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1

Expansion: A Plan for Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides selling brokers' guidelines for the successful expansion of their operations outlining a basic method of preparing an expansion plan. Topic headings are: The Pitfalls of Expansion (The Language of Business, Timely Financial Reporting, Regulatory Agencies of Government, Preoccupation with the Facade of Business, A Business Is a…

Callahan, A.P.

2

Generation Expansion Planning in Competitive Electricity Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a formulation to solve the long-term power generation expansion planning assuming a competitive electricity market. In a competitive environment each company aims at maximizing its profit through its individual expansion plan. In this formulation there is an inter connection between the expansion plans proposed by each company in the sense that the decisions taken by each company

Adelino J. C. Pereira; João Tomé Saraiva

2007-01-01

3

Generation and transmission expansion planning for renewable energy integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years the expansion planning problem has become increasingly complex. As expansion planning (sometimes called composite or integrated resource planning) is a non-linear and non-convex optimization problem, researchers have traditionally focused on approximate models of power flows to solve the problem. The problem has also been split into generation expansion planning (GEP) and transmission network expansion planning (TNEP) to

Russell W Bent; Alan Berscheid; G. Loren Toole

2010-01-01

4

Constraint Handling in Transmission Network Expansion Planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transmission network expansion planning (TNEP) is a very important and complex problem in power system. Recently, the use of metaheuristic techniques to solve TNEP is gaining more importance due to their effectiveness in handling the inequality constraints and discrete values over the conventional gradient based methods. Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) generally perform unconstrained search and require some additional mechanism to handle constraints. In EA literature, various constraint handling techniques have been proposed. However, to solve TNEP the penalty function approach is commonly used while the other constraint handling methods are untested. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of different constraint handling methods like Superiority of Feasible Solutions (SF), Self adaptive Penalty (SP),E-Constraint (EC), Stochastic Ranking (SR) and the ensemble of constraint handling techniques (ECHT) on TNEP. The potential of different constraint handling methods and their ensemble is evaluated using an IEEE 24 bus system with and without security constraints.

Mallipeddi, R.; Verma, Ashu; Suganthan, P. N.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Bijwe, P. R.

5

Generation and transmission expansion planning for renewable energy integration  

SciTech Connect

In recent years the expansion planning problem has become increasingly complex. As expansion planning (sometimes called composite or integrated resource planning) is a non-linear and non-convex optimization problem, researchers have traditionally focused on approximate models of power flows to solve the problem. The problem has also been split into generation expansion planning (GEP) and transmission network expansion planning (TNEP) to improve computational tractability. Until recently these approximations have produced results that are straight-forward to combine and adapt to the more complex and complete problem. However, the power grid is evolving towards a state where the adaptations are no longer easy (e.g. large amounts of limited control, renewable generation, comparable generation and transmission construction costs) and necessitates new approaches. Recent work on deterministic Discrepancy Bounded Local Search (DBLS) has shown it to be quite effective in addressing the TNEP. In this paper, we propose a generalization of DBLS to handle simultaneous generation and transmission planning.

Bent, Russell W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berscheid, Alan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Toole, G. Loren [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-11-30

6

Salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea limits the reproduction and population expansion of the newly invaded comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi.  

PubMed

The recent invasion of the comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi into northern European waters is of major public and scientific concern. One of the key features making M. leidyi a successful invader is its high fecundity combined with fast growth rates. However, little is known about physiological limitations to its reproduction and consequent possible abiotic restrictions to its dispersal. To evaluate the invasion potential of M. leidyi into the brackish Baltic Sea we studied in situ egg production rates in different regions and at different salinities in the laboratory, representing the salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea. During October 2009 M. leidyi actively reproduced over large areas of the Baltic Sea. Egg production rates scaled with animal size but decreased significantly with decreasing salinity, both in the field (7-29) and in laboratory experiments (6-33). Temperature and zooplankton, i.e. food abundance, could not explain the observed differences. Reproduction rates at conditions representing the Kattegat, south western and central Baltic Sea, respectively, were 2.8 fold higher at the highest salinities (33 and 25) than at intermediate salinities (10 and 15) and 21 times higher compared from intermediate to the lowest salinity tested (6). Higher salinity areas such as the Kattegat, and to a lower extent the south western Baltic, seem to act as source regions for the M. leidyi population in the central Baltic Sea where a self-sustaining population, due to the low salinity, cannot be maintained. PMID:21887373

Jaspers, Cornelia; Møller, Lene Friis; Kiørboe, Thomas

2011-01-01

7

PLANNING MODELS FOR URBAN WATER SUPPLY EXPANSION. VOLUME 1. PLANNING FOR THE EXPANSION OF REGIONAL WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

A three-volume report was developed relative to the modelling of investment strategies for regional water supply planning. Volume 1 is the study of capacity expansion over time. Models to aid decision making for the deterministic case are presented, and a planning process under u...

8

IRP methods for Environmental Impact Statements of utility expansion plans  

SciTech Connect

Most large electric utilities and a growing number of gas utilities in the United States are using a planning method -- Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) - which incorporates demand-side management (DSM) programs whenever the marginal cost of the DSM programs are lower than the marginal cost of supply-side expansion options. Argonne National Laboratory has applied the IRP method in its socio-economic analysis of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) of power marketing for a system of electric utilities in the mountain and western regions of the United States. Applying the IRP methods provides valuable information to the participants in an EIS process involving capacity expansion of an electric or gas utility. The major challenges of applying the IRP method within an EIS are the time consuming and costly task of developing a least cost expansion path for each altemative, the detailed quantification of environmental damages associated with capacity expansion, and the explicit inclusion of societal-impacts to the region.

Cavallo, J.D.; Hemphill, R.C.; Veselka, T.D.

1992-01-01

9

IRP methods for Environmental Impact Statements of utility expansion plans  

SciTech Connect

Most large electric utilities and a growing number of gas utilities in the United States are using a planning method -- Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) - which incorporates demand-side management (DSM) programs whenever the marginal cost of the DSM programs are lower than the marginal cost of supply-side expansion options. Argonne National Laboratory has applied the IRP method in its socio-economic analysis of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) of power marketing for a system of electric utilities in the mountain and western regions of the United States. Applying the IRP methods provides valuable information to the participants in an EIS process involving capacity expansion of an electric or gas utility. The major challenges of applying the IRP method within an EIS are the time consuming and costly task of developing a least cost expansion path for each altemative, the detailed quantification of environmental damages associated with capacity expansion, and the explicit inclusion of societal-impacts to the region.

Cavallo, J.D.; Hemphill, R.C.; Veselka, T.D.

1992-10-01

10

Powering the people: India's capacity expansion plans  

SciTech Connect

India has become a global business power even though hundreds of millions of its citizens still live in poverty. To sustain economic growth and lift its people out of poverty, India needs more and more reliable power. Details of government plans for achieving those goals demonstrate that pragmatism may be in shorter supply than ambition and political will. 1 ref., 12 figs., 1 tab.

Patel, S.

2009-05-15

11

Production Costing for Long-Range Geneartion Expansion Planning Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generation expansion modeling relies upon a complex network of engineering and economic models. The core of the engineering analysis has been the loss-of-load probability techniques and the probabilistic simulation production-costing techniques. The core of the economic modeling influence has been associAted with load forecasts and market penetrations of customer alternatives. The linkage of these models within an expansion-planning framework has

John Stremel

1982-01-01

12

Grid Expansion Planning for Carbon Emissions Reduction  

SciTech Connect

There is a need to upgrade and expand electric power transmission and generation to meet specified renewable energy targets and simultaneously minimize construction cost and carbon emissions. Some challenges are: (1) Renewable energy sources have variable production capacity; (2) Deficiency of transmission capacity at desirable renewable generation locations; (3) Need to incorporate models of operations into planning studies; and (4) Prevent undesirable operational outcomes such as negative dispatch prices or curtailment of carbon neutral generation.

Bent, Russell W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Toole, Gasper L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-18

13

WASP and electricity capacity expansion planning for emerging countries  

SciTech Connect

The WIEN Automatic System Planning Package (WASP) is typical of electrical generation capacity expansion planning models in general use today. It was developed by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) hence the name WIEN. It is available without charge to member states. Assistance in its use is available from IAEA staff and in addition it is well documented. The user of WASP should be aware of its uses and limitations especially, though not exclusively, in its application to emerging countries. This paper presents an overview of capacity expansion planning and its place in the economic planning process with reference to the emerging countries; describes in a general way the use of WASP; cautions care in the interpretation of WASP results; and suggests the way in which WASP can be used to assess innovative electric generating technologies.

Allentuck, J

1980-11-01

14

Application of NSGA-II Algorithm to Generation Expansion Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes use of a multiobjective optimization method, elitist nondominated sorting genetic algorithm version II (NSGA-II), to the generation expansion planning (GEP) problem. The proposed model provides for decision maker choice from among the different trade-off solutions. Two different problem formulations are considered. In one formulation, the first objective is to minimize cost; the second objective is to minimize

S. Kannan; S. Baskar; James D. McCalley; P. Murugan

2009-01-01

15

Critical evaluation of the Global DOTS Expansion Plan  

PubMed Central

Abstract The development of the DOTS Expansion Plan has been a milestone in tuberculosis (TB) control at the global and national levels. Key challenges that remain are overcoming the weakness of a strategy built on case management, sustaining commitment, competing priorities, the threat of HIV, maintaining high quality of care and preventing drug resistance, building human resource capacity, improving diagnosis and fostering operations research. The ability to address these challenges will determine the success or failure of the Global Plan to Stop TB, 2006–2015. PMID:17639227

Enarson, Donald A

2007-01-01

16

Meter Expansion Plan Existing Multi-Space Meter  

E-print Network

Meter Expansion Plan 11 35 9 7 10 20 12 11 12 46 23 15 15 60 23 Existing Multi-Space Meter Split Regulations 136 New Multi-Space Meter Visitor Only New Multi-Space Meter Split Regulations KEY 97 Updated 7/8/13 11 5 #12;HAVE.HAVE. UNION DR. 1 2 3 4 5 New Multi-space Meter After: 5 Meter Spaces Regulations

Duchowski, Andrew T.

17

Irrigated Agricultural Expansion Planning in Developing Countries : Income Redistribution Objective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of agricultural expansion investment in improving the income redistribution conditions in society has been of considerable concern to planners. In this paper an approach based on distributing the newly developed land to a poorer sector (landless farmers) in society to gain agricultural revenues and improve their income is investigated. A mathematical optimization model is built to determine the distribution of land and a pricing policy established for the new areas in such a way that (1) a specified (by the government) income increase to the farmers can be achieved, (2) a predetermined level of recovery of the expansion cost can be insured, (3) high agricultural efficiency in the new land can be maintained, and (4) redistribution benefits can be maximized. In a case study application of the model, no conflict is found between the economic efficiency and income redistribution cirtieria in agricultural expansion investment within the planning framework presented in the companion paper (Allam and Marks, this issue). For a specified cost recovery condition it is found that the least cost planning alternatives give the opportunity to the largest number of landless farmers to own the new land and receive a specified income increase from the agricultural revenues, but a conflict between government return from the investment and redistribution objectives is found. This conflict is addressed and the trade-off between the two objectives is illustrated.

Allam, Mohamed N.; Marks, David H.

1984-07-01

18

West Elk Mine expansion and degasification plans approved  

SciTech Connect

West Elk Mine recently applied for and received approval for an expansion of its mining and methane drainage operation sin Gunnison County, Colorado. The deliberation over this planned expansion among several federal agencies and other groups received considerable local press coverage. One of the key issues focused on the fate of the additional; methane that would be emitted from the mine's degasification system. This article summarizes this process, which highlights the numerous barriers that still affect many coal mine methane (CMM) project opportunities is the United states. As the debate over climate change legislation moves forward in the US Congress and awareness of greenhouse gas emissions increases around the country, lawmakers, regulators, and non-governmental organizations will continue to focus more attention on CMM reduction opportunities,.

NONE

2008-04-01

19

Incorporation and Impact of a Wind Energy Conversion System in Generation Expansion Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper utilizes WASP, a state-of-the art computer model, to obtain optimal generation expansion plans for an electric utility in order to assess the impact of incorporating a wind energy conversion system into an electric utility generation expansion plan. The IEEE Reliability Test System is used in the evaluations. The optimal plans satisfy given levels of reliability, in terms of

K. F. Schenk; S. Chan

1981-01-01

20

75 FR 36063 - Expansion and Extension of the Patent Application Backlog Reduction Stimulus Plan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE United States Patent and Trademark Office [Docket No...PTO-P-2010-0048] Expansion and Extension of the Patent Application Backlog Reduction Stimulus Plan AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce....

2010-06-24

21

Generation Expansion Planning for Systems with a High Share of Hydro Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method for integrating a detailed model of the hydroelectric system into existing power system planning tools. The purpose of the hydro model is not primarily to optimize hydro expansion, but to represent the influence of hydro regulation on the thermal system expansion. Stochastic production costing routines are used to calculate operating costs as a function of

P. Nordlund; D. Sjelvgren; M. V. F. Pereira; J. A. Bubenko

1987-01-01

22

Multi-Modal Motion Planning in Non-Expansive Spaces  

E-print Network

of randomly sampled con- figurations connected by straight line paths. It is widely known that PRMs can are arbitrarily thin, and PRMs do not work at all. This type of multi-modal structure characterizes a range complexity of single-mode planning poses an additional challenge. Complete planning is intractable, so PRMs

Pratt, Vaughan

23

A decision support tool for generation expansion planning in competitive markets using System Dynamics models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the generation expansion-planning problem describing a model that generation companies and regulators can use to get insight to this problem and to more completely study and characterize different investment decisions. The simulation model considers a number of possible generation technologies and aims at characterizing the corresponding investment plans from an economic point of view having in mind

A. J. C. Pereira; J. T. Saraiva

2009-01-01

24

Popular but Troubled, Historically Black Medical School Plans Ambitious Expansion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two years ago, the only historically black medical school west of the Mississippi faced a grim prognosis after county officials pulled the plug on its relationship with a troubled hospital. Today the medical school that has reportedly trained about a third of Los Angeles County's black and Hispanic physicians is back on its feet and planning an…

Mangan, Katherine

2009-01-01

25

Are recent changes in sediment manganese sequestration in the euxinic basins of the Baltic Sea linked to the expansion of hypoxia?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Expanding hypoxia in the Baltic Sea over the past century has led to anoxic and sulfidic (euxinic) deep basins that are only periodically ventilated by inflows of oxygenated waters from the North Sea. In this study, we investigate the consequences of the expanding hypoxia for manganese (Mn) burial in the Baltic Sea using a combination of pore water and sediment analyses of well-dated sediment cores from 8 locations. Diffusive fluxes of dissolved Mn from sediments to overlying waters at oxic and hypoxic sites are in line with an active release of Mn from these areas. However, this flux of Mn is only small when compared to the large pool of Mn already present in the hypoxic and anoxic water column. Our results highlight two modes of Mn carbonate formation in sediments of the deep basins. In the Gotland Deep area, Mn carbonates likely form from Mn oxides that are precipitated from the water column directly following North Sea inflows. In the Landsort Deep, in contrast, Mn carbonate and Mn sulfide layers form independent of inflow events, with pore water Mn produced in deeper layers of the sediment acting as a key Mn source. While formation of Mn enrichments in the Landsort Deep continues to the present, this does not hold for the Gotland Deep area. Here, increased euxinia, as evident from measured bottom water sulfide concentrations and elevated sediment molybdenum (Mo), goes hand in hand with a decline in sediment Mn and recent inflows of oxygenated water (since ca. 1995) are no longer consistently recorded as Mn carbonate layers. We postulate that the reduction of Mn oxides by hydrogen sulfide following inflows has become so rapid that Mn2+ is released to the water column before Mn carbonates can form. Our results have important implications for the use of Mn carbonate enrichments as a redox proxy in marine systems.

Lenz, C.; Jilbert, T.; Conley, D. J.; Wolthers, M.; Slomp, C. P.

2014-06-01

26

Capricious Cables: Understanding the Key Concepts in Transmission Expansion Planning and Its Models  

SciTech Connect

The extra-high-voltage transmission network is the bulk transport network of the electric power system. To understand how the future power system may react to planning decisions today, wide-area transmission models are increasingly used to aid decision makers and stakeholders. The goal of this work is to illuminate these models for a broader audience that may include policy makers or relative newcomers to the field of transmission planning. This paper explains the basic transmission expansion planning model formulation. It highlights six of the major simplifications made in transmission expansion planning models and the resulting need to contextualize model results using knowledge from other models and knowledge not captured in the modeling process.

Donohoo, P.; Milligan, M.

