequently characterized in separate studies. The current isolation protocol, through modifications to the isolation process and adjustments in the selective cell surface markers, allows us to simultaneously purify all three hBVSC subpopulations by FACS from a single human muscle biopsy. This new method will not only streamline the isolation of multiple BVSC subpopulations but also facilitate future clinical applications of hBVSCs for distinct therapeutic purposes. PMID:25177794

  7. Ex vivo expanded SSEA-4+ human limbal stromal cells are multipotent and do not express other embryonic stem cell markers

    PubMed Central

    Hussin, Noor Hamidah; Othman, Ainoon; Umapathy, Thiageswari; Baharuddin, Puteri; Jamal, Rahman; Zakaria, Zubaidah

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The presence of multipotent human limbal stromal cells resembling mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) provides new insights to the characteristic of these cells and its therapeutic potential. However, little is known about the expression of stage-specific embryonic antigen 4 (SSEA-4) and the embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like properties of these cells. We studied the expression of SSEA-4 surface protein and the various ESC and MSC markers in the ex vivo cultured limbal stromal cells. The phenotypes and multipotent differentiation potential of these cells were also evaluated. Methods Limbal stromal cells were derived from corneoscleral rims. The SSEA-4+ and SSEA-4- limbal stromal cells were sorted by fluorescence-activated cells sorting (FACS). Isolated cells were expanded and reanalyzed for their expression of SSEA-4. Expression of MSC and ESC markers on these cells were also analyzed by FACS. In addition, expression of limbal epithelial and corneal stromal proteins such as ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 (ABCG2), tumour protein p63 (p63), paired box 6 (Pax6), cytokeratin 3 (AE5), cytokeratin 10, and keratocan sulfate were evaluated either by immunofluorecence staining or reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Appropriate induction medium was used to differentiate these cells into adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. Results Expanded limbal stromal cells expressed the majority of mesenchymal markers. These cells were negative for ABCG2, p63, Pax6, AE-5, and keratocan sulfate. After passaged, a subpopulation of these cells showed low expression of SSEA-4 but were negative for other important ESC surface markers such as Tra-1–60, Tra-1–81, and transcription factors like octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4), SRY(sex determining region Y)-box 2 (Sox2), and Nanog. Early passaged cells when induced were able to differentiate into adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes. Conclusions The expanded limbal stromal cells showed features

  8. Placental Origins of Chronic Disease.

    PubMed

    Burton, Graham J; Fowden, Abigail L; Thornburg, Kent L

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence links an individual's susceptibility to chronic disease in adult life to events during their intrauterine phase of development. Biologically this should not be unexpected, for organ systems are at their most plastic when progenitor cells are proliferating and differentiating. Influences operating at this time can permanently affect their structure and functional capacity, and the activity of enzyme systems and endocrine axes. It is now appreciated that such effects lay the foundations for a diverse array of diseases that become manifest many years later, often in response to secondary environmental stressors. Fetal development is underpinned by the placenta, the organ that forms the interface between the fetus and its mother. All nutrients and oxygen reaching the fetus must pass through this organ. The placenta also has major endocrine functions, orchestrating maternal adaptations to pregnancy and mobilizing resources for fetal use. In addition, it acts as a selective barrier, creating a protective milieu by minimizing exposure of the fetus to maternal hormones, such as glucocorticoids, xenobiotics, pathogens, and parasites. The placenta shows a remarkable capacity to adapt to adverse environmental cues and lessen their impact on the fetus. However, if placental function is impaired, or its capacity to adapt is exceeded, then fetal development may be compromised. Here, we explore the complex relationships between the placental phenotype and developmental programming of chronic disease in the offspring. Ensuring optimal placentation offers a new approach to the prevention of disorders such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity, which are reaching epidemic proportions. PMID:27604528

  9. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition during extravillous trophoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    E Davies, Jessica; Pollheimer, Jürgen; Yong, Hannah E J; Kokkinos, Maria I; Kalionis, Bill; Knöfler, Martin; Murthi, Padma

    2016-05-01

    A successful pregnancy depends on the intricate and timely interactions of maternal and fetal cells. Placental extravillous cytotrophoblast invasion involves a cellular transition from an epithelial to mesenchymal phenotype. Villous cytotrophoblasts undergo a partial epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) when differentiating into extravillous cytotrophoblasts and gain the capacity to migrate and invade. This review summarizes our current knowledge regarding known regulators of EMT in the human placenta, including the inducers of EMT, upstream transcription factors that control EMT and the downstream effectors, cell adhesion molecules and their differential expression and functions in pregnancy pathologies, preeclampsia (PE) and fetal growth restriction (FGR). The review also describes the research strategies that were used for the identification of the functional role of EMT targets in vitro. A better understanding of molecular pathways driven by placental EMT and further elucidation of signaling pathways underlying the developmental programs may offer novel strategies of targeted therapy for improving feto-placental growth in placental pathologies including PE and FGR. PMID:27070187

  10. Manufacturing mesenchymal stromal cells for phase I clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Patrick J; Mei, Zhuyong; da Graca Cabreira-Hansen, Maria; Klis, Mariola; Li, Wei; Zhao, Yali; Durett, April G; Zheng, Xingwu; Wang, Yongping; Gee, Adrian P; Horwitz, Edwin M

    2013-04-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitor cells capable of differentiating into adipocytes, osteoblasts and chondroblasts as well as secreting a vast array of soluble mediators. This potentially makes MSCs important mediators of a variety of therapeutic applications. They are actively under evaluation for immunomodulatory purposes such as graft-versus-host disease and Crohn's disease as well as regenerative applications such as stroke and congestive heart failure. We report our method of generating clinical-grade MSCs together with suggestions gathered from manufacturing experience in our Good Manufacturing Practices facility. PMID:23480951

  11. In vitro Differentiation Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Guilak, Farshid; Nuttall, Mark E.; Sathishkumar, Solomon; Vidal, Martin; Bunnell, Bruce A.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a class of multipotent progenitor cells that have been isolated from multiple tissue sites. Of these, adipose tissue and bone marrow offer advantages in terms of access, abundance, and the extent of their documentation in the literature. This review focuses on the in vitro differentiation capability of cells derived from adult human tissue. Multiple, independent studies have demonstrated that MSCs can commit to mesodermal (adipocyte, chondrocyte, hematopoietic support, myocyte, osteoblast, tenocyte), ectodermal (epithelial, glial, neural), and endodermal (hepatocyte, islet cell) lineages. The limitations and promises of these studies in the context of tissue engineering are discussed. PMID:21547120

  12. Human cadaver multipotent stromal/stem cells isolated from arteries stored in liquid nitrogen for 5 years

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Regenerative medicine challenges researchers to find noncontroversial, safe and abundant stem cell sources. In this context, harvesting from asystolic donors could represent an innovative and unlimited reservoir of different stem cells. In this study, cadaveric vascular tissues were established as an alternative source of human cadaver mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (hC-MSCs). We reported the successful cell isolation from postmortem arterial segments stored in a tissue-banking facility for at least 5 years. Methods After thawing, hC-MSCs were isolated with a high efficiency (12 × 106) and characterized with flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, molecular and ultrastructural approaches. Results In early passages, hC-MSCs were clonogenic, highly proliferative and expressed mesenchymal (CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105, HLA-G), stemness (Stro-1, Oct-4, Notch-1), pericyte (CD146, PDGFR-β, NG2) and neuronal (Nestin) markers; hematopoietic and vascular markers were negative. These cells had colony and spheroid-forming abilities, multipotency for their potential to differentiate in multiple mesengenic lineages and immunosuppressive activity to counteract proliferation of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated blood mononuclear cells. Conclusions The efficient procurement of stem cells from cadaveric sources, as postmortem vascular tissues, demonstrates that such cells can survive to prolonged ischemic insult, anoxia, freezing and dehydration injuries, thus paving the way for a scientific revolution where cadaver stromal/stem cells could effectively treat patients demanding cell therapies. PMID:24429026

  13. Ex vivo expansion of mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Maria Ester; Cometa, Angela Maria; Pagliara, Daria; Vinti, Luciana; Rossi, Francesca; Cristantielli, Rosaria; Palumbo, Giuseppe; Locatelli, Franco

    2011-03-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are adult multipotent cells that can be isolated from several human tissues. MSCs represent a novel and attractive tool in strategies of cellular therapy. For in vivo use, MSCs have to be ex vivo expanded in order to reach the numbers suitable for their clinical application. Despite being efficacious, the use of fetal calf serum for MSC ex vivo expansion for clinical purposes raises concerns related to immunization and transmission of zoonoses; the standardization of expansion methods, possibly devoid of animal components, such as those based on platelet lysate, are discussed in this paper. Moreover, this review focuses on the search of novel markers for the prospective identification/isolation of MSCs and on the potential risks connected with ex vivo expansion of MSCs, in particular that of their malignant transformation. Available tests to study the genetic stability of ex vivo expanded MSCs are also analyzed. PMID:21396595

  14. Proteomic Analysis of Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Faça, Vitor Marcel; Orellana, Maristela Delgado; Greene, Lewis Joel; Covas, Dimas Tadeu

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSCs) are of great interest in biomedical sciences and disease treatment because of their multipotency and wide range of applications for tissue repair and suppression of the immune system. Proteomic analysis of these unique cells has contributed to the identification of important pathways utilized by MSCs to differentiate into distinct tissues as well as important proteins responsible for their special function in vivo and in vitro. However, comparison of proteomic studies in MSCs still suffers from the heterogeneity of MSC preparations. In addition, as proteomics technology advances, several studies can be revisited in order to increase the depth of analysis and, therefore, elucidate more refined mechanisms involved in MSC functionalities. Here, we present detailed protocols to obtain MSCs, as well as protocols to perform in-depth profiling and quantification of alterations in MSC proteomes. PMID:27236693

  15. Mechanical regulation of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Steward, Andrew J; Kelly, Daniel J

    2015-12-01

    Biophysical cues play a key role in directing the lineage commitment of mesenchymal stem cells or multipotent stromal cells (MSCs), but the mechanotransductive mechanisms at play are still not fully understood. This review article first describes the roles of both substrate mechanics (e.g. stiffness and topography) and extrinsic mechanical cues (e.g. fluid flow, compression, hydrostatic pressure, tension) on the differentiation of MSCs. A specific focus is placed on the role of such factors in regulating the osteogenic, chondrogenic, myogenic and adipogenic differentiation of MSCs. Next, the article focuses on the cellular components, specifically integrins, ion channels, focal adhesions and the cytoskeleton, hypothesized to be involved in MSC mechanotransduction. This review aims to illustrate the strides that have been made in elucidating how MSCs sense and respond to their mechanical environment, and also to identify areas where further research is needed. PMID:25382217

  16. Grafix®, a Cryopreserved Placental Membrane, for the Treatment of Chronic/Stalled Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the use of Grafix®, a commercially available, cryopreserved placental membrane, for the treatment of chronic/stalled wounds of different etiologies. Approach: To describe the unique composition of Grafix, to provide an overview of the existing clinical evidence supporting the benefits of Grafix for wound treatment, and to share the experience of the South Shore Hospital Center for Wound Healing (Weymouth, MA) with Grafix for the treatment of nonhealing wounds. Results: Clinical evidence supports the safety and efficacy of Grafix for the treatment of chronic/stalled wounds, including those that have failed other advanced treatment modalities. Innovation: Grafix is a cryopreserved placental membrane manufactured utilizing a novel technology that enables the preservation of all placental membrane components in their native state. Placental membranes have a unique composition of extracellular matrix, growth factors, and cells (including mesenchymal stem cells), which makes this tissue unique among other advanced biological wound treatment modalities. Conclusion: Clinical evidences support the benefits of Grafix for head-to-toe wound treatment. PMID:26339532

  17. Microparasites and Placental Invasiveness in Eutherian Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Capellini, Isabella; Nunn, Charles L.; Barton, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Placental invasiveness—the number of maternal tissue layers separating fetal tissues from maternal blood—is variable across mammalian species. Although this diversity is likely to be functionally important, variation in placental invasiveness remains unexplained. Here we test the hypothesis that increased risk of transplacental transmission of pathogens from the mother to the fetus promotes the evolution of non-invasive placentation, the most likely derived condition in eutherian mammals. Specifically, we predict that non-invasive placentation is associated with increased microparasite species richness relative to more invasive placental types, based on the assumption that higher numbers of microparasites in a population reflects greater risk of transplacental transmission to fetuses. As predicted, higher bacteria species richness is associated with non-invasive placentation. Protozoa species richness, however, shows the opposite pattern. Because invasive placentae facilitate the transfer of maternal antibodies to the fetus, we propose that the ancestral condition of invasive placentation is retained under selection for protection of newborns from higher risk of postnatal protozoan infection. Hence, our findings suggest that a tradeoff exists between protection against bacterial infection prenatally and protozoan infection postnatally. Future studies are needed to investigate how maternal prevalence of infection and the relative pre- versus postnatal risk of fetal infection by different microparasite groups vary among mammalian hosts in relation to placental invasiveness. PMID:26168031

