Science.gov

Sample records for placental removal methods

  1. Blastomere removal from cleavage-stage mouse embryos alters placental function, which is associated with placental oxidative stress and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qi; Chen, Li; Liang, Yuanjiao; Sui, Liucai; Guo, Li; Zhou, Jingwei; Fan, Kai; Jing, Jun; Zhang, Yunhai; Yao, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Blastomere biopsy is an essential technique in preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), a screening test that can detect genetic abnormalities of embryos before their transfer into uterus. Our results showed that the weights of fetuses derived from biopsied embryos were lower than that of non-biopsied counterparts at E12.5, E15.5, and E18.5. The ratio of fetal/placental (F/P) weights in the biopsied group was significantly lower than that in the non-biopsied group at E18.5. At E18.5, the mRNAs for selected glucose transporters, system A amino acid transporters, system L amino acid transporters, and imprinted genes were downregulated in the placentae of biopsied group, and the GLUT1 and CAT3 protein levels were decreased too. More apoptotic cells were detected by TUNEL in the placentae of biopsied group. Placentae from biopsied embryos exhibited lower levels of SOD and GSH. Furthermore, the concentration of MDA increased in the placentae from biopsied group. The levels of IL1B, IL6, and TNFA also significantly increased in the placentae of biopsied group. This study suggested that placental function may be sensitive to blastomere biopsy procedures, and placental oxidative stress and inflammation associated with blastomere biopsy may be critical factors of abnormal placental function and further influence the fetal development. PMID:27109212

  2. Blastomere removal from cleavage-stage mouse embryos alters placental function, which is associated with placental oxidative stress and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Qi; Chen, Li; Liang, Yuanjiao; Sui, Liucai; Guo, Li; Zhou, Jingwei; Fan, Kai; Jing, Jun; Zhang, Yunhai; Yao, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Blastomere biopsy is an essential technique in preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), a screening test that can detect genetic abnormalities of embryos before their transfer into uterus. Our results showed that the weights of fetuses derived from biopsied embryos were lower than that of non-biopsied counterparts at E12.5, E15.5, and E18.5. The ratio of fetal/placental (F/P) weights in the biopsied group was significantly lower than that in the non-biopsied group at E18.5. At E18.5, the mRNAs for selected glucose transporters, system A amino acid transporters, system L amino acid transporters, and imprinted genes were downregulated in the placentae of biopsied group, and the GLUT1 and CAT3 protein levels were decreased too. More apoptotic cells were detected by TUNEL in the placentae of biopsied group. Placentae from biopsied embryos exhibited lower levels of SOD and GSH. Furthermore, the concentration of MDA increased in the placentae from biopsied group. The levels of IL1B, IL6, and TNFA also significantly increased in the placentae of biopsied group. This study suggested that placental function may be sensitive to blastomere biopsy procedures, and placental oxidative stress and inflammation associated with blastomere biopsy may be critical factors of abnormal placental function and further influence the fetal development. PMID:27109212

  3. Human placental perfusion method in the assessment of transplacental passage of antiepileptic drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Myllynen, Paeivi . E-mail: paivi.k.myllynen@oulu.fi; Pienimaeki, Paeivi; Vaehaekangas, Kirsi

    2005-09-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological diseases, affecting about 0.5 to 1% of pregnant women. It is commonly accepted that older antiepileptic drugs bear teratogenic potential. So far, no agreement has been reached about the safest antiepileptic drug during pregnancy. It is known that nearly all drugs cross the placenta at least to some extent. Nowadays, there is very little information available of the pharmacokinetics of drugs in the feto-placental unit. Detailed information about drug transport across the placenta would be valuable for the development of safe and effective treatments. For reasons of safety, human studies on placental transfer are restricted to a limited number of drugs. Interspecies differences limit the extrapolation of animal data to humans. Several in vitro methods for the study of placental transfer have been developed over the past decades. The placental perfusion method is the only experimental method that has been used to study human placental transfer of substances in organized placental tissue. The aim of this article is to review human placental perfusion data on antiepileptic drugs. According to perfusion data, it seems that most of the antiepileptic drugs are transferred across the placenta meaning significant fetal exposure.

  4. Acoustic bubble removal method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, E. H.; Elleman, D. D.; Wang, T. G. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for removing bubbles from a liquid bath such as a bath of molten glass to be used for optical elements. Larger bubbles are first removed by applying acoustic energy resonant to a bath dimension to drive the larger bubbles toward a pressure well where the bubbles can coalesce and then be more easily removed. Thereafter, submillimeter bubbles are removed by applying acoustic energy of frequencies resonant to the small bubbles to oscillate them and thereby stir liquid immediately about the bubbles to facilitate their breakup and absorption into the liquid.

  5. Methods of urolith removal.

    PubMed

    Langston, Cathy; Gisselman, Kelly; Palma, Douglas; McCue, John

    2010-06-01

    Multiple techniques exist to remove uroliths from each section of the urinary tract. Minimally invasive methods for removing lower urinary tract stones include voiding urohydropropulsion, retrograde urohydropropulsion followed by dissolution or removal, catheter retrieval, cystoscopic removal, and cystoscopy-assisted laser lithotripsy and surgery. Laparoscopic cystotomy is less invasive than surgical cystotomy. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy can be used for nephroliths and ureteroliths. Nephrotomy, pyelotomy, or urethrotomy may be recommended in certain situations. This article discusses each technique and gives guidance for selecting the most appropriate technique for an individual patient. PMID:20949423

  6. Radon removal method

    SciTech Connect

    Lamarre, B.L.

    1989-09-26

    This patent describes a method of removing radon from water without recycling. It comprises: distributing radon-laden water in the upper portion of a vertically oriented hollow column containing mass transfer packing material, forcing air through the column to evaporate radon gas out of the radon-laden water as the water splashes through the packing material, venting air laden with radon evaporated from the radon-laden water out of the column, collecting water significantly purified by removal of radon as the water falls to the lower portion of the column, and pumping the collected water into a water storage container remote from the source of the radon-laden water. Thereby the collected and stored water is available for immediate residential use without recycling through the mass transfer packing material.

  7. MRI-based methods to detect placental and fetal brain abnormalities in utero.

    PubMed

    Girardi, Guillermina

    2016-04-01

    There are very few methods for screening women for pregnancy complications. Identification of pregnancies at risk would be of enormous clinical significance as would influence decisions made about pregnancy management and delivery. Adverse pregnancy outcomes such as obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and preterm birth (PTB), characterized by placental insufficiency and abnormal fetal brain development, in mice and humans have been associated with activation of inflammatory pathways, in particular the complement cascade. Recently, antibodies against C3 activation products conjugated with contrast agent ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles were used to detect non-invasively sites of inflammation within the placenta and the fetal brain in mouse models of APS and PTB. In utero, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based detection of C3 deposition in the placenta in the APS model was associated with signs of placental insufficiency and intrauterine growth restriction. In both models, fetal brain C3 deposition was associated with cortical axonal cytoarchitecture disruption and increased neurodegeneration. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS), another non invasive method, is used to identify metabolic abnormalities to predict fetal brain abnormalities. This review describes the recent development of preclinical MRI-based methods for the detection of inflammatory markers of placental insufficiency and abnormal fetal brain development and metabolism to predict pregnancy outcomes. PMID:26187242

  8. Placental transcriptome in development and pathology: expression, function, and methods of analysis.

    PubMed

    Cox, Brian; Leavey, Katherine; Nosi, Ursula; Wong, Frances; Kingdom, John

    2015-10-01

    The placenta is the essential organ of mammalian pregnancy and errors in its development and function are associated with a wide range of human pathologies of pregnancy. Genome sequencing has led to methods for investigation of the transcriptome (all expressed RNA species) using microarrays and next-generation sequencing, and implementation of these techniques has identified many novel species of RNA including: micro-RNA, long noncoding RNA, and circular RNA. These species can physically interact with both each other and regulatory proteins to modify gene expression and messenger RNA to protein translation. Transcriptome analysis is actively used to investigate placental development and dysfunction in pathologies ranging from preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction to preterm labor. Genome-wide gene expression analysis is also being applied to identify prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers of these disorders. In this comprehensive review we summarize transcriptome biology, methods of isolation and analysis, application to placental development and pathology, and use in diagnostic analysis in maternal blood. Key information for analysis methods is organized into quick reference tables where current analysis techniques and tools are cited and compared. We have created this review as a practical guide and starting reference for those interested in beginning an investigation into the transcriptome of the placenta. PMID:26428493

  9. A method for isolating and culturing placental cells from failed early equine pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Rose, B V; Cabrera-Sharp, V; Firth, M J; Barrelet, F E; Bate, S; Cameron, I J; Crabtree, J R; Crowhurst, J; McGladdery, A J; Neal, H; Pynn, J; Pynn, O D; Smith, C; Wise, Z; Verheyen, K L P; Wathes, D C; de Mestre, A M

    2016-02-01

    Early pregnancy loss occurs in 6-10% of equine pregnancies making it the main cause of reproductive wastage. Despite this, reasons for the losses are known in only 16% of cases. Lack of viable conceptus material has inhibited investigations of many potential genetic and pathological causes. We present a method for isolating and culturing placental cells from failed early equine pregnancies. Trophoblast cells from 18/30 (60%) failed equine pregnancies of gestational ages 14-65 days were successfully cultured in three different media, with the greatest growth achieved for cells cultured in AmnioChrome™ Plus. Genomic DNA of a suitable quality for molecular assays was also isolated from 29/30 of these cases. This method will enable future investigations determining pathologies causing EPL. PMID:26907389

  10. METHOD OF REMOVING STRONTIUM IONS

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, D.W.; McHenry, J.R.; Ames, L.L. Jr.

    1962-05-01

    A method is given for removing trace amounts of Sr/sup 90/ from solutions. Phosphate ion is added to the solution and it is then brought into contact with a solid salt such as calcium carbonate which will react methathetically with the phosphate ion to form a salt such as calcium phosphate. During this reaction, strontium will be absorbed to a high degree within the newly formed lattice. (AEC)

  11. Methods for chromatographic removal of endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Adam J; Bardliving, Cameron L; Batt, Carl A

    2012-01-01

    Endotoxin removal is critical when producing therapeutic proteins in bacterial systems. This hydrophobic compound can be removed through chromatography or filtration, but presents unique challenges dependent upon protein composition as well as production scale. Here we present a robust method for endotoxin removal at the pilot production scale using fast protein liquid chromatography and buffers specifically engineered for endotoxin removal. PMID:22735959

  12. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-12-09

    A resin recycling method that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The method includes receiving the resin in container form. The containers are then ground into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. After separating the particles and the resin, a solvent removing agent is used to remove any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  13. Method of making thermally removable epoxies

    DOEpatents

    Loy, Douglas A.; Wheeler, David R.; Russick, Edward M.; McElhanon, James R.; Saunders, Randall S.

    2002-01-01

    A method of making a thermally-removable epoxy by mixing a bis(maleimide) compound to a monomeric furan compound containing an oxirane group to form a di-epoxy mixture and then adding a curing agent at temperatures from approximately room temperature to less than approximately 90.degree. C. to form a thermally-removable epoxy. The thermally-removable epoxy can be easily removed within approximately an hour by heating to temperatures greater than approximately 90.degree. C. in a polar solvent. The epoxy material can be used in protecting electronic components that may require subsequent removal of the solid material for component repair, modification or quality control.

  14. Placental Aromatase Is Deficient in Placental Ischemia and Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Dobierzewska, Aneta; España-Perrot, Pedro P.; Venegas-Araneda, Pía; Guzmán-Rojas, Alejandra M.; González, María I.; Palominos-Rivera, Macarena; Irarrazabal, Carlos E.; Figueroa-Diesel, Horacio; Varas-Godoy, Manuel; Illanes, Sebastián E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Preeclampsia is a maternal hypertensive disorder with uncertain etiology and a leading cause of maternal and fetal mortality worldwide, causing nearly 40% of premature births delivered before 35 weeks of gestation. The first stage of preeclampsia is characterized by reduction of utero-placental blood flow which is reflected in high blood pressure and proteinuria during the second half of pregnancy. In human placenta androgens derived from the maternal and fetal adrenal glands are converted into estrogens by the enzymatic action of placental aromatase. This implies that alterations in placental steroidogenesis and, subsequently, in the functionality or bioavailability of placental aromatase may be mechanistically involved in the pathophysiology of PE. Methods Serum samples were collected at 32–36 weeks of gestation and placenta biopsies were collected at time of delivery from PE patients (n = 16) and pregnant controls (n = 32). The effect of oxygen tension on placental cells was assessed by incubation JEG–3 cells under 1% and 8% O2 for different time periods, Timed-mated, pregnant New Zealand white rabbits (n = 6) were used to establish an in vivo model of placental ischemia (achieved by ligature of uteroplacental vessels). Aromatase content and estrogens and androgens concentrations were measured. Results The protein and mRNA content of placental aromatase significantly diminished in placentae obtained from preeclamptic patients compared to controls. Similarly, the circulating concentrations of 17-β-estradiol/testosterone and estrone/androstenedione were reduced in preeclamptic patients vs. controls. These data are consistent with a concomitant decrease in aromatase activity. Aromatase content was reduced in response to low oxygen tension in the choriocarcinoma JEG–3 cell line and in rabbit placentae in response to partial ligation of uterine spiral arteries, suggesting that reduced placental aromatase activity in preeclamptic patients may be

  15. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-12-30

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  16. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert,George W.; Hand,Thomas E.; Delaurentiis,Gary M.

    2007-08-07

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  17. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-11-18

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  18. Method for removing RFI from SAR images

    DOEpatents

    Doerry, Armin W.

    2003-08-19

    A method of removing RFI from a SAR by comparing two SAR images on a pixel by pixel basis and selecting the pixel with the lower magnitude to form a composite image. One SAR image is the conventional image produced by the SAR. The other image is created from phase-history data which has been filtered to have the frequency bands containing the RFI removed.

  19. Current update of chemomechanical caries removal methods.

    PubMed

    Hamama, H; Yiu, C; Burrow, M

    2014-12-01

    Chemomechanical caries removal is an excellent method for minimally invasive caries excavation, and the removal agents are either sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl)- or enzyme-based. The NaOCl-based agents include GK-101, GK-101E (Caridex) and Carisolv, and the enzyme-based agents include Papacarie and the experimental material, Biosolv. This review outlines the changes in chemomechanical caries removal methods and focuses on recently published laboratory and clinical studies. The historical development, mechanism of action, excavation time and biological effects on pulp and dental hard tissues are described. Based on existing evidence, the currently available chemomechanical caries removal methods are viable alternatives to conventional rotary instrument methods. Chemomechanical methods could be extremely useful in very anxious, disabled and paediatric patients. It does seem some of these agents would still benefit from quicker excavation times in order to achieve more universal acceptance. However, as a means of conserving the caries-affected dentine, chemomechanical caries removal is possibly much more successful than conventional rotary instrumentation. PMID:25131424

  20. Equine placentation.

    PubMed

    Allen, W R; Stewart, F

    2001-01-01

    A tough, elastic glycoprotein capsule envelops the equine blastocyst between Days 6 and 23 after ovulation. It maintains the spherical configuration of, and provides physical support for, the embryo as it traverses the entire uterine lumen during Days 6-17, propelled by myometrial contractions that are stimulated by pulsatile release of prostaglandin F2alpha and prostaglandin E2. The capsule also accumulates constituents of the exocrine secretions of the endometrial glands ('uterine milk') as nutrients for the mobile embryo as it releases its antiluteolytic maternal recognition-of-pregnancy signal to the whole of the surface of the endometrium. Mobility ceases abruptly on Day 17 with a sudden increase in uterine tonicity that 'fixes' the conceptus at the base of one of the uterine horns. At Day 35, the trophoblast of the spherical conceptus has separated into its invasive and non-invasive components. The former, distinguished as the thickened, annulate chorionic girdle, invades the maternal endometrium to form the unique endometrial cups. These secrete a chorionic gonadotrophin that synergizes with pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone to induce secondary luteal development in the maternal ovaries. The cup cells express foreign fetal antigens that stimulate strong maternal humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, which curtail their lifespan. The non-invasive trophoblast of the allantochorion establishes a stable microvillous contact with the endometrial epithelium around Day 40 and, over the next 100 days, develops a complex multibranched interdigitation with the endometrium to form the microcotyledonary haemotrophic exchange units that cover the entire surface of the diffuse epitheliochorial placenta. Reduction in the effective total area of fetomaternal contact at this placental interface, by competition between twin conceptuses for the limited area of available endometrium, by attachment of the allantochorion to an imperfect endometrium in a mare with

  1. METHOD OF REMOVING RADIOACTIVE IODINE FROM GASES

    DOEpatents

    Silverman, L.

    1962-01-23

    A method of removing radioactive iodine from a gaseous medium is given in which the gaseous medium is adjusted to a temperature not exceeding 400 deg C and then passed over a copper fibrous pad having a coating of cupric sulfide deposited thereon. An ionic exchange on the pad results in the formation of cupric iodide and the release of sulfur. (AEC)

  2. Method of removing cesium from steam

    DOEpatents

    Carson, Jr., Neill J.; Noland, Robert A.; Ruther, Westly E.

    1991-01-01

    Method for removal of radioactive cesium from a hot vapor, such as high temperature steam, including the steps of passing input hot vapor containing radioactive cesium into a bed of silicate glass particles and chemically incorporating radioactive cesium in the silicate glass particles at a temperature of at least about 700.degree. F.

  3. Method of making thermally removable adhesives

    DOEpatents

    Aubert, James H.

    2004-11-30

    A method of making a thermally-removable adhesive is provided where a bismaleimide compound, a monomeric furan compound, containing an oxirane group an amine curative are mixed together at an elevated temperature of greater than approximately 90.degree. C. to form a homogeneous solution, which, when cooled to less than approximately 70.degree. C., simultaneously initiates a Diels-Alder reaction between the furan and the bismaleimide and a epoxy curing reaction between the amine curative and the oxirane group to form a thermally-removable adhesive. Subsequent heating to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. causes the adhesive to melt and allows separation of adhered pieces.

  4. Method of making thermally removable polyurethanes

    DOEpatents

    Loy, Douglas A.; Wheeler, David R.; McElhanon, James R.; Saunders, Randall S.; Durbin-Voss, Marvie Lou

    2002-01-01

    A method of making a thermally-removable polyurethane material by heating a mixture of a maleimide compound and a furan compound, and introducing alcohol and isocyanate functional groups, where the alcohol group and the isocyanate group reacts to form the urethane linkages and the furan compound and the maleimide compound react to form the thermally weak Diels-Alder adducts that are incorporated into the backbone of the urethane linkages during the formation of the polyurethane material at temperatures from above room temperature to less than approximately 90.degree. C. The polyurethane material can be easily removed within approximately an hour by heating to temperatures greater than approximately 90.degree. C. in a polar solvent. The polyurethane material can be used in protecting electronic components that may require subsequent removal of the solid material for component repair, modification or quality control.

  5. Method of arsenic removal from water

    DOEpatents

    Gadgil, Ashok

    2010-10-26

    A method for low-cost arsenic removal from drinking water using chemically prepared bottom ash pre-treated with ferrous sulfate and then sodium hydroxide. Deposits on the surface of particles of bottom ash form of activated iron adsorbent with a high affinity for arsenic. In laboratory tests, a miniscule 5 grams of pre-treated bottom ash was sufficient to remove the arsenic from 2 liters of 2400 ppb (parts per billion) arsenic-laden water to a level below 50 ppb (the present United States Environmental Protection Agency limit). By increasing the amount of pre-treated bottom ash, even lower levels of post-treatment arsenic are expected. It is further expected that this invention supplies a very low-cost solution to arsenic poisoning for large population segments.

  6. Method And Apparatus For Arbitrarily Large Capacity Removable Media

    DOEpatents

    Milligan, Charles A.; Hughes, James P.; Debiez; Jacques

    2003-04-08

    A method and apparatus to handle multiple sets of removable media within a storage system. A first set of removable media are mounted on a set of drives. Data is accepted until the first set of removable media is filled. A second set of removable media is mounted on the drives, while the first set of removable media is removed. When the change in removable media is complete, writing of data proceeds on the second set of removable media. Data may be buffered while the change in removable media occurs. Alternatively, two sets of removable media may be mounted at the same time. When the first set of removable media is filled to a selected amount, the second set of removable media may then be used to write the data. A third set of removable media is set up or mounted for use, while the first set of removable media is removed.

  7. Method for removal of methane from coalbeds

    DOEpatents

    Pasini, III, Joseph; Overbey, Jr., William K.

    1976-01-01

    A method for removing methane gas from underground coalbeds prior to mining the coal which comprises drilling at least one borehole from the surface into the coalbed. The borehole is started at a slant rather than directly vertically, and as it descends, a gradual curve is followed until a horizontal position is reached where the desired portion of the coalbed is intersected. Approaching the coalbed in this manner and fracturing the coalbed in the major natural fraction direction cause release of large amounts of the trapped methane gas.

  8. Association between calcifying nanoparticles and placental calcification

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanan; Zhang, Dechun; Lu, He; Luo, Shuang; Shen, Xuecheng

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the possible contribution of calcifying nanoparticles to the pathogenesis of placental calcification. Methods Calcified placental tissues and distal tissue samples were collected from 36 confirmed placental calcification cases. In addition, 20 normal placental tissue samples were obtained as a control group. All the tissue samples were cultured using special nanobacterial culture methods. The cultured calcifying nanoparticles were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and their growth was monitored by optical density (OD) at a wavelength of 650 nm. 16S rRNA gene expression of the cultured calcifying nanoparticles was also isolated and sequenced. Results Novel calcifying nanoparticles wrapped with electron-dense shells between 50 nm to 500 nm in diameter were observed in the extracellular matrix of calcified placental tissues. They were detected in placental villi and hydroxyapatite crystals, and contained “nucleic acid-like materials”. After isolation and four weeks of culture, 28 of 36 calcified placental tissue samples showed white granular precipitates attached to the bottom of the culture tubes. OD650 measurements indicated that the precipitates from the calcified placental tissues were able to grow in culture, whereas no such precipitates from the control tissues were observed. The 16S rRNA genes were isolated from the cultured calcifying nanoparticles and calcified placental tissues, and their gene sequencing results implied that calcifying nanoparticles were novel nanobacteria (GenBank JF823648). Conclusion Our results suggest that these novel calcifying nanoparticles may play a role in placental calcification. PMID:22615531

  9. Alternative method of removing otoliths from sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2016-01-01

    Extracting the otoliths (ear bones) from fish that have very thick skulls can be difficult and very time consuming. The common practice of making a transverse vertical incision on the top of the skull with a hand or electrical saw may damage the otolith if not performed correctly. Sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are one family in particular that have a very large and thick skull. A new laboratory method entering the brain cavity from the ventral side of the fish to expose the otoliths was easier than other otolith extraction methods found in the literature. Methods reviewed in the literature are designed for the field and are more efficient at processing large quantities of fish quickly. However, this new technique was designed to be more suited for a laboratory setting when time is not pressing and successful extraction from each specimen is critical. The success of finding and removing otoliths using this technique is very high and does not compromise the structure in any manner. This alternative technique is applicable to other similar fish species for extracting the otoliths.

  10. Alternative Method of Removing Otoliths from Sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Chalupnicki, Marc A; Dittman, Dawn E

    2016-01-01

    Extracting the otoliths (ear bones) from fish that have very thick skulls can be difficult and very time consuming. The common practice of making a transverse vertical incision on the top of the skull with a hand or electrical saw may damage the otolith if not performed correctly. Sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are one family in particular that have a very large and thick skull. A new laboratory method entering the brain cavity from the ventral side of the fish to expose the otoliths was easier than other otolith extraction methods found in the literature. Methods reviewed in the literature are designed for the field and are more efficient at processing large quantities of fish quickly. However, this new technique was designed to be more suited for a laboratory setting when time is not pressing and successful extraction from each specimen is critical. The success of finding and removing otoliths using this technique is very high and does not compromise the structure in any manner. This alternative technique is applicable to other similar fish species for extracting the otoliths. PMID:27403646

  11. Reduced placental volume and flow in severe growth restricted fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Abulé, Renata Montes Dourado; Bernardes, Lisandra Stein; Doro, Giovana Farina; Miyadahira, Seizo; Francisco, Rossana Pulcinelli Vieira

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate placental volume and vascular indices in pregnancies with severe fetal growth restriction and determine their correlations to normal reference ranges and Doppler velocimetry results of uterine and umbilical arteries. METHODS: Twenty-seven fetuses with estimated weights below the 3rd percentile for gestational age were evaluated. Placental volume and vascular indices, including vascularization, flow, and vascularization flow indices, were measured by three-dimensional ultrasound using a rotational technique and compared to a previously described nomogram. The observed-to-expected placental volume ratio for gestational age and observed-to-expected placental volume ratio for fetal weight were calculated. Placental parameters correlated with the Doppler velocimetry results of uterine and umbilical arteries. RESULTS: The mean uterine artery pulsatility index was negatively correlated with the observed-to-expected placental volume ratio for gestational age, vascularization index and vascularization flow index. The observed-to-expected placental volume ratio for gestational age and observed-to-expected placental volume ratio for fetal weight and vascularization index were significantly lower in the group with a bilateral protodiastolic notch. No placental parameter correlated with the umbilical artery pulsatility index. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancies complicated by severe fetal growth restriction are associated with reduced placental volume and vascularization. These findings are related to changes in uterine artery Doppler velocimetry. Future studies on managing severe fetal growth restriction should focus on combined results of placental three-dimensional ultrasound and Doppler studies of uterine arteries. PMID:27438567

  12. Method of removing oxidized contaminants from water

    DOEpatents

    Amonette, James E.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Gorby, Yuri A.; Cole, Charles R.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Kaplan, Daniel I.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method for removing oxidized contaminant(s) from water. More specifically, the invention has the steps of contacting water containing the oxidized contaminant(s) with a layered aluminosilicate having Fe(II). The aluminosilicate may contain naturally occurring Fe(II), or the Fe(II) may be produced by reducing Fe(III) that is initially present. Reduction may be either by exposure to a chemical or biological reductant. Contacting the water containing oxidized contaminant(s) may be by (1) injection of Fe(II)-containing layered aluminosilicate, via a well, into a saturated zone where it is likely to intercept the contaminated water; (2) injection of contaminated water into a vessel containing the Fe(II)-bearing layered aluminosilicate; and (3) first reducing Fe(III) in the layered aluminosilicate to Fe(II) by injection of a biological or chemical reductant, into an aquifer or vessel having sufficient Fe(III)-bearing aluminosilicate to produce the necessary Fe(II).

  13. Method of removing oxidized contaminants from water

    DOEpatents

    Amonette, J.E.; Fruchter, J.S.; Gorby, Y.A.; Cole, C.R.; Cantrell, K.J.; Kaplan, D.I.

    1998-07-21

    The present invention is a method for removing oxidized contaminant(s) from water. More specifically, the invention has the steps of contacting water containing the oxidized contaminant(s) with a layered aluminosilicate having Fe(II). The aluminosilicate may contain naturally occurring Fe(II), or the Fe(II) may be produced by reducing Fe(III) that is initially present. Reduction may be either by exposure to a chemical or biological reductant. Contacting the water containing oxidized contaminant(s) may be by (1) injection of Fe(II)-containing layered aluminosilicate, via a well, into a saturated zone where it is likely to intercept the contaminated water; (2) injection of contaminated water into a vessel containing the Fe(II)-bearing layered aluminosilicate; and (3) first reducing Fe(III) in the layered aluminosilicate to Fe(II) by injection of a biological or chemical reductant, into an aquifer or vessel having sufficient Fe(III)-bearing aluminosilicate to produce the necessary Fe(II). 8 figs.

  14. Placental Adaptations in Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Song; Regnault, Timothy R.H.; Barker, Paige L.; Botting, Kimberley J.; McMillen, Isabella C.; McMillan, Christine M.; Roberts, Claire T.; Morrison, Janna L.

    2015-01-01

    The placenta is the primary interface between the fetus and mother and plays an important role in maintaining fetal development and growth by facilitating the transfer of substrates and participating in modulating the maternal immune response to prevent immunological rejection of the conceptus. The major substrates required for fetal growth include oxygen, glucose, amino acids and fatty acids, and their transport processes depend on morphological characteristics of the placenta, such as placental size, morphology, blood flow and vascularity. Other factors including insulin-like growth factors, apoptosis, autophagy and glucocorticoid exposure also affect placental growth and substrate transport capacity. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is often a consequence of insufficiency, and is associated with a high incidence of perinatal morbidity and mortality, as well as increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in later life. Several different experimental methods have been used to induce placental insufficiency and IUGR in animal models and a range of factors that regulate placental growth and substrate transport capacity have been demonstrated. While no model system completely recapitulates human IUGR, these animal models allow us to carefully dissect cellular and molecular mechanisms to improve our understanding and facilitate development of therapeutic interventions. PMID:25580812

  15. (1)H MRS: a potential biomarker of in utero placental function.

    PubMed

    Macnaught, Gillian; Gray, Calum; Walker, Jane; Simpson, Mary; Norman, Jane; Semple, Scott; Denison, Fiona

    2015-10-01

    The placenta is a temporary organ that is essential for a healthy pregnancy. It performs several important functions, including the transport of nutrients, the removal of waste products and the metabolism of certain substances. Placental disorders have been found to account for over 50% of stillbirths. Despite this, there are currently no methods available to directly and non-invasively assess placental function in utero. The primary aim of this pilot study was to investigate the use of (1)H MRS for this purpose. (1)H MRS offers the possibility to detect several placental metabolites, including choline, lipids and the amino acids glutamine and glutamate (Glx), which are vital to fetal development and placental function. Here, in utero placental spectra were acquired from nine small for gestational age (SGA) pregnancies, a cohort who are at increased risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality, and from nine healthy gestation-matched pregnancies. All subjects were between 26 and 39 weeks of gestation. Placenta Glx, choline and lipids at 1.3 and 0.9 ppm were quantified as amplitude ratios to that of intrinsic H2O. Wilcoxon signed rank tests indicated a significant difference in Glx/H2O (p = 0.024) between the two groups, but not in choline/H2O (p = 0.722) or in either lipid/H2O ratio (1.3 ppm, p = 0.813; 0.9 ppm, p = 0.058). This study has demonstrated that (1)H MRS has potential for the detection of placental metabolites in utero. This warrants further investigation as a tool for the monitoring of placental function. PMID:26313636

  16. Method of removing polychlorinated biphenyl from oil

    DOEpatents

    Cook, G.T.; Holshouser, S.K.; Coleman, R.M.; Harless, C.E.; Whinnery, W.N. III

    1982-03-17

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are removed from oil by extracting the biphenyls into methanol. The mixture of methanol and extracted biphenyls is distilled to separate methanol therefrom, and the methanol is recycled for further use in extraction of biphenyls from oil.

  17. Method of removing polychlorinated biphenyl from oil

    DOEpatents

    Cook, Gus T.; Holshouser, Stephen K.; Coleman, Richard M.; Harless, Charles E.; Whinnery, III, Walter N.

    1983-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are removed from oil by extracting the biphenyls into methanol. The mixture of methanol and extracted biphenyls is distilled to separate methanol therefrom, and the methanol is recycled for further use in extraction of biphenyls from oil.

  18. Method of preparation of removable syntactic foam

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Charles; Derzon, Dora K.; Nelson, Jill S.; Rand, Peter B.

    1995-01-01

    Easily removable, environmentally safe, low-density, syntactic foams are disclosed which are prepared by mixing insoluble microballoons with a solution of water and/or alcohol-soluble polymer to produce a pourable slurry, optionally vacuum filtering the slurry in varying degrees to remove unwanted solvent and solute polymer, and drying to remove residual solvent. The properties of the foams can be controlled by the concentration and physical properties of the polymer, and by the size and properties of the microballoons. The suggested solute polymers are non-toxic and soluble in environmentally safe solvents such as water or low-molecular weight alcohols. The syntactic foams produced by this process are particularly useful in those applications where ease of removability is beneficial, and could find use in packaging recoverable electronic components, in drilling and mining applications, in building trades, in art works, in the entertainment industry for special effects, in manufacturing as temporary fixtures, in agriculture as temporary supports and containers and for delivery of fertilizer, in medicine as casts and splints, as temporary thermal barriers, as temporary protective covers for fragile objects, as filters for particulate matter, which matter may be easily recovered upon exposure to a solvent, as in-situ valves (for one-time use) which go from maximum to minimum impedance when solvent flows through, and for the automatic opening or closing of spring-loaded, mechanical switches upon exposure to a solvent, among other applications.

  19. Method of preparation of removable syntactic foam

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, C. Jr.; Derzon, D.K.; Nelson, J.S.; Rand, P.B.

    1995-07-11

    Easily removable, environmentally safe, low-density, syntactic foams are disclosed which are prepared by mixing insoluble microballoons with a solution of water and/or alcohol-soluble polymer to produce a pourable slurry, optionally vacuum filtering the slurry in varying degrees to remove unwanted solvent and solute polymer, and drying to remove residual solvent. The properties of the foams can be controlled by the concentration and physical properties of the polymer, and by the size and properties of the microballoons. The suggested solute polymers are non-toxic and soluble in environmentally safe solvents such as water or low-molecular weight alcohols. The syntactic foams produced by this process are particularly useful in those applications where ease of removability is beneficial, and could find use in packaging recoverable electronic components, in drilling and mining applications, in building trades, in art works, in the entertainment industry for special effects, in manufacturing as temporary fixtures, in agriculture as temporary supports and containers and for delivery of fertilizer, in medicine as casts and splints, as temporary thermal barriers, as temporary protective covers for fragile objects, as filters for particulate matter, which matter may be easily recovered upon exposure to a solvent, as in-situ valves (for one-time use) which go from maximum to minimum impedance when solvent flows through, and for the automatic opening or closing of spring-loaded, mechanical switches upon exposure to a solvent, among other applications. 1 fig.

  20. Compositions and methods for removal of toxic metals and radionuclides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuero, Raul G. (Inventor); McKay, David S. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for the removal of toxic metals or radionuclides from source materials. Toxic metals may be removed from source materials using a clay, such as attapulgite or highly cationic bentonite, and chitin or chitosan. Toxic metals may also be removed using volcanic ash alone or in combination with chitin or chitosan. Radionuclides may be removed using volcanic ash alone or in combination with chitin or chitosan.

  1. Removing inorganics: Common methods have limits

    SciTech Connect

    Sorg, T.J.

    1991-06-01

    When EPA sets a regulation (a maximum contaminant level) for a contaminant, it must also specify the best available technology (BAT) that can be used to remove the contaminant. Because the regulations apply to community water systems, the technologies selected are ones that are commonly used to treat community size water systems. Thus, EPA R and D program has focused its efforts on evaluating primarily community applied technologies such as conventional coagulation-filtration, lime softening, ion exchange, adsorption, and membrane process. When BAT is identified for a specific contaminant, frequently the BAT will be listed with its limitations because the process is often not effective under all water quality conditions. The same limitations would also apply to POU/POE treatment. The paper discusses EPA's regulations on inorganic contaminants, the best available technologies cited by EPA, and the limitations of the processes. Using arsenic as an example, the impact of the contaminant chemistry and water quality on removals is presented.

  2. Method of removing phosphorus impurities from yellowcake

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.A.; Winkley, D.C.

    1983-04-05

    PhospHorus impurities are removed from yellowcake by dissolving it in hydrochloric or sulfuric acid to a U/sub 3/O/sub 88/ assay of at least 150 g/l at a pH of 2; precipitating uranium peroxide W hydrogen peroxide while keeping the pH between 2.2 and 2.6 and recovering the uranium peroxide from the phosphorus impurities remaining in solution.

  3. Evidence of Placental Hemorrhage and Preterm Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Gargano, Julia Warner; Holzman, Claudia B.; Senagore, Patricia K.; Reuss, M. Lynne; Pathak, Dorothy R.; Williams, Michelle A.; Fisher, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Objective to evaluate evidence of placental hemorrhage (PH) obtained through maternal interviews, patient charts, and placental pathology examinations as potential indicators of a “bleeding pathway” to preterm delivery (PTD). Design Prospective cohort Setting Fifty-two clinics in five communities in Michigan, USA (1998–2004) Population A subset (N=996) of cohort participants with complete placental pathology data Methods First trimester bleeding and placental abruption were ascertained by mid-trimester interviews and chart review, respectively. Disc-impacting blood clot was defined as a gross placental examination finding of a blood clot impacting adjacent tissue. Microscopic hemorrhage was defined as “high” (top quintile) scores on an aggregate measure of placental pathology findings suggestive of atypical maternal vessel hemorrhage. These four PH indicators were compared with one another and with risk of PTD assessed by logistic regression analyses. Main Outcome Measures PTD and PTD subtypes (i.e., <35 weeks, 35–36 weeks; spontaneous, medically indicated) compared with term deliveries. Results Placental abruption cases had 2.3 to 5.5-fold increased odds of the other 3 PH indicators. Disc-impacting blood clots and microscopic hemorrhage were associated with one another (OR=4.6), but not with first trimester bleeding. In a multivariable model that included all four PH indicators and confounders, risk of PTD <35 weeks was elevated with first trimester bleeding (OR=1.9 (1.0, 3.4)), placental abruption (OR=5.2 (1.7, 16.2)), disc-impacting blood clots (OR=2.3 (1.0, 5.0)); and microscopic hemorrhage (OR=2.4 (1.4, 4.2)). Conclusions Multiple clinical and subclinical PH indicators are associated with PTD, particularly early PTD. PMID:20074262

  4. Composition and method for removing photoresist materials from electronic components

    DOEpatents

    Davenhall, Leisa B.; Rubin, James B.; Taylor, Craig M. V.

    2008-06-03

    Composition and method for removing photoresist materials from electronic components. The composition is a mixture of at least one dense phase fluid and at least one dense phase fluid modifier. The method includes exposing a substrate to at least one pulse of the composition in a supercritical state to remove photoresist materials from the substrate.

  5. Composition and method for removing photoresist materials from electronic components

    DOEpatents

    Davenhall, Leisa B.; Rubin, James B.; Taylor, Craig M.

    2005-01-25

    Composition and method for removing photoresist materials from electronic components. The composition is a mixture of at least one dense phase fluid and at least one dense phase fluid modifier. The method includes exposing a substrate to at least one pulse of the composition in a supercritical state to remove photoresist materials from the substrate.

  6. A rapid high throughput proteomic method based on profiling of proteolytic free peptides to assess post-delivery degradation of placental tissue.

    PubMed

    Heywood, Wendy E; Pryce, Jeremy; Virasami, Alex; Preece, Rhian Lauren; Dezateux, Carol; Mills, Kevin; Sebire, Neil J

    2016-08-01

    A rapid method to determine quality for placental proteomic studies is required due to varying lengths of time between delivery and sampling in routine protocols. We developed a rapid 10 min LC-MS based scanning method to profile free peptides liberated from natural proteolytic degradation. The assay was applied to placenta samples obtained following refrigeration for varying time periods post-delivery (12 h, +24 h, +48 h and +72 h). Analysis reveals time dependant overlapping profiles for groups <24 to +48 h with greatest variation in the +72 h group, indicating that significant proteolysis affects tissue integrity between 48 and 72 h. PMID:27161200

  7. Prevention of Defective Placentation and Pregnancy Loss by Blocking Innate Immune Pathways in a Syngeneic Model of Placental Insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Gelber, Shari E; Brent, Elyssa; Redecha, Patricia; Perino, Giorgio; Tomlinson, Stephen; Davisson, Robin L; Salmon, Jane E

    2015-08-01

    Defective placentation and subsequent placental insufficiency lead to maternal and fetal adverse pregnancy outcome, but their pathologic mechanisms are unclear, and treatment remains elusive. The mildly hypertensive BPH/5 mouse recapitulates many features of human adverse pregnancy outcome, with pregnancies characterized by fetal loss, growth restriction, abnormal placental development, and defects in maternal decidual arteries. Using this model, we show that recruitment of neutrophils triggered by complement activation at the maternal/fetal interface leads to elevation in local TNF-α levels, reduction of the essential angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor, and, ultimately, abnormal placentation and fetal death. Blockade of complement with inhibitors specifically targeted to sites of complement activation, depletion of neutrophils, or blockade of TNF-α improves spiral artery remodeling and rescues pregnancies. These data underscore the importance of innate immune system activation in the pathogenesis of placental insufficiency and identify novel methods for treatment of pregnancy loss mediated by abnormal placentation. PMID:26071558

  8. Topological Analysis of Placental Arteries:. Correlation with Neonatal Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, H.; Yakubo, K.

    2007-07-01

    The aim of study was to assess whether any network index of placental surface arteries was associated with neonatal birth weight. Twenty-six placentas were randomly selected between 34 and 41 weeks of gestational ages. Placental weights ranged 385 to 770 g; and neonatal weights ranged 1960 to 3680 g. After visualization of placental surface arteries by a milk injection method, network indices including the number of nodes, network density, network diameter, average distance of nodes, and the degree centralization were determined. These network indices and placental weights were compared with neonatal birth weights. The Number of nodes, network density, network diameter, average distance of nodes, and the degree centralization were found to be as follows (Mean ± SD); 84.7 ± 29.3, 0.0262 ± 0.0088, 15.8 ± 2.77, 7.83 ± 1.13, 0.0263 ± 0.0091, respectively. We found that neonatal birth weights correlate with the number of nodes of placental surface arteries (correlation coefficient R=0.40) and placental weights (R=0.52) both. However, the number of nodes of placental surface arteries was not associated with the placental weights or the gestational age. We for the first time found that a topological factor, i.e., the number of nodes of placental surface arteries correlated with neonatal growth. There was no correlation between numbers of nodes and placental weights. This suggests that the number of nodes affects fetal growth independent of placental weights. A topological factor of placental vasculization might significantly affect fetal growth in utero and determine risks of vascular diseases in their future lives.

  9. Method for removing metals from a cleaning solution

    DOEpatents

    Deacon, Lewis E.

    2002-01-01

    A method for removing accumulated metals from a cleaning solution is provided. After removal of the metals, the cleaning solution can be discharged or recycled. The process manipulates the pH levels of the solution as a means of precipitating solids. Preferably a dual phase separation at two different pH levels is utilized.

  10. METHODS FOR REMOVING URANIUM FROM DRINKING WATER (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The number of water supplies with high uranium levels and the possibility of a national uranium regulation has stimulated greater interest in uranium removal technology. The paper summarizes recent information on the effectiveness of various methods for uranium removal from drink...

  11. Placental programming of blood pressure in Indian children

    PubMed Central

    Winder, Nicola R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Hill, Jacqueline C; Karat, Chitra LS; Fall, Caroline HD; Veena, Sargoor R; Barker, David JP

    2011-01-01

    Aim To determine whether the size and shape of the placental surface predict blood pressure in childhood. Methods We studied blood pressure in 471 nine-year-old Indian children whose placental length, breadth and weight were measured in a prospective birth cohort study. Results In the daughters of short mothers (placental breadth increased (β = 0.69 mmHg/cm, p = 0.05) and as the ratio of placental surface area to birthweight increased (p = 0.0003). In the daughters of tall mothers, SBP rose as the difference between placental length and breadth increased (β = 1.40 mmHg/cm, p = 0.007), that is as the surface became more oval. Among boys, associations with placental size were only statistically significant after adjusting for current BMI and height. After adjustment, SBP rose as placental breadth, area and weight decreased (for breadth β = −0.68 mmHg/cm, p < 0.05 for all three measurements). Conclusions The size and shape of the placental surface predict childhood blood pressure. Blood pressure may be programmed by variation in the normal processes of placentation: these include implantation, expansion of the chorionic surface in mid-gestation and compensatory expansion of the chorionic surface in late gestation. PMID:21166711

  12. EFFECTIVE REMOVAL METHOD OF ILLEGAL PARKING BICYCLES BASED ON THE QUANTITATIVE CHANGE AFTER REMOVAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toi, Satoshi; Kajita, Yoshitaka; Nishikawa, Shuichirou

    This study aims to find an effective removal method of illegal parking bicycles based on the analysis on the numerical change of illegal bicycles. And then, we built the time and space quantitative distribution model of illegal parking bicycles after removal, considering the logistic increase of illegal parking bicycles, several behaviors concerning of direct return or indirect return to the original parking place and avoidance of the original parking place, based on the investigation of real condition of illegal bicycle parking at TENJIN area in FUKUOKA city. Moreover, we built the simulation model including above-mentioned model, and calculated the number of illegal parking bicycles when we change the removal frequency and the number of removal at one time. The next interesting four results were obtained. (1) Recovery speed from removal the illegal parking bicycles differs by each zone. (2) Thorough removal is effective to keep the number of illegal parking bicycles lower level. (3) Removal at one zone causes the increase of bicycles at other zones where the level of illegal parking is lower. (4) The relationship between effects and costs of removing the illegal parking bicycles was clarified.

  13. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of a hexafluorosilicate salt, and free of or having only small amounts of an inorganic acid, an inorganic acid salt or a mixture thereof. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  14. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of phosphoric acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a source of fluoride ions. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  15. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, Jacob

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of phosphoric acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a source of fluoride ions. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  16. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, Jacob

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an inorganic acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a tetrafluoroborate of ammonia, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  17. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an inorganic acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a tetrafluoroborate of ammonia, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  18. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, Jacob

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of a boron tetrafluoride salt, free of or having only small amounts of an inorganic acid, an inorganic acid salt or a mixture thereof. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  19. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of a boron tetrafluoride salt, free of or having only small amounts of an inorganic acid, an inorganic acid salt or a mixture thereof. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  20. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, Jacob

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of a hexafluorosilicate salt, and free of or having only small amounts of an inorganic acid, an inorganic acid salt or a mixture thereof. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  1. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an inorganic acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a hexafluorosilicate of ammonia, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  2. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, Jacob

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an inorganic acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a hexafluorosilicate of ammonia, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  3. Removing as from converter dust by a hydrometallurgical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vircikova, Edita; Havlik, Milan

    1999-09-01

    Research has been conducted at the Faculty of Metallurgy, Technical University, Kosice, to develop a hydrometallurgical method for removing arsenic from copper converter dust. The process consists of a selective leaching of the flue dust in which arsenic is dissolved in sodium-sulfide solution and then removed by precipitation methods using various agents: copper sulfate, a mixture of phosphoric acid with calcium hydroxide, calcium oxide, and ferrous or ferric sulfate. In principle, arsenic can be removed as a marketable product (copper arsenate for wood preservation) or as stable precipitate compounds suitable for safe landfill disposal under existing U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations.

  4. Ultrasound in placental disorders.

    PubMed

    D'Antonio, Francesco; Bhide, Amar

    2014-04-01

    The definition of placenta previa based on ultrasound findings is more practical, and the traditional definition (implantation of the placenta in the lower uterine segment) needs to be revised. The term 'placenta previa' should only be used when the placental edge overlaps or is within 2 cm of the internal cervical orifice in late pregnancy. If the placental edge is located further than 2 cm but within 3.5 cm from the internal cervical orifice, the placenta should be termed 'low-lying'. Unless the placental edge at least reaches the internal orifice at mid-trimester, symptomatic placenta previa in the third trimester will not be encountered. Caesarean section is the recommended mode of delivery for placenta previa at term. Attempt at vaginal delivery is appropriate for low-lying placenta, but the possibility of post-partum haemorrhage should be kept in mind. The incidence of invasive placentation, such as placenta accrete, has progressively risen in the past 3 decades, possibly as a consequence of increasing caesarean section rates. Ultrasound has a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 97% for the identification of all forms of invasive placentation. Chorioangiomas are benign non-trophoblastic placental tumours with excessive vascular proliferation within the stroma of chronic villi. They are usually asymptomatic, although occasionally can be associated with adverse fetal outcomes. Chorioangiomas usually appear as well-circumscribed, rounded, hypo-echoic lesions next to the chorionic surface. Iatrogenic delivery or prenatal intervention are two options, if fetal compromise is present. Prenatal detection leads to a dramatic increase in survival compared with those cases unsuspected antenatally. PMID:24461676

  5. Method for removal of mercury from various gas streams

    DOEpatents

    Granite, E.J.; Pennline, H.W.

    2003-06-10

    The invention provides for a method for removing elemental mercury from a fluid, the method comprising irradiating the mercury with light having a wavelength of approximately 254 nm. The method is implemented in situ at various fuel combustion locations such as power plants and municipal incinerators.

  6. [Placental developmental defects in cloned mammalian animals].

    PubMed

    Ao, Zheng; Liu, Dewu; Cai, Gengyuan; Wu, Zhenfang; Li, Zicong

    2016-05-01

    The cloning technique, also called somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), has been successfully established and gradually applied to various mammalian species. However, the developmental rate of SCNT mammalian embryos is very low, usually at 1% to 5%, which limits the application of SCNT. Placental developmental defects are considered as the main cause of SCNT embryo development inhibition. Almost all of SCNT-derived mammalian placentas exhibit various abnormalities, such as placental hyperplasia, vascular defects and umbilical cord malformation. Mechanistically, these abnormalities result from failure of establishment of correct epigenetic modification in the trophectoderm genome, which leads to erroneous expression of important genes for placenta development-related, particularly imprinted genes. Consequently, aberrant imprinted gene expression gives rise to placental morphologic abnormalities and functional defects, therefore decreases developmental competence of cloned embryos. Currently, although numerous methods that can improve the developmental ability of SCNT-derived embryos have been reported, most of them are unable to substantially enhance the success rate of SCNT due to failure to eliminate the placental development defects. In this review, we summarize placental abnormalities and imprinted gene expression in mammalian cloning, and propose directions for the future research aiming to improve the cloning efficiency. PMID:27232488

  7. Placental Features of Late-Onset Adverse Pregnancy Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Lucy E.; Wareing, Mark; Greenwood, Susan L.; Jones, Rebecca L.; Sibley, Colin P.; Johnstone, Edward D.; Heazell, Alexander E. P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Currently, no investigations reliably identify placental dysfunction in late pregnancy. To facilitate the development of such investigations we aimed to identify placental features that differ between normal and adverse outcome in late pregnancy in a group of pregnancies with reduced fetal movement. Methods Following third trimester presentation with reduced fetal movement (N = 100), placental structure ex vivo was measured. Placental function was then assessed in terms of (i) chorionic plate artery agonist responses and length-tension characteristics using wire myography and (ii) production and release of placentally derived hormones (by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme linked immunosorbant assay of villous tissue and explant conditioned culture medium). Results Placentas from pregnancies ending in adverse outcome (N = 23) were ~25% smaller in weight, volume, length, width and disc area (all p<0.0001) compared with those from normal outcome pregnancies. Villous and trophoblast areas were unchanged, but villous vascularity was reduced (median (interquartile range): adverse outcome 10 (10–12) vessels/mm2 vs. normal outcome 13 (12–15), p = 0.002). Adverse outcome pregnancy placental arteries were relatively insensitive to nitric oxide donated by sodium nitroprusside compared to normal outcome pregnancy placental arteries (50% Effective Concentration 30 (19–50) nM vs. 12 (6–24), p = 0.02). Adverse outcome pregnancy placental tissue contained less human chorionic gonadotrophin (20 (11–50) vs. 55 (24–102) mIU/mg, p = 0.007) and human placental lactogen (11 (6–14) vs. 27 (9–50) mg/mg, p = 0.006) and released more soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (21 (13–29) vs. 5 (2–15) ng/mg, p = 0.01) compared with normal outcome pregnancy placental tissue. Conclusion These data provide a description of the placental phenotype of adverse outcome in late pregnancy. Antenatal tests that accurately reflect elements of this phenotype may

  8. A method for removing arm backscatter from EPID images

    SciTech Connect

    King, Brian W.; Greer, Peter B.

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To develop a method for removing the support arm backscatter from images acquired using current Varian electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs).Methods: The effect of arm backscatter on EPID images was modeled using a kernel convolution method. The parameters of the model were optimized by comparing on-arm images to off-arm images. The model was used to develop a method to remove the effect of backscatter from measured EPID images. The performance of the backscatter removal method was tested by comparing backscatter corrected on-arm images to measured off-arm images for 17 rectangular fields of different sizes and locations on the imager. The method was also tested using on- and off-arm images from 42 intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) fields.Results: Images generated by the backscatter removal method gave consistently better agreement with off-arm images than images without backscatter correction. For the 17 rectangular fields studied, the root mean square difference of in-plane profiles compared to off-arm profiles was reduced from 1.19% (standard deviation 0.59%) on average without backscatter removal to 0.38% (standard deviation 0.18%) when using the backscatter removal method. When comparing to the off-arm images from the 42 IMRT fields, the mean {gamma} and percentage of pixels with {gamma} < 1 were improved by the backscatter removal method in all but one of the images studied. The mean {gamma} value (1%, 1 mm) for the IMRT fields studied was reduced from 0.80 to 0.57 by using the backscatter removal method, while the mean {gamma} pass rate was increased from 72.2% to 84.6%.Conclusions: A backscatter removal method has been developed to estimate the image acquired by the EPID without any arm backscatter from an image acquired in the presence of arm backscatter. The method has been shown to produce consistently reliable results for a wide range of field sizes and jaw configurations.

  9. Method for removing oxide contamination from titanium diboride powder

    DOEpatents

    Brynestad, J.; Bamberger, C.E.

    A method for removing oxide contamination from titanium diboride powder involves the direct chemical treatment of TiB/sub 2/ powders with a gaseous boron halide, such as BCl/sub 3/, at temperatures in the range of 500 to 800/sup 0/C. The BCl/sub 3/ reacts with the oxides to form volatile species which are removed by the BCl/sub 3/ exit stream.

  10. Method for removing oxide contamination from titanium diboride powder

    DOEpatents

    Brynestad, Jorulf; Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1984-01-01

    A method for removing oxide contamination from titanium diboride powder involves the direct chemical treatment of TiB.sub.2 powders with a gaseous boron halide, such as BCl.sub.3, at temperatures in the range of 500.degree.-800.degree. C. The BCl.sub.3 reacts with the oxides to form volatile species which are removed by the BCl.sub.3 exit stream.

  11. Blood storage device and method for oxygen removal

    DOEpatents

    Bitensky, Mark W.; Yoshida, Tatsuro

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to a storage device and method for the long-term storage of blood and, more particularly, to a blood storage device and method capable of removing oxygen from the stored blood and thereby prolonging the storage life of the deoxygenated blood.

  12. Invalid phase values removal method for absolute phase recovery.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jin; Mo, Rong; Sun, Huibin; Chang, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaxia

    2016-01-10

    A novel approach is presented for more effectively removing invalid phase values in absolute phase recovery. The approach is based on a detailed study involving the types and cases of invalid phase values. Meanwhile, some commonalities of the existing removal algorithms also are thoroughly analyzed. It is well known that rough absolute phase and fringe order maps can very easily be obtained by temporal phase unwrapping techniques. After carefully analyzing the components and fringe order distribution of the rough fringe order map, the proposed method chiefly adopts an entirely new strategy to refine a pure fringe order map. The strategy consists of three parts: (1) the square of an image gradient, (2) subregion areas of the binary image, and (3) image decomposition and composition. In combination with the pure fringe order map and a removal criterion, the invalid phase values can be identified and filtered out from the rough absolute phase map. This new strategy not only gets rid of the limitations of traditional removal methods but also has a two-fold function. The paper also offers different metrics from the experiment to evaluate the quality of the final absolute phase. In contrast with other removal methods, experimental results have verified the feasibility, effectiveness, and superiority of the proposed method. PMID:26835776

  13. Compositions and methods for removing arsenic in water

    DOEpatents

    Gadgil, Ashok Jagannth

    2011-02-22

    Compositions and methods and for contaminants from water are provided. The compositions comprise ferric hydroxide and ferric oxyhydride coated substrates for use in removing the contaminant from the water. Contacting water bearing the contaminant with the substrates can substantially reduce contaminant levels therein. Methods of oxidizing the contaminants in water to facilitate their removal by the ferric hydroxide and ferric oxyhydride coated substrates are also provided. The contaminants include, but are not limited to, arsenic, selenium, uranium, lead, cadmium, nickel, copper, zinc, chromium and vanadium, their oxides and soluble salts thereof.

  14. Method for the removal and recovery of mercury

    DOEpatents

    Easterly, C.E.; Vass, A.A.; Tyndall, R.L.

    1997-01-28

    The present invention is an enhanced method for the removal and recovery of mercury from mercury-contaminated matrices. The method involves contacting a mercury-contaminated matrix with an aqueous dispersant solution derived from specific intra-amoebic isolates to release the mercury from the mercury-contaminated matrix and emulsify the mercury; then, contacting the matrix with an amalgamating metal from a metal source to amalgamate the mercury to the amalgamating metal; removing the metallic source from the mercury-contaminated matrix; and heating the metallic source to vaporize the mercury in a closed system to capture the mercury vapors.

  15. Method for the removal and recovery of mercury

    DOEpatents

    Easterly, Clay E.; Vass, Arpad A.; Tyndall, Richard L.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is an enhanced method for the removal and recovery of mercury from mercury-contaminated matrices. The method involves contacting a mercury-contaminated matrix with an aqueous dispersant solution derived from specific intra-amoebic isolates to release the mercury from the mercury-contaminated matrix and emulsify the mercury; then, contacting the matrix with an amalgamating metal from a metal source to amalgamate the mercury to the amalgamating metal; removing the metallic source from the mercury-contaminated matrix; and heating the metallic source to vaporize the mercury in a closed system to capture the mercury vapors.

  16. Method for removal of beryllium contamination from an article

    DOEpatents

    Simandl, Ronald F.; Hollenbeck, Scott M.

    2012-12-25

    A method of removal of beryllium contamination from an article is disclosed. The method typically involves dissolving polyisobutylene in a solvent such as hexane to form a tackifier solution, soaking the substrate in the tackifier to produce a preform, and then drying the preform to produce the cleaning medium. The cleaning media are typically used dry, without any liquid cleaning agent to rub the surface of the article and remove the beryllium contamination below a non-detect level. In some embodiments no detectible residue is transferred from the cleaning wipe to the article as a result of the cleaning process.

  17. A comparison of four methods for PCR inhibitor removal.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qingqing; Liu, Yuxuan; Yi, Shaohua; Huang, Daixin

    2015-05-01

    Biological samples collected from the crime scenes often contain some compounds that can inhibit the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The removal of PCR inhibitors from the extracts prior to the PCR amplification is vital for successful forensic DNA typing. This paper aimed to evaluate the ability of four different methods (PowerClean® DNA Clean-Up kit, DNA IQ™ System, Phenol-Chloroform extraction and Chelex®-100 methods) to remove eight commonly encountered PCR inhibitors including: melanin, humic acid, collagen, bile salt, hematin, calcium ions, indigo and urea. Each of these PCR inhibitors was effectively removed by the PowerClean® DNA Clean-Up kit and DNA IQ™ System as demonstrated by generating more complete short tandem repeat (STR) profiles from the cleaned up inhibitor samples than from the raw inhibitor samples. The Phenol-Chloroform extraction and Chelex®-100 methods, however, could only remove some of eight PCR inhibitors. Our results demonstrated that the PowerClean® DNA Clean-Up kit and DNA IQ™ System were very effective for the removal of known PCR inhibitors that are routinely found in DNA extracts from forensic samples. PMID:25553520

  18. Imaging of activated complement using ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (USPIO) - conjugated vectors: an in vivo in utero non-invasive method to predict placental insufficiency and abnormal fetal brain development

    PubMed Central

    Girardi, G; Fraser, J; Lennen, R; Vontell, R; Jansen, M; Hutchison, G

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we have developed a magnetic resonance imaging-based method for non-invasive detection of complement activation in placenta and foetal brain in vivo in utero. Using this method, we found that anti-complement C3-targeted ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles bind within the inflamed placenta and foetal brain cortical tissue, causing a shortening of the T2* relaxation time. We used two mouse models of pregnancy complications: a mouse model of obstetrics antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and a mouse model of preterm birth (PTB). We found that detection of C3 deposition in the placenta in the APS model was associated with placental insufficiency characterised by increased oxidative stress, decreased vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor levels and intrauterine growth restriction. We also found that foetal brain C3 deposition was associated with cortical axonal cytoarchitecture disruption and increased neurodegeneration in the mouse model of APS and in the PTB model. In the APS model, foetuses that showed increased C3 in their brains additionally expressed anxiety-related behaviour after birth. Importantly, USPIO did not affect pregnancy outcomes and liver function in the mother and the offspring, suggesting that this method may be useful for detecting complement activation in vivo in utero and predicting placental insufficiency and abnormal foetal neurodevelopment that leads to neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:25245499

  19. Method for removing trace pollutants from aqueous solutions

    DOEpatents

    Silver, G.L.

    A method of substantially removing a trace metallic contaminant from a liquid containing the same comprises: adding an oxidizing agent to a liquid containing a trace amount of a metallic contaminant of a concentration of up to about 0.1 ppM, and separating the homogeneously precipitated product from the liquid.

  20. Apparatuses and methods for removal of ink buildup

    DOEpatents

    Cudzinovic, Michael; Pass, Thomas; Rogers, Rob; Sun, Ray-Hon; Sun, Sheng; Wahlstrom, Ben; Fuhrman, Dennis Jason; Altendorf, Kyle David

    2013-03-12

    A substrate patterning method including the steps of spraying ink on a surface of a substrate, the spraying of the ink resulting in an overspray of excess ink past an edge of the substrate; changing a temperature of the excess ink to cause a change in a viscosity of the excess ink; and removing the excess ink having the changed viscosity.