2014-06-01

27

Application and comparison of metaheuristic techniques to generation expansion planning problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents both application and comparison of the metaheuristic techniques to generation expansion planning (GEP) problem. The Metaheuristic techniques such as the genetic algorithm, differential evolution, evolutionary programming, evolutionary strategy, ant colony optimization, particle swarm optimization, tabu search, simulated annealing, and hybrid approach are applied to solve GEP problem. The original GEP problem is modified using the proposed methods

S. Kannan; S. Mary Raja Slochanal; Narayana Prasad Padhy

2005-01-01

28

Grid expansion planning considering probabilistic production and congestion costs based on nodal effective load model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an alternative method for grid expansion planning considering construction cost, probabilistic production cost, congestion cost and outage cost of a grid at a composite power system derived from a simulation model. This model includes capacity limitation and uncertainties of the generators and transmission lines. It emphasizes also the two questions of “how should the uncertainties of system

Jaeseok Choi; Donghun Jeon; A. A. El-Keib; Joydeep Mitra; Woochang Cho; Roy Billinton

2010-01-01

29

Grid expansion planning considering probabilistic production and congestion costs based on nodal effective load model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an alternative method for grid expansion planning considering construction cost, probabilistic production cost, congestion cost and outage cost of a grid at a composite power system derived from a simulation model. In this paper, a heuristic scenario method is proposed to choose the least cost solution (scenario) among various scenarios considering candidate new lines. The characteristics and

Taegon Oh; Jaeseok Choi; Donghun Jeon; A. A. El-Keib; M. Shahidehpour

2010-01-01

30

Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity -  

E-print Network

Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity - conservation genetic risks associated with compensatory releases of salmon in the Baltic Sea Havs- och vattenmyndighetens rapport 2012:18 #12;Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity - conservation genetic risks associated with compensatory releases

31

Multistage expansion planning of generation and interconnections with sustainable energy development criteria: A multiobjective model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel multiobjective, multiarea and multistage model to long-term expansion planning of integrated generation and transmission corridors incorporating sustainable energy developing is presented in this paper. The proposed MESEDES model is a “bottom-up” energy model which considers the electricity generation\\/transmission value-chain, i.e., power generation alternatives including renewables, nuclear and traditional thermal generation along with transmission corridors. The model decides the

Clodomiro Unsihuay-Vila; J. W. Marangon-Lima; A. C. Zambroni de Souza; I. J. Perez-Arriaga

2011-01-01

32

Application of sensitivity analysis of load supplying capability to interactive transmission expansion planning  

SciTech Connect

This paper illustrates the application of sensitivity methods as a tool for long-term transmission expansion planning. Possible investments are ranked in accordance with their effectiveness in increasing the system load supplying capability or reducing the system load curtailment. The calculation of these indices is performed as a special case of the optimal dispatch problem, for which very efficient solution algorithms are available. A case study with the system of Southern Brazil is used to evaluate the performance of the ranking algorithms.

Pereira, M.V.F.; Pinto, L.M.V.G.

1985-02-01

33

HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA632. FLOOR PLAN OF EXPANSION SHOWS LOCATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA-632. FLOOR PLAN OF EXPANSION SHOWS LOCATION OF NEW CELLS, "HEAVY" CELL AT WEST END, "LIGHT" CELLS AT EAST. MOCK-UP AND STORAGE AREAS IN SOUTH HALF OF FLOOR. H.K. FERGUSON 895-MTR-ETR-632-A1, 12/1958. INL INDEX NO. 531-0632-00-279-101924, REV. 4. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

34

A fuzzy branch and bound-based transmission system expansion planning for the highest satisfaction level of the decision maker  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work proposes a new method for choosing the best transmission system expansion plan for the highest satisfaction level of the decision maker. The proposed method considers the permissibility and ambiguity of the investment budget (economics) for constructing new transmission lines and the delivery marginal rate (reliability criterion) of the system. This is achieved by modeling the transmission expansion problem

Jaeseok Choi; A. A. El-Keib; Trungtinh Tran

2005-01-01

35

Abstract--From the social perspective, transmission planning has been broadly studied developing models that minimize expansion costs, subject to  

E-print Network

Abstract-- From the social perspective, transmission planning has been broadly studied developing security and stability. In a deregulated electric market, planning must allow the optimal development. This work studies the expansion of transmission systems from the private perspective, developing a static

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

36

Transmission Expansion Planning - A Multiyear Dynamic Approach Using a Discrete Evolutionary Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic objective of Transmission Expansion Planning (TEP) is to schedule a number of transmission projects along an extended planning horizon minimizing the network construction and operational costs while satisfying the requirement of delivering power safely and reliably to load centres along the horizon. This principle is quite simple, but the complexity of the problem and the impact on society transforms TEP on a challenging issue. This paper describes a new approach to solve the dynamic TEP problem, based on an improved discrete integer version of the Evolutionary Particle Swarm Optimization (EPSO) meta-heuristic algorithm. The paper includes sections describing in detail the EPSO enhanced approach, the mathematical formulation of the TEP problem, including the objective function and the constraints, and a section devoted to the application of the developed approach to this problem. Finally, the use of the developed approach is illustrated using a case study based on the IEEE 24 bus 38 branch test system.

Rocha, M. C.; Saraiva, J. T.

2012-10-01

37

Review of Jamaica Public Service Company, Ltd. least-cost expansion plan.  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory has been asked to review the least-cost expansion plan (LCEP) of the Jamaica Public Service Company, Ltd. (JPSCo). The material that has been initially provided to Argonne included: (1) An electronic copy of the data and results from JPSCo's running the WASP electric system expansion planning model, (2) Approximately 20 pages of a document 'JPSCo Generation Expansion Plan', marked 'DRAFT 002', date unknown, and (3) The report 'JPSCo Least Cost Generation Expansion Plans, (1999-2009)', January 1999. It was noticed that the 20 pages from the 'DRAFT 002' document were different from the January 1999 report. An explanation was provided to Argonne that the excerpt was from an earlier draft and that the review should focus on the January 1999 report. Further, the electronic copy of the WASP case did not correspond to either the January 1999 report or to the 20-page excerpt. Again, the reason for these discrepancies was that the WASP case provided to Argonne was an earlier case and not the final one that was presented in the report. Based on the review of the available material, Argonne experts have prepared and submitted to the National Investment Bank of Jamaica (NIBJ) a preliminary draft report containing the initial findings, comments, questions and observations. As many of the comments and questions raised in the preliminary review needed to be discussed with the appropriate staff of JPSCo and other Jamaican experts, a 3-day mission to Jamaica was carried out by one Argonne expert (V. Koritarov) in the period July 20-23, 1999. Besides JPSCo experts, the discussions and the review of the LCEP during the mission included several experts from NIBJ, Ministry of Energy, and the Petroleum Corporation of Jamaica. Mr. Koritarov also worked with the JPSCo technical staff to reconstruct the WASP base case that was used as a basis for the January 1999 report. The first step was to verify that the results obtained after the resimulation of this case were identical to those presented in the January 1999 report. Then, in the next step, the Argonne expert and JPSCo team reviewed this case in detail and performed certain modifications and improvements of data where necessary. These modifications and data adjustments resulted in a new base case that served as a basis for further review and for the sensitivity analyses. Several sensitivity analyses were performed together with JPSCo experts and the results were discussed with the JPSCo management and other Jamaican experts at the end of the mission. Additional sensitivity analyses, as well as the cases for high and low load forecasts, were conducted by Mr. Koritarov after returning from Jamaica. The main findings of the review and issues that have been discussed with the Jamaican team can be summarized.

Koritarov, V.; Buehring, W.; Cirillo, R.; Decision and Information Sciences

2008-02-28

38

A Model to Long-Term, Multiarea, Multistage, and Integrated Expansion Planning of Electricity and Natural Gas Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-term, multiarea, and multistage model for the supply\\/interconnections expansion planning of integrated electricity and natural gas (NG) is presented in this paper. The proposed Gas Electricity Planning (GEP) model considers the NG value chain, i.e., from the supply to end-consumers through NG pipelines and the electrical systems value chain, i.e., power generation and transmission, in an integrated way. The

Clodomiro Unsihuay-Vila; J. W. Marangon-Lima; A. C. Zambroni de Souza; Ignacio J. Perez-Arriaga; Pedro P. Balestrassi

2010-01-01

39

Baltic Earth - Earth System Science for the Baltic Sea Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baltic Sea region, defined as its river catchment basin, spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It encompasses most of the Scandinavian Peninsula in the west; most of Finland and parts of Russia, Belarus, and the Baltic states in the east; and Poland and small parts of Germany and Denmark in the south. The region represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. Preliminary grand challenges and topics for which Working Groups have been installed include: • Salinity dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Land-Sea biogeochemical feedbacks in the Baltic Sea region • Natural hazards and extreme events in the Baltic Sea region • Understanding sea level dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Understanding regional variability of water and energy exchange • Utility of Regional Climate Models • Assessment of Scenario Simulations for the Baltic Sea 1960-2100 • Outreach and Communication • Education The issue of anthropogenic changes and impacts on the Earth system of the Baltic Sea region is recognized as a major topic, and shall receive special attention. The intention of the "Outreach and Communication" and "Education" groups will be to initiate and design potential outreach activities and to provide an arena for scientific exchange and discussion around the Baltic Sea, to communicate findings and exchange views within the Baltic Earth research community internally and to other researchers and society, both professionals and non-professionals. A regular international Baltic Earth Summer School shall be established from 2015. There will be a strong continuity related to BALTEX in infrastructure (secretariat, conferences, publications) and the network (people and institutions).

Meier, Markus; Rutgersson, Anna; Lehmann, Andreas; Reckermann, Marcus

2014-05-01

40

The Baltics: Regional energy profiles  

SciTech Connect

However, all three Baltic Republics are heavily dependent on primary energy imports. Domestic energy sources in the Baltics are limited to oil shale mines in Estonia, small oil deposits in Lithuania, peat, and some very small hydroelectric power plants. A RBMK nuclear power station, similar to Chernobyl, operates at Snieckus in Lithuania, but the reactor fuel is also imported from Russia. However, Lithuania and Estonia are net exporters of electricity despite their reliance on primary fuels imports. The major power stations in these two Republics are the Ignalina Nuclear Power Station and the two thermal power plants at Narva in Estonia which are fueled by oil shale. The only oil refinery in the Baltics is also located in Lithuania, at Mazeikiai. This refinery has the capacity to satisfy the demand for selected refined products of the entire region, including the Kaliningrad oblast, a noncontiguous part of Russia. The Mazeikiai refinery has operated at only forty to sixty percent capacity since 1990 due to halts in crude oil supplies from Russia. The Baltic Republics also import one hundred percent of their coal and natural gas supplies. Russia is the main trading partner for all the Baltic states, accounting for more than half of their trade flow. Mutual trade within the Baltics has been surprisingly low. Other Baltic states contribute less than ten percent to each Republic's exports or imports, even less than Belarus or Ukraine. Aside from Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, only Kazakhstan contributes more than two percent to Baltics trade.

Not Available

1993-01-01

41

The Baltics: Regional energy profiles  

SciTech Connect

However, all three Baltic Republics are heavily dependent on primary energy imports. Domestic energy sources in the Baltics are limited to oil shale mines in Estonia, small oil deposits in Lithuania, peat, and some very small hydroelectric power plants. A RBMK nuclear power station, similar to Chernobyl, operates at Snieckus in Lithuania, but the reactor fuel is also imported from Russia. However, Lithuania and Estonia are net exporters of electricity despite their reliance on primary fuels imports. The major power stations in these two Republics are the Ignalina Nuclear Power Station and the two thermal power plants at Narva in Estonia which are fueled by oil shale. The only oil refinery in the Baltics is also located in Lithuania, at Mazeikiai. This refinery has the capacity to satisfy the demand for selected refined products of the entire region, including the Kaliningrad oblast, a noncontiguous part of Russia. The Mazeikiai refinery has operated at only forty to sixty percent capacity since 1990 due to halts in crude oil supplies from Russia. The Baltic Republics also import one hundred percent of their coal and natural gas supplies. Russia is the main trading partner for all the Baltic states, accounting for more than half of their trade flow. Mutual trade within the Baltics has been surprisingly low. Other Baltic states contribute less than ten percent to each Republic`s exports or imports, even less than Belarus or Ukraine. Aside from Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, only Kazakhstan contributes more than two percent to Baltics trade.

Not Available

1993-01-01

42

What causes the barren bottoms of the Baltic?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the largest impacts on the Baltic Sea ecosystem health is eutrophication, which causes hypoxia (< 2mg/l dissolved oxygen). It is estimated that the hypoxic zone in the Baltic Sea has increased about four times in area since 1960 due to surplus loads of waterborne and airborne nutrients (N and P) from anthropogenic sources. Hypoxia has barren vast areas of the sea-floor, reduced the macrobenthic communities and disrupted benthic food webs in the whole Baltic basin. Hypoxia alters nutrient biogeochemical cycles; it increases the internal load of phosphorus released from sediments, which causes low nitrogen/phosphorus (N/P) ratios during summer - a factor that favors cyanobacterial blooms. Hypoxia in the Baltic Sea is not unique to the modern era. Based on a compilation of Baltic geological records Zillén et al., (2008) showed that the deeper depressions of the Baltic Proper have experienced intermittent hypoxia during most of the Holocene. Hypoxia occurred basin-wide, at water depths varying between 73-240 m during three major periods; i.e. between c. 8000-4000, 2000-800 cal. yr BP and subsequent to AD 1800. These periods overlap the Holocene Thermal Maximum HTM (c. 9000-5000 cal. yr BP), the Medieval Warm Period MWP (c. AD 750-1200) and the modern historical period (AD 1800 to present). In contrast, oxic bottom conditions were common between c. 7000-6000, c. 4000-2000 and c. 800-200 cal. yr BP. The latter period coincides with the Little Ice Age (LIA) and its characteristic server winters. Although we know that hypoxia has occurred in the past and probably co-varied with external forces, such as climate change and nutrient fluxes, the relative importance of these two forcing mechanisms is unresolved, which restricts predictions about the Baltic Sea ecosystem response to future climate and anthropogenic stressors. Most previous research suggests that there may be a correlation between the oxygen conditions in the Baltic Sea and climate variability in the past, primarily driven by atmospheric changes over the North Atlantic region. However, this hypothesis has not yet been tested by model simulations and the potential climate forcing mechanism(s) behind the reconstructed long-term shifts in oxygen status in the Baltic Sea are still unclear. Hypoxia during the last two millennia can also be linked to population growth, technological development and land-use expansion phases, implying that historical trends in hypoxia may not have a natural cause, but result from anthropogenic impacts. We used a coupled physical-biogeochemical model to explore if shifts in oxygen conditions during the last two millennia in the Baltic Sea can be explained by physical forcing parameters that are known to affect bottom-water conditions in the Baltic Sea. To elucidate the driving mechanisms further, we studied the significance of changes in productivity on the size of the hypoxic area to assess the degree of human impact (eutrophication) on long time-scales. This study reveals the dominant physical forcing mechanism on hypoxia in the Baltic Sea and explains the shifts in bottom-water oxygen status during the last two millennia, especially through the MWP/LIA oscillation. We present new results on the significance of human perturbations on the marine environment and propose that cyanobacteria blooms may not be natural features of the Baltic Sea, but rather a consequence of enhanced phosphorus release that occurs together with hypoxia.

Zillén, Lovisa; Conley, Daniel J.; Gustafsson, Bo G.

2010-05-01

43

Andrews University Master Plan for Campus Expansion and the Development Program, 1977-1985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described in detail in this partly promotional, partly informational publication are the history of campus planning, new master plan, and new capital programs of this Seventh Day Adventist institution. Numerous maps, photographs, and tables of financial and statistical data illustrate the plan. (MSE)

Smoot, Joseph G.

44

Planning for Secondary Expansion in Sub-Saharan Africa--Pathways towards Sustainable Financing. Research Article  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investment in secondary schooling in sub-Saharan Africa has been neglected over the last two decades. Emphasis on universalising primary schooling has shaped national policy and flows of international assistance to favour rapid expansion at the first level of schooling. Though there are many good reasons for this emphasis, this has resulted in…

Lewin, Keith

2006-01-01

45

An expansion plan for the 60 Hz power distribution system at KSC: LC-39 substations load allocation plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The increasing load density in the LC-39 area of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) can be met by either modifying the existing substation and increasing its capacity or by planning an additional new substation. Evidence that the later approach is more economical, enhances the system reliability, and would produce more satisfactory performance indices is provided. Network theory is the basis for the optimal location determination of the proposed substation. A load reallocation plan which minimizes investment cost and power losses and meets other desirable system features is drafted. The report should be useful to the system designer and can be a useful guideline for future facility planners.

Kalu, Alex

1990-01-01

46

Incremental Clustering and Expansion for Faster Optimal Planning in Dec-POMDPs  

E-print Network

This article presents the state-of-the-art in optimal solution methods for decentralized partially observable Markov decision processes (Dec-POMDPs), which are general models for collaborative multiagent planning under ...

Amato, Chris

47

State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) Environmental Checklist Form 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds Closure Plan. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds Closure Plan (Revision 1) consists of a Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application and a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure Plan. An explanation of the Part A submitted with this document is provided at the beginning of the Part A Section. The closure plan consists of nine chapters and five appendices. The 216-B-3 Pond System consists of a series of four earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds and the 216-B-3-3 Ditch that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. These four ponds, collectively. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the 216-B-3-3 Ditch. Water discharged to the 216-8-3-3 Ditch flows directly into the 216-B-3 Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to B Pond and the 216-B-3-3 Ditch contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the nonradioactive dangerous portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA. Mixed waste also may be considered a hazardous substance under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) when considering remediation of waste sites.

Not Available

1993-12-01

48

A Coordinated Production Planning Model with Capacity Expansion and Inventory Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by a problem faced by a large manufacturer of a consumer product, we explore the interaction between production planning and capacity acquisition decisions in environments with demand growth. We study a firm producing multiple items in a multiperiod environment where demand for items is known but varies over time with a long-term growth and possible short-term fluctuations. The production

Sampath Rajagopalan; Jayashankar M. Swaminathan

2001-01-01

49

Stratigraphic correlation for the IODP Expedition 347 - toward an integrated Baltic Sea Basin stratigraphy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IODP Expedition 347 - "Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment" completed in September - November 2013 (offshore phase) was the 5th and the final mission-specific platform (MSP) expedition of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program. The expedition used a geotechnical drillship, the Greatship Manisha equipped with a Geoquip Marine coring rig, to core and wireline-log several sub-basins within the Baltic Sea, aiming to produce new information on the history of the Baltic Sea and climate change during the last glacial cycle. During the IODP Expedition 347 altogether over 1900 meters were successfully drilled at 8 Sites (M0059 - M0067) in the Lille Belt, Kattegat, Ångermanälven Estuary, Landsort Deep, Hanö Basin and Bornholm Basin with core recovery of approximately 1600 m (expansion adjusted core recovery of 91.46%). In this presentation, we show the preliminary results of regional stratigraphic correlation and splice results for the Expedition. That information provides a solid base for stratigraphic and high-resolution paleoenvironmental studies. Stratigraphic correlation consisted of the following: (1) ensuring the maximum core recovery on site, (2) seismic-core (sedimentary facies) correlation and (3) generating composite depth scales and splice records to each site. To obtain a complete sedimentary record, multiple adjacent holes were cored with an offset in depth of 0.5-1.5 m between cores from different holes. The continuity of recovery was assessed by generating composite sections that align prominent features in physical property data from adjacent holes. With the information gained by Fast Track Multi-Sensor Core Logger (MSCL) data, it was possible to adjust coring plan before the new hole, to ensure that intervals missing in previous cores could be recovered from an adjacent hole. Correlation between seismic profiles and cores used a simple estimation sound velocity vs. sediment type. Acquired depth was tested by comparison with major core surfaces, downhole logs, and the MSCL data (density and magnetic susceptibility). This data integration required preliminary interpretation of sedimentary units and comparisons with physical property boundaries. To align similar features in physical (geological) properties between different holes (or even different sites), MSCL physical property measurements were correlated (using Correlator software), to create a composite depth (mcd) scale. Splice records were generated by selecting sections from adjacent holes to avoid core gaps or disturbed sediment, resulting in a continuous record. This formed the basis for onshore sediment sampling and post-cruise research.