  18. Placentation in different mammalian species.

    PubMed

    Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale; Tarrade, Anne

    2016-06-01

    The placenta is a complex, transient organ associated with viviparity, which is located at the interface of the dam and fetus during pregnancy. It is formed after attachment, or implantation, of the blastocyst on the uterine lining and derives from complex cellular and molecular interactions between uterine and embryonic tissues. In mammals, there are many forms of placentation but this organ has the same function in all species: it is responsible for orchestrating materno-fetal exchanges, together with endocrine and immunological functions. PMID:27155775

  19. Musculoskeletal tissue engineering with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Limin; Ott, Lindsey; Seshareddy, Kiran; Weiss, Mark L; Detamore, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) hold tremendous promise for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, yet with so many sources of MSCs, what are the primary criteria for selecting leading candidates? Ideally, the cells will be multipotent, inexpensive, lack donor site morbidity, donor materials should be readily available in large numbers, immunocompatible, politically benign and expandable in vitro for several passages. Bone marrow MSCs do not meet all of these criteria and neither do embryonic stem cells. However, a promising new cell source is emerging in tissue engineering that appears to meet these criteria: MSCs derived from Wharton’s jelly of umbilical cord MSCs. Exposed to appropriate conditions, umbilical cord MSCs can differentiate in vitro along several cell lineages such as the chondrocyte, osteoblast, adipocyte, myocyte, neuronal, pancreatic or hepatocyte lineages. In animal models, umbilical cord MSCs have demonstrated in vivo differentiation ability and promising immunocompatibility with host organs/tissues, even in xenotransplantation. In this article, we address their cellular characteristics, multipotent differentiation ability and potential for tissue engineering with an emphasis on musculoskeletal tissue engineering. PMID:21175290

  20. Association between calcifying nanoparticles and placental calcification

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanan; Zhang, Dechun; Lu, He; Luo, Shuang; Shen, Xuecheng

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the possible contribution of calcifying nanoparticles to the pathogenesis of placental calcification. Methods Calcified placental tissues and distal tissue samples were collected from 36 confirmed placental calcification cases. In addition, 20 normal placental tissue samples were obtained as a control group. All the tissue samples were cultured using special nanobacterial culture methods. The cultured calcifying nanoparticles were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and their growth was monitored by optical density (OD) at a wavelength of 650 nm. 16S rRNA gene expression of the cultured calcifying nanoparticles was also isolated and sequenced. Results Novel calcifying nanoparticles wrapped with electron-dense shells between 50 nm to 500 nm in diameter were observed in the extracellular matrix of calcified placental tissues. They were detected in placental villi and hydroxyapatite crystals, and contained “nucleic acid-like materials”. After isolation and four weeks of culture, 28 of 36 calcified placental tissue samples showed white granular precipitates attached to the bottom of the culture tubes. OD650 measurements indicated that the precipitates from the calcified placental tissues were able to grow in culture, whereas no such precipitates from the control tissues were observed. The 16S rRNA genes were isolated from the cultured calcifying nanoparticles and calcified placental tissues, and their gene sequencing results implied that calcifying nanoparticles were novel nanobacteria (GenBank JF823648). Conclusion Our results suggest that these novel calcifying nanoparticles may play a role in placental calcification. PMID:22615531

  1. Adult mesenchymal stem cells: differentiation potential and therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Jackson, L; Jones, D R; Scotting, P; Sottile, V

    2007-01-01

    Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a population of multipotent cells found primarily in the bone marrow. They have long been known to be capable of osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation and are currently the subject of a number of trials to assess their potential use in the clinic. Recently, the plasticity of these cells has come under close scrutiny as it has been suggested that they may have a differentiation potential beyond the mesenchymal lineage. Myogenic and in particular cardiomyogenic potential has been shown in vitro. MSCs have also been shown to have the ability to form neural cells both in vitro and in vivo, although the molecular mechanisms underlying these apparent transdifferentiation events are yet to be elucidated. We describe here the cellular characteristics and differentiation potential of MSCs, which represent a promising stem cell population for future applications in regenerative medicine. PMID:17495381

  2. Immunoregulation by Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Biological Aspects and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Manrreza, Marta E.; Montesinos, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells capable of differentiation into mesenchymal lineages and that can be isolated from various tissues and easily cultivated in vitro. Currently, MSCs are of considerable interest because of the biological characteristics that confer high potential applicability in the clinical treatment of many diseases. Specifically, because of their high immunoregulatory capacity, MSCs are used as tools in cellular therapies for clinical protocols involving immune system alterations. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge about the capacity of MSCs for the immunoregulation of immunocompetent cells and emphasize the effects of MSCs on T cells, principal effectors of the immune response, and the immunosuppressive effects mediated by the secretion of soluble factors and membrane molecules. We also describe the mechanisms of MSC immunoregulatory modulation and the participation of MSCs as immune response regulators in several autoimmune diseases, and we emphasize the clinical application in graft versus host disease (GVHD). PMID:25961059

  3. Telomerase-immortalized non-malignant human prostate epithelial cells retain the properties of multipotent stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hongzhen; Zhou Jianjun; Miki, Jun; Furusato, Bungo; Gu Yongpeng; Srivastava, Shiv; McLeod, David G.; Vogel, Jonathan C.; Rhim, Johng S.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding prostate stem cells may provide insight into the origin of prostate cancer. Primary cells have been cultured from human prostate tissue but they usually survive only 15-20 population doublings before undergoing senescence. We report here that RC-170N/h/clone 7 cells, a clonal cell line from hTERT-immortalized primary non-malignant tissue-derived human prostate epithelial cell line (RC170N/h), retain multipotent stem cell properties. The RC-170N/h/clone 7 cells expressed a human embryonic stem cell marker, Oct-4, and potential prostate epithelial stem cell markers, CD133, integrin {alpha}2{beta}1{sup hi} and CD44. The RC-170N/h/clone 7 cells proliferated in KGM and Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium with 10% fetal bovine serum and 5 {mu}g/ml insulin (DMEM + 10% FBS + Ins.) medium, and differentiated into epithelial stem cells that expressed epithelial cell markers, including CK5/14, CD44, p63 and cytokeratin 18 (CK18); as well as the mesenchymal cell markers, vimentin, desmin; the neuron and neuroendocrine cell marker, chromogranin A. Furthermore the RC170 N/h/clone 7 cells differentiated into multi tissues when transplanted into the sub-renal capsule and subcutaneously of NOD-SCID mice. The results indicate that RC170N/h/clone 7 cells retain the properties of multipotent stem cells and will be useful as a novel cell model for studying the mechanisms of human prostate stem cell differentiation and transformation.

  4. l-Methionine Placental Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, João R.; Correia-Branco, Ana; Ramalho, Carla; Gonçalves, Pedro; Pinho, Maria J.; Keating, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the influence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and GDM-associated conditions upon the placental uptake of 14C-l-methionine (14C-l-Met). The 14C-l-Met uptake by human trophoblasts (TBs) obtained from normal pregnancies (normal trophoblast [NTB] cells) is mainly system l-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1 [L])-mediated, although a small contribution of system y+LAT2 is also present. Comparison of 14C-l-Met uptake by NTB and by human TBs obtained from GDM pregnancies (diabetic trophoblast [DTB] cells) reveals similar kinetics, but a contribution of systems A, LAT2, and b0+ and a greater contribution of system y+LAT1 appears to exist in DTB cells. Short-term exposure to insulin and long-term exposure to high glucose, tumor necrosis factor-α, and leptin decrease 14C-l-Met uptake in a human TB (Bewo) cell line. The effect of leptin was dependent upon phosphoinositide 3-kinase, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK/MEK 1/2), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. In conclusion, GDM does not quantitatively alter 14C-l-Met placental uptake, although it changes the nature of transporters involved in that process. PMID:23653387

  5. Nomenclature and placental mammal phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    An issue arising from recent progress in establishing the placental mammal Tree of Life concerns the nomenclature of high-level clades. Fortunately, there are now several well-supported clades among extant mammals that require unambiguous, stable names. Although the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature does not apply above the Linnean rank of family, and while consensus on the adoption of competing systems of nomenclature does not yet exist, there is a clear, historical basis upon which to arbitrate among competing names for high-level mammalian clades. Here, we recommend application of the principles of priority and stability, as laid down by G.G. Simpson in 1945, to discriminate among proposed names for high-level taxa. We apply these principles to specific cases among placental mammals with broad relevance for taxonomy, and close with particular emphasis on the Afrotherian family Tenrecidae. We conclude that no matter how reconstructions of the Tree of Life change in years to come, systematists should apply new names reluctantly, deferring to those already published and maximizing consistency with existing nomenclature. PMID:20406454

  6. Complement Activation in Placental Malaria

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Chloe R.; Tran, Vanessa; Kain, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    Sixty percent of all pregnancies worldwide occur in malaria endemic regions. Pregnant women are at greater risk of malaria infection than their non-pregnant counterparts and have a higher risk of adverse birth outcomes including low birth weight resulting from intrauterine growth restriction and/or preterm birth. The complement system plays an essential role in placental and fetal development as well as the host innate immune response to malaria infection. Excessive or dysregulated complement activation has been associated with the pathobiology of severe malaria and with poor pregnancy outcomes, dependent and independent of infection. Here we review the role of complement in malaria and pregnancy and discuss its part in mediating altered placental angiogenesis, malaria-induced adverse birth outcomes, and disruptions to the in utero environment with possible consequences on fetal neurodevelopment. A detailed understanding of the mechanisms underlying adverse birth outcomes, and the impact of maternal malaria infection on fetal neurodevelopment, may lead to biomarkers to identify at-risk pregnancies and novel therapeutic interventions to prevent these complications. PMID:26733992

  7. Lactic Acid Bacteria Convert Human Fibroblasts to Multipotent Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Kunimasa; Kawano, Rie; Ito, Naofumi

    2012-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract is colonized by a vast community of symbionts and commensals. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) form a group of related, low-GC-content, gram-positive bacteria that are considered to offer a number of probiotic benefits to general health. While the role of LAB in gastrointestinal microecology has been the subject of extensive study, little is known about how commensal prokaryotic organisms directly influence eukaryotic cells. Here, we demonstrate the generation of multipotential cells from adult human dermal fibroblast cells by incorporating LAB. LAB-incorporated cell clusters are similar to embryoid bodies derived from embryonic stem cells and can differentiate into endodermal, mesodermal, and ectodermal cells in vivo and in vitro. LAB-incorporated cell clusters express a set of genes associated with multipotency, and microarray analysis indicates a remarkable increase of NANOG, a multipotency marker, and a notable decrease in HOX gene expression in LAB-incorporated cells. During the cell culture, the LAB-incorporated cell clusters stop cell division and start to express early senescence markers without cell death. Thus, LAB-incorporated cell clusters have potentially wide-ranging implications for cell generation, reprogramming, and cell-based therapy. PMID:23300571

  8. Multipotent progenitor cells isolated from adult human pancreatic tissue.

    PubMed

    Todorov, I; Nair, I; Ferreri, K; Rawson, J; Kuroda, A; Pascual, M; Omori, K; Valiente, L; Orr, C; Al-Abdullah, I; Riggs, A; Kandeel, F; Mullen, Y

    2005-10-01

    The supply of islet cells is a limiting factor for the widespread application of islet transplantation of type-1 diabetes. Islets constitute 1% to 2% of pancreatic tissue, leaving approximately 98% as discard after islet isolation and purification. In this report we present our data on the isolation of multipotent progenitor cells from discarded adult human pancreatic tissue. The collected cells from discarded nonislet fractions, after enzymatic digestion and gradient purification of islets, were dissociated for suspension culture in a serum-free medium. The cell clusters grown to a size of 100 to 150 mum contained cells staining for stage-specific embryonic antigens, but not insulin or C-peptide. To direct cell differentiation toward islets, clusters were recultured in a pancreatic differentiation medium. Insulin and C-peptide-positive cells by immunocytochemistry appeared within a week, reaching over 10% of the cell population. Glucagon and somatostatin-positive cells were also detected. The cell clusters were found to secrete insulin in response to glucose stimulation. Cells from the same clusters also had the capacity for differentiation into neural cells, as documented by staining for neural and glial cell markers when cultured as monolayers in media containing neurotrophic factors. These data suggest that multipotent pancreatic progenitor cells exist within the human pancreatic tissue that is typically discarded during islet isolation procedures. These adult progenitor cells can be successfully differentiated into insulin-producing cells, and thus they have the potential for treatment of type-1 diabetes mellitus. PMID:16298614

  9. A stochastic model for early placental development†

    PubMed Central

    Cotter, Simon L.; Klika, Václav; Kimpton, Laura; Collins, Sally; Heazell, Alexander E. P.