  1. 24 CFR 35.140 - Prohibited methods of paint removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibited methods of paint removal. 35.140 Section 35.140 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and...

  2. Method for removing semiconductor layers from salt substrates

    DOEpatents

    Shuskus, Alexander J.; Cowher, Melvyn E.

    1985-08-27

    A method is described for removing a CVD semiconductor layer from an alkali halide salt substrate following the deposition of the semiconductor layer. The semiconductor-substrate combination is supported on a material such as tungsten which is readily wet by the molten alkali halide. The temperature of the semiconductor-substrate combination is raised to a temperature greater than the melting temperature of the substrate but less than the temperature of the semiconductor and the substrate is melted and removed from the semiconductor by capillary action of the wettable support.

  3. Methods of hydrotreating a liquid stream to remove clogging compounds

    DOEpatents

    Minderhoud, Johannes Kornelis [Amsterdam, NL; Nelson, Richard Gene [Katy, TX; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria [Houston, TX; Ryan, Robert Charles [Houston, TX; Nair, Vijay [Katy, TX

    2009-09-22

    A method includes producing formation fluid from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a gas stream. At least a portion of the liquid stream is provided to a hydrotreating unit. At least a portion of selected in situ heat treatment clogging compositions in the liquid stream are removed to produce a hydrotreated liquid stream by hydrotreating at least a portion of the liquid stream at conditions sufficient to remove the selected in situ heat treatment clogging compositions.

  4. Method for removal of nitrogen oxides from stationary combustion sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Charles D. (Inventor); Clausen, III, Christian A. (Inventor); Collins, Michelle M. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method for removing NO.sub.X from gas streams emanating from stationary combustion sources and manufacturing plants utilizes the injection of hydrogen peroxide into the gas stream for rapid gas-phase oxidation of NO to NO.sub.2 and water-soluble nitrogen acids HNO.sub.2 and HNO.sub.3. The nitrogen acids may be removed from the oxidized gas stream by wet scrubbing or by contact with a particulate alkaline material to form a nitrite/nitrate salt.

  5. Capture-recapture and removal methods for sampling closed populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Gary C.; Anderson, David R.; Burnham, Kenneth P.; Otis, David L.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of estimating animal abundance is common in wildlife management and environmental impact asessment. Capture-recapture and removal methods are often used to estimate population size. Statistical Inference From Capture Data On Closed Animal Populations, a monograph by Otis et al. (1978), provides a comprehensive synthesis of much of the wildlife and statistical literature on the methods, as well as some extensions of the general theory. In our primer, we focus on capture-recapture and removal methods for trapping studies in which a population is assumed to be closed and do not treat open-population models, such as the Jolly-Seber model, or catch-effort methods in any detail. The primer, written for students interested in population estimation, is intended for use with the more theoretical monograph.

  6. METHOD FOR REMOVING SODIUM OXIDE FROM LIQUID SODIUM

    DOEpatents

    Bruggeman, W.H.; Voorhees, B.G.

    1957-12-01

    A method is described for removing sodium oxide from a fluent stream of liquid sodium by coldtrapping the sodium oxide. Apparatus utilizing this method is disclosed in United States Patent No. 2,745,552. Sodium will remain in a molten state at temperatures below that at which sodium oxide will crystallize out and form solid deposits, therefore, the contaminated stream of sodium is cooled to a temperature at which the solubility of sodium oxide in sodium is substantially decreased. Thereafter the stream of sodium is passed through a bed of stainless steel wool maintained at a temperature below that of the stream. The stream is kept in contact with the wool until the sodium oxide is removed by crystal growth on the wool, then the stream is reheated and returned to the system. This method is useful in purifying reactor coolants where the sodium oxide would otherwise deposit out on the walls and eventually plug the coolant tubes.

  7. Methods of Helium Injection and Removal for Heat Transfer Augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haight, Harlan; Kegley, Jeff; Bourdreaux, Meghan

    2008-01-01

    While augmentation of heat transfer from a test article by helium gas at low pressures is well known, the method is rarely employed during space simulation testing because the test objectives usually involve simulation of an orbital thermal environment. Test objectives of cryogenic optical testing at Marshall Space Flight Center's X-ray Cryogenic Facility (XRCF) have typically not been constrained by orbital environment parameters. As a result, several methods of helium injection have been utilized at the XRCF since 1999 to decrease thermal transition times. A brief synopsis of these injection (and removal) methods including will be presented.

  8. Methods of Helium Injection and Removal for Heat Transfer Augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kegley, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    While augmentation of heat transfer from a test article by helium gas at low pressures is well known, the method is rarely employed during space simulation testing because the test objectives are to simulate an orbital thermal environment. Test objectives of cryogenic optical testing at Marshall Space Flight Center's X-ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) have typically not been constrained by orbital environment parameters. As a result, several methods of helium injection have been utilized at the XRCF since 1999 to decrease thermal transition times. A brief synopsis of these injection (and removal) methods including will be presented.

  9. Method for removing organic liquids from aqueous solutions and mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Coronado, Paul R.; Dow, Jerome P.

    2004-03-23

    A method for removing organic liquids from aqueous solutions and mixtures. The method employs any porous material preferably in granular form and having small pores and a large specific surface area, that is hydrophobic so that liquid water does not readily wet its surface. In this method, organics, especially organic solvents that mix with and are more volatile than water, are separated from aqueous solution by preferentially evaporating across the liquid/solid boundary formed at the surfaces of the hydrophobic porous materials. Also, organic solvents that are immiscible with water, preferentially wet the surfaces of the hydrophobic material and are drawn within the porous materials by capillary action.

  10. Methods for removing contaminant matter from a porous material

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Robert V [Idaho Falls, ID; Avci, Recep [Bozeman, MT; Groenewold, Gary S [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-11-16

    Methods of removing contaminant matter from porous materials include applying a polymer material to a contaminated surface, irradiating the contaminated surface to cause redistribution of contaminant matter, and removing at least a portion of the polymer material from the surface. Systems for decontaminating a contaminated structure comprising porous material include a radiation device configured to emit electromagnetic radiation toward a surface of a structure, and at least one spray device configured to apply a capture material onto the surface of the structure. Polymer materials that can be used in such methods and systems include polyphosphazine-based polymer materials having polyphosphazine backbone segments and side chain groups that include selected functional groups. The selected functional groups may include iminos, oximes, carboxylates, sulfonates, .beta.-diketones, phosphine sulfides, phosphates, phosphites, phosphonates, phosphinates, phosphine oxides, monothio phosphinic acids, and dithio phosphinic acids.

  11. Methods of using adsorption media for separating or removing constituents

    DOEpatents

    Tranter, Troy J.; Herbst, R. Scott; Mann, Nicholas R.; Todd, Terry A.

    2011-10-25

    Methods of using an adsorption medium to remove at least one constituent from a feed stream. The method comprises contacting an adsorption medium with a feed stream comprising at least one constituent and removing the at least one constituent from the feed stream. The adsorption medium comprises a polyacrylonitrile (PAN) matrix and at least one metal hydroxide homogenously dispersed therein. The adsorption medium may comprise from approximately 15 wt % to approximately 90 wt % of the PAN and from approximately 10 wt % to approximately 85 wt % of the at least one metal hydroxide. The at least one metal hydroxide may be selected from the group consisting of ferric hydroxide, zirconium hydroxide, lanthanum hydroxide, cerium hydroxide, titanium hydroxide, copper hydroxide, antimony hydroxide, and molybdenum hydroxide.

  12. Malignant cancer and invasive placentation

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Alaric W.; Wagner, Günter P.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer metastasis is an invasive process that involves the transplantation of cells into new environments. Since human placentation is also invasive, hypotheses about a relationship between invasive placentation in eutherian mammals and metastasis have been proposed. The relationship between metastatic cancer and invasive placentation is usually presented in terms of antagonistic pleiotropy. According to this hypothesis, evolution of invasive placentation also established the mechanisms for cancer metastasis. Here, in contrast, we argue that the secondary evolution of less invasive placentation in some mammalian lineages may have resulted in positive pleiotropic effects on cancer survival by lowering malignancy rates. These positive pleiotropic effects would manifest themselves as resistance to cancer cell invasion. To provide a preliminary test of this proposal, we re-analyze data from Priester and Mantel (Occurrence of tumors in domestic animals. Data from 12 United States and Canadian colleges of veterinary medicine. J Natl Cancer Inst 1971;47:1333-44) about malignancy rates in cows, horses, cats and dogs. From our analysis we found that equines and bovines, animals with less invasive placentation, have lower rates of metastatic cancer than felines and canines in skin and glandular epithelial cancers as well as connective tissue sarcomas. We conclude that a link between type of placentation and species-specific malignancy rates is more likely related to derived mechanisms that suppress invasion rather than different degrees of fetal placental aggressiveness. PMID:25324490

  13. METHOD OF REMOVING IODINE FROM GASES AND FILTER MEDIUM THEREFOR

    DOEpatents

    Silverman, L.

    1961-08-01

    A method for the removal of iodine from large gas volumes is described. The gaseous medium is heated to a temperature not exceeding 400 deg C. Water vapor is then added to the medium in approximate amounts of 1 lb/cu ft of the medium. The medium is then passed through a porous copper fibrous pad having deposited thereon a coating of silver, the silver coating being treated with hydrogen sulfide forming a layer of silver sulfide. (AEC)

  14. Method of treating coal to remove sulfur and ash

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.E.

    1981-12-15

    The present invention is directed to an improved method of chemically treating coal to remove sulfur and ash. It is especially adapted for use on high sulfur, refuse coal. In practice the coal is treated with hydrochloric acid and hypochlorous acid in the presence of ferric and ferrous sulfate to convert the iron pyrites to other sulfur compounds. These are then converted to various salts of calcium through neutralization with lime.

  15. 33 CFR 153.305 - Methods and procedures for the removal of discharged oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DISCHARGE REMOVAL Removal of Discharged Oil § 153.305 Methods and procedures for the removal of discharged oil. Each person who removes or arranges for the removal of a discharge of oil from coastal waters... mechanical method for containment and recovery. (b) Control the source of discharge, prevent...

  16. 33 CFR 153.305 - Methods and procedures for the removal of discharged oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DISCHARGE REMOVAL Removal of Discharged Oil § 153.305 Methods and procedures for the removal of discharged oil. Each person who removes or arranges for the removal of a discharge of oil from coastal waters... mechanical method for containment and recovery. (b) Control the source of discharge, prevent...

  17. Method for changing removable bearing for a wind turbine generator

    DOEpatents

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran; Jansen, Patrick Lee; Gadre, Aniruddha Dattatraya

    2008-04-22

    A wind generator having removable change-out bearings includes a rotor and a stator, locking bolts configured to lock the rotor and stator, a removable bearing sub-assembly having at least one shrunk-on bearing installed, and removable mounting bolts configured to engage the bearing sub-assembly and to allow the removable bearing sub-assembly to be removed when the removable mounting bolts are removed.

  18. Removal of polyvinylpyrrolidone from wastewater using different methods.

    PubMed

    Julinová, Markéta; Kupec, Jan; Houser, Josef; Slavík, Roman; Marusincová, Hana; Cervenáková, Lenka; Klívar, Stanislav

    2012-12-01

    Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is a frequently used polymer in the pharmaceutical and foodstuff industries. Because it is not subject to metabolic changes and is virtually nondegradable, trace concentrations of PVP are often found in community wastewaters. The literature finds that the partial removal of PVP in wastewater treatment plants probably occurs through sorption. The primary objective of this study was to find an effective method to remove PVP from wastewaters. In this regard, the literature indicates the theoretical potential to use specific enzymes (e.g., gamma-lactamases, amidases) to gradually degrade PVP molecules. Polyvinylpyrrolidone biodegradability tests were conducted using suitable heterogeneous cultures (activated sludge) collected from a conventional wastewater treatment plant, treatment plants connected to a pharmaceutical factory, and using select enzymes. Aerobic biodegradation of PVP in a conventional wastewater environment was ineffective, even after adaptation of activated sludge using the nearly identical monomer 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone. Another potential method for PVP removal involves pretreating the polymer prior to biological degradation. Based on the results (approximately 10 to 15% biodegradation), pretreatment was partially effective, realistically, it could only be applied with difficulty at wastewater treatment plants. Sorption of PVP to an active carbon sorbent (Chezacarb S), which corresponded to the Langmuir isotherm, and sorption to activated sludge, which corresponded to the Freundlich isotherm, were also evaluated. From these sorption tests, it can be concluded that the considerable adsorption of PVP to activated sludge occurred primarily at low PVP concentrations. Based on the test results, the authors recommend the following methods for PVP removal from wastewater: (1) sorption; (2) application of specific microorganisms; and (3) alkaline hydrolysis, which is the least suitable of the three for use in wastewater treatment

  19. Method for removing oxide contamination from silicon carbide powders

    DOEpatents

    Brynestad, J.; Bamberger, C.E.

    1984-08-01

    The described invention is directed to a method for removing oxide contamination in the form of oxygen-containing compounds such as SiO/sub 2/ and B/sub 2/O/sub 3/ from a charge of finely divided silicon carbide. The silicon carbide charge is contacted with a stream of hydrogen fluoride mixed with an inert gas carrier such as argon at a temperature in the range of about 200/sup 0/ to 650/sup 0/C. The oxides in the charge react with the heated hydrogen fluoride to form volatile gaseous fluorides such as SiF/sub 4/ and BF/sub 3/ which pass through the charge along with unreacted hydrogen fluoride and the carrier gas. Any residual gaseous reaction products and hydrogen fluoride remaining in the charge are removed by contacting the charge with the stream of inert gas which also cools the powder to room temperature. The removal of the oxygen contamination by practicing the present method provides silicon carbide powders with desirable pressing and sintering characteristics. 1 tab.

  20. Method for removing metal ions from solution with titanate sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Lundquist, Susan H.; White, Lloyd R.

    1999-01-01

    A method for removing metal ions from solution comprises the steps of providing titanate particles by spray-drying a solution or slurry comprising sorbent titanates having a particle size up to 20 micrometers, optionally in the presence of polymer free of cellulose functionality as binder, said sorbent being active towards heavy metals from Periodic Table (CAS version) Groups IA, IIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, and VIII, to provide monodisperse, substantially spherical particles in a yield of at least 70 percent of theoretical yield and having a particle size distribution in the range of 1 to 500 micrometers. The particles can be used free flowing in columns or beds, or entrapped in a nonwoven, fibrous web or matrix or a cast porous membrane, to selectively remove metal ions from aqueous or organic liquid.

  1. Method and apparatus for heat treating materials to remove contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, M.; Miller, D.H.

    1980-05-06

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for heat treating metals to remove contaminants. Contaminated scrap metal is fed into one end of a rotating inclined retort. Heat is applied to the retort as the scrap metal is conveyed therein to remove the contaminant, and the processed metal is discharged from the opposite end of the retort. Combustible waste gases generated through the processing are fed to an afterburner where the combustible gases are burned and are discharged from the afterburner into a stack. A portion of the hot combusted gases are returned from the stack to the discharge end of the retort to thereby minimize oxidation of the scrap metal being treated as well as conserving fuel.

  2. Ischemic placental syndrome - prediction and new disease monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowski, Sebastian; Kwiatkowska, Ewa; Rzepka, Rafał; Torbe, Andrzej; Dolegowska, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    The last decade has seen an improved understanding of the cause of the development of pathologies such as gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, intrauterine fetal death or placental abruption. Nowadays, we know that most conditions within this group share the same pathogenesis, the cause of which is placental ischemia. The following review is an attempt to propose a new method for prediction, diagnosis and - above all - appropriate monitoring of pregnant women and fetuses developing the ischemic placental syndrome with the use of tests that are new but yet widely available in clinical diagnosis. They are closely related to the condition's pathogenesis, therefore their elevated levels may predate clinical symptoms, and - most importantly - they correlate with syndrome aggravation and the occurrence of complications. Perhaps, the new look will allow us to improve perinatal results by reducing mortality and severe complications in pregnant women and fetal deaths resulting from sudden intrauterine fetal death or placental abruption. PMID:26444581

  3. The Fe removal in pyrophyllite by physical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Kanghee; Jo, Jiyu; Bak, GeonYeong; Choi, NagChoul; Park*, CheonYoung

    2015-04-01

    The presence of Fe in ingredient material such as limestone, borax and pyrophyllite can prevent their use mainly in the glass fiber manufacturing industry. The red to yellow pigmentation in pyrophyllite is mainly due to the associated oxides and sulfides of Fe such as hematite, pyrite, etc. The removal of Fe in the pyrophyllite was investigated using high frequency treatment and magnetic separation under various alumina grades in pyrophyllite. The hematite and pyrite were observed in the pyrophyllite from photomicrograph and XRD analysis results. On the decrease of Al2O3 content in pyrophyllite was showed that SiO2, Fe2O3 and TiO2 content were increased by XRF analysis. The high frequency treatment experiment for the pyrophyllite showed that the (1) pyrite phase was transformed hematite and magnetite, (2) mass loss of the sample by volatilization of included sulfur(S) in pyrite. The results of magnetic separation for treated sample by high frequency were identified that Fe removal percent were in the range of 97.6~98.8%. This study demonstrated that physical method (high frequency treatment and magnetic separation) was effective for the removal of Fe in pyrophyllite. This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment(MOE) as "Advanced Technology Program for Environmental Industry".

  4. Method of removing sulfur dioxide from combustion exhaust gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kodama, K.; Konno, K.; Miyamori, T.; Saitoh, S.; Watanabe, T.; Yaguchi, K.

    1983-05-10

    A method of removing sulfur dioxide from combustion exhaust gas containing sulfur dioxide by contacting the exhaust gas with an aqueous solution containing at least one organic acid salt expressed by the formula rcoom (Wherein R represents H, CH/sub 3/, C/sub 2/H/sub 5/ or C/sub 3/H/sub 7/, and M represents an alkali metal or NH/sub 4/) to efficiently dissolve sulfur dioxide contained in the gas in the form of a sulfite in the aqueous solution by reacting the sulfur dioxide with the salt. The resultant solution which dissolves the sulfite may be contacted with a calcium compound for producing calcium sulfite by reaction of the sulfite with the calcium compound thereby effectively removing the sulfur dioxide in the form of calcium sulfite from the combustion exhaust gas. Alternatively, the sulfite-dissolving aqueous solution may be contacted with oxygen or air for oxidizing the sulfite contained in the solution into a sulfate, followed by contacting the sulfate, which is now dissolved in the aqueous solution, with a calcium compound. The sulfate is satisfactorily reacted with the calcium compound to produce calcium sulfate and thus sulfur dioxide may be effectively ultimately removed in the form of calcium sulfate from the combustion exhaust gas.

  5. An Outlier Removal Method for SPC in Semiconductor Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, Tomoaki; Minami, Masateru; Homma, Tetsuya

    To maintain stable operation of semiconductor fabrication lines, statistical process control (SPC) methods are recognized to be effective. In semiconductor fabrication lines, there exist a huge number of process state signals to be monitored, and these signals contain both normally and non-normally distributed data, which make the application of SPC difficult. The authors have already proposed an SPC method “ESCM” which can solve these problems. However, this method has a problem that it is highly sensitive to outliers contained in the reference data. In this paper, we propose a new outlier removal method to solve this problem. This method uses the “effective standard deviation” we used in the ESCM to deal with a wide range of non-normal distributions. Basic performances of this method are demonstrated by comparing abilities to detect outliers correctly, and to mistakenly detect non-outlier data with conventional methods. In the demonstration, we use various kinds of artificially generated data and real data observed in process tools in a semiconductor fabrication line. Usefulness of this method is demonstrated by studying the effects of this method when used with ESCM.

  6. Method for removing trace pollutants from aqueous solutions

    DOEpatents

    Silver, Gary L.

    1986-01-01

    A method of substantially removing a trace metallic contaminant from a liquid containing the same comprises, adding an oxidizing agent to a liquid containing a trace amount of a metallic contaminant of a concentration of up to about 10.sup.-1 ppm, the oxidizing agent being one which oxidizes the contaminant to form an oxidized product which is insoluble in the liquid and precipitates therefrom, and the conditions of the addition being selected to ensure that the precipitation of the oxidized product is homogeneous, and separating the homogeneously precipitated product from the liquid.

  7. System and method for removal of buried objects

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, Robert G.; Crass, Dennis; Grams, William; Phillips, Steven J.; Riess, Mark

    2008-06-03

    The present invention is a system and method for removal of buried objects. According to one embodiment of the invention, a crane with a vibrator casing driver is used to lift and suspend a large diameter steel casing over the buried object. Then the casing is driven into the ground by the vibratory driver until the casing surrounds the buried object. Then the open bottom of the casing is sealed shut by injecting grout into the ground within the casing near its bottom. When the seal has cured and hardened, the top of the casing is lifted to retrieve the casing, with the buried object inside, from the ground.

  8. Method for improving the removal of oil from surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Titus, P.E.

    1980-11-18

    A method is claimed for facilitating the removal or preventing the adherence of residual oil in oil tankers and other vessels or containers, on the surfaces of oil spill cleanup equipment such as skimmers and booms, and on sucker rods or other surfaces in oil wells, by coating surfaces contacting the oil with a film of a polymer that prevents or reduces oil adherence. Materials effective in reducing oil adherence are oleophobic films formed by complexing a polyacrylamide or carboxymethylcellulose with salts of polyvalent metals such as aluminum, chromium and iron.

  9. Method of removing and detoxifying a phosphorus-based substance

    DOEpatents

    Vandegrift, G.F.; Steindler, M.J.

    1985-05-21

    A method of removing a phosphorus-based poisonous substance from water contaminated is presented. In addition, the toxicity of the phosphorus-based substance is also subsequently destroyed. A water-immiscible organic solvent is first immobilized on a supported liquid membrane before the contaminated water is contacted with one side of the supported liquid membrane to absorb the phosphorus-based substance in the organic solvent. The other side of the supported liquid membrane is contacted with a hydroxy-affording strong base to react with phosphorus-based solvated species to form a non-toxic product.

  10. Method for removing cesium from a nuclear reactor coolant

    DOEpatents

    Colburn, Richard P.

    1986-01-01

    A method of and system for removing cesium from a liquid metal reactor coolant including a carbon packing trap in the primary coolant system for absorbing a major portion of the radioactive cesium from the coolant flowing therethrough at a reduced temperature. A regeneration subloop system having a secondary carbon packing trap is selectively connected to the primary system for isolating the main trap therefrom and connecting it to the regeneration system. Increasing the temperature of the sodium flowing through the primary trap diffuses a portion of the cesium

  11. Method of dye removal for the textile industry

    DOEpatents

    Stone, Mark L.

    2000-01-01

    The invention comprises a method of processing a waste stream containing dyes, such as a dye bath used in the textile industry. The invention comprises using an inorganic-based polymer, such as polyphosphazene, to separate dyes and/or other chemicals from the waste stream. Membranes comprising polyphosphazene have the chemical and thermal stability to survive the harsh, high temperature environment of dye waste streams, and have been shown to completely separate dyes from the waste stream. Several polyphosplhazene membranes having a variety of organic substituent have been shown effective in removing color from waste streams.

  12. Method of dye removal for the textile industry

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M.L.

    2000-07-25

    The invention comprises a method of processing a waste stream containing dyes, such as a dye bath used in the textile industry. The invention uses an inorganic-based polymer, such as polyphosphazene, to separate dyes and/or other chemicals from the waste stream. Membranes comprising polyphosphazene have the chemical and thermal stability to survive the harsh, high temperature environment of dye waste streams, and have been shown to completely separate dyes from the waste stream. Several polyphosplhazene membranes having a variety of organic substituent have been shown effective in removing color from waste streams.

  13. Association between PAPP-A and placental thickness

    PubMed Central

    Mesdaghi-nia, Elaheh; Behrashi, Mitra; Saeidi, Arezoo; Abedzadeh Kalahroodi, Masoomeh; Sehat, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Background: Measuring of maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) in first trimester can be a way for early detection of adverse prenatal outcome due to faulty placenta. Objective: The aim was to Determination of association between placental thickness in second trimester with low level of PAPP-A in first trimester. Materials and Methods: In this cohort study, serum PAPP-A of 187 pregnant women was measured in the first trimester of pregnancy. Patients who had PAPP-A ≤0.8 MOM were in exposed and others who had PAPP-A >0.8 defined as unexposed group. The criteria of placental thickness in ultrasound study was thickness of 4 cm or more than 50% of placental length. Results: Of 187 patients, 87 patients had PAPP-A >0.8 and 93 patients had PAPP-A ≤0.8. Women with low levels of PAPP-A in the first trimester, had an increased incidence placental thickness of 34.4%, whereas another group had about 15% (p=0.002). Also, PAPP-A levels had acceptable sensitivity and specificity for placental thickness detection (71.1% and 54.8%, respectively. Conclusion: Our study showed that serum level of PAPP-A generally was low (≤0.8) in women with a thick placenta (>4 cm or >50% of placental length). The first trimester of pregnancy measurement of PAPP-A will be more predictable for healthy placenta. PMID:27525326

  14. Validated method for the determination of perfluorinated compounds in placental tissue samples based on a simple extraction procedure followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Martín, J; Rodríguez-Gómez, R; Zafra-Gómez, A; Alonso, E; Vílchez, J L; Navalón, A

    2016-04-01

    Xenobiotic exposure during pregnancy is inevitable. Determination of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), chemicals described as environmental contaminants by Public Health Authorities due to their persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity, is a challenge. In the present work, a method based on a simplified sample treatment involving freeze-drying, solvent extraction and dispersive clean-up of the extracts using C18 sorbents followed by an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis was developed and validated for the determination of five perfluorinated carboxylic acids (C4-C8) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in placental tissue samples. The most influential parameters affecting the extraction method and clean-up were optimized using Design of Experiments (DOE). The method was validated using matrix-matched calibration. Found limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.03 to 2 ng g(-1) and limits of quantification (LOQs) from 0.08 to 6 ng g(-1), while inter- and intra-day variability was under 14% in all cases. Recovery rates for spiked samples ranged from 94% to 113%. The method was satisfactorily applied for the determination of compounds in human placental tissue samples collected at delivery from 25 randomly selected women. PMID:26838396

  15. [Morphological variability and placental function].

    PubMed

    Malassiné, A

    2001-01-01

    In mammals, the blastocyst defines with the maternal organism, a structure which allows embryonic development during gestation: the placenta. The structure of this organ varies remarkably across species. In this review the different type of placentation have been described in a comparative manner using terms of classification such as: placental materno-fetal interdigitation, matemofetal blood flow interrelationships, layers of the placental interhemal barrier, trophoblast invasiveness and decidual cell reaction, formation of syncytiotrophoblast. The human hemomonochorial placenta is characterized by a strong decidualization of the uterus and a major invasiveness of the extravillous trophoblast. Furthermore, there is a spectrum of placental endocrine activities across species. In some mammals (e.g., mouse and rat) the placenta eclipses the pituitary in the maintenance of ovarian function. In the human and in the sheep, horse, cat and guinea pig, the placenta acquires the ability to substitute for the ovaries in the maintenance of gestation at various time during pregnancy. The human placenta is characterized by a high rate of steroïdogenesis (progesterone and estrogens) and by the production of a primate specific trophoblastic hormone: human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Recently, it was demonstrated that mutation of many genes in mice results in embryonic mortality or fetal growth restriction, due to defects in placental development. Furthermore, distinct molecular pathways regulate the differentiation of various trophoblast cell subtype of the mouse placenta. An important question is whether or not placental differentiation in other mammals is regulated by the same molecular mechanisms. Due to the striking diversity in placental structure, endocrine function and gene expression, caution must be exercised in extrapolating findings regarding placental function and development from one species to another. PMID:11575143

  16. Method and apparatus for removing ions from soil

    DOEpatents

    Bibler, J.P.

    1993-03-02

    A method and apparatus are presented for selectively removing species of ions from an area of soil. Permeable membranes 14 and 18 impregnated with an ion exchange resin that is specific to one or more species of chemical ions are inserted into ground 12 in close proximity to, and on opposing sides of, a soil area of interest 22. An electric potential is applied across electrodes 26 and 28 to cause the migration of ions out of soil area 22 toward the membranes 14 and 18. Preferably, the resin exchanges ions of sodium or hydrogen for ions of mercury that it captures from soil area 22. Once membranes 14 and 18 become substantially saturated with mercury ions, the potential applied across electrodes 26 and 28 is discontinued and membranes 14 and 18 are preferably removed from soil 12 for storage or recovery of the ions. The membranes are also preferably impregnated with a buffer to inhibit the effect of the hydrolysis of water by current from the electrodes.

  17. Method and apparatus for removing ions from soil

    DOEpatents

    Bibler, Jane P.

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for selectively removing species of ions from an area of soil. Permeable membranes 14 and 18 impregnated with an ion exchange resin that is specific to one or more species of chemical ions are inserted into ground 12 in close proximity to, and on opposing sides of, a soil area of interest 22. An electric potential is applied across electrodes 26 and 28 to cause the migration of ions out of soil area 22 toward the membranes 14 and 18. Preferably, the resin exchanges ions of sodium or hydrogen for ions of mercury that it captures from soil area 22. Once membranes 14 and 18 become substantially saturated with mercury ions, the potential applied across electrodes 26 and 28 is discontinued and membranes 14 and 18 are preferably removed from soil 12 for storage or recovery of the ions. The membranes are also preferably impregnated with a buffer to inhibit the effect of the hydrolysis of water by current from the electrodes.

  18. New method for removing type 2 copper from Rhus laccase.

    PubMed

    Klemens, A S; McMillin, D R

    1990-02-01

    A new procedure is described for preparing tree laccase that is missing the type 2 copper. The derivative has only about 5% of the activity of the native enzyme, and some, or all, of the residual activity could be due to traces of holoprotein. The type 1 copper is fully oxidized in the purified type-2-depleted protein, while the type 3 site is reduced to the extent of at least 85%. However, the type 3 coppers can be reoxidized by treatment with excess H2O2. Reconstitution is achieved by incubation with Cu(I), and the remetalated protein exhibits the activity and the spectral properties of the native enzyme. The type 2 copper is removed by dialysis against a redox buffer containing ferri- and ferrocyanide ions as well as EDTA. More than 25% of the total copper is removed from laccase during the procedure, but the type-2-depleted fraction is readily isolated by means of an ion-exchange column. The practical advantages of this procedure are described. Finally, the simplicity of the method raises hopes that the mechanism of depletion can be defined. PMID:2324732

  19. Placental Growth Factor Administration Abolishes Placental Ischemia-Induced Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Spradley, Frank T; Tan, Adelene Y; Joo, Woo S; Daniels, Garrett; Kussie, Paul; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Granger, Joey P

    2016-04-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder of new-onset hypertension. Unfortunately, the most effective treatment is early delivery of the fetus and placenta. Placental ischemia appears central to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia because placental ischemia/hypoxia induced in animals by reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) or in humans stimulates release of hypertensive placental factors into the maternal circulation. The anti-angiogenic factor soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), which antagonizes and reduces bioavailable vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor (PlGF), is elevated in RUPP rats and preeclampsia. Although PlGF and vascular endothelial growth factor are both natural ligands for sFlt-1, vascular endothelial growth factor also has high affinity to VEGFR2 (Flk-1) causing side effects like edema. PlGF is specific for sFlt-1. We tested the hypothesis that PlGF treatment reduces placental ischemia-induced hypertension by antagonizing sFlt-1 without adverse consequences to the mother or fetus. On gestational day 14, rats were randomized to 4 groups: normal pregnant or RUPP±infusion of recombinant human PlGF (180 μg/kg per day; AG31, a purified, recombinant human form of PlGF) for 5 days via intraperitoneal osmotic minipumps. On day 19, mean arterial blood pressure and plasma sFlt-1 were higher and glomerular filtration rate lower in RUPP than normal pregnant rats. Infusion of recombinant human PlGF abolished these changes seen with RUPP along with reducing oxidative stress. These data indicate that the increased sFlt-1 and reduced PlGF resulting from placental ischemia contribute to maternal hypertension. Our novel finding that recombinant human PlGF abolishes placental ischemia-induced hypertension, without major adverse consequences, suggests a strong therapeutic potential for this growth factor in preeclampsia. PMID:26831193

  20. Prediction of fetal acidemia in placental abruption

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To determine the major predictive factors for fetal acidemia in placental abruption. Methods A retrospective review of pregnancies with placental abruption was performed using a logistic regression model. Fetal acidemia was defined as a pH of less than 7.0 in umbilical artery. The severe abruption score, which was derived from a linear discriminant function, was calculated to determine the probability of fetal acidemia. Results Fetal acidemia was seen in 43 survivors (43/222, 19%). A logistic regression model showed bradycardia (OR (odds ratio) 50.34, 95% CI 11.07 – 228.93), and late decelerations (OR 15.13, 3.05 – 74.97), but not abnormal ultrasonographic findings were to be associated with the occurrence of fetal acidemia. The severe abruption score was calculated for the occurrence of fetal acidemia, using 6 items including vaginal bleeding, gestational age, abdominal pain, abnormal ultrasonographic finding, late decelerations, and bradycardia. Conclusions An abnormal FHR pattern, especially bradycardia is the most significant risk factor in placental abruption predicting fetal acidemia, regardless of the presence of abnormal ultrasonographic findings or gestational age. PMID:23915223

  1. Method of removing and detoxifying a phosphorus-based substance

    DOEpatents

    Vandegrift, George F.; Steindler, Martin J.

    1989-01-01

    A method of removing organic phosphorus-based poisonous substances from water contaminated therewith and of subsequently destroying the toxicity of the substance is disclosed. Initially, a water-immiscible organic is immobilized on a supported liquid membrane. Thereafter, the contaminated water is contacted with one side of the supported liquid membrane to selectively dissolve the phosphorus-based substance in the organic extractant. At the same time, the other side of the supported liquid membrane is contacted with a hydroxy-affording strong base to react the phosphorus-based substance dissolved by the organic extractant with a hydroxy ion. This forms a non-toxic reaction product in the base. The organic extractant can be a water-insoluble trialkyl amine, such as trilauryl amine. The phosphorus-based substance can be phosphoryl or a thiophosphoryl.

  2. Contaminant remediation, biodegradation and removal methods and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Billings, J.F.; Billings, G.K.

    1994-01-11

    Methods and apparatuses for removing contaminants are described. A plurality of injection wells are drilled through the vadose zone to a depth below the water table defining the upper boundary of the aquifer. A plurality of venting wells or venting laterals are established to a depth above the water table sufficient to discourage fouling by contaminated water or condensate, and oxygenated gas is injected under pressure through the injection wells. Additional biochemical cleansing may occur at ground level prior to venting of contaminated air. Microbes natural to the contaminated site may be extracted, analyzed, fermented, and reintroduced to enhance biodegradation, and nutrients, food, or both, may be supplied to the microbial population to sustain high levels of degradation activity. Relatively pure liquid contaminant may be separated from other fluids, such as water. 8 figs.

  3. Method of removing and detoxifying a phosphorus-based substance

    SciTech Connect

    Vandegrift, G.F.; Steindler, M.J.

    1989-07-25

    A method of removing organic phosphorus-based poisonous substances from water contaminated therewith and of subsequently destroying the toxicity of the substances is disclosed. Initially, a water-immiscible organic is immobilized on a supported liquid membrane. Thereafter, the contaminated water is contacted with one side of the supported liquid membrane to selectively dissolve the phosphorus-based substance in the organic extractant. At the same time, the other side of the supported liquid membrane is contacted with a hydroxy-affording strong base to react the phosphorus-based substance dissolved by the organic extractant with a hydroxy ion. This forms a non-toxic reaction product in the base. The organic extractant can be a water-insoluble trialkyl amine, such as trilauryl amine. The phosphorus-based substance can be phosphoryl or a thiophosphoryl.

  4. Method for removing cesium from a nuclear reactor coolant

    DOEpatents

    Colburn, R.P.

    1983-08-10

    A method of and system for removing cesium from a liquid metal reactor coolant including a carbon packing trap in the primary coolant system for absorbing a major portion of the radioactive cesium from the coolant flowing therethrough at a reduced temperature. A regeneration subloop system having a secondary carbon packing trap is selectively connected to the primary system for isolating the main trap therefrom and connecting it to the regeneration system. Increasing the temperature of the sodium flowing through the primary trap diffuses a portion of the cesium inventory thereof further into the carbon matrix while simultaneously redispersing a portion into the regeneration system for absorption at a reduced temperature by the secondary trap.

  5. [Treatment of endometriosis with removing blood stasis and purgation method].

    PubMed

    Wang, D Z; Wang, Z Q; Zhang, Z F

    1991-09-01

    According to the method of differentiation of symptom complexes of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), endometriosis is a disease of blood stasis and mass in the lower portion of abdomen. 76 cases were treated by TCM prescription named endometriotic pill No 1 with rhubarb as the main ingredient. The chief functions of the rhubarb were removing blood stasis, disintegrating mass and purgation. The total effective rate was 80.26%. Among them, the effective rate of dysmenorrhea was 88.89%, that of pelvic pain was 66.72%, that of intercourse pain 72.12%, and diminishing in size of mass or nodule 22.15%; 3 cases of 22 infertility got pregnant (13.63%). The results revealed that the endometriotic pill No 1 yielded distinct improvement in the treatment of endometriosis, including clinical symptoms and signs, laboratory assay of blood rheology, serum Ig, subgroup of T lymphocyte (OKT system) and PG. PMID:1773464

  6. Use of Placental Membranes for the Treatment of Chronic Diabetic Foot Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Brantley, Jonathan N.; Verla, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Chronic diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) remain a challenge for physicians to treat. High mortality rates for DFU patients have pointed to the low effectiveness of standard care and lack of quality wound care products. The composition (collagen-rich tissue matrix and endogenous growth factors and cells) and functional properties (anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and angiogenic) of placental membranes are uniquely suited to address the needs of chronic wounds. This led to the commercialization of placental membranes, which are now widely available to physicians as a new advanced wound treatment option. Recent Advances: Progress in tissue processing and preservation methods has facilitated the development of placental products for wounds. Currently, a variety of commercial placental products are available to physicians for the treatment of chronic DFUs and other wounds. This review summarizes the key factors that negatively impact DFU healing (including social factors, such as smoking, vascular deficiencies, hyperglycemia, and other metabolic abnormalities), describes the structure and biology of placental membranes, and overviews commercially available placental products for wounds and data from the most recent DFU clinical trials utilizing commercial placental membranes. Critical Issues: Although the effects of diabetes on wound healing are complex and not fully understood, some of the key factors and pathways that interfere with healing have been identified. However, a multidisciplinary approach for the assessment of patients with chronic DFUs and guidelines for selection of appropriate treatment modalities remain to be implemented. Future Directions: The biological properties of placental membranes show benefits for the treatment of chronic DFUs, but scientific and clinical data for commercially available placental products are limited. Therefore, we need (1) more randomized, controlled clinical trials for commercial placental products; (2) studies

  7. Methods of Boron-carbon Deposited Film Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airapetov, A.; Terentiev, V.; Voituk, A.; Zakharov, A.

    Boron carbide was proposed as a material for in-situ renewable protecting coating for tungsten tiles of the ITER divertor. It is necessary to develop a method of gasification of boron-carbon film which deposits during B4C sputtering. In this paper the results of the first stage investigation of gasification methods of boron-carbon films are presented. Two gasification methods of films are investigated: interaction with the ozone-oxygen mixture and irradiation in plasma with the working gas composed of oxygen, ethanol, and, in some cases, helium. The gasification rate in the ozone-oxygen mixture at 250 °C for B/C films with different B/C ratio and carbon fiber composite (CFC), was measured. For B/C films the gasification rate decreased with increasing B/C ratio (from 45 nm/h at B/C=0.7 to 4 nm/h at B/C=2.1; for CFC - 15 μm/h). Films gasification rates were measured under ion irradiation from ethanol-oxygen-helium plasma at different temperatures, with different ion energies and different gas mixtures. The maximum obtained removal rate was near 230 nm/h in case of ethanol-oxygen plasma and at 150°C of the sample temperature.

  8. Biofiltration methods for the removal of phenolic residues.

    PubMed

    Neves, Luiz Carlos Martins Das; Miyamura, Tábata Taemi Miazaki Ohara; Moraes, Dante Augusto; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni; Converti, Attilio

    2006-01-01

    Industrial effluents from the pharmaceutical industry often contain high concentrations of phenolic compounds. The presence of "anthropogenic" organic compounds in the environment is a serious problem for human health; therefore, it merits special attention by the competent public agencies. Different methods have been proposed in the last two decades for the treatment of this kind of industrial residues, the most important of which are those utilizing absorption columns, vaporization and extraction, and biotechnological methods. Biofiltration is a method for the removal of contaminants present in liquid or gaseous effluents by the use of aerobic microorganisms, which are immobilized on solid or porous supports. Although several bacteria can utilize aromatic compounds as carbon and energy source, only a few of them are able to make this biodegradation effectively and with satisfactory rate. For this reason, more investigation is needed to ensure an efficient control of process parameters as well as to select the suited reactor configuration. The aim of this work is to provide an overview on the main aspects of biofiltration for the treatment of different industrial effluents, with particular concern to those coming from pharmaceutical industry and laboratories for the production of galenicals. PMID:16915636

  9. Relationship between Plasma D-Dimer Concentration and Three-Dimensional Ultrasound Placental Volume in Women at Risk for Placental Vascular Diseases: A Monocentric Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Fanget, Cécile; Chauleur, Céline; Stadler, Amandine; Presles, Emilie; Varlet, Marie-Noëlle; Gris, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to correlate placental volumes deduced from three-dimensional ultrasound and virtual organ computer-aided analysis (VOCAL) software with systemic concentrations of D-dimer and soluble endothelial protein C receptor (sEPCR). Methods This was a monocentric experimental prospective study conducted from October 2008 to July 2009. Forty consecutive patients at risk of placental vascular pathology (PVP) recurrence or occurrence were included. Placental volumes were systematically measured three times (11–14, 16–18 and 20–22 weeks of gestation (WG)) by two independent sonographers. D-dimers and sEPCR plasma concentrations were measured using ELISA kits (Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay). Results Eleven patients had a PVP. The plasma D-dimer level was positively correlated with placental volume (r = 0.45, p < 0.001). A smaller placental volume and placental quotient was evidenced in women who developed a PVP at the three gestational ages, and the difference was more pronounced during the third exam (20 WG). No obvious correlation could be demonstrated between the development of a PVP and the levels of D-dimer and sEPCR. There was no significant difference in the values of placental volumes measured by the two sonographers. Conclusion The placenta growth could be a major determinant of the elevation of D-dimer during pregnancy. Consideration of placental volume could allow for modulation of the D-dimer concentrations for restoring their clinical interest. PMID:27294274

  10. Rapid tooling method for soft customized removable oral appliances.

    PubMed

    Salmi, Mika; Tuomi, Jukka; Sirkkanen, Rauno; Ingman, Tuula; Mäkitie, Antti

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally oral appliances i.e. removable orthodontic appliances, bite splints and snoring / sleep apnea appliances are made with alginate impressions and wax registrations. Our aim was to describe the process of manufacturing customized oral appliances with a new technique i.e. rapid tooling method. The appliance should ideally be custom made to match the teeth. An orthodontic patient, scheduled for conventional orthodontic treatment, served as a study subject. After a precise clinical and radiographic examination, the approach was to digitize the patient's dental arches and then to correct them virtually by computer. Additive manufacturing was then used to fabricate a mould for a soft customized appliance. The mould was manufactured using stereolithography from Somos ProtoGen O-XT 18420 material. Casting material for the mould to obtain the final appliance was silicone. As a result we managed to create a customized soft orthodontic appliance. Also, the accuracy of the method was found to be adequate. Two versions of the described device were manufactured: one with small and one with moderate orthodontic force. The study person also gave information on the subjective patient adaptation aspects of the oral appliance. PMID:22615719

  11. Rapid Tooling Method for Soft Customized Removable Oral Appliances

    PubMed Central

    Salmi, Mika; Tuomi, Jukka; Sirkkanen, Rauno; Ingman, Tuula; Mäkitie, Antti

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally oral appliances i.e. removable orthodontic appliances, bite splints and snoring / sleep apnea appliances are made with alginate impressions and wax registrations. Our aim was to describe the process of manufacturing customized oral appliances with a new technique i.e. rapid tooling method. The appliance should ideally be custom made to match the teeth. An orthodontic patient, scheduled for conventional orthodontic treatment, served as a study subject. After a precise clinical and radiographic examination, the approach was to digitize the patient’s dental arches and then to correct them virtually by computer. Additive manufacturing was then used to fabricate a mould for a soft customized appliance. The mould was manufactured using stereolithography from Somos ProtoGen O-XT 18420 material. Casting material for the mould to obtain the final appliance was silicone. As a result we managed to create a customized soft orthodontic appliance. Also, the accuracy of the method was found to be adequate. Two versions of the described device were manufactured: one with small and one with moderate orthodontic force. The study person also gave information on the subjective patient adaptation aspects of the oral appliance. PMID:22615719

  12. Method for removing tilt control in adaptive optics systems

    DOEpatents

    Salmon, J.T.

    1998-04-28

    A new adaptive optics system and method of operation are disclosed, whereby the method removes tilt control, and includes the steps of using a steering mirror to steer a wavefront in the desired direction, for aiming an impinging aberrated light beam in the direction of a deformable mirror. The deformable mirror has its surface deformed selectively by means of a plurality of actuators, and compensates, at least partially, for existing aberrations in the light beam. The light beam is split into an output beam and a sample beam, and the sample beam is sampled using a wavefront sensor. The sampled signals are converted into corresponding electrical signals for driving a controller, which, in turn, drives the deformable mirror in a feedback loop in response to the sampled signals, for compensating for aberrations in the wavefront. To this purpose, a displacement error (gradient) of the wavefront is measured, and adjusted by a modified gain matrix, which satisfies the following equation: G{prime} = (I{minus}X(X{sup T} X){sup {minus}1}X{sup T})G(I{minus}A). 3 figs.

  13. Method for removing tilt control in adaptive optics systems

    DOEpatents

    Salmon, Joseph Thaddeus

    1998-01-01

    A new adaptive optics system and method of operation, whereby the method removes tilt control, and includes the steps of using a steering mirror to steer a wavefront in the desired direction, for aiming an impinging aberrated light beam in the direction of a deformable mirror. The deformable mirror has its surface deformed selectively by means of a plurality of actuators, and compensates, at least partially, for existing aberrations in the light beam. The light beam is split into an output beam and a sample beam, and the sample beam is sampled using a wavefront sensor. The sampled signals are converted into corresponding electrical signals for driving a controller, which, in turn, drives the deformable mirror in a feedback loop in response to the sampled signals, for compensating for aberrations in the wavefront. To this purpose, a displacement error (gradient) of the wavefront is measured, and adjusted by a modified gain matrix, which satisfies the following equation: G'=(I-X(X.sup.T X).sup.-1 X.sup.T)G(I-A)

  14. Modeling BOD removal in constructed wetlands with mixing cell method

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.; Wang, G.T.; Xue, S.K.

    1999-01-01

    A new concept, transport detention time, is proposed in this paper to describe solute-transport processes. Using this concept, a new mathematical model was developed to describe biochemical oxygen demand removal in constructed wetlands. By treating a constructed wetland as a series of continuous stir tank reactors, an nth-order ordinary differential equation was derived based on the principle of mass balance and convective-dispersive equation and by introducing transfer function and Laplace transform. The number of continuous stir tank reactors of a particular wetland was determined by the parameters, such as dispersion coefficient and flow velocity, occurring in the wetland. Two examples were presented to illustrate the applications of the model. Moment method and a combination of moment and optimization methods were used to estimate the model parameters from tracer experiment data. A comparison between the model presented in this paper and the currently used plug-flow-constructed wetland model indicated that the former was more accurate. Additionally, this model can be applied to transient conditions, is theoretically sound, and represents a theoretical advance in constructed wetland research.

  15. Method for removing chlorine compounds from hydrocarbon mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Janoski, E.J.; Hollstein, E.J.

    1984-09-29

    A process for removing halide ions from a hydrocarbon feedstream containing halogenated hydrocarbons wherein the contaminated feedstock is contacted with a solution of a suitable oxidizing acid containing a lanthanide oxide, the acid being present in a concentration of at least about 50 weight percent for a time sufficient to remove substantially all of the halide ion from the hydrocarbon feedstock.

  16. Method for removing chlorine compounds from hydrocarbon mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Janoski, Edward J.; Hollstein, Elmer J.

    1985-12-31

    A process for removing halide ions from a hydrocarbon feedstream containing halogenated hydrocarbons wherein the contaminated feedstock is contacted with a solution of a suitable oxidizing acid containing a lanthanide oxide, the acid being present in a concentration of at least about 50 weight percent for a time sufficient to remove substantially all of the halide ion from the hydrocarbon feedstock.

  17. Continuous cryopump with a method for removal of solidified gases

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Larry W.; Herman, Harold

    1989-01-01

    An improved cryopump for the removal of gases from a high vacuum, comprising a cryopanel incorporating honeycomb structure, refrigerant means thermally connected to the cryopanel, and a rotatable channel moving azimuthally around an axis located near the center of the cryopanel, removing gases absorbed within the honeycomb structure by subliming them and conducting them outside the vacuum vessel.

  18. Continuous cryopump with a method for removal of solidified gases

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.; Herman, H.

    1988-05-05

    An improved cryopump for the removal of gases from a high vacuum, comprising a cryopanel incorporating honeycomb structure, refrigerant means thermally connected to the cryopanel, and a rotatable channel moving azimuthally around an axis located near the center of the cryopanel, removing gases adsorbed within the honeycomb structure by subliming them and conducting them outside the vacuum vessel. 4 figs.

  19. Programming placental nutrient transport capacity

    PubMed Central

    Fowden, A L; Ward, J W; Wooding, F P B; Forhead, A J; Constancia, M

    2006-01-01

    Many animal studies and human epidemiological findings have shown that impaired growth in utero is associated with physiological abnormalities in later life and have linked this to tissue programming during suboptimal intrauterine conditions at critical periods of development. However, few of these studies have considered the contribution of the placenta to the ensuing adult phenotype. In mammals, the major determinant of intrauterine growth is the placental nutrient supply, which, in turn, depends on the size, morphology, blood supply and transporter abundance of the placenta and on synthesis and metabolism of nutrients and hormones by the uteroplacental tissues. This review examines the regulation of placental nutrient transfer capacity and the potential programming effects of nutrition and glucocorticoid over-exposure on placental phenotype with particular emphasis on the role of the Igf2 gene in these processes. PMID:16439433

  20. Sonographic spectrum of placental abruption.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, D A; Cyr, D R; Mack, L A; Wilson, D A; Shuman, W P

    1987-01-01

    Fifty-seven cases of placental abruption detected by sonography were retrospectively reviewed. The location of hemorrhage was subchorionic in 46 cases (81%), retroplacental in nine cases (16%), and preplacental in two cases (4%). Subchorionic hematomas were more frequently shown in the 33 patients presenting before 20 menstrual weeks (91%) than in the 24 patients presenting after 20 weeks (67%). The echogenicity of hemorrhage depended on the time the sonogram was performed relative to the onset of symptoms: Acute hemorrhage was hyperechoic to isoechoic compared with the placenta, while resolving hematomas became hypoechoic within 1 week and sonolucent within 2 weeks. Acute hemorrhage was occasionally difficult to distinguish from the adjacent placenta. This occurred in five retroplacental hematomas that showed only an abnormally thick and heterogeneous placenta. Nine cases of placental abruption were initially confused with other mass lesions. Placental abruption causes a wide spectrum of sonographic findings that may be overlooked or misdiagnosed. PMID:3538831

  1. [Chronic placental insufficiency: incidence and causes].

    PubMed

    Fedorova, M V; Mariasheva, N V; Alekseevskiĭ, A V; Kotov, Iu B; Lukashenko, S Iu

    1990-08-01

    This population study has examined the incidence and determinants of placental insufficiency. Predictors of placental dysfunction were ascertained. They included somatic diseases, gestational complications, a positive obstetric and gynecologic history and a series of constitutional factors. Populations of primiparae+- and multigravidae at risk of placental insufficiency were identified. PMID:2260740

  2. Human Temporal Bone Removal: The Skull Base Block Method.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Christine; Szczupak, Mikhaylo; Moon, Seo; Angeli, Simon; Eshraghi, Adrien; Telischi, Fred F

    2015-08-01

    Objectives To describe a technique for harvesting larger temporal bone specimens from human cadavers for the training of otolaryngology residents and fellows on the various approaches to the lateral and posterolateral skull base. Design Human cadaveric anatomical study. The calvarium was excised 6 cm above the superior aspect of the ear canal. The brain and cerebellum were carefully removed, and the cranial nerves were cut sharply. Two bony cuts were performed, one in the midsagittal plane and the other in the coronal plane at the level of the optic foramen. Setting Medical school anatomy laboratory. Participants Human cadavers. Main Outcome Measures Anatomical contents of specimens and technical effort required. Results Larger temporal bone specimens containing portions of the parietal, occipital, and sphenoidal bones were consistently obtained using this technique of two bone cuts. All specimens were inspected and contained pertinent surface and skull base landmarks. Conclusions The skull base block method allows for larger temporal bone specimens using a two bone cut technique that is efficient and reproducible. These specimens have the necessary anatomical bony landmarks for studying the complexity, utility, and limitations of lateral and posterolateral approaches to the skull base, important for the education of otolaryngology residents and fellows. PMID:26225316

  3. Solid materials for removing metals and fabrication method

    DOEpatents

    Coronado, Paul R.; Reynolds, John G.; Coleman, Sabre J.

    2004-10-19

    Solid materials have been developed to remove contaminating metals and organic compounds from aqueous media. The contaminants are removed by passing the aqueous phase through the solid materials which can be in molded, granular, or powder form. The solid materials adsorb the metals and the organics leaving a purified aqueous stream. The materials are sol-gel and or sol-gel and granulated activated carbon (GAC) mixtures. The species-specific adsorption occurs through specific chemical modifications of the solids tailored towards the contaminant(s). The contaminated solid materials can then be disposed of or the contaminant can be removed and the solids recycled.

  4. Method to Remove Uranium/Vanadium Contamination from Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Metzler, Donald R.; Morrison Stanley

    2004-07-27

    A process for removing uranium/vanadium-based contaminants from groundwater using a primary in-ground treatment media and a pretreatment media that chemically adjusts the groundwater contaminant to provide for optimum treatment by the primary treatment media.

  5. Method to remove uranium/vanadium contamination from groundwater

    DOEpatents

    Metzler, Donald R.; Morrison, Stanley

    2004-07-27

    A process for removing uranium/vanadium-based contaminants from groundwater using a primary in-ground treatment media and a pretreatment media that chemically adjusts the groundwater contaminant to provide for optimum treatment by the primary treatment media.

  6. Histopathological placental lesions in mild gestational hyperglycemic and diabetic women

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate and compare the incidence of histopathological placental lesions in mild gestational hyperglycemia, gestational diabetes and overt diabetes at term and preterm gestation. Research design and methods One-hundred-and-thirty-one placental samples were collected from Diabetes mellitus (DM) positive screened patients. Two diagnostic tests, glycemic profile and 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in parallel identified 4 groups normoglycemic, mild gestational hyperglycemia (MGH), gestational DM (GDM) or overt DM (DM). Placental tissue specimens and sections from 4 groups were obtained by uniform random sampling and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Results Placentas from MGH group presented 17 types of histopathological change and higher rates of syncytial nodes and endarteritis. GDM placentas presented only nine types of histopathological change, high rates of dysmaturity, low rates of calcification and no syncytial nodes. Overt DM placentas showed 22 types of histopathological change, 21 of which were present in the preterm period. There were histopathological similarities between MGH and DM placentas, but the former exhibited a higher incidence of endarteritis, which has been described as a "post-mortem" phenomenon. Conclusion Our results confirmed that the distinct placental changes associated with DM and MGH depend on gestational period during which the diabetic insult occurs. It may reasonably be inferred that subclinical maternal hyperglycemia during pregnancy, as showed in MGH group, is responsible for increased placental endarteritis, a postmortem lesion in the live fetus. PMID:21831283

  7. Heterogeneous models place the root of the placental mammal phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Claire C; Foster, Peter G; Webb, Andrew E; Pisani, Davide; McInerney, James O; O'Connell, Mary J

    2013-09-01

    Heterogeneity among life traits in mammals has resulted in considerable phylogenetic conflict, particularly concerning the position of the placental root. Layered upon this are gene- and lineage-specific variation in amino acid substitution rates and compositional biases. Life trait variations that may impact upon mutational rates are longevity, metabolic rate, body size, and germ line generation time. Over the past 12 years, three main conflicting hypotheses have emerged for the placement of the placental root. These hypotheses place the Atlantogenata (common ancestor of Xenarthra plus Afrotheria), the Afrotheria, or the Xenarthra as the sister group to all other placental mammals. Model adequacy is critical for accurate tree reconstruction and by failing to account for these compositional and character exchange heterogeneities across the tree and data set, previous studies have not provided a strongly supported hypothesis for the placental root. For the first time, models that accommodate both tree and data set heterogeneity have been applied to mammal data. Here, we show the impact of accurate model assignment and the importance of data sets in accommodating model parameters while maintaining the power to reject competing hypotheses. Through these sophisticated methods, we demonstrate the importance of model adequacy, data set power and provide strong support for the Atlantogenata over other competing hypotheses for the position of the placental root. PMID:23813979

  8. Solid materials for removing arsenic and method thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Coronado, Paul R.; Coleman, Sabre J.; Sanner, Robert D.; Dias, Victoria L.; Reynolds, John G.

    2010-09-28

    Solid materials have been developed to remove arsenic compounds from aqueous media. The arsenic is removed by passing the aqueous phase through the solid materials which can be in molded, granular, or powder form. The solid materials adsorb the arsenic leaving a purified aqueous stream. The materials are aerogels or xerogels and aerogels or xerogels and solid support structure, e.g., granulated activated carbon (GAC), mixtures. The species-specific adsorption occurs through specific chemical modifications of the solids tailored towards arsenic.

  9. Solid materials for removing arsenic and method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Coronado, Paul R.; Coleman, Sabre J.; Sanner, Robert D.; Dias, Victoria L.; Reynolds, John G.

    2008-07-01

    Solid materials have been developed to remove arsenic compounds from aqueous media. The arsenic is removed by passing the aqueous phase through the solid materials which can be in molded, granular, or powder form. The solid materials adsorb the arsenic leaving a purified aqueous stream. The materials are aerogels or xerogels and aerogels or xerogels and solid support structure, e.g., granulated activated carbon (GAC), mixtures. The species-specific adsorption occurs through specific chemical modifications of the solids tailored towards arsenic.

  10. Placental Pathology, Perinatal Death, Neonatal Outcome, and Neurological Development: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Roescher, Annemiek M.; Timmer, Albert; Erwich, Jan Jaap H. M.; Bos, Arend F.

    2014-01-01

    Background The placenta plays a crucial role during pregnancy for growth and development of the fetus. Less than optimal placental performance may result in morbidity or even mortality of both mother and fetus. Awareness among pediatricians, however, of the benefit of placental findings for neonatal care, is limited. Objectives To provide a systematic overview of the relation between placental lesions and neonatal outcome. Data sources Pubmed database, reference lists of selected publications and important research groups in the field. Study appraisal and synthesis methods We systematically searched the Pubmed database for literature on the relation between placental lesions and fetal and neonatal mortality, neonatal morbidity and neurological outcome. We conducted three separate searches starting with a search for placental pathology and fetal and neonatal mortality, followed by placental pathology and neonatal morbidity, and finally placental pathology and neurological development. We limited our search to full-text articles published in English from January 1995 to October 2013. We refined our search results by selecting the appropriate articles from the ones found during the initial searches. The first selection was based on the title, the second on the abstract, and the third on the full article. The quality of the selected articles was determined by using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. Results Placental lesions are one of the main causes of fetal death, where placental lesions consistent with maternal vascular underperfusion are most important. Several neonatal problems are also associated with placental lesions, whereby ascending intrauterine infection (with a fetal component) and fetal thrombotic vasculopathy constitute the greatest problem. Conclusions The placenta plays a key role in fetal and neonatal mortality, morbidity, and outcome. Pediatricians should make an effort to obtain the results of placental examinations. PMID:24586764

  11. Human placental coated vesicles contain receptor-bound transferrin.

    PubMed Central

    Booth, A G; Wilson, M J

    1981-01-01

    Human placental coated vesicles have been purified by a method involving sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation and treatment with wheat-germ agglutinin. These preparations were free of contamination by placental microvillus fragments. Crossed immunoelectrophoresis demonstrated that the coated vesicles contained a single serum protein, which was identified as transferrin. This transferrin was only observed after the vesicles were treated with a non-ionic detergent, and its behaviour during crossed hydrophobic-interaction immunoelectrophoresis suggested that a large proportion of it was receptor-bound. No other serum proteins, including immunoglobulin G, could be detected in these preparations. Receptor-bound transferrin was the only antigen common to placental coated vesicles and microvilli, implying that other plasma-membrane proteins are excluded from the region of membrane involved in coated-vesicle formation. Images PLATE 2 PLATE 1 Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:6272755

  12. Method for removing undesired particles from gas streams

    DOEpatents

    Durham, Michael Dean; Schlager, Richard John; Ebner, Timothy George; Stewart, Robin Michele; Hyatt, David E.; Bustard, Cynthia Jean; Sjostrom, Sharon

    1998-01-01

    The present invention discloses a process for removing undesired particles from a gas stream including the steps of contacting a composition containing an adhesive with the gas stream; collecting the undesired particles and adhesive on a collection surface to form an aggregate comprising the adhesive and undesired particles on the collection surface; and removing the agglomerate from the collection zone. The composition may then be atomized and injected into the gas stream. The composition may include a liquid that vaporizes in the gas stream. After the liquid vaporizes, adhesive particles are entrained in the gas stream. The process may be applied to electrostatic precipitators and filtration systems to improve undesired particle collection efficiency.