Kotilainen, Aarno; Hyttinen, Outi; Andrén, Thomas; Cotterill, Carol; Hale, Walter; IODP Expedition 347 Science Party, the

2014-05-01

50

The DOE Office of Environmental Management International Cooperative Program: Current Status and Plans for Expansion  

SciTech Connect

The DOE-EM Office of Engineering and Technology is responsible for implementing EM’s international cooperative program. The Office of Engineering and Technology’s international efforts are aimed at supporting EM’s mission of risk reduction and accelerated cleanup of the environmental legacy of the nation's nuclear weapons program and government-sponsored nuclear energy research. To do this, EM pursues collaborations with government organizations, educational institutions, and private industry to identify and develop technologies that can address the site cleanup needs of DOE. Currently, DOE-EM is performing collaborative work with researchers at the Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI) and the SIA Radon Institute in Russia and the Ukraine’s International Radioecology Laboratory (IRL). Additionally, a task was recently completed with the Nuclear Engineering Technology Institute (NETEC) in South Korea. The objectives of these collaborations were to explore issues relating to high-level waste and to investigate technologies that could be leveraged to support EM site cleanup needs. In FY09, continued collaboration with the current partners is planned. Additionally, new research projects are being planned to expand the International Program. A collaborative project with Russian Electrotechnical University is underway to evaluate CCIM control and monitoring technologies. A Statement of Intent was recently signed between DOE-EM and the U.K. Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) to work cooperatively on areas of mutual interest. Under this umbrella, discussions were held with NDA representatives to identify potential areas for collaboration. Information and technical exchanges were identified as near-term actions to help meet the objectives of the Statement of Intent. Technical exchanges in identified areas are being pursued in FY09

Gerdes, Kurt D.; Han, Ana M.; Marra, James C.; Fox, Kevin M.; Peeler, David K.; Smith, Michael E.; Jannik, Gerald T.; Farfan, Eduardo B.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.; Roach, Jay; Aloy, A. S.; Stefanovsky, S. V.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Lopukh, D. P.; Kim, Chenwoo

2009-01-15

51

Scandinavia and the Baltic Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera were combined to create this cloud-free natural-color mosaic of Scandinavia and the Baltic region. The image extends from 64oN, 0oE in the northwest to 56oN, 32oE in the southeast, and has been draped over a shaded relief Digital Terrain Elevation Model from the United States Geological Survey. It is displayed in an equidistant conic projection.

The image area includes southern Norway, Sweden and Finland, northern Denmark, Estonia, Latvia and part of western Russia. Norway's rugged western coastline is deeply indented by fjords. Elongated lakes, formed by glacial erosion and deposition, are characteristic of the entire region, and are particularly dense throughout Finland and Sweden. Numerous islands are present, and a virtually continuous chain of small, scattered islands occur between Sweden and Finland. The northern and eastern waters of the Baltic Sea are almost fresh, since the Baltic receives saltwater only from the narrow and shallow sounds between Denmark and Sweden that connect it to the North Sea. Most of the major cities within the image area are coastal, including St. Petersburg, Stockholm, Helsinki, Riga, and Oslo.

The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2003-01-01

52

Dissolved organic matter in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several factors highlight the importance of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in coastal ecosystems such as the Baltic Sea: 1) DOM is the main energy source for heterotrophic bacteria in surface waters, thus contributing to the productivity and trophic state of bodies of water. 2) DOM functions as a nutrient source: in the Baltic Sea, more than one-fourth of the bioavailable nutrients can occur in the dissolved organic form in riverine inputs and in surface water during summer. Thus, DOM also supports primary production, both directly (osmotrophy) and indirectly (via remineralization). 3) Flocculation and subsequent deposition of terrestrial DOM within river estuaries may contribute to production and oxygen consumption in coastal sediments. 4) Chromophoric DOM, which is one of the major absorbers of light entering the Baltic Sea, contributes highly to water color, thus affecting the photosynthetic depth as well as recreational value of the Baltic Sea. Despite its large-scale importance to the Baltic Sea ecosystem, DOM has been of minor interest compared with inorganic nutrient loadings. Information on the concentrations and dynamics of DOM in the Baltic Sea has accumulated since the late 1990s, but it is still sporadic. This review provides a coherent view of the current understanding of DOM dynamics in the Baltic Sea.

Hoikkala, L.; Kortelainen, P.; Soinne, H.; Kuosa, H.

2015-02-01

53

Variability of subdivisions of Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coupled ice-ocean model has been used to analyze subdivisions of the Baltic Sea. The model consists of Parallel Ocean Program (POP) and Community Ice CodE. Both models are from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and were coupled by authors. The model was forced by ECMWF atmospheric data (ERA 40 reanalysis). 40-years hindcast scenario was performed. Anomalies of heat content, temperature, salinity and salt transport through selected sections for all subdivisions of the Baltic Sea are presented. The studies were supported by the Polish State Committee of Scientific Research (grant No N N305 111636) and Project SatBaltic.

Janecki, Maciej; Jakacki, Jaromir; Dzierzbicka, Lidia

2010-05-01

54

Biogeochemical control of the coupled CO2-O 2 system of the Baltic Sea: a review of the results of Baltic-C.  

PubMed

Past, present, and possible future changes in the Baltic Sea acid-base and oxygen balances were studied using different numerical experiments and a catchment-sea model system in several scenarios including business as usual, medium scenario, and the Baltic Sea Action Plan. New CO2 partial pressure data provided guidance for improving the marine biogeochemical model. Continuous CO2 and nutrient measurements with high temporal resolution helped disentangle the biogeochemical processes. These data and modeling indicate that traditional understandings of the nutrient availability-organic matter production relationship do not necessarily apply to the Baltic Sea. Modeling indicates that increased nutrient loads will not inhibit future Baltic Sea acidification; instead, increased mineralization and biological production will amplify the seasonal surface pH cycle. The direction and magnitude of future pH changes are mainly controlled by atmospheric CO2 concentration. Apart from decreasing pH, we project a decreasing calcium carbonate saturation state and increasing hypoxic area. PMID:24414804

Omstedt, Anders; Humborg, Christoph; Pempkowiak, Janusz; Perttilä, Matti; Rutgersson, Anna; Schneider, Bernd; Smith, Benjamin

2014-02-01

55

Dissolved silica budget for the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A budget model covering the Baltic Sea was developed for the time period 1980-2000 to estimate water and dissolved silica (DSi) fluxes as well as internal DSi sinks/sources. The Baltic Sea was resolved by eight basins, where the largest basin — the Baltic Proper — was divided laterally into north/west and southern/east parts as well as vertically to take into account the existence of the permanent halocline. The basins demonstrated rather different patterns with regard to silica cycling. The Gulfs of Finland and Riga together with the northernmost basins, Bothnian Bay and Bothnian Sea, are distinguished by substantial specific rates of silica removal accounting for 1.6-4.9 g Si m - 2 yr - 1 . Bearing in mind the large total primary production, the basins comprising the Baltic Proper with the specific removal rates 0.2 and 1.2 g Si m - 2 yr - 1 , do not appear as regions with a high silica accumulation. The Arkona and the Kattegat mainly behave as regions of rapid through-flows. These results point out the northernmost Gulf of Bothnia, the Gulfs of Riga and Finland as areas with a larger share of biogenic silica accumulation than in the Baltic Proper. It is attributed to hydrographic and hydrochemical features. An estimate of diatom export production was made for the Baltic Proper showing that the diatom contribution accounts for 19-44% of the net export production.

Papush, L.; Danielsson, Å.; Rahm, L.

2009-06-01

56

Could seals prevent cod recovery in the Baltic Sea?  

PubMed

Fish populations are increasingly affected by multiple human and natural impacts including exploitation, eutrophication, habitat alteration and climate change. As a result many collapsed populations may have to recover in ecosystems whose structure and functioning differ from those in which they were formerly productive and supported sustainable fisheries. Here we investigate how a cod (Gadus morhua) population in the Baltic Sea whose biomass was reduced due to a combination of high exploitation and deteriorating environmental conditions might recover and develop in the 21st century in an ecosystem that likely will change due to both the already started recovery of a cod predator, the grey seal Halichoerus grypus, and projected climate impacts. Simulation modelling, assuming increased seal predation, fishing levels consistent with management plan targets and stable salinity, shows that the cod population could reach high levels well above the long-term average. Scenarios with similar seal and fishing levels but with 15% lower salinity suggest that the Baltic will still be able to support a cod population which can sustain a fishery, but biomass and yields will be lower. At present knowledge of cod and seal interactions, seal predation was found to have much lower impact on cod recovery, compared to the effects of exploitation and salinity. These results suggest that dual management objectives (recovery of both seal and cod populations) are realistic but success in achieving these goals will also depend on how climate change affects cod recruitment. PMID:21573062

MacKenzie, Brian R; Eero, Margit; Ojaveer, Henn

2011-01-01

57

Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber.  

PubMed

The fossil record of carnivorous plants is very scarce and macrofossil evidence has been restricted to seeds of the extant aquatic genus Aldrovanda of the Droseraceae family. No case of carnivorous plant traps has so far been reported from the fossil record. Here, we present two angiosperm leaves enclosed in a piece of Eocene Baltic amber that share relevant morphological features with extant Roridulaceae, a carnivorous plant family that is today endemic to the Cape flora of South Africa. Modern Roridula species are unique among carnivorous plants as they digest prey in a complex mutualistic association in which the prey-derived nutrient uptake depends on heteropteran insects. As in extant Roridula, the fossil leaves possess two types of plant trichomes, including unicellular hairs and five size classes of multicellular stalked glands (or tentacles) with an apical pore. The apices of the narrow and perfectly tapered fossil leaves end in a single tentacle, as in both modern Roridula species. The glandular hairs of the fossils are restricted to the leaf margins and to the abaxial lamina, as in extant Roridula gorgonias. Our discovery supports current molecular age estimates for Roridulaceae and suggests a wide Eocene distribution of roridulid plants. PMID:25453067

Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Seyfullah, Leyla J; Sadowski, Friederike; Fleischmann, Andreas; Behling, Hermann; Schmidt, Alexander R

2015-01-01

58

Status of Biodiversity in the Baltic Sea  

PubMed Central

The brackish Baltic Sea hosts species of various origins and environmental tolerances. These immigrated to the sea 10,000 to 15,000 years ago or have been introduced to the area over the relatively recent history of the system. The Baltic Sea has only one known endemic species. While information on some abiotic parameters extends back as long as five centuries and first quantitative snapshot data on biota (on exploited fish populations) originate generally from the same time, international coordination of research began in the early twentieth century. Continuous, annual Baltic Sea-wide long-term datasets on several organism groups (plankton, benthos, fish) are generally available since the mid-1950s. Based on a variety of available data sources (published papers, reports, grey literature, unpublished data), the Baltic Sea, incl. Kattegat, hosts altogether at least 6,065 species, including at least 1,700 phytoplankton, 442 phytobenthos, at least 1,199 zooplankton, at least 569 meiozoobenthos, 1,476 macrozoobenthos, at least 380 vertebrate parasites, about 200 fish, 3 seal, and 83 bird species. In general, but not in all organism groups, high sub-regional total species richness is associated with elevated salinity. Although in comparison with fully marine areas the Baltic Sea supports fewer species, several facets of the system's diversity remain underexplored to this day, such as micro-organisms, foraminiferans, meiobenthos and parasites. In the future, climate change and its interactions with multiple anthropogenic forcings are likely to have major impacts on the Baltic biodiversity. PMID:20824189

Ojaveer, Henn; Jaanus, Andres; MacKenzie, Brian R.; Martin, Georg; Olenin, Sergej; Radziejewska, Teresa; Telesh, Irena; Zettler, Michael L.; Zaiko, Anastasija

2010-01-01

59

Status of biodiversity in the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

The brackish Baltic Sea hosts species of various origins and environmental tolerances. These immigrated to the sea 10,000 to 15,000 years ago or have been introduced to the area over the relatively recent history of the system. The Baltic Sea has only one known endemic species. While information on some abiotic parameters extends back as long as five centuries and first quantitative snapshot data on biota (on exploited fish populations) originate generally from the same time, international coordination of research began in the early twentieth century. Continuous, annual Baltic Sea-wide long-term datasets on several organism groups (plankton, benthos, fish) are generally available since the mid-1950s. Based on a variety of available data sources (published papers, reports, grey literature, unpublished data), the Baltic Sea, incl. Kattegat, hosts altogether at least 6,065 species, including at least 1,700 phytoplankton, 442 phytobenthos, at least 1,199 zooplankton, at least 569 meiozoobenthos, 1,476 macrozoobenthos, at least 380 vertebrate parasites, about 200 fish, 3 seal, and 83 bird species. In general, but not in all organism groups, high sub-regional total species richness is associated with elevated salinity. Although in comparison with fully marine areas the Baltic Sea supports fewer species, several facets of the system's diversity remain underexplored to this day, such as micro-organisms, foraminiferans, meiobenthos and parasites. In the future, climate change and its interactions with multiple anthropogenic forcings are likely to have major impacts on the Baltic biodiversity. PMID:20824189

Ojaveer, Henn; Jaanus, Andres; Mackenzie, Brian R; Martin, Georg; Olenin, Sergej; Radziejewska, Teresa; Telesh, Irena; Zettler, Michael L; Zaiko, Anastasija

2010-01-01

60

Development of tools for integrated monitoring and assessment of hazardous substances and their biological effects in the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

The need to develop biological effects monitoring to facilitate a reliable assessment of hazardous substances has been emphasized in the Baltic Sea Action Plan of the Helsinki Commission. An integrated chemical-biological approach is vitally important for the understanding and proper assessment of anthropogenic pressures and their effects on the Baltic Sea. Such an approach is also necessary for prudent management aiming at safeguarding the sustainable use of ecosystem goods and Services. The BEAST project (Biological Effects of Anthropogenic Chemical Stress: Tools for the Assessment of Ecosystem Health) set out to address this topic within the BONUS Programme. BEAST generated a large amount of quality-assured data on several biological effects parameters (biomarkers) in various marine species in different sub-regions of the Baltic Sea. New indicators (biological response measurement methods) and management tools (integrated indices) with regard to the integrated monitoring approach were suggested. PMID:24414806

Lehtonen, Kari K; Sundelin, Brita; Lang, Thomas; Strand, Jakob

2014-02-01

61

PLANNING MODELS FOR URBAN WATER SUPPLY EXPANSION. VOLUME 2. COST ALLOCATION POLICIES FOR REGIONAL WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

A three-volume report was developed relative to the modelling of investment strategies for regional water supply planning. Volumes 2 and 3 are successive parts of the research related to the study of cost allocation policies among participants in a regional system. Such policies ...

62

Optimal Long-Range Generation Expansion Planning for HydroThermal System Based on Analytical Production Costing Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new algorithm for the optimal long-range generation planning for hydro-thermal system. The algorithm is based upon the analytical production costing model developed under the assumption of Gaussian probabilistic distribution of random load fluctuations and plant outages. The optimization problem consists of the master problem to determine the annual investment, and the hydro subproblem to determine the

L. T. O. Youn; K. Y. Lee; Y. M. Park

1987-01-01

63

Infrastructure of Baltic Region Transmission System: Analysis of Technical and Economic Factors of its Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The operational conditions of new networks dictate new requirements for the transmission planning, which would include the electricity market figures and a sizable involvement of renewable generation. This paper focuses on the transmission expansion planning techniques based on the calculations of optimal power flows and on the concept of development planning and sustainability. A description is given for the mathematical model of calculations and analysis of transmission system. The results have shown that the Baltic transmission system infrastructure can successfully be analyzed based on the proposed methodology and developed mathematical model Baltijas valstu (Latvijas, Lietuvas un Igaunijas) energosist?mas ir cieši saist?tas v?sturiski, un to darb?ba nav iesp?jama bez savstarp?jas sadarb?bas att?st?bas un darba rež?mu jaut?jumos. Ekonomisko attiec?bu ?stenošanu ener??tikas sektor? pa?trin?ja elektroener?ijas tirgus att?st?ba. Baltijas valstu ener??tikas politika ir integr?ta ES ener??tikas strat??ijas sast?vda?a, nosakot tr?s galvenos m?r?us: ener??tikas nozares konkur?tsp?ja, ilgtsp?j?ga att?st?ba un droš?ba. Visas tr?s Baltijas energosist?mas veica lielu darba apjomu iek?rtu moderniz?cij? un standartu saska?ošan?, kuras ir saska?? ar Eiropas Savien?bas pras?b?m, k? ar? par tirgus attiec?bu un tehnolo?iju standartu ieviešanu, lai nodrošin?tu energoapg?des droš?bu un elektroener?ijas pieejam?bu pat?r?t?jiem Tom?r, ?emot v?r? strauji main?gos ?r?jos apst?k?us, it ?paši ?eopolitiskos faktorus, Baltijas valstu ener??tikas politika b?tu j?izskata ar m?r?i nov?rt?t, k? šie faktori ietekm? energosist?mas ilgtsp?j?gu att?st?bu kopum?. No iepriekš min?t? izriet, ka nepieciešama jauna nacion?la ener??tikas strat??ija, kura stiprin?tu efekt?vu ekonomisko un soci?lo pamatu ilgtsp?j?gu att?st?bu Baltijas valstu nacion?l? ekonomik?. Š? darba m?r?is ir Baltijas valstu p?rvades sist?mas infrastrukt?ras anal?ze, pamatojoties uz izstr?d?to matem?tisko modeli, ?emot v?r? katras valsts intereses ener??tikas politikas jom?