    2014-01-01

    In the human, placental structure is closely related to placental function and consequent pregnancy outcome. Studies have noted abnormal placental shape in small-for-gestational-age infants which extends to increased lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease. The origins and determinants of placental shape are incompletely understood and are difficult to study in vivo. In this paper, we model the early development of the human placenta, based on the hypothesis that this is driven by a chemoattractant effect emanating from proximal spiral arteries in the decidua. We derive and explore a two-dimensional stochastic model, and investigate the effects of loss of spiral arteries in regions near to the cord insertion on the shape of the placenta. This model demonstrates that disruption of spiral arteries can exert profound effects on placental shape, particularly if this is close to the cord insertion. Thus, placental shape reflects the underlying maternal vascular bed. Abnormal placental shape may reflect an abnormal uterine environment, predisposing to pregnancy complications. Through statistical analysis of model placentas, we are able to characterize the probability that a given placenta grew in a disrupted environment, and even able to distinguish between different disruptions. PMID:24850904

  10. Placental Genome and Maternal-Placental Genetic Interactions: A Genome-Wide and Candidate Gene Association Study of Placental Abruption

    PubMed Central

    Denis, Marie; Enquobahrie, Daniel A.; Tadesse, Mahlet G.; Gelaye, Bizu; Sanchez, Sixto E.; Salazar, Manuel; Ananth, Cande V.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    While available evidence supports the role of genetics in the pathogenesis of placental abruption (PA), PA-related placental genome variations and maternal-placental genetic interactions have not been investigated. Maternal blood and placental samples collected from participants in the Peruvian Abruptio Placentae Epidemiology study were genotyped using Illumina’s Cardio-Metabochip platform. We examined 118,782 genome-wide SNPs and 333 SNPs in 32 candidate genes from mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation pathways in placental DNA from 280 PA cases and 244 controls. We assessed maternal-placental interactions in the candidate gene SNPS and two imprinted regions (IGF2/H19 and C19MC). Univariate and penalized logistic regression models were fit to estimate odds ratios. We examined the combined effect of multiple SNPs on PA risk using weighted genetic risk scores (WGRS) with repeated ten-fold cross-validations. A multinomial model was used to investigate maternal-placental genetic interactions. In placental genome-wide and candidate gene analyses, no SNP was significant after false discovery rate correction. The top genome-wide association study (GWAS) hits were rs544201, rs1484464 (CTNNA2), rs4149570 (TNFRSF1A) and rs13055470 (ZNRF3) (p-values: 1.11e-05 to 3.54e-05). The top 200 SNPs of the GWAS overrepresented genes involved in cell cycle, growth and proliferation. The top candidate gene hits were rs16949118 (COX10) and rs7609948 (THRB) (p-values: 6.00e-03 and 8.19e-03). Participants in the highest quartile of WGRS based on cross-validations using SNPs selected from the GWAS and candidate gene analyses had a 8.40-fold (95% CI: 5.8–12.56) and a 4.46-fold (95% CI: 2.94–6.72) higher odds of PA compared to participants in the lowest quartile. We found maternal-placental genetic interactions on PA risk for two SNPs in PPARG (chr3∶12313450 and chr3∶12412978) and maternal imprinting effects for multiple SNPs in the C19MC and IGF2/H19 regions

  11. Development and Differentiation of Mesenchymal Bone Marrow Cells in Porous Permeable Titanium Nickelide Implants In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Kokorev, O V; Khodorenko, V N; Radkevich, A A; Dambaev, G Ts; Gunter, V E

    2016-08-01

    We studied the structure of porous permeable titanium nickelide used as the scaffold. In vitro population of the porous scaffold with multipotent mesenchymal stem bone marrow cells on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Stage-by-stage histogenesis of the tissues formed from the bone marrow cells in the titanium nickelide scaffold in vivo is described in detail. Using mesenchymal stem cells, we demonstrated that porous permeable titanium nickelide scaffolds are unique incubators for cell cultures applicable for tissue engineering. PMID:27590764

  12. Isolation of Multipotent Nestin-Expressing Stem Cells Derived from the Epidermis of Elderly Humans and TAT-VHL Peptide-Mediated Neuronal Differentiation of These Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kanno, Hiroshi; Kubo, Atsuhiko; Yoshizumi, Tetsuya; Mikami, Taro; Maegawa, Jiro

    2013-01-01

    A specialized population of cells residing in the hair follicle is quiescent but shows pluripotency for differentiating into epithelial-mesenchymal lineage cells. Therefore, such cells are hoped to be useful as implantable donor cells for regenerative therapy. Recently, it was reported that intracellular delivery of TAT-VHL peptide induces neuronal differentiation of skin-derived precursors. In the present study, we successfully isolated multipotent stem cells derived from the epidermis of elderly humans, characterized these cells as being capable of sphere formation and strong expression of nestin, fibronectin, and CD34 but not of keratin 15, and identified the niche of these cells as being the outer root sheath of the hair follicles. In addition, we showed that TAT-VHL peptide induced their neuronal differentiation in vitro, and confirmed by fluorescence immunohistochemistry the neuronal differentiation of such peptide-treated cells implanted into rodent brains. These multipotent nestin-expressing stem cells derived from human epidermis are easily accessible and should be useful as donor cells for neuronal regenerative cell therapy. PMID:23644888

  13. Evidence of Placental Hemorrhage and Preterm Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Gargano, Julia Warner; Holzman, Claudia B.; Senagore, Patricia K.; Reuss, M. Lynne; Pathak, Dorothy R.; Williams, Michelle A.; Fisher, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Objective to evaluate evidence of placental hemorrhage (PH) obtained through maternal interviews, patient charts, and placental pathology examinations as potential indicators of a “bleeding pathway” to preterm delivery (PTD). Design Prospective cohort Setting Fifty-two clinics in five communities in Michigan, USA (1998–2004) Population A subset (N=996) of cohort participants with complete placental pathology data Methods First trimester bleeding and placental abruption were ascertained by mid-trimester interviews and chart review, respectively. Disc-impacting blood clot was defined as a gross placental examination finding of a blood clot impacting adjacent tissue. Microscopic hemorrhage was defined as “high” (top quintile) scores on an aggregate measure of placental pathology findings suggestive of atypical maternal vessel hemorrhage. These four PH indicators were compared with one another and with risk of PTD assessed by logistic regression analyses. Main Outcome Measures PTD and PTD subtypes (i.e., <35 weeks, 35–36 weeks; spontaneous, medically indicated) compared with term deliveries. Results Placental abruption cases had 2.3 to 5.5-fold increased odds of the other 3 PH indicators. Disc-impacting blood clots and microscopic hemorrhage were associated with one another (OR=4.6), but not with first trimester bleeding. In a multivariable model that included all four PH indicators and confounders, risk of PTD <35 weeks was elevated with first trimester bleeding (OR=1.9 (1.0, 3.4)), placental abruption (OR=5.2 (1.7, 16.2)), disc-impacting blood clots (OR=2.3 (1.0, 5.0)); and microscopic hemorrhage (OR=2.4 (1.4, 4.2)). Conclusions Multiple clinical and subclinical PH indicators are associated with PTD, particularly early PTD. PMID:20074262

  14. Comparative aspects of trophoblast development and placentation.

    PubMed

    Carter, Anthony M; Enders, Allen C

    2004-07-01

    Based on the number of tissues separating maternal from fetal blood, placentas are classified as epitheliochorial, endotheliochorial or hemochorial. We review the occurrence of these placental types in the various orders of eutherian mammals within the framework of the four superorders identified by the techniques of molecular phylogenetics. The superorder Afrotheria diversified in ancient Africa and its living representatives include elephants, sea cows, hyraxes, aardvark, elephant shrews and tenrecs. Xenarthra, comprising armadillos, anteaters and sloths, diversified in South America. All placentas examined from members of these two oldest superorders are either endotheliochorial or hemochorial. The superorder Euarchontoglires includes two sister groups, Glires and Euarchonta. The former comprises rodents and lagomorphs, which typically have hemochorial placentas. The most primitive members of Euarchonta, the tree shrews, have endotheliochorial placentation. Flying lemurs and all higher primates have hemochorial placentas. However, the lemurs and lorises are exceptional among primates in having epitheliochorial placentation. Laurasiatheria, the last superorder to arise, includes several orders with epitheliochorial placentation. These comprise whales, camels, pigs, ruminants, horses and pangolins. In contrast, nearly all carnivores have endotheliochorial placentation, whilst bats have endotheliochorial or hemochorial placentas. Also included in Laurasiatheria are a number of insectivores that have many conserved morphological characters; none of these has epitheliochorial placentation. Consideration of placental type in relation to the findings of molecular phylogenetics suggests that the likely path of evolution in Afrotheria was from endotheliochorial to hemochorial placentation. This is also a likely scenario for Xenarthra and the bats. We argue that a definitive epitheliochorial placenta is a secondary specialization and that it evolved twice, once in the

  15. Erythropoietin guides multipotent hematopoietic progenitor cells toward an erythroid fate

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Amit; Mancini, Elena; Moore, Susan; Mead, Adam J.; Atkinson, Deborah; Rasmussen, Kasper D.; O’Carroll, Donal; Jacobsen, Sten Eirik W.

    2014-01-01

    The erythroid stress cytokine erythropoietin (Epo) supports the development of committed erythroid progenitors, but its ability to act on upstream, multipotent cells remains to be established. We observe that high systemic levels of Epo reprogram the transcriptomes of multi- and bipotent hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in vivo. This induces erythroid lineage bias at all lineage bifurcations known to exist between hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and committed erythroid progenitors, leading to increased erythroid and decreased myeloid HSC output. Epo, therefore, has a lineage instructive role in vivo, through suppression of non-erythroid fate options, demonstrating the ability of a cytokine to systematically bias successive lineage choices in favor of the generation of a specific cell type. PMID:24493804

  16. Determination, diversification and multipotency of mammalian myogenic cells.

    PubMed

    Cossu, G; De Angelis, L; Borello, U; Berarducci, B; Buffa, V; Sonnino, C; Coletta, M; Vivarelli, E; Bouche, M; Lattanzi, L; Tosoni, D; Di Donna, S; Berghella, L; Salvatori, G; Murphy, P; Cusella-De Angelis, M G; Molinaro, M

    2000-01-01

    In amniotes, myogenic commitment appears to be dependent upon signaling from neural tube and dorsal ectoderm, that can be replaced by members of the Wnt family and by Sonic hedgehog. Once committed, myoblasts undergo different fates, in that they can differentiate immediately to form the myotome, or later to give rise to primary and secondary muscle fibers. With fiber maturation, satellite cells are first detected; these cells contribute to fiber growth and regeneration during post-natal life. We will describe recent data, mainly from our laboratory, that suggest a different origin for some of the cells that are incorporated into the muscle fibers during late development. We propose the possibility that these myogenic cells are derived from the vasculature, are multi-potent and become committed to myogenesis by local signaling, when ingressing a differentiating muscle tissue. The implications for fetal and perinatal development of the whole mesoderm will also be discussed. PMID:11061434

  17. The distinct proteome of placental malaria parasites.

    SciTech Connect

    Fried, Michal; Hixson, Kim K.; Anderson, Lori; Ogata, Yuko; Mutabingwa, Theonest K.; Duffy, Patrick E.

    2007-09-01

    Malaria proteins expressed on the surface of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes (IE) mediate adhesion and are targeted by protective immune responses. During pregnancy, IE sequester in the placenta. Placental IE bind to the molecule chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) and preferentially transcribe the gene that encodes VAR2CSA, a member of the PfEMP1 variant surface antigen family. Over successive pregnancies women develop specific immunity to CSA-binding IE and antibodies to VAR2CSA. We used tandem mass spectrometry together with accurate mass and time tag technology to study IE membrane fractions of placental parasites. VAR2CSA peptides were detected in placental IE and in IE from children, but the MC variant of VAR2CSA was specifically associated with placental IE. We identified six conserved hypothetical proteins with putative TM or signal peptides that were exclusively expressed by the placental IE, and 11 such proteins that were significantly more abundant in placental IE. One of these hypothetical proteins, PFI1785w, is a 42kDa molecule detected by Western blot in parasites infecting pregnant women but not those infecting children.

  18. Mesenchymal markers on human adipose stem/progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerlin, Ludovic; Donnenberg, Vera S.; Rubin, J. Peter; Donnenberg, Albert D.