  13. Method for removal of furfural coke from metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.D.

    1990-02-27

    This patent describes a process for preparing furfural coke for removal from metallic surfaces. It comprises: heating ship furfural coke without causing an evolution of heat capable of undesirably altering metallurgical properties of the surfaces in the presence of a gas with a total pressure of less than 100 psig containing molecular oxygen. The gas being at a sufficient temperature below 800{degrees}F. (427{degrees}C.) for a sufficient time to change the crush strength of the coke so as to permit removal with a water jet at a pressure of about 5000 psi.

  14. A novel method to remove arsenic from water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Kyle J.

    Arsenic is a toxic metalloid that is found ubiquitously in earth's crust. The release of arsenic into the aqueous environment and the subsequent contamination in drinking water supplies is a worldwide health crisis. Arsenic is the culprit of the largest mass poisoning of a population in history and the number one contaminant of concern in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Priority List of Hazardous Substances. Practical, affordable, and reliable treatment technologies have yet to be developed due to the difficulty in overcoming many socioeconomic and geochemical barriers. Recent studies have reported that cupric oxide (CuO) nanoparticles have shown promising characteristics as a sorbent to remove arsenic from water. However, these studies were conducted in controlled environments and have yet to test the efficacy of this treatment technology in the field. In this manuscript, a flow through adsorption column containing CuO nanoparticles was developed for lab based studies to remove arsenic from water. These studies were expanded to include a field demonstration of the CuO nanoparticle flow through adsorption column to remove naturally occurring arsenic from groundwater associated with agriculture, domestic groundwater, and in situ recovery (ISR) uranium production process water. A major limitation for many treatment technologies is the difficulties presented in the disposal of waste byproducts such as sludge and spent media. In the research contained in this manuscript, we investigate the processes of regenerating the CuO nanoparticles using sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The use of the regenerated CuO nanoparticles was examined in batch experiments and implemented in the flow through column studies. The ability to regenerate and reuse a sorbent drastically reduces costs involved in manufacturing and disposal of spent media. Also, the CuO nanoparticles were evaluated in batch experiments for the removal of naturally

  15. 33 CFR 153.305 - Methods and procedures for the removal of discharged oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Methods and procedures for the removal of discharged oil. 153.305 Section 153.305 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION CONTROL OF POLLUTION BY OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES, DISCHARGE REMOVAL Removal of Discharged Oil...

  16. A novel software-based technique for quantifying placental calcifications and infarctions from ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, John T.; McAuliffe, Fionnuala; Higgins, Mary; Stanton, Marie; Brennan, Patrick

    2008-03-01

    In obstetrics, antenatal ultrasound assessment of placental morphology comprises an important part of the estimation of fetal health. Ultrasound analysis of the placenta may reveal abnormalities such as placental calcification and infarcts. Current methods of quantification of these abnormalities are subjective and involve a grading system of Grannum stages I-III. The aim of this project is to develop a software tool that quantifies semi-automatically placental ultrasound images and facilitates the assessment of placental morphology. We have developed a 2D ultrasound imaging software tool that allows the obstetrician or sonographer to define the placental region of interest. A secondary reference map is created for use in our quantification algorithm. Using a slider technique the user can easily define an upper threshold based on high intensity for calcification classification and a lower threshold to define infarction regions based on low intensity within the defined region of interest. The percentage of the placental area that is calcified and also the percentage of infarction is calculated and this is the basis of our new metric. Ultrasound images of abnormal and normal placentas have been acquired to aid our software development. A full clinical prospective evaluation is currently being performed and we are currently applying this technology to the three-dimensional ultrasound domain. We have developed a novel software-based technique for calculating the extent of placental calcification and infarction, providing a new metric in this field. Our new metric may provide a more accurate measurement of placental calcification and infarction than current techniques.

  17. DOSE EFFECT OF GESTATIONAL ETHANOL EXPOSURE ON PLACENTATION AND FETAL GROWTH

    PubMed Central

    Gundogan, Fusun; Gilligan, Jeffrey; Qi, Wei; Chen, Eva; Naram, Rita; de la Monte, Suzanne M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Prenatal ethanol exposure compromises fetal growth by impairing placentation. Invasive trophoblastic cells, which mediate placentation, express the insulin-IGF regulated gene, aspartyl-asparaginyl β-hydroxylase (ASPH), which has a critical role in cell motility and invasion. The aims of this study were to characterize effects of ethanol on trophoblastic cell motility, and assess ethanol dose -dependent impairments in placentation and fetal development. Methods Pregnant Long Evans dams were fed with isocaloric liquid diets containing 0%, 8%, 18% or 37% ethanol (caloric content) from gestation day (GD) 6 to GD18. Fetal development, placental morphology, density of invasive trophoblasts at the mesometrial triangle, as well as placental and mesometrial ASPH and Notch-1 protein expression were evaluated. Directional motility of control and ethanol-exposed HTR-8/SVneo cells was assessed by ATP Luminescence-Based assay. Results Severity of fetal growth impairment correlated with increasing doses of ethanol. Ethanol exposure produced dose-dependent alterations in branching morphogenesis at the labyrinthine zone, and inhibited physiological transformation of maternal arteries. ASPH and Notch-1 protein expression levels were reduced, corresponding with impairments in placentation. Discussion Prenatal ethanol exposure compromises fetal growth and placentation in a dose-responsive manner. Ethanol’s adverse effects on placental development are mediated by: 1) altered branching morphogenesis in labyrinthine zone; 2) suppression of invasive trophoblastic precursor cells; and 3) inhibition of trophoblastic cell adhesion and motility, corresponding with reduced ASPH and Notch-1 protein expression. PMID:25745824

  18. Correlation between First and Second Trimester Uterine Artery Doppler Velocimetry and Placental Bed Histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Akbaş, Murat; Şen, Cihat; Calay, Zerrin

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the relationship between uterine artery Doppler indices and placental bed histopathology independent of clinical outcome. Materials and Methods. Uterine artery measurements were performed to 510 pregnant women who had come for routine antenatal care in 11–14th and 20–24th weeks. Placental bed biopsies from 141 cases were taken during cesarean section. Physiological changes and abnormal placental histology findings were investigated and compared with Doppler findings. Results. 116 biopsies were accepted as adequate biopsy and included in the study. Physiological changes were seen in 100 biopsies. Statistically significant higher PI and RI values in second trimester and higher notch rate in both trimesters were detected in the abnormal placental histology group (P < 0,001). Conclusion. Strong relationship between uterine artery Doppler indices and preeclampsia or intrauterine growth retardation has been shown in previous studies. In our study, we concluded that there is significant relationship between Doppler findings and placental bed histopathology independent of clinical course.

  19. Method for removing particulate matter from a gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Postma, Arlin K.

    1984-01-01

    Particulate matter is removed from a stream of pressurized gas by directing the stream of gas upwardly through a bed of porous material, the porous bed being held in an open ended container and at least partially submerged in liquid. The passage of the gas through the porous bed sets up a circulation in the liquid which cleans the particulate matter from the bed.

  20. Method for removing surface-damaged layers from nickel alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fawley, R. W.

    1968-01-01

    Electrical discharge machining /EDM/ damaged layer can be effectively removed from Rene 41, Inconel 625, Inconel 718, and Monel K-500 by abrasive-grit blasting or electropolishing /at room temperature/ at a current density of 5A/inches squared in a water solution of phosphoric and sulfuric acids.

  1. Method of removing bulk sodium from metallic surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Maffei, H.P.; Borisch, R.R.

    1975-11-11

    A process of removing sodium from an article, particularly one made of stainless steel, by treating it with a mixture of water vapor and a gas which is inert to sodium is described. By selecting combinations of temperature and water vapor-to-gas ratio, the reaction temperature is controlled to prevent damage to the articles.

  2. Insertion of isolated insulin receptors into placental membrane vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, K; Carlsen, J

    1992-01-01

    Purified human insulin receptors were inserted into placental plasma-membrane vesicles by fusion of membranes with receptor-lysophosphatidylcholine micelles. Scatchard analysis of insulin binding showed that about 10-15% of the added receptors became inserted into the membrane. The receptor number could be increased about 3-fold, corresponding to approx. 5 pmol of receptor/mg of membrane protein. The receptors became firmly bound to the membrane, as they could not be removed by extensive wash. The insertion of exogenous receptors could be demonstrated by immunoblotting. The inserted insulin receptor had the same insulin-binding affinity as the isolated receptor and the endogenous receptor of the membrane. Insulin binding in the presence or absence of Triton X-100 revealed that more than 80% of the exogenous receptors had a right-side-out orientation. Function of the inserted receptors, as observed by insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation, could be demonstrated. About 80% of the added lysophospholipid, corresponding to approx. 160 nmol of lysophospholipid/mg of membrane protein, became integrated into the membrane and was partly metabolized to phospholipid and to non-esterified fatty acid. The method of insertion of isolated insulin receptors using the natural detergent, lysophospholipid, may be a method for insertion of receptors into intact cells, where the lysophospholipid, as in the plasma-membrane vesicles, will be acylated to phospholipid. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:1736892

  3. Racial disparity in placental pathology in the collaborative perinatal project

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Huang, Lisu; Zhang, Huijuan; Klebanoff, Mark; Yang, Zujing; Zhang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: There is substantial disparity in perinatal outcomes between white and African-American women, but the underlying biological mechanisms are poorly understood. The placenta is the principal metabolic, respiratory, excretory, and endocrine organ of the fetus. We studied the association between maternal race and types and severity of placental pathology. Methods: Using data from the U.S. Collaborative Perinatal Project (1959-1966), we studied 32,295 African-American and white women with singleton births. CPP pathologists conducted detailed placental examinations following a standard protocol with quality control procedures. Logistic regression modeling was used to test the association between race and placental pathology adjusting for potential confounders. Results: Compared to white women, African-American women had a higher risk of fetal neutrophilic infiltration (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-1.4), and 1.5-fold higher risk of low placental weight (95% CI, 1.3-1.7). However, various placental vascular lesions were significantly less common in African-American women, including infarcts and thrombosis in the cut surface, villous infarcts in the intervillous space, emergence of stromal fibrosis and Langerhans layer in the terminal villi, old hemorrhage in the maternal surface, thrombosis in the intervillous space, and calcification throughout the cut surface (aOR ranging from 0.5 to 0.8). Similar patterns were observed in pregnancies with pregnancy associated hypertension, small-for-gestational-age, and preterm birth. Conclusion: As compared with white women, African-American had higher prevalence of inflammatory lesions but lower prevalence of vascular lesions in placental pathology. PMID:26823843

  4. Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous–Tertiary boundary

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Mark S.; Murphy, William J.; Eizirik, Eduardo; O'Brien, Stephen J.

    2003-01-01

    Competing hypotheses for the timing of the placental mammal radiation focus on whether extant placental orders originated and diversified before or after the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary. Molecular studies that have addressed this issue suffer from single calibration points, unwarranted assumptions about the molecular clock, and/or taxon sampling that lacks representatives of all placental orders. We investigated this problem using the largest available molecular data set for placental mammals, which includes segments of 19 nuclear and three mitochondrial genes for representatives of all extant placental orders. We used the Thorne/Kishino method, which permits simultaneous constraints from the fossil record and allows rates of molecular evolution to vary on different branches of a phylogenetic tree. Analyses that used different sets of fossil constraints, different priors for the base of Placentalia, and different data partitions all support interordinal divergences in the Cretaceous followed by intraordinal diversification mostly after the K/T boundary. Four placental orders show intraordinal diversification that predates the K/T boundary, but only by an average of 10 million years. In contrast to some molecular studies that date the rat–mouse split as old as 46 million years, our results show improved agreement with the fossil record and place this split at 16–23 million years. To test the hypothesis that molecular estimates of Cretaceous divergence times are an artifact of increased body size subsequent to the K/T boundary, we also performed analyses with a “K/T body size” taxon set. In these analyses, interordinal splits remained in the Cretaceous. PMID:12552136

  5. Method for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOEpatents

    Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.

    1995-10-03

    A system is described for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste). 4 figs.

  6. Method for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOEpatents

    Bala, Gregory A.; Thomas, Charles P.

    1995-01-01

    A system for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste).

  7. Method for removing undesired particles from gas streams

    DOEpatents

    Durham, M.D.; Schlager, R.J.; Ebner, T.G.; Stewart, R.M.; Hyatt, D.E.; Bustard, C.J.; Sjostrom, S.

    1998-11-10

    The present invention discloses a process for removing undesired particles from a gas stream including the steps of contacting a composition containing an adhesive with the gas stream; collecting the undesired particles and adhesive on a collection surface to form an aggregate comprising the adhesive and undesired particles on the collection surface; and removing the agglomerate from the collection zone. The composition may then be atomized and injected into the gas stream. The composition may include a liquid that vaporizes in the gas stream. After the liquid vaporizes, adhesive particles are entrained in the gas stream. The process may be applied to electrostatic precipitators and filtration systems to improve undesired particle collection efficiency. 11 figs.

  8. Trace contaminant removal using adsorption and membrane methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xinhuai

    This dissertation includes two parts and aims to contribute to trace contaminants removal of the Environmental Control and Life Support (ELLS) program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for long duration space missions. The first part is prediction of adsorption equilibrium for pure organic compounds and their binary mixtures with water vapor on BPL activated carbon using modified Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) equations. We propose to use the properties of organic compounds such as Vb, the molar volume as liquid at the normal boiling point, Ps, the vapor pressure as saturated liquid at the adsorption temperature, and the solvatochromic parameters pi*, alpham and betam to predict the adsorption equilibria. The second part of this dissertation is a hybrid membrane/adsorption process for carbon dioxide removal and comparison with current four-bed molecular sieve technology (4BMS). In this part, we developed a hybrid membrane/adsorption process, which combines a membrane unit with the 4BMS technology to remove water vapor and recover carbon dioxide from the spacecraft cabin air. We tested the drying performances of single- and multi-tube membrane modules under various operational conditions and measured and obtained a functional formula for the dependence of water permeability on the water content level of the membranes. We developed an effective mathematical model for a membrane process to remove water vapor from nitrogen gas. The model simulations for the membrane modules matched experimental data well over a wide range of operating conditions. We have also compared the energy consumption of the hybrid membrane/adsorption process with that of the 4BMS technology for recovering carbon dioxide from the cabin air. The new process is potentially more energy efficient.

  9. Composition and method for removing photoresist materials from electronic components

    DOEpatents

    Davenhall, Leisa B.; Rubin, James B.

    2002-01-01

    The invention is a combination of at least one dense phase fluid and at least one dense phase fluid modifier which can be used to contact substrates for electronic parts such as semiconductor wafers or chips to remove photoresist materials which are applied to the substrates during manufacture of the electronic parts. The dense phase fluid modifier is one selected from the group of cyclic, aliphatic or alicyclic compounds having the functional group: ##STR1## wherein Y is a carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus or sulfur atom or a hydrocarbon group having from 1 to 10 carbon atoms, a halogen or halogenated hydrocarbon group having from 1 to 10 carbon atoms, silicon or a fluorinated silicon group; and wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 can be the same or different substituents; and wherein, as in the case where X is nitrogen, R.sub.1 or R.sub.2 may not be present. The invention compositions generally are applied to the substrates in a pulsed fashion in order to remove the hard baked photoresist material remaining on the surface of the substrate after removal of soft baked photoresist material and etching of the barrier layer.

  10. Partial separation of platelet and placental adenosine receptors from adenosine A2-like binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Zolnierowicz, S.; Work, C.; Hutchison, K.; Fox, I.H. )

    1990-04-01

    The ubiquitous adenosine A2-like binding protein obscures the binding properties of adenosine receptors assayed with 5'-N-({sup 3}H)ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (({sup 3}H)NECA). To solve this problem, we developed a rapid and simple method to separate adenosine receptors from the adenosine A2-like binding protein. Human platelet and placental membranes were solubilized with 1% 3-((3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio)-1-propanesulfonate. The soluble platelet extract was precipitated with polyethylene glycol and the fraction enriched in adenosine receptors was isolated from the precipitate by differential centrifugation. The adenosine A2-like binding protein was removed from the soluble placental extract with hydroxylapatite and adenosine receptors were precipitated with polyethylene glycol. The specificity of the ({sup 3}H)NECA binding is typical of an adenosine A2 receptor for platelets and an adenosine A1 receptor for placenta. This method leads to enrichment of adenosine A2 receptors for platelets and adenosine A1 receptors for placenta. This provides a useful preparation technique for pharmacologic studies of adenosine receptors.

  11. Infant sex-specific placental cadmium and DNA methylation associations

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanty, April F.; Farin, Fred M.; Bammler, Theo K.; MacDonald, James W.; Afsharinejad, Zahra; Burbacher, Thomas M.; Siscovick, David S.; and others

    2015-04-15

    Background: Recent evidence suggests that maternal cadmium (Cd) burden and fetal growth associations may vary by fetal sex. However, mechanisms contributing to these differences are unknown. Objectives: Among 24 maternal-infant pairs, we investigated infant sex-specific associations between placental Cd and placental genome-wide DNA methylation. Methods: We used ANOVA models to examine sex-stratified associations of placental Cd (dichotomized into high/low Cd using sex-specific Cd median cutoffs) with DNA methylation at each cytosine-phosphate-guanine site or region. Statistical significance was defined using a false discovery rate cutoff (<0.10). Results: Medians of placental Cd among females and males were 5 and 2 ng/g, respectively. Among females, three sites (near ADP-ribosylation factor-like 9 (ARL9), siah E3 ubiquitin protein ligase family member 3 (SIAH3), and heparin sulfate (glucosamine) 3-O-sulfotransferase 4 (HS3ST4) and one region on chromosome 7 (including carnitine O-octanoyltransferase (CROT) and TP5S target 1 (TP53TG1)) were hypomethylated in high Cd placentas. Among males, high placental Cd was associated with methylation of three sites, two (hypomethylated) near MDS1 and EVI1 complex locus (MECOM) and one (hypermethylated) near spalt-like transcription factor 1 (SALL1), and two regions (both hypomethylated, one on chromosome 3 including MECOM and another on chromosome 8 including rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 10 (ARHGEF10). Differentially methylated sites were at or close to transcription start sites of genes involved in cell damage response (SIAH3, HS3ST4, TP53TG1) in females and cell differentiation, angiogenesis and organ development (MECOM, SALL1) in males. Conclusions: Our preliminary study supports infant sex-specific placental Cd-DNA methylation associations, possibly accounting for previously reported differences in Cd-fetal growth associations across fetal sex. Larger studies are needed to replicate and extend these

  12. Review and comparison of active space debris capturing and removal methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Minghe; Guo, Jian; Gill, Eberhard

    2016-01-01

    Space debris is considered as a serious problem for operational space missions. Many enabling space debris capturing and removal methods have been proposed in the past decade and several methods have been tested on ground and/or in parabolic flight experiments. However, not a single space debris has been removed yet. A space debris object is usually non-cooperative and thus different with targets of on-orbit servicing missions. Thus, capturing and removal of space debris is significantly more challenging. One of the greatest challenges is how to reliably capture and remove a non-cooperative target avoiding to generate even more space debris. To motivate this research area and facilitate the development of active space debris removal, this paper provides review and comparison of the existing technologies on active space debris capturing and removal. It also reviews research areas worth investigating under each capturing and removal method. Frameworks of methods for capturing and removing space debris are developed. The advantages and drawbacks of the most relevant capturing and removal methods are addressed as well. In addition, examples and existing projects related to these methods are discussed.

  13. Placental Origins of Chronic Disease.

    PubMed

    Burton, Graham J; Fowden, Abigail L; Thornburg, Kent L

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence links an individual's susceptibility to chronic disease in adult life to events during their intrauterine phase of development. Biologically this should not be unexpected, for organ systems are at their most plastic when progenitor cells are proliferating and differentiating. Influences operating at this time can permanently affect their structure and functional capacity, and the activity of enzyme systems and endocrine axes. It is now appreciated that such effects lay the foundations for a diverse array of diseases that become manifest many years later, often in response to secondary environmental stressors. Fetal development is underpinned by the placenta, the organ that forms the interface between the fetus and its mother. All nutrients and oxygen reaching the fetus must pass through this organ. The placenta also has major endocrine functions, orchestrating maternal adaptations to pregnancy and mobilizing resources for fetal use. In addition, it acts as a selective barrier, creating a protective milieu by minimizing exposure of the fetus to maternal hormones, such as glucocorticoids, xenobiotics, pathogens, and parasites. The placenta shows a remarkable capacity to adapt to adverse environmental cues and lessen their impact on the fetus. However, if placental function is impaired, or its capacity to adapt is exceeded, then fetal development may be compromised. Here, we explore the complex relationships between the placental phenotype and developmental programming of chronic disease in the offspring. Ensuring optimal placentation offers a new approach to the prevention of disorders such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity, which are reaching epidemic proportions. PMID:27604528

  14. Chemomechanical caries removal method versus mechanical caries removal methods in clinical and community-based setting: A comparative in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, K. V. K. Santosh; Prasad, M. Ghanashyam; Sandeep, R. Venkata; Reddy, S. Pavani; Divya, D.; Pratyusha, K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effectiveness of various caries removal techniques in mandibular primary molars using Smart Burs, atraumatic restorative technique (ART) (mechanical caries removal) and Carie-care (chemomechanical caries removal [CMCR]) among primary school children in clinical and community-based settings. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 carious primary mandibular molars were selected for the study from the dental clinic and community. They were equally assigned to four groups according to caries removal technique and also by the operating site. In Group 1, caries was removed using Carie-care in the dental clinic and in Group 2, with Smart Burs in the dental clinic. In Group 3, caries was removed using Carie-care in the field and in Group 4, with the ART in the field. The time taken for caries removal, the efficacy of caries removal and patient acceptance were evaluated with different caries removal techniques. Statistical Analysis: The obtained data were subjected to statistical analysis by ANOVA test. Results: In clinical settings, Carie-care was time-consuming but was more efficient with increased acceptance than Smart Burs and the result was found to be significant statistically (P < 0.05). In community-based settings, Carie-care was more efficient, less time consuming, and showed an increased acceptance when compared to atraumatic restorative treatment and the result was found to be significant statistically (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The CMCR technique was superior to the mechanical caries removal technique in primary teeth among school children in terms of time, efficacy, and acceptance in both clinical- and community-based settings. PMID:27403059

  15. Removal of freshwater microalgae by a magnetic separation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergini, Sofia S.; Aravantinou, Andriana F.; Manariotis, Ioannis D.

    2013-04-01

    Some species of microalgae, with high growth rate and high lipid content, appear to be attractive alternatives as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The high-energy input for harvesting biomass and removing the water from the algae makes current commercial microalgal biodiesel production cost expensive. The major techniques currently employed in microalgae harvesting and recovery include centrifugation, coagulation-flocculation, bio-flocculation, filtration and screening, gravity sedimentation, and flotation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the harvesting of microalgae cells by coagulation using magnetic activated carbon, magnetite (FeO4) nanoparticles, and common chemical coagulants. Scenedesmus rubescens was selected and cultivated in 10 L flasks under continuous artificial light. Samples were taken at different operation intervals. Jar tests were conducted to investigate the effect of adsorption of microalgae on the magnetic material. The removal efficiency of microalgae was affected by the coagulants dose, stirring time and speed, and the initial microalgae concentration. The recovery of microalgae was greater in cultures with high initial microalgae concentration compared to cultures with low microalgae concentrations.

  16. Method for combined removal of mercury and nitrogen oxides from off-gas streams

    DOEpatents

    Mendelsohn, Marshall H.; Livengood, C. David

    2006-10-10

    A method for removing elemental Hg and nitric oxide simultaneously from a gas stream is provided whereby the gas stream is reacted with gaseous chlorinated compound to convert the elemental mercury to soluble mercury compounds and the nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide. The method works to remove either mercury or nitrogen oxide in the absence or presence of each other.

  17. Chemical methods for removing radon and radon daughters from air.

    PubMed

    Stein, L

    1972-03-31

    Liquid bromine trifluoride and the solid complexes ClF(2)SbF(6), BrF(2)SbF(6), BrF(4)Sb(2)F(11), IF(4)(SbF(6))(3) and BrF(2)BiF(6) react spontaneously with radon and radon daughters at 25 degrees C, converting the radioelements to nonvolatile ions and compounds. The reagents can be used in gas-scrubbing units to remove radon and radon daughters from air. The halogen fluoride-antimony pentafluoride complexes may be suitable for purifying air in uranium mines and analyzing radon in air, since they have low dissociation pressures at 25 degrees C and are less hazardous to handle than liquid halogen fluorides. PMID:5013675

  18. Validation of two ribosomal RNA removal methods for microbial metatranscriptomics

    SciTech Connect

    He, Shaomei; Wurtzel, Omri; Singh, Kanwar; Froula, Jeff L; Yilmaz, Suzan; Tringe, Susannah G; Wang, Zhong; Chen, Feng; Lindquist, Erika A; Sorek, Rotem; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2010-10-01

    The predominance of rRNAs in the transcriptome is a major technical challenge in sequence-based analysis of cDNAs from microbial isolates and communities. Several approaches have been applied to deplete rRNAs from (meta)transcriptomes, but no systematic investigation of potential biases introduced by any of these approaches has been reported. Here we validated the effectiveness and fidelity of the two most commonly used approaches, subtractive hybridization and exonuclease digestion, as well as combinations of these treatments, on two synthetic five-microorganism metatranscriptomes using massively parallel sequencing. We found that the effectiveness of rRNA removal was a function of community composition and RNA integrity for these treatments. Subtractive hybridization alone introduced the least bias in relative transcript abundance, whereas exonuclease and in particular combined treatments greatly compromised mRNA abundance fidelity. Illumina sequencing itself also can compromise quantitative data analysis by introducing a G+C bias between runs.

  19. Method for removing acid gases from a gaseous stream

    DOEpatents

    Gorin, Everett; Zielke, Clyde W.

    1981-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking a heavy aromatic polynuclear carbonaceous feedstock containing reactive alkaline constituents to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels boiling below about 475.degree. C. at atmospheric pressure by contacting the feedstock with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst, thereafter separating a gaseous stream containing hydrogen, at least a portion of the hydrocarbon fuels and acid gases from the molten metal halide and regenerating the molten metal halide, thereby producing a purified molten metal halide stream for recycle to the hydrocracking zone, an improvement comprising; contacting the gaseous acid gas, hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels-containing stream with the feedstock containing reactive alkaline constituents to remove acid gases from the acid gas containing stream. Optionally at least a portion of the hydrocarbon fuels are separated from gaseous stream containing hydrogen, hydrocarbon fuels and acid gases prior to contacting the gaseous stream with the feedstock.

  20. IL-10 Modulates Placental Responses to TLR Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Bayraktar, Mehmet; Peltier, Morgan; Vetrano, Anna; Arita, Yuko; Gurzenda, Ellen; Joseph, Ansamma; Kazzaz, Jeffrey; Sharma, Surendra; Hanna, Nazeeh

    2013-01-01

    Problem Intra-uterine infections increase production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. It is unclear whether different infectious agents determine the relative expression of pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Methods of study We compared the placental inflammatory response induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin from Gram-negative bacteria) with those induced by lipoteichoic acid (LTA, a cell wall component of Gram-positive bacteria). Placental explants from term delivery were treated with either LPS or LTA, in the presence or absence of IL-10, for 24 hrs. Cytokines, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production and cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression were quantified. Results Both LTA and LPS significantly induced several cytokines with LPS eliciting more potent effects. IL-6 and IL-8 were induced to comparable levels in response to both LTA and LPS whereas monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) production was induced more by LTA, demonstrating a differential placental response to a specific toll-like receptor (TLR) ligand. IL-10 treatment significantly reduced most pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as PGE2 induced by both LPS and LTA. Interestingly, IL-10 down-regulated LTA-mediated MCP1 induction, but not that mediated by LPS. Moreover, IL-10 was more effective in down-regulating PGE2 after LPS- when compared with LTA stimulation. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that placental exposure to LTA and LPS appear to trigger distinct cytokine responses that can be modulated by IL-10. PMID:19821803

  1. Recent vs Conventional Methods of Caries Removal: A Comparative in vivo Study in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Sonali; Samadi, Firoza; Jaiswal, JN; Garg, Aarti; Chowdhry, Preet

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aims: To compare the three different methods of caries removal, conventional method using Airotor and chemomechanical method using Carisolv and Papacarie. Settings and design: The patients with multiple carious teeth were selected either in the deciduous dentition or mixed dentition. Ninety primary molars were selected from 30 children (10 males and 20 females) between the age group 6 and 9 years. Materials and methods: After caries excavation, cavities were evaluated for caries removal or clinical efficacy by the tactile and visual criteria, microbiological efficacy, time taken for the procedure. Patient acceptability toward the treatment was also checked with the help of a visual analog scale (VAS). The observations thus obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using analysis of variance (ANOVA), Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: The clinical efficacy of caries removal was highest with Airotor while the microbiological efficacy of caries removal was almost comparable with Airotor, Carisolv and Papacarie caries removal methods. The time taken to remove caries by Airotor method was observed to be least while the patient acceptance was found to be highest with Papacarie method. How to cite this article: Chowdhry S, Saha S, Samadi F, Jaiswal JN, Garg A, Chowdhry P. Recent vs Conventional Methods of Caries Removal: A Comparative in vivo Study in Pediatric Patients. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):6-11. PMID:26124574

  2. Placental profiling of UGT1A enzyme expression and activity and interactions with preeclampsia at term.

    PubMed

    Collier, Abby C; Thévenon, Audrey D; Goh, William; Hiraoka, Mark; Kendal-Wright, Claire E

    2015-12-01

    Placental UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes have critical roles in hormone, nutrient, chemical balance and fetal exposure during pregnancy. Placental UGT1A isoforms were profiled and differences between preeclamptic (PE) and non-PE placental UGT expression determined. In third trimester villous placenta, UGT1A1, 1A4, 1A6 and 1A9 were expressed and active in all specimens (n = 10), but UGT1A3, 1A5, 1A7, 1A8 and 1A10 were absent. The UGT1A activities were comparable to human liver microsomes per milligram, but placental microsome yields were only 2 % of liver (1 mg/g of tissue vs. 45 mg/g of tissue). For successful PCR, placental collection and processing within 60 min from delivery, including DNAse and ≥300 ng of RNA in reverse transcription were essential and snap freezing in liquid nitrogen immediately was the best preservation method. Although UGT1A6 mRNA was lower in PE (P < 0.001), there were no other significant effects on UGT mRNA, protein or activities. A more comprehensive tissue sample set is required for confirmation of PE interactions with UGT. Placental UGT1A enzyme expression patterns are similar to the liver and a detoxicative role for placental UGT1A is inferred. PMID:25465229

  3. Adhesive Bubble Removal Method and Apparatus for Fiber Optic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolasinski, John R. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An assembly for supporting a fiber optic termination or connector in a centrifuge and comprising a cylindrical body member having a top portion adapted to receive the ferrule body portion of a fiber optic termination or connector and a bottom portion for receiving a cylindrical piston/sealing unit is presented. The piston portion of the piston/sealing unit includes a compressible tip which is adapted to a butt up against the outer end of the ferrule body portion of the fiber optic termination or connector. A cylindrical end cap fits over the upper end of the body member for holding the fiber optic termination in place on the body member and causing a seal to be formed between the termination or connector and the upper portion of the body member adjacent the compressible tip of the plunger. The parts, when fitted together, are placed in a centrifuge which is operated for a predetermined spin cycle, so as to cause any bubbles in the uncured liquid adhesive to be vented outwardly from the termination through the end cap. Subsequent removal of the fiber optic termination or connector from the centrifuge and assembly is "bubble free" and ready to be joined with an optical fiber which is inserted in the ferrule end of the termination or connector.

  4. Adhesive bubble removal method and apparatus for fiber applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolasinski, John R. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An assembly for supporting a fiber optic termination or connector in a centrifuge and comprising a cylindrical body member having a top portion adapted to receive the ferrule body portion of a fiber optic termination or connector and a bottom portion for receiving a cylindrical piston/sealing unit. The piston portion of the piston/sealing unit includes a compressible tip which is adapted to a butt up against the outer end of the ferrule body portion of the fiber optic termination or connector. A cylindrical end cap fits over the upper end of the body member for holding the fiber optic termination in place on the body member and causing a seal to be formed between the termination or connector and the upper portion of the body member adjacent the compressible tip of the plunger. The parts, when fitted together, are placed in a centrifuge which is operated for a predetermined spin cycle, so as to cause any bubbles in the uncured liquid adhesive to be vented outwardly from the termination through the end cap. Subsequent removal of the fiber optic termination or connector from the centrifuge and assembly is bubble free and ready to be joined with an optical fiber which is inserted in the ferrule end of the termination or connector.

  5. Method of CO.sub.2 removal from a gasesous stream at reduced temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, James C; Siriwardane, Ranjani V; Berry, David A; Richards, George A

    2014-11-18

    A method for the removal of H.sub.2O and CO.sub.2 from a gaseous stream comprising H.sub.2O and CO.sub.2, such as a flue gas. The method initially utilizes an H.sub.2O removal sorbent to remove some portion of the H.sub.2O, producing a dry gaseous stream and a wet H.sub.2O removal sorbent. The dry gaseous stream is subsequently contacted with a CO.sub.2 removal sorbent to remove some portion of the CO.sub.2, generating a dry CO.sub.2 reduced stream and a loaded CO.sub.2 removal sorbent. The loaded CO.sub.2 removal sorbent is subsequently heated to produce a heated CO.sub.2 stream. The wet H.sub.2O removal sorbent and the dry CO.sub.2 reduced stream are contacted in a first regeneration stage, generating a partially regenerated H.sub.2O removal sorbent, and the partially regenerated H.sub.2O removal sorbent and the heated CO.sub.2 stream are subsequently contacted in a second regeneration stage. The first and second stage regeneration typically act to retain an initial monolayer of moisture on the various removal sorbents and only remove moisture layers bound to the initial monolayer, allowing for relatively low temperature and pressure operation. Generally the applicable H.sub.2O sorption/desorption processes may be conducted at temperatures less than about 70.degree. C. and pressures less than 1.5 atmospheres, with certain operations conducted at temperatures less than about 50.degree. C.

  6. Generalized methods and solvers for noise removal from piecewise constant signals. II. New methods

    PubMed Central

    Little, Max A.; Jones, Nick S.

    2011-01-01

    Removing noise from signals which are piecewise constant (PWC) is a challenging signal processing problem that arises in many practical scientific and engineering contexts. In the first paper (part I) of this series of two, we presented background theory building on results from the image processing community to show that the majority of these algorithms, and more proposed in the wider literature, are each associated with a special case of a generalized functional, that, when minimized, solves the PWC denoising problem. It shows how the minimizer can be obtained by a range of computational solver algorithms. In this second paper (part II), using this understanding developed in part I, we introduce several novel PWC denoising methods, which, for example, combine the global behaviour of mean shift clustering with the local smoothing of total variation diffusion, and show example solver algorithms for these new methods. Comparisons between these methods are performed on synthetic and real signals, revealing that our new methods have a useful role to play. Finally, overlaps between the generalized methods of these two papers and others such as wavelet shrinkage, hidden Markov models, and piecewise smooth filtering are touched on. PMID:22003313

  7. REMOVAL OF URANIUM FROM DRINKING WATER BY CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA currently does not regulate uranium in drinking water but will be revising the radionuclide regulations during 1989 and will propose a maximum contaminant level for uranium. The paper presents treatment technology information on the effectiveness of conventional method...

  8. A simple rapid method for the removal of leukocytes from human blood.

    PubMed

    Palmer, E; Waldman, F; Dewitt, W

    1974-01-01

    Filtration of human blood cells through lamb's wool columns removed more than 96% of all leukocytes in a series of experiments, while the retention of erythrocytes by the column averaged 6.4%. This method should prove extremely useful for obtaining pure erythrocyte preparations for use in biochemical and physiological studies, and for removing leukocytes from blood prior to transfusion. PMID:4473869

  9. Method and apparatus for removing iodine from a nuclear reactor coolant

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, Martin H.

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing iodine-131 and iodine-125 from a liquid sodium reactor coolant. Non-radioactive iodine is dissolved in hot liquid sodium to increase the total iodine concentration. Subsequent precipitation of the iodine in a cold trap removes both the radioactive iodine isotopes as well as the non-radioactive iodine.

  10. Comparison of ribosomal RNA removal methods for transcriptome sequencing workflows in teleost fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) is becoming the standard for transcriptome analysis. Removal of contaminating ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a priority in the preparation of libraries suitable for sequencing. rRNAs are commonly removed from total RNA via either mRNA selection or rRNA depletion. These methods have...

  11. Method for the removal of elemental mercury from a gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Mendelsohn, Marshall H.; Huang, Hann-Sheng

    1999-01-01

    A method is provided to remove elemental mercury from a gas stream by reacting the gas stream with an oxidizing solution to convert the elemental mercury to soluble mercury compounds. Other constituents are also oxidized. The gas stream is then passed through a wet scrubber to remove the mercuric compounds and oxidized constituents.

  12. A method for the removal of elemental mercury from a gas stream

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, Marshall H.; Huang, Hann-Sheng

    1997-12-01

    A method is provided to remove elemental mercury from a gas stream by reacting the gas stream with an oxidizing solution to convert the elemental mercury to soluble mercury compounds. Other constituents are also oxidized. The gas stream is then passed through a wet scrubber to remove the mercuric compounds and oxidized constituents.

  13. Method for the removal of elemental mercury from a gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Mendelsohn, M.H.; Huang, H.S.

    1999-05-04

    A method is provided to remove elemental mercury from a gas stream by reacting the gas stream with an oxidizing solution to convert the elemental mercury to soluble mercury compounds. Other constituents are also oxidized. The gas stream is then passed through a wet scrubber to remove the mercuric compounds and oxidized constituents. 7 figs.

  14. Microparasites and Placental Invasiveness in Eutherian Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Capellini, Isabella; Nunn, Charles L.; Barton, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Placental invasiveness—the number of maternal tissue layers separating fetal tissues from maternal blood—is variable across mammalian species. Although this diversity is likely to be functionally important, variation in placental invasiveness remains unexplained. Here we test the hypothesis that increased risk of transplacental transmission of pathogens from the mother to the fetus promotes the evolution of non-invasive placentation, the most likely derived condition in eutherian mammals. Specifically, we predict that non-invasive placentation is associated with increased microparasite species richness relative to more invasive placental types, based on the assumption that higher numbers of microparasites in a population reflects greater risk of transplacental transmission to fetuses. As predicted, higher bacteria species richness is associated with non-invasive placentation. Protozoa species richness, however, shows the opposite pattern. Because invasive placentae facilitate the transfer of maternal antibodies to the fetus, we propose that the ancestral condition of invasive placentation is retained under selection for protection of newborns from higher risk of postnatal protozoan infection. Hence, our findings suggest that a tradeoff exists between protection against bacterial infection prenatally and protozoan infection postnatally. Future studies are needed to investigate how maternal prevalence of infection and the relative pre- versus postnatal risk of fetal infection by different microparasite groups vary among mammalian hosts in relation to placental invasiveness. PMID:26168031

  15. Glucose metabolism in pregnant sheep when placental growth is restricted

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, J.A.; Falconer, J.; Robinson, J.S. )

    1989-08-01

    The effect of restricting placental growth on glucose metabolism in pregnant sheep in late gestation was determined by primed constant infusions of D-(U-{sup 14}C)- and D-(2-{sup 3}H)glucose and antipyrine into fetuses of six control sheep and six sheep from which endometrial caruncles had been removed before pregnancy (caruncle sheep). In the latter, placental and fetal weights were reduced, as was the concentration of glucose in fetal arterial blood. Fetal glucose turnover in caruncle sheep was only 52-59% of that in controls, largely because of lower umbilical loss of glucose back to the placenta (38-39% of control) and lower fetal glucose utilization (61-74% of control). However, fetal glucose utilization on a weight-specific basis was similar in control and caruncle sheep. Significant endogenous glucose production occurred in control and caruncle fetal sheep. Maternal glucose production and partition of glucose between the gravid uterus and other maternal tissues were similar in control and caruncle sheep. In conclusion, when placental and fetal growth are restricted, fetal glucose utilization is maintained by reduced loss of glucose back to the placenta and mother and by maintaining endogenous glucose production.

  16. A new method for the removal of toxic metal ions from acid-sensitive biomaterial

    SciTech Connect

    Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira

    1997-06-01

    A new method (competitive adsorption method) for the removal of toxic heavy metals from acid-sensitive biomaterials was proposed and it was applied to the removal of cadmium from the midgut gland (MG) of scallop, Patinopecten yessoensis. Insolubilized humic acid, which has been developed in the laboratory, was used as a competitive adsorbent. A metal-complexation model was used to determine the adsorption characteristics of cadmium onto MG. Furthermore, the model was applied to the competitive adsorption system. The results showed that the competitive adsorption method enabled the simultaneous removal of toxic cadmium from both liquid and MG phase under mild acidic condition (pH 5).

  17. Placentation in different mammalian species.

    PubMed

    Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale; Tarrade, Anne

    2016-06-01

    The placenta is a complex, transient organ associated with viviparity, which is located at the interface of the dam and fetus during pregnancy. It is formed after attachment, or implantation, of the blastocyst on the uterine lining and derives from complex cellular and molecular interactions between uterine and embryonic tissues. In mammals, there are many forms of placentation but this organ has the same function in all species: it is responsible for orchestrating materno-fetal exchanges, together with endocrine and immunological functions. PMID:27155775

  18. Placental inflammation is not increased in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Taleban, Sasha; Gundogan, Fusun; Chien, Edward K.; Degli-Esposti, Silvia; Saha, Sumona

    2015-01-01

    Background Women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk for adverse birth outcomes such as preterm delivery and small for gestational age (SGA) infants. Most recognized cases of fetal growth restriction in singleton pregnancies have underlying placental causes. However, studies in IBD examining poor birth outcomes have focused on maternal factors. We examined whether women with IBD have a higher rate of placental inflammation than non-IBD controls. Methods Between 2008 and 2011, the placental tissue of 7 ulcerative colitis, 5 Crohn’s disease, and 2 IBD-unclassified subjects enrolled in the Pregnancy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Neonatal Outcome (PIANO) registry were evaluated for villitis, deciduitis, and chorioamnionitis with/without a fetal inflammatory response. The history and birth outcomes of all IBD subjects were reviewed and matched to 26 non-IBD controls by gestational age at delivery. Results Of women with IBD, 29% delivered preterm infants and 21% delivered SGA infants. Half of the IBD patients had mild-moderate disease flares during pregnancy. Five (36%) patients required corticosteroids, 2 (14%) were maintained on an immunomodulator, and 3 (21%) others received tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors during their pregnancy. Chorioamnionitis was the only identified placental pathology present in the placentas reviewed, occurring less frequently in cases compared to controls (7% vs. 27%, P=0.32). Conclusions Placental inflammatory activation does not appear to be responsible for the increase in adverse birth outcome in women with IBD. Further studies are necessary to validate these findings in IBD to explain poor birth outcomes. PMID:26423206

  19. The impact of ionizing radiation on placental trophoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Kanter, D.J.; O'Brien, M.B.; Shi, X.-H.; Chu, T.; Mishima, T.; Beriwal, S.; Epperly, M.W.; Wipf, P.; Greenberger, J.S.; Sadovsky, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Exposure to low-dose radiation is widespread and attributable to natural sources. However, occupational, medical, accidental, and terrorist-related exposures remain a significant threat. Information on radiation injury to the feto-placental unit is scant and largely observational. We hypothesized that radiation causes trophoblast injury, and alters the expression of injury-related transcripts in vitro or in vivo, thus affecting fetal growth. Methods Primary human trophoblasts (PHTs), BeWo or NCCIT cells were irradiated in vitro, and cell number and viability were determined. Pregnant C57Bl/6HNsd mice were externally irradiated on E13.5, and placentas examined on E17.5. RNA expression was analyzed using microarrays and RT-qPCR. The experiments were repeated in the presence of the gramicidin S (GS)-derived nitroxide JP4-039, used to mitigate radiation-induced cell injury. Results We found that survival of in vitro–irradiated PHT cell was better than that of irradiated BeWo trophoblast cell line or the radiosensitive NCCIT mixed germ cell tumor line. Radiation altered the expression of several trophoblast genes, with a most dramatic effect on CDKN1A (p21, CIP1). Mice exposed to radiation at E13.5 exhibited a 25% reduction in mean weight by E17.5, and a 9% reduction in placental weight, which was associated with relatively small changes in placental gene expression. JP4-039 had a minimal effect on feto-placental growth or on gene expression in irradiated PHT cells or mouse placenta. Discussion and conclusion While radiation affects placental trophoblasts, the established placenta is fairly resistant to radiation, and changes in this tissue may not fully account for fetal growth restriction induced by ionizing radiation. PMID:24418702

  20. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    DOEpatents

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    2012-07-24

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  1. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    DOEpatents

    Koplow, Jeffrey P

    2015-03-24

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  2. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    DOEpatents

    Koplow, Jeffrey P

    2013-12-10

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  3. Method for removal of phosgene from boron trichloride

    DOEpatents

    Freund, Samuel M.

    1983-01-01

    Selective ultraviolet photolysis using an unfiltered mercury arc lamp has been used to substantially reduce the phosgene impurity in a mixture of boron trichloride and phosgene. Infrared spectrophotometric analysis of the sample before and after irradiation shows that is is possible to highly purify commercially available boron trichloride with this method.

  4. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    2015-12-08

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  5. Method for removal of phosgene from boron trichloride

    DOEpatents

    Freund, S.M.

    1983-09-20

    Selective ultraviolet photolysis using an unfiltered mercury arc lamp has been used to substantially reduce the phosgene impurity in a mixture of boron trichloride and phosgene. Infrared spectrophotometric analysis of the sample before and after irradiation shows that it is possible to highly purify commercially available boron trichloride with this method. 5 figs.

  6. Unbiased methods for removing systematics from galaxy clustering measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsner, Franz; Leistedt, Boris; Peiris, Hiranya V.

    2016-02-01

    Measuring the angular clustering of galaxies as a function of redshift is a powerful method for extracting information from the three-dimensional galaxy distribution. The precision of such measurements will dramatically increase with ongoing and future wide-field galaxy surveys. However, these are also increasingly sensitive to observational and astrophysical contaminants. Here, we study the statistical properties of three methods proposed for controlling such systematics - template subtraction, basic mode projection, and extended mode projection - all of which make use of externally supplied template maps, designed to characterize and capture the spatial variations of potential systematic effects. Based on a detailed mathematical analysis, and in agreement with simulations, we find that the template subtraction method in its original formulation returns biased estimates of the galaxy angular clustering. We derive closed-form expressions that should be used to correct results for this shortcoming. Turning to the basic mode projection algorithm, we prove it to be free of any bias, whereas we conclude that results computed with extended mode projection are biased. Within a simplified setup, we derive analytical expressions for the bias and discuss the options for correcting it in more realistic configurations. Common to all three methods is an increased estimator variance induced by the cleaning process, albeit at different levels. These results enable unbiased high-precision clustering measurements in the presence of spatially varying systematics, an essential step towards realizing the full potential of current and planned galaxy surveys.

  7. Method and apparatus for selective removal of carbon monoxide

    DOEpatents

    Borup, Rodney L.; Skala, Glenn W.; Brundage, Mark A.; LaBarge, William J.

    2000-01-01

    There is provided a method and apparatus for treatment of a hydrogen-rich gas to reduce the carbon monoxide content thereof by reacting the carbon monoxide in the gas with an amount of oxygen sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the carbon monoxide in the presence of a catalyst in a desired temperature range without substantial reaction of hydrogen. The catalyst is an iridium-based catalyst dispersed on, and supported on, a carrier. In the presence of the catalyst, carbon monoxide in a hydrogen-rich feed gas is selectively oxidized such that a product stream is produced with a very low carbon monoxide content.

  8. Methods for removing transuranic elements from waste solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, S.A.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Connor, C.; Sedlet, J.; Srinivasan, B.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1994-11-01

    This report outlines a treatment scheme for separating and concentrating the transuranic (TRU) elements present in aqueous waste solutions stored at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The treatment method selected is carrier precipitation. Potential carriers will be evaluated in future laboratory work, beginning with ferric hydroxide and magnetite. The process will result in a supernatant with alpha activity low enough that it can be treated in the existing evaporator/concentrator at ANL. The separated TRU waste will be packaged for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.

  9. ECG Artifact Removal from Surface EMG Signal Using an Automated Method Based on Wavelet-ICA.

    PubMed

    Abbaspour, Sara; Lindén, Maria; Gholamhosseini, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at proposing an efficient method for automated electrocardiography (ECG) artifact removal from surface electromyography (EMG) signals recorded from upper trunk muscles. Wavelet transform is applied to the simulated data set of corrupted surface EMG signals to create multidimensional signal. Afterward, independent component analysis (ICA) is used to separate ECG artifact components from the original EMG signal. Components that correspond to the ECG artifact are then identified by an automated detection algorithm and are subsequently removed using a conventional high pass filter. Finally, the results of the proposed method are compared with wavelet transform, ICA, adaptive filter and empirical mode decomposition-ICA methods. The automated artifact removal method proposed in this study successfully removes the ECG artifacts from EMG signals with a signal to noise ratio value of 9.38 while keeping the distortion of original EMG to a minimum. PMID:25980853

  10. A carrier removal method in phase measuring deflectometry based on the analytical carrier phase description.

    PubMed

    Yue, Huimin; Wu, Yuxiang; Zhao, Biyu; Ou, Zhonghua; Liu, Yongzhi; Liu, Yong

    2013-09-23

    In phase measuring deflectometry (PMD), a camera observes a sinusoidal fringe pattern via the surface of a specular object under test. Any slope variations of the surface lead to distortions of the observed pattern. Without height-angle ambiguity, carrier removal process is adopted to evaluate the variation of surface slope from phase distribution when a quasi-plane is measured. However, in the usual measurement system, the carrier phase will be nonlinear due to the restrictions of system geometries. In this paper, based on the analytical carrier phase description in PMD, a carrier removal method is proposed to remove the nonlinear carrier phase. Both the theoretical analysis and the experiment results are presented. By comparison with reference-subtraction method and series-expansion method, this proposed method can achieve carrier removal process with only the measurement of one single object, as well as high accuracy and time-saving. PMID:24104069

  11. l-Methionine Placental Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, João R.; Correia-Branco, Ana; Ramalho, Carla; Gonçalves, Pedro; Pinho, Maria J.; Keating, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the influence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and GDM-associated conditions upon the placental uptake of 14C-l-methionine (14C-l-Met). The 14C-l-Met uptake by human trophoblasts (TBs) obtained from normal pregnancies (normal trophoblast [NTB] cells) is mainly system l-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1 [L])-mediated, although a small contribution of system y+LAT2 is also present. Comparison of 14C-l-Met uptake by NTB and by human TBs obtained from GDM pregnancies (diabetic trophoblast [DTB] cells) reveals similar kinetics, but a contribution of systems A, LAT2, and b0+ and a greater contribution of system y+LAT1 appears to exist in DTB cells. Short-term exposure to insulin and long-term exposure to high glucose, tumor necrosis factor-α, and leptin decrease 14C-l-Met uptake in a human TB (Bewo) cell line. The effect of leptin was dependent upon phosphoinositide 3-kinase, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK/MEK 1/2), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. In conclusion, GDM does not quantitatively alter 14C-l-Met placental uptake, although it changes the nature of transporters involved in that process. PMID:23653387

  12. Complement Activation in Placental Malaria

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Chloe R.; Tran, Vanessa; Kain, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    Sixty percent of all pregnancies worldwide occur in malaria endemic regions. Pregnant women are at greater risk of malaria infection than their non-pregnant counterparts and have a higher risk of adverse birth outcomes including low birth weight resulting from intrauterine growth restriction and/or preterm birth. The complement system plays an essential role in placental and fetal development as well as the host innate immune response to malaria infection. Excessive or dysregulated complement activation has been associated with the pathobiology of severe malaria and with poor pregnancy outcomes, dependent and independent of infection. Here we review the role of complement in malaria and pregnancy and discuss its part in mediating altered placental angiogenesis, malaria-induced adverse birth outcomes, and disruptions to the in utero environment with possible consequences on fetal neurodevelopment. A detailed understanding of the mechanisms underlying adverse birth outcomes, and the impact of maternal malaria infection on fetal neurodevelopment, may lead to biomarkers to identify at-risk pregnancies and novel therapeutic interventions to prevent these complications. PMID:26733992

  13. Nomenclature and placental mammal phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    An issue arising from recent progress in establishing the placental mammal Tree of Life concerns the nomenclature of high-level clades. Fortunately, there are now several well-supported clades among extant mammals that require unambiguous, stable names. Although the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature does not apply above the Linnean rank of family, and while consensus on the adoption of competing systems of nomenclature does not yet exist, there is a clear, historical basis upon which to arbitrate among competing names for high-level mammalian clades. Here, we recommend application of the principles of priority and stability, as laid down by G.G. Simpson in 1945, to discriminate among proposed names for high-level taxa. We apply these principles to specific cases among placental mammals with broad relevance for taxonomy, and close with particular emphasis on the Afrotherian family Tenrecidae. We conclude that no matter how reconstructions of the Tree of Life change in years to come, systematists should apply new names reluctantly, deferring to those already published and maximizing consistency with existing nomenclature. PMID:20406454

  14. An Ultra-Precise Method for the Nano Thin-Film Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pa, P. S.

    In this research an electrode-set is used to investigate via an ultra-precise method for the removal of Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) thin-film microstructure from defective display panels to conquer the low yield rate in display panel production as to from imperfect Indium Tin Oxide layer deposition is well known. This process, which involves the removal of ITO layer substructure by means of an electrochemical removal (ECMR), is of major interest to the optoelectronics semiconductor industry. In this electro machining process a high current flow and high feed rate of the display (color filter) achieves complete and efficient removal of the ITO layer. The ITO thin-film can be removed completely by a proper combination of feed rate and electric power. A small gap between the diameter cathode virtual rotation circle and the diameter virtual rotation circle also corresponds to a higher removal rate. A small anode edge radius with a small cathode edge radius effectively improves dregs discharge and is an advantage when associated with a high workpiece feed rate. This precision method for the recycling of defective display screen color filters is presented as an effective tool for use in the screen manufacturing process. The defective Indium Tin Oxide thin-film can be removed easily and cleanly in a short time. The complete removal of the ITO layer makes it possible to put these panels back into the production line for reuse with a considerable reduction of both waste and production cost.

  15. A prospective study to compare serum human placental lactogen and menstrual dates for determining gestational age.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, P G; Lind, T; Lawson, J Y

    1987-01-01

    In a group of 575 healthy pregnant women with certain menstrual dates the estimation of the length of gestation from maternal serum human placental lactogen concentrations has been compared with gestational age calculated from the last menstrual period and ultrasonic measurements of the fetal biparietal diameter. In 412 of these patients labor started spontaneously, and the estimated dates of delivery determined by these three methods were also compared. In the range of 9 to 17 weeks of pregnancy, gestational age can be determined by human placental lactogen measurement to within 7 days (+/- 1 SD) which compares favorably with other methods. Regarding the prediction of the expected date of delivery, 88% were delivered within 2 weeks of the date predicted by last menstrual period, 82% within 2 weeks of the sonar date, and 80% by the date determined by human placental lactogen assessment. Prediction of delivery in a further group of 139 women with uncertain dates gave 73% within 2 weeks by sonar date and 69% within 2 weeks by human placental lactogen determination. We suggest human placental lactogen measurements should become part of routine antenatal care complementing rather than replacing the role of ultrasonic scanning. For those doctors and patients who wish to avoid more exposure to ultrasonic scanning than absolutely necessary, human placental lactogen estimates offer an alternative method for assessing the length of gestation. PMID:3541617

  16. Treating vacuum-carbonate sulfur removal wastewater by electrochemical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalenko, V.S.; Levi, E.V.; Panasenko, L.A.

    1982-11-06

    The feasibility of treating coke plant waste water which has been desulfurized by the vacuum-carbonate process, by electrochemical methods has been studied in the laboratory. Model systems (potassium formate, potassium ferrocyanide, potassium thiocyanate, potassium thiosulfate) and coke plant wash liquor were electrolyzed using four steel cathodes and 3 anodes (graphite, steel, and nickel); titanium-ruthenium oxide or manganese oxide; lead oxide on a titanium base with a ruthenium sublayer. Products for the model media were respectively, CO/sub 2/(K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/)/H/sub 2/; K/sub 3/Fe(CN)/sub 6/(Fe/sup +3/(Fe(OH)/sub 3/) + CNO/sup -/(N/sub 2/,NH/sub 4/ + CO/sub 2/, K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/))/H/sub 2/; SO/sub 4//sup -2/; CNO/sup -/ + H/sup +/ and CN/sup -/ + H/sub 2/S + H/sup +/; H/sub 2/S + OH (cathode) + SO/sub 4/ + H/sup +/ (anode). Electrolysis of plant waste water produced a decrease in alkalinity, sulfates, carbonates and bicarbonates. Minor amounts of gaseous materials (H/sub 2/S, CO, CO/sub 2/) and prussic acid are produced and should be discharged to the coke oven gas system. The process is efficient, cost effective, requires low cost engineering and provides recyclable wash liquor. Due to their high initial concentration, decomposition of thiocyanates determines the time for full neutraliztion of the waste water. Graphite is the best anode material.

  17. A stochastic model for early placental development†

    PubMed Central

    Cotter, Simon L.; Klika, Václav; Kimpton, Laura; Collins, Sally; Heazell, Alexander E. P.

    2014-01-01

    In the human, placental structure is closely related to placental function and consequent pregnancy outcome. Studies have noted abnormal placental shape in small-for-gestational-age infants which extends to increased lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease. The origins and determinants of placental shape are incompletely understood and are difficult to study in vivo. In this paper, we model the early development of the human placenta, based on the hypothesis that this is driven by a chemoattractant effect emanating from proximal spiral arteries in the decidua. We derive and explore a two-dimensional stochastic model, and investigate the effects of loss of spiral arteries in regions near to the cord insertion on the shape of the placenta. This model demonstrates that disruption of spiral arteries can exert profound effects on placental shape, particularly if this is close to the cord insertion. Thus, placental shape reflects the underlying maternal vascular bed. Abnormal placental shape may reflect an abnormal uterine environment, predisposing to pregnancy complications. Through statistical analysis of model placentas, we are able to characterize the probability that a given placenta grew in a disrupted environment, and even able to distinguish between different disruptions. PMID:24850904

  18. The effectiveness of faecal removal methods of pasture management to control the cyathostomin burden of donkeys

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The level of anthelmintic resistance within some cyathostomin parasite populations has increased to the level where sole reliance on anthelmintic-based control protocols is not possible. Management-based nematode control methods, including removal of faeces from pasture, are widely recommended for use in association with a reduction in anthelmintic use to reduce selection pressure for drug resistance; however, very little work has been performed to quantitatively assess the effectiveness of such methods. Methods We analysed data obtained from 345 donkeys at The Donkey Sanctuary (Devon, UK), managed under three different pasture management techniques, to investigate the effectiveness of faeces removal in strongyle control in equids. The management groups were as follows: no removal of faeces from pasture, manual, twice-weekly removal of faeces from pasture and automatic, twice-weekly removal of faeces from pasture (using a mechanical pasture sweeper). From turn-out onto pasture in May, monthly faecal egg counts were obtained for each donkey and the dataset subjected to an auto regressive moving average model. Results There was little to no difference in faecal egg counts between the two methods of faecal removal; both resulted in significantly improved cyathostomin control compared to the results obtained from the donkeys that grazed pasture from which there was no faecal removal. Conclusions This study represents a valuable and unique assessment of the effectiveness of the removal of equine faeces from pasture, and provides an evidence base from which to advocate twice-weekly removal of faeces from pasture as an adjunct for equid nematode control. Widespread adoption of this practice could substantially reduce anthelmintic usage, and hence reduce selection pressure for nematode resistance to the currently effective anthelmintic products. PMID:24460700

  19. EVALUATION OF THREE CLEANING METHODS FOR REMOVING ASBESTOS FROM CARPET: DETERMINATION OF AIRBORNE ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH EACH METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of three cleaning methods to remove asbestos from contaminated carpet and to determine the airborne asbestos concentrations associated with the use of each method. he carpet on which the methods were tested was naturally conta...

  20. EVALUATION OF THREE CLEANING METHODS FOR REMOVING ASBESTOS FROM CARPET. DETERMINATION OF AIRBORNE ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH EACH METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of three cleaning methods to remove asbestos from contaminated carpet and to determine the airborne asbestos concentrations associated with the use of each method. The carpet on which the methods were tested was naturally cont...