Obushevs, A.; Oleinikova, I.; Mutule, A.

2014-08-01

64

Seal dynamics on the Swedish west coast: Scenarios of competition as Baltic grey seal intrude on harbour seal territory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kattegat-Skagerrak region on the Swedish west coast is home to an abundant harbour seal population (Phoca vitulina) and a small scattered grey seal population (Halichoerus grypus). In addition, grey seal from the growing population in the Baltic Sea frequently migrate into the Kattegat-Skagerrak. Harbour seals on the west coast of Sweden show relatively high population growth (approximately 9%) compared to the Baltic grey seal in ice-free habitats (approximately 6%), which, in theory, makes harbour seal the stronger competitor of the two in this region. However, incidents of disease in harbour seals that lower population growth are becoming more frequent. These epidemics are primarily caused by the Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV), and may reduce population size with up to 70%. This study models the average development under potential scenarios of competing harbour- and Baltic grey seal populations using Leslie matrices and the Lotka-Volterra model of inter-specific competition. The model is parameterised with previously published data, and resource overlap is incorporated through density dependent pup survival. Using numerical methods short- and long-term abundances are simulated under weak, moderate and strong competition and for different frequencies of PDV epidemics. Results show that the harbour seals are resilient to competition while exerting a negative effect on grey seal abundance under moderate to strong competition. Hence Baltic grey seal benefit from weaker levels of competition. Under moderate and strong competition grey seal abundance is a direct function of the PDV frequency as this reduces the competitive strength of harbour seals. Theoretically this means that higher frequencies of PDV or other pathogens epidemics could facilitate an expansion of Baltic grey seal into Kattegat-Skagerrak. Independent of interaction strength and frequency of epidemics the projected changes to abundances are slow (50-100 years), and even in exceedingly stable populations very long time-series of population size estimates are necessary to determine interaction strength. From a management perspective, a more permanent grey seal population in Kattegat-Skagerrak is likely to increase the predation pressure on overfished regional cod populations, and also lead to higher prevalence of the cod parasite Pseudoterranova decipiens, which uses grey seal as end host. From a population ecology perspective, abundant Baltic grey seal in this region would facilitate the mixing of grey seals from the North Atlantic and the Baltic Sea, with unknown implications for the genetically divergent Baltic population.

Svensson, Carl Johan

2012-07-01

65

Molecular identification key based on PCR/RFLP for three polychaete sibling species of the genus Marenzelleria, and the species' current distribution in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of Marenzelleria species were often hampered by identification uncertainties when using morphological characters only. A newly developed PCR/RFLP protocol allows a more efficient discrimination of the three species Marenzelleria viridis, Marenzelleria neglecta and Marenzelleria arctia currently known for the Baltic Sea. The protocol is based on PCR amplification of two mitochondrial DNA gene segments (16S, COI) followed by digestion with restriction enzymes. As it is faster and cheaper than PCR/sequencing protocols used so far, the protocol is recommended for large-scale analyses. The markers allow an undoubted determination of species irrespective of life stage or condition of the worms in the samples. The protocol was validated on about 950 specimens sampled at more than 30 sites of the Baltic and the North Sea, and on specimens from populations of the North American east coast. Besides this test we used mitochondrial DNA sequences (16S, COI, Cytb) and starch gel electrophoresis to further investigate the distribution of the three Marenzelleria species in the Baltic Sea. The results show that M. viridis (formerly genetic type I or M. cf. wireni) occurred in the Öresund area, in the south western as well as in the eastern Baltic Sea, where it is found sympatric with M. neglecta. Allozyme electrophoresis indicated an introduction by range expansion from the North Sea. The second species, M. arctia, was only found in the northern Baltic Sea, where it sometimes occurred sympatric with M. neglecta or M. viridis. For Baltic M. arctia, the most probable way of introduction is by ship ballast water from the European Arctic. There is an urgent need for a new genetic analysis of all Marenzelleria populations of the Baltic Sea to unravel the current distribution of the three species.

Blank, M.; Laine, A. O.; Jürss, K.; Bastrop, R.

2008-06-01

66

The Baltic Sea IODP Expedition 347 "Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment" - preliminary results from the cruise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CL 6.8, session GMPV 55 EuroForum: Major achievements and perspectives in scientific ocean and continental drilling" (co-organized by IODP-ICDP ) Andrén, T The Baltic Sea IODP Expedition 347 "Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment" - preliminary results from the cruise During second half of September and October was seven sites in the Baltic Basin area successfully cored during the IODP Expedition 347. From the Little Baelt, Kattegatt, Bornholm basin, Hanö Bay, Landsort Deep and the mouth of Ångermanälven sites was altogether more than 1900 meters drilled and over 1600 meters of sediment core recovered. These cores have been lithologically described and documented as well as partly analyzed during the cruise. The preliminary results from this will be presented together with some more general impressions from the cruise and the offshore work.

Andrén, Thomas

2014-05-01

67

A fossil Aspergillus from Baltic amber.  

PubMed

A piece of Baltic amber (Tertiary, Eocene) contains an inclusion of a springtail (Collembola) which is overgrown by an Aspergillus species. The fossil fungus is described as A. collembolorum sp. nov. The excellent mode of preservation of the numerous conidiophores is remarkable and can be explained by sporulation in liquid resin. This is the second report of a fossil Aspergillus, the first being from Dominican amber. PMID:16175799

Dörfelt, Heinrich; Schmidt, Alexander R

2005-08-01

68

Studies on the allergenicity of Baltic amber.  

PubMed

Baltic amber is a fossil resin deposited 36-7 million years ago and one source may be the extinct tree Pinites (Pinus) succinifer. Palaeobotanical studies of amber have an extensive literature, but the aspect of allergenicity has not been addressed before. The aim of our study was to present the results from sensitization studies with Baltic amber and to discuss these in view of possible cross-reactivity with contact allergens in colophony. It is concluded that allergens found in colophony can also be present in Baltic amber. The main resin acids were identified in an ether-soluble extract of amber. Amber suspended in petrolatum caused positive patch test reactions in patients with contact allergy to colophony. Furthermore, animals sensitized to colophony showed positive reactions to amber, but animals induced with amber did not react when challenged with amber. A use test with an amber necklace in patients with positive test reactions to amber and colophony was negative, which supports the view that amber in personal ornaments is not a clinical problem. PMID:1451486

Karlberg, A T; Boman, A; Lidén, C

1992-10-01

69

Thermophysical property anomalies of Baltic seawater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the thermodynamic properties of Standard Seawater are very well known, the quantitative effect of sea salt composition anomalies on various properties is difficult to estimate since comprehensive lab experiments with the various natural waters are scarce. Coastal and estuarine waters exhibit significant anomalies which also influence to an unknown amount the routine salinity calculation from conductivity measurements. Recent numerical models of multi-component aqueous electrolytes permit the simulation of physical chemical properties of seawater with variable solute composition. In this paper, the FREZCHEM model is used to derive a Gibbs function for Baltic seawater, and the LSEA_DELS model to provide estimates for the conductivity anomaly relative to Standard Seawater. From additional information such as direct density measurements or empirical salinity anomaly parameterisation, the quantitative deviations of properties between Baltic and Standard Seawater are calculated as functions of salinity and temperature. While several quantities show anomalies that are comparable with their measurement uncertainties and do not demand special improvement, others exhibit more significant deviations from Standard Seawater properties. In particular density and sound speed turn out to be significantly sensitive to the presence of anomalous solute. Suitable general correction methods are suggested to be applied to Baltic Sea samples with known Practical Salinity and, optionally, directly determined density.

Feistel, R.; Marion, G. M.; Pawlowicz, R.; Wright, D. G.

2010-06-01

70

Thermophysical property anomalies of Baltic seawater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the thermodynamic properties of Standard Seawater are very well known, the quantitative effect of sea salt composition anomalies on various properties is difficult to estimate since comprehensive lab experiments with the various natural waters are scarce. Coastal and estuarine waters exhibit significant anomalies which also influence to an unknown amount the routine salinity calculation from conductivity measurements. Recent numerical models of multi-component aqueous electrolytes permit the simulation of physical chemical properties of seawater with variable solute composition. In this paper, the FREZCHEM model is used to derive a Gibbs function for Baltic seawater, and the LSEA_DELS model to provide estimates for the conductivity anomaly relative to Standard Seawater. From additional information such as direct density measurements or empirical salinity anomaly parameterisation, the quantitative deviations of properties between Baltic and Standard Seawater are calculated as functions of salinity and temperature. While several quantities show anomalies that are comparable with their measurement uncertainties and do not demand special improvement, others exhibit more significant deviations from Standard Seawater properties. In particular density and sound speed turn out to be significantly sensitive to the presence of anomalous solute. Suitable general correction methods are suggested to be applied to Baltic Sea samples with known Practical Salinity and, optionally, directly determined density.

Feistel, R.; Marion, G. M.; Pawlowicz, R.; Wright, D. G.

2010-11-01

71

Tidal oscillations in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term hourly data from 35 tide gauge stations, including 15 stations in the Gulf of Finland, were used to examine tidal sea level oscillations of the Baltic Sea. High-resolution spectral analysis revealed the well-defined fine structure of tidal peaks with diurnal peaks at most stations being higher than semidiurnal. At some stations (e.g., Narva, Daugava, and Wladyslawowo), high frequency radiational tidal peaks with periods multiple of the solar day (3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 cpd) were detected; the respective oscillations are supposed to be caused by seabreeze winds. Harmonic analysis of tides for individual yearly sea level series followed by vector averaging over the entire observational period was used to estimate the amplitudes and phases of 16 tidal constituents. The maximum tidal oscillations of 17-19 cm were found to be observed in the Gulf of Finland and, first of all, in Neva Bay (in the head of the gulf). Diurnal or mixed diurnal tides are predominant in almost the entire Baltic Sea. The comparison of the observed tides with those theoretically computed showed that the existing numerical models of the main tidal harmonics generally quite accurately reproduce the structure of the tides in the Baltic Sea except for some regions of the Gulf of Bothnia.

Medvedev, I. P.; Rabinovich, A. B.; Kulikov, E. A.

2013-09-01

72

Predicting CO2 and SO2 emissions in the Baltic States through reorganization of energy infrastructure.  

PubMed

The paper deals with predicting carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide emissions generated by power production sector in the Baltic States in period up to year 2020. The economies of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia are rapidly growing therefore forecast of emissions related with this occurrence becomes very important. The Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP), one of the largest in the world, is situated in the region. Two power production scenarios are modelled to investigate changes in power sector's emissions expected as the consequences of the coming closure of Ignalina NPP. Power market was assumed to be common for all three Baltic countries and was modelled by applying the Balmorel model. The planned closure of Ignalina NPP will bring restructuring of Lithuania power production sector and will change also power transmission between countries. Predictive identified the potential of investments for new modern power generation technologies. At the same time, modelling results show in both scenarios that CO(2) and SO(2) emissions from power production in the Baltic region will increase. The increment of emissions is discussed in the context of meeting requirements of UNFCCC Kyoto protocol and EC Directives. Despite of CO(2) emissions increase the Kyoto protocol's requirements may be expected. At the same time, SO(2) formation in Lithuania power sector may exceed the limits of the EU Council Directive 2001/80/EB therefore the additional measures to control SO(2) emissions have to be investigated. PMID:15337350

Denafas, Gintaras; Sitnikovas, Denisas; Galinis, Arvydas; Kudrenickis, Ivars; Klavs, Gaidis; Kuusik, Rein

2004-10-01

73

New taxa of Tanyderidae (Diptera) from Eocene Baltic amber.  

PubMed

Macrochile hornei sp. nov. from Baltic amber (Upper Eocene) is described and illustrated. Podemacrochile gen. nov. is described with Podemacrochile baltica (Podenas, 1997) as type species. A key to the genera and species of Tanyderidae known from Baltic amber is presented. PMID:24583815

Krzeminski, Wies?aw; Krzeminska, Ewa; Kania, Iwona; Ross, Andrew J

2013-01-01

74

Multiple Invasions – A Polychaete Genus Enters the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1985, the nonindigenous polychaete species Marenzelleria neglecta has been found in the Baltic Sea. The species, which was introduced by ship ballast water, spreads rapidly and dominates in many habitats today. Using three gene segments of the mitochondrial DNA (16S rDNA, Cytochrom oxidase I, Cytochrom b), we investigated four populations of the western and northern Baltic Sea in a

Ralf Bastrop; Miriam Blank

2006-01-01

75

Sorption and predicted mobility of herbicides in Baltic soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Determination of pesticide sorption under local conditions is required to predict off-site transport. Recent surveys detected pesticides in surface water and groundwater of the Baltic region, but there is little information in the peer-reviewed literature regarding the fate of pesticides in Baltic s...

76

Stable lead (Pb) isotopes and concentrations - A useful independent dating tool for Baltic Sea sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prehistory of the Baltic Sea has for a long time suffered from imprecise dating, due to the large uncertainties associated with bulk radiocarbon dating of Baltic Seasediments. To constrain the timing of environmental changes in the Baltic Sea it is critical to apply new dating approaches. This study identifies lead pollution isochrones in Baltic Sea sediments, which have previously

L. Zillén; C. Lenz; T. Jilbert

2012-01-01

77

Industrial restructuring in transitional Baltic Sea Region countries (Baltic States, Kaliningrad oblast)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses recent trends in industrial development in the Baltic Sea transition countries. The heavy industry collapsed during the first half of 1990s in most former socialist countries. However, since the second half of 1990s the industrial output, export, productivity and even employment (in some branches) has been increased remarkably. And instead of a de-industrialisation, which has been general

Mihkel Laan

2003-01-01

78

Nitrogen cycle of the Baltic Sea from an isotopic perspective Baltic Sea Research Institute-Warnemunde (IOW), Rostock, Germany  

E-print Network

Nitrogen cycle of the Baltic Sea from an isotopic perspective M. Voss Baltic Sea Research Institute.1029/2004GB002338. 1. Introduction [2] Human activities have altered the nitrogen cycle on global and regional. [1] Stable nitrogen isotope ratios (15 N/14 N; d15 N) were determined in sediments, suspended matter

Dippner, Joachim W.

79

Astaxanthin dynamics in Baltic Sea mesozooplankton communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The red pigment astaxanthin is a powerful antioxidant, which occurs in eggs and body tissues of crustaceans and fish. It is produced by crustaceans from algal carotenoids. In a two-year field study we assessed natural concentrations and dynamics of astaxanthin in mesozooplankton communities in the brackish Baltic Sea area. Astaxanthin levels varied between 0.37 and 36 ng L- 1. They increased with salinity along the Baltic Sea gradient and were linked to zooplankton biomass and phytoplankton community composition. Astaxanthin concentrations showed typical seasonal patterns and varied from 0.2 to 5.1 ng ind- 1, 0.2 to 3.4 ng (?g C)- 1 and 6 to 100 ng mm- 3. These concentrations were inversely related to water temperature and strongly linked to zooplankton community composition. Communities dominated by the calanoid copepods Temora longicornis, Pseudocalanus acuspes and Eurytemora spp. generally held the highest concentrations. With increasing cladocerans:copepods biomass ratios community astaxanthin concentrations decreased and with higher relative biomass of Acartia spp. the proportion of astaxanthin diesters decreased. Diesters prevailed in the cold season and they are thought to improve the antioxidant protection of storage lipids during winter. Climate change causes higher temperature and lower salinity in the Baltic Sea proper. This modifies zooplankton community composition, but not necessarily into a community with lower concentrations of astaxanthin since T. longicornis (high concentrations) has been reported to increase with higher temperature. However, decreased astaxanthin production in the ecosystem is expected if a basin-wide increase in the cladocerans:copepods biomass ratios would occur with further climate change.

Snoeijs, Pauline; Häubner, Norbert

2014-01-01

80

Projects to expand fuel sources in western states. Survey of planned or proposed coal oil shale, tar sand, uranium, and geothermal supply expansion projects, and related infrastructure, in states west of the Mississippi River (as of May 1976)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A listing is made of fuels-related projects that are presently under construction, planned, or proposed by various companies and organizations in the Western United States. The future facilities covered fall into the following categories: coal mines and expansions to existing mines, electric powerplants and waste-to-fuel conversion plants, oil shale projects, tar sands projects, potential geothermal facilities, coal slurry pipelines, railroads

J. S. Corsentino

1976-01-01

81

An Earth System Science Program for the Baltic Sea Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From Russia in the east to Sweden, Denmark, and Germany in the west, reaching south to the tips of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Ukraine, the Baltic Sea watershed drains nearly 20% of Europe (see Figure 1). In the highly populated south, the temperate climate hosts intensive agriculture and industry. In the north, the landscape is boreal and rural. In the Baltic Sea itself, complex bathymetry and stratification patterns as well as extended hypoxic and anoxic deep waters add to the diversity. Yet in recent history, the differences across the Baltic Sea region have been more than physical: In the mid-20th century, the watershed was split in two.

Meier, H. E. M.; Rutgersson, A.; Reckermann, M.