    2014-01-01

    The stromal-vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue is a rich source of multipotent stem cells. We and others have described 3 major populations of stem/progenitor cells in this fraction, all closely associated with small blood vessels: endothelial progenitor cells (EPC, CD45−/CD31+/CD34+), pericytes (CD45−/CD31−/CD146+) and supra-adventitial adipose stromal cells (SA-ASC, CD45−/CD31−/CD146−/CD34+). EPC are luminal, pericytes are adventitial and SA-ASC surround the vessel like a sheath. The multipotency of the pericytes and SA-ASC compartments is strikingly similar to that of CD45−/CD34−/CD73+/CD105+/CD90+ bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC). Here we determine the extent to which this mesenchymal expression pattern is expressed on the 3 adipose stem/progenitor populations. Eight independent adipose tissue samples were analyzed in a single tube (CD105-FITC/CD73-PE/CD146-PETXR/CD14-PECY5/CD33-PECY5/CD235A-PECY5/CD31-PECY7/CD90-APC/CD34-A700/CD45-APCCY7/DAPI). Adipose EPC were highly proliferative with 14.3±2.8% (mean ± SEM) having >2N DNA. About half (53.1±7.6%) coexpressed CD73 and CD105, and 71.9±7.4% expressed CD90. Pericytes were less proliferative (8.2±3.4% >2N DNA) with a smaller proportion (29.6±6.9% CD73+/CD105+, 60.5±10.2% CD90+) expressing mesenchymal associated markers. However, the CD34+ subset of CD146+ pericytes, were both highly proliferative (15.1±3.6% with >2N DNA) and of uniform mesenchymal phenotype (93.3±3.7% CD73+/CD105+, 97.8±0.7% CD90+), suggesting transit amplifying progenitor cells. SA-ASC were the least proliferative (3.7 ± 0.8%>2N DNA) but were also highly mesenchymal in phenotype (94.4±3.2% CD73+/CD105+, 95.5±1.2% CD90+). These data imply a progenitor/progeny relationship between pericytes and SA-ASC, the most mesenchymal of SVF cells. Despite phenotypic and functional similarities to BM-MSC, SA-ASC are distinguished by CD34 expression. PMID:23184564

  19. Technical comment on "The placental mammal ancestor and the post-K-Pg radiation of placentals".

    PubMed

    Springer, Mark S; Meredith, Robert W; Teeling, Emma C; Murphy, William J

    2013-08-01

    O'Leary et al. (Research Article, 8 February 2013, p. 662) examined mammalian relationships and divergence times and concluded that a single placental ancestor crossed the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary. This conclusion relies on phylogenetic analyses that fail to discriminate between homology and homoplasy and further implies virus-like rates of nucleotide substitution in early Paleocene placentals. PMID:23929967

  20. Biomarker-free dielectrophoretic sorting of differentiating myoblast multipotent progenitor cells and their membrane analysis by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Muratore, Massimo; Srsen, Vlastimil; Waterfall, Martin; Downes, Andrew; Pethig, Ronald

    2012-09-01

    Myoblasts are muscle derived mesenchymal stem cell progenitors that have great potential for use in regenerative medicine, especially for cardiomyogenesis grafts and intracardiac cell transplantation. To utilise such cells for pre-clinical and clinical applications, and especially for personalized medicine, it is essential to generate a synchronised, homogenous, population of cells that display phenotypic and genotypic homogeneity within a population of cells. We demonstrate that the biomarker-free technique of dielectrophoresis (DEP) can be used to discriminate cells between stages of differentiation in the C2C12 myoblast multipotent mouse model. Terminally differentiated myotubes were separated from C2C12 myoblasts to better than 96% purity, a result validated by flow cytometry and Western blotting. To determine the extent to which cell membrane capacitance, rather than cell size, determined the DEP response of a cell, C2C12 myoblasts were co-cultured with GFP-expressing MRC-5 fibroblasts of comparable size distributions (mean diameter ∼10 μm). A DEP sorting efficiency greater than 98% was achieved for these two cell types, a result concluded to arise from the fibroblasts possessing a larger membrane capacitance than the myoblasts. It is currently assumed that differences in membrane capacitance primarily reflect differences in the extent of folding or surface features of the membrane. However, our finding by Raman spectroscopy that the fibroblast membranes contained a smaller proportion of saturated lipids than those of the myoblasts suggests that the membrane chemistry should also be taken into account. PMID:23940503

  1. Congenital neuroblastoma with placental involvement.

    PubMed

    Kume, Ayako; Morikawa, Teppei; Ogawa, Makiko; Yamashita, Aki; Yamaguchi, Shunichi; Fukayama, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    We describe an extremely rare case of congenital neuroblastoma with placental involvement. A fetus with a left abdominal mass detected during ultrasonography at 23 weeks' gestation developed hydrops fetalis by 26 weeks' gestation. The mother developed hypertension at 26 5/7 weeks' gestation. Based on a clinical diagnosis of pregnancy-induced hypertension, labor was induced at 26 6/7 weeks. However, intrauterine fetal death was diagnosed during delivery. Postmortern examination revealed a solid tumor at the site of the left adrenal gland. Histological examination of the tumor revealed dense proliferation of small round tumor cells with sparse cytoplasm and hyperchromatic nuclei. Some tumor-cell complexes contained abundant neurofibrils and Hormer-Wright rosettes were observed. A diagnosis of neuroblastoma of the left adrenal gland was made. The liver was markedly enlarged and was extensively replaced by neuroblastoma cells. In addition, small nests of tumor cells were detected in the blood vessels of various organs including the heart, lung, spleen, kidneys, stomach, small and large intestine, thyroid gland, testis, spinal cord, and bone marrow. Histological examination of the enlarged placenta revealed numerous neuroblastoma cells in the villous fetal capillary spaces. The present case was unusual in that the tumor cells were found not only in the chorionic villi, but also in the intervillous space of the maternal vascular system. However, there was no clinical evidence of maternal metastasis. PMID:25550872

  2. Mosaic retroposon insertion patterns in placental mammals

    PubMed Central

    Churakov, Gennady; Kriegs, Jan Ole; Baertsch, Robert; Zemann, Anja; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    One and a half centuries after Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace outlined our current understanding of evolution, a new scientific era is dawning that enables direct observations of genetic variation. However, pure sequence-based molecular attempts to resolve the basal origin of placental mammals have so far resulted only in apparently conflicting hypotheses. By contrast, in the mammalian genomes where they were highly active, the insertion of retroelements and their comparative insertion patterns constitute a neutral, virtually homoplasy-free archive of evolutionary histories. The “presence” of a retroelement at an orthologous genomic position in two species indicates their common ancestry in contrast to its “absence” in more distant species. To resolve the placental origin controversy we extracted ∼2 million potentially phylogenetically informative, retroposon-containing loci from representatives of the major placental mammalian lineages and found highly significant evidence challenging all current single hypotheses of their basal origin. The Exafroplacentalia hypothesis (Afrotheria as the sister group to all remaining placentals) is significantly supported by five retroposon insertions, the Epitheria hypothesis (Xenarthra as the sister group to all remaining placentals) by nine insertion patterns, and the Atlantogenata hypothesis (a monophyletic clade comprising Xenarthra and Afrotheria as the sister group to Boreotheria comprising all remaining placentals) by eight insertion patterns. These findings provide significant support for a “soft” polytomy of the major mammalian clades. Ancestral successive hybridization events and/or incomplete lineage sorting associated with short speciation intervals are viable explanations for the mosaic retroposon insertion patterns of recent placental mammals and for the futile search for a clear root dichotomy. PMID:19261842

  3. Mosaic retroposon insertion patterns in placental mammals.

    PubMed

    Churakov, Gennady; Kriegs, Jan Ole; Baertsch, Robert; Zemann, Anja; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2009-05-01

    One and a half centuries after Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace outlined our current understanding of evolution, a new scientific era is dawning that enables direct observations of genetic variation. However, pure sequence-based molecular attempts to resolve the basal origin of placental mammals have so far resulted only in apparently conflicting hypotheses. By contrast, in the mammalian genomes where they were highly active, the insertion of retroelements and their comparative insertion patterns constitute a neutral, virtually homoplasy-free archive of evolutionary histories. The "presence" of a retroelement at an orthologous genomic position in two species indicates their common ancestry in contrast to its "absence" in more distant species. To resolve the placental origin controversy we extracted approximately 2 million potentially phylogenetically informative, retroposon-containing loci from representatives of the major placental mammalian lineages and found highly significant evidence challenging all current single hypotheses of their basal origin. The Exafroplacentalia hypothesis (Afrotheria as the sister group to all remaining placentals) is significantly supported by five retroposon insertions, the Epitheria hypothesis (Xenarthra as the sister group to all remaining placentals) by nine insertion patterns, and the Atlantogenata hypothesis (a monophyletic clade comprising Xenarthra and Afrotheria as the sister group to Boreotheria comprising all remaining placentals) by eight insertion patterns. These findings provide significant support for a "soft" polytomy of the major mammalian clades. Ancestral successive hybridization events and/or incomplete lineage sorting associated with short speciation intervals are viable explanations for the mosaic retroposon insertion patterns of recent placental mammals and for the futile search for a clear root dichotomy. PMID:19261842

  4. Ascending placentitis in the mare: A review.

    PubMed

    Cummins, C; Carrington, S; Fitzpatrick, E; Duggan, V

    2008-01-01

    Ascending placentitis is a condition that occurs late in pregnancy when bacteria enter the sterile uterus from the lower reproductive tract. It leads to abortion or the birth of premature and weakened foals. Early detection and treatment of this condition is vital for ensuring the production of a viable foal.Mares with ascending placentitis often present in late term pregnancy with signs of premature udder development and premature lactation. There may be a vulvar discharge. Early detection of placental problems is possible using trans-abdominal or trans-rectal ultrasonography. Hormones such as progesterone and relaxin may be measured as indicators of foetal stress and placental failure. Postpartum foetal membranes may be thickened and contain a fibronecrotic exudate. The region most affected is the cervical star. Definitive diagnosis of ascending placentitis is by histopathological examination of the chorioallantoic membrane.Ideal treatment strategies are aimed at curing the infection and prolonging the pregnancy to as close to term as possible and consist of anti-microbials, anti-inflammatories and hormonal support.Swabs are taken from affected mares to determine antibiotic sensitivity and to aid in treatment of foals born from these mares which are at risk of becoming septic. If detected early enough, the chances of producing a viable foal are greatly increased. PMID:21851713

  5. [Placental developmental defects in cloned mammalian animals].

    PubMed

    Ao, Zheng; Liu, Dewu; Cai, Gengyuan; Wu, Zhenfang; Li, Zicong

    2016-05-01

    The cloning technique, also called somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), has been successfully established and gradually applied to various mammalian species. However, the developmental rate of SCNT mammalian embryos is very low, usually at 1% to 5%, which limits the application of SCNT. Placental developmental defects are considered as the main cause of SCNT embryo development inhibition. Almost all of SCNT-derived mammalian placentas exhibit various abnormalities, such as placental hyperplasia, vascular defects and umbilical cord malformation. Mechanistically, these abnormalities result from failure of establishment of correct epigenetic modification in the trophectoderm genome, which leads to erroneous expression of important genes for placenta development-related, particularly imprinted genes. Consequently, aberrant imprinted gene expression gives rise to placental morphologic abnormalities and functional defects, therefore decreases developmental competence of cloned embryos. Currently, although numerous methods that can improve the developmental ability of SCNT-derived embryos have been reported, most of them are unable to substantially enhance the success rate of SCNT due to failure to eliminate the placental development defects. In this review, we summarize placental abnormalities and imprinted gene expression in mammalian cloning, and propose directions for the future research aiming to improve the cloning efficiency. PMID:27232488

  6. Placental-derived stem cells: Culture, differentiation and challenges.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maira S; Barreto-Filho, João B

    2015-05-26

    Stem cell therapy is a promising approach to clinical healing in several diseases. A great variety of tissues (bone marrow, adipose tissue, and placenta) are potentially sources of stem cells. Placenta-derived stem cells (p-SCs) are in between embryonic and mesenchymal stem cells, sharing characteristics with both, such as non-carcinogenic status and property to differentiate in all embryonic germ layers. Moreover, their use is not ethically restricted as fetal membranes are considered medical waste after birth. In this context, the present review will be focused on the biological properties, culture and potential cell therapy uses of placental-derived stem cells. Immunophenotype characterization, mainly for surface marker expression, and basic principles of p-SC isolation and culture (mechanical separation or enzymatic digestion of the tissues, the most used culture media, cell plating conditions) will be presented. In addition, some preclinical studies that were performed in different medical areas will be cited, focusing on neurological, liver, pancreatic, heart, muscle, pulmonary, and bone diseases and also in tissue engineering field. Finally, some challenges for stem cell therapy applications will be highlighted. The understanding of the mechanisms involved in the p-SCs differentiation and the achievement of pure cell populations (after differentiation) are key points that must be clarified before bringing the preclinical studies, performed at the bench, to the medical practice. PMID:26029347

  7. 21 CFR 862.1585 - Human placental lactogen test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... placental lactogen are used in the diagnosis and clinical management of high-risk pregnancies involving fetal distress associated with placental insufficiency. Measurements of HPL are also used in...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1585 - Human placental lactogen test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... placental lactogen are used in the diagnosis and clinical management of high-risk pregnancies involving fetal distress associated with placental insufficiency. Measurements of HPL are also used in...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1585 - Human placental lactogen test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... placental lactogen are used in the diagnosis and clinical management of high-risk pregnancies involving fetal distress associated with placental insufficiency. Measurements of HPL are also used in...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1585 - Human placental lactogen test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... placental lactogen are used in the diagnosis and clinical management of high-risk pregnancies involving fetal distress associated with placental insufficiency. Measurements of HPL are also used in...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1585 - Human placental lactogen test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... placental lactogen are used in the diagnosis and clinical management of high-risk pregnancies involving fetal distress associated with placental insufficiency. Measurements of HPL are also used in...