  1. Loss of inherited genomic imprints in mice leads to severe disruption in placental lipid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Himes, K. P.; Young, A.; Koppes, E.; Stolz, D.; Barak, Y.; Sadovsky, Y.; Chaillet, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Monoallelic expression of imprinted genes is necessary for placental development and normal fetal growth. Differentially methylated domains (DMDs) largely determine the parental-specific monoallelic expression of imprinted genes. Maternally derived DNA (cytosine-5-) -methyltransferase 1o (DNMT1o) maintains DMDs during the eight-cell stage of development. DNMT1o-deficient mouse placentas have a generalized disruption of genomic imprints. Previous studies have demonstrated that DNMT1o deficiency alters placental morphology and broadens the embryonic weight distribution in late gestation. Lipids are critical for fetal growth. Thus, we assessed the impact of disrupted imprinting on placental lipids. Methods Lipids were quantified from DNMT1o-deficient mouse placentas and embryos at E17.5 using a modified Folch method. Expression of select genes critical for lipid metabolism was quantified with RT-qPCR. Mitochondrial morphology was assessed by TEM and mitochondrial aconitase and cytoplasmic citrate concentrations quantified. DMD methylation was determined by EpiTYPER. Results We found that DNMT1o deficiency is associated with increased placental triacylglycerol levels. Neither fetal triacylglycerol concentrations nor expression of select genes that mediate placental lipid transport were different from wild type. Placental triacylglycerol accumulation was associated with impaired beta-oxidation and abnormal citrate metabolism with decreased mitochondrial aconitase activity and increased cytoplasmic citrate concentrations. Loss of methylation at the MEST DMD was strongly associated with placental triacylglycerol accumulation. Discussion A generalized disruption of genomic imprints leads to triacylglycerol accumulation and abnormal mitochondrial function. This could stem directly from a loss of methylation at a given DMD, such as MEST, or represent a consequence of abnormal placental development. PMID:25662615

  2. COD and color removal of reactive orange 16 dye solution by electrochemical oxidation and adsorption method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Zuhailie; Ahmad, Wan Yaacob Wan; Yusop, Muhammad Rahimi; Othman, Mohamed Rozali

    2015-09-01

    Degradation of Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) dye was investigated using electrochemical oxidation and adsorption (batch method) using mixture of coconut trunk charcoal-graphite-tin-polyvinyl chloride(PVC). In batch studies for adsorbents pellet and powder form of the charcoal mixture were used. RO16 was chosen as the model dye because of its high resistance towards conventional treatment methods. NaCl and RO16 concentration, treatment duration, weight of electrode and adsorbent and volume of solution were kept constant for both methods. The effectiveness of the treatments were compared and evaluated by percentage of RO16 decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and results indicated that electrochemical oxidation method ables to decolorized RO16 dye up to 98.5% after 20 minutes electrolysis time while pellet and powder in batch method only removed 17.1 and 33.6% of RO16 color respectively. However, only 45.6% of COD can be removed using electrochemical oxidation method while pellet and powder in batch method removed 47.8 and 49.6% of COD respectively. The decolorization and COD removal of RO16 was determined using UV-Vis spectrophotometer (by the changes of absorption spectrum intensity of azo chromophore (-N=N-) at λ=388 and 492.50 nm and Hach spectrophotometer respectively. FTIR was used to determine functional groups present in the coconut trunk charcoal.

  3. Removal efficiency and toxicity reduction of 4-chlorophenol with physical, chemical and biochemical methods.

    PubMed

    Gómez, M; Murcia, M D; Dams, R; Christofi, N; Gómez, E; Gómez, J L

    2012-01-01

    Chlorophenols are well-known priority pollutants and many different treatments have been assessed to facilitate their removal from industrial wastewater. However, an absolute and optimum solution still has to be practically implemented in an industrial setting. In this work, a series ofphysical, chemical and biochemical treatments have been systematically tested for the removal of 4-chlorophenol, and their results have been compared in order to determine the most effective treatment based on removal efficiency and residual by-product formation. Chemical treatments based on advanced oxidation processes (AOP) produced the best results on rate and extent of pollutant removal. The non-chemical technologies showed advantages in terms of complete (in the case of adsorption) or easy (enzymatic treatments) removal of toxic treatment by-products. The AOP methods led to the production of different photoproducts depending on the chosen treatment. Toxic products remained in most cases following treatment, though the toxicity level is significantly reduced with combination treatments. Among the treatments, a photochemical method combining UV, produced with a KrCl excilamp, and hydrogen peroxide achieved total removal of chlorophenol and all by-products and is considered the best treatment for chlorophenol removal. PMID:22720434

  4. Placental Genome and Maternal-Placental Genetic Interactions: A Genome-Wide and Candidate Gene Association Study of Placental Abruption

    PubMed Central

    Denis, Marie; Enquobahrie, Daniel A.; Tadesse, Mahlet G.; Gelaye, Bizu; Sanchez, Sixto E.; Salazar, Manuel; Ananth, Cande V.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    While available evidence supports the role of genetics in the pathogenesis of placental abruption (PA), PA-related placental genome variations and maternal-placental genetic interactions have not been investigated. Maternal blood and placental samples collected from participants in the Peruvian Abruptio Placentae Epidemiology study were genotyped using Illumina’s Cardio-Metabochip platform. We examined 118,782 genome-wide SNPs and 333 SNPs in 32 candidate genes from mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation pathways in placental DNA from 280 PA cases and 244 controls. We assessed maternal-placental interactions in the candidate gene SNPS and two imprinted regions (IGF2/H19 and C19MC). Univariate and penalized logistic regression models were fit to estimate odds ratios. We examined the combined effect of multiple SNPs on PA risk using weighted genetic risk scores (WGRS) with repeated ten-fold cross-validations. A multinomial model was used to investigate maternal-placental genetic interactions. In placental genome-wide and candidate gene analyses, no SNP was significant after false discovery rate correction. The top genome-wide association study (GWAS) hits were rs544201, rs1484464 (CTNNA2), rs4149570 (TNFRSF1A) and rs13055470 (ZNRF3) (p-values: 1.11e-05 to 3.54e-05). The top 200 SNPs of the GWAS overrepresented genes involved in cell cycle, growth and proliferation. The top candidate gene hits were rs16949118 (COX10) and rs7609948 (THRB) (p-values: 6.00e-03 and 8.19e-03). Participants in the highest quartile of WGRS based on cross-validations using SNPs selected from the GWAS and candidate gene analyses had a 8.40-fold (95% CI: 5.8–12.56) and a 4.46-fold (95% CI: 2.94–6.72) higher odds of PA compared to participants in the lowest quartile. We found maternal-placental genetic interactions on PA risk for two SNPs in PPARG (chr3∶12313450 and chr3∶12412978) and maternal imprinting effects for multiple SNPs in the C19MC and IGF2/H19 regions

  5. Application of an acoustic noise removal method to aircraft-based atmospheric temperature measurements.

    PubMed

    Hugo, Ronald J; Nowlin, Scott R; Hahn, Ila L; Eaton, Frank D; McCrae, Kim A

    2003-01-01

    An acoustic noise removal method is used to reject engine acoustical disturbances from aircraft-based atmospheric temperature measurements. Removal of engine noise from atmospheric temperature measurements allows a larger wave number range to be fit while quantifying the magnitude of atmospheric temperature turbulence. The larger wave number range was found to result in a more statistically certain spectral slope estimate, with up to a 50% reduction in the standard deviation of measured spectral slopes. The noise removal technique was found to break down under conditions of weak atmospheric temperature turbulence where the engine acoustical disturbance can be several orders of magnitude larger than atmospheric temperature turbulence. PMID:12558258

  6. Application of an acoustic noise removal method to aircraft-based atmospheric temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugo, Ronald J.; Nowlin, Scott R.; Hahn, Ila L.; Eaton, Frank D.; McCrae, Kim A.

    2003-01-01

    An acoustic noise removal method is used to reject engine acoustical disturbances from aircraft-based atmospheric temperature measurements. Removal of engine noise from atmospheric temperature measurements allows a larger wave number range to be fit while quantifying the magnitude of atmospheric temperature turbulence. The larger wave number range was found to result in a more statistically certain spectral slope estimate, with up to a 50% reduction in the standard deviation of measured spectral slopes. The noise removal technique was found to break down under conditions of weak atmospheric temperature turbulence where the engine acoustical disturbance can be several orders of magnitude larger than atmospheric temperature turbulence.

  7. Noninvasive control of dental calculus removal: qualification of two fluorescence methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonchukov, S.; Sukhinina, A.; Bakhmutov, D.; Biryukova, T.

    2013-02-01

    The main condition of periodontitis prevention is the full calculus removal from the teeth surface. This procedure should be fulfilled without harming adjacent unaffected tooth tissues. Nevertheless the problem of sensitive and precise estimating of tooth-calculus interface exists and potential risk of hard tissue damage remains. In this work it was shown that fluorescence diagnostics during calculus removal can be successfully used for precise noninvasive detection of calculus-tooth interface. In so doing the simple implementation of this method free from the necessity of spectrometer using can be employed. Such a simple implementation of calculus detection set-up can be aggregated with the devices of calculus removing.

  8. Apparatus and method for loading and unloading multiple digital tape cassettes utilizing a removable magazine

    DOEpatents

    Lindenmeyer, Carl W.

    1993-01-01

    An apparatus and method to automate the handling of multiple digital tape cassettes for processing by commercially available cassette tape readers and recorders. A removable magazine rack stores a plurality of tape cassettes, and cooperates with a shuttle device that automatically inserts and removes cassettes from the magazine to the reader and vice-versa. Photocells are used to identify and index to the desired tape cassette. The apparatus allows digital information stored on multiple cassettes to be processed without significant operator intervention.

  9. Apparatus and method for loading and unloading multiple digital tape cassettes utilizing a removable magazine

    DOEpatents

    Lindenmeyer, C.W.

    1993-01-26

    An apparatus and method to automate the handling of multiple digital tape cassettes for processing by commercially available cassette tape readers and recorders. A removable magazine rack stores a plurality of tape cassettes, and cooperates with a shuttle device that automatically inserts and removes cassettes from the magazine to the reader and vice-versa. Photocells are used to identify and index to the desired tape cassette. The apparatus allows digital information stored on multiple cassettes to be processed without significant operator intervention.

  10. Dentine microhardness after different methods for detection and removal of carious dentine tissue

    PubMed Central

    MOLLICA, Fernanda Brandão; TORRES, Carlos Rocha Gomes; GONÇALVES, Sergio Eduardo de Paiva; MANCINI, †Maria Nadir Gasparoto

    2012-01-01

    There are several methods for identifying carious dentinal tissue aiming to avoid removal of healthy dentinal tissue. Objectives The purpose of this study was to test different methods for the detection of carious dentinal tissue regarding the amount of carious tissue removed and the remaining dentin microhardness after caries removal. Material and methods The dentin surfaces of 20 bovine teeth were exposed and half of the surface was protected with nail polish. Cariogenic challenge was performed by immersion in a demineralizing solution for 14 days. After transverse cross-section of the crown, the specimens were divided into four groups (n=10), according to the method used to identify and remove the carious tissue: "Papacárie", Caries-detector dye, DIAGNOdent and Tactile method. After caries removal, the cross-sectional surface was included in acrylic resin and polished. In a microhardness tester, the removed dentin thickness and the Vickers microhardness of the following regions were evaluated: remaining dentin after caries removal and superficial and deep healthy dentin. Results ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05) were performed, except for DIAGNOdent, which did not detect the presence of caries. Results for removed dentin thickness were: "Papacárie" (424.7±105.0; a), Caries-detector dye (370.5±78.3; ab), Tactile method (322.8±51.5; bc). Results for the remaining dentin microhardness were: "Papacárie" (42.2±10.5; bc), Caries-detector dye (44.6±11.8; abc), Tactile method (24.3±9.0; d). Conclusions DIAGNOdent did not detect the presence of carious tissue; Tactile method and "Papacárie" resulted in the least and the most dentinal thickness removal, respectively; Tactile method differed significantly from "Papacárie" and Caries-detector dye in terms of the remaining dentin microhardness, and Tactile method was the one which presented the lowest microhardness values. PMID:23032207

  11. Assessment of Placental Stiffness Using Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Elastography in Pregnant Women with Fetal Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Göya, Cemil; Tunç, Senem; Teke, Memik; Hattapoğlu, Salih

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to evaluate placental stiffness measured by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography in pregnant women in the second trimester with a normal fetus versus those with structural anomalies and non-structural findings. Materials and Methods Forty pregnant women carrying a fetus with structural anomalies diagnosed sonographically at 18–28 weeks of gestation comprised the study group. The control group consisted of 34 healthy pregnant women with a sonographically normal fetus at a similar gestational age. Placental shear wave velocity (SWV) was measured by ARFI elastography and compared between the two groups. Structural anomalies and non-structural findings were scored based on sonographic markers. Placental stiffness measurements were compared among fetus anomaly categories. Doppler parameters of umbilical and uterine arteries were compared with placental SWV measurements. Results All placental SWV measurements, including minimum SWV, maximum SWV, and mean SWV were significantly higher in the study group than the control group ([0.86 ± 0.2, 0.74 ± 0.1; p < 0.001], [1.89 ± 0.7, 1.59 ± 0.5; p = 0.04], and [1.26 ± 0.4, 1.09 ± 0.2; p = 0.01]), respectively. Conclusion Placental stiffness evaluated by ARFI elastography during the second trimester in pregnant women with fetuses with congenital structural anomalies is higher than that of pregnant women with normal fetuses. PMID:26957906

  12. A novel pre-oxidation method for elemental mercury removal utilizing a complex vaporized absorbent.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yi; Hao, Runlong; Guo, Qing

    2014-09-15

    A novel semi-dry integrative method for elemental mercury (Hg(0)) removal has been proposed in this paper, in which Hg(0) was initially pre-oxidized by a vaporized liquid-phase complex absorbent (LCA) composed of a Fenton reagent, peracetic acid (CH3COOOH) and sodium chloride (NaCl), after which Hg(2+) was absorbed by the resultant Ca(OH)2. The experimental results indicated that CH3COOOH and NaCl were the best additives for Hg(0) oxidation. Among the influencing factors, the pH of the LCA and the adding rate of the LCA significantly affected the Hg(0) removal. The coexisting gases, SO2 and NO, were characterized as either increasing or inhibiting in the removal process, depending on their concentrations. Under optimal reaction conditions, the efficiency for the single removal of Hg(0) was 91%. Under identical conditions, the efficiencies of the simultaneous removal of SO2, NO and Hg(0) were 100%, 79.5% and 80.4%, respectively. Finally, the reaction mechanism for the simultaneous removal of SO2, NO and Hg(0) was proposed based on the characteristics of the removal products as determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS), the analysis of the electrode potentials, and through data from related research references. PMID:25146096

  13. Comparative aspects of trophoblast development and placentation.

    PubMed

    Carter, Anthony M; Enders, Allen C

    2004-07-01

    Based on the number of tissues separating maternal from fetal blood, placentas are classified as epitheliochorial, endotheliochorial or hemochorial. We review the occurrence of these placental types in the various orders of eutherian mammals within the framework of the four superorders identified by the techniques of molecular phylogenetics. The superorder Afrotheria diversified in ancient Africa and its living representatives include elephants, sea cows, hyraxes, aardvark, elephant shrews and tenrecs. Xenarthra, comprising armadillos, anteaters and sloths, diversified in South America. All placentas examined from members of these two oldest superorders are either endotheliochorial or hemochorial. The superorder Euarchontoglires includes two sister groups, Glires and Euarchonta. The former comprises rodents and lagomorphs, which typically have hemochorial placentas. The most primitive members of Euarchonta, the tree shrews, have endotheliochorial placentation. Flying lemurs and all higher primates have hemochorial placentas. However, the lemurs and lorises are exceptional among primates in having epitheliochorial placentation. Laurasiatheria, the last superorder to arise, includes several orders with epitheliochorial placentation. These comprise whales, camels, pigs, ruminants, horses and pangolins. In contrast, nearly all carnivores have endotheliochorial placentation, whilst bats have endotheliochorial or hemochorial placentas. Also included in Laurasiatheria are a number of insectivores that have many conserved morphological characters; none of these has epitheliochorial placentation. Consideration of placental type in relation to the findings of molecular phylogenetics suggests that the likely path of evolution in Afrotheria was from endotheliochorial to hemochorial placentation. This is also a likely scenario for Xenarthra and the bats. We argue that a definitive epitheliochorial placenta is a secondary specialization and that it evolved twice, once in the

  14. The distinct proteome of placental malaria parasites.

    SciTech Connect

    Fried, Michal; Hixson, Kim K.; Anderson, Lori; Ogata, Yuko; Mutabingwa, Theonest K.; Duffy, Patrick E.

    2007-09-01

    Malaria proteins expressed on the surface of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes (IE) mediate adhesion and are targeted by protective immune responses. During pregnancy, IE sequester in the placenta. Placental IE bind to the molecule chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) and preferentially transcribe the gene that encodes VAR2CSA, a member of the PfEMP1 variant surface antigen family. Over successive pregnancies women develop specific immunity to CSA-binding IE and antibodies to VAR2CSA. We used tandem mass spectrometry together with accurate mass and time tag technology to study IE membrane fractions of placental parasites. VAR2CSA peptides were detected in placental IE and in IE from children, but the MC variant of VAR2CSA was specifically associated with placental IE. We identified six conserved hypothetical proteins with putative TM or signal peptides that were exclusively expressed by the placental IE, and 11 such proteins that were significantly more abundant in placental IE. One of these hypothetical proteins, PFI1785w, is a 42kDa molecule detected by Western blot in parasites infecting pregnant women but not those infecting children.

  15. System and method for removing contaminants from solid surfaces and decontaminating waste

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.L.; Geiss, A.J.; Grieco, S.; Neubauer, E.D.; Rhea, J.R.

    1995-10-10

    A method and system are disclosed for removing a surface layer contaminated with radioactive and/or hazardous material and subsequently treating the waste to remove contaminants and provide an essentially contaminant-free final effluent. The contaminated material is removed by blasting the surface with a pressurized stream of air and sodium bicarbonate abrasive media, and the media is dissolved in water subsequent to the blasting operation. The resulting waste is treated in a sequence of steps including adjustment of pH, aeration and separation into primarily solid and liquid phases by precipitation of solids, which are removed for appropriate disposal. The primarily liquid phase is successively passed through a particle filter, a granulated activated carbon filter and a polishing unit to produce the clean final effluent. 1 fig.

  16. Good practices in collecting umbilical cord and placental blood 1

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Lauren Auer; Bernardino, Elizabeth; Crozeta, Karla; Guimarães, Paulo Ricardo Bittencourt

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to identify the factors related to the quality of umbilical cord and placental blood specimens, and define best practices for their collection in a government bank of umbilical cord and placental blood. Method: this was a descriptive study, quantitative approach, performed at a government umbilical cord and placental blood bank, in two steps: 1) verification of the obstetric, neonatal and operational factors, using a specific tool for gathering data as non-participant observers; 2) definition of best practices by grouping non-conformities observed before, during and after blood collection. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and the following statistical software: Statistica(r) and R(r). Results: while there was a correlation with obstetrical and neonatal factors, there was a larger correlation with operational factors, resulting in the need to adjust the professional practices of the nursing staff and obstetrical team involved in collecting this type of blood. Based on these non-conformities we defined best practices for nurses before, during and after blood collection. Conclusion: the best practices defined in this study are an important management tool for the work of nurses in obtaining blood specimens of high cell quality. PMID:27556876

  17. Technical comment on "The placental mammal ancestor and the post-K-Pg radiation of placentals".

    PubMed

    Springer, Mark S; Meredith, Robert W; Teeling, Emma C; Murphy, William J

    2013-08-01

    O'Leary et al. (Research Article, 8 February 2013, p. 662) examined mammalian relationships and divergence times and concluded that a single placental ancestor crossed the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary. This conclusion relies on phylogenetic analyses that fail to discriminate between homology and homoplasy and further implies virus-like rates of nucleotide substitution in early Paleocene placentals. PMID:23929967

  18. An investigation on the use of removal-diffusion theory for BNCT treatment planning: a method for determining proper removal-diffusion parameters.

    PubMed

    Albertson, B J; Blue, T E; Niemkiewicz, J

    2001-09-01

    This paper outlines a method for determining proper removal-diffusion parameters to be used in removal-diffusion theory calculations for the purpose of BNCT treatment planning. Additionally, this paper demonstrates that, given the proper choice of removal-diffusion parameters, removal-diffusion theory may provide an accurate calculation technique for determining absorbed dose distributions for the purpose of BNCT treatment planning. For a four-group, one-dimensional calculation in water, this method was used to determine values for the neutron scattering cross sections, neutron removal cross sections, neutron diffusion coefficients, and extrapolation distances. These values were then used in a one-dimensional DIF3D calculation. The results of the DIF3D calculation showed a maximum deviation of 2.5% from a MCNP calculation performed for the same geometry. PMID:11585220

  19. A Study of Morrison's Iterative Noise Removal Method. Final Report M. S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ioup, G. E.; Wright, K. A. R.

    1985-01-01

    Morrison's iterative noise removal method is studied by characterizing its effect upon systems of differing noise level and response function. The nature of data acquired from a linear shift invariant instrument is discussed so as to define the relationship between the input signal, the instrument response function, and the output signal. Fourier analysis is introduced, along with several pertinent theorems, as a tool to more thorough understanding of the nature of and difficulties with deconvolution. In relation to such difficulties the necessity of a noise removal process is discussed. Morrison's iterative noise removal method and the restrictions upon its application are developed. The nature of permissible response functions is discussed, as is the choice of the response functions used.

  20. Method for removing magnesium from aluminum-magnesium alloys with engineered scavenger compound

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, W.D.; Jong, B.W.

    1994-12-31

    The invention relates to a method for removal and production of high purity magnesium from aluminum-magnesium alloys using an engineered scanvenger compound. In particular, the invention relates to a method for removal and production of high purity magnesium from aluminum-magnesium alloys using the engineered scanvenger compound (ESC) lithium titanate (Li2O3TiO2). The removal of magnesium from the aluminum-magnesium alloys is performed at about 600-750 C in a molten salt bath of KCl or KCl-MgCl2 using lithium titanate (Li2O3TiO2) as the engineered scavenger compound (ESC). Electrode deposition of magnesium from the loaded ESC onto a stainless steel electrode is accomplished in a second step, and provides a clean magnesium electrode deposit for recycling. The second step also prepares the ESC for reuse.

  1. Methods of removing a constituent from a feed stream using adsorption media

    DOEpatents

    Tranter, Troy J.; Mann, Nicholas R.; Todd, Terry A.; Herbst, Ronald S.

    2011-05-24

    A method of producing an adsorption medium to remove at least one constituent from a feed stream. The method comprises dissolving and/or suspending at least one metal compound in a solvent to form a metal solution, dissolving polyacrylonitrile into the metal solution to form a PAN-metal solution, and depositing the PAN-metal solution into a quenching bath to produce the adsorption medium. The at least one constituent, such as arsenic, selenium, or antimony, is removed from the feed stream by passing the feed stream through the adsorption medium. An adsorption medium having an increased metal loading and increased capacity for arresting the at least one constituent to be removed is also disclosed. The adsorption medium includes a polyacrylonitrile matrix and at least one metal hydroxide incorporated into the polyacrylonitrile matrix.

  2. Apparatus and method for removing solvent from carbon dioxide in resin recycling system

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2009-01-06

    A two-step resin recycling system and method solvent that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material. The system and method includes one or more solvent wash vessels to expose resin particles to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles in the one or more solvent wash vessels to substantially remove contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is provided to separate the solvent from the resin particles after removal from the one or more solvent wash vessels. The resin particles are next exposed to carbon dioxide in a closed loop carbon dioxide system. The closed loop system includes a carbon dioxide vessel where the carbon dioxide is exposed to the resin, substantially removing any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation. A separation vessel is also provided to separate the solvent from the solvent laden carbon dioxide. Both the carbon dioxide and the solvent are reused after separation in the separation vessel.

  3. Is Placental Mitochondrial Function a Regulator that Matches Fetal and Placental Growth to Maternal Nutrient Intake in the Mouse?

    PubMed Central

    Chiaratti, Marcos R.; Malik, Sajida; Diot, Alan; Rapa, Elizabeth; Macleod, Lorna; Morten, Karl; Vatish, Manu; Boyd, Richard; Poulton, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Background Effective fetal growth requires adequate maternal nutrition coupled to active transport of nutrients across the placenta, which, in turn requires ATP. Epidemiological and experimental evidence has shown that impaired maternal nutrition in utero results in an adverse postnatal phenotype for the offspring. Placental mitochondrial function might link maternal food intake to fetal growth since impaired placental ATP production, in response to poor maternal nutrition, could be a pathway linking maternal food intake to reduced fetal growth. Method We assessed the effects of maternal diet on placental water content, ATP levels and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in mice at embryonic (E) day 18 (E18). Females maintained on either low- (LPD) or normal- (NPD) protein diets were mated with NPD males. Results To investigate the possibility of an underlying mitochondrial stress response, we studied cultured human trophoblast cells (BeWos). High throughput imaging showed that amino acid starvation induces changes in mitochondrial morphology that suggest stress-induced mitochondrial hyperfusion. This is a defensive response, believed to increase mitochondrial efficiency, that could underlie the increase in ATP observed in placenta. Conclusions These findings reinforce the pathophysiological links between maternal diet and conceptus mitochondria, potentially contributing to metabolic programming. The quiet embryo hypothesis proposes that pre-implantation embryo survival is best served by a relatively low level of metabolism. This may extend to post-implantation trophoblast responses to nutrition. PMID:26132581

  4. Congenital neuroblastoma with placental involvement.

    PubMed

    Kume, Ayako; Morikawa, Teppei; Ogawa, Makiko; Yamashita, Aki; Yamaguchi, Shunichi; Fukayama, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    We describe an extremely rare case of congenital neuroblastoma with placental involvement. A fetus with a left abdominal mass detected during ultrasonography at 23 weeks' gestation developed hydrops fetalis by 26 weeks' gestation. The mother developed hypertension at 26 5/7 weeks' gestation. Based on a clinical diagnosis of pregnancy-induced hypertension, labor was induced at 26 6/7 weeks. However, intrauterine fetal death was diagnosed during delivery. Postmortern examination revealed a solid tumor at the site of the left adrenal gland. Histological examination of the tumor revealed dense proliferation of small round tumor cells with sparse cytoplasm and hyperchromatic nuclei. Some tumor-cell complexes contained abundant neurofibrils and Hormer-Wright rosettes were observed. A diagnosis of neuroblastoma of the left adrenal gland was made. The liver was markedly enlarged and was extensively replaced by neuroblastoma cells. In addition, small nests of tumor cells were detected in the blood vessels of various organs including the heart, lung, spleen, kidneys, stomach, small and large intestine, thyroid gland, testis, spinal cord, and bone marrow. Histological examination of the enlarged placenta revealed numerous neuroblastoma cells in the villous fetal capillary spaces. The present case was unusual in that the tumor cells were found not only in the chorionic villi, but also in the intervillous space of the maternal vascular system. However, there was no clinical evidence of maternal metastasis. PMID:25550872

  5. Placentomegaly and placental mesenchymal dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Rohilla, Minakshi; Siwatch, Sujata; Jain, Vanita; Nijhawan, Raje

    2012-01-01

    A 23-year-old primigravida presented to the labour ward at 37 weeks gestation referred with intrauterine growth restriction, oligohydramnios and placentomegaly. Differential diagnoses of placentomegaly were considered. Her antenatal blood screening tests were normal. There were no fetal malformations. However, triple screen and fetal karyotype were not done as patient presented late in pregnancy. The patient soon went into spontaneous labour and delivered a girl weighing 2.15 kg with a normal Apgar score. The cord was long and twisted; placenta was bulky, 1.7 kg, with prominent grape-like vesicles involving whole placenta with a rim of normal placenta at the periphery. Microscopy showed some areas of multiple villi with marked hydropic changes and myxoid degeneration, preserved vasculature and no trophoblastic proliferation. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia was thus diagnosed. The baby had no evidence of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. The child is now 3 years old with normal development and is doing well. PMID:23266781

  6. Mosaic retroposon insertion patterns in placental mammals

    PubMed Central

    Churakov, Gennady; Kriegs, Jan Ole; Baertsch, Robert; Zemann, Anja; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    One and a half centuries after Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace outlined our current understanding of evolution, a new scientific era is dawning that enables direct observations of genetic variation. However, pure sequence-based molecular attempts to resolve the basal origin of placental mammals have so far resulted only in apparently conflicting hypotheses. By contrast, in the mammalian genomes where they were highly active, the insertion of retroelements and their comparative insertion patterns constitute a neutral, virtually homoplasy-free archive of evolutionary histories. The “presence” of a retroelement at an orthologous genomic position in two species indicates their common ancestry in contrast to its “absence” in more distant species. To resolve the placental origin controversy we extracted ∼2 million potentially phylogenetically informative, retroposon-containing loci from representatives of the major placental mammalian lineages and found highly significant evidence challenging all current single hypotheses of their basal origin. The Exafroplacentalia hypothesis (Afrotheria as the sister group to all remaining placentals) is significantly supported by five retroposon insertions, the Epitheria hypothesis (Xenarthra as the sister group to all remaining placentals) by nine insertion patterns, and the Atlantogenata hypothesis (a monophyletic clade comprising Xenarthra and Afrotheria as the sister group to Boreotheria comprising all remaining placentals) by eight insertion patterns. These findings provide significant support for a “soft” polytomy of the major mammalian clades. Ancestral successive hybridization events and/or incomplete lineage sorting associated with short speciation intervals are viable explanations for the mosaic retroposon insertion patterns of recent placental mammals and for the futile search for a clear root dichotomy. PMID:19261842

  7. Mosaic retroposon insertion patterns in placental mammals.

    PubMed

    Churakov, Gennady; Kriegs, Jan Ole; Baertsch, Robert; Zemann, Anja; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2009-05-01

    One and a half centuries after Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace outlined our current understanding of evolution, a new scientific era is dawning that enables direct observations of genetic variation. However, pure sequence-based molecular attempts to resolve the basal origin of placental mammals have so far resulted only in apparently conflicting hypotheses. By contrast, in the mammalian genomes where they were highly active, the insertion of retroelements and their comparative insertion patterns constitute a neutral, virtually homoplasy-free archive of evolutionary histories. The "presence" of a retroelement at an orthologous genomic position in two species indicates their common ancestry in contrast to its "absence" in more distant species. To resolve the placental origin controversy we extracted approximately 2 million potentially phylogenetically informative, retroposon-containing loci from representatives of the major placental mammalian lineages and found highly significant evidence challenging all current single hypotheses of their basal origin. The Exafroplacentalia hypothesis (Afrotheria as the sister group to all remaining placentals) is significantly supported by five retroposon insertions, the Epitheria hypothesis (Xenarthra as the sister group to all remaining placentals) by nine insertion patterns, and the Atlantogenata hypothesis (a monophyletic clade comprising Xenarthra and Afrotheria as the sister group to Boreotheria comprising all remaining placentals) by eight insertion patterns. These findings provide significant support for a "soft" polytomy of the major mammalian clades. Ancestral successive hybridization events and/or incomplete lineage sorting associated with short speciation intervals are viable explanations for the mosaic retroposon insertion patterns of recent placental mammals and for the futile search for a clear root dichotomy. PMID:19261842

  8. Removal of algal blooms from freshwater by the coagulation-magnetic separation method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan; Wang, Peng; Wei, Guanran; Dong, Wenbo; Hui, Franck

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the feasibility of changing waste into useful materials for water treatment and proposed a coagulation-magnetic separation technique. This technique was rapid and highly effective for clearing up harmful algal blooms in freshwater and mitigating lake eutrophication. A magnetic coagulant was synthesized by compounding acid-modified fly ash with magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)). Its removal effects on algal cells and dissolved organics in water were studied. After mixing, coagulation, and magnetic separation, the flocs obtained from the magnet surface were examined by SEM. Treated samples were withdrawn for the content determination of chlorophyll-a, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. More than 99 % of algal cells were removed within 5 min after the addition of magnetic coagulant at optimal loadings (200 mg L(-1)). The removal efficiencies of COD, total nitrogen, and phosphorus were 93, 91, and 94 %, respectively. The mechanism of algal removal explored preliminarily showed that the magnetic coagulant played multiple roles in mesoporous adsorption, netting and bridging, as well as high magnetic responsiveness to a magnetic field. The magnetic-coagulation separation method can rapidly and effectively remove algae from water bodies and greatly mitigate eutrophication of freshwater using a new magnetic coagulant. The method has good performance, is low cost, can turn waste into something valuable, and provides reference and directions for future pilot and production scale-ups. PMID:22767355

  9. Is biofilm removal properly assessed? Comparison of different quantification methods in a 96-well plate system.

    PubMed

    Stiefel, Philipp; Rosenberg, Urs; Schneider, Jana; Mauerhofer, Stefan; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Ren, Qun

    2016-05-01

    Various methods have been reported to quantify total biofilm or different components of biofilm; however, these methods are often confusedly used, leading to discrepancies and misleading results. In this study, different methods for quantification of biofilm, including those for total biomass, total amount of bacterial cells, viable cell number, and amount of extracellular polymeric substances, were systematically compared in microtiter plates. To evaluate which method is suitable for assessment of biofilm removal and for bacterial killing, biofilm samples were treated with various cleaners possessing removing and/or killing capacities. It was found that most of the methods tested in this study in general exhibited high reproducibility and repeatability. Crystal Violet staining was a simple but reliable method for total biomass quantification. Total bacteria cell numbers could be reliably quantified by the fluorescent DNA-binding dye Acridine Orange. Viable cells could be quantified by either an ATP-based assay or a proliferation assay. Both of these viability methods showed a broad detection range and led to precise measurement. For quantification of proteins in the biofilm, staining with fluorescein isothiocyanate was most suitable. Furthermore, it was revealed that a combination of different methods is required to determine if a cleaner kills or removes biofilm. PMID:26923144

  10. Analysis of the Pit Removal Methods in Digital Terrain Models of Various Resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šamanović, S.; Medak, D.; Gajski, D.

    2016-06-01

    Digital terrain model (DTM) is the base for calculation of the surface runoff under the influence of the gravity (gravity flow) in hydrological analysis. It is important to produce hydrologically corrected DTM with the removed natural and artificial depressions to avoid numerical problems in algorithms of the gravity flow. The pit removal procedure changes geomorphometry of the DTM. GIS software packages use pit removal algorithm independently of geomorphmetric features of the analyzed area. In need of minimally modified DTM after the pit removal areas, the carving method (deepen drainage routes) and the filling method (fill sink) were analyzed on three different geomorphometric areas (bare mountain range, hilly wooded area and the plain area intersected with the network of the drainage canals). The recommendation is given for the choice of geomorphometric least changing DTM algorithm. The input data are raster data of elevation points created by stereoscopic photogrammetry method in 5x5 and 25x25 meter resolution. Differences have been noticed during the process of creating raster data. The recommendation is given for the choice of the most acceptable method for each type of area on the basis of comparison of the original elevation points with the elevation points in created DTM.

  11. Method of and apparatus for removing silicon from a high temperature sodium coolant

    DOEpatents

    Yunker, Wayne H.; Christiansen, David W.

    1987-01-01

    A method of and system for removing silicon from a high temperature liquid sodium coolant system for a nuclear reactor. The sodium is cooled to a temperature below the silicon saturation temperature and retained at such reduced temperature while inducing high turbulence into the sodium flow for promoting precipitation of silicon compounds and ultimate separation of silicon compound particles from the liquid sodium.

  12. Method of and apparatus for removing silicon from a high temperature sodium coolant

    DOEpatents

    Yunker, Wayne H.; Christiansen, David W.

    1987-05-05

    A method of and system for removing silicon from a high temperature liquid sodium coolant system for a nuclear reactor. The sodium is cooled to a temperature below the silicon saturation temperature and retained at such reduced temperature while inducing high turbulence into the sodium flow for promoting precipitation of silicon compounds and ultimate separation of silicon compound particles from the liquid sodium.

  13. BIAS ASSOCIATED WITH SAMPLING INTERVAL IN REMOVAL METHOD FOR FISH POPULATION ESTIMATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Population abundance is a fundamental parameter of fisheries science. Accuracy of estimation of population size based on removal methods depend upon on the relationship between catch per effort, cumulative catch and specific underlying assumptions. A study was conducted to determine if increasing t...

  14. Method for removal of asphaltene depositions with amine-activated disulfide oil

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, S.P.

    1983-04-12

    A method for treating and removing unwanted asphaltene deposits from oil and gas wells, surface equipment, flow lines, and pore spaces of oil-baring formations comprises treatment with an amine -activated aliphatic disulfide oil as an asphaltene solvent. In a preferred aspect, the aliphatic disulfide oil is a dialkyl disulfide oil and is activated by the addition of 10 weight percent of diethylamine. In a specific use, the activated disulfide oil is used to remove asphaltene deposits from an oilbearing formation and a producing well penetrating the formation.

  15. Method for removal of human antibodies to native DNA from serum

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, B.A.

    1987-09-01

    A method is described for removing human anti-native DNA antibody from a liquid sample comprising coupling monoclonal, antiidiotypic antibodies capable of binding to a shared idiotype on human anti-native DNA antibody to a medium. The idiotype shares between genetically nonidentical individuals, contacting a liquid sample to the medium to permit binding of human anti-native DNA antibody in the sample to the anti-idiotypic antibodies and separating the sample from the medium to remove the human anti-native DNA antibodies therefrom.

  16. Cathode scraper system and method of using the same for removing uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, Mark A; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

    2015-02-03

    Embodiments include a cathode scraper system and/or method of using the same for removing uranium. The cathode scraper system includes a plurality of cathode assemblies. Each cathode assembly includes a plurality of cathode rods. The cathode scraper system also includes a cathode scraper assembly configured to remove purified uranium deposited on the plurality of cathode rods. The cathode scraper assembly includes a plurality of scrapers arranged in a lattice, and each scraper of the plurality of scrapers is arranged to correspond to a different cathode rod.

  17. Voltage oxide removal for plating: A new method of electroplating oxide coated metals in situ

    SciTech Connect

    Gutfeld, R. J. von; West, A. C.

    2007-03-15

    A novel in situ method for electroplating oxide coated metals is described. Termed VORP, for voltage oxide removal for plating, the process utilizes a voltage pulse {approx}20-200 V, {approx}2 ms in duration, applied between working and counterelectrodes while both are immersed in a copper electrolyte. The pulse is almost immediately followed by galvanostatic plate-up. Adherent copper deposits up to {approx}4 {mu}m in height on stainless steel 316 coupons have been obtained. Temperature testing up to 260 deg. C in air does not affect the copper adhesion. A preliminary model for oxide removal is proposed utilizing concepts of dielectric breakdown.

  18. Apparatus and method for removing particle species from fusion-plasma-confinement devices

    DOEpatents

    Hamilton, G.W.

    1981-10-26

    In a mirror fusion plasma confinement apparatus, method and apparatus are provided for selectively removing (pumping) trapped low energy (thermal) particle species from the end cell region, without removing the still useful high energy particle species, and without requiring large power input to accomplish the pumping. Perturbation magnets are placed in the thermal barrier region of the end cell region at the turning point characteristic of trapped thermal particles, thus deflecting the thermal particles from their closed trajectory, causing them to drift sufficiently to exit the thermal barrier.

  19. Ascending placentitis in the mare: A review.

    PubMed

    Cummins, C; Carrington, S; Fitzpatrick, E; Duggan, V

    2008-01-01

    Ascending placentitis is a condition that occurs late in pregnancy when bacteria enter the sterile uterus from the lower reproductive tract. It leads to abortion or the birth of premature and weakened foals. Early detection and treatment of this condition is vital for ensuring the production of a viable foal.Mares with ascending placentitis often present in late term pregnancy with signs of premature udder development and premature lactation. There may be a vulvar discharge. Early detection of placental problems is possible using trans-abdominal or trans-rectal ultrasonography. Hormones such as progesterone and relaxin may be measured as indicators of foetal stress and placental failure. Postpartum foetal membranes may be thickened and contain a fibronecrotic exudate. The region most affected is the cervical star. Definitive diagnosis of ascending placentitis is by histopathological examination of the chorioallantoic membrane.Ideal treatment strategies are aimed at curing the infection and prolonging the pregnancy to as close to term as possible and consist of anti-microbials, anti-inflammatories and hormonal support.Swabs are taken from affected mares to determine antibiotic sensitivity and to aid in treatment of foals born from these mares which are at risk of becoming septic. If detected early enough, the chances of producing a viable foal are greatly increased. PMID:21851713

  20. Method for removing a stripe from the coating of a Fabry-Perot mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, S.J.; Steinmetz, L.L.

    1997-10-01

    We describe a method for removing a stripe from the coating of a Fabry-Perot mirror. This is accomplished by scraping off the soft coating with a finely lapped steel blade mounted on a precision mechanism to accurately position the blade and guide it for straight cuts. The width of the stripe is determined by selecting a blade of desired size. Previous methods and attempts are discussed.

  1. Method for selectively removing fluorine and fluorine-containing contaminants from gaseous UF.sub.6

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Robert L.; Otey, Milton G.; Perkins, Roy W.

    1982-01-01

    This invention is a method for effecting preferential removal and immobilization of certain gaseous contaminants from gaseous UF.sub.6. The contaminants include fluorine and fluorides which are more reactive with CaCO.sub.3 than is UF.sub.6. The method comprises contacting the contaminant-carrying UF.sub.6 with particulate CaCO.sub.3 at a temperature effecting reaction of the contaminant and the CaCO.sub.3.

  2. Methods and compositions for removing carbon dioxide from a gaseous mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jing; Wu, Haohan

    2014-06-24

    Provided is a method for adsorbing or separating carbon dioxide from a mixture of gases by passing the gas mixture through a porous three-dimensional polymeric coordination compound having a plurality of layers of two-dimensional arrays of repeating structural units, which results in a lower carbon dioxide content in the gas mixture. Thus, this invention provides useful compositions and methods for removal of greenhouse gases, in particular CO.sub.2, from industrial flue gases or from the atmosphere.

  3. 21 CFR 862.1585 - Human placental lactogen test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... placental lactogen are used in the diagnosis and clinical management of high-risk pregnancies involving fetal distress associated with placental insufficiency. Measurements of HPL are also used in...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1585 - Human placental lactogen test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... placental lactogen are used in the diagnosis and clinical management of high-risk pregnancies involving fetal distress associated with placental insufficiency. Measurements of HPL are also used in...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1585 - Human placental lactogen test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... placental lactogen are used in the diagnosis and clinical management of high-risk pregnancies involving fetal distress associated with placental insufficiency. Measurements of HPL are also used in...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1585 - Human placental lactogen test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... placental lactogen are used in the diagnosis and clinical management of high-risk pregnancies involving fetal distress associated with placental insufficiency. Measurements of HPL are also used in...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1585 - Human placental lactogen test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... placental lactogen are used in the diagnosis and clinical management of high-risk pregnancies involving fetal distress associated with placental insufficiency. Measurements of HPL are also used in...

  8. Method of removing oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from exhaust gases

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    A continuous method is presented for removing both oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from combustion or exhaust gases with the regeneration of the absorbent. Exhaust gas is cleaned of particulates and HCl by a water scrub prior to contact with a liquid absorbent that includes an aqueous solution of bisulfite and sulfite ions along with a metal chelate, such as, an iron or zinc aminopolycarboxylic acid. Following contact with the combustion gases the spent absorbent is subjected to electrodialysis to transfer bisulfite ions into a sulfuric acid solution while splitting water with hydroxide and hydrogen ion migration to equalize electrical charge. The electrodialysis stack includes alternate layers of anion selective and bipolar membranes. Oxides of nitrogen are removed from the liquid absorbent by air stripping at an elevated temperature and the regenerated liquid absorbent is returned to contact with exhaust gases for removal of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides.

  9. A Saponification Method for Chlorophyll Removal from Microalgae Biomass as Oil Feedstock.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Xu, Jin; Wu, Hualian; Wang, Guanghua; Dai, Shikun; Fan, Jiewei; He, Hui; Xiang, Wenzhou

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae oil is an optimal feedstock for nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and biodiesel production, but its high levels of chlorophyll limit its large-scale application. To date, few effective approaches have been developed to remove chlorophyll from microalgae oil. The main purpose of this study was to present a preprocessing method of algae oil feedstock (Scenedesmus) to remove chlorophyll by saponification. The results showed that 96% of chlorophyll in biomass was removed. High quality orange transparent oil could be extracted from the chlorophyll reduced biomass. Specifically, the proportion of neutral lipids and saturation levels of fatty acids increased, and the pigments composition became carotenoids-based. The critical parameters of chlorophyll reduced biodiesel conformed to the standards of the USA, China and EU. Sodium copper chlorophyllin could be prepared from the bleaching effluent. The results presented herein offer a useful pathway to improve the quality of microalgae oil and reduce the cost of microalgae biodiesel. PMID:27618070

  10. Removement of thiocyanate from industrial wastewater by microwave-Fenton oxidation method.

    PubMed

    Xi, Bai; Shi, Qingzhong

    2013-12-01

    The microwave radiation oxidation process, Fenton as catalytic agent, was used to remove the thiocyanate from the industrial wastewater. The effects of microwave power, radiation time, pH and the feeding in ways of catalyst on the degradation rate of synthetic wastewater were investigated using the microwave radiation oxidation process by orthogonal experiment. The results show Fenton catalyst ratio was 1:20, the microwave radiation power was 900 W, the microwave radiation time was 7 min and the value of pH was 3. Under the optimum conditions, the removal of KSCN can reach over 90%. The apparent kinetics of removal was studied, which conformed to kinetics first-class reaction. In short, for the thiocyanate from the industrial wastewater, microwave-Fenton oxidation method is feasible and effective. PMID:25078832

  11. Apparatus and method for destructive removal of particles contained in flowing fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, L. C. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus and method for destructively removing particles from a flowing gas containing the particles is described. In the specific embodiments disclosed the apparatus is adapted to remove carbon particles from diesel engine exhaust products. The exhaust products are directed to a predetermined location where they are rapidly vaporized and combine with oxygen in the exhaust products to form carbon dioxide. Vaporization in one embodiment is effected by a discharge grid located within an exhaust conduit, the grid being chosen so that alternate conductors defining the grid are spaced apart a distance approximately 125 times the mean diameter of the particles to be removed. A voltage differential of approximately 690 volts is applied across adjacent conductors.

  12. Apparatus and method for destructive removal of particles contained in flowing fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, L. C.

    1980-10-01

    An apparatus and method for destructively removing particles from a flowing gas containing the particles is described. In the specific embodiments disclosed the apparatus is adapted to remove carbon particles from diesel engine exhaust products. The exhaust products are directed to a predetermined location where they are rapidly vaporized and combine with oxygen in the exhaust products to form carbon dioxide. Vaporization in one embodiment is effected by a discharge grid located within an exhaust conduit, the grid being chosen so that alternate conductors defining the grid are spaced apart a distance approximately 125 times the mean diameter of the particles to be removed. A voltage differential of approximately 690 volts is applied across adjacent conductors.

  13. Placental development during early pregnancy in sheep: Effects of embryo origin on vascularization

    PubMed Central

    Grazul-Bilska, Anna T.; Johnson, Mary Lynn; Borowicz, Pawel P.; Bilski, Jerzy J.; Cymbaluk, Taylor; Norberg, Spencer; Redmer, Dale A.; Reynolds, Lawrence P.

    2014-01-01

    Utero-placental growth and vascular development are critical for pregnancy establishment that may be altered by various factors including assisted reproductive technologies (ART), nutrition, or others, leading to compromised pregnancy. We hypothesized that placental vascularization and expression of angiogenic factors are altered early in pregnancies after transfer of embryos created using selected ART methods. Pregnancies were achieved through natural mating (NAT), or transfer of embryos from natural mating (NAT-ET), or in vitro fertilization (IVF) or activation (IVA). Placental tissues were collected on day 22 of pregnancy. In maternal caruncles (CAR), vascular cell proliferation was less (P<0.05) for IVA than other groups. Compared to NAT, density of blood vessels was less (P<0.05) for IVF and IVA in fetal membranes (FM), and for NAT-ET, IVF and IVA in CAR. In FM, mRNA expression was decreased (P<0.01–0.08) in NAT-ET, IVF and IVA compared to NAT for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor FLT-1, placental growth factor (PGF), neuropilin (NP) 1 and 2, angiopoietin (ANGPT) 1 and 2, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3), hypoxia inducible factor-1A (HIF1A), fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 2 and its receptor FGFR2. In CAR, mRNA expression was decreased (P<0.01–0.05) in NAT-ET, IVF and IVA compared to NAT for VEGF, FLT-1, PGF, ANGPT1 and TEK. Decreased mRNA expression for 12 of 14 angiogenic factors across FM and CAR in NAT-ET, IVF and IVA pregnancies was associated with reduced placental vascular development, which would lead to poor placental function and compromised fetal and placental growth and development. PMID:24472816

  14. Treatment methods and comparative risks of thorium removal from waste residues

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, R.D.; Hamby, D.M.; Martin, J.E.

    1997-07-01

    This study was done to examine the risks of remediation and the effectiveness of removal methods for thorium and its associated radioactive decay products from various soils and wastes associated with DOE`s Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Removal of {sup 230}Th from uranium process residues would significantly reduce the buildup of {sup 226}Ra (half-life of 1600 years), and since {sup 230}Th concentrations at most of the important sites greatly exceed the {sup 226}Ra concentrations, such removal would reduce the accumulation of additional radiation risks associated with {sup 226}Ra and its products; and, if treatment also removed {sup 226}Ra, these risks could be mitigated even further. Removal of {sup 232}Th from thorium process residues would remove the source material for {sup 228}Ra, and since {sup 228}Ra has a half-life of 5.76 years, its control at FUSRAP sites could be done with land use controls for the 30--50 years required for {sup 228}Ra and the risks associated with its decay products to decay away. It must be recognized, however, that treatment methods invariably require workers to process residues and waste materials usually with bulk handling techniques. These processes expose workers to the radioactivity in the materials, therefore, workers would incur radiological risks in addition to industrial accident risks. An important question is whether the potential reduction of future radiological risks to members of the public justifies the risks that are incurred by remediation workers due to handling materials. This study examines, first, the effectiveness of treatment and then the risks that would be associated with remediation.

  15. Placental morphologic and functional imaging in high-risk pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Gudmundsson, Saemundur; Dubiel, Mariusz; Sladkevicius, Povilas

    2009-08-01

    The placenta is vital for fetal growth and development. Improvement in ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have improved our understanding of placental morphology that can be important as in the case of placental accrete/percreta. Functional imaging is presently mainly performed by the use of Doppler ultrasound and can give information on placental perfusion, which can be vital for clinical diagnosis. This review summarizes the present knowledge on placental imaging and it's clinical value in high-risk pregnancies. PMID:19631087

  16. Method For Removing Volatile Components From A Gel-Cast Ceramic Article

    DOEpatents

    Klug, Frederic Joseph; DeCarr, Sylvia Marie

    2004-09-07

    A method of removing substantially all of the volatile component in a green, volatile-containing ceramic article is disclosed. The method comprises freezing the ceramic article; and then subjecting the frozen article to a vacuum for a sufficient time to freeze-dry the article. Frequently, the article is heated while being freeze-dried. Use of this method efficiently reduces the propensity for any warpage of the article. The article is often formed from a ceramic slurry in a gel-casting process. A method for fabricating a ceramic core used in investment casting is also described.

  17. Method for removing volatile components from a ceramic article, and related processes

    DOEpatents

    Klug, Frederic Joseph; DeCarr, Sylvia Marie

    2002-01-01

    A method of removing substantially all of the volatile component in a green, volatile-containing ceramic article is disclosed. The method comprises freezing the ceramic article; and then subjecting the frozen article to a vacuum for a sufficient time to freeze-dry the article. Frequently, the article is heated while being freeze-dried. Use of this method efficiently reduces the propensity for any warpage of the article. The article is often formed from a ceramic slurry in a gel-casting process. A method for fabricating a ceramic core used in investment casting is also described.

  18. Placental genetic variations in circadian clock-related genes increase the risk of placental abruption

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Chunfang; Gelaye, Bizu; Denis, Marie; Tadesse, Mahlet G; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Ananth, Cande V; Pacora, Percy N; Salazar, Manuel; Sanchez, Sixto E; Williams, Michelle A

    2016-01-01

    The genetic architecture of placental abruption (PA) remains poorly understood. We examined variations in SNPs of circadian clock-related genes in placenta with PA risk. We also explored placental and maternal genomic contributions to PA risk. Placental genomic DNA samples were isolated from 280 PA cases and 244 controls. Genotyping was performed using the Illumina Cardio-MetaboChip. We examined 116 SNPs in 13 genes known to moderate circadian rhythms. Logistic regression models were fit to estimate odds ratios (ORs). The combined effect of multiple SNPs on PA risk was estimated using a weighted genetic risk score. We examined independent and joint associations of wGRS derived from placental and maternal genomes with PA. Seven SNPs in five genes (ARNTL2, CRY2, DEC1, PER3 and RORA), in the placental genome, were associated with PA risk. Each copy of the minor allele (G) of a SNP in the RORA gene (rs2899663) was associated with a 30% reduced odds of PA (95% CI 0.52-0.95). The odds of PA increased with increasing placental-wGRS (Ptrend<0.001). The ORs were 1.00, 2.16, 3.24 and 4.48 across quartiles. Associations persisted after the maternal-wGRS was included in the model. There was evidence of an additive contribution of placental and maternal genetic contributions to PA risk. Participants with placental- and maternal-wGRS in the highest quartile, compared with those in the lowest quartile, had a 15.57-fold (95% CI 3.34-72.60) increased odds of PA. Placental variants in circadian clock-related genes are associated with PA risk; and the association persists after control of genetic variants in the maternal genome. PMID:27186326

  19. Prevalence of gestational, placental and congenital malaria in north-west Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The frequency of pregnancy-associated malaria is increasingly being documented in American countries. In Colombia, with higher frequency of Plasmodium vivax over Plasmodium falciparum infection, recent reports confirmed gestational malaria as a serious public health problem. Thick smear examination is the gold standard to diagnose malaria in endemic settings, but in recent years, molecular diagnostic methods have contributed to elucidate the dimension of the problem of gestational malaria. The study was aimed at exploring the prevalence of gestational, placental and congenital malaria in women who delivered at the local hospitals of north-west Colombia, between June 2008 and April 2011. Methods A group of 129 parturient women was selected to explore the prevalence of gestational, placental and congenital malaria in a descriptive, prospective and transversal (prevalence) design. Diagnosis was based on the simultaneous application of two independent diagnostic tests: microscopy of thick blood smears and a polymerase chain reaction assay (PCR). Results The prevalence of gestational malaria (thick smear /PCR) was 9.1%/14.0%; placental malaria was 3.3%/16.5% and congenital malaria was absent. A history of gestational malaria during the current pregnancy was significantly associated with gestational malaria at delivery. Plasmodium vivax caused 65% of cases of gestational malaria, whereas P. falciparum caused most cases of placental malaria. Conclusions Gestational and placental malaria are a serious problem in the region, but the risk of congenital malaria is low. A history of malaria during pregnancy may be a practical indicator of infection at delivery. PMID:24053184

  20. Placental efficiency and adaptation: endocrine regulation

    PubMed Central

    Fowden, A L; Sferruzzi-Perri, A N; Coan, P M; Constancia, M; Burton, G J

    2009-01-01

    Size at birth is critical in determining life expectancy and is dependent primarily on the placental supply of nutrients. However, the fetus is not just a passive recipient of nutrients from the placenta. It exerts a significant acquisitive drive for nutrients, which acts through morphological and functional adaptations in the placenta, particularly when the genetically determined drive for fetal growth is compromised by adverse intrauterine conditions. These adaptations alter the efficiency with which the placenta supports fetal growth, which results in optimal growth for prevailing conditions in utero. This review examines placental efficiency as a means of altering fetal growth, the morphological and functional adaptations that influence placental efficiency and the endocrine regulation of these processes. PMID:19451204

  1. Zika Virus Infects Human Placental Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Quicke, Kendra M; Bowen, James R; Johnson, Erica L; McDonald, Circe E; Ma, Huailiang; O'Neal, Justin T; Rajakumar, Augustine; Wrammert, Jens; Rimawi, Bassam H; Pulendran, Bali; Schinazi, Raymond F; Chakraborty, Rana; Suthar, Mehul S

    2016-07-13

    The recent Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in Brazil has been directly linked to increased cases of microcephaly in newborns. Current evidence indicates that ZIKV is transmitted vertically from mother to fetus. However, the mechanism of intrauterine transmission and the cell types involved remain unknown. We demonstrate that the contemporary ZIKV strain PRVABC59 (PR 2015) infects and replicates in primary human placental macrophages, called Hofbauer cells, and to a lesser extent in cytotrophoblasts, isolated from villous tissue of full-term placentae. Viral replication coincides with induction of type I interferon (IFN), pro-inflammatory cytokines, and antiviral gene expression, but with minimal cell death. Our results suggest a mechanism for intrauterine transmission in which ZIKV gains access to the fetal compartment by directly infecting placental cells and disrupting the placental barrier. PMID:27247001

  2. Massive pre-placental and subchorionic haematoma.

    PubMed

    Loi, K; Tan, K T

    2006-12-01

    We report an unusual case of massive pre-placental and subchorionic haematoma occurring in a 26-year-old woman who presented with antepartum haemorrhage at 24 weeks gestation. Ultrasonography showed a subchorionic haematoma in the lower posterior uterine wall measuring 5.0 cm in largest diameter. There was also a separate irregular multiloculated structure measuring 4.3 cm in largest diameter on the surface of the placenta, due to a pre-placental haematoma. The subchorionic haematoma diminished in size over time, while the pre-placental haematoma continued to grow, measuring 9.0 cm at 28 weeks, and 9.3 cm at 32 weeks. At 32 weeks, the patient presented with premature rupture of membranes and four days later, an emergency caesarean section was performed when the patient had another episode of severe antepartum haemorrhage. Both mother and child recovered well. The current literature on such haematomas is reviewed. PMID:17139407

  3. Optimization of a greener method for removal phenol species by cloud point extraction and spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zain, N. N. M.; Abu Bakar, N. K.; Mohamad, S.; Saleh, N. Md.

    2014-01-01

    A greener method based on cloud point extraction was developed for removing phenol species including 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) and 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) in water samples by using the UV-Vis spectrophotometric method. The non-ionic surfactant DC193C was chosen as an extraction solvent due to its low water content in a surfactant rich phase and it is well-known as an environmentally-friendly solvent. The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency such as pH, temperature and incubation time, concentration of surfactant and salt, amount of surfactant and water content were evaluated and optimized. The proposed method was successfully applied for removing phenol species in real water samples.

  4. Validated UV-spectrophotometric method for the evaluation of the efficacy of makeup remover.

    PubMed

    Charoennit, P; Lourith, N

    2012-04-01

    A UV-spectrophotometric method for the analysis of makeup remover was developed and validated according to ICH guidelines. Three makeup removers for which the main ingredients consisted of vegetable oil (A), mineral oil and silicone (B) and mineral oil and water (C) were sampled in this study. Ethanol was the optimal solvent because it did not interfere with the maximum absorbance of the liquid foundation at 250 nm. The linearity was determined over a range of makeup concentrations from 0.540 to 1.412 mg mL⁻¹ (R² = 0.9977). The accuracy of this method was determined by analysing low, intermediate and high concentrations of the liquid foundation and gave 78.59-91.57% recoveries with a relative standard deviation of <2% (0.56-1.45%). This result demonstrates the validity and reliability of this method. The reproducibilities were 97.32 ± 1.79, 88.34 ± 2.69 and 95.63 ± 2.94 for preparations A, B and C respectively, which are within the acceptable limits set forth by the ASEAN analytical validation guidelines, which ensure the precision of the method under the same operating conditions over a short time interval and the inter-assay precision within the laboratory. The proposed method is therefore a simple, rapid, accurate, precise and inexpensive technique for the routine analysis of makeup remover efficacy. PMID:22243432

  5. [Antenatal diagnosis of placental acretism-percretism].