2014-04-01

82

Nitrogen removal in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baltic Sea suffers from eutrophication by nitrogen inputs via river, atmospheric deposition, and nitrogen fixation. Nutrient concentrations have increased over the past decades but not as much as predicted from the sum of all inputs. It has therefore been suggested that most of the anthropogenic nitrogen is removed by denitrification and anammox in the sediments and water column. This assumption was tested in field studies where rates of denitrification and anammox were measured via isotope pairing in several sediments with different grain sizes, Corg contents, and nitrate concentrations in the overlying water.. First results showed N removal rates of up to 690µmol N2 m-2 d-1 via denitrification in the central Arkona basin where the sediments are muddy and have high Corg concentrations. Low rates were measured in sandy coastal sediments despite high nitrate concentrations. Anammox was not present. Although the denitrification rates seemed to correlate well with the Corg concentration in the sediments it was not possible to stimulate the bacteria with glucose additions. Upscaling of the nitrogen loss rates according to sediment type and Corg content will be the next step to realize a reliable estimate on the scale of the Baltic Sea.

Voss, M.; Deutsch, B.; Wilhelm, M.

2009-04-01

83

Pole tide in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pole tide, which is driven by the Chandler Wobble, has a period of about 14 months and typical amplitudes in the World Ocean of ˜0.5 cm. However, in the Baltic Sea the pole tide is anomalously high. To examine this effect we used long-term hourly sea level records from 23 tide gauges and monthly records from 64 stations. The lengths of the series were up to 123 years for hourly records and 211 years for monthly records. High-resolution spectra revealed a cluster of neighboring peaks with periods from 410 to 440 days. The results of spectral analysis were applied to estimate the integral amplitudes of pole tides from all available tide gauges along the coast of the Baltic Sea. The height of the pole tide was found to gradually increase from the entrance (Danish Straits, 1.5-2 cm) to the northeast end of the sea. The largest amplitudes—up to 4.5-7 cm—were observed in the heads of the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia. Significant temporal fluctuations in amplitudes and periods of the pole tide were observed during the 19th and 20th centuries.

Medvedev, I. P.; Rabinovich, A. B.; Kulikov, E. A.

2014-03-01

84

First record of the family Ithonidae (Neuroptera) from Baltic amber.  

PubMed

Elektrithone expectata gen. et sp. nov. (Neuroptera: Ithonidae) is described from Eocene Baltic amber and represents the first record of this family from Baltic amber. The forewing venation of the new genus is characterized by a small number of crossveins as found in some 'polystoechotid'-like genera, and by the absence of the distal nygma and the strong reduction of the anal area which are characteristic of 'rapismatid'-like ithonids. PMID:24870683

Makarkin, Vladimir N; Wedmann, Sonja; Weiterschan, Thomas

2014-01-01

85

Polonium, uranium and plutonium in the southern Baltic ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of the measurement of polonium, uranium and plutonium alpha radio-nuclides in seawater and\\u000a biota of the southern Baltic ecosystem as well as the recognition of their accumulation processes in the trophic chain. Investigation\\u000a of the polonium210Po and plutonium239+240Pu concentrations in Baltic biota revealed that these radionuclides are strongly accumulated by some species. Mean values\\u000a of

B. Skwarzec

1999-01-01

86

Nitrogen cycle of the Baltic Sea from an isotopic perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable nitrogen isotope ratios (15N\\/14N; delta15N) were determined in sediments, suspended matter, and water at selected sites in the Baltic Sea area in order to set up a source budget and trace the fate of anthropogenic N sources. Sediments of the shallow near-coastal area of the southern and eastern Baltic Sea have an average delta15N of 7.3 +\\/- 2.10\\/00, interpreted

M. Voss; K.-C. Emeis; S. Hille; T. Neumann; J. W. Dippner

2005-01-01

87

Seismic LAB or LID? The Baltic Shield case  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of the asthenosphere for old Precambrian cratons, including East European Craton and its part - the Baltic Shield, is still discussed. To study the seismic lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath the Baltic Shield we used records of 9 local events with magnitudes in the range 2.7-5.9. The relatively big number of seismic stations in the Baltic Shield with a station spacing of 30-100 km permits for relatively dense recordings, and is sufficient in lithospheric scale. For modelling of the lower lithosphere and asthenosphere, the original data were corrected for topography and the Moho depth for each event and each station location, using a reference model with a 46 km thick crust. Observed P and S arrivals are significantly earlier than those predicted by the iasp91 model, which clearly indicates that lithospheric P and S velocities beneath the Baltic Shield are higher than in the global iasp91 model. For two northern events at Spitsbergen and Novaya Zemlya we observe a low velocity layer, 60-70 km thick asthenosphere, and the LAB beneath Barents Sea was found at depth of about 200 km. Sections for other events show continous first arrivals of P waves with no evidence for "shadow zone" in the whole range of registration, which could be interpreted as absence of asthenosphere beneath the central part of the Baltic Shield, or that LAB in this area occurs deeper (>200 km). The relatively thin low velocity layer found beneath southern Sweden, 15 km below the Moho, could be interpreted as small scale lithospheric inhomogeneities, rather than asthenosphere. Differentiation of the lid velocity beneath the Baltic Shield could be interpreted as regional inhomogeneity. It could also be interpreted as anisotropy of the Baltic Shield lithosphere, with fast velocity close to the east-west direction, and slow velocity close to the south-north direction.

Grad, M.; Tiira, T.; Olsson, S.; Komminaho, K.

2013-05-01

88

Seismic LAB or LID? The Baltic Shield Case  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of the asthenosphere for old Precambrian cratons, including East European Craton and its part - the Baltic Shield, is still discussed. To study the seismic lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath the Baltic Shield we used records of 9 local events with magnitudes in the range 2.7-5.9. The relatively big number of seismic stations in the Baltic Shield with a station spacing of 30-100 km permits for relatively dense recordings, and is sufficient in lithospheric scale. For modelling of the lower lithosphere and asthenosphere, the original data were corrected for topography and the Moho depth for each event and each station location, using a reference model with a 46 km thick crust. Observed P and S arrivals are significantly earlier than those predicted by the iasp91 model, which clearly indicates that lithospheric P and S velocities beneath the Baltic Shield are higher than in the global iasp91 model. For two northern events at Spitsbergen and Novaya Zemlya we observe a low velocity layer, 60-70 km thick asthenosphere, and the LAB beneath Barents Sea was found at depth of about 200 km. Sections for other events show continous first arrivals of P waves with no evidence for "shadow zone" in the whole range of registration, which could be interpreted as absence of asthenosphere beneath the central part of the Baltic Shield, or that LAB in this area occurs deeper (>200 km). The relatively thin low velocity layer found beneath southern Sweden, 15 km below the Moho, could be interpreted as small scale lithospheric inhomogeneities, rather than asthenosphere. Differentiation of the lid velocity beneath the Baltic Shield could be interpreted as regional inhomogeneity. It could also be interpreted as anisotropy of the Baltic Shield lithosphere, with fast velocity close to the east-west direction, and slow velocity close to the south-north direction.

Grad, Marek; Tiira, Timo; Olsson, Sverker; Komminaho, Kari

2013-04-01

89

Population structure of flounder (Platichthys flesus) in the Baltic Sea: differences among demersal and pelagic spawners  

Microsoft Academic Search

We found significant population structure and isolation by distance among samples of flounder (Platichthys flesus) in the Baltic, Kattegat and Skagerrak seas using microsatellite genetic markers. This pattern was almost entirely due to a difference between flounder that have demersal spawning in the northern Baltic, as compared to pelagic spawners in the southern Baltic and on the west coast of

A-B Florin; J Höglund

2008-01-01

90

CIRCULATION AT RUSSIAN-BALTIC STATES BOUNDARY: A CUT AND A Arnaud SERRY  

E-print Network

1 CIRCULATION AT RUSSIAN-BALTIC STATES BOUNDARY: A CUT AND A SEAM Arnaud SERRY CEDETE - University to understand East Baltic area. Kaliningrad Oblast, the Russian exclave lying by the Baltic Sea, strengthens through port and railway traffics for goods, and through air networks for passenger flows. Thus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

91

The Baltic Basin Case Study—towards a sustainable Baltic Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four watersheds, each characterized by a major resource use were selected for the study: The Vistula River in Poland—agriculture; the Dalälven River in Sweden—forestry; the Archipelago Sea in Sweden, Finland, Estonia—tourism; and the Lake Peipsi in Estonia/Russia—fisheries/agriculture. The main objective was to examine the reactions of particular ecosystems within the Baltic Sea drainage area, and to assess sustainability conditions on the regional level. The degree of sustainability and impact on the Baltic Sea were investigated through workshops and seminars in the areas. Overviews of environmental and socio-economic conditions were succinctly summarized in commissioned papers. Interventions by and discussions with scholars, sector experts, administrators and stakeholders of the various sites laid the foundation for conceptualizing the interaction of natural and human forces for each case. The project was able to draw quite a number of conclusions, summarized as the following lessons learnt. In the Vistula Region, nutrient emissions have levelled off but shortage of freshwater is critical. Forestry in the Dalälven watershed is largely environmental-friendly, except for fragmentation of the landscape and its negative impact on biodiversity. In the Archipelago area a former low-energy community has been replaced by a leisure time society. Different types of tourism is developing, but despite this variety, an improved integration of ecological properties with socio-economic patterns is required in order to build a sustainable, living Archipelago. The lake Peipsi basin and the surrounding area suffer both from problems of resource management and economic backwardness. Parts of the local economy has lost access to the one time large Soviet market, although the Estonian side has apparently benefited from present economic growth. To cope with the division of the lake, a regime for trans-national management is unfolding. It is based on both informal and, to an increasing extent, agreed professional contacts. Networks of engaged people were in all sites a resource for and promoter of the sustainability path. In order to succeed and to maintain the zeal, they need strong institutional support and common goals. Public programmes in the Baltic, ie. the work of the Helsinki Commission and Baltic Agenda 21, have developed instruments to enhance sustainability beneficial for the management of these watersheds. But critical tasks remain to be done in developing a shared understanding of ways to improve management of ecosystems with social factors.

Jansson, Bengt-Owe; Stålvant, Carl-Einar

2001-12-01

92

Marshak Lectureship Talk: Women in Physics in the Baltic States Region: Problems and Solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this contribution the gender equality problem in physics will be discussed on the basis of the results obtained implementing the project ``Baltic States Network: Women in Sciences and High Technology'' (BASNET) initiated by Lithuanian women physicists and financed by European Commission. The main goal of BASNET project was creation of the regional Strategy how to deal with women in sciences problem in the Baltic States. It has some stages and the contribution follows them. The first one was in depth sociological study aiming to find out disincentives and barriers women scientists face in their career and work at science and higher education institutions. Analysis of results revealed wide range of problems concerned with science organization, management and financing common for both counterparts. However it also proved the existence of women discrimination in sciences. As main factors influencing women under-representation in Physics was found: the stereotypes existing in the society where physics is assigned to the masculine area of activity; failings of the science management system, where highest positions are distributed not using the institutionalized objective criteria but by voting, where the correctness of majority solutions is anticipated implicitly. In physics where male scientists are the majority (they also usually compose executive boards, committees etc.) results of such a procedures often are unfavorable for women. The same reasons also influence women ``visibility'' in physicist's community and as the consequence possibility to receive needed recourses for their research as well as appropriate presentation of results obtained. The study revealed also the conservatism of scientific community- reluctance to face existing in the scientific society problems and to start solving them. On the basis of the results obtained as well practice of other countries the common strategy of solving women in physics (sciences) in the Baltic States region was formulated. As changing the stereotypes is long lasting process it was decided firstly to concentrate strategy implementation plans on changes in science management policy tackling the problem from the top and allowing receive the most quick results. For this we created the regional Baltic States Network among the corresponding international women working groups, professional organizations (Scientific societies) and corresponding departments of the governmental institutions. BASNET also became a full member of European Platform of Women Scientists (EPWS)-prestige women organization signally influencing the European Community science policy.

Satkovskiene, Dalia

2008-03-01

93

BALTEX - A science broker for the Baltic Sea Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BALTEX (the Baltic Sea Experiment) is an interdisciplinary research network of scientists involved in environmental research dedicated to the Baltic Sea drainage basin (including disciplines such as meteorology, hydrology, oceanography, biogeochemistry and climate research). Originally founded in 1992 as a Continental Scale Experiment in GEWEX (the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment within the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) of the World Meteorological Organization, WMO), it was intended to form a common science, communication and data platform with the overall goal to integrate efforts to gain a better understanding of the water and energy cycle in the Baltic Sea basin. BALTEX Phase II (since 2003) has extended the scope to research on regional climate change and variability, climate change impacts on biogeochemistry and water management, but also made first steps towards overarching social and political issues as cross-cutting activities in the context of the scientific objectives. An important aspect of BALTEX Phase II is a more holistic approach towards observing, understanding and modelling major environmental relevant for the entire Baltic Sea region. Parts of the BALTEX Phase II research activities thus contribute to the establishment of a high resolution integrated modelling system for Northern Europe, embedded in an Earth System Model. An outstanding product of BALTEX as a “knowledge broker” for regional political institutions is the BACC report. Following to a large extent the method of IPCC, a regional assessment report on climate change in the Baltic Sea basin was compiled, which summarizes the published scientifically legitimate knowledge on regional climate change in the Baltic Sea basin and its impacts. The assessment, known as the BACC report (BALTEX Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin; BACC author team 2008, Reckermann et al., 2008) was published in 2008 as a book. A survey among climate researchers in the area confirmed the high credibility of this report (Bray et al. 2010). A remarkable aspect of this assessment, and BALTEX outreach activities in general, is the sensible cooperation with regional bodies acting as science-policy interfaces, such as HELCOM (Helsinki Commission, Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission), and basin-wide organized regional decision makers (BSSSC, Baltic Sea States Sub-regional Co-operation), who are dependent on reliable scientific information to design and implement regional adaptation strategies against climate change impacts. A new BACC report has been initiated as a scientific update extending the scope to socio-economic impacts, and is expected to be finished in 2014.

Reckermann, M.; von Storch, H.; Langner, J.; Omstedt, A. T.

2010-12-01

94

Testing the potential for predictive modeling and mapping and extending its use as a tool for evaluating management scenarios and economic valuation in the Baltic Sea (PREHAB).  

PubMed

We evaluated performance of species distribution models for predictive mapping, and how models can be used to integrate human pressures into ecological and economic assessments. A selection of 77 biological variables (species, groups of species, and measures of biodiversity) across the Baltic Sea were modeled. Differences among methods, areas, predictor, and response variables were evaluated. Several methods successfully predicted abundance and occurrence of vegetation, invertebrates, fish, and functional aspects of biodiversity. Depth and substrate were among the most important predictors. Models incorporating water clarity were used to predict increasing cover of the brown alga bladderwrack Fucus vesiculosus and increasing reproduction area of perch Perca fluviatilis, but decreasing reproduction areas for pikeperch Sander lucioperca following successful implementation of the Baltic Sea Action Plan. Despite variability in estimated non-market benefits among countries, such changes were highly valued by citizens in the three Baltic countries investigated. We conclude that predictive models are powerful and useful tools for science-based management of the Baltic Sea. PMID:24414807

Lindegarth, Mats; Bergström, Ulf; Mattila, Johanna; Olenin, Sergej; Ollikainen, Markku; Downie, Anna-Leena; Sundblad, Göran; Bu?as, Martynas; Gullström, Martin; Snickars, Martin; von Numers, Mikael; Svensson, J Robin; Kosenius, Anna-Kaisa

2014-02-01

95

Regime shifts in North Sea and Baltic Sea: A comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ICES subdivisions in the North Sea (SD IIIa, SD IVa, and SD IVb) and the subdivisions in the Baltic Sea (SD 29, SD 27/28-2, and SD 25/26) are selected to compare the response in long term monitoring data (1970-2000) with respect to climate regime shifts. A modified AMOEBA model is applied to the data sets to identify the status and development of the North Sea and Baltic Sea system during two recent regime shifts. Biological regime shifts can be identified 1989/1990 in SD IIIa in the North Sea and in SD 25/26 in the Baltic Sea. A synchronous appearance of regime shifts could only be identified in the central and southern Baltic Sea for both regime shifts 1975/76 and 1989/90 where the AMOEBA model indicated a high similarity in ecosystem response. A clear difference was identified in the response of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Inter-annual and inter-decadal variability as well as regime shifts are driven in the Baltic Sea by direct atmospheric forcing only. In contrast, the changes in the North Sea are influenced by both the direct atmospheric forcing and the indirect forcing from the changes in North Atlantic. The fact that regime shifts as well as their synchronous appearance can be identified with the AMOEBA model might be of major interest for the management of sustainable use of ecosystem goods and services, the development of ecosystem approach to management and the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) of the European Union (EU).

Dippner, Joachim W.; Möller, Caroline; Hänninen, Jari

2012-12-01

96

Echoes from the past: a healthy Baltic Sea requires more effort.  

PubMed

Integrated sediment multiproxy studies and modeling were used to reconstruct past changes in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Results of natural changes over the past 6000 years in the Baltic Sea ecosystem suggest that forecasted climate warming might enhance environmental problems of the Baltic Sea. Integrated modeling and sediment proxy studies reveal increased sea surface temperatures and expanded seafloor anoxia (in deep basins) during earlier natural warm climate phases, such as the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Under future IPCC scenarios of global warming, there is likely no improvement of bottom water conditions in the Baltic Sea. Thus, the measures already designed to produce a healthier Baltic Sea are insufficient in the long term. The interactions between climate change and anthropogenic impacts on the Baltic Sea should be considered in management, implementation of policy strategies in the Baltic Sea environmental issues, and adaptation to future climate change. PMID:24414805

Kotilainen, Aarno T; Arppe, Laura; Dobosz, Slawomir; Jansen, Eystein; Kabel, Karoline; Karhu, Juha; Kotilainen, Mia M; Kuijpers, Antoon; Lougheed, Bryan C; Meier, H E Markus; Moros, Matthias; Neumann, Thomas; Porsche, Christian; Poulsen, Niels; Rasmussen, Peter; Ribeiro, Sofia; Risebrobakken, Bjørg; Ryabchuk, Daria; Schimanke, Semjon; Snowball, Ian; Spiridonov, Mikhail; Virtasalo, Joonas J; Weckström, Kaarina; Witkowski, Andrzej; Zhamoida, Vladimir

2014-02-01

97

Motion Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows how to effectively combine a sampling-based method primarily designed for multiple query motion planning (Probabilistic Roadmap Method - PRM) with sampling-based tree methods primarily designed for single query motion planning (Expansive Space Trees, Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees, and others) in a novel planning framework that can be efficiently parallelized. Our planner not only achiev es a smooth spectrum

Lydia E. Kavraki; Steven M. Lavalle

2008-01-01

98

NATO Expansion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic formally join NATO today. The entry of these three former Warsaw Pact nations into the US-led alliance and their ongoing negotiations to join the European Union mark a dramatic shift in the political landscape and symbolize the final demise of a divided Europe. However, a number of questions and difficulties remain. Not the least of these is relations with Russia, which has consistently expressed its disapproval of NATO expanding eastward. Should the country come under the control of nationalist political parties, an expanded NATO may actually increase rather than mitigate security concerns and political tensions. Another untested factor is public opinion within the new NATO member countries. The realities of NATO membership -- increased defense spending and the prospect of military operations against fellow Europeans in Yugoslavia -- may quickly erode popular support for the alliance in Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic. The sites dicussed provide background information on NATO and it's expansion.