  12. Mechanisms of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in sea urchin embryos

    PubMed Central

    Katow, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Sea urchin mesenchyme is composed of the large micromere-derived spiculogenetic primary mesenchyme cells (PMC), veg2-tier macromere-derived non-spiculogenetic mesenchyme cells, the small micromere-derived germ cells, and the macro- and mesomere-derived neuronal mesenchyme cells. They are formed through the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and possess multipotency, except PMCs that solely differentiate larval spicules. The process of EMT is associated with modification of epithelial cell surface property that includes loss of affinity to the apical and basal extracellular matrices, inter-epithelial cell adherens junctions and epithelial cell surface-specific proteins. These cell surface structures and molecules are endocytosed during EMT and utilized as initiators of cytoplasmic signaling pathways that often initiate protein phosphorylation to activate the gene regulatory networks. Acquisition of cell motility after EMT in these mesenchyme cells is associated with the expression of proteins such as Lefty, Snail and Seawi. Structural simplicity and genomic database of this model will further promote detailed EMT research. PMID:26716069

  13. Internalization of nanopolymeric tracers does not alter characteristics of placental cells.

    PubMed

    Bigini, Paolo; Zanier, Elisa R; Saragozza, Silvia; Maciotta, Simona; Romele, Pietro; Bonassi Signoroni, Patrizia; Silini, Antonietta; Pischiutta, Francesca; Sammali, Eliana; Balducci, Claudia; Violatto, Martina B; Talamini, Laura; Garry, David; Moscatelli, Davide; Ferrari, Raffaele; Salmona, Mario; De Simoni, Maria Grazia; Maggi, Federico; Simoni, Giuseppe; Grati, Francesca Romana; Parolini, Ornella

    2016-06-01

    In the cell therapy scenario, efficient tracing of transplanted cells is essential for investigating cell migration and interactions with host tissues. This is fundamental to provide mechanistic insights which altogether allow for the understanding of the translational potential of placental cell therapy in the clinical setting. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) from human placenta are increasingly being investigated for their potential in treating patients with a variety of diseases. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using poly (methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles (PMMA-NPs) to trace placental MSC, namely those from the amniotic membrane (hAMSC) and early chorionic villi (hCV-MSC). We report that PMMP-NPs are efficiently internalized and retained in both populations, and do not alter cell morphofunctional parameters. We observed that PMMP-NP incorporation does not alter in vitro immune modulatory capability of placental MSC, a characteristic central to their reparative/therapeutic effects in vitro. We also show that in vitro, PMMP-NP uptake is not affected by hypoxia. Interestingly, after in vivo brain ischaemia and reperfusion injury achieved by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo) in mice, iv hAMSC treatment resulted in significant improvement in cognitive function compared to PBS-treated tMCAo mice. Our study provides evidence that tracing placental MSC with PMMP-NPs does not alter their in vitro and in vivo functions. These observations are grounds for the use of PMMP-NPs as tools to investigate the therapeutic mechanisms of hAMSC and hCV-MSC in preclinical models of inflammatory-driven diseases. PMID:26987908

  14. Tributyltin engages multiple nuclear receptor pathways and suppresses osteogenesis in bone marrow multipotent stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Baker, Amelia H; Watt, James; Huang, Cassie K; Gerstenfeld, Louis C; Schlezinger, Jennifer J

    2015-06-15

    Organotins are members of the environmental obesogen class of contaminants because they activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), the essential regulator of adipogenesis. Exposure to thiazolidinediones (PPARγ ligands used to treat type 2 diabetes) is associated with increased fractures. Diminished bone quality likely results from PPARγ's role in promoting adipogenesis while suppressing osteogenesis of bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSC). We hypothesized that tributyltin (TBT) would be a potent modifier of BM-MSC differentiation and a negative regulator of bone formation. Organotins interact with both PPARγ and retinoid X receptors (RXR), suggesting that they activate multiple nuclear receptor pathways. To investigate the role of RXR in the actions of TBT, the effects of PPARγ (rosiglitazone) and RXR (bexarotene, LG100268) agonists were compared to the effects of TBT in BMS2 cells and primary mouse BM-MSC cultures. In BMS2 cells, TBT induced the expression of Fabp4, Abca1, and Tgm2 in an RXR-dependent manner. All agonists suppressed osteogenesis in primary mouse BM-MSC cultures, based on decreased alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization, and expression of osteoblast-related genes. While rosiglitazone and TBT strongly activated adipogenesis, based on lipid accumulation and expression of adipocyte-related genes, the RXR agonists did not. Extending these analyses to other RXR heterodimers showed that TBT and the RXR agonists activated the liver X receptor pathway, whereas rosiglitazone did not. Application of either a PPARγ antagonist (T0070907) or an RXR antagonist (HX531) significantly reduced rosiglitazone-induced suppression of bone nodule formation. Only the RXR antagonist significantly reduced LG100268- and TBT-induced bone suppression. The RXR antagonist also inhibited LG100268- and TBT-induced expression of Abca1, an LXR target gene, in primary BM-MSC cultures. These results provide novel evidence that

  15. Placental morphologic and functional imaging in high-risk pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Gudmundsson, Saemundur; Dubiel, Mariusz; Sladkevicius, Povilas

    2009-08-01

    The placenta is vital for fetal growth and development. Improvement in ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have improved our understanding of placental morphology that can be important as in the case of placental accrete/percreta. Functional imaging is presently mainly performed by the use of Doppler ultrasound and can give information on placental perfusion, which can be vital for clinical diagnosis. This review summarizes the present knowledge on placental imaging and it's clinical value in high-risk pregnancies. PMID:19631087

  16. Placental genetic variations in circadian clock-related genes increase the risk of placental abruption

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Chunfang; Gelaye, Bizu; Denis, Marie; Tadesse, Mahlet G; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Ananth, Cande V; Pacora, Percy N; Salazar, Manuel; Sanchez, Sixto E; Williams, Michelle A

    2016-01-01

    The genetic architecture of placental abruption (PA) remains poorly understood. We examined variations in SNPs of circadian clock-related genes in placenta with PA risk. We also explored placental and maternal genomic contributions to PA risk. Placental genomic DNA samples were isolated from 280 PA cases and 244 controls. Genotyping was performed using the Illumina Cardio-MetaboChip. We examined 116 SNPs in 13 genes known to moderate circadian rhythms. Logistic regression models were fit to estimate odds ratios (ORs). The combined effect of multiple SNPs on PA risk was estimated using a weighted genetic risk score. We examined independent and joint associations of wGRS derived from placental and maternal genomes with PA. Seven SNPs in five genes (ARNTL2, CRY2, DEC1, PER3 and RORA), in the placental genome, were associated with PA risk. Each copy of the minor allele (G) of a SNP in the RORA gene (rs2899663) was associated with a 30% reduced odds of PA (95% CI 0.52-0.95). The odds of PA increased with increasing placental-wGRS (Ptrend<0.001). The ORs were 1.00, 2.16, 3.24 and 4.48 across quartiles. Associations persisted after the maternal-wGRS was included in the model. There was evidence of an additive contribution of placental and maternal genetic contributions to PA risk. Participants with placental- and maternal-wGRS in the highest quartile, compared with those in the lowest quartile, had a 15.57-fold (95% CI 3.34-72.60) increased odds of PA. Placental variants in circadian clock-related genes are associated with PA risk; and the association persists after control of genetic variants in the maternal genome. PMID:27186326

  17. Zika Virus Infects Human Placental Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Quicke, Kendra M; Bowen, James R; Johnson, Erica L; McDonald, Circe E; Ma, Huailiang; O'Neal, Justin T; Rajakumar, Augustine; Wrammert, Jens; Rimawi, Bassam H; Pulendran, Bali; Schinazi, Raymond F; Chakraborty, Rana; Suthar, Mehul S

    2016-07-13

    The recent Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in Brazil has been directly linked to increased cases of microcephaly in newborns. Current evidence indicates that ZIKV is transmitted vertically from mother to fetus. However, the mechanism of intrauterine transmission and the cell types involved remain unknown. We demonstrate that the contemporary ZIKV strain PRVABC59 (PR 2015) infects and replicates in primary human placental macrophages, called Hofbauer cells, and to a lesser extent in cytotrophoblasts, isolated from villous tissue of full-term placentae. Viral replication coincides with induction of type I interferon (IFN), pro-inflammatory cytokines, and antiviral gene expression, but with minimal cell death. Our results suggest a mechanism for intrauterine transmission in which ZIKV gains access to the fetal compartment by directly infecting placental cells and disrupting the placental barrier. PMID:27247001

  18. Massive pre-placental and subchorionic haematoma.

    PubMed

    Loi, K; Tan, K T

    2006-12-01

    We report an unusual case of massive pre-placental and subchorionic haematoma occurring in a 26-year-old woman who presented with antepartum haemorrhage at 24 weeks gestation. Ultrasonography showed a subchorionic haematoma in the lower posterior uterine wall measuring 5.0 cm in largest diameter. There was also a separate irregular multiloculated structure measuring 4.3 cm in largest diameter on the surface of the placenta, due to a pre-placental haematoma. The subchorionic haematoma diminished in size over time, while the pre-placental haematoma continued to grow, measuring 9.0 cm at 28 weeks, and 9.3 cm at 32 weeks. At 32 weeks, the patient presented with premature rupture of membranes and four days later, an emergency caesarean section was performed when the patient had another episode of severe antepartum haemorrhage. Both mother and child recovered well. The current literature on such haematomas is reviewed. PMID:17139407

  19. Placental efficiency and adaptation: endocrine regulation

    PubMed Central

    Fowden, A L; Sferruzzi-Perri, A N; Coan, P M; Constancia, M; Burton, G J

    2009-01-01

    Size at birth is critical in determining life expectancy and is dependent primarily on the placental supply of nutrients. However, the fetus is not just a passive recipient of nutrients from the placenta. It exerts a significant acquisitive drive for nutrients, which acts through morphological and functional adaptations in the placenta, particularly when the genetically determined drive for fetal growth is compromised by adverse intrauterine conditions. These adaptations alter the efficiency with which the placenta supports fetal growth, which results in optimal growth for prevailing conditions in utero. This review examines placental efficiency as a means of altering fetal growth, the morphological and functional adaptations that influence placental efficiency and the endocrine regulation of these processes. PMID:19451204

  20. Asymmetric Distribution of GFAP in Glioma Multipotent Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guichet, Pierre-Olivier; Guelfi, Sophie; Ripoll, Chantal; Teigell, Marisa; Sabourin, Jean-Charles; Bauchet, Luc; Rigau, Valérie; Rothhut, Bernard; Hugnot, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Asymmetric division (AD) is a fundamental mechanism whereby unequal inheritance of various cellular compounds during mitosis generates unequal fate in the two daughter cells. Unequal repartitions of transcription factors, receptors as well as mRNA have been abundantly described in AD. In contrast, the involvement of intermediate filaments in this process is still largely unknown. AD occurs in stem cells during development but was also recently observed in cancer stem cells. Here, we demonstrate the asymmetric distribution of the main astrocytic intermediate filament, namely the glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP), in mitotic glioma multipotent cells isolated from glioblastoma (GBM), the most frequent type of brain tumor. Unequal mitotic repartition of GFAP was also observed in mice non-tumoral neural stem cells indicating that this process occurs across species and is not restricted to cancerous cells. Immunofluorescence and videomicroscopy were used to capture these rare and transient events. Considering the role of intermediate filaments in cytoplasm organization and cell signaling, we propose that asymmetric distribution of GFAP could possibly participate in the regulation of normal and cancerous neural stem cell fate. PMID:26953813