    PubMed

    Haghenbeck-Altamirano, Francisco Javier; Leis-Márquez, Teresa; Ayala-Yáñez, Rodrigo; Juárez-García, Luz del Carmen; García-Moreno, Carla

    2013-05-01

    Placental acretism is an adherencial pathology associated with a high maternal morbidity and mortality rates. Antepartum diagnosis is essential to plan a proper management and reduce serious complications. Risk factors in these patients include prior cesarean sections, uterine scars and placenta previa. Second level ultrasonography may detect placental acretism with high sensitivity and specificity; magnetic resonance imaging may play a complimentary role in the diagnosis of placental acretism when ultrasonographic findings are non-conclusive, specially when determining miometrium invasion in placental acretism (incretism, percretism). This paper reports the case of a patient treated at the ABC Medical Center of Santa Fe, in her second gestation with the diagnosis of an arcuate uterus, previous cesarean section and placenta previa who presented a vaginal bleeding during pregnancy; ultrasound evaluation, in the second trimester, identified a probable placental acretism, in the third trimester, the same technology suggested placenta percreta, complimentary magnetic resonance imaging supported this diagnosis, with probable invasion to bladder, bowel and abdominal wall muscles. Imaging studies were performed at the Hospital Angeles Lomas (Maternal Fetal Clinic). A diagnosis of placenta acreta-percreta, called for a multidisciplinary surgical team, availability of blood products and other resources to face probable complications associated to the obstetrical resolution. Maternal results were optimal since histopathological evaluation reported miometrial incretism, with placental invasion millimeters away from the uterine serosa. Most ultrasonographic studies evaluating the invasion degree of the placenta have small sample sizes, generating a greater degree of false positive or false negative observations. Therefore, we agree with other authors that in all acretism cases (independent of their invasion degree), a multidisciplinary surgical team should be assembled in

  6. Littrow angle method to remove alignment errors in grating pulse compressors.

    PubMed

    Guardalben, M J

    2008-09-20

    An alignment method for pulse-compression gratings that obviates the need to place the gratings at normal incidence to remove grating-tip error is proposed. Grating-tip and groove-orientation errors are removed using two alignment wavelengths in a manner analogous to a laser-beam pointing and centering procedure entirely at the respective Littrow angles for the two wavelengths. By choosing wavelengths with Littrow angles close to the use angle of the grating, the residual tip and groove-orientation errors that may be introduced when the grating mount is tilted to its use angle are reduced. This method has greatly facilitated the alignment of the OMEGA Extended Performance (EP) large-aperture pulse compressors, thereby reducing residual pulse-front tilt caused by nonparallel gratings. OMEGA EP is a high-energy, petawatt-class laser at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. A numerical simulation of the alignment procedure is presented. PMID:18806858

  7. Littrow Angle Method to Remove Alignment Errors in Grating Pulse Compressors

    SciTech Connect

    Guardalben, M.J.

    2008-09-16

    An alignment method for pulse-compression gratings that obviates the need to place the gratings at normal incidence to remove grating-tip error is proposed. Grating-tip and groove-orientation errors are removed using two alignment wavelengths in a manner analogous to a laser-beam pointing and centering procedure entirely at the respective Littrow angles for the two wavelengths. By choosing wavelengths with Littrow angles close to the use angle of the grating, the residual tip and groove-orientation errors that may be introduced when the grating mount is tilted to its use angle are reduced. This method has greatly facilitated the alignment of the OMEGA Extended Performance (EP) large-aperture pulse compressors, thereby reducing residual pulse-front tilt caused by nonparallel gratings. OMEGA EP is a highenergy, petawatt-class laser at the University of Rochester’s Laboratory for Laser Energetics. A numerical simulation of the alignment procedure is presented.

  8. Littrow angle method to remove alignment errors in grating pulse compressors

    SciTech Connect

    Guardalben, M. J

    2008-09-20

    An alignment method for pulse-compression gratings that obviates the need to place the gratings at normal incidence to remove grating-tip error is proposed. Grating-tip and groove-orientation errors are removed using two alignment wavelengths in a manner analogous to a laser-beam pointing and centering procedure entirely at the respective Littrow angles for the two wavelengths. By choosing wavelengths with Littrow angles close to the use angle of the grating, the residual tip and groove-orientation errors that may be introduced when the grating mount is tilted to its use angle are reduced. This method has greatly facilitated the alignment of the OMEGA Extended Performance (EP) large-aperture pulse compressors, thereby reducing residual pulse-front tilt caused by nonparallel gratings. OMEGA EP is a high-energy, petawatt-class laser at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. A numerical simulation of the alignment procedure is presented.

  9. Method for removing solid particulate material from within liquid fuel injector assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Simandl, R.F.; Brown, J.D.; Andriulli, J.B.; Strain, P.D.

    1998-09-08

    A method is described for removing residual solid particulate material from the interior of liquid fuel injectors and other fluid flow control mechanisms having or being operatively associated with a flow-regulating fixed or variable orifice. The method comprises the sequential and alternate introduction of columns of a non-compressible liquid phase and columns of a compressed gas phase into the body of a fuel injector whereby the expansion of each column of the gas phase across the orifice accelerates the liquid phase in each trailing column of the liquid phase and thereby generates turbulence in each liquid phase for lifting and entraining the solid particulates for the subsequent removal thereof from the body of the fuel injector. 1 fig.

  10. Method for removing solid particulate material from within liquid fuel injector assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Simandl, Ronald F.; Brown, John D.; Andriulli, John B.; Strain, Paul D.

    1998-01-01

    A method for removing residual solid particulate material from the interior of liquid fuel injectors and other fluid flow control mechanisms having or being operatively associated with a flow-regulating fixed or variable orifice. The method comprises the sequential and alternate introduction of columns of a non-compressible liquid phase and columns of a compressed gas phase into the body of a fuel injector whereby the expansion of each column of the gas phase across the orifice accelerates the liquid phase in each trailing column of the liquid phase and thereby generates turbulence in each liquid phase for lifting and entraining the solid particulates for the subsequent removal thereof from the body of the fuel injector.

  11. Laser welding method for removal of instruments debris from root canals.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Ryoichi; Suehara, Masataka; Fujii, Rie; Kato, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Kan-ichi; Oda, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the viability of a novel method for removing debris from broken instruments from root canals using a laser apparatus. Laser welding was performed on stainless steel or nickel titanium files using an Nd:YAG laser. Retention force between the files and extractors was measured. Increase in temperature on the root surface during laser irradiation was recorded and the irradiated areas evaluated with a scanning electron microscope. Retention force on stainless steel was significantly greater than that on nickel titanium. The maximum temperature increase was 4.1°C. The temperature increase on the root surface was greater in the vicinity of the welded area than that at the apical area. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the files and extractors were welded together. These results indicate that the laser welding method is effective in removing debris from broken instruments from root canals. PMID:23903578

  12. Method for removing impurities from an impurity-containing fluid stream

    DOEpatents

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Fox, Robert V.

    2010-04-06

    A method of removing at least one polar component from a fluid stream. The method comprises providing a fluid stream comprising at least one nonpolar component and at least one polar component. The fluid stream is contacted with a supercritical solvent to remove the at least one polar component. The at least one nonpolar component may be a fat or oil and the at least one polar component may be water, dirt, detergents, or mixtures thereof. The supercritical solvent may decrease solubility of the at least one polar component in the fluid stream. The supercritical solvent may function as a solvent or as a gas antisolvent. The supercritical solvent may dissolve the nonpolar components of the fluid stream, such as fats or oils, while the polar components may be substantially insoluble. Alternatively, the supercritical solvent may be used to increase the nonpolarity of the fluid stream.

  13. The method of manufacture of nylon dental partially removable prosthesis using additive technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashapov, R. N.; Korobkina, A. I.; Platonov, E. V.; Saleeva, G. T.

    2014-12-01

    The article is devoted to the topic of creating new methods of dental prosthesis. The aim of this work is to investigate the possibility of using additive technology to create nylon prosthesis. As a result of experimental studies, was made a sample of nylon partially removable prosthesis using 3D printing has allowed to simplify, accelerate and reduce the coat of manufacturing high-precision nylon dentures.

  14. Method of and apparatus for removing silicon from a high temperature sodium coolant

    DOEpatents

    Yunker, W.H.; Christiansen, D.W.

    1983-11-25

    This patent discloses a method of and system for removing silicon from a high temperature liquid sodium coolant system for a nuclear reactor. The sodium is cooled to a temperature below the silicon saturation temperature and retained at such reduced temperature while inducing high turbulence into the sodium flow for promoting precipitation of silicon compounds and ultimate separation of silicon compound particles from the liquid sodium.

  15. Method for removal of plutonium impurity from americium oxides and fluorides

    DOEpatents

    FitzPatrick, John R.; Dunn, Jerry G.; Avens, Larry R.

    1987-01-01

    Method for removal of plutonium impurity from americium oxides and fluorides. AmF.sub.4 is not further oxidized to AmF.sub.6 by the application of O.sub.2 F at room temperature, while plutonium compounds present in the americium sample are fluorinated to volatile PuF.sub.6, which can readily be separated therefrom, leaving the purified americium oxides and/or fluorides as the solid tetrafluoride.

  16. Method for removal of plutonium impurity from americium oxides and fluorides

    DOEpatents

    FitzPatrick, J.R.; Dunn, J.G.; Avens, L.R.

    1987-02-13

    Method for removal of plutonium impurity from americium oxides and fluorides. AmF/sub 4/ is not further oxidized to AmF/sub 6/ by the application of O/sub 2/F at room temperature thereto, while plutonium compounds present in the americium sample are fluorinated to volatile PuF/sub 6/, which can readily be separated therefrom, leaving the purified americium oxides and/or fluorides as the solid tetrafluoride thereof.

  17. [Application of a modified method of wavelet noise removing to noisy ICP-AES spectra].

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-guo; Zhang, Zhan-xia

    2003-06-01

    A new method for noise removal from signal by the wavelet transform was developed. Compared with analytical signal, noise has higher frequency and smaller amplitude. By the new wavelet filtering method, the high frequency components were first removed, and then the small ones in the remaining transformed vectors were discarded. The proposed approach was evaluated by the processing of simulated and experimental noisy ICP-AES spectra. Different amounts of noise were added to a Gaussian peak to obtain a series of noisy ICP spectra. The simulated noisy spectra with R (signal to noise ratio) = 6 and N (data number) = 51, and with R = 6 and N = 17 were used to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed method. The performances of noise removal by the wavelet smoothing, the wavelet denoising and the proposed technique were compared. It was found that using the new approach, the relative errors of peak height would be no more than 5% for spectra with normal sampling points and R > or = 2. Moreover, the baseline could be easily defined, which was helpful to the accurate measurement of peak height. Experimental spectra of Al and V at low concentrations were processed by the proposed method. Intense noises were efficiently removed and the spectra became smoother without underestimating the analytical signal. The distortion of V 303.310 nm line was substantially rectified. The linear correlation coefficients between the peak heights in the reconstructed spectra and the concentrations were found to be 0.9953 for Al and 0.9836 for V, respectively. PMID:12953539

  18. Method of removing and recovering elemental sulfur from highly reducing gas streams containing sulfur gases

    DOEpatents

    Gangwal, Santosh K.; Nikolopoulos, Apostolos A.; Dorchak, Thomas P.; Dorchak, Mary Anne

    2005-11-08

    A method is provided for removal of sulfur gases and recovery of elemental sulfur from sulfur gas containing supply streams, such as syngas or coal gas, by contacting the supply stream with a catalyst, that is either an activated carbon or an oxide based catalyst, and an oxidant, such as sulfur dioxide, in a reaction medium such as molten sulfur, to convert the sulfur gases in the supply stream to elemental sulfur, and recovering the elemental sulfur by separation from the reaction medium.

  19. Maternal obesity is associated with a reduction in placental taurine transporter activity

    PubMed Central

    Ditchfield, A M; Desforges, M; Mills, T A; Glazier, J D; Wareing, M; Mynett, K; Sibley, C P; Greenwood, S L

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Maternal obesity increases the risk of poor pregnancy outcome including stillbirth, pre-eclampsia, fetal growth restriction and fetal overgrowth. These pregnancy complications are associated with dysfunctional syncytiotrophoblast, the transporting epithelium of the human placenta. Taurine, a β-amino acid with antioxidant and cytoprotective properties, has a role in syncytiotrophoblast development and function and is required for fetal growth and organ development. Taurine is conditionally essential in pregnancy and fetal tissues depend on uptake of taurine from maternal blood. We tested the hypothesis that taurine uptake into placental syncytiotrophoblast by the taurine transporter protein (TauT) is lower in obese women (body mass index (BMI)⩾30 kg m−2) than in women of ideal weight (BMI 18.5–24.9 kg m−2) and explored potential regulatory factors. Subjects/Methods: Placentas were collected from term (37–42-week gestation), uncomplicated, singleton pregnancies from women with BMI 19–49 kg m−2. TauT activity was measured as the Na+-dependent uptake of 3H-taurine into placental villous fragments. TauT expression in membrane-enriched placental samples was investigated by western blot. In vitro studies using placental villous explants examined whether leptin or IL-6, adipokines/cytokines that are elevated in maternal obesity, regulates TauT activity. Results: Placental TauT activity was significantly lower in obese women (BMI⩾30) than women of ideal weight (P<0.03) and inversely related to maternal BMI (19–49 kg m−2; P<0.05; n=61). There was no difference in TauT expression between placentas of ideal weight and obese class III (BMI⩾40) subjects. Long-term exposure (48 h) of placental villous explants to leptin or IL-6 did not affect TauT activity. Conclusions: Placental TauT activity at term is negatively related to maternal BMI. We propose that the reduction in placental TauT activity in maternal obesity

  20. METHOD FOR REMOVAL OF LIGHT ISOTOPE PRODUCT FROM LIQUID THERMAL DIFFUSION UNITS

    DOEpatents

    Hoffman, J.D.; Ballou, J.K.

    1957-11-19

    A method and apparatus are described for removing the lighter isotope of a gaseous-liquid product from a number of diffusion columns of a liquid thermal diffusion system in two stages by the use of freeze valves. The subject liquid flows from the diffusion columns into a heated sloping capsule where the liquid is vaporized by the action of steam in a heated jacket surrounding the capsule. When the capsule is filled the gas flows into a collector. Flow between the various stages is controlled by freeze valves which are opened and closed by the passage of gas and cool water respectively through coils surrounding portions of the pipes through which the process liquid is passed. The use of the dual stage remover-collector and the freeze valves is an improvement on the thermal diffusion separation process whereby the fraction containing the lighter isotope many be removed from the tops of the diffusion columns without intercolumn flow, or prior stage flow while the contents of the capsule is removed to the final receiver.

  1. Investigation on mercury removal method from flue gas in the presence of sulfur dioxide.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yongpeng; Qu, Zan; Xu, Haomiao; Wang, Wenhua; Yan, Naiqiang

    2014-08-30

    A new integrated process was developed for the removal and reclamation of mercury from the flue gas in the presence of SO2, typically derived from nonferrous metal smelting. The new process contains a pre-desulfurization unit (Stage I) and a co-absorption unit (Stage II). In Stage I, 90% of the SO2 from flue gas can be efficiently absorbed by ferric sulfate and reclaimed sulfuric acid. Meanwhile, the proportion of Hg(2+) and Hg(0) in the flue gas can be redistributed in this stage. Then, over 95% of the Hg(0) and the residual SO2 can be removed simultaneously with a composite absorption solution from the flue gas in Stage II, which is much more efficient for the Hg(0) reclaiming than the traditional method. The composite absorption solution in Stage II, which is composed of 0.1g/L HgSO4, 1.0% H2O2 and H2SO4, could effectively remove and reclaim Hg(0) overcoming the negative effect of SO2 on Hg(0) absorption. Moreover, the concentrations of HgSO4 and H2O2 were adjusted with the changes in of the concentrations of Hg(0) and SO2 in the flue gas. It is a potential and promising technology for the mercury removal and reclaim from the flue gas in the presence of SO2. PMID:25072135

  2. Placental Adaptation: What Can We Learn from Birthweight:Placental Weight Ratio?

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, Christina E.; Lean, Samantha; Sibley, Colin P.; Jones, Rebecca L.; Wareing, Mark; Greenwood, Susan L.; Dilworth, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate fetal growth relies upon adequate placental nutrient transfer. Birthweight:placental weight ratio (BW:PW ratio) is often used as a proxy for placental efficiency, defined as the grams of fetus produced per gram placenta. An elevated BW:PW ratio in an appropriately grown fetus (small placenta) is assumed to be due to up-regulated placental nutrient transfer capacity i.e., a higher nutrient net flux per gram placenta. In fetal growth restriction (FGR), where a fetus fails to achieve its genetically pre-determined growth potential, placental weight and BW:PW ratio are often reduced which may indicate a placenta that fails to adapt its nutrient transfer capacity to compensate for its small size. This review considers the literature on BW:PW ratio in both large cohort studies of normal pregnancies and those studies offering insight into the relationship between BW:PW ratio and outcome measures including stillbirth, FGR, and subsequent postnatal consequences. The core of this review is the question of whether BW:PW ratio is truly indicative of altered placental efficiency, and whether changes in BW:PW ratio reflect those placentas which adapt their nutrient transfer according to their size. We consider this question using data from mice and humans, focusing upon studies that have measured the activity of the well characterized placental system A amino acid transporter, both in uncomplicated pregnancies and in FGR. Evidence suggests that BW:PW ratio is reduced both in FGR and in pregnancies resulting in a small for gestational age (SGA, birthweight < 10th centile) infant but this effect is more pronounced earlier in gestation (<28 weeks). In mice, there is a clear association between increased BW:PW ratio and increased placental system A activity. Additionally, there is good evidence in wild-type mice that small placentas upregulate placental nutrient transfer to prevent fetal undergrowth. In humans, this association between BW:PW ratio and placental system A

  3. Comparison of Unsupervised Vegetation Classification Methods from Vhr Images after Shadows Removal by Innovative Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Movia, A.; Beinat, A.; Crosilla, F.

    2015-04-01

    The recognition of vegetation by the analysis of very high resolution (VHR) aerial images provides meaningful information about environmental features; nevertheless, VHR images frequently contain shadows that generate significant problems for the classification of the image components and for the extraction of the needed information. The aim of this research is to classify, from VHR aerial images, vegetation involved in the balance process of the environmental biochemical cycle, and to discriminate it with respect to urban and agricultural features. Three classification algorithms have been experimented in order to better recognize vegetation, and compared to NDVI index; unfortunately all these methods are conditioned by the presence of shadows on the images. Literature presents several algorithms to detect and remove shadows in the scene: most of them are based on the RGB to HSI transformations. In this work some of them have been implemented and compared with one based on RGB bands. Successively, in order to remove shadows and restore brightness on the images, some innovative algorithms, based on Procrustes theory, have been implemented and applied. Among these, we evaluate the capability of the so called "not-centered oblique Procrustes" and "anisotropic Procrustes" methods to efficiently restore brightness with respect to a linear correlation correction based on the Cholesky decomposition. Some experimental results obtained by different classification methods after shadows removal carried out with the innovative algorithms are presented and discussed.

  4. Placental specializations in lecithotrophic viviparous squamate reptiles.

    PubMed

    Stewart, James R

    2015-09-01

    Squamate reptiles have been thought to be predisposed to evolution of viviparity because embryos of most oviparous species undergo considerable development in the uterus prior to oviposition. A related hypothesis proposes that prolonged intrauterine gestation, an intermediate condition leading to viviparity, requires little or no physiological adjustment, other than reduction in thickness of the eggshell. This logical framework is often accompanied by an assumption that mode of parity (oviparity, viviparity) and pattern of embryonic nutrition (lecithotrophy, placentotrophy) are independent traits that evolve in sequence. Thus, specializations for viviparity should be absent in some lecithotrophic viviparous species. Studies of species of lizards with geographic variation in mode of parity challenge this scenario by demonstrating that placental specializations are correlated with viviparity. Uterine specializations for placental transport of calcium to viviparous embryos alter uterine physiology compared to oviparous females. In addition, comparative studies of oviparous and viviparous species, i.e., in which gene flow is disrupted, reveal that both uterine and embryonic structural modifications are commonly associated with viviparity, suggesting relatively rapid evolution of placental specializations. Studies of squamate reproductive biology support two hypotheses: 1) evolution of viviparity requires physiological adjustments of the uterine environment, and 2) evolution of viviparity promotes relatively rapid adaptations for placentation. Models for the evolution of viviparity from oviparity, or for reversals from viviparity to oviparity, should reflect current understanding of squamate reproductive biology and future studies should be designed to challenge these models. PMID:26055953

  5. BROMODICHLOROMETHANE INHIBITS HUMAN PLACENTAL TROPHOBLAST DIFFERENTIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    BROMODICHLOROMETHANE INHIBITS HUMAN PLACENTAL
    TROPHOBLAST DIFFERENTIATION
    Jiangang Chen, Twanda L. Thirkill, Peter N. Lohstroh, Susan R. Bielmeier, Michael
    G. Narotsky, Deborah S. Best, Randy A. Harrison, Kala Natarajan, Rex A. Pegram,
    Bill L. Lasley, and Gordon C. Do...

  6. Placental Nutrient Transport and Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Gaccioli, Francesca; Lager, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction refers to the inability of the fetus to reach its genetically determined potential size. Fetal growth restriction affects approximately 5–15% of all pregnancies in the United States and Europe. In developing countries the occurrence varies widely between 10 and 55%, impacting about 30 million newborns per year. Besides having high perinatal mortality rates these infants are at greater risk for severe adverse outcomes, such as hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and cerebral palsy. Moreover, reduced fetal growth has lifelong health consequences, including higher risks of developing metabolic and cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. Numerous reports indicate placental insufficiency as one of the underlying causes leading to altered fetal growth and impaired placental capacity of delivering nutrients to the fetus has been shown to contribute to the etiology of intrauterine growth restriction. Indeed, reduced expression and/or activity of placental nutrient transporters have been demonstrated in several conditions associated with an increased risk of delivering a small or growth restricted infant. This review focuses on human pregnancies and summarizes the changes in placental amino acid, fatty acid, and glucose transport reported in conditions associated with intrauterine growth restriction, such as maternal undernutrition, pre-eclampsia, young maternal age, high altitude and infection. PMID:26909042

  7. Macrophage Exosomes Induce Placental Inflammatory Cytokines: A Novel Mode of Maternal-Placental Messaging.

    PubMed

    Holder, Beth; Jones, Tessa; Sancho Shimizu, Vanessa; Rice, Thomas F; Donaldson, Beverly; Bouqueau, Marielle; Forbes, Karen; Kampmann, Beate

    2016-02-01

    During pregnancy, the placenta forms the interface between mother and fetus. Highly controlled regulation of trans-placental trafficking is therefore essential for the healthy development of the growing fetus. Extracellular vesicle-mediated transfer of protein and nucleic acids from the human placenta into the maternal circulation is well documented; the possibility that this trafficking is bi-directional has not yet been explored but could affect placental function and impact on the fetus.We hypothesized that the ability of the placenta to respond to maternal inflammatory signals is mediated by the interaction of maternal immune cell exosomes with placental trophoblast. Utilizing the BeWo cell line and whole placental explants, we demonstrated that the human placenta internalizes macrophage-derived exosomes in a time- and dose-dependent manner. This uptake was via clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Furthermore, macrophage exosomes induced release of proinflammatory cytokines by the placenta. Taken together, our data demonstrates that exosomes are actively transported into the human placenta and that exosomes from activated immune cells modulate placental cytokine production. This represents a novel mechanism by which immune cells can signal to the placental unit, potentially facilitating responses to maternal inflammation and infection, and thereby preventing harm to the fetus. PMID:26602702

  8. Evaluation of Different Methods for Removing Oral Biofilm in Patients Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Maria Sonia; Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Mattos, Fernanda Zanol; Semenoff, Tereza Aparecida Della Vedove; Segundo, Alex Semenoff; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Bandeca, Matheus Coêlho; Porto, Alessandra Nogueira

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study aimed to evaluate the different methods for removing oral biofilm in combination with 0.12% chlorhexidine, in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of the General University Hospital. Materials and Methods: Initially, the patients were included in the study and underwent periodontal evaluation by means of the visible plaque index (VPI) and gingival bleeding index (GBI). The removal of visible biofilm, by a professional, was carried out using a toothbrush and dental floss, followed by the application of a 0.12% chlorhexidine solution. The patients were included in this randomized and controlled study into four groups (total n = 48), as follows: Chlorhexidine and gauze 12/12 h; chlorhexidine and gauze 24/24 h; chlorhexidine and brushing 12/12 h; chlorhexidine and brushing 24/24 h. The patients underwent the biofilm removal protocol for 7 days and then were subjected to a new clinical evaluation as to VPI and GBI. Data analysis was performed through stratification and arrangement of the records, in order to carry out the associations with health indicators used in the study, and the statistical tests used were Kappa and t-test for independent and paired samples. Results: A decrease in the VPI and GBI values when comparing baseline to the final evaluation for all groups was observed. Conclusion: Based on the methodology, it was possible to concluded that chlorhexidine associated with the mechanical action of the toothbrush or gauze in the times 12 h and 24 h in the ICU environment presented the same results as regards amount of visible biofilm. How to cite the article: Oliveira MS, Borges AH, Mattos FZ, Semenoff TA, Segundo AS, Tonetto MR, Bandeca MC, Porto AN. Evaluation of different methods for removing oral biofilm in patients admitted to the intensive care unit. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):61-4. PMID:25083034

  9. The Necessity of Awareness of Early Symptoms of Placental Abruption Among Pregnant Japanese Women

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shunji; Shinmura, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2012, the recommendation for immediate contact and visit to obstetric institutions by pregnant women was emphasized by The Japan Obstetric Compensation System for Cerebral Palsy (JOCSC). In this study, we examined whether or not the increased awareness has led to the improvement of perinatal outcomes of placental abruption managed at private clinics. Methods We reviewed the obstetric records of 38 singleton pregnant women complicated by placental abruption that developed at home, and were managed at private clinics from April 2008 through April 2016. Results The perinatal outcomes, specifically the rate of cases with ≥ 1 hour time interval between symptom onset and clinic visit, have not changed significantly after the intervention. Conclusion The provision of information regarding the early clinical symptoms associated with placental abruption in pregnant women has not been well documented in Japan. PMID:27540442

  10. Method for the removal of ultrafine particulates from an aqueous suspension

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, David J.; Kopasz, John P.; Ellison, Adam J. G.

    2000-01-01

    A method of separating ultra-fine particulates from an aqueous suspension such as a process stream or a waste stream. The method involves the addition of alkali silicate and an organic gelling agent to a volume of liquid, from the respective process or waste stream, to form a gel. The gel then undergoes syneresis to remove water and soluble salts from the gel containing the particulates, thus, forming a silica monolith. The silica monolith is then sintered to form a hard, nonporous waste form.

  11. Method and apparatus for the removal or bioconversion of constituents of organic liquids

    DOEpatents

    Scott, T.; Scott, C.D.

    1994-10-25

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the removal or conversion of constituents from bulk organic liquids. A countercurrent biphasic bioreactor system is utilized to disperse and recoalesce a biocatalyst contained in the aqueous liquid phase into the organic liquid phase containing the constituent. Two transient, high-intensity electrical fields rupture the aqueous drops into a plurality of microdroplets and induce continuous coalescence and redispersion as the microdroplets travel through the organic phase, thus increasing surface area. As the aqueous microdroplets progress through the organic phase, the biocatalyst then reacts with the constituent to produce a product which is then removed from the bioreactor in the aqueous phase or retained in the organic phase. The organic liquid, now free of the original constituents, is ready for immediate use or further processing. 1 fig.

  12. Treated bottom ash medium and method of arsenic removal from drinking water

    DOEpatents

    Gadgil, Ashok

    2009-06-09

    A method for low-cost arsenic removal from drinking water using chemically prepared bottom ash pre-treated with ferrous sulfate and then sodium hydroxide. Deposits on the surface of particles of bottom ash form of activated iron adsorbent with a high affinity for arsenic. In laboratory tests, a miniscule 5 grams of pre-treated bottom ash was sufficient to remove the arsenic from 2 liters of 2400 ppb (parts per billion) arsenic-laden water to a level below 50 ppb (the present United States Environmental Protection Agency limit). By increasing the amount of pre-treated bottom ash, even lower levels of post-treatment arsenic are expected. It is further expected that this invention supplies a very low-cost solution to arsenic poisoning for large population segments.

  13. Economic and environmental evaluation of nitrogen removal and recovery methods from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yanzi; Guo, Miao; Shah, Nilay; Stuckey, David C

    2016-09-01

    The driver for waste-based economic growth is long-term strategic design, and a paradigm-shift from waste treatment to resource recovery. This study aims to use an integrated modelling approach to evaluate the holistic economic and environmental profiles of three alternative nitrogen removal and recovery methods integrated into wastewater treatment systems, including conventional nitrification-denitrification, Anammox, and the anaerobic ion exchange route, to provide insights into N recovery system designs which are key elements in building a sustainable circular economy. Our results suggest that ion exchange is a promising technology showing high N removal-recovery efficiency from municipal wastewater and delivering competitive sustainability scores. In comparison with the well-developed conventional route, ion exchange and Anammox are undergoing significant research and development; as highlighted in sensitivity analyses, there is considerable room for process design and optimisation of ion exchange systems to achieve economically and environmentally optimal performance. PMID:27005785

  14. A Hierarchical Method for Removal of Baseline Drift from Biomedical Signals: Application in ECG Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yurong; Hargraves, Rosalyn H.; Bai, Ou; Qi, Xuguang; Ward, Kevin R.; Pfaffenberger, Michael Paul

    2013-01-01

    Noise can compromise the extraction of some fundamental and important features from biomedical signals and hence prohibit accurate analysis of these signals. Baseline wander in electrocardiogram (ECG) signals is one such example, which can be caused by factors such as respiration, variations in electrode impedance, and excessive body movements. Unless baseline wander is effectively removed, the accuracy of any feature extracted from the ECG, such as timing and duration of the ST-segment, is compromised. This paper approaches this filtering task from a novel standpoint by assuming that the ECG baseline wander comes from an independent and unknown source. The technique utilizes a hierarchical method including a blind source separation (BSS) step, in particular independent component analysis, to eliminate the effect of the baseline wander. We examine the specifics of the components causing the baseline wander and the factors that affect the separation process. Experimental results reveal the superiority of the proposed algorithm in removing the baseline wander. PMID:23766720

  15. Laser cleaning: an alternative method for removing oil-spill fuel residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateo, M. P.; Nicolas, G.; Piñon, V.; Ramil, A.; Yañez, A.

    2005-07-01

    Cleaning methods employed in last oil spills usually require direct contact or the intervention of external agents that can lead to additional contamination and damage of treated surfaces. As an alternative, a laser-based methodology is proposed in this work for controlled removal of fuel residues caused by the accident of Prestige tanker from rocks, as well as tools and equipment employed in fuel retaining and elimination procedures. Ablation thresholds of fuel crust and underlying material have been investigated with the aim to establish operational parameters that preserve the structural integrity and identity of the latter. The clean-up process was controlled by the self-limiting nature of the process or by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy. Contaminated, no contaminated and cleaned areas of the samples have been characterized by complementary microscopy techniques to help in the task of optimizing the laser cleaning procedure and checking the effectiveness of the removal process.

  16. Method and apparatus for removal of gaseous, liquid and particulate contaminants from molten metals

    DOEpatents

    Hobson, David O.; Alexeff, Igor; Sikka, Vinod K.

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus for removal of nonelectrically-conducting gaseous, liquid, and particulate contaminants from molten metal compositions by applying a force thereto. The force (commonly referred to as the Lorentz Force) exerted by simultaneous application of an electric field and a magnetic field on a molten conductor causes an increase, in the same direction as the force, in the apparent specific gravity thereof, but does not affect the nonconducting materials. This difference in apparent densities cause the nonconducting materials to "float" in the opposite direction from the Lorentz Force at a rapid rate. Means are further provided for removal of the contaminants and prevention of stirring due to rotational forces generated by the applied fields.

  17. Method and apparatus for removal of gaseous, liquid and particulate contaminants from molten metals

    DOEpatents

    Hobson, D.O.; Alexeff, I.; Sikka, V.K.

    1987-08-10

    Method and apparatus for removal of nonelectrically-conducting gaseous, liquid, and particulate contaminants from molten metal compositions by applying a force thereto. The force (commonly referred to as the Lorentz Force) exerted by simultaneous application of an electric field and a magnetic field on a molten conductor causes an increase, in the same direction as the force, in the apparent specific gravity thereof, but does not affect the nonconducting materials. This difference in apparent densities cause the nonconducting materials to ''float'' in the opposite direction from the Lorentz Force at a rapid rate. Means are further provided for removal of the contaminants and prevention of stirring due to rotational forces generated by the applied fields. 6 figs.

  18. Method and device for removing a non-aqueous phase liquid from a groundwater system

    DOEpatents

    Looney, Brian B.; Rossabi, Joseph; Riha, Brian D.

    2002-01-01

    A device for removing a non-aqueous phase liquid from a groundwater system includes a generally cylindrical push-rod defining an internal recess therein. The push-rod includes first and second end portions and an external liquid collection surface. A liquid collection member is detachably connected to the push-rod at one of the first and second end portions thereof. The method of the present invention for removing a non-aqueous phase liquid from a contaminated groundwater system includes providing a lance including an external hydrophobic liquid collection surface, an internal recess, and a collection chamber at the bottom end thereof. The lance is extended into the groundwater system such that the top end thereof remains above the ground surface. The liquid is then allowed to collect on the liquid collection surface, and flow downwardly by gravity into the collection chamber to be pumped upwardly through the internal recess in the lance.

  19. The impact of phospholipids and phospholipid removal on bioanalytical method performance.

    PubMed

    Carmical, Jennifer; Brown, Stacy

    2016-05-01

    Phospholipids (PLs) are a component of cellmembranes, biological fluids and tissues. These compounds are problematic for the bioanalytical chemist, especially when PLs are not the analytes of interest. PL interference with bioanalysis highly impacts reverse-phase chromatographic methods coupled with mass spectrometric detection. Phospholipids are strongly retained on hydrophobic columns, and can cause significant ionization suppression in the mass spectrometer, as they outcompete analyte molecules for ionization. Strategies for improving analyte detection in the presence of PLs are reviewed, including in-analysis modifications and sample preparation strategies. Removal of interfering PLs prior to analysis seems to be most effective atmoderating thematrix effects fromthese endogenous cellular components, and has the potential to simplify chromatography and improve column lifetime. Products targeted at PL removal for sample pre-treatment, as well as products that combine multiplemodes of sample preparation (i.e. Hybrid SPE), show significant promise inmediating the effect on PL interference in bioanalysis. PMID:26773720

  20. Method and apparatus for the removal of bioconversion of constituents of organic liquids

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Timothy; Scott, Charles D.

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the removal or conversion of constituents from bulk organic liquids. A countercurrent biphasic bioreactor system is utilized to disperse and recoalesce a biocatalyst contained in the aqueous liquid phase into the organic liquid phase containing the constituent. Two transient, high-intensity electrical fields rupture the aqueous drops into a plurality of microdroplets and induce continuous coalescence and redispersion as the microdroplets travel through the organic phase, thus increasing surface area. As the aqueous microdroplets progress through the organic phase, the biocatalyst then reacts with the constituent to produce a product which is then removed from the bioreactor in the aqueous phase or retained in the organic phase. The organic liquid, now free of the original constituents, is ready for immediate use or further processing.

  1. Coupling Surfactants with Permanganate for PCE DNAPL Removal: Coinjection or Sequential Application as Delivery Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugan, P. J.; Siegrist, R. L.; Crimi, M. L.

    2008-12-01

    Batch experiments and two-dimensional (2-D) flow-through cell experiments were conducted to investigate coupling surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) with in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) of tetrachloroethene (PCE) dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) for PCE mass destruction. Previous batch screening tests were performed on surfactants and cosolvents in the presence of the oxidant potassium permanganate, to assess compatibility for coupling with permanganate. The anionic surfactants sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate (Aerosol OT), and sodium hexadecyl diphenyl oxide disulfonate (Dowfax 8390) were compatible and selected for use. Two delivery methods were investigated: (1) coinjection of 0.66 pore volumes (PVs) of 1.0-wt% Aerosol-OT, 0.5-wt% Dowfax 8390, 0.35-wt% CaBr2, and 0.75-wt% NaBr, (for enhanced PCE solubilization) with 0.5-wt% permanganate(for DNAPL mass destruction), and (2) sequential application of 0.66 PVs of the same surfactant solution followed by 0.66 PVs of 0.5-wt% permanganate flush. The 2-D cell packing configuration consisted of a fine-grained silica sand matrix with an embedded medium- grained sand lens, which allowed for the development of a high saturation PCE DNAPL source zone (~9-11% v/v) within the lens of each cell. For both experiments the flushing solutions were delivered at a linear velocity of 52 cm/day. Water quality samples were collected from eight point sampling ports, as well as the cell effluent. Samples were analyzed for PCE, chloride, and permanganate. At the conclusion of the experiments, the mass of PCE removed was quantified by destructively analyzing the cell. Results indicate complete mass removal using sequential application as a delivery method. In the coinjection experiment, cores extracted at the conclusion revealed that 99.8% of PCE DNAPL mass was removed. However, it was not possible to close a mass balance between the initial PCE added and the PCE removed. It is hypothesized this result was due to incomplete

  2. Robust Chemical Synthesis of Membrane Proteins through a General Method of Removable Backbone Modification.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ji-Shen; He, Yao; Zuo, Chao; Cai, Xiao-Ying; Tang, Shan; Wang, Zhipeng A; Zhang, Long-Hua; Tian, Chang-Lin; Liu, Lei

    2016-03-16

    Chemical protein synthesis can provide access to proteins with post-translational modifications or site-specific labelings. Although this technology is finding increasing applications in the studies of water-soluble globular proteins, chemical synthesis of membrane proteins remains elusive. In this report, a general and robust removable backbone modification (RBM) method is developed for the chemical synthesis of membrane proteins. This method uses an activated O-to-N acyl transfer auxiliary to install in the Fmoc solid-phase peptide synthesis process a RBM group with switchable reactivity toward trifluoroacetic acid. The method can be applied to versatile membrane proteins because the RBM group can be placed at any primary amino acid. With RBM, the membrane proteins and their segments behave almost as if they were water-soluble peptides and can be easily handled in the process of ligation, purification, and mass characterizations. After the full-length protein is assembled, the RBM group can be readily removed by trifluoroacetic acid. The efficiency and usefulness of the new method has been demonstrated by the successful synthesis of a two-transmembrane-domain protein (HCV p7 ion channel) with site-specific isotopic labeling and a four-transmembrane-domain protein (multidrug resistance transporter EmrE). This method enables practical synthesis of small- to medium-sized membrane proteins or membrane protein domains for biochemical and biophysical studies. PMID:26943264

  3. INFLUENCE OF METHOD FOR REMOVAL OF SESTON ON THE DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER(1).

    PubMed

    Parker, B C

    1967-12-01

    Comparisons of various methods and method modifications for treating water samples to render them free of seston prior to analysis of dissolved organic matter have corroborated a number of suspected sources of error. Among the more important points arising from this study arc: 1. All cellulose ester filters must be washed to remove elutable carbon. 2. In some instances filtration to dryness may produce artifacts resulting from cell injury. 3. A significant difference in filter retention can result between 0.45 and 0.22 μ membranes. 4. Among the methods most satisfactory are wet filtration through 0.22 μ pre-washed Millipore membranes and continuous-flow centrifugation at ca. 10,000 x g and 100 cc/min flow rate, both of which have their inherent weaknesses and limitations. 5. Regular centrifugation does not remove some planktonic organisms which have considerable buoyancy, or organic substances may somehow be released by cells without producing morphological damage. The newly developed bio dialysis technique for dissolved organic matter collection consistently yielded lower values than continuous-flow centrifugation. In contrast, biodialysis yielded lower values for pond water and higher values for Scenedesmus cultures than the best filtration method. Evidence suggests that biodialysis will be useful as both a supplementary and, in some zuays, more accurate method in studies of dissolved organic matter. PMID:27065026

  4. Ultrastructural, Cytochemical, and Radioautographic Localization of Placental Iron

    PubMed Central

    Parmley, Richard T.; Barton, James C.; Conrad, Marcel E.

    1981-01-01

    Maternal-fetal iron transfer across the guinea pig hemomonochorial placenta during the first, second, and third trimesters was examined using ultrastructural, cytochemical, radioautographic, and ferrokinetic methods. Acid ferrocyanide stained inorganic ferric iron on and in sinusoidal microvilli, cytoplasmic matrix or ground substance, and the outer basal plasmalemma of epithelial cells. Some stain deposits were observed within and on either side of the basement membrane. The extraluminal outer plasmalemma, intercellular junctions, and cytoplasm of endothelial cells frequently contained numerous stain deposits. Staining of trophoblast sinusoidal microvilli was similar during early and late gestation, whereas the staining of the basement membrane and endothelial cells was most prominent during the second and third trimesters. Staining of ferric iron was encountered in rare cytoplasmic granules of epithelial cells during late gestation, but not during early gestation. Placental macrophages contained acid-ferrocyanide-reactive ferric iron in large heterophagosomes and hyaloplasm. Acid ferricyanide failed to localize ferrous iron in either epithelial cells or macrophages. Light-microscopic radioautographic studies localized radioiron in placental epithelial cells and Prussian-blue-positive macrophages in specimens obtained 30 minutes after injection of radioiron (55Fe, 59Fe) into the maternal saphenous vein. At the ultrastructural level labeling was observed (in order of decreasing grain density) in or on the epithelial basal plasmalemma and basement membrane, endothelial cytoplasm, epithelial sinusoidal microvilli, and epithelial cytoplasm. Significant staining or radiolabeling was not observed in mitochondria, trophoblast granules, or nuclei. These results indicate that placental non-heme iron is trivalent and moves from the maternal to the fetal circulation by passing through trophoblast microvilli, cytoplasmic matrix, basal plasmalemma, basement membrane

  5. Diagnosis of Placental Abruption: Relationship between Clinical and Histopathological Findings

    PubMed Central

    Elsasser, Denise A.; Ananth, Cande V.; Prasad, Vinay; Vintzileos, Anthony M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the extent to which histologic lesions bearing a diagnosis of abruption conform to a diagnosis based on established clinical criteria. We further examined the profile of chronic and acute histologic lesions associated with clinical abruption. Methods Data from the New Jersey-Placental Abruption Study – a multi-center, case-control study – were utilized to compare the clinical and histologic criteria for abruption. The study was based on 162 women with clinically diagnosed abruption and 173 controls. We examined the concordance between clinical indicators for abruption with those of a histopathological diagnosis. The clinical criteria for a diagnosis of abruption included (i) evidence of retroplacental clot(s); (ii) abruption diagnosed on prenatal ultrasound; or (iii) vaginal bleeding accompanied by nonreassuring fetal status or uterine hypertonicity. The pathological criteria for abruption diagnosis included hematoma, fibrin deposition, compressed villi, and hemosiderin-laden histiocytes in cases with older hematomas. Acute lesions included chorioamnionitis, funisitis, acute deciduitis, meconium stained membranes, villous stromal hemorrhage, and villous edema. Chronic lesions included chronic deciduitis, decidual necrosis, decidual vasculopathy, placental infarctions, villous maldevelopment (delayed or accelerated maturation), hemosiderin deposition, intervillous thrombus, and chronic villitis. Results Of clinically diagnosed cases, the sensitivity and specificity for a histologic confirmation of abruption were 30.2% and 100%, respectively. Presence of retroplacental clots remained the single most common finding (77.1%) among clinically diagnosed cases. Among the acute lesions, chorioamnionitis and funisitis were associated with abruption. The only chronic histologic lesion associated with abruption was placental infarctions. Conclusions The concordance between clinical and pathologic criteria for abruption diagnosis is poor. The criteria

  6. Placental toxicology: tobacco smoke, abused drugs, multiple chemical interactions, and placental function.

    PubMed

    Sastry, B V

    1991-01-01

    There are increasing numbers of reports on the tobacco smoking and ingestion of abused drugs (e.g. morphine, cocaine) by pregnant women and the effects of the substances on the developing fetus and newborn infant. The passage of drugs and chemicals from the mother to the fetus is influenced by the placental transport and metabolism of the substances. Further, these drugs and chemicals affect the nutrient transport systems in the placenta. The three major drugs of abuse-nicotine, morphine and cocaine-depress both active amino-acid uptake by human placental villi and transplacental amino-acid transport by reason of the drugs' influence on placental cholinergic and opiate systems. Part of this depression (10-16%) is not reversible. Nicotine blocks the cholinergic receptor and thus blocks acetylcholine (ACh)-facilitated amino-acid transport. Morphine stimulates opiate kappa receptors and depresses ACh release. Cocaine blocks Ca2+ influx and thus blocks ACh release. ACh causes dilation of blood vessels and maintains placental blood flow by the activation of endothelial muscarinic receptors. By interfering with ACh release and placental blood flow, the three drugs of abuse may depress the diffusion of amino acids and other nutrients from the trophoblast into the placental circulation. Three regulatory systems are delineated for amino-acid uptake by the placenta: placental ACh, phospholipid N-methyltransferase, and the gammaglutamyl cycle. These systems operate in concert with one another and are dependent on cellular formation of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). Placental hypoxia induced by carbon monoxide and other tobacco gases depresses the energy-dependent processes and thus the ATP levels of placental cells. Maternal tobacco smoking and drug abuse cause placental insufficiencies for amino-acid transport, which may partially explain the fetal intrauterine growth retardation caused by these substances. Part of the amino-acid deficits may be compensated for by the

  7. Removing External Degrees of Freedom from Transition-State Search Methods using Quaternions.

    PubMed

    Melander, Marko; Laasonen, Kari; Jónsson, Hannes

    2015-03-10

    In finite systems, such as nanoparticles and gas-phase molecules, calculations of minimum energy paths (MEPs) connecting initial and final states of transitions as well as searches for saddle points are complicated by the presence of external degrees of freedom, such as overall translation and rotation. A method based on quaternion algebra for removing the external degrees of freedom is described here and applied in calculations using two commonly used methods: the nudged elastic band (NEB) method for MEPs and the DIMER method for finding the minimum mode in minimum mode following searches of first-order saddle points. With the quaternion approach, fewer images in the NEB are needed to represent MEPs accurately. In both NEB and DIMER calculations of finite systems, the number of iterations required to reach convergence is significantly reduced. The algorithms have been implemented in the Atomic Simulation Environment (ASE) open source software. PMID:26579757

  8. Induction of placental heme oxygenase-1 is protective against TNFalpha-induced cytotoxicity and promotes vessel relaxation.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, A.; Rahman, M.; Zhang, X.; Acevedo, C. H.; Nijjar, S.; Rushton, I.; Bussolati, B.; St John, J.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is characterized by an inflammatory-like process and this may be exacerbated in preeclampsia. The heme oxygenase (HO) enzymes generate carbon monoxide (CO) that induces blood vessel relaxation and biliverdin that acts as an endogenous antioxidant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined the expression and localization of HO-1 and HO-2 in normal and preeclamptic placenta using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), RNase protection assay, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. In addition, the effect of HO activation on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) induced placental damage and on feto-placental circulation was studied. RESULTS: We provide the first evidence for the role of HO as an endogenous placental factor involved with cytoprotection and placental blood vessel relaxation. HO-1 was significantly higher at term, compared with first trimester placentae indicating its role in placental vascular development and regulation. HO-1 predominantly localized in the extravascular connective tissue that forms the perivascular contractile sheath around the developing blood vessels. HO-2 was localized in the capillaries, as well as the villous stroma, with weak staining of trophoblast. Induction of HO-1 caused a significant attenuation of TNFalpha-mediated cellular damage in placental villous explants, as assessed by lactate dehydrogenase leakage (p < 0.01). HO-1 protein was significantly reduced in placentae from pregnancies complicated with preeclampsia, compared with gestationally matched normal pregnancies. This suggests that the impairment of HO-1 activation may compromise the compensatory mechanism and predispose the placenta to cellular injury and subsequent maternal endothelial cell activation. Isometric contractility studies showed that hemin reduced vascular tension by 61% in U46619-preconstricted placental arteries. Hemin-induced vessel relaxation and CO production was inhibited by HO inhibitor, tin protoporphyrin IX

  9. Laser tattoo removal as an ablation process monitored by acoustical and optical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cencič, Boris; Gregorčič, Peter; Možina, Janez; Jezeršek, Matija

    2013-07-01

    Strength of the laser-tissue interaction varies even within a single tattoo because of the inhomogeneous distribution of the tattoo pigment embedded in the skin. A monitoring system is therefore developed for simultaneous monitoring of the laser tattoo removal process based on acoustical and optical techniques. A laser-beam-deflection probe is used for measuring the acoustical signals accompanying the breakdown, and a CCD camera captures the level and the spatial distribution of the plasma radiation. Using these methods we examine the degree of excitation-pulse absorption within the pigment and the degree of the structural changes of the skin. A Nd:YAG laser with a top-hat beam profile, designed for tattoo removal, is used as the excitation source in our experiments. Special attention is given to structural changes in the skin, which depend on the applied fluence. Tattoo removal with multiple pulses is also analyzed. Experiments are made in vitro (skin phantoms) and ex vivo (marking tattoos on the pig skin). The presented results are important for the understanding and optimization of the process used in medical therapies.

  10. Colour and organic removal of biologically treated coffee curing wastewater by electrochemical oxidation method.

    PubMed

    Bejankiwar, Rajesh S; Lokesh, K S; Gowda, T P Halappa

    2003-05-01

    The treatment of biologically treated wastewater of coffee-curing industry by the electrochemical oxidation using steel anode was investigated. Bench-scale experiments were conducted for activated sludge process on raw wastewater and the treated effluents were further treated by electrochemical oxidation method for its colour and organic content removal. The efficiency of the process was determined in terms of removal percentage of COD, BOD and colour during the course of reaction. Several operating parameters like time, pH and current density were examined to ascertain their effects on the treatment efficiency. Steel anode was found to be effective for the COD and colour removal with anode efficiency of 0.118 kgCOD x h(-1) x A(-1) x m(-2) and energy consumption 20.61 kWh x kg(-1) of COD at pH 9. The decrease in pH from 9 to 3 found to increase the anode efficiency from 0.118 kgCOD x h(-1) x A(-1) x m(-2) to 0.144 kWh x kg(-1) of COD while decrease the energy consumption from 20.61 kWh x kg(-1) of COD to 12.86 kWh x kg(-1) of COD. The pH of 5 was considered an ideal from the present treatment process as it avoids the addition of chemicals for neutralization of treated effluents and also economical with respect to energy consumption. An empirical relation developed for relationship between applied current density and COD removal efficiency showed strong predictive capability with coefficient of determination of 96.5%. PMID:12938980

  11. Coagulation and Fibrinolysis Indicators and Placental Malaria Infection in an Area Characterized by Unstable Malaria Transmission in Central Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Mostafa, Amged G.; Bilal, Naser E.; Abass, Awad-Elkareem; Elhassan, Elhassan M.; Mohmmed, Ahmed A.; Adam, Ishag

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate coagulation, fibrinolysis indicators, and malaria during pregnancy. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Medani, Sudan. Sociodemographic characteristics were gathered from each parturient woman (163) and malaria was investigated by blood film and placental histology. Protein C, protein S, antithrombin-III, tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels (PAI-1) were measured using ELISA. Results. One (0.6%), three (1.8), and 19 (11.7%) of the placentae showed active, chronic, and past infection on a histopathological examination, respectively, while 140 (85.9%) of them showed no signs of malaria infection. While the mean [SD] of the protein C, antithrombin-III, and TFPI was significantly lower, there was no significant difference in protein S and PAI-1 levels in women with placental malaria infection (n = 23) compared to those without placental malaria infection (140). In linear regression, placental malaria infection was associated with antithrombin-III. There was no association between placental malaria infections and protein C, protein S, TFPI, and PAI-1 levels. There was no association between hemoglobin, birth weight, and the investigated coagulation and fibrinolysis indicators. Conclusion. This study showed significantly lower levels of protein C, antithrombin-III, and TFPI in women with placental malaria infections. PMID:26295004

  12. Observer reliability in assessing placental maturity by histology.

    PubMed Central

    Khong, T Y; Staples, A; Bendon, R W; Chambers, H M; Gould, S J; Knowles, S; Shen-Schwarz, S

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To evaluate the ability of five experienced perinatal pathologists to assess placental maturity reliably by histology. METHODS--Twenty four haematoxylin and eosin slides, six each from placentas of 27, 31, 35, and 39 weeks' gestation, were circulated to five pathologists on three separate occasions. The slides were labelled with the correct or incorrect gestational ages. RESULTS--The mean absolute error over all 360 readings was 2.72 weeks. Only 54% of the slides were assessed within two weeks of the correct gestation. Pathologist tended to overestimate younger gestations and underestimate older gestations. Two, and possibly three, pathologist were influenced by the gestational age state on the label. One pathologist, who did not appear to be influenced by the label, was more accurate in diagnosing gestation of the placentas than other colleagues. CONCLUSIONS--Experienced pathologists can have difficulty in assessing the villous maturity of placentas by histology. They can also be influenced by clinical information provided, such as gestational age. Other observer reliability studies must address the issue of the influence of labelled information on observer variation. A difference in maturation would have to be of a six week magnitude to have a chance of being detected by current methods. This may limit the value of the histological diagnosis of placental dysmaturity as a surrogate marker for uteroplacental ischaemia. PMID:7629287

  13. An Analysis Method for Superconducting Resonator Parameter Extraction with Complex Baseline Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    A new semi-empirical model is proposed for extracting the quality (Q) factors of arrays of superconducting microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs). The determination of the total internal and coupling Q factors enables the computation of the loss in the superconducting transmission lines. The method used allows the simultaneous analysis of multiple interacting discrete resonators with the presence of a complex spectral baseline arising from reflections in the system. The baseline removal allows an unbiased estimate of the device response as measured in a cryogenic instrumentation setting.

  14. Method for treating electrolyte to remove Li{sub 2}O

    DOEpatents

    Tomczuk, Z.; Miller, W.E.; Johnson, G.K.; Willit, J.L.

    1998-01-20

    A method is described for removing Li{sub 2}O present in an electrolyte predominantly of LiCl and KCl. The electrolyte is heated to a temperature not less than about 500 C and then Al is introduced into the electrolyte in an amount in excess of the stoichiometric amount needed to convert the Li{sub 2}O to a Li-Al alloy and lithium aluminate salt. The salt and aluminum are maintained in contact with agitation for a time sufficient to convert the Li{sub 2}O.

  15. Method for treating electrolyte to remove Li.sub.2 O

    DOEpatents

    Tomczuk, Zygmunt; Miller, William E.; Johnson, Gerald K.; Willit, James L.

    1998-01-01

    A method of removing Li.sub.2 O present in an electrolyte predominantly of LiCl and KCl. The electrolyte is heated to a temperature not less than about 500.degree. C. and then Al is introduced into the electrolyte in an amount in excess of the stoichiometric amount needed to convert the Li.sub.2 O to a Li-Al alloy and lithium aluminate salt. The salt and aluminum are maintained in contact with agitation for a time sufficient to convert the Li.sub.2 O.

  16. An evaluation of alternative cleaning methods for removing an organic contaminant from a stainless steel part

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, J.L.

    1996-08-01

    As of December 1995, the manufacture of Freon, along with many other chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), was prohibited by the Clean Air Act of 1990 (CAA). The ban of CFC solvents has forced manufacturers across the country to search for alternative metal cleaning techniques. The objective of this study was to develop a thorough, scientific based approach for resolving one specific manufacturer`s problem of removing organic contamination from a stainless steel part. This objective was accomplished with an approach that involved: (1) defining the problem, (2) identifying the process constraints, (3) researching alternate cleaning methods, (4) researching applicable government regulations, (5) performing a scientific evaluation and (6) drawing conclusions.

  17. A method for treating electrolyte to remove Li{sub 2}O

    SciTech Connect

    Tomczuk, Z.; Miller, W.E.; Johnson, G.K.; Willit, J.L.

    1998-04-01

    Electrorefining has been used in processes for recovering uranium and plutonium metals from spent nuclear fuel. The electrorefining is performed in an electrochemical cell in which the chopped fuel elements from the reactor forms the anode, the electrolyte, preferably, is the fused eutectic salt of the LiCl-KCl which contain UCl{sub 3} and PuCl{sub 3}. Purified metal collected at the cathode collects at the bottom of the cell. This invention provides a method for removing lithium oxide from the electrolyte salt, with the end formation of a solid lithium-aluminium alloy.

  18. Survey of sodium removal methods: LMFBR conceptual design study, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    1981-09-01

    At the project design review of the nuclear island maintenance on May 5, 1981, DOE requested a survey of current sodium cleaning methods and facilities. Stone & Webster provided a plan and schedule for providing this survey. This plan was approved by Boeing Engineering and Construction Company. The purpose of this survey is to document the sodium removal technology and experience as it relates to the CDS Large Developmental Plant, summarize the information, and provide a prospective for the CDS project. The recommendations generated are intended to provide input for a design and layout review of the Nuclear Island Maintenance Building (NIMB).

  19. The methods of identification, analysis, and removal of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in water.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hyun-Shik; Choo, Kwang-Ho; Lee, Byungwhan; Choi, Sang-June

    2009-12-15

    The information regarding endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) was reviewed, including the definition and characteristics, the recent research trends concerning identification and analytical methods, and the applicable removal processes. EDCs include various types of natural and synthetic chemical compounds presenting the mimicking or inhibition of the reproductive action of the endocrine system in animals and humans. The ubiquitous presence with trace level concentrations and the wide diversity are the reported characteristics of EDCs. Biologically based assays seem to be a promising method for the identification of EDCs. On the other hand, mass-based analytical methods show excellent sensitivity and precision for their quantification. Several extraction techniques for the instrumental analysis have been developed since they are crucial in determining overall analytical performances. Conventional treatment techniques, including coagulation, precipitation, and activated sludge processes, may not be highly effective in removing EDCs, while the advanced treatment options, such as granular activated carbon (GAC), membrane, and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), have shown satisfactory results. The oxidative degradation of some EDCs was associated with aromatic moieties in their structure. Further studies on EDCs need to be conducted, such as source reduction, limiting exposure to vulnerable populations, treatment or remediation of contaminated sites, and the detailed understanding of transport mechanisms in the environment. PMID:19632774

  20. Evaluation of Various Cleaning Methods to Remove Bacillus Spores from Spacecraft Hardware Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Chung, Shirley; Allton, Judith; Kern, Roger

    2004-01-01

    A detailed study was made of the biological cleaning effectiveness, defined in terms of the ability to remove bacterial spores, of a number of methods used to clean hardware surfaces. Aluminum (Al 6061) and titanium (Ti 6Al-4V) were chosen for the study as they were deemed the two materials most likely to be used in spacecraft extraterrestrial sampler construction. None of the cleaning protocols tested completely removed viable spores from the surface of the aluminum. In contrast, titanium was capable of being cleaned to sterility by two methods, the JPL standard and the commercial SAMS cleaning process. Further investigation showed that the passivation step employed in the JPL standard method is an effective surface sterilant on both metals but not compatible with aluminum. It is recommended that titanium (Ti 6Al-4V) be considered superior to aluminum (Al 6061) for use in spacecraft sampling hardware, both for its potential to be cleaned to sterilization and for its ability to withstand the most effective cleaning protocols.

  1. Experimental validation of a method for removing the capacitive leakage artifact from electrical bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buendia, R.; Seoane, F.; Gil-Pita, R.

    2010-11-01

    Often when performing electrical bioimpedance (EBI) spectroscopy measurements, the obtained EBI data present a hook-like deviation, which is most noticeable at high frequencies in the impedance plane. The deviation is due to a capacitive leakage effect caused by the presence of stray capacitances. In addition to the data deviation being remarkably noticeable at high frequencies in the phase and the reactance spectra, the measured EBI is also altered in the resistance and the modulus. If this EBI data deviation is not properly removed, it interferes with subsequent data analysis processes, especially with Cole model-based analyses. In other words, to perform any accurate analysis of the EBI spectroscopy data, the hook deviation must be properly removed. Td compensation is a method used to compensate the hook deviation present in EBI data; it consists of multiplying the obtained spectrum, Zmeas(ω), by a complex exponential in the form of exp(-jωTd). Although the method is well known and accepted, Td compensation cannot entirely correct the hook-like deviation; moreover, it lacks solid scientific grounds. In this work, the Td compensation method is revisited, and it is shown that it should not be used to correct the effect of a capacitive leakage; furthermore, a more developed approach for correcting the hook deviation caused by the capacitive leakage is proposed. The method includes a novel correcting expression and a process for selecting the proper values of expressions that are complex and frequency dependent. The correctness of the novel method is validated with the experimental data obtained from measurements from three different EBI applications. The obtained results confirm the sufficiency and feasibility of the correcting method.

  2. Method of improving fuel cell performance by removing at least one metal oxide contaminant from a fuel cell electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Yu Seung; Choi, Jong-Ho; Zelenay, Piotr

    2009-08-18

    A method of removing contaminants from a fuel cell catalyst electrode. The method includes providing a getter electrode and a fuel cell catalyst electrode having at least one contaminant to a bath and applying a voltage sufficient to drive the contaminant from the fuel cell catalyst electrode to the getter electrode. Methods of removing contaminants from a membrane electrode assembly of a fuel cell and of improving performance of a fuel cell are also provided.