De Nie, Michael W.

99

PLANNING MODELS FOR URBAN WATER SUPPLY EXPANSION. VOLUME 3. THE REGIONAL INTERTEMPORAL COST ALLOCATION PROBLEM: A SIMPLIFIED METHODOLOGY BASED ON THE SHAPLEY VALUE  

EPA Science Inventory

A three-volume report was developed relative to the modelling of investment strategies for regional water supply planning. Volumes 2 and 3 are successive parts of the research related to the study of cost allocation policies among participants in a regional system. Such policies ...

100

Ecological risk perception in the societies in transition: Case study of Baltic States  

SciTech Connect

The state of the environment and human health in countries that arise after the collapse of the USSR in influenced by different factors. The heritage of the previous regime can be characterized with a high environmental pollution level. However the transition from centrally planned to a free market economy is accompanied not only with changes in the political and social system, but also with changes in attitudes and in environmental values. All these processes have been analyzed on example of Baltic states analyzing the changes in ecological risk perception in societies of different economical and political structure. The ecological risk perception at first is associated with education level, especially regarding environmental education. However another important aspect is the perception of ecological risk at level of state policy. Just now this aspect can be regarded as the most important factor in ecological risk perception. Surprisingly low is the role of scientifical expertise in the ecological risk identification.

Klavins, M.; Cimdins, P.; Rodinov, V. [Univ. of Latvia, Riga (Latvia)

1994-12-31

101

Prospects for cost-efficient water protection in the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

This study investigates the economic consequences of the nutrient load reductions agreed in the 2013 revision of the Baltic Sea Action Plan. The cost of meeting the targets set for waterborne sources was estimated to be 1980 MEUR annually. The 2013 revision is a step towards cost-efficient water protection: the cost of meeting the earlier targets would have been 328 MEUR (14%) higher, although the revised targets are now more ambitious with respect to phosphorus. We demonstrate that there is potential for efficiency gains by introducing flexibility mechanisms, such as 'joint implementation' to trans-boundary water protection. The potential gains can be as high as 280 MEUR (14%). The most flexible interpretation of the basin targets, one allowing Contracting Parties to account for reductions in other sea basins in proportion to their effect in the focal basin, could further reduce the total cost by 200 MEUR (12%). PMID:25467871

Hyytiäinen, Kari; Ahlvik, Lassi

2015-01-15

102

Bird's nest fungi (Nidulariales: Nidulariaceae) in Baltic and Dominican amber.  

PubMed

Nidula baltica sp. nov. and Cyathus dominicanus sp. nov. are described from Cenozoic Baltic and Dominican amber. These are the first fossil members of the Family Nidulariaceae and show that the basic characteristics of this group were already established some 40-50 million years ago. PMID:24607356

Poinar, George

2014-03-01

103

Financial markets in the Baltic States: fit for the EU?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with the question whether banks in the Baltic States are in a position to exert a positive influence on enterprise performance. Effective, market-driven corporate governance by banks is discussed along the following four questions: are banks sound enough, large enough, strong enough, and skilled enough to have an impact on improving the efficiency of firms? Data on

Gerhard Fink; Peter Haiss; Nobuko Inagawa

1998-01-01

104

Hot and Cold Ethnicities in the Baltic States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article discusses the temperatures of the main ethnic groups in the Baltic states: Estonians, Latvians, Lithuanians, and their three Russian-speaking communities, and the Latgalian and Polish minority groups in Latvia and Lithuania, respectively. The study uses a triangulated methodology that includes a survey questionnaire for quantitative…

Ehala, Martin; Zabrodskaja, Anastassia

2014-01-01

105

Nitrogen fixation in the Baltic proper: an empirical study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen as the limiting nutrient for primary production in the eutrophic Baltic proper has been under debate. Based on only a limited number of actual measurements, nitrogen fixation has been assumed to be the only significant internal nitrogen source. It is then assumed that about one fifth of the net nitrogen load to the Baltic proper comes from nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria. An alternative or additional source is utilisation of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). In the present study, we hypothesise that nitrogen fixation is the only internal source for inorganic nitrogen. This was done in order to investigate its potential to maintain net primary production during summer. If inorganic nitrogen is depleted after the spring bloom and if inorganic phosphorus still remains in significant concentrations, then a continuous decrease in phosphorus may be coupled to the net nitrogen fixation rate by cyanobacteria. The estimated phosphorus consumption is adjusted for external and internal inputs. An estimate of the assumed net annual nitrogen fixation based on the proper Redfield ratio in the surface layer down to the seasonal thermocline is calculated for a number of monitoring stations in the Baltic proper. Typical values of nitrogen fixation are in the range 10-130 ?mol m -3 day -1. A simple integration over the Baltic proper gives an internal load in the range 30-260×10 3 ton N year -1. Another result is an east-west gradient in fixation rate that may reflect the nitrogen load.

Rahm, L.; Jönsson, A.; Wulff, F.

2000-07-01

106

Early life migration patterns of Baltic Sea pike Esox lucius.  

PubMed

This study investigated the movement patterns of Baltic Sea pike Esox lucius in Matsalu Bay, Estonia, using otolith microchemistry. Migration patterns of E. lucius were remarkably diverse, but distinct groups were evident. Of the E. lucius analysed (n = 28), 82% hatched in fresh water and 74% of them left this biotope during the first growth season. PMID:22471807

Rohtla, M; Vetemaa, M; Urtson, K; Soesoo, A

2012-04-01

107

Clustering in Engineering Education in the Baltic Region  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The contemporary situation in the Baltic region, namely, the lack of working places due to the structural problems, a high unemployment rate, the migration of highly qualified people and the low rate of self-employees, demands on innovation as an engine of the economic development with a strong impact on sustainable development in the European…

Ahrens, Andreas; Zascerinska, Jelena

2011-01-01

108

FDI and Spillovers in the Baltic Countries1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reform programs carried out in the Baltic countries generally led to the conclusion that the role of foreign investors seemed to be a remarkable cornerstone in the industrial re- structuring process and economic growth, and their role was accentuated especially in large- scale privatization (Hyvärinen 2004). In the beginning of the 2000s, Estonian industry already had three success stories:

JARI HYVÄRINEN

109

Countering narcotics and organized crime in the Baltic region  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to present a tentative account of organized crime and narcotics trafficking in the Baltic region as well as providing some recommendations on how to enhance regional cooperation in countering these threats. The article builds on previous research and on information provided by researchers and law enforcement personnel participating in the Silk Road Studies Program Workshop “Countering narcotics

Klas Kärrstrand; Anna Jonsson

2007-01-01

110

A new technique for simulating the operation of multiple assigned-energy generating units suitable for use in generation systems expansion planning models  

SciTech Connect

A new technique is presented for probabilistically simulating the operation of power systems which include multiple assigned-energy units (e.g., conventional hydroelectric plants or groups of plants, and, under certain circumstances, nuclear units, conventional thermal units operating under ''take-or-pay'' fuel supply contracts, and cogeneration units). Within the context of the probabilistic simulation, the new technique is completely rigorous. Statistical comulants are used to represent equivalent load. The new technique has been successfully applied in an advanced technology evaluation and expansion model--the TVA TARANTULA model. This application has been accomplished without sacrificing other simulation capabilities such as random partial outages, maintenance scheduling based on LOLP and short-term load forecast uncertainty, and the ability to aggregate (without loss of rigor) groups of many small units for purposes of computational expediency. A description is provided of tests performed to evaluate the new technique.

Manhire, B.; Jenkins, R.T.

1982-10-01

111

Eastward expansion  

SciTech Connect

Since 1988, the eastern portion of the Gulf of Mexico has been off-limits to oil and gas leasing due to a plethora of political and environmental concerns. But a string of discoveries in sister provinces to the west has kept interest high in the area. Oil and gas companies hope to see the long leasing dry spell come to an end next year, when the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) has planned OCS Sale 181. It likely will be the only acreage in the eastern Gulf open to leasing in the foreseeable future. The sale, tentatively scheduled for Dec. 5, 2001, will offer up 1,033 blocks covering 5.9 million acres in water depths ranging from 108 ft (33m) to almost 11,000 ft (3,355m). The area's prospectivity combined with the sale's last chance atmosphere has sparked a great deal of interest in the region. Very little well data is available, but several 2D and 3D seismic surveys have been shot, and several geologists have made it their business to learn as much as possible about subsurface features. The paper describes a conference of trends, seismic surveys, and potential pitfalls.

Duey, R.

2000-04-01

112

Decadal-Scale Changes of Dinoflagellates and Diatoms in the Anomalous Baltic Sea Spring Bloom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The algal spring bloom in the Baltic Sea represents an anomaly from the winter-spring bloom patterns worldwide in terms of frequent and recurring dominance of dinoflagellates over diatoms. Analysis of approximately 3500 spring bloom samples from the Baltic Sea monitoring programs revealed (i) that within the major basins the proportion of dinoflagellates varied from 0.1 (Kattegat) to >0.8 (central Baltic

Riina Klais; Timo Tamminen; Anke Kremp; Kristian Spilling; Kalle Olli; Dirk Steinke

2011-01-01

113

Palaeogeographic Model for the SW Estonian Coastal Zone of the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The authors combined geological, geodetic and archaeological shore displacement evidence to create a temporal and spatial\\u000a water-level change model for the SW Estonian coast of the Baltic Sea since 13,300 cal. years BP. The Baltic Sea shoreline\\u000a database for Estonian territory was used for the modelling work and contained about 1,200 sites from the Baltic Ice Lake,\\u000a Ancylus Lake and Littorina

Alar Rosentau; Siim Veski; Aivar Kriiska; Raivo Aunap; Jüri Vassiljev; Leili Saarse; Tiit Hang; Atko Heinsalu; Tõnis Oja

114

Precipitation and evaporation budgets over the Baltic Proper: observations and modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precipitation and evaporation budgets over the Baltic Sea were studied in a concerted project called PEP in BALTEX (Pilot study of Evaporation and Precipitation in the Baltic Sea), combining extensive field measurements and modelling efforts. Eddy-correlation-measurements of turbulent heat flux were made on a semi-continuous basis for a 12 month period at four well-exposed coastal sites in the Baltic Proper

Ann-Sofi Smedman; Sven-Erik Gryning; Karl Bumke; Ulf Högström; Anna Rutgersson; Ekaterina Batchvarova; Gerhard Peters; Barbara Hennemuth; Bengt Tammelin; Reijo Hyvönen; Anders Omstedt; Daniel Michelson; Tage Andersson; Marco Clemens

2005-01-01

115

Subfamily Limoniinae Speiser, 1909 (Diptera, Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene): the genus Helius Lepeletier & Serville, 1828.  

PubMed

A revision of the genus Helius Lepeletier & Serville, 1828 (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene) is presented. Redescriptions of 5 species, Helius formosus Krzemi?ski, 1993, Helius linus Podenas, 2002, Helius minutus (Loew, 1850), Helius mutus Podenas, 2002, Helius pulcher (Loew, 1850) of this genus from Baltic amber are given and documented by photographs and drawings. Four new species of the genus Helius from Baltic amber are described: Helius gedanicus sp. nov., Helius hoffeinsorum sp. nov., Helius similis sp. nov., Helius fossilis sp. nov. A key to species of Helius from Baltic amber is provided. Patterns morphological evolution and the aspects evolutionary history of Helius are discussed. PMID:24943432

Kania, Iwona

2014-01-01

116

Evidence of chromosomal damage in common eiders (Somateria mollissima) from the Baltic Sea  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Common eiders nesting in the Baltic Sea are exposed to generally high levels of contaminants including potentially genotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorines. Blood samples were collected from eiders at eight sites in the Baltic Sea and two sites in the Beaufort Sea. DNA content variation was estimated using the flow cytometric method, and subsequently utilized as a biomarker of genetic damage. We observed no significant differences in genetic damage among populations within either the Baltic or Beaufort Seas. However, eider populations from the Baltic Sea had significantly elevated estimates of genetic damage compared to populations from the Beaufort Sea.

Matson, C.W.; Franson, J.C.; Hollmen, T.E.; Kilpi, M.; Hario, M.; Flint, P.L.; Bickham, J.W.

2004-01-01

117

The Baltic Sea IODP project "Paleoenvironmental evolution of the Baltic Sea Basin through the last glacial cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baltic Sea IODP project "Paleoenvironmental evolution of the Baltic Sea Basin through the last glacial cycle" Despite an almost 100 year long history of geological research in the Baltic Sea, no scientific deep drilling has been carried out until now; the Baltic Sea IODP project drillings will take place in 2013. We aim at retrieving sediments, in different settings of the Baltic Sea Basin (BSB), from the last interglacial-glacial cycle. This will be accomplished by drilling in six sub-basins, one in the gateway of the BSB (Anholt), where we focus on sediments from MIS 6-5 as well as MIS 2-1. A sub-basin in the southwesternmost part of the BSB (Little Belt) possibly holds a unique MIS 5 record. Two sub-basins in the south (Bornholm Basin and Hanö Bay) may hold long complete records from MIS 4-2, and the deepest (450 m) sub-basin in the central Baltic (Landsort Deep) promises to contain a thick and continuous record of the last ca 14000 years, and perhaps also older deposits. Finally, the sub-basin in the very north (Ångermanälven River eustary) contains a unique varved (annually deposited) sediment record of the last >10000 years. All in all these six areas will contain a set of sediment sequences of the last ca 140000 years, with paleoenvironmental information on a semi-continental scale; the Baltic Sea drains an area four times as large as the basin itself. The location of the BSB in the heartland of a recurrently waning and waxing ice sheet, the Scandinavian Ice Sheet (SIS), has resulted in a complex development: repeated glaciations of different magnitude, sensitive responses to sea level and gateway threshold changes, large shifts in sedimentation patterns and with usually high sedimentation rates. Its geographic position also makes it a unique link between Eurasian and NW European terrestrial records. Therefore the sediments of this largest European intra-continental basin form a rare archive of climate evolution over the last glacial cycle. The high sedimentation rates provide an excellent opportunity to reconstruct climatic variability of global importance at unique resolution from a marine-brackish setting, and comparable sequences cannot be retrieved anywhere in the surrounding onshore regions. Furthermore, and very crucial, the large variability (salinity, climate, sedimentation pattern and oxygenation) that the BSB has undergone during the last glacial cycle makes it optimal for new research on the deep biosphere, its evolution, biogeochemical processes and e.g. also on how the post-glacial diffusive penetration of conservative seawater ions may alter the chemical composition and microbial physiology in the sub-seafloor biosphere. The scientific communities of the nine countries around the Baltic Sea have by tradition had the Baltic Sea and its many intriguing scientific problems as a focal point for research. Now comes the real challenge!

Andrén, T.; Bitinas, A.; Björck, S.; Emelyanov, E.; Harff, J.; Houmark-Nielsen, M.; Jakobsson, M.; Jensen, J. B.; Jørgensen, B. B.; Kotilainen, A.; Knudsen, K. L.; Lambeck, K.; Moros, M.; Spiess, V.; U?cinowicz, S.; Veski, S.; Zelchs, V.

2012-04-01

118

Application of a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model to the Himmerfjärden, Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Himmerfjärden is a coastal fjord-like bay situated in the north-western part of the Baltic Sea. The fjord has a mean depth of 17 m and a maximum depth of 52 m. The water is brackish (6 psu) with small salinity fluctuation (±2 psu). A sewage treatment plant, which serves about 300 000 people, discharges into the inner part of Himmerfjärden. This area is the subject of a long-term monitoring program. We are planning to develop a publicly available modelling system for this area, which will perform short-term forecast predictions of pertinent parameters (e.g., water-levels, currents, salinity, temperature) and disseminate them to users. A key component of the system is a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The open source Delft3D Flow system (http://www.deltaressystems.com/hydro) has been applied to model the Himmerfjärden area. Two different curvilinear grids were used to approximate the modelling domain (25 km × 50 km × 60 m). One grid has low horizontal resolution (cell size varies from 250 to 450 m) to perform long-term numerical experiments (modelling period of several months), while another grid has higher resolution (cell size varies from 120 to 250 m) to model short-term situations. In vertical direction both z-level (50 layers) and sigma coordinate (20 layers) were used. Modelling results obtained with different horizontal resolution and vertical discretisation will be presented. This model will be a part of the operational system which provides automated integration of data streams from several information sources: meteorological forecast based on the HIRLAM model from the Finnish Meteorological Institute (https://en.ilmatieteenlaitos.fi/open-data), oceanographic forecast based on the HIROMB-BOOS Model developed within the Baltic community and provided by the MyOcean Project (http://www.myocean.eu), riverine discharge from the HYPE model provided by the Swedish Meteorological Hydrological Institute (http://vattenwebb.smhi.se/modelarea/).

Sokolov, Alexander

2014-05-01

119

A new proposal concerning the botanical origin of Baltic amber.  