  1. Embryonic multipotent progenitors remodel the Drosophila airways during metamorphosis

    PubMed Central

    Pitsouli, Chrysoula; Perrimon, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    Adult structures in holometabolous insects such as Drosophila are generated by groups of imaginal cells dedicated to the formation of different organs. Imaginal cells are specified in the embryo and remain quiescent until the larval stages, when they proliferate and differentiate to form organs. The Drosophila tracheal system is extensively remodeled during metamorphosis by a small number of airway progenitors. Among these, the spiracular branch tracheoblasts are responsible for the generation of the pupal and adult abdominal airways. To understand the coordination of proliferation and differentiation during organogenesis of tubular organs, we analyzed the remodeling of Drosophila airways during metamorphosis. We show that the embryonic spiracular branch tracheoblasts are multipotent cells that express the homeobox transcription factor Cut, which is necessary for their survival and normal development. They give rise to three distinct cell populations at the end of larval development, which generate the adult tracheal tubes, the spiracle and the epidermis surrounding the spiracle. Our study establishes the series of events that lead to the formation of an adult tubular structure in Drosophila. PMID:20940225

  2. Expansion of Multipotent Stem Cells from the Adult Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Murrell, Wayne; Palmero, Emily; Bianco, John; Stangeland, Biljana; Joel, Mrinal; Paulson, Linda; Thiede, Bernd; Grieg, Zanina; Ramsnes, Ingunn; Skjellegrind, Håvard K.; Nygård, Ståle; Brandal, Petter; Sandberg, Cecilie; Vik-Mo, Einar; Palmero, Sheryl; Langmoen, Iver A.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of stem cells in the adult human brain has revealed new possible scenarios for treatment of the sick or injured brain. Both clinical use of and preclinical research on human adult neural stem cells have, however, been seriously hampered by the fact that it has been impossible to passage these cells more than a very few times and with little expansion of cell numbers. Having explored a number of alternative culturing conditions we here present an efficient method for the establishment and propagation of human brain stem cells from whatever brain tissue samples we have tried. We describe virtually unlimited expansion of an authentic stem cell phenotype. Pluripotency proteins Sox2 and Oct4 are expressed without artificial induction. For the first time multipotency of adult human brain-derived stem cells is demonstrated beyond tissue boundaries. We characterize these cells in detail in vitro including microarray and proteomic approaches. Whilst clarification of these cells’ behavior is ongoing, results so far portend well for the future repair of tissues by transplantation of an adult patient’s own-derived stem cells. PMID:23967194

  3. [Antenatal diagnosis of placental acretism-percretism].

    PubMed

    Haghenbeck-Altamirano, Francisco Javier; Leis-Márquez, Teresa; Ayala-Yáñez, Rodrigo; Juárez-García, Luz del Carmen; García-Moreno, Carla

    2013-05-01

    Placental acretism is an adherencial pathology associated with a high maternal morbidity and mortality rates. Antepartum diagnosis is essential to plan a proper management and reduce serious complications. Risk factors in these patients include prior cesarean sections, uterine scars and placenta previa. Second level ultrasonography may detect placental acretism with high sensitivity and specificity; magnetic resonance imaging may play a complimentary role in the diagnosis of placental acretism when ultrasonographic findings are non-conclusive, specially when determining miometrium invasion in placental acretism (incretism, percretism). This paper reports the case of a patient treated at the ABC Medical Center of Santa Fe, in her second gestation with the diagnosis of an arcuate uterus, previous cesarean section and placenta previa who presented a vaginal bleeding during pregnancy; ultrasound evaluation, in the second trimester, identified a probable placental acretism, in the third trimester, the same technology suggested placenta percreta, complimentary magnetic resonance imaging supported this diagnosis, with probable invasion to bladder, bowel and abdominal wall muscles. Imaging studies were performed at the Hospital Angeles Lomas (Maternal Fetal Clinic). A diagnosis of placenta acreta-percreta, called for a multidisciplinary surgical team, availability of blood products and other resources to face probable complications associated to the obstetrical resolution. Maternal results were optimal since histopathological evaluation reported miometrial incretism, with placental invasion millimeters away from the uterine serosa. Most ultrasonographic studies evaluating the invasion degree of the placenta have small sample sizes, generating a greater degree of false positive or false negative observations. Therefore, we agree with other authors that in all acretism cases (independent of their invasion degree), a multidisciplinary surgical team should be assembled in

  4. Isolation and Manufacture of Clinical-Grade Bone Marrow-Derived Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Miller, Renuka P; Hanley, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells with both regenerative and immunomodulatory capacities. These unique properties make them appealing as a biologic, with multiple phase 1-3 clinical trials currently testing their safety and efficacy. Although expanding MSCs does not require extensive manipulation, expanding MSCs for use in clinical trials does require the knowledge and safety that are delineated in current good manufacturing practices (GMPs). Here we briefly detail the characteristics of MSCs and considerations for expanding them for clinical use. We then include a step-by-step protocol for expanding MSCs for early phase clinical trials, with important notes to consider during the expansion of these MSCs. PMID:27236680

  5. Placental Adaptation: What Can We Learn from Birthweight:Placental Weight Ratio?

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, Christina E.; Lean, Samantha; Sibley, Colin P.; Jones, Rebecca L.; Wareing, Mark; Greenwood, Susan L.; Dilworth, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate fetal growth relies upon adequate placental nutrient transfer. Birthweight:placental weight ratio (BW:PW ratio) is often used as a proxy for placental efficiency, defined as the grams of fetus produced per gram placenta. An elevated BW:PW ratio in an appropriately grown fetus (small placenta) is assumed to be due to up-regulated placental nutrient transfer capacity i.e., a higher nutrient net flux per gram placenta. In fetal growth restriction (FGR), where a fetus fails to achieve its genetically pre-determined growth potential, placental weight and BW:PW ratio are often reduced which may indicate a placenta that fails to adapt its nutrient transfer capacity to compensate for its small size. This review considers the literature on BW:PW ratio in both large cohort studies of normal pregnancies and those studies offering insight into the relationship between BW:PW ratio and outcome measures including stillbirth, FGR, and subsequent postnatal consequences. The core of this review is the question of whether BW:PW ratio is truly indicative of altered placental efficiency, and whether changes in BW:PW ratio reflect those placentas which adapt their nutrient transfer according to their size. We consider this question using data from mice and humans, focusing upon studies that have measured the activity of the well characterized placental system A amino acid transporter, both in uncomplicated pregnancies and in FGR. Evidence suggests that BW:PW ratio is reduced both in FGR and in pregnancies resulting in a small for gestational age (SGA, birthweight < 10th centile) infant but this effect is more pronounced earlier in gestation (<28 weeks). In mice, there is a clear association between increased BW:PW ratio and increased placental system A activity. Additionally, there is good evidence in wild-type mice that small placentas upregulate placental nutrient transfer to prevent fetal undergrowth. In humans, this association between BW:PW ratio and placental system A

  6. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells induce both polyclonal expansion and differentiation of B cells isolated from healthy donors and systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

    PubMed

    Traggiai, Elisabetta; Volpi, Stefano; Schena, Francesca; Gattorno, Marco; Ferlito, Francesca; Moretta, Lorenzo; Martini, Alberto

    2008-02-01

    Human bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells are progenitor cells that can be expanded in vitro and differentiate into various cells of mesodermal origin. They contribute to the bone marrow reticular niche, where mature B cells and long-lived plasma cells are maintained. Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells were recently shown to modulate T- and B-cell proliferation and differentiation, dendritic cell maturation, and natural killer activity. These immunoregulatory properties encouraged a possible use of these cells to modulate autoimmune responses in humans. We studied the influence of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on highly purified B-cell subsets isolated from healthy donors and total B cells from pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells promoted proliferation and differentiation into immunoglobulin-secreting cells of transitional and naive B cells stimulated with an agonist of Toll-like receptor 9, in the absence of B cell receptor triggering. They strongly enhanced proliferation and differentiation into plasma cells of memory B-cell populations. A similar effect was observed in response to polyclonal stimulation of B cells isolated from pediatric patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. This study casts important questions on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells as a therapeutic tool in autoimmune diseases in which B-cell activation is crucially implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:18024418

  7. Reduced placental volume and flow in severe growth restricted fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Abulé, Renata Montes Dourado; Bernardes, Lisandra Stein; Doro, Giovana Farina; Miyadahira, Seizo; Francisco, Rossana Pulcinelli Vieira

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate placental volume and vascular indices in pregnancies with severe fetal growth restriction and determine their correlations to normal reference ranges and Doppler velocimetry results of uterine and umbilical arteries. METHODS: Twenty-seven fetuses with estimated weights below the 3rd percentile for gestational age were evaluated. Placental volume and vascular indices, including vascularization, flow, and vascularization flow indices, were measured by three-dimensional ultrasound using a rotational technique and compared to a previously described nomogram. The observed-to-expected placental volume ratio for gestational age and observed-to-expected placental volume ratio for fetal weight were calculated. Placental parameters correlated with the Doppler velocimetry results of uterine and umbilical arteries. RESULTS: The mean uterine artery pulsatility index was negatively correlated with the observed-to-expected placental volume ratio for gestational age, vascularization index and vascularization flow index. The observed-to-expected placental volume ratio for gestational age and observed-to-expected placental volume ratio for fetal weight and vascularization index were significantly lower in the group with a bilateral protodiastolic notch. No placental parameter correlated with the umbilical artery pulsatility index. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancies complicated by severe fetal growth restriction are associated with reduced placental volume and vascularization. These findings are related to changes in uterine artery Doppler velocimetry. Future studies on managing severe fetal growth restriction should focus on combined results of placental three-dimensional ultrasound and Doppler studies of uterine arteries. PMID:27438567

  8. BROMODICHLOROMETHANE INHIBITS HUMAN PLACENTAL TROPHOBLAST DIFFERENTIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    BROMODICHLOROMETHANE INHIBITS HUMAN PLACENTAL
    TROPHOBLAST DIFFERENTIATION
    Jiangang Chen, Twanda L. Thirkill, Peter N. Lohstroh, Susan R. Bielmeier, Michael
    G. Narotsky, Deborah S. Best, Randy A. Harrison, Kala Natarajan, Rex A. Pegram,
    Bill L. Lasley, and Gordon C. Do...

  9. Placental specializations in lecithotrophic viviparous squamate reptiles.

    PubMed

    Stewart, James R

    2015-09-01

    Squamate reptiles have been thought to be predisposed to evolution of viviparity because embryos of most oviparous species undergo considerable development in the uterus prior to oviposition. A related hypothesis proposes that prolonged intrauterine gestation, an intermediate condition leading to viviparity, requires little or no physiological adjustment, other than reduction in thickness of the eggshell. This logical framework is often accompanied by an assumption that mode of parity (oviparity, viviparity) and pattern of embryonic nutrition (lecithotrophy, placentotrophy) are independent traits that evolve in sequence. Thus, specializations for viviparity should be absent in some lecithotrophic viviparous species. Studies of species of lizards with geographic variation in mode of parity challenge this scenario by demonstrating that placental specializations are correlated with viviparity. Uterine specializations for placental transport of calcium to viviparous embryos alter uterine physiology compared to oviparous females. In addition, comparative studies of oviparous and viviparous species, i.e., in which gene flow is disrupted, reveal that both uterine and embryonic structural modifications are commonly associated with viviparity, suggesting relatively rapid evolution of placental specializations. Studies of squamate reproductive biology support two hypotheses: 1) evolution of viviparity requires physiological adjustments of the uterine environment, and 2) evolution of viviparity promotes relatively rapid adaptations for placentation. Models for the evolution of viviparity from oviparity, or for reversals from viviparity to oviparity, should reflect current understanding of squamate reproductive biology and future studies should be designed to challenge these models. PMID:26055953

  10. Placental Nutrient Transport and Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Gaccioli, Francesca; Lager, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction refers to the inability of the fetus to reach its genetically determined potential size. Fetal growth restriction affects approximately 5–15% of all pregnancies in the United States and Europe. In developing countries the occurrence varies widely between 10 and 55%, impacting about 30 million newborns per year. Besides having high perinatal mortality rates these infants are at greater risk for severe adverse outcomes, such as hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and cerebral palsy. Moreover, reduced fetal growth has lifelong health consequences, including higher risks of developing metabolic and cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. Numerous reports indicate placental insufficiency as one of the underlying causes leading to altered fetal growth and impaired placental capacity of delivering nutrients to the fetus has been shown to contribute to the etiology of intrauterine growth restriction. Indeed, reduced expression and/or activity of placental nutrient transporters have been demonstrated in several conditions associated with an increased risk of delivering a small or growth restricted infant. This review focuses on human pregnancies and summarizes the changes in placental amino acid, fatty acid, and glucose transport reported in conditions associated with intrauterine growth restriction, such as maternal undernutrition, pre-eclampsia, young maternal age, high altitude and infection. PMID:26909042