  3. The Value of Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Diagnostics and Prediction of Morbidity in Cases of Placenta Previa with Abnormal Placentation

    PubMed Central

    Algebally, Ahmed M.; Yousef, Reda Ramadan Hussein; Badr, Sanaa Sayed Hussein; Al Obeidly, Amal; Szmigielski, Wojciech; Al Ibrahim, Abdullah A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background The purpose of the study was to evaluate the role of ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnostics and management of abnormal placentation in women with placenta previa and to compare the morbidity associated with that to placenta previa alone. Material/Methods The study includes 100 pregnant women with placenta previa with and without abnormal placentation. The results of MRI and US in abnormal placentation were compared with post-operative data. The patients’ files were reviewed for assessment of operative and post-operative morbidity. The results of our statistical analysis were compared with data from the literature. Results US and MRI showed no significant difference in sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing abnormal placentation (97–100% and 94–100%, respectively). MRI was more sensitive than US for the detection of myometrial invasion and the type of abnormal placentation (73.5% and 47%, respectively). The difference between pre- and post-operative hemoglobin values and estimated blood loss were the most significant risk factors for abnormal placentation, added to risk factors known for placenta previa. Post-partum surgical complications and prolonged hospital stay were more common in the cases of placenta previa with abnormal placentation, however statistically insignificant. Conclusions US and MRI are accurate imaging modalities for diagnosing abnormal placentation. MRI was more sensitive for the detection of the degree of placental invasion. The patient’s morbidity increased in cases with abnormal placentation. There was no significant difference in post operative-complications and hospitalization time due to pre-operative planning when the diagnosis was established with US and MRI. PMID:25411586

  4. Extensive shift in placental transcriptome profile in preeclampsia and placental origin of adverse pregnancy outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sõber, Siim; Reiman, Mario; Kikas, Triin; Rull, Kristiina; Inno, Rain; Vaas, Pille; Teesalu, Pille; Marti, Jesus M. Lopez; Mattila, Pirkko; Laan, Maris

    2015-01-01

    One in five pregnant women suffer from gestational complications, prevalently driven by placental malfunction. Using RNASeq, we analyzed differential placental gene expression in cases of normal gestation, late-onset preeclampsia (LO-PE), gestational diabetes (GD) and pregnancies ending with the birth of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) or large-for-gestational-age (LGA) newborns (n = 8/group). In all groups, the highest expression was detected for small noncoding RNAs and genes specifically implicated in placental function and hormonal regulation. The transcriptome of LO-PE placentas was clearly distinct, showing statistically significant (after FDR) expressional disturbances for hundreds of genes. Taqman RT-qPCR validation of 45 genes in an extended sample (n = 24/group) provided concordant results. A limited number of transcription factors including LRF, SP1 and AP2 were identified as possible drivers of these changes. Notable differences were detected in differential expression signatures of LO-PE subtypes defined by the presence or absence of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). LO-PE with IUGR showed higher correlation with SGA and LO-PE without IUGR with LGA placentas. Whereas changes in placental transcriptome in SGA, LGA and GD cases were less prominent, the overall profiles of expressional disturbances overlapped among pregnancy complications providing support to shared placental responses. The dataset represent a rich catalogue for potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets. PMID:26268791

  5. Long-term field test of an electrochemical method for sulfide removal from sewage.

    PubMed

    Pikaar, Ilje; Li, Eugena; Rozendal, René A; Yuan, Zhiguo; Keller, Jürg; Rabaey, Korneel

    2012-06-01

    Corrosion caused by hydrogen sulfide leads to significant costs for the rehabilitation or replacement of corroded sewer pipes. Conventional methods to prevent sewer corrosion normally involve the dosing of significant amounts of chemicals with the associated transport and storage costs as well as considerable maintenance and control requirement. Recently, a novel chemical free method for sulfide abatement based on electrochemical sulfide oxidation was shown to be highly effective for the removal of sulfide from synthetic and real sewage. Here, we report on the electrochemical removal of sulfide using Ta/Ir and Pt/Ir coated titanium electrodes under simulated sewer conditions during field trials. The results showed that sulfide can successfully be removed to levels below the normal target value at the end of a simulated rising main (i.e. <1mg/L). A coulombic efficiency for dissolved oxygen generation of ≈ 60% was obtained and was independent of the current density. Scaling of the electrode and the membrane was observed in the cathode compartment and as a result the cell potentials increased over time. The cathode potentials returned to their original potential after switching the polarity every two days, but a more frequent switching would be needed to reduce the energy requirements of the system. Accelerated lifetime experiments indicated that a lifetime of 6.0 ± 1.9 years can be expected under polarity switching conditions at a pH of 14 and significantly longer at lower pH values. As operating the system without switching simplifies construction as well as operation, the choice whether to switch or not will in practice depend on operational cost (higher/lower energy) versus capital cost (reactor and peripherals). Irrespective of the approach, our study demonstrates that electrochemical sulfide control in sewer systems may be an attractive new option. PMID:22483834

  6. Netrins and Their Roles in Placental Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Dakouane-Giudicelli, Mbarka; Alfaidy, Nadia; de Mazancourt, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Netrins, a family of laminin-related proteins, were originally identified as axonal guidance molecules. Subsequently, netrins were found to modulate various biological processes including morphogenesis, tumorogenesis, adhesion, and, recently, angiogenesis. In human placenta, the most vascularized organ, the presence of netrins has also been reported. Recent studies demonstrated the involvement of netrins in the regulation of placental angiogenesis. In this review we focused on the role of netrins in human placental angiogenesis. Among all netrins examined, netrin-4 and netrin-1 have been found to be either pro- or antiangiogenic factors. These opposite effects appear to be related to the endothelial cell phenotype studied and seem also to depend on the receptor type to which netrin binds, that is, the canonical receptor member of the DCC family, the members of the UNC5 family, or the noncanonical receptor members of the integrin family or DSCAM. PMID:25143950

  7. Significance of placental pathology in transplacental haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Devi, Banti; Jennison, R. F.; Langley, F. A.

    1968-01-01

    Placentae were examined from 120 women whose pregnancy and delivery was normal, from 264 women whose pregnancy or delivery was complicated, and from 98 women who were Rh-negative without antibodies and 35 women Rh-negative with antibodies. The presence of Kline's haemorrhages, intervillous thrombi, infarcts, and retroplacental haemorrhages was positively correlated with the presence of foetal cells in the maternal circulation. When there were no maternal antibodies transplacental haemorrhages occurred occasionally in the absence of such placental lesions but more frequently when these lesions were present. Moreover, the greater the number of lesions in a placenta the greater the size of the transplacental haemorrhage. In Rh-negative women with antibodies the observed incidence of transplacental haemorrhage was significantly less despite an appreciable increase in placental lesions. Images PMID:4972435

  8. Insights into the removal of terbuthylazine from aqueous solution by several treatment methods.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Pedro M; Quiñones, Diego H; Terrones, Isidro; Rey, Ana; Beltrán, Fernando J

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports the removal of the s-triazine herbicide terbuthylazine (TBA) from aqueous solution by various treatment methods including adsorption onto activated carbon (AC) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), UV254 photolysis, UV254/H2O2, single ozonation, O3/H2O2, catalytic ozonation (AC, MWCNT and TiO2 as catalysts) and some solar driven processes such as TiO2 photocatalytic oxidation and photo-ozonation. TBA was adsorbed onto AC and MWCNT following a pseudo-second order kinetics and Freundlich isotherm. Rapid small scale column tests showed that TBA could be removed from solution by adsorption onto AC better than atrazine. The UV254/H2O2 treatment resulted in excellent removal of TBA primarily due to the oxidation capability of hydroxyl radicals (kHO = 3.310(9) M(-1) s(-1)) generated from H2O2 photolysis. As the H2O2 initial concentration was increased from 5 to 50 mg L(-1) the HO exposure per UV fluence (RHO,UV) increased, making the process more efficient. Single ozonation also allowed complete removal of the herbicide though the process was slow (kO3=15.4 M(-1) s(-1) at pH > 4). The ozonation process could be greatly accelerated by the enhanced generation of HO through O3/H2O2 and O3/AC processes, which also led to more efficient processes in terms of ozone utilization. Commercial TiO2 (TiO2-P25) and lab prepared anatase TiO2 (TiO2-cat) nanoparticles catalyzed the removal of TBA by solar photocatalysis. In contrast, a lab prepared MWCNT-TiO2 composite was not useful as catalyst in solar photo-oxidation processes because of the HO scavenging nature of the MWCNT used as support. A mechanism for TBA degradation by O3 and HO has been suggested after TBA degradation intermediates identification. PMID:27115726

  9. Differential placental gene expression in severe preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Sitras, V; Paulssen, R H; Grønaas, H; Leirvik, J; Hanssen, T A; Vårtun, A; Acharya, G

    2009-05-01

    We investigated the global placental gene expression profile in severe preeclampsia. Twenty-one women were randomly selected from 50 participants with uncomplicated pregnancies to match 21 patients with severe preeclampsia. A 30K Human Genome Survey Microarray v.2.0 (Applied Biosystems) was used to evaluate the gene expression profile. After RNA isolation, five preeclamptic placentas were excluded due to poor RNA quality. The series composed of 37 hybridizations in a one-channel detection system of chemiluminescence emitted by the microarrays. An empirical Bayes analysis was applied to find differentially expressed genes. In preeclamptic placentas 213 genes were significantly (fold-change>or=2 and pplacental histopathologic examination. In summary, placental gene expression is altered in preeclampsia and we provide a comprehensive list of the differentially expressed genes. Placental gene expression is different between early- and late-onset preeclampsia, suggesting differences in pathophysiology. PMID:19249095

  10. Immediate post-placental IUD insertion: the expulsion problem.

    PubMed

    Thiery, M; Van Kets, H; Van der Pas, H

    1985-04-01

    This paper reports an evaluation of immediate post-placental insertion of a non-copper (Lippes Loop D) and several copper-bearing IUD models (TCu200, TCu220C, MLCu375, MLCu250, Nova T-PP, DimélysR). Based on the analysis of a total of 2,646 insertions and 55,794 woman-months of experience, we conclude that placement of an IUD within ten minutes of delivery of the placenta is a valuable alternative to interval insertion, because this method is safe and effective. Effectiveness was significantly lower for the Lippes Loop D than for the T- and ML-IUD models tested, the latter showing roughly comparable pertinent event rates. Pertinent event rates for copper IUDs were influenced by the skill of the operator; age of the recipient only had a significant effect on effectiveness, whereas parity had no significant effect on pertinent event rates. The single and still unsolved problem associated with immediate postpartum insertion is the greater likelihood of expulsion compared with interval insertion, and this hazard is significantly much greater for the Loop than for the copper-bearing devices assessed. The evolution of the expulsion rates shows a constant time-relationship. This pattern makes it obvious why follow-up of recipients, at least during the first trimester following insertion, is mandatory if immediate post-placental IUD insertion is to be optimally effective. PMID:4006467

  11. Removal of hazardous metals from MSW fly ash--an evaluation of ash leaching methods.

    PubMed

    Fedje, Karin Karlfeldt; Ekberg, Christian; Skarnemark, Gunnar; Steenari, Britt-Marie

    2010-01-15

    Incineration is a commonly applied management method for municipal solid waste (MSW). However, significant amounts of potentially hazardous metal species are present in the resulting ash, and these may be leached into the environment. A common idea for cleaning the ash is to use enhanced leaching with strong mineral acids. However, due to the alkalinity of the ash, large amounts of acid are needed and this is a drawback. Therefore, this work was undertaken in order to investigate some alternative leaching media (EDTA, ammonium nitrate, ammonium chloride and a number of organic acids) and to compare them with the usual mineral acids and water. All leaching methods gave a significant increase in ash specific surface area due to removal of soluble bulk (matrix) compounds, such as CaCO(3) and alkali metal chlorides. The use of mineral acids and EDTA mobilised many elements, especially Cu, Zn and Pb, whereas the organic acids generally were not very effective as leaching agents for metals. Leaching using NH(4)NO(3) was especially effective for the release of Cu. The results show that washing of MSW filter ash with alternative leaching agents is a possible way to remove hazardous metals from MSW fly ash. PMID:19744790

  12. Magnetic heterogeneous catalytic ozonation: a new removal method for phenol in industrial wastewater

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a new strategy in catalytic ozonation removal method for degradation of phenol from industrial wastewater was investigated. Magnetic carbon nano composite as a novel catalyst was synthesized, characterized and then used in the catalytic ozonation process (COP) and compared with the single ozonation process (SOP). The influential parameters were all investigated. The results showed that the removal efficiency of phenol and COD (chemical oxygen demand) in COP (98.5%, 69.8%) was higher than those of SOP (78.7%, 50.5%) and the highest catalytic potential was achieved at optimal neutral pH. First order modeling demonstrated that the reactions were dependent on the concentration of catalyst, with kinetic constants varying from 0.023 1/min (catalyst = 0 g/L) to 0.071 1/min (catalyst = 4 g/L), whereby the optimum dosage of catalyst was found to be 2 g/L. Furthermore, the catalytic properties of the catalyst remained almost unchanged after 5-time reuse. The results regarding the biodegradability of the effluent showed that a 5-min reaction time in COP reduced the concentrations of phenol and COD to the acceptable levels for the efficient post-treatment in the SBR in a 4-h cycle period. Finally, this combined system is proven to be a technically effective method for treating phenolic contaminants. PMID:24572145

  13. Method for removing longitudinal chromatism in full color holographic projection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Yu, Yingjie; Zheng, Huadong

    2011-09-01

    Hologram, as a type of diffractive optical element, is sensitive to wavelength in the process of optoelectronic reconstruction. Due to the different wavelengths of three prime colors used in full color holographic projections, there are chromatisms which badly spoil the reconstructed image. The chromatisms are composed of transverse and longitudinal chromatisms. For a computer generated hologram, transverse chromatism can be compensated by resampling the object information. However, it becomes more complex for longitudinal chromatism. This paper analyzes how the image is reconstructed from the phase-type hologram in a holographic projection system and the causations of longitudinal chromatism. To remove it, this paper proposes loading a specially designed phase distribution on a phase-type hologram. The advantage of this method is that it can be achieved by computer calculation and without adding any hardware such as achromatic optical element. A time-sharing system for a full-color hologram projection is developed in this paper. Comparisons have been made between the reconstructed images with and without chromatism. The experimental result shows that the method is effective in removing longitudinal chromatism and the quality of the reconstructed image is improved.

  14. Centrifugal accelerator, system and method for removing unwanted layers from a surface

    DOEpatents

    Foster, Christopher A.; Fisher, Paul W.

    1995-01-01

    A cryoblasting process having a centrifugal accelerator for accelerating frozen pellets of argon or carbon dioxide toward a target area utilizes an accelerator throw wheel designed to induce, during operation, the creation of a low-friction gas bearing within internal passages of the wheel which would otherwise retard acceleration of the pellets as they move through the passages. An associated system and method for removing paint from a surface with cryoblasting techniques involves the treating, such as a preheating, of the painted surface to soften the paint prior to the impacting of frozen pellets thereagainst to increase the rate of paint removal. A system and method for producing large quantities of frozen pellets from a liquid material, such as liquid argon or carbon dioxide, for use in a cryoblasting process utilizes a chamber into which the liquid material is introduced in the form of a jet which disintegrates into droplets. A non-condensible gas, such as inert helium or air, is injected into the chamber at a controlled rate so that the droplets freeze into bodies of relatively high density.

  15. Delmopinol-induced matrix removal facilitates photodynamic therapy and chlorhexidine methods for disinfecting mixed oral biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Stephen Christopher

    It is often observed that the slimy matrixes of various bacterial-formed biofilms can limit their disinfection. This investigation demonstrated that disinfection effectiveness by either photodynamic therapy (PDT) or chlorhexidine irrigation is significantly improved by collapse of that matrix using the non-bactericidal reagent delmopinol as part of the treatment sequence. Cyclic shear-producing conditions were used to grow 4-day, whole salivary and growth media biofilms on glow-discharge-treated polystyrene (N=46) and mini-germanium internal reflection prisms to serve in a periodontal crypt model of disinfection by either methylene-blue-mediated PDT or by chlorhexidine irrigation. Assays for bacterial viability, with and without treatments, were performed by alamarBlueRTM fluorescent methods, statistically applied (ANOVA, Tukey's HSD). Multiple Attenuated Internal Reflection Infrared (MAIR-IR) assays confirmed selective removal of the predominantly polysaccharide matrix materials by the delmopinol treatment, but not by equivalent water or chlorhexidine methods. Confocal-IR microscopy showed that the delmopinol reagent, alone, caused about one-third of each wet biofilm to be removed, while bacterial re-growth was confirmed by alamarBlueRTM assay. Chlorhexidine and PDT suppression of bacterial activity without regrowth was significantly improved with the added delmopinol treatment, and is likely to provide similarly beneficial results in the effective disinfection of diverse biofilms in many settings.

  16. Placentation in mammals once grouped as insectivores.

    PubMed

    Carter, Anthony M; Enders, Allen C

    2010-01-01

    Interest in insectivoran grade mammals has been reawakened by taxonomic changes that place tenrecs and golden moles in a new order and separate hedgehogs from moles, shrews and solenodons. This survey of their placentation shows there is great variation even within families. As an example three subfamilies of tenrec have been examined. The interhemal region is cellular hemomonochorial in Echinops and Microgale but endotheliochorial in Micropotamogale. Golden moles, which are placed in the same order, have hemodichorial placentation. Many insectivores have complex arrangements for histotrophic nutrition involving columnar trophoblast cells. These range from areolae in moles through complexly folded hemophagous regions in tenrecs to the trophoblastic annulus in shrews. Of these placental characters, few offer support to current phylogenies. However, the case for placing hedgehogs and gymnures in a separate order (Erinaceomorpha) is bolstered by the presence of interstitial implantation, amniogenesis by cavitation, a hemochorial barrier and a prominent spongy zone; these features do not occur in shrews, moles or solenodons (Soricomorpha). Three insectivoran grade mammals deserve close attention as they have been selected for genome sequencing. One of these, the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), has not been studied with current methodology and renewed investigation of this or the closely related genus Atelerix should be a priority. PMID:19876821

  17. Notes on placentation in the Suina.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, A A; Bosma, A A

    1985-01-01

    We examined the gross and microscopic anatomy of placental tissues and umbilical cords from six species representing the three living families of the Suina. These species included, of the Suidae, the wart hog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), the giant forest hog (Hylochoerus meinertzhageni), the domestic pig (Sus scrofa), and the banded pig of Malaysia (Sus scrofa vittatus); of the Tayassuidae, the white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari); of the Hippopotamidae, the hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) and the pigmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis). All these species have a diffuse epitheliochorial placenta. The chorion is folded, and has on its surface rows of shallow ripples or villi, interrupted by round, oval or irregularly shaped areolae. Placental capillaries indent the epithelial layer covering the tops and sides of the interareolar villi, but not the columnar cell layer lying in the troughs between these villi or covering the areolae. Cuboidal cells cover the crests of the villi in the Suidae and Hippopotamidae, whereas in the Tayassuidae the epithelium is syncytial in appearance. The similarities in placental structure between the six species are more apparent than the differences. Suidae and Tayassuidae have smooth umbilical cords containing two arteries and one vein; those of the Hippopotamidae are pustule-encrusted and contain two arteries and two veins. PMID:3991477

  18. Signal Processing Methods for Removing the Effects of Whole Body Vibration upon Speech

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bitner, Rachel M.; Begault, Durand R.

    2014-01-01

    Humans may be exposed to whole-body vibration in environments where clear speech communications are crucial, particularly during the launch phases of space flight and in high-performance aircraft. Prior research has shown that high levels of vibration cause a decrease in speech intelligibility. However, the effects of whole-body vibration upon speech are not well understood, and no attempt has been made to restore speech distorted by whole-body vibration. In this paper, a model for speech under whole-body vibration is proposed and a method to remove its effect is described. The method described reduces the perceptual effects of vibration, yields higher ASR accuracy scores, and may significantly improve intelligibility. Possible applications include incorporation within communication systems to improve radio-communication systems in environments such a spaceflight, aviation, or off-road vehicle operations.

  19. Method of removing oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from exhaust gases

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.J.

    1986-10-07

    A method is described of removing oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from an exhaust gas, the method comprising: contacting the exhaust gas with a liquid absorbent including a metal chelate for oxide of nitrogen absorption and a solution of sulfite and bisulfite ions for oxide of sulfur absorption; regenerating the liquid absorbent capacity for oxide of sulfur gases by electrodialysis in a cell containing at least two bipolar membranes, an anion selective membrane and compartments bounded by the membranes; stripping oxides of nitrogen from the liquid absorbent into a gas flow to regenerate the capacity of the liquid absorbent for oxide of nitrogen gases; and recycling the regenerated liquid absorbent into contact with the exhaust gas.

  20. A Review of Photocatalysts Prepared by Sol-Gel Method for VOCs Removal

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Ting Ke; Lin, Yi Shing; Chen, Yi Ju; Chu, Hsin

    2010-01-01

    The sol-gel process is a wet-chemical technique (chemical solution deposition), which has been widely used in the fields of materials science, ceramic engineering, and especially in the preparation of photocatalysts. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are prevalent components of indoor air pollution. Among the approaches to remove VOCs from indoor air, photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) is regarded as a promising method. This paper is a review of the status of research on the sol-gel method for photocatalyst preparation and for the PCO purification of VOCs. The review and discussion will focus on the preparation and coating of various photocatalysts, operational parameters, and will provide an overview of general PCO models described in the literature. PMID:20640156

  1. Removal of COD and colour in real pharmaceutical wastewater by photoelectrocatalytic oxidation method.

    PubMed

    Fang, Tao; Liao, Lixia; Xu, Xiangju; Peng, Jinsong; Jing, Yingqi

    2013-01-01

    In this study, TiO2/Ni photo-anode and multi-walled carbon nano-tubes (MWCNTs) air cathode were prepared by the dip-coating method, and the photoelectrocatalytic degradation of real pharmaceutical wastewater was investigated in the self-made reactor. The combination of the TiO2/Ni electrode and MWCNTs air cathode was adopted to treat the pharmaceutical wastewater by the process of photoelectrocatalysis. Various operational parameters to achieve optimum efficiency of this photoelectrocatalytic degradation system are presented, such as applied bias voltage, NaCl concentration, pH and different degradation methods. Under the optimal conditions, the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colour are 93.5% and 78.5% respectively. The possible roles of the anode-cathode on the reactions and the probable mechanisms of effect were also discussed. The photoelectrocatalytic technology can be used for the long-term treatment of real pharmaceutical wastewater. PMID:23837329

  2. Placental Dysfunction and Fetal Programming: The Importance of Placental Size, Shape, Histopathology, and Molecular Composition

    PubMed Central

    Longtine, Mark S.; Nelson, D. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Normal function of the placenta is pivotal for optimal fetal growth and development. Fetal programming commonly is associated with placental dysfunction that predisposes to obstetric complications and .suboptimal fetal outcomes. We consider several clinical phenotypes for placental dysfunction that likely predispose to fetal programming. Some of these reflect abnormal development of the chorioallantoic placenta in size, shape, or histopathology. Others result when exogenous stressors in the maternal environment combine with maladaptation of the placental response to yield small placentas with limited reserve, as typical of early-onset intrauterine growth restriction and preeclampsia. Still others reflect epigenetic changes, including altered expression of imprinted genes, altered enzymatic activity, or altered efficiencies in nutrient transport. Although the human placenta is a transient organ that persists only 9 months, the effects of this organ on the offspring remain for a lifetime. PMID:21710395

  3. Generalized methods and solvers for noise removal from piecewise constant signals. I. Background theory

    PubMed Central

    Little, Max A.; Jones, Nick S.

    2011-01-01

    Removing noise from piecewise constant (PWC) signals is a challenging signal processing problem arising in many practical contexts. For example, in exploration geosciences, noisy drill hole records need to be separated into stratigraphic zones, and in biophysics, jumps between molecular dwell states have to be extracted from noisy fluorescence microscopy signals. Many PWC denoising methods exist, including total variation regularization, mean shift clustering, stepwise jump placement, running medians, convex clustering shrinkage and bilateral filtering; conventional linear signal processing methods are fundamentally unsuited. This paper (part I, the first of two) shows that most of these methods are associated with a special case of a generalized functional, minimized to achieve PWC denoising. The minimizer can be obtained by diverse solver algorithms, including stepwise jump placement, convex programming, finite differences, iterated running medians, least angle regression, regularization path following and coordinate descent. In the second paper, part II, we introduce novel PWC denoising methods, and comparisons between these methods performed on synthetic and real signals, showing that the new understanding of the problem gained in part I leads to new methods that have a useful role to play. PMID:22003312

  4. The plant virus microscope image registration method based on mismatches removing.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lifang; Zhou, Shucheng; Dong, Heng; Mao, Qianzhuo; Lin, Jiaxiang; Chen, Riqing

    2016-01-01

    The electron microscopy is one of the major means to observe the virus. The view of virus microscope images is limited by making specimen and the size of the camera's view field. To solve this problem, the virus sample is produced into multi-slice for information fusion and image registration techniques are applied to obtain large field and whole sections. Image registration techniques have been developed in the past decades for increasing the camera's field of view. Nevertheless, these approaches typically work in batch mode and rely on motorized microscopes. Alternatively, the methods are conceived just to provide visually pleasant registration for high overlap ratio image sequence. This work presents a method for virus microscope image registration acquired with detailed visual information and subpixel accuracy, even when overlap ratio of image sequence is 10% or less. The method proposed focus on the correspondence set and interimage transformation. A mismatch removal strategy is proposed by the spatial consistency and the components of keypoint to enrich the correspondence set. And the translation model parameter as well as tonal inhomogeneities is corrected by the hierarchical estimation and model select. In the experiments performed, we tested different registration approaches and virus images, confirming that the translation model is not always stationary, despite the fact that the images of the sample come from the same sequence. The mismatch removal strategy makes building registration of virus microscope images at subpixel accuracy easier and optional parameters for building registration according to the hierarchical estimation and model select strategies make the proposed method high precision and reliable for low overlap ratio image sequence. PMID:26519816

  5. Systematic review and meta-analysis: rapid diagnostic tests versus placental histology, microscopy and PCR for malaria in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background During pregnancy, malaria infection with Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax is related to adverse maternal health and poor birth outcomes. Diagnosis of malaria, during pregnancy, is complicated by the absence or low parasite densities in peripheral blood. Diagnostic methods, other than microscopy, are needed for detection of placental malaria. Therefore, the diagnostic accuracy of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), detecting antigen, and molecular techniques (PCR), detecting DNA, for the diagnosis of Plasmodium infections in pregnancy was systematically reviewed. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science were searched for studies assessing the diagnostic accuracy of RDTs, PCR, microscopy of peripheral and placental blood and placental histology for the detection of malaria infection (all species) in pregnant women. Results The results of 49 studies were analysed in metandi (Stata), of which the majority described P. falciparum infections. Although both placental and peripheral blood microscopy cannot reliably replace histology as a reference standard for placental P. falciparum infection, many studies compared RDTs and PCR to these tests. The proportion of microscopy positives in placental blood (sensitivity) detected by peripheral blood microscopy, RDTs and PCR are respectively 72% [95% CI 62-80], 81% [95% CI 55-93] and 94% [95% CI 86-98]. The proportion of placental blood microscopy negative women that were negative in peripheral blood microscopy, RDTs and PCR (specificity) are 98% [95% CI 95-99], 94% [95% CI 76-99] and 77% [95% CI 71-82]. Based on the current data, it was not possible to determine if the false positives in RDTs and PCR are caused by sequestered parasites in the placenta that are not detected by placental microscopy. Conclusion The findings suggest that RDTs and PCR may have good performance characteristics to serve as alternatives for the diagnosis of malaria in pregnancy, besides any other limitations and practical considerations

  6. Placental Protein 13 (PP13) - A Placental Immunoregulatory Galectin Protecting Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Than, Nándor Gábor; Balogh, Andrea; Romero, Roberto; Kárpáti, Eva; Erez, Offer; Szilágyi, András; Kovalszky, Ilona; Sammar, Marei; Gizurarson, Sveinbjorn; Matkó, János; Závodszky, Péter; Papp, Zoltán; Meiri, Hamutal

    2014-01-01

    Galectins are glycan-binding proteins that regulate innate and adaptive immune responses, and some confer maternal-fetal immune tolerance in eutherian mammals. A chromosome 19 cluster of galectins has emerged in anthropoid primates, species with deep placentation and long gestation. Three of the five human cluster galectins are solely expressed in the placenta, where they may confer additional immunoregulatory functions to enable deep placentation. One of these is galectin-13, also known as Placental Protein 13 (PP13). It has a "jelly-roll" fold, carbohydrate-recognition domain and sugar-binding preference resembling other mammalian galectins. PP13 is predominantly expressed by the syncytiotrophoblast and released from the placenta into the maternal circulation. Its ability to induce apoptosis of activated T cells in vitro, and to divert and kill T cells as well as macrophages in the maternal decidua in situ, suggests important immune functions. Indeed, mutations in the promoter and an exon of LGALS13 presumably leading to altered or non-functional protein expression are associated with a higher frequency of preeclampsia and other obstetrical syndromes, which involve immune dysregulation. Moreover, decreased placental expression of PP13 and its low concentrations in first trimester maternal sera are associated with elevated risk of preeclampsia. Indeed, PP13 turned to be a good early biomarker to assess maternal risk for the subsequent development of pregnancy complications caused by impaired placentation. Due to the ischemic placental stress in preterm preeclampsia, there is increased trophoblastic shedding of PP13 immunopositive microvesicles starting in the second trimester, which leads to high maternal blood PP13 concentrations. Our meta-analysis suggests that this phenomenon may enable the potential use of PP13 in directing patient management near to or at the time of delivery. Recent findings on the beneficial effects of PP13 on decreasing blood pressure due

  7. Placental Protein 13 (PP13) – A Placental Immunoregulatory Galectin Protecting Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Than, Nándor Gábor; Balogh, Andrea; Romero, Roberto; Kárpáti, Éva; Erez, Offer; Szilágyi, András; Kovalszky, Ilona; Sammar, Marei; Gizurarson, Sveinbjorn; Matkó, János; Závodszky, Péter; Papp, Zoltán; Meiri, Hamutal

    2014-01-01

    Galectins are glycan-binding proteins that regulate innate and adaptive immune responses, and some confer maternal-fetal immune tolerance in eutherian mammals. A chromosome 19 cluster of galectins has emerged in anthropoid primates, species with deep placentation and long gestation. Three of the five human cluster galectins are solely expressed in the placenta, where they may confer additional immunoregulatory functions to enable deep placentation. One of these is galectin-13, also known as Placental Protein 13 (PP13). It has a “jelly-roll” fold, carbohydrate-recognition domain and sugar-binding preference resembling other mammalian galectins. PP13 is predominantly expressed by the syncytiotrophoblast and released from the placenta into the maternal circulation. Its ability to induce apoptosis of activated T cells in vitro, and to divert and kill T cells as well as macrophages in the maternal decidua in situ, suggests important immune functions. Indeed, mutations in the promoter and an exon of LGALS13 presumably leading to altered or non-functional protein expression are associated with a higher frequency of preeclampsia and other obstetrical syndromes, which involve immune dysregulation. Moreover, decreased placental expression of PP13 and its low concentrations in first trimester maternal sera are associated with elevated risk of preeclampsia. Indeed, PP13 turned to be a good early biomarker to assess maternal risk for the subsequent development of pregnancy complications caused by impaired placentation. Due to the ischemic placental stress in preterm preeclampsia, there is increased trophoblastic shedding of PP13 immunopositive microvesicles starting in the second trimester, which leads to high maternal blood PP13 concentrations. Our meta-analysis suggests that this phenomenon may enable the potential use of PP13 in directing patient management near to or at the time of delivery. Recent findings on the beneficial effects of PP13 on decreasing blood pressure

  8. Efficacy of laser-based irrigant activation methods in removing debris from simulated root canal irregularities.

    PubMed

    Deleu, Ellen; Meire, Maarten A; De Moor, Roeland J G

    2015-02-01

    In root canal therapy, irrigating solutions are essential to assist in debridement and disinfection, but their spread and action is often restricted by canal anatomy. Hence, activation of irrigants is suggested to improve their distribution in the canal system, increasing irrigation effectiveness. Activation can be done with lasers, termed laser-activated irrigation (LAI). The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the efficacy of different irrigant activation methods in removing debris from simulated root canal irregularities. Twenty-five straight human canine roots were embedded in resin, split, and their canals prepared to a standardized shape. A groove was cut in the wall of each canal and filled with dentin debris. Canals were filled with sodium hypochlorite and six irrigant activation procedures were tested: conventional needle irrigation (CI), manual-dynamic irrigation with a tapered gutta percha cone (manual-dynamic irrigation (MDI)), passive ultrasonic irrigation, LAI with 2,940-nm erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser with a plain fiber tip inside the canal (Er-flat), LAI with Er:YAG laser with a conical tip held at the canal entrance (Er-PIPS), and LAI with a 980-nm diode laser moving the fiber inside the canal (diode). The amount of remaining debris in the groove was scored and compared among the groups using non-parametric tests. Conventional irrigation removed significantly less debris than all other groups. The Er:YAG with plain fiber tip was more efficient than MDI, CI, diode, and Er:YAG laser with PIPS tip in removing debris from simulated root canal irregularities. PMID:24091791

  9. Placental transfer of antidepressant medications: implications for postnatal adaptation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Grace; Tatarchuk, Yekaterina; Appleby, Dina; Schwartz, Nadav; Kim, Deborah

    2015-04-01

    Seven to thirteen percent of women are either prescribed or taking (depending on the study) an antidepressant during pregnancy. Because antidepressants freely cross into the intrauterine environment, we aim to summarize the current findings on placental transfer of antidepressants. Although generally low risk, antidepressants have been associated with postnatal adaptation syndrome (PNAS). Specifically, we explore whether the antidepressants most closely associated with PNAS (paroxetine, fluoxetine, venlafaxine) cross the placenta to a greater extent than other antidepressants. We review research on antidepressants in the context of placental anatomy, placental transport mechanisms, placental metabolism, pharmacokinetics, as well as non-placental maternal and fetal factors. This provides insight into the complexity involved in understanding how placental transfer of antidepressants may relate to adverse perinatal outcomes. Ultimately, from this data there is no pattern in which PNAS is related to placental transfer of antidepressant medications. In general, there is large interindividual variability for each type of antidepressant. To make the most clinically informed decisions about the use of antidepressants in pregnancy, studies that link maternal, placental and fetal genetic polymorphisms, placental transfer rates and infant outcomes are needed. PMID:25711391

  10. Cesarean Delivery for a Life-threatening Preterm Placental Abruption

    PubMed Central

    Okafor, II; Ugwu, EO

    2015-01-01

    Placental abruption is one of the major life-threatening obstetric conditions. The fetomaternal outcome of a severe placental abruption depends largely on prompt maternal resuscitation and delivery. A case of severe preterm placental abruption with intrauterine fetal death. Following a failed induction of labor with a deteriorating maternal condition despite resuscitation, emergency cesarean delivery was offered with good maternal outcome. Cesarean delivery could avert further disease progression and possible maternal death in cases of severe preterm placental abruption where vaginal delivery is not imminent. However, further studies are necessary before this could be recommended for routine clinical practice. PMID:27057388

  11. Evaluation of Alternate Materials and Methods for Strontium and Alpha Removal from Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.

    2000-11-07

    A literature survey indicated a number of alternate materials and methods for the removal of strontium and alpha-emitting radionuclides (actinides). We evaluated the use of alternate materials versus proposed flowsheets for salt processing at the Savannah River Site (SRS). From this evaluation we recommend the following materials for further testing to determine the rate and extent of removal. We do not recommend testing of liquid/liquid extraction and polymer filtration methods at this time.

  12. Evaluation of various cleaning methods to remove bacillus spores from spacecraft hardware materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Chung, Shirley; Allton, Judith; Kern, Roger

    2004-01-01

    A detailed study was made of the biological cleaning effectiveness, defined in terms of the ability to remove bacterial spores, of a number of methods used to clean hardware surfaces. Aluminum (Al 6061) and titanium (Ti 6Al-4V) were chosen for the study as they were deemed the two materials most likely to be used in spacecraft extraterrestrial sampler construction. Metal coupons (1 cm x 2.5 cm) were precleaned and inoculated with 5.8 x 10(3) cultivable Bacillus subtilis spores, which are commonly found on spacecraft surfaces and in the assembly environments. The inoculated coupons were subsequently cleaned using: (1) 70% isopropyl alcohol wipe; (2) water wipe; (3) multiple-solvent flight-hardware cleaning procedures used at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL); (4) Johnson Space Center-developed ultrapure water rinse; and (5) a commercial, semi-aqueous, multiple-solvent (SAMS) cleaning process. The biological cleaning effectiveness was measured by agar plate assay, sterility test (growing in liquid media), and epifluorescent microscopy. None of the cleaning protocols tested completely removed viable spores from the surface of the aluminum. In contrast, titanium was capable of being cleaned to sterility by two methods, the JPL standard and the commercial SAMS cleaning process. Further investigation showed that the passivation step employed in the JPL standard method is an effective surface sterilant on both metals but not compatible with aluminum. It is recommended that titanium (Ti 6Al-4V) be considered superior to aluminum (Al 6061) for use in spacecraft sampling hardware, both for its potential to be cleaned to sterilization and for its ability to withstand the most effective cleaning protocols.

  13. Evaluation of Various Cleaning Methods to Remove Bacillus Spores from Spacecraft Hardware Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Chung, Shirley; Allton, Judith; Kern, Roger

    2004-09-01

    A detailed study was made of the biological cleaning effectiveness, defined in terms of the ability to remove bacterial spores, of a number of methods used to clean hardware surfaces. Aluminum (Al 6061) and titanium (Ti 6Al-4V) were chosen for the study as they were deemed the two materials most likely to be used in spacecraft extraterrestrial sampler construction. Metal coupons (1 cm × 2.5 cm) were precleaned and inoculated with 5.8 × 103 cultivable Bacillus subtilis spores, which are commonly found on spacecraft surfaces and in the assembly environments. The inoculated coupons were subsequently cleaned using: (1) 70% isopropyl alcohol wipe; (2) water wipe; (3) multiple-solvent flight-hardware cleaning procedures used at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL); (4) Johnson Space Center-developed ultrapure water rinse; and (5) a commercial, semi-aqueous, multiple-solvent (SAMS) cleaning process. The biological cleaning effectiveness was measured by agar plate assay, sterility test (growing in liquid media), and epifluorescent microscopy. None of the cleaning protocols tested completely removed viable spores from the surface of the aluminum. In contrast, titanium was capable of being cleaned to sterility by two methods, the JPL standard and the commercial SAMS cleaning process. Further investigation showed that the passivation step employed in the JPL standard method is an effective surface sterilant on both metals but not compatible with aluminum. It is recommended that titanium (Ti 6Al-4V) be considered superior to aluminum (Al 6061) for use in spacecraft sampling hardware, both for its potential to be cleaned to sterilization and for its ability to withstand the most effective cleaning protocols.

  14. A non-chromatographic method for the removal of endotoxins from bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Branston, Steven D; Wright, Jason; Keshavarz-Moore, Eli

    2015-08-01

    The Ff filamentous bacteriophages show potential as a new class of therapeutics, displaying utility in materials science as well as pharmaceutical applications. These phages are produced by the infection of E. coli, a Gram-negative bacterium which unavoidably sheds endotoxins into the extracellular space during growth. Since endotoxin molecules are highly immunoreactive, separation from the phage product is of critical importance, particularly those developed for human therapeutic use. The properties of M13, one of the Ff group, present a purification challenge chiefly because the standard scalable method for endotoxin removal from proteins-anion exchange chromatography-is not applicable due to pI similarity between the particles. This article examines the potential of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-NaCl precipitation as a scalable method for the separation of endotoxins from phage M13. Precipitation of M13 by 2% (w/v) PEG 6 000, 500 mM NaCl reduced endotoxin contamination of the phage product by 88%, but additional precipitation rounds did not maintain this proportional decrease. Dynamic light scattering was subsequently used to determine the effectiveness of a detergent to disassociate endotoxin molecules from M13. As a result, PEG-NaCl precipitation was supplemented with up to 2% (v/v) Triton X-100 to improve separation. A 5.7 log10 reduction in endotoxin concentration was achieved over three rounds of precipitation whilst retaining over 97% of the phage. This method compares favorably with the well-known ATPS (Triton X-114) technique for endotoxin removal from protein solutions. PMID:25728530

  15. An improved method for the removal of ring artifacts in high resolution CT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Sabrina; Lee, Soo Yeol; Hasan, Md Kamrul

    2012-12-01

    In high resolution computed tomography (CT) using flat panel detectors, imperfect or defected detector elements cause stripe artifacts in sinogram which results in concentric ring artifacts in the image. Such ring artifacts obscure image details in the regions of interest of the image. In this article, novel techniques are proposed for the detection, classification, and correction of ring artifacts in the sinogram domain. The proposed method is suitable for multislice CT with parallel or fan beam geometry. It can also be employed for ring artifact removal in 3D cone beam volume CT by adopting a sinogram by sinogram processing technique. The detection algorithm is based on applying data driven thresholds on the mean curve and difference curve of the sinogram. The ring artifacts are classified into three types and a separate correction algorithm is used for each class. The performance of the proposed techniques is evaluated on a number of real micro-CT images. Experimental results corroborate that the proposed algorithm can remove ring artifacts from micro-CT images more effectively as compared to other recently reported techniques in the literature.

  16. A possible method for in situ nitrogen removal in landfills by microbial-pumping-iron behavior.

    PubMed

    Long, Yuyang; Xu, Jing; Du, Yao; Feng, Huan; Fang, Yuan; Shen, Dongsheng

    2016-06-15

    Nitrogen pollution from landfills needs urgent treatment. A batch experiment was designed to explore the possible in situ nitrogen removal in landfills based on the hypothesis of microbial-pumping-iron behavior, namely anaerobic microbial iron oxidation and reduction. The results confirm that a simultaneous Fe(ii) oxidation, accompanied by nitrate (NO3(-)-N) reduction and dissimilatory Fe(iii) reduction, can happen in aged municipal solid waste (AMSW). This phenomenon can last at least 10 years after landfilling. Organics is an important intermediate medium in that process. The dynamic anaerobic Fe redox cycle has the potential of denitrification without ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) accumulation. AMSW with deposited ages of 1-3 years is a good choice to enhance this redox cycle behavior coupled with denitrification. Conversely, AMSW with longer deposited ages (8-10 years) has a quicker iron cycle and a smaller NH4(+)-N accumulation. This suggests a possible method for in situ nitrogen removal in landfills. PMID:27194007

  17. Method and means for remote removal of guide balls from nuclear reactor control rods

    SciTech Connect

    Krieg, A.H.

    1988-11-29

    This patent describes a method of remotely removing guide balls from nuclear reactor control rods using a punch mechanism, comprising: (a) providing attachment means in the punch mechanism for attaching the punch mechanism to means for reversibly lowering the punch mechanism over the top of one of the control rods; (b) providing a die within the punch mechanism; (c) providing cylinder means within the punch mechanism operatively connected to the die for axially moving the die in a back-and-forth direction; (d) providing a die block within the punch mechanism cooperating with the die; (e) providing guide means within the punch mechanism for self-aligning the punch mechanism so that the die and the die block are automatically aligned with a first one of the guide balls therebetween when the punch mechanism is lowered over the top of the control rod; (f) lowering the punch mechanism over the control rod so that the die, the die block, and the first guide ball are in alignment; and (g) then operating the cylinder means so that the die advances into the die block, thereby removing the first guide ball from the control rod.

  18. Ghost hunting—an assessment of ghost particle detection and removal methods for tomographic-PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsinga, G. E.; Tokgoz, S.

    2014-08-01

    This paper discusses and compares several methods, which aim to remove spurious peaks, i.e. ghost particles, from the volume intensity reconstruction in tomographic-PIV. The assessment is based on numerical simulations of time-resolved tomographic-PIV experiments in linear shear flows. Within the reconstructed volumes, intensity peaks are detected and tracked over time. These peaks are associated with particles (either ghosts or actual particles) and are characterized by their peak intensity, size and track length. Peak intensity and track length are found to be effective in discriminating between most ghosts and the actual particles, although not all ghosts can be detected using only a single threshold. The size of the reconstructed particles does not reveal an important difference between ghosts and actual particles. The joint distribution of peak intensity and track length however does, under certain conditions, allow a complete separation of ghosts and actual particles. The ghosts can have either a high intensity or a long track length, but not both combined, like all the actual particles. Removing the detected ghosts from the reconstructed volume and performing additional MART iterations can decrease the particle position error at low to moderate seeding densities, but increases the position error, velocity error and tracking errors at higher densities. The observed trends in the joint distribution of peak intensity and track length are confirmed by results from a real experiment in laminar Taylor-Couette flow. This diagnostic plot allows an estimate of the number of ghosts that are indistinguishable from the actual particles.

  19. Hepatotoxic microcystin removal using pumice embedded monolithic composite cryogel as an alternative water treatment method.

    PubMed

    Gurbuz, Fatma; Ceylan, Şeyda; Odabaşı, Mehmet; Codd, Geoffrey A

    2016-03-01

    Microcystins are the most commonly encountered water-borne cyanotoxins which present short- and long-term risks to human health. Guidelines at international and national level, and legislation in some countries, have been introduced for the effective health risk management of these potent hepatotoxic, tumour-promoters. The stable cyclic structure of microcystins and their common production by cyanobacteria in waterbodies at times of high total dissolved organic carbon content presents challenges to drinking water treatment facilities, with conventional, advanced and novel strategies under evaluation. Here, we have studied the removal of microcystins using three different forms of pumice particles (PPs), which are embedded into macroporous cryogel columns. Macroporous composite cryogel columns (MCCs) are a new generation of separation media designed to face this challenging task. Three different MCCs were prepared by adding plain PPs, Cu(2+)-attached PPs and Fe(3+)-attached PPs to reaction media before the cryogelation step. Column studies showed that MCCs could be successfully used as an alternative water treatment method for successful microcystin removal. PMID:26760486

  20. A Homemade Snare: An Alternative Method for Mechanical Removal of Dirofilaria immitis in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Fiarresga, António; Landum, Miguel; Lima, Clara; Gamboa, Óscar; Meireles, José; Sales Luís, José; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís

    2016-01-01

    Canine dirofilariosis is a life-threatening parasitic disease that is increasingly reported worldwide. Once diagnosed the main treatment goals are to improve the animal's clinical condition and to eliminate all life stages of the parasite with minimal posttreatment side effects. This can be achieved through mechanical, surgical, or chemotherapeutical approaches. Currently, manual extraction is the preferred method to remove adult heartworms due to its diminished invasiveness, reduced damage to the vascular endothelium, and shortened anaesthesia duration. However, it remains an expensive technique that can be highly traumatic. To address this issue, a nontraumatic homemade catheter-guided snare was developed for heartworm removal by adapting and folding a 0.014-inch coronary wire (BMW, Abbott Vascular). Transvenous heartworm extraction was performed on a dog severely infected with adult heartworms by inserting the modified snare into a 6-F Judkins right coronary guiding catheter BMW (Cordis) and advancing it into the right ventricle under fluoroscopic guidance. Fifteen adult specimens of Dirofilaria immitis were successfully extracted from the pulmonary artery and right ventricle without complications. To assure the death of both larvae and adults, postoperative treatment was successfully managed using ivermectin, doxycycline, and melarsomine, with no recurrence after surgery. PMID:26981316

  1. A Homemade Snare: An Alternative Method for Mechanical Removal of Dirofilaria immitis in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Alho, Ana Margarida; Fiarresga, António; Landum, Miguel; Lima, Clara; Gamboa, Óscar; Meireles, José; Sales Luís, José; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís

    2016-01-01

    Canine dirofilariosis is a life-threatening parasitic disease that is increasingly reported worldwide. Once diagnosed the main treatment goals are to improve the animal's clinical condition and to eliminate all life stages of the parasite with minimal posttreatment side effects. This can be achieved through mechanical, surgical, or chemotherapeutical approaches. Currently, manual extraction is the preferred method to remove adult heartworms due to its diminished invasiveness, reduced damage to the vascular endothelium, and shortened anaesthesia duration. However, it remains an expensive technique that can be highly traumatic. To address this issue, a nontraumatic homemade catheter-guided snare was developed for heartworm removal by adapting and folding a 0.014-inch coronary wire (BMW, Abbott Vascular). Transvenous heartworm extraction was performed on a dog severely infected with adult heartworms by inserting the modified snare into a 6-F Judkins right coronary guiding catheter BMW (Cordis) and advancing it into the right ventricle under fluoroscopic guidance. Fifteen adult specimens of Dirofilaria immitis were successfully extracted from the pulmonary artery and right ventricle without complications. To assure the death of both larvae and adults, postoperative treatment was successfully managed using ivermectin, doxycycline, and melarsomine, with no recurrence after surgery. PMID:26981316

  2. Removal of Heavy Metals and Organic Contaminants from Aqueous Streams by Novel Filtration Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, N.M.

    2000-08-01

    The removal of hazardous waste, generated by the dismantling of nuclear weapons is a problem that requires urgent attention by the US Department of Energy. Low levels of radioactive contaminants combined with organic solvent residues have leaked from aging containers into the soil and underground water in the surrounding area. Due to the complexity of the problem, it is evident that traditional adsorption methods are ineffective, since the adsorbent tends to saturate with the aqueous component. It has become apparent that a much more aggressive approach is required which involves the use of specially designed materials. We have investigated the potential of solids that combine high surface area/high pore volume and high electrical conductivity, a rare combination of properties found in a single material. In this program we examined the potential of newly developed materials for the trapping of organic solvents within specially engineered cavities without allowing the material to become saturated with water. Catalytically grown carbon nanofibers are a set of novel structures that are produced by the decomposition of selected carbon-containing gases over metal particles. These materials consist of extremely small graphite platelets stacked in various orientations with respect to the fiber axis. Such an arrangement results in a unique structure that is composed of an infinite number of extremely short and narrow pores, suitable for sequestering small molecules. In addition, when the graphene layers are aligned parallel to the fiber axis, an unusual combination of high surface area and low electrical resistivity solids are attained. We have attempted to capitalize on this blend of properties by using such structures for the selective removal of organic contaminants from aqueous streams. Experimental results indicate that nanofibers possessing a structure in which the graphite platelets are aligned perpendicular to the fiber axis and possessing a high degree of

  3. Simulated Microbe Removal around Finger Rings Using Different Hand Sanitation Methods

    PubMed Central

    Alur, Archana A; Rane, Madhavi J; Scheetz, James P; Lorenz, Douglas J; Gettleman, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Aim It is our opinion that the CDC and the WHO have underestimated cross-contamination under examination gloves in dental clinics while wearing jewelry, such as finger rings. These agencies only “recommend” removing jewelry, and only washing hands for 15 seconds with soap and warm water before donning gloves. This study examined several washing procedures and finger rings using simulated microbes. Methodology A gloved rubber hand manikin was made and fitted with a fresh disposable vinyl glove. Four fingers were fitted with rings or no ring, dusted with simulated microbes, and washed with a scrub brush for 5, 15, and 25 seconds under 20°C and 40°C water alone, or with liquid hand soap. Light levels (in lux) of fluorescent powder before and after washing were measured and delta scores calculated for changes in light levels, equivalent to effectiveness of hand washing procedures. A full-factorial, 3-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test for differences among levels of the three study factors—time, temperature, and soap use. Tukey's post hoc honestly significant difference (HSD) test was applied to significant factors to examine pair-wise differences between factor levels. Results It was found that the longer the hands with rings were washed with a scrub brush under flowing water, the more simulated microbes were removed. By 25 seconds, all methods were essentially the same. Simulated microbes were more difficult to remove from the palm compared to the back of the hand. The liquid hand soap used in this study was more effective with warm water than cold. When given a choice of washing with cold water up to 15 seconds, it would be preferable not to use soap to remove simulated microbes. Qualitatively, the outer surface of finger rings were more effectively cleaned than the crevice below the ring, and the ring with a stone setting appeared to accumulate and retain simulated microbes more than other rings. Conclusion The most effective treatment was

  4. Maternal Factors Are Associated with the Expression of Placental Genes Involved in Amino Acid Metabolism and Transport

    PubMed Central

    Day, Pricilla E.; Ntani, Georgia; Crozier, Sarah R.; Mahon, Pam A.; Inskip, Hazel M.; Cooper, Cyrus; Harvey, Nicholas C.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Hanson, Mark A.; Lewis, Rohan M.; Cleal, Jane K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Maternal environment and lifestyle factors may modify placental function to match the mother’s capacity to support the demands of fetal growth. Much remains to be understood about maternal influences on placental metabolic and amino acid transporter gene expression. We investigated the influences of maternal lifestyle and body composition (e.g. fat and muscle content) on a selection of metabolic and amino acid transporter genes and their associations with fetal growth. Methods RNA was extracted from 102 term Southampton Women’s Survey placental samples. Expression of nine metabolic, seven exchange, eight accumulative and three facilitated transporter genes was analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR. Results Increased placental LAT2 (p = 0.01), y+LAT2 (p = 0.03), aspartate aminotransferase 2 (p = 0.02) and decreased aspartate aminotransferase 1 (p = 0.04) mRNA expression associated with pre-pregnancy maternal smoking. Placental mRNA expression of TAT1 (p = 0.01), ASCT1 (p = 0.03), mitochondrial branched chain aminotransferase (p = 0.02) and glutamine synthetase (p = 0.05) was positively associated with maternal strenuous exercise. Increased glutamine synthetase mRNA expression (r = 0.20, p = 0.05) associated with higher maternal diet quality (prudent dietary pattern) pre-pregnancy. Lower LAT4 (r = -0.25, p = 0.05) and aspartate aminotransferase 2 mRNA expression (r = -0.28, p = 0.01) associated with higher early pregnancy diet quality. Lower placental ASCT1 mRNA expression associated with measures of increased maternal fat mass, including pre-pregnancy BMI (r = -0.26, p = 0.01). Lower placental mRNA expression of alanine aminotransferase 2 associated with greater neonatal adiposity, for example neonatal subscapular skinfold thickness (r = -0.33, p = 0.001). Conclusion A number of maternal influences have been linked with outcomes in childhood, independently of neonatal size; our finding of associations between placental expression of transporter

  5. A liposomal Gd contrast agent does not cross the mouse placental barrier.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Anil N; Pautler, Robia; Ghagahda, Ketan; Rendon, David; Gao, Haijun; Starosolski, Zbigniew; Bhavane, Rohan; Patel, Chandreshkumar; Annapragada, Ananth; Yallampalli, Chandrasekhar; Lee, Wesley

    2016-01-01

    The trans-placental permeability of liposomal Gadolinium (Gd) nanoparticle contrast agents was evaluated in a pregnant mouse model. Pregnant Balb/c mice at 16.5 (±1) days of gestation were imaged using a 3D Spoiled Gradient Echo method at 9.4 T using two contrast agents: a clinically approved Gd chelate, Multihance(®) (gadobenate dimeglumine), and a novel experimental liposomal Gd agent. A Dynamic Contrast Enhancement (DCE) protocol was used to capture the dynamics of contrast entry and distribution in the placenta, and clearance from circulation. A blinded clinical radiologist evaluated both sets of images. A reference region model was used to measure the placental flow and physiological parameters; volume transfer constant (K(trans)), efflux rate constant (K(ep)). The Gd content of excised placentae and fetuses was measured, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). MRI images of pregnant mice and ICP-MS analyses of placental and fetal tissue demonstrated undetectably low transplacental permeation of the liposomal Gd agent, while the clinical agent (Multihance) avidly permeated the placental barrier. Image interpretation and diagnostic quality was equivalent between the two contrast agents. Additional testing to determine both maternal and fetal safety of liposomal Gd is suggested. PMID:27298076

  6. A liposomal Gd contrast agent does not cross the mouse placental barrier

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Anil N.; Pautler, Robia; Ghagahda, Ketan; Rendon, David; Gao, Haijun; Starosolski, Zbigniew; Bhavane, Rohan; Patel, Chandreshkumar; Annapragada, Ananth; Yallampalli, Chandrasekhar; Lee, Wesley

    2016-01-01

    The trans-placental permeability of liposomal Gadolinium (Gd) nanoparticle contrast agents was evaluated in a pregnant mouse model. Pregnant Balb/c mice at 16.5 (±1) days of gestation were imaged using a 3D Spoiled Gradient Echo method at 9.4 T using two contrast agents: a clinically approved Gd chelate, Multihance® (gadobenate dimeglumine), and a novel experimental liposomal Gd agent. A Dynamic Contrast Enhancement (DCE) protocol was used to capture the dynamics of contrast entry and distribution in the placenta, and clearance from circulation. A blinded clinical radiologist evaluated both sets of images. A reference region model was used to measure the placental flow and physiological parameters; volume transfer constant (Ktrans), efflux rate constant (Kep). The Gd content of excised placentae and fetuses was measured, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). MRI images of pregnant mice and ICP-MS analyses of placental and fetal tissue demonstrated undetectably low transplacental permeation of the liposomal Gd agent, while the clinical agent (Multihance) avidly permeated the placental barrier. Image interpretation and diagnostic quality was equivalent between the two contrast agents. Additional testing to determine both maternal and fetal safety of liposomal Gd is suggested. PMID:27298076

  7. Safety of cesarean delivery through placental incision in patients with anterior placenta previa

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Deok-Ho; Kim, Eugene; Kyeong, Kyu-Sang; Hong, Seung Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate the safety of fetal delivery through placental incision in a placenta previa pregnancy. Methods We examined the medical records of 80 women with singleton pregnancy diagnosed with placenta previa who underwent cesarean section between May 2010 and May 2015 at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chungbuk National University Hospital. Among the women with placenta previa, those who did not have the placenta in the uterine incision site gave birth via conventional uterine incision, while those with anterior placenta previa or had placenta attached to the uterine incision site gave birth via uterine incision plus placental incision. We compared the postoperative hemoglobin level and duration of hospital stay for the mother and newborn of the two groups. Results There was no difference between the placental incision group and non-incision group in terms of preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin change, the amount of blood transfusions required by the mother, newborns with 1-min or 5-min Apgar scores below 7 points or showing signs of acidosis on umbilical cord blood gas analysis result of pH below 7.20. Moreover, neonatal hemoglobin levels did not differ between the two groups. Conclusion Fetal delivery through placental incision during cesarean section for placenta previa pregnancy does not negatively influence the prognosis of the mother or the newborn, and therefore, is considered a safe surgical technique. PMID:27004200

  8. A strategy for removing the bias in the graphical analysis method.

    PubMed

    Logan, J; Fowler, J S; Volkow, N D; Ding, Y S; Wang, G J; Alexoff, D L

    2001-03-01

    The graphical analysis method, which transforms multiple time measurements of plasma and tissue uptake data into a linear plot, is a useful tool for rapidly obtaining information about the binding of radioligands used in PET studies. The strength of the method is that it does not require a particular model structure. However, a bias is introduced in the case of noisy data resulting in the underestimation of the distribution volume (DV), the slope obtained from the graphical method. To remove the bias, a modification of the method developed by Feng et al. (1993), the generalized linear least squares (GLLS) method, which provides unbiased estimates for compartment models was used. The one compartment GLLS method has a relatively simple form, which was used to estimate the DV directly and as a smoothing technique for more general classes of model structures. In the latter case, the GLLS method was applied to the data in two parts, that is, one set of parameters was determined for times 0 to T1 and a second set from T1 to the end time. The curve generated from these two sets of parameters then was used as input to the graphical method. This has been tested using simulations of data similar to that of the PET ligand [11C]-d-threo-methylphenidate (MP, DV = 35 mL/mL) and 11C raclopride (RAC, DV = 1.92 mL/mL) and compared with two examples from image data with the same tracers. The noise model was based on counting statistics through the half-life of the isotope and the scanning time. Five hundred data sets at each noise level were analyzed. Results (DV) for the graphical analysis (DV(G)), the nonlinear least squares (NLS) method (DV(NLS)), the one-tissue compartment GLLS method (DV(F)), and the two part GLLS followed by graphical analysis (DV(FG)) were compared. DV(FG) was found to increase somewhat with increasing noise and in some data sets at high noise levels no estimate could be obtained. However, at intermediate levels it provided a good estimation of the true DV

  9. Microwave-hydrothermal method for the synthesis of composite materials for removal of arsenic from water.

    PubMed

    Andjelkovic, Ivan; Jovic, Bojan; Jovic, Milica; Markovic, Marijana; Stankovic, Dalibor; Manojlovic, Dragan; Roglic, Goran

    2016-01-01

    Composite material Zr-doped TiO2, suitable for the removal of arsenic from water, was synthetized with fast and simple microwave-hydrothermal method. Obtained material, Zr-TiO2, had uniform size and composition with zirconium ions incorporated into crystal structure of titanium dioxide. Synthetized composite material had large specific surface area and well-developed micropore and mesopore structure that was responsible for fast adsorption of As(III) and As(V) from water. The influence of pH on the adsorption capacity of arsenic was studied. The kinetics and isotherm experiments were also performed. The treatment of natural water sample containing high concentration of arsenic with composite material Zr-TiO2 was efficient. The concentration of arsenic was reduced to the value recommended by WHO. PMID:26310708

  10. Optimization of oil removal from oily wastewater by electrocoagulation using response surface method.

    PubMed

    Tir, Mohamed; Moulai-Mostefa, Nadji

    2008-10-01

    Electrocoagulation process with sacrificial aluminium anode was used to separate oil from oily wastewater emulsion. A preliminary experimental study was performed to evaluate the most accurate operating parameters, which are then used for the determination of oil removal efficiency. An experimental design using response surface method (RSM) was then applied and oil separation was estimated by measuring turbidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD). An optimal region characterised with low values of turbidity and COD was found. As part of the optimized process, the main effects of the operational parameters were also investigated. The experimental results indicated that electrocoagulation was very efficient and able to achieve 99% turbidity and 90% chemical oxygen demand (COD) in less than 22 min and current density of 25 mA cm(-2). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a high variance coefficient (R(2)) value of 0.998, thus ensuring a satisfactory adjustment of the second-order regression model with the experimental data. PMID:18313208

  11. Method of removing hydrogen sulfide from gases utilizing a zinc oxide sorbent and regenerating the sorbent

    DOEpatents

    Jalan, Vinod M.; Frost, David G.