PubMed

Baltic amber constitutes the largest known deposit of fossil plant resin and the richest repository of fossil insects of any age. Despite a remarkable legacy of archaeological, geochemical and palaeobiological investigation, the botanical origin of this exceptional resource remains controversial. Here, we use taxonomically explicit applications of solid-state Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy, coupled with multivariate clustering and palaeobotanical observations, to propose that conifers of the family Sciadopityaceae, closely allied to the sole extant representative, Sciadopitys verticillata, were involved in the genesis of Baltic amber. The fidelity of FTIR-based chemotaxonomic inferences is upheld by modern-fossil comparisons of resins from additional conifer families and genera (Cupressaceae: Metasequoia; Pinaceae: Pinus and Pseudolarix). Our conclusions challenge hypotheses advocating members of either of the families Araucariaceae or Pinaceae as the primary amber-producing trees and correlate favourably with the progressive demise of subtropical forest biomes from northern Europe as palaeotemperatures cooled following the Eocene climate optimum. PMID:19570786

Wolfe, Alexander P; Tappert, Ralf; Muehlenbachs, Karlis; Boudreau, Marc; McKellar, Ryan C; Basinger, James F; Garrett, Amber

2009-10-01

120

Evidence concerning oxidation as a surface reaction in Baltic amber.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to provide evidence about oxidation as a surface reaction during degradation of Baltic amber. A clear understanding of the amber-oxygen interaction modalities is essential to develop conservation techniques for museum collections of amber objects. Pellet-shaped samples, obtained from pressed amber powder, were subjected to accelerated thermal ageing. Cross-sections of the pellets were analyzed by infrared micro-spectroscopy, in order to identify and quantify changes in chemical properties. The experimental results showed strong oxidation exclusively at the exterior part of cross-sections from samples subjected to long-term thermal ageing, confirming that oxidation of Baltic amber starts from the surface. PMID:22277623

Pastorelli, Gianluca; Richter, Jane; Shashoua, Yvonne

2012-04-01

121

Evidence concerning oxidation as a surface reaction in Baltic amber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to provide evidence about oxidation as a surface reaction during degradation of Baltic amber. A clear understanding of the amber-oxygen interaction modalities is essential to develop conservation techniques for museum collections of amber objects. Pellet-shaped samples, obtained from pressed amber powder, were subjected to accelerated thermal ageing. Cross-sections of the pellets were analyzed by infrared micro-spectroscopy, in order to identify and quantify changes in chemical properties. The experimental results showed strong oxidation exclusively at the exterior part of cross-sections from samples subjected to long-term thermal ageing, confirming that oxidation of Baltic amber starts from the surface.

Pastorelli, Gianluca; Richter, Jane; Shashoua, Yvonne

2012-04-01

122

A new proposal concerning the botanical origin of Baltic amber  

PubMed Central

Baltic amber constitutes the largest known deposit of fossil plant resin and the richest repository of fossil insects of any age. Despite a remarkable legacy of archaeological, geochemical and palaeobiological investigation, the botanical origin of this exceptional resource remains controversial. Here, we use taxonomically explicit applications of solid-state Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy, coupled with multivariate clustering and palaeobotanical observations, to propose that conifers of the family Sciadopityaceae, closely allied to the sole extant representative, Sciadopitys verticillata, were involved in the genesis of Baltic amber. The fidelity of FTIR-based chemotaxonomic inferences is upheld by modern–fossil comparisons of resins from additional conifer families and genera (Cupressaceae: Metasequoia; Pinaceae: Pinus and Pseudolarix). Our conclusions challenge hypotheses advocating members of either of the families Araucariaceae or Pinaceae as the primary amber-producing trees and correlate favourably with the progressive demise of subtropical forest biomes from northern Europe as palaeotemperatures cooled following the Eocene climate optimum. PMID:19570786

Wolfe, Alexander P.; Tappert, Ralf; Muehlenbachs, Karlis; Boudreau, Marc; McKellar, Ryan C.; Basinger, James F.; Garrett, Amber

2009-01-01

123

Numerical investigations of future ice conditions in the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Global climate changes is expected to have an effect on the physical and ecological characteristics of the Baltic Sea. Estimates of future climate on the regional scale can be obtained by using either statistical or dynamical downscaling methods of global AOGCM scenario results. In this paper, we use 2 different coupled ice-ocean models of the Baltic Sea to simulate present and future ice conditions around 100 years from present. Two 10-year time slice experiments have been performed using the results of atmospheric climate model simulations as forcing, one representing pre-industrial climate conditions (control simulation), and the other global warming with a 150% increase in CO2 greenhouse gas concentration (scenario simulation). Present-day climatological ice conditions and interannual variability are realistically reproduced by the models. The simulated range of the maximum annual ice extent in the Baltic in both models together is 180 to 420 x 10(3) km2 in the control simulation and 45 to 270 x 10(3) km2 in the scenario simulation. The range of the maximum annual ice thickness is from 32 to 96 cm and from 11 to 60 cm in the control and scenario simulations, respectively. In contrast to earlier estimates, sea ice is still formed every winter in the Northern Bothnian Bay and in the most Eastern parts of the Gulf of Finland. Overall, the simulated changes of quantities such as ice extent and ice thickness, as well as their interannual variations are relatively similar in both models, which is remarkable, because the 2 coupled ice-ocean model systems have been developed independently. This increases the reliability of future projections of ice conditions in the Baltic Sea. PMID:11697256

Haapala, J; Meier, H E; Rinne, J

2001-08-01

124

Characterisation of juvenile flatfish habitats in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Survival and growth of the earliest life-stages is considered a key factor in determining the abundance of many marine fish species. For flatfishes, the availability of high quality nursery areas is essential for successful recruitment. Regarding the Baltic Sea, there are large gaps in knowledge on factors that influence the distribution of flatfishes during this sensitive stage. To identify the characteristics of important nursery areas in the Baltic for flounder ( Platichthys flesus) and turbot ( Psetta maxima), a field survey with push net sampling was conducted in the northern Baltic proper during autumn 2006. The sampling stations were stratified to cover several different habitat types defined by substrate and wave exposure. Apart from density of young-of-the-year (YOY) flatfishes, a number of ecological characteristics of the habitat were recorded. Physical habitat variables included substrate type, salinity, depth, turbidity, vegetation and habitat structure. Variables describing biotic processes, such as prey availability and abundance of competitors, were also sampled. The relationships between the spatial distribution of species and these ecological characteristics were fitted to presence/absence data of juvenile flatfish using generalized additive models (GAM). The best habitat descriptors for flounder in order of contribution were: substrate, habitat structure, salinity, wave exposure and occurrence of filamentous algae. Positive effects of increasing wave exposure, salinity and structure were detected while a high cover of filamentous algae had a negative effect. Sand and gravel were preferred over soft and stony substrates. For turbot the best habitat descriptors in order of contribution were: occurrence of filamentous algae, substrate and turbidity. Turbot showed a preference for areas with a low cover of filamentous algae, high turbidity and sandy substrate. Prey availability and abundance of competitors were not included in the models, indicating that the distribution of flatfishes at the scales studied (tens of kilometres) is mainly governed by physical habitat properties. These results constitute the basis for future efforts on mapping of essential flatfish habitats in the Baltic Sea.

Florin, Ann-Britt; Sundblad, Göran; Bergström, Ulf

2009-04-01

125

Microbial community of reduced pockmark sediments (Gdansk Deep, Baltic Sea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microbial community of reduced pockmark sediments in the Russian sector of the Gdansk Deep, Baltic Sea, was investigated\\u000a by molecular biological techniques. Fluorescent in situ hybridization was used to determine the numbers of eubacteria, archaea,\\u000a and sulfate-reducing bacteria. Eubacteria were found to predominate in the upper 10 cm of the sediment (up to 5.3 × 109 cells\\/g wet sediment),

O. V. Shubenkova; A. V. Likhoshvai; T. A. Kanapatskii; N. V. Pimenov

2010-01-01

126

Dissolved phosphorus in the Baltic Sea — Occurrence and relevance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial variability of dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) concentrations throughout the whole Baltic Sea was investigated during two cruises in summer 2008 and in late winter/early spring 2009. In addition, bioavailable phosphorus was detected in the central Baltic and in the Gulfs of Bothnia and Finland during the summer cruise. Highest summer DOP concentrations of 0.32 ± 0.05 ?M have been estimated in the Baltic Proper, followed by the Gulf of Finland to be having a mean concentration of 0.25 ± 0.01 ?M. DOP decreased down to 0.12 ?M in the Bothnian Bay. Similar low concentrations were found in the Skagerrak. The same spatial DOP pattern but at a lower concentration level like in summer 2008 was estimated in the central and northern regions during the cruise in late winter/early spring 2009. The bioavailable and refractory DOP fractions (B-DOP and R-DOP, respectively) were determined in time course experiments excluding C- and N-limitation. In all basins, the R-DOP constituted a higher proportion of DOP compared to B-DOP. A gradient has been observed from the northernmost station of the Bothnian Bay to the southern Gotland Basin. In the Bothnian Bay, B-DOP exhibited the lowest amounts of only 0.01 ?M comprising 8% of DOP, highest concentrations occurred in the Gotland Basin constituting a proportion of 25-29%. In the Gulf of Finland, B-DOP comprised a proportion up to 46% of DOP at lower concentrations compared to the Gotland Basin. Thus the Bothnian Bay was depleted in total bioavailable phosphorus (DIP + B-DOP) opposite to the southern Baltic Proper where the sum of B-DOP + DIP was 40 times higher.

Nausch, Monika; Nausch, Günther

2011-07-01

127

Cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes in fish from the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Laboratory studies suggest that the cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMS) octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) will persist in the aquatic environment and bioaccumulate in fish. Here these cVMS were measured in herring collected in the Swedish waters of the Baltic Sea and the North Sea and in grey seals from the Baltic Proper. D4, D5, and D6 were present in herring muscle at concentrations around 10, 200, and 40ngg(-1) lipid weight, respectively. The ratio of these concentrations was similar to the relative magnitude of estimated emissions to water, suggesting that the efficiency of overall transfer through the environment and food web was similar (within a factor 2-3) for the three chemicals. The concentrations of D5 and D6 were similar in herring caught in the highly populated Baltic Proper and in the less populated Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay. The D4 concentrations were lower at the most remote northern station, suggesting that D4 is less persistent than D5 and D6. Herring from the North Sea had lower levels of all three chemicals. The concentrations of D4, D5 and D6 in grey seal blubber were lower than the lipid normalized concentrations in herring, indicating that they do not biomagnify in grey seals. PMID:23177719

Kierkegaard, Amelie; Bignert, Anders; McLachlan, Michael S

2013-10-01

128

Hypoxia-related processes in the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Hypoxia, a growing worldwide problem, has been intermittently present in the modern Baltic Sea since its formation ca. 8000 cal. yr BP. However, both the spatial extent and intensity of hypoxia have increased with anthropogenic eutrophication due to nutrient inputs. Physical processes, which control stratification and the renewal of oxygen in bottom waters, are important constraints on the formation and maintenance of hypoxia. Climate controlled inflows of saline water from the North Sea through the Danish Straits is a critical controlling factor governing the spatial extent and duration of hypoxia. Hypoxia regulates the biogeochemical cycles of both phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) in the water column and sediments. Significant amounts of P are currently released from sediments, an order of magnitude larger than anthropogenic inputs. The Baltic Sea is unique for coastal marine ecosystems experiencing N losses in hypoxic waters below the halocline. Although benthic communities in the Baltic Sea are naturally constrained by salinity gradients, hypoxia has resulted in habitat loss over vast areas and the elimination of benthic fauna, and has severely disrupted benthic food webs. Nutrient load reductions are needed to reduce the extent, severity, and effects of hypoxia. PMID:19544833

Conley, Daniel J; Björck, Svante; Bonsdorff, Erik; Carstensen, Jacob; Destouni, Georgia; Gustafsson, Bo G; Hietanen, Susanna; Kortekaas, Marloes; Kuosa, Harri; Meier, H E Markus; Müller-Karulis, Baerbel; Nordberg, Kjell; Norkko, Alf; Nürnberg, Gertrud; Pitkänen, Heikki; Rabalais, Nancy N; Rosenberg, Rutger; Savchuk, Oleg P; Slomp, Caroline P; Voss, Maren; Wulff, Fredrik; Zillén, Lovisa

2009-05-15

129

Baltic Sea nutrient reductions--what should we aim for?  

PubMed

Nutrient load reductions are needed to improve the state of the Baltic Sea, but it is still under debate how they should be implemented. In this paper, we use data from an environmental valuation study conducted in all nine Baltic Sea states to investigate public preferences of relevance to three of the involved decision-dimensions: First, the roles of nitrogen versus phosphorus reductions causing different eutrophication effects; second, the role of time - the lag between actions to reduce nutrient loads and perceived improvements; and third; the spatial dimension and the roles of actions targeting the coastal and open sea environment and different sub-basins. Our findings indicate that respondents view and value the Baltic Sea environment as a whole, and are not focussed only on their local sea area, or a particular aspect of water quality. We argue that public preferences concerning these three perspectives should be one of the factors guiding marine policy. This requires considering the entire range of eutrophication effects, in coastal and open sea areas, and including long-term and short-term measures. PMID:24981282

Ahtiainen, Heini; Artell, Janne; Elmgren, Ragnar; Hasselström, Linus; Håkansson, Cecilia

2014-12-01

130

PCDD, PCDF, PCB and thiamine in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus L.) and sprat [ Sprattus sprattus (L.)] as a background to the M74 syndrome of Baltic salmon (Salmo salar L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vuorinen, P. J., Parmanne, R., Vartiainen, T., Keinanen, M., Kiviranta, H., Kotovuori, O. and Halling, F. 2002. PCDD, PCDF, PCB and thiamine in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus L.) and sprat (Sprattus sprattus (L.)) as a background to the M74 syndrome of Baltic salmon (Salmo salar L.). - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 59: 480-496. Baltic herring and sprat were sampled

Pekka J. Vuorinen; Raimo Parmanne; Terttu Vartiainen; Marja Keinanen; Hannu Kiviranta; Olli Kotovuori; Folke Halling

2002-01-01

131

Generalized Moments Expansions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a number of years linked-cluster expansions have been a major part of techiques used for the investigation of quantum Hamiltonian systems. Such methods include the ``t-expansion" of Horn and Weinstein [Phys. Rev. D 30, 1256 (1984)] as well as the derivative expansions such as the Connected Moments Expansion (CMX) and the Alternate Moments Expansion (AMX). In this work we have derived a general expression for any moments expression of which both the CMX and AMX are particular cases.

Murawski, R.; Mancini, J.; Fessatidis, V.; Bowen, S.

2003-03-01

132

Biometrics of the Dunlin ( Calidris alpina ) Migrating in Autumn Along the Polish Baltic Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meissner W., Krupa R. 2009. Biometrics of the Dunlin (Calidris alpina) migrating in autumn along the Polish Baltic coast. Ring 31, 1: 3-13. The aim of this study is to present the general biometrical characteristics of Dunlins pass- ing the Polish Baltic coast during autumn migration. Data were collected between the first week of July and the end of September

W?odzimierz Meissner; Robert Krupa

2009-01-01

133

Coccolithophores and calcite saturation state in the Baltic and Black Seas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Baltic and Black Seas are both brackish, that is to say both have salinities intermediate between freshwater and seawater. The coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi is abundant in one, the Black Sea, but absent from the other, the Baltic Sea. Here we present summertime coccolithophore measurements confirming this difference, as well as data on the calcium carbonate saturation state of the

T. Tyrrell; B. Schneider; A. Charalampopoulou; U. Riebesell

2007-01-01

134

Coccolithophores and calcite saturation state in the Baltic and Black Seas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Baltic and Black Seas are both brackish, that is to say both have salinities intermediate between freshwater and seawater. The coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi is abundant in one, the Black Sea, but absent from the other, the Baltic Sea. Here we present summertime coccolithophore measurements confirming this difference, as well as data on the calcium carbonate saturation state of the

T. Tyrrell; B. Schneider; A. Charalampopoulou; U. Riebesell

2008-01-01

135

Photoageing of Baltic amber – Influence of daylight radiation behind window glass on surface colour and chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to provide evidence about the interaction between Baltic amber and daylight behind window glass, essential to understanding the mechanisms by which the material degrades in museum environments and to propose techniques for preventive conservation based on the control of environmental parameters where amber objects are stored or displayed. To investigate the photodegradation of Baltic

Gianluca Pastorelli; Jane Richter; Yvonne Shashoua

2011-01-01

136

Quantitative studies on gonad cycle, fecundity, reproductive output and recruitment in a baltic Mytilus edulis population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since Mytilus edulis L. is a biomass dominant in the Baltic much interest is focused on the ecology of the species. In this paper an attempt is made to quantitatively cover the reproductive cycle of a Baltic M. edulis population in order to provide data for energy flow models and to discuss aspects of recruitment in this species. Histological preparations

N. Kautsky

1982-01-01

137

BaltDendro (Baltic Dendrochronology) a plat-form for regional cooperation among students, scien-  

E-print Network

BaltDendro (Baltic Dendrochronology) a plat- form for regional cooperation among students, scien-ring researchers to access this information more easily. Dendrochronology has old traditions in the Baltic States, going back a half a century. The Laboratory of Dendrochronology established in Kaunas in 1968 was one

138

Evaluation of a Grace-Based Combined Geopotential Model over the Baltic Countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, many geodetic and engineering applications require that the two essential components of the vertical positioning - the height and the corresponding reference surface (geoid), are determined precisely. The recent advancements of satellite technology have resolved the long-wavelength component of the global geoid with an accuracy of a few cm. The tracking data of the GRACE twin-satellites are the basis for the new combined geopotential model EIGEN-GL04c. This contribution assesses the quality of this model through comparisons with an earlier geopotential model (EGM96) of the Baltic countries. The method of spherical harmonic expansions is used in numerical investigations. The results of evaluation revealed significant discrepancies between the long wavelength contributions of the models, which may reach several decimetres in terms of the geoidal heights. There are also some notable improvements of numerical statistics (assessed by the GPS-levelling data) in the target area when utilizing the new EIGEN-GL04c, instead of using the EGM96. A decimetre level accuracy can be obtained for the EIGEN-GL04c derived geoid model, provided that any datum inconsistencies have been eliminated. This creates necessary preconditions to further improve the geoid models on the regional scale.