  11. Macrophage Exosomes Induce Placental Inflammatory Cytokines: A Novel Mode of Maternal-Placental Messaging.

    PubMed

    Holder, Beth; Jones, Tessa; Sancho Shimizu, Vanessa; Rice, Thomas F; Donaldson, Beverly; Bouqueau, Marielle; Forbes, Karen; Kampmann, Beate

    2016-02-01

    During pregnancy, the placenta forms the interface between mother and fetus. Highly controlled regulation of trans-placental trafficking is therefore essential for the healthy development of the growing fetus. Extracellular vesicle-mediated transfer of protein and nucleic acids from the human placenta into the maternal circulation is well documented; the possibility that this trafficking is bi-directional has not yet been explored but could affect placental function and impact on the fetus.We hypothesized that the ability of the placenta to respond to maternal inflammatory signals is mediated by the interaction of maternal immune cell exosomes with placental trophoblast. Utilizing the BeWo cell line and whole placental explants, we demonstrated that the human placenta internalizes macrophage-derived exosomes in a time- and dose-dependent manner. This uptake was via clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Furthermore, macrophage exosomes induced release of proinflammatory cytokines by the placenta. Taken together, our data demonstrates that exosomes are actively transported into the human placenta and that exosomes from activated immune cells modulate placental cytokine production. This represents a novel mechanism by which immune cells can signal to the placental unit, potentially facilitating responses to maternal inflammation and infection, and thereby preventing harm to the fetus. PMID:26602702

  12. Identification of Predictive Gene Markers for Multipotent Stromal Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Bellayr, Ian H; Marklein, Ross A; Lo Surdo, Jessica L; Bauer, Steven R; Puri, Raj K

    2016-06-01

    Multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) are known for their distinctive ability to differentiate into different cell lineages, such as adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteocytes. They can be isolated from numerous tissue sources, including bone marrow, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and others. Because of their differentiation potential and secretion of growth factors, MSCs are believed to have an inherent quality of regeneration and immune suppression. Cellular expansion is necessary to obtain sufficient numbers for use; however, MSCs exhibit a reduced capacity for proliferation and differentiation after several rounds of passaging. In this study, gene markers of MSC proliferation were identified and evaluated for their ability to predict proliferative quality. Microarray data of human bone marrow-derived MSCs were correlated with two proliferation assays. A collection of 24 genes were observed to significantly correlate with both proliferation assays (|r| >0.70) for eight MSC lines at multiple passages. These 24 identified genes were then confirmed using an additional set of MSCs from eight new donors using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The proliferative potential of the second set of MSCs was measured for each donor/passage for confluency fraction, fraction of EdU+ cells, and population doubling time. The second set of MSCs exhibited a greater proliferative potential at passage 4 in comparison to passage 8, which was distinguishable by 15 genes; however, only seven of the genes (BIRC5, CCNA2, CDC20, CDK1, PBK, PLK1, and SPC25) demonstrated significant correlation with MSC proliferation regardless of passage. Our analyses revealed that correlation between gene expression and proliferation was consistently reduced with the inclusion of non-MSC cell lines; therefore, this set of seven genes may be more strongly associated with MSC proliferative quality. Our results pave the way to determine the quality of an MSC population for a

  13. Immunomodulatory functions of mesenchymal stem cells and possible mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Ding, Gang; Xu, Xin

    2016-09-01

    In addition to their well-studied self-renewal capabilities and multipotent differentiation properties, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been reported to possess profound immunomodulatory functions both in vitro and in vivo. More and more studies have shown that MSCs are capable of interacting closely with almost all subsets of immune cells, such as T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, and neutrophils etc. The immunomodulatory property of MSCs may shed light on the treatment of a variety of autoimmune and inflammation-related diseases. In this article, we will review the studies on the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory functions of MSCs and the mechanisms responsible for the interaction between immune cells and MSCs, which could improve the development of promising approaches for cell-mediated immune therapies. PMID:26932157

  14. Effects of Oxidative Stress on Mesenchymal Stem Cell Biology.

    PubMed

    Denu, Ryan A; Hematti, Peiman

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells present in most fetal and adult tissues. Ex vivo culture-expanded MSCs are being investigated for tissue repair and immune modulation, but their full clinical potential is far from realization. Here we review the role of oxidative stress in MSC biology, as their longevity and functions are affected by oxidative stress. In general, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibit MSC proliferation, increase senescence, enhance adipogenic but reduce osteogenic differentiation, and inhibit MSC immunomodulation. Furthermore, aging, senescence, and oxidative stress reduce their ex vivo expansion, which is critical for their clinical applications. Modulation of sirtuin expression and activity may represent a method to reduce oxidative stress in MSCs. These findings have important implications in the clinical utility of MSCs for degenerative and immunological based conditions. Further study of oxidative stress in MSCs is imperative in order to enhance MSC ex vivo expansion and in vivo engraftment, function, and longevity. PMID:27413419

  15. Mesenchymal Stem Cells after Polytrauma: Actor and Target

    PubMed Central

    Wiegner, Rebecca; Lampl, Lorenz; Brenner, Rolf E.

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that are considered indispensable in regeneration processes after tissue trauma. MSCs are recruited to damaged areas via several chemoattractant pathways where they function as “actors” in the healing process by the secretion of manifold pro- and anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, pro- and anticoagulatory, and trophic/angiogenic factors, but also by proliferation and differentiation into the required cells. On the other hand, MSCs represent “targets” during the pathophysiological conditions after severe trauma, when excessively generated inflammatory mediators, complement activation factors, and damage- and pathogen-associated molecular patterns challenge MSCs and alter their functionality. This in turn leads to complement opsonization, lysis, clearance by macrophages, and reduced migratory and regenerative abilities which culminate in impaired tissue repair. We summarize relevant cellular and signaling mechanisms and provide an up-to-date overview about promising future therapeutic MSC strategies in the context of severe tissue trauma. PMID:27340408

  16. Effects of Oxidative Stress on Mesenchymal Stem Cell Biology

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells present in most fetal and adult tissues. Ex vivo culture-expanded MSCs are being investigated for tissue repair and immune modulation, but their full clinical potential is far from realization. Here we review the role of oxidative stress in MSC biology, as their longevity and functions are affected by oxidative stress. In general, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibit MSC proliferation, increase senescence, enhance adipogenic but reduce osteogenic differentiation, and inhibit MSC immunomodulation. Furthermore, aging, senescence, and oxidative stress reduce their ex vivo expansion, which is critical for their clinical applications. Modulation of sirtuin expression and activity may represent a method to reduce oxidative stress in MSCs. These findings have important implications in the clinical utility of MSCs for degenerative and immunological based conditions. Further study of oxidative stress in MSCs is imperative in order to enhance MSC ex vivo expansion and in vivo engraftment, function, and longevity. PMID:27413419

  17. Interaction between Mesenchymal Stem Cells and B-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Linxiao; Hu, Chenxia; Chen, Jiajia; Cen, Panpan; Wang, Jie; Li, Lanjuan

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent; non-hematopoietic stem cells. Because of their immunoregulatory abilities; MSCs are widely used for different clinical applications. Compared with that of other immune cells; the investigation of how MSCs specifically regulate B-cells has been superficial and insufficient. In addition; the few experimental studies on this regulation are often contradictory. In this review; we summarize the various interactions between different types or states of MSCs and B-cells; address how different types of MSCs and B-cells affect this interaction and examine how other immune cells influence the regulation of B-cells by MSCs. Finally; we hypothesize why there are conflicting results on the interaction between MSCs and B-cells in the literature. PMID:27164080

  18. Mesenchymal Stem Cells after Polytrauma: Actor and Target.

    PubMed

    Huber-Lang, Markus; Wiegner, Rebecca; Lampl, Lorenz; Brenner, Rolf E

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that are considered indispensable in regeneration processes after tissue trauma. MSCs are recruited to damaged areas via several chemoattractant pathways where they function as "actors" in the healing process by the secretion of manifold pro- and anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, pro- and anticoagulatory, and trophic/angiogenic factors, but also by proliferation and differentiation into the required cells. On the other hand, MSCs represent "targets" during the pathophysiological conditions after severe trauma, when excessively generated inflammatory mediators, complement activation factors, and damage- and pathogen-associated molecular patterns challenge MSCs and alter their functionality. This in turn leads to complement opsonization, lysis, clearance by macrophages, and reduced migratory and regenerative abilities which culminate in impaired tissue repair. We summarize relevant cellular and signaling mechanisms and provide an up-to-date overview about promising future therapeutic MSC strategies in the context of severe tissue trauma. PMID:27340408

  19. Placental toxicology: tobacco smoke, abused drugs, multiple chemical interactions, and placental function.

    PubMed

    Sastry, B V

    1991-01-01

    There are increasing numbers of reports on the tobacco smoking and ingestion of abused drugs (e.g. morphine, cocaine) by pregnant women and the effects of the substances on the developing fetus and newborn infant. The passage of drugs and chemicals from the mother to the fetus is influenced by the placental transport and metabolism of the substances. Further, these drugs and chemicals affect the nutrient transport systems in the placenta. The three major drugs of abuse-nicotine, morphine and cocaine-depress both active amino-acid uptake by human placental villi and transplacental amino-acid transport by reason of the drugs' influence on placental cholinergic and opiate systems. Part of this depression (10-16%) is not reversible. Nicotine blocks the cholinergic receptor and thus blocks acetylcholine (ACh)-facilitated amino-acid transport. Morphine stimulates opiate kappa receptors and depresses ACh release. Cocaine blocks Ca2+ influx and thus blocks ACh release. ACh causes dilation of blood vessels and maintains placental blood flow by the activation of endothelial muscarinic receptors. By interfering with ACh release and placental blood flow, the three drugs of abuse may depress the diffusion of amino acids and other nutrients from the trophoblast into the placental circulation. Three regulatory systems are delineated for amino-acid uptake by the placenta: placental ACh, phospholipid N-methyltransferase, and the gammaglutamyl cycle. These systems operate in concert with one another and are dependent on cellular formation of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). Placental hypoxia induced by carbon monoxide and other tobacco gases depresses the energy-dependent processes and thus the ATP levels of placental cells. Maternal tobacco smoking and drug abuse cause placental insufficiencies for amino-acid transport, which may partially explain the fetal intrauterine growth retardation caused by these substances. Part of the amino-acid deficits may be compensated for by the

  20. Osteogenic differentiation of amniotic fluid mesenchymal stromal cells and their bone regeneration potential.

    PubMed

    Pipino, Caterina; Pandolfi, Assunta

    2015-05-26

    In orthopedics, tissue engineering approach using stem cells is a valid line of treatment for patients with bone defects. In this context, mesenchymal stromal cells of various origins have been extensively studied and continue to be a matter of debate. Although mesenchymal stromal cells from bone marrow are already clinically applied, recent evidence suggests that one may use mesenchymal stromal cells from extra-embryonic tissues, such as amniotic fluid, as an innovative and advantageous resource for bone regeneration. The use of cells from amniotic fluid does not raise ethical problems and provides a sufficient number of cells without invasive procedures. Furthermore, they do not develop into teratomas when transplanted, a consequence observed with pluripotent stem cells. In addition, their multipotent differentiation ability, low immunogenicity, and anti-inflammatory properties make them ideal candidates for bone regenerative medicine. We here present an overview of the features of amniotic fluid mesenchymal stromal cells and their potential in the osteogenic differentiation process. We have examined the papers actually available on this regard, with particular interest in the strategies applied to improve in vitro osteogenesis. Importantly, a detailed understanding of the behavior of amniotic fluid mesenchymal stromal cells and their osteogenic ability is desirable considering a feasible application in bone regenerative medicine. PMID:26029340

  1. Spontaneous transformation of adult mesenchymal stem cells from cynomolgus macaques in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Zhenhua; Wang, Jiayin; Zhu, Wanwan; Guan, Yunqian; Zou, Chunlin; Chen, Zhiguo; Zhang, Y. Alex

    2011-12-10

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown potential clinical utility in cell therapy and tissue engineering, due to their ability to proliferate as well as to differentiate into multiple lineages, including osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic specifications. Therefore, it is crucial to assess the safety of MSCs while extensive expansion ex vivo is a prerequisite to obtain the cell numbers for cell transplantation. Here we show that MSCs derived from adult cynomolgus monkey can undergo spontaneous transformation following in vitro culture. In comparison with MSCs, the spontaneously transformed mesenchymal cells (TMCs) display significantly different growth pattern and morphology, reminiscent of the characteristics of tumor cells. Importantly, TMCs are highly tumorigenic, causing subcutaneous tumors when injected into NOD/SCID mice. Moreover, no multiple differentiation potential of TMCs is observed in vitro or in vivo, suggesting that spontaneously transformed adult stem cells may not necessarily turn into cancer stem cells. These data indicate a direct transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs into tumor cells following long-term expansion in vitro. The spontaneous transformation of the cultured cynomolgus monkey MSCs may have important implications for ongoing clinical trials and for models of oncogenesis, thus warranting a more strict assessment of MSCs prior to cell therapy. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spontaneous transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformed mesenchymal cells lack multipotency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformed mesenchymal cells are highly tumorigenic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformed mesenchymal cells do not have the characteristics of cancer stem cells.