    1984-01-01

    A spent solid sorbent resulting from the removal of hydrogen sulfide from a fuel gas flow is regenerated with a steam-air mixture. The mixture of steam and air may also include additional nitrogen or carbon dioxide. The gas mixture contacts the spent sorbent containing metal sulfide at a temperature above 500.degree. C. to regenerate the sulfide to metal oxide or carbonate. Various metal species including the period four transition metals and the lanthanides are suitable sorbents that may be regenerated by this method. In addition, the introduction of carbon dioxide gas permits carbonates such as those of strontium, barium and calcium to be regenerated. The steam permits regeneration of spent sorbent without formation of metal sulfate. Moreover, the regeneration will proceed with low oxygen concentrations and will occur without the increase in temperature to minimize the risk of sintering and densification of the sorbent.

  12. The removal of nitrate by nanoscale iron particles produced using the sodium borohydride method.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyoung-Chan; Park, Sung Hoon; Ahn, Ho-Geun; Chung, Minchul; Kim, Byungwhan; Kim, Sun-Jae; Seo, Seong-Gyu; Jung, Sang-Chul

    2011-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate removal of nitrate by nanoscale zero-valent iron (ZVI) particles in aqueous solution. ZVI particles was produced from wasted acid that is by-products of a pickling line at a steel work. The reaction activity of ZVI particles was evaluated through decomposition experiments of NO3-N aqueous solution. Addition of a larger amount of ZVI particles resulted in a higher decomposition rate. ZVI particles showed higher decomposition efficiencies than commercially purchased ZVI particles at all pH values. Both ZVIs showed a higher decomposition rate at a lower pH. Virtually no decomposition reaction was observed at pH of 4 or higher for purchased ZVI. The ZVI particles produced directly from wasted acid by the sodium borohydride method were not easy to handle because they were very small (10-200 nm) and were oxidized easily in the air. PMID:21456267

  13. Factor V Leiden, Prothrombin and MTHFR Mutation in Patients with Preeclamsia, Intrauterine Growth Restriction and Placental Abruption

    PubMed Central

    Livrinova, Vesna; Lega, Marija Hadzi; Dimcheva, Anita Hristova; Samardziski, Igor; Isjanovska, Rozalinda

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Factor V Leiden, Prothrombin and MTHFR gene mutation, could have an influence in pregnancy with adverse outcome Preeclamsia, IUGR and Placental abruption. AIM: The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of above mentioned inherited thrombophilias and its statistical significance, distribution among the complicated and normal pregnancy, and relative risk for carrier of mutation to develop preeclampsia, IUGR and placental abruption. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective cohort study is implemented at University Clinic for Obstetric and Gynecology in Skopje, Republic of Macedonia. The study included 109 delivered patients: 40 with preeclapmsia, 22 with IUGR, 17 with placental abruption and 30 as control group with normal pregnancy. The amount of 3 ml venous blood has been used for detection of these point mutations using ThromboStrip -Opegen, QIAGEN kit manufactured for thrombotic risk. RESULTS: The highest frequency was found: in the group with preeclampsia 35% were MTHFR homozygous, IUGR -MTHFR heterozygous 45%, Placental abruption- 52.9% MTHFR heterozygous, and in the control group without thrombophilia 56.7%. There were combined thrombophilia in 3 patients. There aren`t statistical significance in presence of thrombophilia among groups (p > 0.05). Statistical significance (p < 0.05) was found between carriers of MTHFR homozygous in preeclampsia and group with placental abruption and control group. Relative risk in IUGR group for MTHFR homozygous was 5.54 (1.37placental abruption for Factor V Leiden heterozygous was 4.50 (0.47placental abruption. Further investigations with more patients are warranted.

  14. Removal of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Artifacts with an Enhanced Adaptive Filtering Method: An Experimental Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yushun; Yu, Tao; Chen, Bihua; He, Mi; Li, Yongqin

    2014-01-01

    Current automated external defibrillators mandate interruptions of chest compression to avoid the effect of artifacts produced by CPR for reliable rhythm analyses. But even seconds of interruption of chest compression during CPR adversely affects the rate of restoration of spontaneous circulation and survival. Numerous digital signal processing techniques have been developed to remove the artifacts or interpret the corrupted ECG with promising result, but the performance is still inadequate, especially for nonshockable rhythms. In the present study, we suppressed the CPR artifacts with an enhanced adaptive filtering method. The performance of the method was evaluated by comparing the sensitivity and specificity for shockable rhythm detection before and after filtering the CPR corrupted ECG signals. The dataset comprised 283 segments of shockable and 280 segments of nonshockable ECG signals during CPR recorded from 22 adult pigs that experienced prolonged cardiac arrest. For the unfiltered signals, the sensitivity and specificity were 99.3% and 46.8%, respectively. After filtering, a sensitivity of 93.3% and a specificity of 96.0% were achieved. This animal trial demonstrated that the enhanced adaptive filtering method could significantly improve the detection of nonshockable rhythms without compromising the ability to detect a shockable rhythm during uninterrupted CPR. PMID:24795878

  15. A Two-Dimensional Variational Analysis Method for NSCAT Ambiguity Removal: Methodology, Sensitivity, and Tuning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, R. N.; Leidner, S. M.; Henderson, J. M.; Atlas, R.; Ardizzone, J. V.; Bloom, S. C.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In this study, we apply a two-dimensional variational analysis method (2d-VAR) to select a wind solution from NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) ambiguous winds. 2d-VAR determines a "best" gridded surface wind analysis by minimizing a cost function. The cost function measures the misfit to the observations, the background, and the filtering and dynamical constraints. The ambiguity closest in direction to the minimizing analysis is selected. 2d-VAR method, sensitivity and numerical behavior are described. 2d-VAR is compared to statistical interpolation (OI) by examining the response of both systems to a single ship observation and to a swath of unique scatterometer winds. 2d-VAR is used with both NSCAT ambiguities and NSCAT backscatter values. Results are roughly comparable. When the background field is poor, 2d-VAR ambiguity removal often selects low probability ambiguities. To avoid this behavior, an initial 2d-VAR analysis, using only the two most likely ambiguities, provides the first guess for an analysis using all the ambiguities or the backscatter data. 2d-VAR and median filter selected ambiguities usually agree. Both methods require horizontal consistency, so disagreements occur in clumps, or as linear features. In these cases, 2d-VAR ambiguities are often more meteorologically reasonable and more consistent with satellite imagery.

  16. Efficient gradient projection methods for edge-preserving removal of Poisson noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanella, R.; Boccacci, P.; Zanni, L.; Bertero, M.

    2009-04-01

    Several methods based on different image models have been proposed and developed for image denoising. Some of them, such as total variation (TV) and wavelet thresholding, are based on the assumption of additive Gaussian noise. Recently the TV approach has been extended to the case of Poisson noise, a model describing the effect of photon counting in applications such as emission tomography, microscopy and astronomy. For the removal of this kind of noise we consider an approach based on a constrained optimization problem, with an objective function describing TV and other edge-preserving regularizations of the Kullback-Leibler divergence. We introduce a new discrepancy principle for the choice of the regularization parameter, which is justified by the statistical properties of the Poisson noise. For solving the optimization problem we propose a particular form of a general scaled gradient projection (SGP) method, recently introduced for image deblurring. We derive the form of the scaling from a decomposition of the gradient of the regularization functional into a positive and a negative part. The beneficial effect of the scaling is proved by means of numerical simulations, showing that the performance of the proposed form of SGP is superior to that of the most efficient gradient projection methods. An extended numerical analysis of the dependence of the solution on the regularization parameter is also performed to test the effectiveness of the proposed discrepancy principle.

  17. Accuracy of GIPSY PPP from version 6.2: a robust method to remove outliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayal, Adem G.; Ugur Sanli, D.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we figure out the accuracy of GIPSY PPP from the latest version, version 6.2. As the research community prepares for the real-time PPP, it would be interesting to revise the accuracy of static GPS from the latest version of well established research software, the first among its kinds. Although the results do not significantly differ from the previous version, version 6.1.1, we still observe the slight improvement on the vertical component due to an enhanced second order ionospheric modeling which came out with the latest version. However, in this study, we rather turned our attention into outlier detection. Outliers usually occur among the solutions from shorter observation sessions and degrade the quality of the accuracy modeling. In our previous analysis from version 6.1.1, we argued that the elimination of outliers was cumbersome with the traditional method since repeated trials were needed, and subjectivity that could affect the statistical significance of the solutions might have been existed among the results (Hayal and Sanli, 2013). Here we overcome this problem using a robust outlier elimination method. Median is perhaps the simplest of the robust outlier detection methods in terms of applicability. At the same time, it might be considered to be the most efficient one with its highest breakdown point. In our analysis, we used a slightly different version of the median as introduced in Tut et al. 2013. Hence, we were able to remove suspected outliers at one run; which were, with the traditional methods, more problematic to remove this time from the solutions produced using the latest version of the software. References Hayal, AG, Sanli DU, Accuracy of GIPSY PPP from version 6, GNSS Precise Point Positioning Workshop: Reaching Full Potential, Vol. 1, pp. 41-42, (2013) Tut,İ., Sanli D.U., Erdogan B., Hekimoglu S., Efficiency of BERNESE single baseline rapid static positioning solutions with SEARCH strategy, Survey Review, Vol. 45, Issue 331

  18. Foetal placental blood flow in the lamb

    PubMed Central

    Faber, J. Job; Green, Thomas J.

    1972-01-01

    1. Fifteen sheep foetuses of 1·5-5·2 kg body weight were prepared with indwelling arterial and venous catheters for experimentation one to six days later. 2. Unanaesthetized foetuses were found to have mean arterial and central venous blood pressures of 40 ± 1·5 (S.E. of mean) and 2·0 ± 0·3 (S.E. of mean) mm Hg respectively, compared to intra-uterine pressure. Intra-uterine pressure was 16 ± 0·8 (S.E. of mean) mm Hg with respect to atmospheric pressure at mid-uterine level. 3. Mean placental blood flow of the foetuses was 199 ± 20 (S.E. of mean) ml./(min.kg body wt.). Mean cardiac output in eleven of the foetuses was 658 ± 102 (S.E. of mean) ml./(min.kg). 4. Mean foetal and maternal colloid osmotic pressures were 17·5 ± 0·7 (S.E. of mean) and 20·5 ± 0·6 (S.E. of mean) mm Hg respectively at 38° C. 5. Intravenous infusions into six ewes of 1·8 mole of mannitol and 0·4 mole of NaCl resulted in significant increases in foetal plasma osmolarity, sodium, potassium, and haemoglobin concentrations, without detectable transfer of mannitol to the foetal circulation. 6. In the sheep placenta there is osmotic and hydrostatic equilibration of water. As a consequence, there should be an interaction between foetal placental blood flow and foetal water exchange with the maternal circulation. It was concluded that this interaction tends to stabilize foetal placental blood flow. PMID:5039279

  19. Placental histology and neutrophil extracellular traps in lupus and pre-eclampsia pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Marder, Wendy; Knight, Jason S; Kaplan, Mariana J; Somers, Emily C; Zhang, Xu; O'Dell, Alexander A; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Lieberman, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    Objective Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pre-eclampsia, particularly in association with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS). While significant placental abnormalities are expected in pre-eclampsia, less is known about how lupus activity and APS in pregnancy affect the placenta. We describe placental pathology from a population of lupus pregnancies, several of which were complicated by APS-related thromboses, in which pre-eclampsia and other complications developed. We performed standard histopathological placental review and quantified neutrophils and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in the intervillous space, given the recognised association of NETs with lupus, APS and pre-eclampsia. Methods Pre-eclampsia, SLE and control placentas were scored for histological features, and neutrophils were quantified on H&E and immunohistochemical staining for the granular protein myeloperoxidase. NETs were identified by extracellular myeloperoxidase staining in the setting of decondensed nuclei. Non-parametric analysis was used to evaluate differences in netting and intact neutrophils between groups, with Kruskal–Wallis testing for associations between histological findings and neutrophils. Results Placentas were evaluated from 35 pregnancies: 10 controls, 11 pre-eclampsia, 4 SLE+pre-eclampsia and 10 SLE, including one complicated by catastrophic APS and one complicated by hepatic and splenic vein thromboses during pregnancy. Intrauterine growth restriction and oligohydramnios were observed in lupus cases but not controls. Significantly more NETs were found infiltrating placental intervillous spaces in pre-eclampsia, SLE+pre-eclampsia and all 10 SLE non-pre-eclampsia cases. The ratio of NETs to total neutrophils was significantly increased in all case groups compared with controls. When present, NETs were associated with maternal vasculitis, laminar decidual necrosis, maternal

  20. Maternal environment and placental vascularization in small ruminants.

    PubMed

    Bairagi, S; Quinn, K E; Crane, A R; Ashley, R L; Borowicz, P P; Caton, J S; Redden, R R; Grazul-Bilska, A T; Reynolds, L P

    2016-07-01

    Uteroplacental development is a crucial step facilitating conceptus growth. Normal placental development comprises extensive placental angiogenesis to support fetoplacental transport, meeting the metabolic demands of the fetus. Compromised pregnancies due to maternal stressors such as over or undernutrition, maternal age or parity, altered body mass index, or genetic background result in altered vascular development of the placenta. This negatively affects placental growth and placental function and ultimately results in poor pregnancy outcomes. Nonetheless, the placenta acts as a sensor to the maternal stressors and undergoes modifications, which some have termed placental programming, to ensure healthy development of the conceptus. Sex steroid hormones such as estradiol-17β and progesterone, chemokines such as chemokine ligand 12, and angiogenic/vasoactive factors such as vascular endothelial growth factors, placental growth factor, angiopoietins, and nitric oxide regulate uteroplacental development and hence are often used as therapeutic targets to rescue compromised pregnancies. Interestingly, the presence of sex steroid receptors has been identified in the fetal membranes (developing fetal placenta). Environmental steroid mimetics known as endocrine disrupting compounds disrupt conceptus development and lead to transgenerational impairments by epigenetic modification of placental gene expression, which is another area deserving intense research efforts. This review attempts to summarize current knowledge concerning intrinsic and extrinsic factors affecting selected reproductive functions with the emphasis on placental development. PMID:27173956

  1. Improvement and Validation of Pilot-Scale Emerging Pathogen Removal Studies: The Effects of Spiking Concentration and Sampling Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, B. L.; Harrington, G. W.; Hoffman, R. M.; Borchardt, M. A.

    2004-05-01

    The presence of waterborne enteric pathogens in domestic water supplies represents a potentially significant human health risk. To evaluate the removal of these pathogens in drinking water treatment processes, researchers have needed to spike raw water with at least 106 pathogens/L in order to reliably detect the pathogens in treated water. Unfortunately, occurrence surveys have shown that pathogen concentrations in raw waters are significantly smaller than 106 pathogens/L (LeChevallier and Norton, 1995; States et al., 1997). Since regulatory decisions are based on results from pilot-scale experiments, it is necessary to determine if it is appropriate to extrapolate removal capacities based on unrealistic spike doses. Recent advances have been made in sample concentration and pathogen detection that allows removal studies to be conducted at more realistic spike concentrations. The overall goal of this project is to use continuous separation channel centrifugation (CSCC) and flow cytometry with cell sorting (FCCS) to evaluate Cryptosporidium removals in water treatment processes at concentrations nearer to those found in the aquatic environment. This project evaluates Cryptosporidium removal with a unique combination of experimental, concentration, and analytical methods. In order to characterize the removal of Cryptosporidium, pilot-scale experiments will be conducted between March and April 2004 with different initial Cryptosporidium concentrations (range from 102 to 106 Cryptosporidium/L) and sampling methods (grab versus continuous). CSCC will be used for concentration of pathogens in samples collected from the pilot plant. FCCS capability will be used for Cryptosporidium detection. These methods will achieve significantly higher pathogen recoveries and more precise pathogen counts than the methods that have traditionally been used for pilot plant studies. This research will provide the water industry with a way of validating previous removal studies and insight

  2. Placental expression of imprinted genes varies with sampling site and mode of delivery

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, A.B.; Tunster, S.J.; Savory, N.; Holmes, A.; Beasley, J.; Parveen, S.A.R.; Penketh, R.J.A.; John, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Imprinted genes, which are monoallelically expressed by virtue of an epigenetic process initiated in the germline, are known to play key roles in regulating fetal growth and placental development. Numerous studies are investigating the expression of these imprinted genes in the human placenta in relation to common complications of pregnancy such as fetal growth restriction and preeclampsia. This study aimed to determine whether placental sampling protocols or other factors such as fetal sex, gestational age and mode of delivery may influence the expression of imprinted genes predicted to regulate placental signalling. Methods Term placentas were collected from Caucasian women delivering at University Hospital of Wales or Royal Gwent Hospital within two hours of delivery. Expression of the imprinted genes PHLDA2, CDKN1C, PEG3 and PEG10 was assayed by quantitative real time PCR. Intraplacental gene expression was analysed (N = 5). Placental gene expression was compared between male (N = 11) and female (N = 11) infants, early term (N = 8) and late term (N = 10) deliveries and between labouring (N = 13) and non-labouring (N = 21) participants. Results The paternally expressed imprinted genes PEG3 and PEG10 were resilient to differences in sampling site, fetal sex, term gestational age and mode of delivery. The maternally expressed imprinted gene CDKN1C was elevated over 2-fold (p < 0.001) in placenta from labouring deliveries compared with elective caesarean sections. In addition, the maternally expressed imprinted gene PHLDA2 was elevated by 1.8 fold (p = 0.01) in samples taken at the distal edge of the placenta compared to the cord insertion site. Conclusion These findings support the reinterpretation of existing data sets on these genes in relation to complications of pregnancy and further reinforce the importance of optimising and unifying placental collection protocols for future studies. PMID:26162698

  3. Macroscopic placental changes associated with fetal and maternal events in diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Salge, Ana Karina Marques; Rocha, Karlla Morgana Nunes; Xavier, Raphaela Maioni; Ramalho, Wilzianne Silva; Rocha, Érika Lopes; Guimarães, Janaína Valadares; Silva, Renata Calciolari Rossi e; Siqueira, Karina Machado; Abdalla, Douglas Reis; Michelin, Márcia Antoniazzi; Murta, Eddie Fernando Candido

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The current study sought to identify macroscopic placental changes associated with clinical conditions in women with or without diabetes and their newborns. METHODS: The study population consisted of 62 pregnant women clinically diagnosed with diabetes and 62 healthy women (control group). RESULTS: Among the subjects with diabetes, 43 women (69.3%) were diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus, 15 had diabetes mellitus I (24.2%), and four had diabetes mellitus II (6.5%). The mean age of the women studied was 28.5±5.71 years, and the mean gestational age of the diabetic women was 38.51 weeks. Of the 62 placentas from diabetic pregnancies, 49 (79%) maternal surfaces and 59 (95.2%) fetal surfaces showed abnormalities, including calcium and fibrin deposits, placental infarction, hematoma, and fibrosis. A statistical association was found between newborn gender and fetal and maternal placental changes (p = 0.002). The mean weight of the newborns studied was 3,287±563 g for women with diabetes mellitus, 3,205±544 g for those with gestational diabetes mellitus, 3,563±696 g for those with diabetes mellitus II, and 3,095±451 g for those with diabetes mellitus I. CONCLUSIONS: Infarction, hematoma, calcification, and fibrin were found on the maternal and fetal placental surfaces in women with diabetes. Women with gestational diabetes and post-term infants had more calcium deposits on the maternal placental surface as compared to those with type I and type II diabetes. PMID:23070348

  4. THREE DIMENSIONAL SONOGRAPHIC IMAGING OF PLACENTAL MESENCHYMAL DYSPLASIA AND ITS DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSES

    PubMed Central

    Vaisbuch, Edi; Romero, Roberto; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Erez, Offer; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Gotsch, Francesca; Kim, Chong Jai; Kim, Jung-Sun; Yeo, Lami; Hassan, Sonia S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) is an uncommon vascular anomaly of the placenta characterized by mesenchymal stem villous hyperplasia. Its main sonographic features is a thickened placenta with hypoechoic areas, and an accurate sonographic diagnosis is challenging. The aim of this study was to report two cases of PMD, and discuss the differential diagnosis of its sonographic features. Methods Cases of placental masses studied by two-dimensional (2D), three-dimensional (3D) and Color Doppler imaging. Results Case 1 - a thick placenta with multiple hypoechoic areas was noted at 13 weeks of gestation. At 19 weeks, the multi-cystic area, clearly demarcated from a normal looking placenta, measured 6.5×8.5cm and enlarged gradually. The patient delivered a 625 gram female after a spontaneous labor at almost 26 weeks’ gestation. Case 2 - a first sonographic examination at 25 weeks’ gestation revealed a thickened placenta with hypoechoic areas and a fetus with a single umbilical artery and a ventricular septal defect. At 27 weeks, the abnormal area of the placenta measured 14.5×7.5cm. At 32 weeks’ gestation, a caesarean section was performed due to non-reassuring fetal heart tracing and a 1415 gram female infant was delivered. Both cases were evaluated by 2D, 3D and Color Doppler imaging and the pathologic features of both placentas were consistent with PMD. Conclusions Placental mesenchymal dysplasia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of every placental mass, especially in cases of multi-cystic placental lesion with lack of high velocity signals inside the lesion, and a normal karyotype. PMID:19244073

  5. Ethical aspects of banking placental blood for transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sugarman, J; Reisner, E G; Kurtzberg, J

    1995-12-13

    Transplantation of blood cells harvested from the umbilical cord immediately after birth has been effective in repopulating the bone marrow. These placental blood transplantations may be safer than conventional bone marrow transplantations and may suspend the need to harvest bone marrow, a process fraught with difficulties. Further understanding and advancement of this emerging technology require developing large banks of placental blood. In this article, we examine some of the ethical issues associated with placental blood banking, including (1) questions about ownership of the tissue, (2) the necessity and nature of obtaining informed consent from parents for harvesting placental blood and the information-gathering process associated with it, (3) obligations to notify parents and children of the results of medical testing for infectious diseases and genetic information, (4) matters of privacy and confidentiality related to such information, and (5) the need for fair and equitable harvesting of and access to placental blood. PMID:7500510

  6. Human placental trophoblasts confer viral resistance to recipient cells

    PubMed Central

    Delorme-Axford, Elizabeth; Donker, Rogier B.; Mouillet, Jean-Francois; Chu, Tianjiao; Bayer, Avraham; Ouyang, Yingshi; Wang, Tianyi; Stolz, Donna B.; Sarkar, Saumendra N.; Morelli, Adrian E.; Sadovsky, Yoel; Coyne, Carolyn B.

    2013-01-01

    Placental trophoblasts form the interface between the fetal and maternal environments and serve to limit the maternal–fetal spread of viruses. Here we show that cultured primary human placental trophoblasts are highly resistant to infection by a number of viruses and, importantly, confer this resistance to nonplacental recipient cells by exosome-mediated delivery of specific microRNAs (miRNAs). We show that miRNA members of the chromosome 19 miRNA cluster, which are almost exclusively expressed in the human placenta, are packaged within trophoblast-derived exosomes and attenuate viral replication in recipient cells by the induction of autophagy. Together, our findings identify an unprecedented paracrine and/or systemic function of placental trophoblasts that uses exosome-mediated transfer of a unique set of placental-specific effector miRNAs to directly communicate with placental or maternal target cells and regulate their immunity to viral infections. PMID:23818581

  7. In-situ electrochemical method for removing environmental pollutants. Final report on Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, F.W.; Morris, R.S.

    1983-04-01

    Research was undertaken to determine whether certain organometallics can be used as catalysts in the electrochemical hydroxylation of chlorinated organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenols (PCBs). The rate and extent of PCB homolog removal by catalyzed electrochemistry in aqueous solutions were studied. The effect of electrolyte pH, constituent ions, and oxygen content, as well as the metal center in the organometallic catalyst, on PCB removal was evaluated. Electrochemical removal of PCBs on catalyzed-carbon electrodes was found to be technically feasible with lower chlorination PCB homologs being rapidly removed by specific catalysts.

  8. Jumbo Cutter for Removal of A Bent Femoral Interlocking Nail: A Cost Effective Method.

    PubMed

    Dhanda, Manjeet Singh; Madan, Harnam Singh; Sharma, Sansar C; Ali, Nadeem; Bhat, Abedullah

    2015-06-01

    Closed diaphyseal femoral shaft fractures can be treated with multiple surgical options. It is more challenging to remove a bent nail than a broken one because it is difficult to retrieve the bent nail through the intramedullary canal. Various authors have published their techniques for removal of bent femoral interlocking nail. This article describes a simple technique using Jumbo cutter for sectioning and removal of bent interlocking nail. This technique will help orthopaedic surgeons to remove bent nail without using any specialised metal cutting instruments. PMID:26266173

  9. Jumbo Cutter for Removal of A Bent Femoral Interlocking Nail: A Cost Effective Method

    PubMed Central

    Dhanda, Manjeet Singh; Sharma, Sansar C; Ali, Nadeem; Bhat, Abedullah

    2015-01-01

    Closed diaphyseal femoral shaft fractures can be treated with multiple surgical options. It is more challenging to remove a bent nail than a broken one because it is difficult to retrieve the bent nail through the intramedullary canal. Various authors have published their techniques for removal of bent femoral interlocking nail. This article describes a simple technique using Jumbo cutter for sectioning and removal of bent interlocking nail. This technique will help orthopaedic surgeons to remove bent nail without using any specialised metal cutting instruments. PMID:26266173

  10. Method for removal of metal atoms from aqueous solution using suspended plant cells

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Paul J.; Torres, deceased, Agapito P.; Delhaize, Emmanuel

    1992-01-01

    The use of plant suspension cultures to remove ionic metallic species and TNT-based explosives and their oxidation products from aqueous solution is described. Several plant strains were investigated including D. innoxia, Citrus citrus, and Black Mexican Sweet Corn. All showed significant ability to remove metal ions. Ions removed to sub-ppm levels include barium, iron, and plutonium. D. innoxia cells growing in media containing weapons effluent contaminated with Ba.sup.2+ also remove TNT, other explosives and oxidation products thereof from solution. The use of dead, dehydrated cells were also found to be of use in treating waste directly.

  11. Method for removal of explosives from aqueous solution using suspended plant cells

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Paul J.; Torres, deceased, Agapito P.; Delhaize, Emmanuel

    1994-01-01

    The use of plant suspension cultures to remove ionic metallic species and TNT-based explosives and their oxidation products from aqueous solution is described. Several plant strains were investigated including D. innoxia, Citrus citrus, and Black Mexican Sweet Corn. All showed significant ability to remove metal ions. Ions removed to sub-ppm levels include barium, iron, and plutonium. D. innoxia cells growing in media containing weapons effluent contaminated with Ba.sup.2+ also remove TNT, other explosives and oxidation products thereof from solution. The use of dead, dehydrated cells was also found to be of use in treating waste directly.

  12. Initial studies of pretreatment methods for neutralized cladding removal waste (NCRW) sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, J L

    1991-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is performing conceptual and experimental studies for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) aimed at determining the effectiveness of various pretreatment methods for the neutralized cladding removal waste (NCRW) sludge currently being stored at the Hanford Site of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of such pretreatment methods is to separate the transuranic (TRU) elements and the bulk components of the waste (primarily zirconium, sodium, fluoride, and hydroxide) to a level low enough that the bulk components can be disposed of as low-level waste (LLW), with only a small volume, TRU-containing fraction requiring geologic disposal. This objective is driven primarily by the large cost differential projected between LLW and geologic disposal procedures. This report contains the results of the first three years (1987, 1988, and 1989) of the program. These results were earlier reported informally in letter reports; they are here compiled in appendix form in this formal report to be more readily available to other workers and the public. The results of work done in 1990 and in following years will be reported in separate formal reports.

  13. Method to Remove Particulate Matter from Dusty Gases at Low Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Carlos; Clements, J. Sid

    2012-01-01

    Future human exploration of Mars will rely on local Martian resources to reduce the mass, cost, and risk of space exploration launched from Earth. NASA's In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Project seeks to produce mission consumables from local Martian resources, such as atmospheric gas. The Martian atmosphere, however, contains dust particles in the 2-to-10 -micrometer range. These dust particles must be removed before the Martian atmospheric gas can be processed. The low pressure of the Martian atmosphere, at 5 to 10 mbars, prevents the development of large voltages required for a standard electrostatic precipitator. If the voltage is increased too much, the corona transitions into a glow/streamer discharge unsuitable for the operation of a precipitator. If the voltage is not large enough, the dust particles are not sufficiently charged and the field is not strong enough to drive the particles to the collector. A method using electrostatic fields has been developed to collect dust from gaseous environments at low pressures, specifically carbon dioxide at pressures around 5 to 10 mbars. This method, commonly known as electrostatic precipitation, is a mature technology in air at one atmosphere. In this case, the high voltages required for the method to work can easily be achieved. However, in carbon dioxide at low pressures, such as those found on Mars, large voltages are not possible. The innovation reported here consists of two concentric cylindrical electrodes set at specific potential difference that generate an electric field that produces a corona capable of imparting an electrostatic charge to the incoming dust particles. The strength of the field is carefully balanced so as to produce a stable charging corona at 5 to 10 mbars, and is also capable of imparting a force to the particles that drives them to the collecting electrode. There are only two possible ways that dust can be removed from Martian atmospheric gas intakes: with this electrostatic

  14. Tuning the pH-shift protein-isolation method for maximum hemoglobin-removal from blood rich fish muscle.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, Mehdi; Marmon, Sofia; Chaijan, Manat; Undeland, Ingrid

    2016-12-01

    A main challenge preventing optimal use of protein isolated from unconventional raw materials (e.g., small pelagic fish and fish by-products) using the pH-shift method is the difficulty to remove enough heme-pigments. Here, the distribution of hemoglobin (Hb) in the different fractions formed during pH-shift processing was studied using Hb-fortified cod mince. Process modifications, additives and prewashing were then investigated to further facilitate Hb-removal. The alkaline pH-shift process version could remove considerably more Hb (77%) compared to the acidic version (37%) when proteins were precipitated at pH 5.5; most Hb was removed during dewatering. Protein precipitation at pH 6.5 improved total Hb removal up to 91% and 74% during alkaline and acid processing, respectively. Adding phytic acid to the first supernatant of the alkaline process version yielded 93% Hb removal. Combining one prewash with phytic acid at pH 5.5 followed by alkaline/acid pH-shift processing increased Hb removal up to 96/92%. PMID:27374526

  15. Method for removing heavy metal and nitrogen oxides from flue gas, device for removing heavy metal and nitrogen oxides from flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Hann-Sheng; Livengood, Charles David

    1997-12-01

    A method for the simultaneous removal of oxides and heavy metals from a fluid is provided comprising combining the fluid with compounds containing alkali and sulfur to create a mixture; spray drying the mixture to create a vapor phase and a solid phase; and isolating the vapor phase from the solid phase. A device is also provided comprising a means for spray-drying flue gas with alkali-sulfide containing liquor at a temperature sufficient to cause the flue gas to react with the compounds so as to create a gaseous fraction and a solid fraction and a means for directing the gaseous fraction to a fabric filter.

  16. Homogenizing the 2 X 2 Contingency Table: A Method for Removing Dependencies Due to Subject and Item Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flexser, Arthur J.

    1981-01-01

    Contingency analyses have been employed to assess the degree to which outcomes of successive tests of corresponding items deviate from stochastic independence. A method of adjusting contingency tables to remove the effects of subject and item inhomogeneities, is presented. The method represents a partial solution to the "Simpson's paradox"…

  17. Automated bone removal in CT angiography: Comparison of methods based on single energy and dual energy scans

    SciTech Connect

    Straten, Marcel van; Schaap, Michiel; Dijkshoorn, Marcel L.; Greuter, Marcel J.; Lugt, Aad van der; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Niessen, Wiro J.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate dual energy based methods for bone removal in computed tomography angiography (CTA) images and compare these with single energy based methods that use an additional, nonenhanced, CT scan. Methods: Four different bone removal methods were applied to CT scans of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom, acquired with a second generation dual source CT scanner. The methods differed by the way information on the presence of bone was obtained (either by using an additional, nonenhanced scan or by scanning with two tube voltages at the same time) and by the way the bone was removed from the CTA images (either by masking or subtracting the bone). The phantom contained parts which mimic vessels of various diameters in direct contact with bone. Both a quantitative and qualitative analysis of image quality after bone removal was performed. Image quality was quantified by the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) normalized to the square root of the dose (CNRD). At locations where vessels touch bone, the quality of the bone removal and the vessel preservation were visually assessed. The dual energy based methods were assessed with and without the addition of a 0.4 mm tin filter to the high voltage x-ray tube filtration. For each bone removal method, the dose required to obtain a certain CNR after bone removal was compared with the dose of a reference scan with the same CNR but without automated bone removal. The CNRD value of the reference scan was maximized by choosing the lowest tube voltage available. Results: All methods removed the bone completely. CNRD values were higher for the masking based methods than for the subtraction based methods. Single energy based methods had a higher CNRD value than the corresponding dual energy based methods. For the subtraction based dual energy method, tin filtration improved the CNRD value with approximately 50%. For the masking based dual energy method, it was easier to differentiate between iodine and bone when tin filtration

  18. Clinical Significance of Pregnancies Complicated by Velamentous Umbilical Cord Insertion Associated With Other Umbilical Cord/Placental Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shunji; Kato, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    Background We examined the clinical significance of pregnancies complicated by velamentous cord insertion (VCI) associated with other umbilical cord/placental abnormalities. Methods Data were collected from 168 deliveries complicated by VCI and from 16,797 unaffected controls. All placentae were screened identically by trained staff. In this study, we examined the presence of excessively long umbilical cord (longer than 70 cm), vasa previa, single umbilical artery, circumvallate placenta, succenturiate placenta, lobed placenta, placenta previa, low lying placenta and placenta accrete as the other umbilical cord/placental abnormalities. Results Using a multivariate analysis, the pregnancies complicated by VCI were independently associated with in vitro fertilization use (P < 0.01), maternal smoking (P = 0.03), preterm delivery (P = 0.03), fetal asphyxia (P = 0.01) and small-for-gestational-age infants (P = 0.02). It was also independently associated with vasa previa (P < 0.01), single umbilical artery (P = 0.04), lobed placenta (P = 0.01) and placenta previa (P = 0.03). However, these umbilical cord/placental abnormalities were not associated with the further adverse outcomes of the pregnancies complicated by VCI. Conclusion VCI is associated with an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes irrespective of the presence of other umbilical cord/placental abnormalities. Routine identification of the placental cord insertion site should be considered. PMID:26491497

  19. Apparatus and method for removing mercury vapor from a gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Ganesan, Kumar

    2008-01-01

    A metallic filter effectively removes mercury vapor from gas streams. The filter captures the mercury which then can be released and collected as product. The metallic filter is a copper mesh sponge plated with a six micrometer thickness of gold. The filter removes up to 90% of mercury vapor from a mercury contaminated gas stream.

  20. The efficacy of selective calculus ablation at 400 nm: comparison to conventional calculus removal methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenly, Joshua E.; Seka, Wolf; Romanos, Georgios; Rechmann, Peter

    A desired outcome of scaling and root planing is the complete removal of calculus and infected root tissue and preservation of healthy cementum for rapid healing of periodontal tissues. Conventional periodontal treatments for calculus removal, such as hand instrument scaling and ultrasonic scaling, often deeply scrape the surface of the underlying hard tissue and may leave behind a smear layer. Pulsed lasers emitting at violet wavelengths (specifically, 380 to 400 nm) are a potential alternative treatment since they can selectively ablate dental calculus without ablating pristine hard tissue (i.e., enamel, cementum, and dentin). In this study, light and scanning electron microscopy are used to compare and contrast the efficacy of in vitro calculus removal for several conventional periodontal treatments (hand instruments, ultrasonic scaler, and Er:YAG laser) to calculus removal with a frequency-doubled Ti:sapphire (λ = 400 nm). After calculus removal, enamel and cementum surfaces are investigated for calculus debris and damage to the underlying hard tissue surface. Compared to the smear layer, grooves, and unintentional hard tissue removal typically found using these conventional treatments, calculus removal using the 400-nm laser is complete and selective without any removal of pristine dental hard tissue. Based on these results, selective ablation from the 400-nm laser appears to produce a root surface that would be more suitable for successful healing of periodontal tissues.

  1. A NOVEL METHOD FOR THE REMOVAL OF TRACE CONCENTRATION OF ELEMENTAL MERCURY FROM UTILITY EMISSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph L. Katz

    2002-09-17

    A new technique for removal of elemental mercury from emissions of coal-fired utilities was investigated. The key idea is to selectively photo ionize the mercury atoms. A strong electric field gradient then drags them to the negative plate where they can be collected and removed.

  2. Methods and apparatus for removal and control of material in laser drilling of a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Rinzler, Charles C; Zediker, Mark S; Faircloth, Brian O; Moxley, Joel F

    2014-01-28

    The removal of material from the path of a high power laser beam during down hole laser operations including drilling of a borehole and removal of displaced laser effected borehole material from the borehole during laser operations. In particular, paths, dynamics and parameters of fluid flows for use in conjunction with a laser bottom hole assembly.

  3. Confined placental mosaicisms and uniparental disomy

    SciTech Connect

    Kalousek, D.K.; Langlois, S.; Harrison, K.J.

    1994-09-01

    Approximately 2% of pregnancies studied with chorionic villous sampling (CVS) show confined placental mosaicism (CPM) which persists to term in 50-70% of cases. An increased frequency of complications, such as intrauterine fetal growth restriction or intrauterine death, is observed in these pregnancies. As trisomic zygote rescue is a common mechanism responsible for CPM, fetal uniparental disomy (UPD), resulting from the loss of the extra trisomic chromosome in the embryonic stem cells, would be expected to occur in a proportion of pregnancies with CPM. We have studied 27 pregnancies with CPM involving trisomies for chromosomes 2, 7, 9, 10, 12, and 16 for involvement of specific cell lineage(s) and levels of mosaicism in term placentas. Also, DNA from the parents and infant was analyzed for UPD or biparental disomy (BPD). Five infants with UPD for chromosome 16 and one infant with UPD for chromosome 7 were detected. All other infants showed BPD for the chromosome involved in CPM. For trisomy 16 mosaic gestations, a close correlation between high levels of trisomic cells in placenta and intrauterine fetal growth restriction has been found irrespective of the type of disomy present in the infant. The effect of other trisomies (2, 7, 9, 10, 12) on placental function appears to be similar, but the low numbers of pregnancies studied and lack of detection of UPD for chromosomes 2, 9, 10 and 12 does not allow a definitive conclusion.

  4. Assisted Reproduction Technologies Impair Placental Steroid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Abby C.; Miyagi, Shogo J.; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Ward, Monika A.

    2009-01-01

    The placenta plays a vital role in pregnancy by facilitating steroid passage from maternal to fetal circulation and/or direct production of hormones. Using a murine model, we demonstrated the differences in placental steroid metabolism between pregnancies conceived naturally and with assisted reproduction technologies (ART): in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). While the ovarian steroid production was similar (estrone, 17β-estradiol) or higher (estriol) in ART pregnancies compared to mating, the levels of placental estriol were significantly lower in ART group. Placentas from ART had significantly higher activities of the steroid metabolizing enzymes UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and sulfotransferase (SULT), which in ICSI were also coupled with decreased activity of the steroid regenerating enzymes β-glucuronidase (β-G) and Aryl sulfatase (AS). Levels of steroid metabolites androstane-3α-17β-diol glucuronide and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were higher in fetal compared to maternal blood in ART, but not in mating. This study demonstrates that in murine ART pregnancies, higher metabolism and clearance of steroids by the placenta may seriously affect the passage of essential hormones to the fetus. If a similar phenomenon exists in humans, this could provide a plausible explanation for obstetric and neonatal complications associated with ART, including the higher incidence of low birth weight babies. PMID:19406239

  5. Finite Element Modeling of Human Placental Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Mao; Manoogian, Sarah; Duma, Stefan M.; Stitzel, Joel D.

    2009-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes account for a large portion of placental abruption and fetal losses. To better understand the material properties of the human placenta, a Finite Element (FE) model of human placenta tissue was created and verified using data from uniaxial tension tests. Sixty-four tensile tests at three different strain rates of 7% strain/s, 70% strain/s, and 700% strain/s from six whole human placentas were used for model development. Nominal stresses were calculated by dividing forces at the grips by the original cross-sectional area. Nominal strains were calculated by dividing cross-head displacement by the original gauge length. A detailed methodology for interpreting experimental data for application to material model development is presented. A model of the tension coupon was created in LS-DYNA and stretched in the same manner as the uniaxial tension tests. The behavior of the material was optimized to the uniaxial tension test using a multi-island genetic algorithm. The results demonstrate good correlation between experiments and the model, with an average difference of 2% between the optimized FE and experimental first principal stress at the termination state. The material parameters found in this study can be utilized in FE models of placental tissues for behavior under dynamic loading. PMID:20184849

  6. Experimental method for characterizing CVOC removal from fractured clays during boiling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoling; Tan, Tianwu; Falta, Ronald W; Murdoch, Lawrence C

    2013-09-01

    Conventional remediation methods that rely on contact with contaminants can be ineffective in fractured media, but thermal methods of remediation involving CVOC stripping at boiling temperature show promise. However, limited experimental data are available to characterize thermal remediation because of challenges associated with high temperature. This research reports an experimental method using uniformly contaminated clay packed into two types of experimental cells, a rigid-wall stainless steel tube and a flexible-wall Teflon tube in a pressurized chamber. Both tubes are 5 cm in diameter and approximately 25 cm long. This laboratory apparatus was developed as a 1D physical model for contaminant transport in a cylindrical matrix towards a fracture, which is represented by one end of the cylinder and serves as the outlet of vapor and contaminant. The clay was contaminated with dissolved 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA) and bromide, and the columns were heated to more than 100 °C and then the top end was depressurized to atmospheric pressure to induce boiling. The outflow was condensed and analyzed for contaminant mass. The flexible-wall cell was confined to 100 kPa (gage), allowing equilibrium boiling temperatures of approximately 120 °C to be maintained. The clay was sampled before and after heating and extracted to determine the DCA distribution along the length of the column. During a typical test in the rigid-wall cell, internal temperatures and pressures along the column during heating reached the saturated vapor pressure curve. DCA concentrations in the recovered condensate were up to 12 times of the initial pore concentration in the clay. Less than 5% of non-volatile bromide was recovered. Significant removal of DCA and water occurred along the entire length of the clay column. This suggests that boiling was occurring in the clay matrix. PMID:23872027

  7. Evidence for placental compensation in cattle.

    PubMed

    Van Eetvelde, M; Kamal, M M; Hostens, M; Vandaele, L; Fiems, L O; Opsomer, G

    2016-08-01

    Prenatal development is known to be extremely sensitive to maternal and environmental challenges. In this study, we hypothesize that body growth and lactation during gestation in cattle reduce nutrient availability for the pregnant uterus, with consequences for placental development. Fetal membranes of 16 growing heifers and 27 fully grown cows of the Belgian Blue (BB) breed were compared to determine the effect of body growth on placental development. Furthermore, the fetal membranes of 49 lactating Holstein Friesian (HF) cows and 27 HF heifers were compared to study the impact of dam lactation compared to dam body growth. After parturition, calf birth weight and body measurements of dam and calf were recorded, as well as weight of total fetal membranes, cotyledons and intercotyledonary membranes. All cotyledons were individually measured to calculate both the surface of each individual cotyledon and the total cotyledonary surface per placenta. Total cotyledonary surface was unaffected by breed or the breed×parity interaction. Besides a 0.3 kg lower cotyledonary weight (P=0.007), heifer placentas had a smaller total cotyledonary surface compared with placentas of cows (0.48±0.017 v. 0.54±0.014 m2, respectively, P<0.001). Within the BB breed, fetal membranes of heifers had a 1.5 kg lower total weight and 1.0 kg lower intercotyledonary membrane weight (P<0.005) compared with cows. A cotyledon number of only 91±5.4 was found in multiparous BB dams, while growing BB heifers had a higher cotyledon number (126±6.7, P<0.001), but a greater proportion of smaller cotyledons (<40 cm2). Within the HF breed, no parity effect on intercotyledonary membrane weight, cotyledon number and individual cotyledonary surface was found. Placental efficiency (calf weight/total cotyledonary surface) was similar in HF and BB heifers but significantly higher in multiparous BB compared with multiparous HF dams (106.0±20.45 v. 74.3±12.27 kg/m2, respectively, P<0.001). Furthermore, a

  8. Applying the polarity rapid assessment method to characterize nitrosamine precursors and to understand their removal by drinking water treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiaobin; Bei, Er; Li, Shixiang; Ouyang, Yueying; Wang, Jun; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Xiaojian; Krasner, Stuart W; Suffet, I H Mel

    2015-12-15

    Some N-nitrosamines (NAs) have been identified as emerging disinfection by-products during water treatment. Thus, it is essential to understand the characteristics of the NA precursors. In this study, the polarity rapid assessment method (PRAM) and the classical resin fractionation method were studied as methods to fractionate the NA precursors during drinking water treatment. The results showed that PRAM has much higher selectivity for NA precursors than the resin approach. The normalized N-nitrosodimethylamine formation potential (NDMA FP) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) FP of four resin fractions was at the same level as the average yield of the bulk organic matter whereas that of the cationic fraction by PRAM showed 50 times the average. Thus, the cationic fraction was shown to be the most important NDMA precursor contributor. The PRAM method also helped understand which portions of the NA precursor were removed by different water treatment processes. Activated carbon (AC) adsorption removed over 90% of the non-polar PRAM fraction (that sorbs onto the C18 solid phase extraction [SPE] cartridge) of NDMA and NDEA precursors. Bio-treatment removed 80-90% of the cationic fraction of PRAM (that is retained on the cation exchange SPE cartridge) and 40-60% of the non-cationic fractions. Ozonation removed 50-60% of the non-polar PRAM fraction of NA precursors and transformed part of them into the polar fraction. Coagulation and sedimentation had very limited removal of various PRAM fractions of NA precursors. PMID:26433007

  9. Process optimization for Ni(II) removal from wastewater by calcined oyster shell powders using Taguchi method.

    PubMed

    Yen, Hsing Yuan; Li, Jun Yan

    2015-09-15

    Waste oyster shells cause great environmental concerns and nickel is a harmful heavy metal. Therefore, we applied the Taguchi method to take care of both issues by optimizing the controllable factors for Ni(II) removal by calcined oyster shell powders (OSP), including the pH (P), OSP calcined temperature (T), Ni(II) concentration (C), OSP dose (D), and contact time (t). The results show that their percentage contribution in descending order is P (64.3%) > T (18.9%) > C (8.8%) > D (5.1%) > t (1.7%). The optimum condition is pH of 10 and OSP calcined temperature of 900 °C. Under the optimum condition, the Ni(II) can be removed almost completely; the higher the pH, the more the precipitation; the higher the calcined temperature, the more the adsorption. The latter is due to the large number of porosities created at the calcination temperature of 900 °C. The porosities generate a large amount of cavities which significantly increase the surface area for adsorption. A multiple linear regression equation obtained to correlate Ni(II) removal with the controllable factors is: Ni(II) removal(%) = 10.35 × P + 0.045 × T - 1.29 × C + 19.33 × D + 0.09 × t - 59.83. This equation predicts Ni(II) removal well and can be used for estimating Ni(II) removal during the design stage of Ni(II) removal by calcined OSP. Thus, OSP can be used to remove nickel effectively and the formula for removal prediction is developed for practical applications. PMID:26203873

  10. Removal of landfill leachate toxicity and genotoxicity by two treatment methods.

    PubMed

    Brkanac, Sandra Radić; Vujčić, Valerija; Cvjetko, Petra; Baković, Vid; Oreščanin, Višnja

    2014-03-01

    Leachates from active and closed municipal solid waste landfills can be a major source of contamination to groundwater and surface waters. In the present study the toxic and genotoxic potential of leachate from an old sanitary landfill prior to and following chemical and electrochemical treatments were assessed using Lemna, Allium, and comet tests. Photosynthetic pigments, malondialdehyde (indicator of lipid peroxidation) and antioxidant enzyme activities were evaluated as additional indicators of toxicity in duckweed. Following duckweed exposure to 25 % dilution of landfill leachate, growth rate and photosynthetic pigments content significantly decreased while lipid peroxidation increased despite stimulation of antioxidative defence mechanisms. Diluted leachate induced DNA strand breaks in duckweed cells as evidenced by the comet assay. Regarding the Allium test, untreated leachate caused inhibition of Allium cepa cell division and induction of mitotic and chromosomal aberrations. Although both water treatments completely reduced genotoxicity of leachate, the electrochemical method was found to be more efficient in removing toxic substances present in landfill leachate and thus more suitable for treating such leachates prior to their discharge into the environment. As landfill leachates pose a risk to human health and environment in general due to their (geno)toxicity, the present study demonstrates that the ecotoxicity/genotoxicity assays should be used in leachate risk assessment together with physicochemical analysis. PMID:24615481

  11. Evaluation of two cleaning methods for the removal of asbestos fibers from carpet

    SciTech Connect

    Kominsky, J.R.; Freyberg, R.W.; Chesson, J.; Cain, W.C.; Powers, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    The research study examined the effectiveness of dry vacuuming and wet cleaning for the removal of asbestos fibers from carpet, and evaluated the potential for fiber reentrainment during carpet cleaning activities. Routine carpet cleaning operations using high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered dry vacuum cleaners and HEPA-filtered hot-water extraction cleaners were simulated on carpet artificially contaminated with asbestos fibers. Overall, wet cleaning the carpet with a hot-water extraction cleaner reduced the level of asbestos contamination by approximately 70 percent. There was no significant evidence of either an increase or a decrease in the asbestos concentration after dry vacuuming. The level of asbestos contamination had no significant effect on the difference between the carpet asbestos concentrations before and after cleaning. Airborne asbestos concentrations were between two and four times greater during the carpet cleaning activities. The level of asbestos contamination in the carpet cleaning activities. The level of asbestos contamination in the carpet and the type of cleaning method used had no statistically significant effect on the difference between the airborne asbestos concentrations before and during cleaning.

  12. In vitro placental model optimization for nanoparticle transport studies

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, Laura; Poulsen, Marie Sønnegaard; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Pojana, Giulio; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Saunders, Margaret; Rytting, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Background Advances in biomedical nanotechnology raise hopes in patient populations but may also raise questions regarding biodistribution and biocompatibility, especially during pregnancy. Special consideration must be given to the placenta as a biological barrier because a pregnant woman’s exposure to nanoparticles could have significant effects on the fetus developing in the womb. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to optimize an in vitro model for characterizing the transport of nanoparticles across human placental trophoblast cells. Methods The growth of BeWo (clone b30) human placental choriocarcinoma cells for nanoparticle transport studies was characterized in terms of optimized Transwell® insert type and pore size, the investigation of barrier properties by transmission electron microscopy, tight junction staining, transepithelial electrical resistance, and fluorescein sodium transport. Following the determination of nontoxic concentrations of fluorescent polystyrene nanoparticles, the cellular uptake and transport of 50 nm and 100 nm diameter particles was measured using the in vitro BeWo cell model. Results Particle size measurements, fluorescence readings, and confocal microscopy indicated both cellular uptake of the fluorescent polystyrene nanoparticles and the transcellular transport of these particles from the apical (maternal) to the basolateral (fetal) compartment. Over the course of 24 hours, the apparent permeability across BeWo cells grown on polycarbonate membranes (3.0 μm pore size) was four times higher for the 50 nm particles compared with the 100 nm particles. Conclusion The BeWo cell line has been optimized and shown to be a valid in vitro model for studying the transplacental transport of nanoparticles. Fluorescent polystyrene nanoparticle transport was size-dependent, as smaller particles reached the basal (fetal) compartment at a higher rate. PMID:22334780

  13. How does the milk removal method affect teat tissue and teat recovery in dairy ewes?

    PubMed

    Alejandro, Manuel; Roca, Amparo; Romero, Gema; Díaz, Jose Ramon

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this work was to study how machine milking (MM) carried out in suitable conditions affects teat wall thickness and teat canal length and their return after milking to pre-milking conditions, in comparison with other milk extraction methods considered biological referents: lamb suckling (LS), milk removal by catheter (RC) and hand milking (HM). Three Latin square experiments were designed, using 11 ewes in the first experiment (LS), 13 in the second (RC) and 12 in the third (HM). Each of the Latin squares was divided into two periods: in the first, the left gland of each animal was machine milked and the corresponding treatment (LS, RC and HM) was applied to the right gland. Subsequently, in the second period the extraction methods were interchanged. During the experimental period, 4 sampling days were carried out (2 in each experimental period), where ultrasound scans were taken before (B) and immediately after milking (A) and at 1 (1 h), 2 (2 h), 3 (3 h), 4 (4 h), 6 (6 h), 8 (8 h) and 10 (10 h) hours after milking finished. Teat wall thickness (TWT), teat wall area (TWA), teat end area (TEWA) and teat canal length (TCL) were measured in all the ultrasound images. MM increased TWT after milking compared with RC. TWT, TWA, TEWA and TCL were lower (P<0.05) in HM than in MM. No significant differences (P>0.05) were found between LS and MM for any variable. The extraction method affected the recovery time of the variables, with total teat recovery at 6 h after RC and 4 h after HM. In the case of LS, the TEWA and TCL values were recovered sooner, as of 3 h. Teat recovery time after MM was similar to the extraction method with which it was compared in each experiment. Thus, considering the similar increase in wall thickness and their recovery time compared with the reference methods, it was concluded that machine milking, carried out in optimum conditions and respecting the time interval between milkings usually applied on sheep farms (8-12 h), would not

  14. A region finding method to remove the noise from the images of the human hand gesture recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Muhammad Jibran; Mahmood, Waqas

    2015-12-01

    The performance of the human hand gesture recognition systems depends on the quality of the images presented to the system. Since these systems work in real time environment the images may be corrupted by some environmental noise. By removing the noise the performance of the system can be enhanced. So far different noise removal methods have been presented in many researches to eliminate the noise but all have its own limitations. We have presented a region finding method to deal with the environmental noise that gives better results and enhances the performance of the human hand gesture recognition systems so that the recognition rate of the system can be improved.

  15. Method and system for the removal of oxides of nitrogen and sulfur from combustion processes

    DOEpatents

    Walsh, John V.

    1987-12-15

    A process for removing oxide contaminants from combustion gas, and employing a solid electrolyte reactor, includes: (a) flowing the combustion gas into a zone containing a solid electrolyte and applying a voltage and at elevated temperature to thereby separate oxygen via the solid electrolyte, (b) removing oxygen from that zone in a first stream and removing hot effluent gas from that zone in a second stream, the effluent gas containing contaminant, (c) and pre-heating the combustion gas flowing to that zone by passing it in heat exchange relation with the hot effluent gas.

  16. A transient performance method for CO2 removal with regenerable adsorbents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, K. C.

    1972-01-01

    A computer program is described which can be used to predict the transient performance of vacuum-desorbed sorbent beds for CO2 or water removal, and composite beds of two sorbents for simultaneous humidity control and CO2 removal. The program was written primarily for silica gel and molecular sieve inorganic sorbents, but can be used for a variety of adsorbent materials. Part 2 of this report describes a computer program which can be used to predict performance for multiple-bed CO2-removal sorbent systems. This program is an expanded version of the composite sorbent bed program described in Part 1.

  17. Method for removing HCL and HF from coal derived fuel gas

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, C.; Gal, E.

    1992-06-02

    This patent describes a process stream for removing sulfur compounds from a hot coal derived fuel gas stream containing H{sub 2}S, COS, HCl and HF upstream of a power plant. This patent describes improvement in introducing a sorbent material at a location and in an amount effective to break down at least the HCl and HF constituents into solid salts and gaseous CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O at least partially concurrently with the removal of the sulfur compounds; and removing the solid salts from the stream.

  18. Composites for removing metals and volatile organic compounds and method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Coronado, Paul R.; Coleman, Sabre J.; Reynolds, John G.

    2006-12-12

    Functionalized hydrophobic aerogel/solid support structure composites have been developed to remove metals and organic compounds from aqueous and vapor media. The targeted metals and organics are removed by passing the aqueous or vapor phase through the composite which can be in molded, granular, or powder form. The composites adsorb the metals and the organics leaving a purified aqueous or vapor stream. The species-specific adsorption occurs through specific functionalization of the aerogels tailored towards specific metals and/or organics. After adsorption, the composites can be disposed of or the targeted metals and/or organics can be reclaimed or removed and the composites recycled.

  19. A method for removal of CO from exhaust gas using pulsed corona discharge.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Yang, L; Lei, Y; Wang, J; Lu, Y

    2000-10-01

    An experimental study of the oxidation of CO in exhaust gas from a motorcycle has been carried out using plasma chemical reactions in a pulsed corona discharge. In the process, some main parameters, such as the initial CO concentration, amplitude and frequency of pulses, residence time, reactor volume, and relative humidity (RH), as well as their effects on CO removal characteristics, were investigated. O3, which is beneficial to reducing CO, was produced during CO removal. When the exhaust gas was at ambient temperature, more than 80% CO removal efficiency was realized at an initial concentration of 288 ppm in a suitable range of the parameters. PMID:11288300

  20. Methods and apparatus for carbon dioxide removal from a fluid stream

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Wei; Ruud, James Anthony; Ku, Anthony Yu-Chung; Ramaswamy, Vidya; Liu, Ke

    2010-01-19

    An apparatus for producing hydrogen gas wherein the apparatus includes a reactor. In one embodiment, the reactor includes at least two conversion-removal portions. Each conversion-removal portion comprises a catalyst section configured to convert CO in the stream to CO.sub.2 and a membrane section located downstream of and in flow communication with the catalyst section. The membrane section is configured to selectively remove the CO.sub.2 from the stream and to be in flow communication with a sweep gas.

  1. Early Dexamethasone Treatment Induces Placental Apoptosis in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Wenbin; Shang, Hongkai; Li, Shaofu; Sloboda, Deborah M.; Ehrlich, Loreen; Lange, Karolin; Xu, Huaisheng; Henrich, Wolfgang; Dudenhausen, Joachim W.; Plagemann, Andreas; Newnham, John P.; Challis, John R. G.