  2. Osteogenic differentiation of amniotic fluid mesenchymal stromal cells and their bone regeneration potential

    PubMed Central

    Pipino, Caterina; Pandolfi, Assunta

    2015-01-01

    In orthopedics, tissue engineering approach using stem cells is a valid line of treatment for patients with bone defects. In this context, mesenchymal stromal cells of various origins have been extensively studied and continue to be a matter of debate. Although mesenchymal stromal cells from bone marrow are already clinically applied, recent evidence suggests that one may use mesenchymal stromal cells from extra-embryonic tissues, such as amniotic fluid, as an innovative and advantageous resource for bone regeneration. The use of cells from amniotic fluid does not raise ethical problems and provides a sufficient number of cells without invasive procedures. Furthermore, they do not develop into teratomas when transplanted, a consequence observed with pluripotent stem cells. In addition, their multipotent differentiation ability, low immunogenicity, and anti-inflammatory properties make them ideal candidates for bone regenerative medicine. We here present an overview of the features of amniotic fluid mesenchymal stromal cells and their potential in the osteogenic differentiation process. We have examined the papers actually available on this regard, with particular interest in the strategies applied to improve in vitro osteogenesis. Importantly, a detailed understanding of the behavior of amniotic fluid mesenchymal stromal cells and their osteogenic ability is desirable considering a feasible application in bone regenerative medicine. PMID:26029340

  3. Phenotype and chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal cells from adipose tissue of different species.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lorenzo, María José; Royo-Cañas, María; Alegre-Aguarón, Elena; Desportes, Paula; Castiella, Tomás; García-Alvarez, Felícito; Larrad, Luis

    2009-11-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells capable of differentiating into several mesoderm lineages. They have been isolated from different tissues, such as bone marrow, adult peripheral blood, umbilical cord blood, and adipose tissue. The aim of this study was to analyze the differences in proliferation and phenotype of adipose tissue-derived MSCs from three different species, and to evaluate their capacity to differentiate into chondrocytes in vitro. A comparative study of cultured human, rabbit, and sheep mesenchymal cells from adipose tissue was carried out, and the main morphological parameters, proliferative activity, and expression of surface markers were characterized. Proliferation and flow cytometry data showed species-related differences between animal and human MSCs. Histological staining suggested that rabbit and sheep mesenchymal cells were able to differentiate into chondrocytic lineages. Human mesenchymal cells, though they could also differentiate, accomplished it with more difficulty than animal MSCs. These results could help to explain the differences in the chondrogenic capacity of sheep and rabbit MSCs when they are used as animal models compared to human mesenchymal cells in a clinical assay. PMID:19408284

  4. Mesenchymal stem cells in cartilage regeneration.

    PubMed

    Savkovic, Vuk; Li, Hanluo; Seon, Jong-Keun; Hacker, Michael; Franz, Sandra; Simon, Jan-Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Articular cartilage provides life-long weight-bearing and mechanical lubrication with extraordinary biomechanical performance and simple structure. However, articular cartilage is apparently vulnerable to multifactorial damage and insufficient to self-repair, isolated in articular capsule without nerves or blood vessels. Osteoarthritis (OA) is known as a degenerative articular cartilage deficiency progressively affecting large proportion of the world population, and restoration of hyaline cartilage is clinical challenge to repair articular cartilage lesion and recreate normal functionality over long period. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are highly proliferative and multipotent somatic cells that are able to differentiate mesoderm-derived cells including chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Continuous endeavors in basic research and preclinical trial have achieved promising outcomes in cartilage regeneration using MSCs. This review focuses on rationale and technologies of MSC-based hyaline cartilage repair involving tissue engineering, 3D biomaterials and growth factors. By comparing conventional treatment and current research progress, we describe insights of advantage and challenge in translation and application of MSC-based chondrogenesis for OA treatment. PMID:25005451

  5. Induction of Functional Hair-Cell-Like Cells from Mouse Cochlear Multipotent Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Quanwen; Shen, Yi; Chen, Jiarong; Ding, Jie; Tang, Zihua; Zhang, Cui; Chen, Jianling; Li, Liang; Chen, Ping; Wang, Jinfu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we developed a two-step-induction method of generating functional hair cells from inner ear multipotent cells. Multipotent cells from the inner ear were established and induced initially into progenitor cells committed to the inner ear cell lineage on the poly-L-lysine substratum. Subsequently, the committed progenitor cells were cultured on the mitotically inactivated chicken utricle stromal cells and induced into hair-cell-like cells containing characteristic stereocilia bundles. The hair-cell-like cells exhibited rapid permeation of FM1-43FX. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to measure the membrane currents of cells differentiated for 7 days on chicken utricle stromal cells and analyze the biophysical properties of the hair-cell-like cells by recording membrane properties of cells. The results suggested that the hair-cell-like cells derived from inner ear multipotent cells were functional following differentiation in an enabling environment. PMID:27057177

  6. Radioelectric asymmetric conveyed fields and human adipose-derived stem cells obtained with a nonenzymatic method and device: a novel approach to multipotency.

    PubMed

    Maioli, Margherita; Rinaldi, Salvatore; Santaniello, Sara; Castagna, Alessandro; Pigliaru, Gianfranco; Delitala, Alessandro; Bianchi, Francesca; Tremolada, Carlo; Fontani, Vania; Ventura, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) have been recently proposed as a suitable tool for regenerative therapies for their simple isolation procedure and high proliferative capability in culture. Although hASCs can be committed into different lineages in vitro, the differentiation is a low-yield and often incomplete process. We have recently developed a novel nonenzymatic method and device, named Lipogems, to obtain a fat tissue derivative highly enriched in pericytes/mesenchymal stem cells by mild mechanical forces from human lipoaspirates. When compared to enzymatically dissociated cells, Lipogems-derived hASCs exhibited enhanced transcription of vasculogenic genes in response to provasculogenic molecules, suggesting that these cells may be amenable for further optimization of their multipotency. Here we exposed Lipogems-derived hASCs to a radioelectric asymmetric conveyer (REAC), an innovative device asymmetrically conveying radioelectric fields, affording both enhanced differentiating profiles in mouse embryonic stem cells and efficient direct multilineage reprogramming in human skin fibroblasts. We show that specific REAC exposure remarkably enhanced the transcription of prodynorphin, GATA-4, Nkx-2.5, VEGF, HGF, vWF, neurogenin-1, and myoD, indicating the commitment toward cardiac, vascular, neuronal, and skeletal muscle lineages, as inferred by the overexpression of a program of targeted marker proteins. REAC exposure also finely tuned the expression of stemness-related genes, including NANOG, SOX-2, and OCT-4. Noteworthy, the REAC-induced responses were fashioned at a significantly higher extent in Lipogems-derived than in enzymatically dissociated hASCs. Therefore, REAC-mediated interplay between radioelectric asymmetrically conveyed fields and Lipogems-derived hASCs appears to involve the generation of an ideal "milieu" to optimize multipotency expression from human adult stem cells in view of potential improvement of future cell therapy efforts. PMID

  7. Dysfunctional resident lung mesenchymal stem cells contribute to pulmonary microvascular remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Kelsey; Fessel, Joshua P.; KaoriIhida-Stansbury; Schmidt, Eric P.; Gaskill, Christa; Alvarez, Diego; Graham, Brian; Harrison, David G.; Wagner, David H.; Nozik-Grayck, Eva; West, James D.; Klemm, Dwight J.; Majka, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary vascular remodeling and oxidative stress are common to many adult lung diseases. However, little is known about the relevance of lung mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in these processes. We tested the hypothesis that dysfunctional lung MSCs directly participate in remodeling of the microcirculation. We employed a genetic model to deplete extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) in lung MSCs coupled with lineage tracing analysis. We crossed floxpsod3 and mT/mG reporter mice to a strain expressing Cre recombinase under the control of the ABCG2 promoter. We demonstrated In vivo that depletion of EC-SOD in lung MSCs resulted in their contribution to microvascular remodeling in the smooth muscle actin positive layer. We further characterized lung MSCs to be multipotent vascular precursors, capable of myofibroblast, endothelial and pericyte differentiation in vitro. EC-SOD deficiency in cultured lung MSCs accelerated proliferation and apoptosis, restricted colony-forming ability, multilineage differentiation potential and promoted the transition to a contractile phenotype. Further studies correlated cell dysfunction to alterations in canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling, which were more evident under conditions of oxidative stress. Our data establish that lung MSCs are a multipotent vascular precursor population, a population which has the capacity to participate in vascular remodeling and their function is likely regulated in part by the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. These studies highlight an important role for microenviromental regulation of multipotent MSC function as well as their potential to contribute to tissue remodeling. PMID:23662173

  8. Could cancer and infection be adverse effects of mesenchymal stromal cell therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Arango-Rodriguez, Martha L; Ezquer, Fernando; Ezquer, Marcelo; Conget, Paulette

    2015-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells [also referred to as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)] are a heterogeneous subset of stromal cells. They can be isolated from bone marrow and many other types of tissue. MSCs are currently being tested for therapeutic purposes (i.e., improving hematopoietic stem cell engraftment, managing inflammatory diseases and regenerating damaged organs). Their tropism for tumors and inflamed sites and their context-dependent potential for producing trophic and immunomodulatory factors raises the question as to whether MSCs promote cancer and/or infection. This article reviews the effect of MSCs on tumor establishment, growth and metastasis and also susceptibility to infection and its progression. Data published to date shows a paradoxical effect regarding MSCs, which seems to depend on isolation and expansion, cells source and dose and the route and timing of administration. Cancer and infection may thus be adverse or therapeutic effects arising form MSC administration. PMID:25815124

  9. Extensive shift in placental transcriptome profile in preeclampsia and placental origin of adverse pregnancy outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sõber, Siim; Reiman, Mario; Kikas, Triin; Rull, Kristiina; Inno, Rain; Vaas, Pille; Teesalu, Pille; Marti, Jesus M. Lopez; Mattila, Pirkko; Laan, Maris

    2015-01-01

    One in five pregnant women suffer from gestational complications, prevalently driven by placental malfunction. Using RNASeq, we analyzed differential placental gene expression in cases of normal gestation, late-onset preeclampsia (LO-PE), gestational diabetes (GD) and pregnancies ending with the birth of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) or large-for-gestational-age (LGA) newborns (n = 8/group). In all groups, the highest expression was detected for small noncoding RNAs and genes specifically implicated in placental function and hormonal regulation. The transcriptome of LO-PE placentas was clearly distinct, showing statistically significant (after FDR) expressional disturbances for hundreds of genes. Taqman RT-qPCR validation of 45 genes in an extended sample (n = 24/group) provided concordant results. A limited number of transcription factors including LRF, SP1 and AP2 were identified as possible drivers of these changes. Notable differences were detected in differential expression signatures of LO-PE subtypes defined by the presence or absence of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). LO-PE with IUGR showed higher correlation with SGA and LO-PE without IUGR with LGA placentas. Whereas changes in placental transcriptome in SGA, LGA and GD cases were less prominent, the overall profiles of expressional disturbances overlapped among pregnancy complications providing support to shared placental responses. The dataset represent a rich catalogue for potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets. PMID:26268791

  10. Significance of placental pathology in transplacental haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Devi, Banti; Jennison, R. F.; Langley, F. A.

    1968-01-01

    Placentae were examined from 120 women whose pregnancy and delivery was normal, from 264 women whose pregnancy or delivery was complicated, and from 98 women who were Rh-negative without antibodies and 35 women Rh-negative with antibodies. The presence of Kline's haemorrhages, intervillous thrombi, infarcts, and retroplacental haemorrhages was positively correlated with the presence of foetal cells in the maternal circulation. When there were no maternal antibodies transplacental haemorrhages occurred occasionally in the absence of such placental lesions but more frequently when these lesions were present. Moreover, the greater the number of lesions in a placenta the greater the size of the transplacental haemorrhage. In Rh-negative women with antibodies the observed incidence of transplacental haemorrhage was significantly less despite an appreciable increase in placental lesions. Images PMID:4972435