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoid treatment given in late pregnancy in sheep resulted in altered placental development and function. An imbalance of placental survival and apoptotic factors resulting in an increased rate of apoptosis may be involved. We have now investigated the effects of dexamethasone (DEX) in early pregnancy on binucleate cells (BNCs), placental apoptosis, and fetal sex as a determinant of these responses. Pregnant ewes carrying singleton fetuses (n = 105) were randomized to control (n = 56, 2 mL saline/ewe) or DEX treatment (n = 49, intramuscular injections of 0.14 mg/kg ewe weight per 12 hours over 48 hours) at 40 to 41 days of gestation (dG). Placentomes were collected at 50, 100, 125, and 140 dG. At 100 dG, DEX in females reduced BNC numbers, placental antiapoptotic (proliferating cell nuclear antigen), and increased proapoptotic factors (Bax, p53), associated with a temporarily decrease in fetal growth. At 125 dG, BNC numbers and apoptotic markers were restored to normal. In males, ovine placental lactogen-protein levels after DEX were increased at 50 dG, but at 100 and 140 dG significantly decreased compared to controls. In contrast to females, these changes were independent of altered BNC numbers or apoptotic markers. Early DEX was associated with sex-specific, transient alterations in BNC numbers, which may contribute to changes in placental and fetal development. Furthermore, in females, altered placental apoptosis markers may be involved. PMID:25063551

  2. Early dexamethasone treatment induces placental apoptosis in sheep.

    PubMed

    Braun, Thorsten; Meng, Wenbin; Shang, Hongkai; Li, Shaofu; Sloboda, Deborah M; Ehrlich, Loreen; Lange, Karolin; Xu, Huaisheng; Henrich, Wolfgang; Dudenhausen, Joachim W; Plagemann, Andreas; Newnham, John P; Challis, John R G

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoid treatment given in late pregnancy in sheep resulted in altered placental development and function. An imbalance of placental survival and apoptotic factors resulting in an increased rate of apoptosis may be involved. We have now investigated the effects of dexamethasone (DEX) in early pregnancy on binucleate cells (BNCs), placental apoptosis, and fetal sex as a determinant of these responses. Pregnant ewes carrying singleton fetuses (n = 105) were randomized to control (n = 56, 2 mL saline/ewe) or DEX treatment (n = 49, intramuscular injections of 0.14 mg/kg ewe weight per 12 hours over 48 hours) at 40 to 41 days of gestation (dG). Placentomes were collected at 50, 100, 125, and 140 dG. At 100 dG, DEX in females reduced BNC numbers, placental antiapoptotic (proliferating cell nuclear antigen), and increased proapoptotic factors (Bax, p53), associated with a temporarily decrease in fetal growth. At 125 dG, BNC numbers and apoptotic markers were restored to normal. In males, ovine placental lactogen-protein levels after DEX were increased at 50 dG, but at 100 and 140 dG significantly decreased compared to controls. In contrast to females, these changes were independent of altered BNC numbers or apoptotic markers. Early DEX was associated with sex-specific, transient alterations in BNC numbers, which may contribute to changes in placental and fetal development. Furthermore, in females, altered placental apoptosis markers may be involved. PMID:25063551

  3. Placental ischemia increases seizure susceptibility and cerebrospinal fluid cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Warrington, Junie P

    2015-01-01

    Eclampsia is diagnosed in preeclamptic patients who develop unexplained seizures and/or coma during pregnancy or postpartum. Eclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and infant morbidity and mortality, accounting for ∼13% of maternal deaths worldwide. Little is known about the mechanisms contributing to the pathophysiology of eclampsia, partly due to the lack of suitable animal models. This study tested the hypothesis that placental ischemia, induced by reducing utero-placental perfusion, increases susceptibility to seizures, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammation, and neurokinin B (NKB) expression in brain and plasma. Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), a pro-convulsive drug, was injected into pregnant and placental ischemic rats (40 mg/kg, i.p.) on gestational day 19 followed by video monitoring for 30 min. Seizure scoring was blindly conducted. Placental ischemia hastened the onset of seizures compared to pregnant controls but had no effect on seizure duration. Placental ischemia increased CSF levels of IL-2, IL-17, IL-18 and eotaxin (CCL11), had no effect on plasma NKB; however, PTZ increased plasma NKB in both pregnant and placental ischemic rats. NKB was strongly correlated with latency to seizure in normal pregnant rats (R2 = 0.88 vs. 0.02 in placental ischemic rats). Lastly, NKB decreased in the anterior cerebrum in response to placental ischemia and PTZ treatment but was unchanged in the posterior cerebrum. These data demonstrate that placental ischemia is associated with increased susceptibility to seizures and CSF inflammation; thus provides an excellent model for elucidating mechanisms of eclampsia-like symptoms. Further studies are required to determine the role of CSF cytokines/chemokines in mediating increased seizure susceptibility. PMID:26603461

  4. Placental ischemia increases seizure susceptibility and cerebrospinal fluid cytokines.

    PubMed

    Warrington, Junie P

    2015-11-01

    Eclampsia is diagnosed in preeclamptic patients who develop unexplained seizures and/or coma during pregnancy or postpartum. Eclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and infant morbidity and mortality, accounting for ~13% of maternal deaths worldwide. Little is known about the mechanisms contributing to the pathophysiology of eclampsia, partly due to the lack of suitable animal models. This study tested the hypothesis that placental ischemia, induced by reducing utero-placental perfusion, increases susceptibility to seizures, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammation, and neurokinin B (NKB) expression in brain and plasma. Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), a pro-convulsive drug, was injected into pregnant and placental ischemic rats (40 mg/kg, i.p.) on gestational day 19 followed by video monitoring for 30 min. Seizure scoring was blindly conducted. Placental ischemia hastened the onset of seizures compared to pregnant controls but had no effect on seizure duration. Placental ischemia increased CSF levels of IL-2, IL-17, IL-18 and eotaxin (CCL11), had no effect on plasma NKB; however, PTZ increased plasma NKB in both pregnant and placental ischemic rats. NKB was strongly correlated with latency to seizure in normal pregnant rats (R(2) = 0.88 vs. 0.02 in placental ischemic rats). Lastly, NKB decreased in the anterior cerebrum in response to placental ischemia and PTZ treatment but was unchanged in the posterior cerebrum. These data demonstrate that placental ischemia is associated with increased susceptibility to seizures and CSF inflammation; thus provides an excellent model for elucidating mechanisms of eclampsia-like symptoms. Further studies are required to determine the role of CSF cytokines/chemokines in mediating increased seizure susceptibility. PMID:26603461

  5. EVALUATION OF TWO CLEANING METHODS FOR THE REMOVAL OF ASBESTOS FIBERS FROM CARPET

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research study examined the effectiveness of dry vacuuming and wet cleaning for the removal of asbestos fibers from carpet, and evaluated the potential for fiber reentrainment during carpet cleaning activities. outine carpet cleaning operations using high-efficiency particul...

  6. EVALUATION OF TWO CLEANING METHODS FOR REMOVAL OF ASBESTOS FIBERS FROM CARPET

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research study examined the effectiveness of dry vacuuming and wet cleaning for the removal of asbestos fibers from carpet, and evaluated the potential for fiber reentrainment during carpet cleaning activities. outine carpet cleaning operations using high-efficiency particul...

  7. Portable apparatus and method for assisting in the removal and emplacement of pipe strings in boreholes

    DOEpatents

    Mitchell, Brian R.

    2005-03-22

    A portable pipe installation/removal support apparatus for assisting in the installation/removal of a series of connectable pipe strings from a ground-level borehole. The support apparatus has a base, an upright extending from the base, and, in an exemplary embodiment, a pair of catch arms extending from the upright to define a catch platform. The pair of catch arms serves to hold an upper connector end of a pipe string at an operator-convenient standing elevation by releasably catching an underside of a pipe coupler connecting two pipe strings of the series of connectable pipe strings. This enables an operator to stand upright while coupling/uncoupling the series of connectable pipe strings during the installation/removal thereof from the ground-level borehole. Additionally, a process for installing and a process for removing a series of connectable pipe strings is disclosed utilizing such a support apparatus.

  8. Placental development during early pregnancy: Effects of embryo origin on expression of chemokine ligand twelve (CXCL12).

    PubMed

    Quinn, K E; Reynolds, L P; Grazul-Bilska, A T; Borowicz, P P; Ashley, R L

    2016-07-01

    The aim was to localize chemokine ligand twelve (CXCL12) in sheep placental tissues during early gestation and after assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Uteri were collected from naturally (NAT) mated ewes and ewes receiving embryo transfer (ET), in vitro fertilization (IVF) or in vitro activation (IVA). CXCL12 was immunolocalized to endometrial stroma, glands, and trophoblast. Greater CXCL12 immunoreactivity was present in trophoblast on day 22 and 24 and in NAT ewes compared to IVF and IVA. Increased CXCL12 expression suggests CXCL12 promotes implantation and placentation. Decreased CXCL12 in IVF and IVA embryos, may compromise pregnancy establishment when utilizing ART methods. PMID:27324103

  9. DESIGN MANUAL: PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual summarizes process design information for the best developed methods for removing phosphorus from wastewater. his manual discusses several proven phosphorus removal methods, including phosphorus removal obtainable through biological activity as well as chemical precip...

  10. Experimental Plan for the Cold Demonstration (Scoping Tests) of Glass Removal Methods from a DWPF Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.E.

    2001-09-21

    SRS and WVDP currently do not have the capability to size reduce, decontaminate, classify, and dispose of large, failed, highly contaminated equipment. Tanks Focus Area Task 777 was developed to address this problem. The first activity for Task 777 is to develop and demonstrate techniques suitable for removing the solid HLW glass from HLW melters. This experimental plan describes the work that will be performed for this glass removal demonstration.

  11. A new method for nutrients removal and recovery from wastewater using a bioelectrochemical system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei; Li, Jian; He, Zhen

    2014-08-01

    Nutrients management is a key task of wastewater treatment and removal of nutrients is usually associated with significant energy/economic cost. A new bioelectrochemical system, named "R(2)-BES", was developed for removing and possibly recovering nutrients from wastewater. This R(2)-BES takes advantage of bioelectricity generation from oxidation of organic compounds to drive ammonium migration out of wastewater, and uses hydroxide ions produced from the cathode reaction as a medium to exchange phosphate ions from wastewater at the same time. Under an applied voltage of 0.8 V, the R(2)-BES removed 83.4 ± 1.3% of ammonium nitrogen and 52.4 ± 9.8% of phosphate, significantly higher than those (3.6 ± 3.7% and 21.1 ± 2.6%) under an open circuit condition. Applying an external voltage can increase current generation, COD removal, and nutrient removal. Those results demonstrate a proof of concept that the R(2)-BES may be potentially applied to remove and recover nutrients through appropriate integration into the existing treatment facilities. PMID:24948532

  12. Effect of leptin on the regulation of placental hormone secretion in cultured human placental cells.

    PubMed

    Coya, Raquel; Martul, Pedro; Algorta, Jaime; Aniel-Quiroga, Ma Angeles; Busturia, Ma Angeles; Señarís, Rosa

    2006-11-01

    Placenta is an important source of leptin during pregnancy that contributes to the high plasma leptin levels in pregnant women. Leptin and its functional receptors are synthesized in trophoblast cells that, in turn, secrete gestational hormones supporting a paracrine or autocrine role for leptin in the endocrine activity of the placenta. In the present study we examined the effect of leptin on in vitro release of gestational hormones (human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), human placental lactogen (hPL), progesterone, estrogens and testosterone) by human term placental cells in culture. Placentas at term were obtained immediately after delivery from mothers with uncomplicated pregnancies. Progesterone, hCG, hPL, estradiol, estrone, estriol and testosterone levels were measured by different assays in culture media of cells maintained in monolayer culture after incubation for 12, 24, 48 or 72 h with leptin or placebo. Incubation with leptin did not modify hCG, hPL, progesterone, estriol and estrone secretion for any of the doses and times assayed. However, leptin led to a dose-dependent decrease in estradiol release. This effect was observed when treatment with recombinant human leptin spanned from 12 to 72 h. At this time an increase in testosterone levels was observed in leptin-treated cells versus placebo. These results indicate that leptin can be considered a gestational hormone implied in the endocrine function of the placenta, with an important role in control of the production of steroid reproductive hormones in placental cells in vitro. PMID:17145648

  13. Immunohistochemical study of placental endothelium in physiologic and gestosis-complicated pregnancies.

    PubMed

    de Luca Brunori, I; Amato, A; Arcidiacono, G; Battini, L; Giusti, G; Scida, P; Simonelli, M; Urbano, M; Filippeschi, M

    1994-01-01

    In this study we examined the placentae of gestosic patients and controls, with immunoistochemical method and HLA-DR monoclonal antibody, in order to show the role of placental endothelium in gestosic pathology onset. Our results show a marked expression of class II histocompatibility antigens in gestosic placentae with respect to controls. We suppose, in gestosic patients, a role for a particular, genetically determined HLA haplotype which increases disease receptivity. PMID:7923802

  14. Ion chromatography to detect salts in stone structures and to assess salt removal methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Lopez-Arce, P.; Fort, R.

    2012-04-01

    thorough previous inspection, we can select the most representative points by a drilling net - as minimum as possible- and make some profiles of the inner salt content of a structure. Moreover, this procedure is not only reliable for determining the nature and extent of salts damage, but to assess the efficacy of salts removal methods in cultural heritage. Here we present two case studies from relevant buildings of the Spanish cultural heritage in which this procedure was performed with successful and useful results, in both terms of understanding what types of salts were decaying the stones structures, and also whether the salts removal methods that were planned in the restoration project were efficient or not. It should be remarked that even ion chromatography is not a non destructive technique (can be considered as a minimally destructive one due to the few quantity it is needed for the analysis), the information it can provide is so useful that should not be ruled out from the beginning, depending of each specific case.

  15. [Removal of triclosan with the method of UV/ClO2 and its degradation products].

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Ying; He, Wen-Long; Li, Qing-Song; Jin, Wei-Wei; Chen, Guo-Yuan; Li, Guo-Xin

    2015-02-01

    The UV/ClO2 process for triclosan ( TCS) removal was studied. The influences of several factors such as the initial pH, dose of ClO2, initial concentration of TCS and humic acid( HA) on TCS degradation in the UV/ClO2 combined process were discussed. The results showed that the UV/ClO2 process could effectively remove TCS and had a synergistic effect. When the light intensity was 6.5 μW x Cm(-2), the dose of ClO2 was 0. 5 mg x L(-1) and the concentration of TCS was 300 μg x L(-1), when UV and ClO2 were applied alone, the TCS removal rates within 1 min were only 5.23% and 84.93% respectively. The removal rate reached up to 99.13% after 1 min degradation using the UV/ClO2 combined process. In test conditions ( pH 6-9), the removal rate increased from 99.4% to 99. 63% with the increase of pH. Increasing dose of CIO2 could promote TCS removal. When the dose of ClO2 was 0.5-1.5 mg x L(-1), the removal rate was increased from 98.1% to 99.89%. The initial concentration of TCS was negatively correlated with the removal rate. When the initial concentration increased from 100 - 500 μg x L(-1), the removal rate of TCS was decreased from 99.98% to 94.39%. Low concentration of humic acid was beneficial to the removal of TCS, and high concentration of it had the opposite effect. Degradation products of TCS were investigated by GC/MS. Degradation of TCS by the processes of UV, ClO2 and UV/ClO2 also indicated that the main degradation products of the TCS were 2, 4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 2,7-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,7-DCDD), etc. PMID:26031077

  16. Placental copper transport in the brindled mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Garnica, A.; Bates, J.

    1986-03-01

    Pregnant brindled (brin) mice were injected at 16 or 19 days gestation with 2 doses of CuCl/sub 2/ 6 mcg/g/dose, separated by 12 h, and sacrificed 6 h after the second. The copper conc. in placenta (P) and kidneys (K) of uninjected (UI) brin mice were higher than in UI controls, while conc. in liver (L) and fetal carcass (F) were lower. After injection (I), placental copper conc. increased while the carcass conc. remained unchanged. Brin mouse is a model for the human inborn error of copper metabolism, Menkes syndrome, which is characterized by signs of copper deficiency. These data indicate that metabolism of copper in brin fetus is abnormal, but depressed fetal copper levels cannot be corrected by acute copper dosing because of the sequestration of copper in placenta.

  17. Chemomechanical versus drilling methods for caries removal: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Kitsahawong, Kemporn; Seminario, Ana Lucia; Pungchanchaikul, Patimaporn; Rattanacharoenthum, Anoma; Pitiphat, Waranuch

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of chemomechanical caries removal (CMCR) with that of conventional drilling for efficacy of caries removal, time spent, morphological changes and microhardness of surface dentin, and microleakage of subsequent restorations. Forty-six carious deciduous molars were randomly divided into two groups: one each for caries removal by (1) CMCR and by (2) drilling. The completeness of caries removal was evaluated by visual and tactile criteria and a caries detector device. Twenty teeth in each group were restored with glass ionomer (GI) and subjected to thermocycling before undergoing microleakage and microhardness tests. In each group, three restored teeth were used for polarized light microscopic analysis, and three unrestored teeth for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). There was no significant difference in the completeness of caries removal between groups. However, time spent for caries removal by CMCR was significantly longer than that required for drilling. Restorations in the CMCR group had significantly more microleakage than those in the drilling group. Dentin hardness of the cavity floor after CMCR was also significantly lower. Microscopic analyses showed roughened and irregular dentin surfaces in the CMCR group, unlike the smooth surfaces observed in the drilling group. In conclusion, CMCR was as efficacious as drilling in term of completeness of caries removal, but required longer excavation times and resulted in lower microhardness of residual dentin as well as more microleakage after restorations with GI. Further laboratory and clinical evaluations on the efficiency and performance of CMCR for the durability of subsequent restorations are required. PMID:26486767

  18. Discriminative Learning for Automatic Staging of Placental Maturity via Multi-layer Fisher Vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Baiying; Yao, Yuan; Chen, Siping; Li, Shengli; Li, Wanjun; Ni, Dong; Wang, Tianfu

    2015-07-01

    Currently, placental maturity is performed using subjective evaluation, which can be unreliable as it is highly dependent on the observations and experiences of clinicians. To address this problem, this paper proposes a method to automatically stage placenta maturity from B-mode ultrasound (US) images based on dense sampling and novel feature descriptors. Specifically, our proposed method first densely extracts features with a regular grid based on dense sampling instead of a few unreliable interest points. Followed by, these features are clustered using generative Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to obtain high order statistics of the features. The clustering representatives (i.e., cluster means) are encoded by Fisher vector (FV) for staging accuracy enhancement. Differing from the previous studies, a multi-layer FV is investigated to exploit the spatial information rather than the single layer FV. Experimental results show that the proposed method with the dense FV has achieved an area under the receiver of characteristics (AUC) of 96.77%, sensitivity and specificity of 98.04% and 93.75% for the placental maturity staging, respectively. Our experimental results also demonstrate that the dense feature outperforms the traditional sparse feature for placental maturity staging.

  19. Discriminative Learning for Automatic Staging of Placental Maturity via Multi-layer Fisher Vector

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Baiying; Yao, Yuan; Chen, Siping; Li, Shengli; Li, Wanjun; Ni, Dong; Wang, Tianfu

    2015-01-01

    Currently, placental maturity is performed using subjective evaluation, which can be unreliable as it is highly dependent on the observations and experiences of clinicians. To address this problem, this paper proposes a method to automatically stage placenta maturity from B-mode ultrasound (US) images based on dense sampling and novel feature descriptors. Specifically, our proposed method first densely extracts features with a regular grid based on dense sampling instead of a few unreliable interest points. Followed by, these features are clustered using generative Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to obtain high order statistics of the features. The clustering representatives (i.e., cluster means) are encoded by Fisher vector (FV) for staging accuracy enhancement. Differing from the previous studies, a multi-layer FV is investigated to exploit the spatial information rather than the single layer FV. Experimental results show that the proposed method with the dense FV has achieved an area under the receiver of characteristics (AUC) of 96.77%, sensitivity and specificity of 98.04% and 93.75% for the placental maturity staging, respectively. Our experimental results also demonstrate that the dense feature outperforms the traditional sparse feature for placental maturity staging. PMID:26228175

  20. Placentation in the alpaca Lama pacos.

    PubMed

    Olivera, Luis; Zago, Douglas; Leiser, Rudolf; Jones, Carolyn; Bevilacqua, Estela

    2003-07-01

    Reproduction in South American camelids is poorly studied. To extend our knowledge of the development and cellular physiology of the placenta in the alpaca Lama pacos, we have examined specimens from day 150 of pregnancy to term. Morphological investigations using light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, the histochemical localization of iron, alkaline and acid phosphatase activity, and the immunodetection of placental lactogen hormone were performed. Throughout pregnancy there was a progressive increase in the depths of folds on the uterine mucosa surface together with a thickening of the endometrium. Glandular cells exhibited PAS and acid phosphatase (AcP) positive secretion granules. In the chorion, giant trophoblast polyploid cells gradually became more numerous and larger. Non-giant cells exhibited positive granules for PAS, alkaline phosphatase (AkP) reaction and immunostaining for bovine placental lactogen hormone (PLH). SDS -PAGE electrophoresis and Western blotting procedures also confirmed the presence of a bovine PLH-like glycoprotein in the fetal alpaca placenta. Over the glandular openings, the chorion formed typical areolae, where the trophoblast exhibited AcP and PAS positive reactions. At these sites, the fetal endothelial cells contained iron-storage granules in their cytoplasm. The trophoblast-epithelial interface exhibited a complex microvillous interdigitation, in which an AkP reaction was very prominent. The chorionic capillaries progressively indented adjacent trophoblast cells. These data suggest that although the epitheliochorial alpaca placenta is diffuse, various trophoblast cell types and specialized areas of the maternofetal interface give the placenta micro-regional functions where histiotrophic nutrition, hormone production and molecular exchange are prevalent. PMID:12802689

  1. The True Color of Yogi: An Accurate Method for Removing Diffuse Illumination from Multispectral Images of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol R.; Rages, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    We correct spectra of Yogi to remove diffuse illumination and show that the part of Yogi facing the wind is less red than other faces of the rock. Our method eliminates ambiguity in interpreting spectra obtained under Mars illumination conditions. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  2. Method of removing the effects of electrical shorts and shunts created during the fabrication process of a solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Nostrand, Gerald E.; Hanak, Joseph J.

    1979-01-01

    A method of removing the effects of electrical shorts and shunts created during the fabrication process and improving the performance of a solar cell with a thick film cermet electrode opposite to the incident surface by applying a reverse bias voltage of sufficient magnitude to burn out the electrical shorts and shunts but less than the break down voltage of the solar cell.

  3. Laboratory Methods to Remove Surface Layers from Cereal Grains Using a Seed Scarifier and comparison with a barley pearler.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The distribution of nutrients and undesirable components within a cereal seed is heterogeneous, and many of the valuable nutrients are located in the outer layers. Efficient laboratory methods to remove these layers will allow for the experimental production of value-added products. A seed scarife...

  4. Comparative Analysis of a Principal Component Analysis-Based and an Artificial Neural Network-Based Method for Baseline Removal.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Roberto C; Arias, Luis E; Garces, Hugo O; Sbarbaro, Daniel G

    2016-04-01

    This work presents a non-parametric method based on a principal component analysis (PCA) and a parametric one based on artificial neural networks (ANN) to remove continuous baseline features from spectra. The non-parametric method estimates the baseline based on a set of sampled basis vectors obtained from PCA applied over a previously composed continuous spectra learning matrix. The parametric method, however, uses an ANN to filter out the baseline. Previous studies have demonstrated that this method is one of the most effective for baseline removal. The evaluation of both methods was carried out by using a synthetic database designed for benchmarking baseline removal algorithms, containing 100 synthetic composed spectra at different signal-to-baseline ratio (SBR), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and baseline slopes. In addition to deomonstrating the utility of the proposed methods and to compare them in a real application, a spectral data set measured from a flame radiation process was used. Several performance metrics such as correlation coefficient, chi-square value, and goodness-of-fit coefficient were calculated to quantify and compare both algorithms. Results demonstrate that the PCA-based method outperforms the one based on ANN both in terms of performance and simplicity. PMID:26917856

  5. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor and placental malaria infection in an area characterized by unstable malaria transmission in central Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Eltayeb, Reem; Bilal, Naser; Abass, Awad-Elkareem; Elhassan, Elhassan M.; Mohammed, Ahmed; Adam, Ishag

    2015-01-01

    Background: The pathogenesis of malaria during pregnancy is not fully understood. A proinflammatory cytokine, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is suggested as a factor involved in the pathogenesis of malaria during pregnancy. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Medani Hospital, Sudan to investigate MIF levels in placental malaria. Obstetrical and medical characteristics were gathered from each parturient woman using questionnaires. All women (151) were investigated for malaria using blood film and placental histology. MIF levels were measured using ELISA in paired maternal and cord blood samples. Results: There were no P. falciparum-positive blood films obtained from maternal peripheral blood, placenta or cord samples. Out of 151 placentae, four (2.6%), one (0.7%), 32 (21.2%) showed acute, chronic and past infection on histopathology examinations respectively, while the rest (114; 75.5%) of them showed no signs of infection.There was no significant difference in the median (interquartile) of maternal [5.0 (3.7─8.8) vs 6.2(3.5─12.0) ng/ml, P=0.643] and cord [8.1(3.3─16.9) vs 8.3(4.2─16.9), ng/ml, P= 0.601] MIF levels between women with a positive result for placental malaria infection (n=37) and women with a negative result for placental malaria infection (n=114). In regression models placental malaria was not associated with maternal MIF, hemoglobin or birth weight. MIF was not associated with hemoglobin or birth weight . Conclusion: There was no association between maternal and cord MIF levels, placental malaria, maternal hemoglobin and birth weight.

  6. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: definitive imaging of placental function?

    PubMed

    Chalouhi, G E; Deloison, B; Siauve, N; Aimot, S; Balvay, D; Cuenod, C A; Ville, Y; Clément, O; Salomon, L J

    2011-02-01

    The placenta constitutes a complex circulatory interface between the mother and fetus, but the relationship between the maternal and fetal circulation is still very difficult to study in vivo. There is growing evidence that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful and safe during pregnancy, and MRI is increasingly used for fetal and placental anatomical imaging. MRI functional imaging is now a modern obstetric tool and has the potential to provide new insights into the physiology of the human placenta. Placental perfusion has been studied during the first pass of an MR contrast agent, by arterial spin labeling, diffusion imaging, T1 and T2 relaxation time measurement using echo-planar imaging, and by a combination of magnetization transfer with established stereological methods. The BOLD (blood oxygen level-dependent) effect offers new perspectives for functional MRI evaluation of the placenta. PMID:20851065

  7. The new framework for understanding placental mammal evolution.

    PubMed

    Asher, Robert J; Bennett, Nigel; Lehmann, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    An unprecedented level of confidence has recently crystallized around a new hypothesis of how living placental mammals share a pattern of common descent. The major groups are afrotheres (e.g., aardvarks, elephants), xenarthrans (e.g., anteaters, sloths), laurasiatheres (e.g., horses, shrews), and euarchontoglires (e.g., humans, rodents). Compared with previous hypotheses this tree is remarkably stable; however, some uncertainty persists about the location of the placental root, and (for example) the position of bats within laurasiatheres, of sea cows and aardvarks within afrotheres, and of dermopterans within euarchontoglires. A variety of names for sub-clades within the new placental mammal tree have been proposed, not all of which follow conventions regarding priority and stability. More importantly, the new phylogenetic framework enables the formulation of new hypotheses and testing thereof, for example regarding the possible developmental dichotomy that seems to distinguish members of the newly identified southern and northern radiations of living placental mammals. PMID:19582725

  8. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Young, John E.; Jalan, Vinod M.

    1984-01-01

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  9. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

    1984-06-19

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  10. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur-containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

    1982-07-07

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorbtion capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  11. NEW METHOD FOR REMOVAL OF SPECTRAL INTERFERENCES FOR BERYLLIUM ASSAY USING INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S; Matthew Nelson, M; Linda Youmans, L; Maureen Bernard, M

    2008-01-14

    Beryllium has been used widely in specific areas of nuclear technology. Frequent monitoring of air and possible contaminated surfaces in U.S Department of Energy (DOE) facilities is required to identify potential health risks and to protect DOE workers from beryllium-contaminated dust. A new method has been developed to rapidly remove spectral interferences prior to beryllium (Be) measurement by inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The ion exchange separation removes uranium (U), thorium (Th), niobium (Nb), vanadium (V), molybdenum (Mo), zirconium (Zr), tungsten (W), iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), cerium (Ce), erbium (Er) and titanium (Ti). A stacked column consisting of Diphonix Resin{reg_sign} and TEVA Resin{reg_sign} reduces the levels of the spectral interferences so that low level Be measurements can be performed accurately. If necessary, an additional anion exchange separation can be used for further removal of interferences, particularly chromium. The method has been tested using spiked filters, spiked wipe samples and certified reference material standards with high levels of interferences added. The method provides very efficient removal of spectral interferences with very good accuracy and precision for beryllium on filters or wipes. A vacuum box system is employed to reduce analytical time and reduce labor costs.

  12. Study of different methods for enhancing the nitrate removal efficiency of a zero-valent metal process.

    PubMed

    Cheng, S F; Huang, C Y; Liu, J Y

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the effect of several enhancing methods, namely acid wash pretreatment, ultrasound treatment and addition of nickel catalyst on the nitrate removal efficiency of three zero-valent metals--iron, aluminium and zinc. It is hoped that by learning about the major reaction pathways of nitrate removal with zero-valent metals and the main factors influencing the reactivity of those zero-valent metals, optimum process conditions may be identified. The study results show that direct transfer of electrons is the major reaction pathway. Thus increasing a clean, fresh metal surface and decreasing the thickness of the diffusion layer to accelerate mass transfer are the main determinants of reaction rate. In the absence of a clean, fresh metal surface, the catalytic reaction of nickel becomes the primary removal pathway. PMID:16862777

  13. Sample water removal method in volatile organic compound analysis based on diffusion through poly(vinyl fluoride) film.

    PubMed

    Beghi, Sandra; Guillot, Jean-Michel

    2006-09-15

    The humidity caught during air sampling or sample storage causes various problems during volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis and gives unreliable results. In this study, water vapour diffusion capacities through poly(vinyl fluoride) Tedlar, fluoroethylene propylene Teflon and Flex foil film were compared. A new approach to humidity removal has been tested for moderately polluted atmospheres. This approach consists in using the water vapour diffusion property of Tedlar film to remove humidity from bag samples containing a mixture of ten VOCs at 500 ppbv each in a 70% relative humidity atmosphere. The sampling bags were placed in a chamber flushed by a dry air stream at less than 5% relative humidity. After a few hours in the chamber, the samples in the Tedlar bags were dry (relative humidity <5%) and did not show significant VOC loss. This sample water removal (SWR) method is especially interesting as a pretreatment before air sampling on water sensitive adsorbents. PMID:16828784

  14. Skeletal development in the African elephant and ossification timing in placental mammals.

    PubMed

    Hautier, Lionel; Stansfield, Fiona J; Allen, W R Twink; Asher, Robert J

    2012-06-01

    We provide here unique data on elephant skeletal ontogeny. We focus on the sequence of cranial and post-cranial ossification events during growth in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Previous analyses on ossification sequences in mammals have focused on monotremes, marsupials, boreoeutherian and xenarthran placentals. Here, we add data on ossification sequences in an afrotherian. We use two different methods to quantify sequence heterochrony: the sequence method and event-paring/Parsimov. Compared with other placentals, elephants show late ossifications of the basicranium, manual and pedal phalanges, and early ossifications of the ischium and metacarpals. Moreover, ossification in elephants starts very early and progresses rapidly. Specifically, the elephant exhibits the same percentage of bones showing an ossification centre at the end of the first third of its gestation period as the mouse and hamster have close to birth. Elephants show a number of features of their ossification patterns that differ from those of other placental mammals. The pattern of the initiation of the ossification evident in the African elephant underscores a possible correlation between the timing of ossification onset and gestation time throughout mammals. PMID:22298853

  15. Multiscale modelling of the feto–placental vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Clark, A. R.; Lin, M.; Tawhai, M.; Saghian, R.; James, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    The placenta provides all the nutrients required for the fetus through pregnancy. It develops dynamically, and, to avoid rejection of the fetus, there is no mixing of fetal and maternal blood; rather, the branched placental villi ‘bathe’ in blood supplied from the uterine arteries. Within the villi, the feto–placental vasculature also develops a complex branching structure in order to maximize exchange between the placental and maternal circulations. To understand the development of the placenta, we must translate functional information across spatial scales including the interaction between macro- and micro-scale haemodynamics and account for the effects of a dynamically and rapidly changing structure through the time course of pregnancy. Here, we present steps towards an anatomically based and multiscale approach to modelling the feto–placental circulation. We assess the effect of the location of cord insertion on feto–placental blood flow resistance and flow heterogeneity and show that, although cord insertion does not appear to directly influence feto–placental resistance, the heterogeneity of flow in the placenta is predicted to increase from a 19.4% coefficient of variation with central cord insertion to 23.3% when the cord is inserted 2 cm from the edge of the placenta. Model geometries with spheroidal and ellipsoidal shapes, but the same volume, showed no significant differences in flow resistance or heterogeneity, implying that normal asymmetry in shape does not affect placental efficiency. However, the size and number of small capillary vessels is predicted to have a large effect on feto–placental resistance and flow heterogeneity. Using this new model as an example, we highlight the importance of taking an integrated multi-disciplinary and multiscale approach to understand development of the placenta. PMID:25844150

  16. Overexpression of GLUT3 placental glucose transporter in diabetic rats.

    PubMed Central

    Boileau, P; Mrejen, C; Girard, J; Hauguel-de Mouzon, S

    1995-01-01

    The localization of the two major placental glucose transporter isoforms, GLUT1 and GLUT3 was studied in 20-d pregnant rats. Immunocytochemical studies revealed that GLUT1 protein is expressed ubiquitously in the junctional zone (maternal side) and the labyrinthine zone (fetal side) of the placenta. In contrast, expression of GLUT3 protein is restricted to the labyrinthine zone, specialized in nutrient transfer. After 19-d maternal insulinopenic diabetes (streptozotocin), placental GLUT3 mRNA and protein levels were increased four-to-fivefold compared to nondiabetic rats, whereas GLUT1 mRNA and protein levels remained unmodified. Placental 2-deoxyglucose uptake and glycogen concentration were also increased fivefold in diabetic rats. These data suggest that GLUT3 plays a major role in placental glucose uptake and metabolism. The role of hyperglycemia in the regulation of GLUT3 expression was assessed by lowering the glycemia of diabetic pregnant rats. After a 5-d phlorizin infusion to pregnant diabetic rats, placental GLUT3 mRNA and protein levels returned to levels similar to those observed in nondiabetic rats. Furthermore, a short-term hyperglycemia (12 h), achieved by performing hyperglycemic clamps induced a fourfold increase in placental GLUT3 mRNA and protein with no concomitant change in GLUT1 expression. This study provides the first evidence that placental GLUT3 mRNA and protein expression can be stimulated in vivo under hyperglycemic conditions. Thus, GLUT3 transporter isoform appears to be highly sensitive to ambient glucose levels and may play a pivotal role in the severe alterations of placental function observed in diabetic pregnancies. Images PMID:7615800

  17. A robust method for removal of glint effects from satellite ocean colour imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. K.; Shanmugam, P.

    2014-12-01

    Removal of the glint effects from satellite imagery for accurate retrieval of water-leaving radiances is a complicated problem since its contribution in the measured signal is dependent on many factors such as viewing geometry, sun elevation and azimuth, illumination conditions, wind speed and direction, and the water refractive index. To simplify the situation, existing glint correction models describe the extent of the glint-contaminated region and its contribution to the radiance essentially as a function of the wind speed and sea surface slope that often lead to a tremendous loss of information with a considerable scientific and financial impact. Even with the glint-tilting capability of modern sensors, glint contamination is severe on the satellite-derived ocean colour products in the equatorial and sub-tropical regions. To rescue a significant portion of data presently discarded as "glint contaminated" and improving the accuracy of water-leaving radiances in the glint contaminated regions, we developed a glint correction algorithm which is dependent only on the satellite derived Rayleigh Corrected Radiance and absorption by clear waters. The new algorithm is capable of achieving meaningful retrievals of ocean radiances from the glint-contaminated pixels unless saturated by strong glint in any of the wavebands. It takes into consideration the combination of the background absorption of radiance by water and the spectral glint function, to accurately minimize the glint contamination effects and produce robust ocean colour products. The new algorithm is implemented along with an aerosol correction method and its performance is demonstrated for many MODIS-Aqua images over the Arabian Sea, one of the regions that are heavily affected by sunglint due to their geographical location. The results with and without sunglint correction are compared indicating major improvements in the derived products with sunglint correction. When compared to the results of an existing

  18. The "Hands Together" Method of Nonsterile Scalpel Blade Mounting and Removal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornwall, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Scalpels are utilized by many different user groups for such purposes as medical procedures and dissection. Injuries caused by scalpels are a potential risk for scalpel users, and include injuries that may occur while mounting and removing the scalpel blade. Between 10% and 20% of all scalpel injuries in education and healthcare settings are…

  19. EVALUATION OF TWO CLEANING METHODS FOR THE REMOVAL OF ASBESTOS FIBERS FROM CARPETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effectiveness of dry-vacuuming and wet-cleaning for the removal of asbestos fibers from carpet was examined and the potential for fiber reentrainment during carpet cleaning activities was evaluated. Routine carpet cleaning operations were simulated by using high-efficiency pa...

  20. Clinical evaluation of abutment teeth of removable partial denture by means of the Periotest method.

    PubMed

    Jorge, J H; Giampaolo, E T; Vergani, C E; Machado, A L; Pavarina, A C; Cardoso de Oliveira, M R

    2007-03-01

    Prosthodontics should be one of the means of establishing conditions for the maintenance of periodontal health. The forces applied to the abutment teeth and their effects are very important considerations in the design and construction of the removable partial dentures. This 6-month follow-up clinical study evaluated the degree of mobility of abutment teeth of distal extension and tooth supported removable partial dentures by using Periotest. Two types of clasp design were selected for evaluation. In cases with unilateral and bilateral distal-extension, a clasp design including a T clasp of Roach retentive arm, a rigid reciprocal arm and a mesial rest were used. For the abutments of tooth-supported removable partial dentures, a second clasp design with a cast circumferential buccal retentive arm, a rigid reciprocal clasp arm and a rest adjacent to the edentulous ridges was selected. A total of 68 abutment teeth was analysed. Periotest values were made at the time of denture placement (control) and at 1, 3 and 6 months after the denture placement. The statistical analysis was performed using Friedman test. All analysis was performed at a 0.05 level of significance. The results revelled that no significant changes in tooth mobility were observed during the 6-months follow-up (P > 0.05). In conclusion, our findings suggest that adequate oral hygiene instructions, careful prosthetic treatment planning and regular recall appointments play an important role in preventing changes in abutment tooth mobility caused by removable partial denture placement. PMID:17302951

  1. Comparing selective H/sub 2/S removal methods in CO/sub 2/ floods

    SciTech Connect

    Laengrich, A.; Carlisle, K.; Harmon, C.

    1982-08-01

    Presents case studies of processes chosen for H/sub 2/S removal, focusing on decision-driving criteria. Emphasizes that the criteria (ethane recovery incentive, fuel gas cost, capital available, and use of existing NGL plant) are not the only important variables to be considered in determining process selections and overall facility designs. H/sub 2/S content of the associated gas stream is typically about 3% at the beginning of the project, and is projected to decrease to about 0.5% at some point in time during the flood. Processes chosen for study are Benfield or Sulfinol gas treating with MDEA selective H/sub 2/S removal from CO/sub 2/ product stream; sour NGL recovery pretreatment plus Selexol selective H/sub 2/S removal from processed gas stream; Ryan/Holmes cryogenic fractionation processes plus DEA NGL product treating; and Benfield gas treating followed by Selexol selective H/sub 2/S removal from CO/sub 2/ product stream. Concludes that the variables discussed here seem to be the decision-driving forces that change most frequently between projects in this area.

  2. INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS OF INVESTIGATION: Physical mechanisms underlying the selective removal of atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurovich, Boris A.; Prikhod'ko, Kirill E.

    2009-02-01

    This paper reviews the current understanding of the selective removal of atoms (SRA), a technique that uses ion irradiation to controllably change the chemical composition and properties of polyatomic materials. The main effects involved and the possible mechanisms that govern the process are discussed. It is shown that SRA holds great promise for manufacturing functional nanoelements.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF SURFACE MINING METHODS HEAD-OF-HOLLOW FILL AND MOUNTAINTOP REMOVAL. VOLUME 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a portion of the EPA study 'Environmental Assessment of Head-of-Hollow Fill and Mountaintop Removal Mining,' this volume documents the evaluation of the long-term stability of four head-of-hollow fills. Three phases of work included in the endeavor are: collection of samples o...

  4. Solvent cleaning system and method for removing contaminants from solvent used in resin recycling

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2009-01-06

    A two step solvent and carbon dioxide based system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material and which further includes a solvent cleaning system for periodically removing the contaminants from the solvent so that the solvent can be reused and the contaminants can be collected and safely discarded in an environmentally safe manner.

  5. ALTERNATIVE FILTRATION METHODS FOR REMOVAL OF 'GIARDIA' CYSTS AND CYST MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent occurrence of numerous outbreaks of waterborne giardiasis has renewed interest in water filtration for cyst removal. This paper presents an in-depth review of granular media and diatomaceous earth (D.E.) filtration research conducted in the 1930's and 1940's when Entamoeba...

  6. Placental programming of chronic diseases, cancer and lifespan: a review.

    PubMed

    Barker, D J P; Thornburg, K L

    2013-10-01

    Particular paths of fetal growth are now known to predict a range of disorders in adult life. This is thought to reflect fetal programming, the phenomenon whereby nutrition and other influences during development set the body's organs and systems for life. The thesis of this review is that normal variations in the processes of placental development lead to variations in the supply of nutrients to the fetus and programme a small number of key systems that are linked to later disease. A baby's growth and nutrition depend both on the function of the placenta, reflected in its gross morphology at birth, and on the mother's lifetime nutrition, reflected in her height and weight. In many studies, the effects of placental size and shape on later disease have been examined within different categories of mother's body size. The review shows that variations in gross placental morphology at birth predict a wide range of disorders in later life. Any particular placental phenotype seems to predict a limited number of diseases. Further research into the links between the processes of placentation and the morphology of the placenta at birth is now required. We need to know more about the relative importance of nutrient flow, nutrient balance and the timing of nutritional events in determining disorders in later life. We also need to understand why, compared to other placental mammals, the human placenta is so variable in its morphology and functional capacity. PMID:23916422

  7. Relationship between placental traits and maternal intrinsic factors in sheep.

    PubMed

    Ocak, S; Ogun, S; Onder, H

    2013-06-01

    The relationship between maternal intrinsic factors and placental traits was investigated on three Southern Mediterranean breed of sheep; Cukurova Assaf (CA), Cukurova (C) and Cukurova Meat Sheep (CMS). The effect of parity and birth type were also considered in the study as a potential influencing factor. Our hypothesis was to show that while differences in placental traits between breed, parity and birth type affected lamb condition and survivability, its correlation to maternal intrinsic behavioral factors may also be a strong indicator. The study found breed related differences of maternal behavioral factors and also showed significant correlation of these behavioral patterns to various placental traits. It confirmed earlier findings that parity played a major role in the refinement of these behavioral patterns. Significant differences in birth weight (P<0.05), placental weight (P<0.05), number of cotyledons (P<0.01) and cotyledon length (P<0.05) was seen between breeds. Cotyledon weight (P<0.05), width (P<0.01) and length (P<0.05) were found to differ by parity. Breed and parity interaction significantly influenced cotyledon quantity. While we detected breed specific differences in relation to maternal intrinsic factors we also noticed significant variance within breeds to these behavioral patterns when linked to placental traits. Further study is required on the correlation between placental traits and postnatal behavior on not just the ewes but also on their lambs. This could have a significant bearing on how producers manage and maximize lamb survivability. PMID:23602010

  8. Feto-placental adaptations to maternal obesity in the baboon

    PubMed Central

    Farley, Darren; Tejero, Maria E.; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Higgins, Paul B.; Cox, Laura; Werner, Sherry L.; Jenkins, Susan L.; Li, Cun.; Choi, Jaehyek; Dick, Edward J.; Hubbard, Gene B.; Frost, Patrice; Dudley, Donald D.; Ballesteros, Brandon; Wu, Guoyao; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia E.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal obesity is present in 20–34% of pregnant women and has been associated with both intrauterine growth restriction and large-for-gestational age fetuses. While fetal and placental functions have been extensively studied in the baboon, no data are available on the effect of maternal obesity on placental structure and function in this species. We hypothesize that maternal obesity in the baboon is associated with a maternal inflammatory state and induces structural and functional changes in the placenta. The major findings of this study were 1) decreased placental syncytiotrophoblast amplification factor, intact syncytiotrophoblast endoplasmic reticulum structure and decreased system A placental amino acid transport in obese animals; 2) fetal serum amino acid composition and mononuclear cells (PBMC) transcriptome were different in fetuses from obese compared with non-obese animals 3) maternal obesity in humans and baboons is similar in regard of increased placental and adipose tissue macrophage infiltration, increased CD14 expression in maternal PBMC and maternal hyperleptinemia. In summary, these data demonstrate that in obese baboons in the absence of increased fetal weight, placental and fetal phenotype are consistent with those described for large- for-gestational age human fetuses. PMID:19632719

  9. Metabolism of bupropion by baboon hepatic and placental microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoming; Abdelrahman, Doaa R.; Fokina, Valentina M.; Hankins, Gary D.V.; Ahmed, Mahmoud S.; Nanovskaya, Tatiana N.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the biotransformation of bupropion by baboon hepatic and placental microsomes, identify the enzyme(s) catalyzing the reaction(s) and determine its kinetics. Bupropion was metabolized by baboon hepatic and placental microsomes to hydroxybupropion (OH-BUP), threo- (TB) and erythrohydrobupropion (EB). OH-bupropion was the major metabolite formed by hepatic microsomes (Km 36 ± 6 µM, Vmax 258 ± 32 pmol mg protein−1 min−1), however the formation of OH-BUP by placental microsomes was below the limit of quantification. The apparent Km values of bupropion for the formation of TB and EB by hepatic and placental microsomes were similar. The selective inhibitors of CYP2B6 (ticlopidine and phencyclidine) and monoclonal antibodies raised against human CYP2B6 isozyme caused 80% inhibition of OH-BUP formation by baboon hepatic microsomes. The chemical inhibitors of aldo-keto reductases (flufenamic acid), carbonyl reductases (menadione), and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (18β-glycyrrhetinic acid) significantly decreased the formation of TB and EB by hepatic and placental microsomes. Data indicate that CYP2B of baboon hepatic microsomes is responsible for biotransformation of bupropion to OH-BUP, while hepatic and placental short chain dehydrogenases/reductases and to a lesser extent aldo-keto reductases are responsible for the reduction of bupropion to TB and EB. PMID:21570381

  10. Stillbirth: Correlations Between Brain Injury and Placental Pathology.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Linda M; Bit-Ivan, Esther N; Miller, Emily S; Minturn, Lucy; Bigio, Eileen H; Weese-Mayer, Debra E

    2016-01-01

    Chronic placental pathologic processes such as fetal thrombotic vasculopathy have been linked to brain injury in neonates. We hypothesize that using stillbirth as a model, placental pathology can predict risk for hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. From a single institutional database of stillbirths ≥23 weeks' gestational age, we included cases with full autopsy and neuropathology examination. Bivariable analyses were performed to identify whether there was an association between placental pathologic findings and neuropathologic findings. Logistic regression was used to control for potential confounders. Among 97 potential cases, adequate tissue was analyzable from 79 cases (mean gestational age  =  33 weeks). Acute central nervous system hemorrhage and acute neuronal necrosis were the most common neuropathologic processes seen in this cohort (57% for each). Maternal vascular underperfusion was the most common placental pathology but was not significantly associated with a specific neuropathologic finding. High-grade chronic villitis (HGCV) and fetal thrombotic vasculopathy (FTV) were significantly associated with increased risk for pontosubicular necrosis (odds ratios, 15.73 and 3.79, respectively). These associations persisted after controlling for potential confounders. Chronic placental pathologies, specifically HGCV and FTV, were associated with pontosubicular necrosis, suggesting that placental pathology involving the fetal vasculature and altered fetoplacental blood flow carry the greatest likelihood of hypoxic/ischemic brain injury. PMID:26492345

  11. Cord Blood Insulin Levels: It's Correlation with Gender, Birth Weight and Placental Weight in Term Newborns.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Afzal; Mysore Srikantiah, Rukmini; Yadav, Charu; Agarwal, Ashish; Ajay Manjrekar, Poornima; Hegde, Anupama

    2016-10-01

    The cause of more insulin resistance in female than males are still unknown. To know the cause from early life, normal values of relevant parameters are required. So, aim of this study was to determine the reference levels of glucose and insulin in cord blood of term newborns and to examine their effects on gender, placental and birth weight of term newborns. In cross sectional study 60 consecutive term newborns were included from constituent hospitals. Placental and birth weights were measured and cord blood was collected for estimation of serum insulin and plasma glucose. Plasma glucose estimation was done by auto analyzer (GOD-POD method) and serum insulin analysis was done using Insulin ELISA Kit. After analysis, mean ± 2SD used for estimating cord blood insulin and glucose levels, which were 10.1 ± 7.8 μIU/mL and 67.8 ± 33.8 mg/dL respectively. Correlation of insulin with both birth weight and placental weight were r = 0.359 and 0.41 respectively; p < 0.001. Interestingly we found higher insulin levels in females as compared to male newborns in spite of having lower birth weight in them. In conclusion this study reported the levels of insulin and glucose in cord blood of term newborns. Incidentally, this is the first study as per our knowledge to report significant correlation between cord blood insulin, glucose with birth weight, placental weight and gender in south India. Female newborns had higher insulin levels than males, despite lesser birth weight can be attributed to intrinsic insulin resistance in them. PMID:27605744

  12. Maternal Body Weight and Gestational Diabetes Differentially Influence Placental and Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Martino, J.; Sebert, S.; Segura, M. T.; García-Valdés, L.; Florido, J.; Padilla, M. C.; Marcos, A.; Rueda, R.; McArdle, H. J.; Budge, H.; Campoy, C.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) can both contribute to adverse neonatal outcomes. The extent to which this may be mediated by differences in placental metabolism and nutrient transport remains to be determined. Objective: Our objective was to examine whether raised maternal body mass index (BMI) and/or GDM contributed to a resetting of the expression of genes within the placenta that are involved in energy sensing, oxidative stress, inflammation, and metabolic pathways. Methods: Pregnant women from Spain were recruited as part of the “Study of Maternal Nutrition and Genetics on the Foetal Adiposity Programming” survey at the first antenatal visit (12–20 weeks of gestation) and stratified according to prepregnancy BMI and the incidence of GDM. At delivery, placenta and cord blood were sampled and newborn anthropometry measured. Results: Obese women with GDM had higher estimated fetal weight at 34 gestational weeks and a greater risk of preterm deliveries and cesarean section. Birth weight was unaffected by BMI or GDM; however, women who were obese with normal glucose tolerance had increased placental weight and higher plasma glucose and leptin at term. Gene expression for markers of placental energy sensing and oxidative stress, were primarily affected by maternal obesity as mTOR was reduced, whereas SIRT-1 and UCP2 were both upregulated. In placenta from obese women with GDM, gene expression for AMPK was also reduced, whereas the downstream regulator of mTOR, p70S6KB1 was raised. Conclusions: Placental gene expression is sensitive to both maternal obesity and GDM which both impact on energy sensing and could modulate the effect of either raised maternal BMI or GDM on birth weight. PMID:26513002

  13. The impact of cocaine and heroin on the placental transfer of methadone

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Antoine; Obrist, Cristina; Wenzinger, Silvana; von Mandach, Ursula

    2009-01-01

    Background Methadone is the therapeutic agent of choice for the treatment of opiate addiction in pregnancy. The co-consumption (heroin, cocaine) which may influence the effects of methadone is frequent. Therefore, the impact of cocaine and heroin on the placental transfer of methadone and the placental tissue was investigated under in vitro conditions. Methods Placentae (n = 24) were ex-vivo perfused with medium (m) (control, n = 6), m plus methadone (n = 6), m plus methadone and cocaine (n = 6) or m plus methadone and heroin (n = 6). Placental functionality parameters like antipyrine permeability, glucose consumption, lactate production, hormone production (hCG and leptin), microparticles release and the expression of P-glycoprotein were analysed. Results Methadone accumulated in placental tissue. Methadone alone decreased the transfer of antipyrine from 0.60 +/- 0.07 to 0.50 +/- 0.06 (fetal/maternal ratio, mean +/- SD, P < 0.01), whereas the combination with cocaine or heroin increased it (0.56 +/- 0.08 to 0.68 +/- 0.13, P = 0.03 and 0.58 +/- 0.21 to 0.71 +/- 0.24; P = 0.18). Microparticles (MPs) released from syncytiotrophoblast into maternal circuit increased by 30% after cocaine or heroin (P < 0.05) and the expression of P-glycoprotein in the tissue increased by ≥ 49% after any drug (P < 0.05). All other measured parameters did not show any significant effect when methadone was combined with cocaine or heroine. Conclusion The combination of cocaine or heroin with methadone increase antipyrine permeability. Changes of MPs resemble findings seen in oxidative stress of syncytiotrophoblast. PMID:19519880

  14. Placental DNA Methylation Related to Both Infant Toenail Mercury and Adverse Neurobehavioral Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Maccani, Jennifer Z.J.; Koestler, Devin C.; Lester, Barry; Houseman, E. Andrés; Armstrong, David A.; Kelsey, Karl T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal mercury (Hg) exposure is associated with adverse child neurobehavioral outcomes. Because Hg can interfere with placental functioning and cross the placenta to target the fetal brain, prenatal Hg exposure can inhibit fetal growth and development directly and indirectly. Objectives We examined potential associations between prenatal Hg exposure assessed through infant toenail Hg, placental DNA methylation changes, and newborn neurobehavioral outcomes. Methods The methylation status of > 485,000 CpG loci was interrogated in 192 placental samples using Illumina’s Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadArray. Hg concentrations were analyzed in toenail clippings from a subset of 41 infants; neurobehavior was assessed using the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scales (NNNS) in an independent subset of 151 infants. Results We identified 339 loci with an average methylation difference > 0.125 between any two toenail Hg tertiles. Variation among these loci was subsequently found to be associated with a high-risk neurodevelopmental profile (omnibus p-value = 0.007) characterized by the NNNS. Ten loci had p < 0.01 for the association between methylation and the high-risk NNNS profile. Six of 10 loci reside in the EMID2 gene and were hypomethylated in the 16 high-risk profile infants’ placentas. Methylation at these loci was moderately correlated (correlation coefficients range, –0.33 to –0.45) with EMID2 expression. Conclusions EMID2 hypomethylation may represent a novel mechanism linking in utero Hg exposure and adverse infant neurobehavioral outcomes. Citation Maccani JZ, Koestler DC, Lester B, Houseman EA, Armstrong DA, Kelsey KT, Marsit CJ. 2015. Placental DNA methylation related to both infant toenail mercury and adverse neurobehavioral outcomes. Environ Health Perspect 123:723–729; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408561 PMID:25748564

  15. Compensatory Feto-Placental Upregulation of the Nitric Oxide System during Fetal Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Pisaneschi, Silvia; Strigini, Francesca A. L.; Sanchez, Angel M.; Begliuomini, Silvia; Casarosa, Elena; Ripoli, Andrea; Ghirri, Paolo; Boldrini, Antonio; Fink, Bruno; Genazzani, Andrea R.; Coceani, Flavio; Simoncini, Tommaso

    2012-01-01

    Background Fetal Growth Restriction is often associated with a feto-placental vascular dysfunction conceivably involving endothelial cells. Our study aimed to verify this pathogenic role for feto-placental endothelial cells and, coincidentally, demonstrate any abnormality in the nitric oxide system. Methods Prenatal assessment of feto-placental vascular function was combined with measurement of nitric oxide (in the form of S-nitrosohemoglobin) and its nitrite byproduct, and of the endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine. Umbilical vein endothelial cells were also harvested to determine their gene profile. The study comprised term pregnancies with normal (n = 40) or small-for-gestational-age (n = 20) newborns, small-for-gestational-age preterm pregnancies (n = 15), and bi-chorial, bi-amniotic twin pregnancies with discordant fetal growth (n = 12). Results Umbilical blood nitrite (p<0.001) and S-nitrosohemoglobin (p = 0.02) rose with fetal growth restriction while asymmetric dimethylarginine decreased (p = 0.003). Nitrite rise coincided with an abnormal Doppler profile from umbilical arteries. Fetal growth restriction umbilical vein endothelial cells produced more nitrite and also exhibited reciprocal changes in vasodilator (upwards) and vasoconstrictor (downwards) transcripts. Elevation in blood nitrite and S-nitrosohemoglobin persisted postnatally in the fetal growth restriction offspring. Conclusion Fetal growth restriction is typified by increased nitric oxide production during pregnancy and after birth. This response is viewed as an adaptative event to sustain placental blood flow. However, its occurrence may modify the endothelial phenotype and may ultimately represent an element of risk for cardiovascular disease in adult life. PMID:23028913

  16. Maternal testosterone and placental function: Effect of electroacupuncture on placental expression of angiogenic markers and fetal growth.

    PubMed

    Fornes, Romina; Hu, Min; Maliqueo, Manuel; Kokosar, Milana; Benrick, Anna; Carr, David; Billig, Håkan; Jansson, Thomas; Manni, Luigi; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2016-09-15

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have elevated circulating androgens during pregnancy and are at an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Here we tested the hypotheses that maternal androgen excess decrease placental and fetal growth, and placental expression of markers of steroidogenesis, angiogenesis and sympathetic activity, and that acupuncture with low-frequency electrical stimulation prevents these changes. Pregnant rats were exposed to vehicle or testosterone on gestational day (GD)15-19. Low-frequency electroacupuncture (EA) or handling, as a control for the EA procedure, was given to control or testosterone exposed dams on GD16-20. On GD21, blood pressure was measured and maternal blood, fetuses and placentas collected. Placental steroid receptor expression and proteins involved in angiogenic, neurotrophic and adrenergic signaling were analyzed. EA did not affect any variables in control rats except maternal serum corticosterone, which was reduced. EA in testosterone exposed dams compared with controls increased systolic pressure by 30%, decreased circulating norepinephrine and corticosterone, fetal and placental weight and placental VEGFR1 and proNGF protein expression, and increased the VEGFA/VEGFR1 ratio, mature NGF (mNGF) and the mNGF/proNGF ratio. In conclusion, low-frequency EA in control animals did not have any negative influence on any of the studied variables. In contrast, EA in pregnant dams exposed to testosterone increased blood pressure and impaired placental growth and function, leading to decreased fetal growth. PMID:27208621

  17. Competitive removal of hazardous dyes from aqueous solution by MIL-68(Al): Derivative spectrophotometric method and response surface methodology approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tehrani, Mahnaz Saghanejhad; Zare-Dorabei, Rouholah

    2016-05-01

    MIL-68(Al) as a metal-organic framework (MOF) was synthesized and characterized by different techniques such as SEM, BET, FTIR, and XRD analysis. This material was then applied for simulations removal of malachite green (MG) and methylene blue (MB) dyes from aqueous solutions using second order derivative spectrophotometric method (SODS) which was applied to resolve the overlap between the spectra of these dyes. The dependency of dyes removal efficiency in binary solutions was examined and optimized toward various parameters including initial dye concentration, pH of the solution, adsorbent dosage and ultrasonic contact time using central composite design (CCD) under response surface methodology (RSM) approach. The optimized experimental conditions were set as pH 7.78, contact time 5 min, initial MB concentration 22 mg L- 1, initial MG concentration 12 mg L- 1 and adsorbent dosage 0.0055 g. The equilibrium data was fitted to isotherm models such as Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin and the results revealed the suitability of the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacity of 666.67 and 153.85 mg g- 1 was obtained for MB and MG removal respectively. Kinetics data fitting to pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and Elovich models confirmed the applicability of pseudo-second order kinetic model for description of the mechanism and adsorption rate. Dye-loaded MIL-68(Al) can be easily regenerated using methanol and applied for three frequent sorption/desorption cycles with high performance. The impact of ionic strength on removal percentage of both dyes in binary mixture was studied by using NaCl and KCl soluble salts at different concentrations. According to our findings, only small dosage of the proposed MOF is considerably capable to remove large amounts of dyes at room temperature and in very short time that is a big advantage of MIL-68(Al) as a promising adsorbent for adsorptive removal processes.

  18. Competitive removal of hazardous dyes from aqueous solution by MIL-68(Al): Derivative spectrophotometric method and response surface methodology approach.

    PubMed

    Tehrani, Mahnaz Saghanejhad; Zare-Dorabei, Rouholah

    2016-05-01

    MIL-68(Al) as a metal-organic framework (MOF) was synthesized and characterized by different techniques such as SEM, BET, FTIR, and XRD analysis. This material was then applied for simulations removal of malachite green (MG) and methylene blue (MB) dyes from aqueous solutions using second order derivative spectrophotometric method (SODS) which was applied to resolve the overlap between the spectra of these dyes. The dependency of dyes removal efficiency in binary solutions was examined and optimized toward various parameters including initial dye concentration, pH of the solution, adsorbent dosage and ultrasonic contact time using central composite design (CCD) under response surface methodology (RSM) approach. The optimized experimental conditions were set as pH7.78, contact time 5min, initial MB concentration 22mgL(-1), initial MG concentration 12mgL(-1) and adsorbent dosage 0.0055g. The equilibrium data was fitted to isotherm models such as Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin and the results revealed the suitability of the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacity of 666.67 and 153.85mgg(-1) was obtained for MB and MG removal respectively. Kinetics data fitting to pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and Elovich models confirmed the applicability of pseudo-second order kinetic model for description of the mechanism and adsorption rate. Dye-loaded MIL-68(Al) can be easily regenerated using methanol and applied for three frequent sorption/desorption cycles with high performance. The impact of ionic strength on removal percentage of both dyes in binary mixture was studied by using NaCl and KCl soluble salts at different concentrations. According to our findings, only small dosage of the proposed MOF is considerably capable to remove large amounts of dyes at room temperature and in very short time that is a big advantage of MIL-68(Al) as a promising adsorbent for adsorptive removal processes. PMID:26890205

  19. Evaluation of different solvent extraction methods for removing actinides from high acid waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Yarbro, S.L.; Schreiber, S.B.; Dunn, S.L. ); Rogers, J. )

    1991-01-01

    At the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility, anion exchange is used to recover plutonium from nitric acid solutions. Although this approach recovers >99%, trace amounts of plutonium and other actinides remain the effluent and require additional processing. Currently, a ferric hydroxide carrier precipitation is used to remove the trace actinides and the resulting sludge is cemented. Because it costs approximately $10,000 per drum for disposal, we are developing an additional polishing step so that the effluent actinide levels are reduced to below 100 nCi/g. This would allow the resulting waste sludge to disposed as low-level waste at approximately $200 per drum. We are investigating various solvent extraction techniques for removing actinides. The most promising are chelating resins and membrane-based liquid-liquid solvent extraction. This report details some of our preliminary results. 4 refs., 3 tabs.

  20. Method for removing sulfur oxide from waste gases and recovering elemental sulfur

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Raymond H.

    1977-01-01

    A continuous catalytic fused salt extraction process is described for removing sulfur oxides from gaseous streams. The gaseous stream is contacted with a molten potassium sulfate salt mixture having a dissolved catalyst to oxidize sulfur dioxide to sulfur trioxide and molten potassium normal sulfate to solvate the sulfur trioxide to remove the sulfur trioxide from the gaseous stream. A portion of the sulfur trioxide loaded salt mixture is then dissociated to produce sulfur trioxide gas and thereby regenerate potassium normal sulfate. The evolved sulfur trioxide is reacted with hydrogen sulfide as in a Claus reactor to produce elemental sulfur. The process may be advantageously used to clean waste stack gas from industrial plants, such as copper smelters, where a supply of hydrogen sulfide is readily available.