Ellmann, Artu; Jürgenson, Harli

2008-06-01

139

Climate change effects on the Baltic Sea borderland between land and sea.  

PubMed

Coastal habitats are situated on the border between land and sea, and ecosystem structure and functioning is influenced by both marine and terrestrial processes. Despite this, most scientific studies and monitoring are conducted either with a terrestrial or an aquatic focus. To address issues concerning climate change impacts in coastal areas, a cross-ecosystem approach is necessary. Since habitats along the Baltic coastlines vary in hydrology, natural geography, and ecology, climate change projections for Baltic shore ecosystems are bound to be highly speculative. Societal responses to climate change in the Baltic coastal ecosystems should have an ecosystem approach and match the biophysical realities of the Baltic Sea area. Knowledge about ecosystem processes and their responses to a changing climate should be integrated within the decision process, both locally and nationally, in order to increase the awareness of, and to prepare for climate change impacts in coastal areas of the Baltic Sea. PMID:25576278

Strandmark, Alma; Bring, Arvid; Cousins, Sara A O; Destouni, Georgia; Kautsky, Hans; Kolb, Gundula; de la Torre-Castro, Maricela; Hambäck, Peter A

2015-01-01

140

Towards uncertainty estimation for operational forecast products - a multi-model-ensemble approach for the North Sea and the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several independent operational ocean models provide forecasts of the ocean state (e.g. sea level, temperature, salinity and ice cover) in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea on a daily basis. These forecasts are the primary source of information for a variety of information and emergency response systems used e.g. to issue sea level warnings or carry out oil drift forecast. The forecasts are of course highly valuable as such, but often suffer from a lack of information on their uncertainty. With the aim of augmenting the existing operational ocean forecasts in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea by a measure of uncertainty a multi-model-ensemble (MME) system for sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface salinity (SSS) and water transports has been set up in the framework of the MyOcean-2 project. Members of MyOcean-2, the NOOS² and HIROMB/BOOS³ communities provide 48h-forecasts serving as inputs. Different variables are processed separately due to their different physical characteristics. Based on the so far collected daily MME products of SST and SSS, a statistical method, Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis is applied to assess their spatial and temporal variability. For sea surface currents, progressive vector diagrams at specific points are consulted to estimate the performance of the circulation models especially in hydrodynamic important areas, e.g. inflow/outflow of the Baltic Sea, Norwegian trench and English Channel. For further versions of the MME system, it is planned to extend the MME to other variables like e.g. sea level, ocean currents or ice cover based on the needs of the model providers and their customers. It is also planned to include in-situ data to augment the uncertainty information and for validation purposes. Additionally, weighting methods will be implemented into the MME system to develop more complex uncertainty measures. The methodology used to create the MME will be outlined and different ensemble products will be presented. In addition, some preliminary results based on the statistical analysis of the uncertainty measures provide first estimates of the regional and temporal performance of the ocean models for each parameter. ²Northwest European Shelf Operational Oceanography System ³High-resolution Operational Model of the Baltic / Baltic Operational Oceanographic System

Golbeck, Inga; Li, Xin; Janssen, Frank

2014-05-01

141

Sea Salt Source Function over the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of production and transport of aerosol over the sea are very important for many areas of knowledge. Marine aerosol emitted from the sea surface helps to clean the boundary layer from other aerosol particles. The emitted droplets do not dry out in the highly humid surface layer air and because of their sizes most of them are deposited quickly at the sea surface. Therefore, marine aerosol has many features of rain i.e. the deposition in the marine boundary layer in high wind events is controlled not only by the "dry" processes but also by the "wet" scavenging. While many cruises conducted on board S/Y Oceania, we collected many data which were used to calculate sea salt source function over the Baltic Sea. Our cruises held between 2009 and 2012. Measurements were carried out using gradient method. For this method we used Laser Particle Counter (PMS model CSASP-100_HV) placed on one oft the mast of S/Y Oceania. Measurements were performed on five different levels around sea level: 8, 11, 14, 17 and 20 meters. Based on the averaged vertical concentration, profiles were calculated, using Monin-Obuchow theory, vertical sea spray fluxes in the near water layer. Based on fluxes calculated from vertical concentration profiles was calculated sea salt source function over the Baltic Sea. This function gives emission for different particle size, depending on environmental parameters. Emission of sea spray depends of the size of energy lost by the wind waves in process of collapse. Acknowledgements: The support for this study was provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBa?tyk founded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract No. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09.

Petelski, Tomasz; Makuch, Przemyslaw; Markuszewski, Piotr; Jankowski, Andrzej; Zieli?ski, Tymon

2013-04-01

142

An ant-associated mesostigmatid mite in Baltic amber.  

PubMed

Fossil mesostigmatid mites (Acari: Parasitiformes: Mesostigmata) are extremely rare, and specimens from only nine families, including four named species, have been described so far. A new record of Myrmozercon sp. described here from Eocene (ca 44-49 Myr) Baltic amber represents the first-and so far only-fossil example of the derived, extant family Laelapidae. Significantly, modern species of this genus are habitually myrmecophilous and the fossil mite described here is preserved attached to the head of the dolichoderine ant Ctenobethylus goepperti (Mayr, 1868). It thus offers the oldest unequivocal evidence for an ecological association between mesostigmatid mites and social insects in the order Hymenoptera. PMID:25209198

Dunlop, Jason A; Kontschán, Jen?; Walter, David E; Perrichot, Vincent

2014-09-01

143

PREFACE: 5th Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Logo This Volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering presents a selection of the contributions to the 5th Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials (BaltSilica2011) held at Riga Technical University, Riga, Latvia from 23-25 May 2011. The conference was organized by Riga Technical University (Latvia) and Kaunas University of Technology (Lithuania). The series of Baltic conferences on silicate materials was started since 2004: the first conference was held in Riga, Latvia, 2004; the second conference was held in Kaunas, Lithuania 2005; the third was held again in Riga, Latvia, 2007, and the fourth was held in Kaunas, Lithuania 2009. BaltSilica 2011 was attended by around 50 participants from Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Germany, Poland, Italy, France, Ukraine and Russia. In comparison with previous silicate materials conferences, the broadening of participating countries is an indication of the interest of scientists, engineers and students to exchange research ideas, latest results, and to find new research topics for cooperation in the fields of silicate, high temperature materials, and inorganic nanomaterials. The scientific programme included 8 invited plenary lectures 23 oral presentations and 25 posters [1]. Scientific themes covered in the conference and in this special issue: Natural and Artificial Stone Materials; Traditional and New Ceramic and Glass-Like Materials; Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials. This volume consists of 23 selected proceeding papers. The Editor of this special issue is grateful to all the contributors to BaltSilica 2011. I am also very grateful to the scientific committee, the local organizing committee, the session chairs, the referees who refereed the submitted articles to this issue, and to students from the Department of Silicate, High Temperature and Inorganic Nanomaterials Technology of the Riga Technical University who ensured the smooth running of the conference. Particular thanks goes to eight plenary speakers who provided interesting findings and thoughtful overviews in the scientific themes of the conference. Special thanks go to Prof., Dr.rer.nat. Günther Heinz Frischat (Germany) who encouraged and supported the organization of these scientific meetings from the very first BaltSilica conferences. With warm regards and best wishes for the next BaltSilica conference. The Conference Chairman Gundars Mezinskis Reference [1] Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials. Book of abstracts of the 5th Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials BaltSilica 2011 : 23-25 May 2011, Riga, Latvia ed G Mezinskis, G Sedmale, J Setina, I Sperberga, L Krage, I Pavlovska, D Andersone (Riga: RTU Publishing House) p 94

Mezinskis, G.; Bragina, L.; Colombo, P.; Frischat, G. H.; Grabis, J.; Greil, P.; Deja, J.; Kaminskas, R.; Kliava, J.; Medvids, A.; Nowak, I.; Siauciunas, R.; Valancius, Z.; Zalite, I.

2011-12-01

144

Seasonal thermally-induced front in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mean-annual characteristics of thermohaline fields (1990-1996; Janssen et al., 1999) of the Baltic Sea along the section "Gdansk bay - Gotland sea" under conditions of early-spring heating are analyzed. Location of water with temperature of maximum density (hereafter Tmd; Tmd ~2.4C for S=7.6 psu) is identified. Under the same conditions of heating from the surface, shallow parts are stably thermally stratified, whilst waters in deeper regions have temperature near the Tmd throughout the upper layer of the thickness of about 30 m. Mean-annual horizontal density gradient between these parts is about 10-6-10-7kg/m4, what is of the same order than in Ladoga lake (Drabkova, Rumiantsev, 2002) under corresponding conditions. Mean-annual speed of propagation of the isotherm, corresponding to the Tmd (accounting for the salinity variations) is about 15 km/day. Analysis of field measurements, performed by Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research (Institut f

Demchenko, N.

2009-04-01

145

Hypoxia sustains cyanobacteria blooms in the baltic sea.  

PubMed

Nutrient over-enrichment is one of the classic triggering mechanisms for the occurrence of cyanobacteria blooms in aquatic ecosystems. In the Baltic Sea, cyanobacteria regularly occur in the late summer months and form nuisance accumulations in surface waters and their abundance has intensified significantly in the past 50 years attributed to human-induced eutrophication. However, the natural occurrence of cyanobacteria during the Holocene is debated. In this study, we present records of cyanobacteria pigments, water column redox proxies, and nitrogen isotopic signatures for the past ca. 8000 years from Baltic Sea sediment cores. Our results demonstrate that cyanobacteria abundance and nitrogen fixation are correlated with hypoxia occurring during three main intervals: (1) ca. 7000-4000 B.P. during the Littorina transgression, (2) ca. 1400-700 B.P. during the Medieval Climate Anomaly, and (3) from ca. 1950 A.D. to the present. Issues of preservation were investigated, and we show that organic matter and pigment profiles are not simply an artifact of preservation. These results suggest that cyanobacteria abundance is sustained during periods of hypoxia, most likely because of enhanced recycling of phosphorus in low oxygen conditions. PMID:24512281

Funkey, Carolina P; Conley, Daniel J; Reuss, Nina S; Humborg, Christoph; Jilbert, Tom; Slomp, Caroline P

2014-03-01

146

Hypoxia Sustains Cyanobacteria Blooms in the Baltic Sea  

PubMed Central

Nutrient over-enrichment is one of the classic triggering mechanisms for the occurrence of cyanobacteria blooms in aquatic ecosystems. In the Baltic Sea, cyanobacteria regularly occur in the late summer months and form nuisance accumulations in surface waters and their abundance has intensified significantly in the past 50 years attributed to human-induced eutrophication. However, the natural occurrence of cyanobacteria during the Holocene is debated. In this study, we present records of cyanobacteria pigments, water column redox proxies, and nitrogen isotopic signatures for the past ca. 8000 years from Baltic Sea sediment cores. Our results demonstrate that cyanobacteria abundance and nitrogen fixation are correlated with hypoxia occurring during three main intervals: (1) ca. 7000–4000 B.P. during the Littorina transgression, (2) ca. 1400–700 B.P. during the Medieval Climate Anomaly, and (3) from ca. 1950 A.D. to the present. Issues of preservation were investigated, and we show that organic matter and pigment profiles are not simply an artifact of preservation. These results suggest that cyanobacteria abundance is sustained during periods of hypoxia, most likely because of enhanced recycling of phosphorus in low oxygen conditions. PMID:24512281

2014-01-01

147

Denitrification in the river estuaries of the northern Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Estuaries have been suggested to have an important role in reducing the nitrogen load transported to the sea. We measured denitrification rates in six estuaries of the northern Baltic Sea. Four of them were river mouths in the Bothnian Bay (northern Gulf of Bothnia), and two were estuary bays, one in the Archipelago Sea (southern Gulf of Bothnia) and the other in the Gulf of Finland. Denitrification rates in the four river mouths varied between 330 and 905 micromol N m(-2) d(-1). The estuary bays at the Archipelago Sea and the Gulf of Bothnia had denitrification rates from 90 micromol N m(-2) d(-1) to 910 micromol N m(-2) d(-1) and from 230 micromol N m(-2) d(-1) to 320 micromol N m(-2) d(-1), respectively. Denitrification removed 3.6-9.0% of the total nitrogen loading in the river mouths and in the estuary bay in the Gulf of Finland, where the residence times were short. In the estuary bay with a long residence time, in the Archipelago Sea, up to 4.5% of nitrate loading and 19% of nitrogen loading were removed before entering the sea. According to our results, the sediments of the fast-flowing rivers and the estuary areas with short residence times have a limited capacity to reduce the nitrogen load to the Baltic Sea. PMID:17520925

Silvennoinen, Hanna; Hietanen, Susanna; Liikanen, Anu; Stange, C Florian; Russow, Rolf; Kuparinen, Jorma; Martikainen, Pertti J

2007-04-01

148

Impact of Computer Technology on Library Expansions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the impact of information technology on the physical and functional organization of libraries and briefly discusses technical issues, including wiring and distribution, access to power sources, codes, lighting, and security. The Duke University Library and the Purcellville (VA) public library's renovation and expansion plans are…

Fisher, Tom

1995-01-01

149

L'expansion japonaise  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] L'expansion à la japonaise par Christian SAUTTER . Entre 1955 et 1970, l'expansion japonaise a été deux fois plus rapide que l'expansion française, en raison de l'abondance de main-d'œuvre, de l'effort exceptionnel d'équipement et du retard technologique. Au-delà de ces différences de degré, l'article cherche à dégager l'originalité de nature de la coissance japonaise depuis vingt ans. Les industriels

Christian Sautter

1973-01-01

150

Silicon dynamics in the Oder estuary, Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies on dissolved silicate (DSi) and biogenic silica (BSi) dynamics were carried out in the Oder estuary, Baltic Sea in 2000-2005. The Oder estuary proved to be an important component of the Oder River-Baltic Sea continuum where very intensive seasonal DSi uptake during spring and autumn, but also BSi regeneration during summer take place. Owing to the regeneration process annual DSi patterns in the river and the estuary distinctly differed; the annual patterns of DSi in the estuary showed two maxima and two minima in contrast to one maximum- and one minimum-pattern in the Oder River. DSi concentrations in the river and in the estuary were highest in winter (200-250 ?mol dm - 3 ) and lowest (often less than 1 ?mol dm - 3 ) in spring, concomitant with diatom growth; such low values are known to be limiting for new diatom growth. Secondary DSi summer peaks at the estuary exit exceeded 100 ?mol dm - 3 , and these maxima were followed by autumn minima coinciding with the autumn diatom bloom. Seasonal peaks in BSi concentrations (ca. 100 ?mol dm - 3 ) occurred during the spring diatom bloom in the Oder River. Mass balance calculations of DSi and BSi showed that DSi + BSi import to the estuary over a two year period was 103.2 kt and that can be compared with the DSi export of 98.5 kt. The difference between these numbers gives room for ca. 2.5 kt BSi to be annually exported to the Baltic Sea. Sediment cores studies point to BSi annual accumulation on the level of 2.5 kt BSi. BSi import to the estuary is on the level of ca. 10.5 kt, thus ca. 5 kt of BSi is annually converted into the DSi, increasing the pool of DSi that leaves the system. BSi concentrations being ca. 2 times higher at the estuary entrance than at its exit remain in a good agreement with the DSi and BSi budgeting presented in the paper.

Pastuszak, Marianna; Conley, Daniel J.; Humborg, Christoph; Witek, Zbigniew; Sitek, Stanis?aw

2008-10-01

151

Denitrification in the water column of the central Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Removal of fixed nitrogen in the water column of the eastern Gotland Basin, central Baltic Sea, was studied during two cruises in September 2008 and August 2010. The water column was stratified with anoxic sulfidic bottom water meeting oxic nitrate containing water at the oxic-anoxic interface. Anammox was never detected whereas denitrification was found in all incubations from anoxic depths and occurred immediately below the oxic-anoxic interface. Sulfide (H2S + HS- + S2-) was in most cases the only electron donor for denitrification but, in contrast to previous findings, denitrification was in some situations driven by organic matter alone. Nitrous oxide (N2O) became an increasingly important product of denitrification with increasing sulfide concentration and was >80% of the total N gas formation at 10 ?M sulfide. The potential rates of denitrification measured in incubations at elevated NO3- or sulfide concentrations were converted to in situ rates using the measured water column concentrations of NO3- and sulfide and the actual measured relations between NO3- and sulfide concentrations and denitrification rates. In situ denitrification ranged from 0.24 to 15.9 nM N2 h-1. Assuming that these rates were valid throughout the anoxic NO3- containing zone, depth integrated in situ denitrification rates of 0.06-2.11 mmol N m-2 d-1 were estimated. The thickness of this zone was generally 3-6 m, which is probably what can be maintained through regular turbulent mixing induced by internal waves at the oxic-anoxic interface. However, layers of up to 55 m thickness with low O2 water (<10 ?M) were observed which was probably the result of larger scale mixing. In such a layer nitrification may produce NO3- and once the O2 has been depleted denitrification will follow resulting in enormous rates per unit area. Even with an active denitrification layer of 3-6 m thickness the pelagic denitrification per unit area clearly exceeded sediment denitrification rates elsewhere in the Baltic Sea. When extrapolated to the entire Baltic Proper (BP) denitrification in the water column was in the range of 132-547 kton N yr-1 and was thus at least as important as sediment denitrification which has recently been estimated to 191 kton N yr-1. With a total external N-input of 773 kton N yr-1 it is clear that denitrification plays a significant role in the N-budget of the BP.

Dalsgaard, Tage; De Brabandere, Loreto; Hall, Per O. J.

2013-04-01

152

Time trends of chlordane, DDT, and PCB concentrations in pike ( Esox lucius ) and Baltic herring ( Clupea harengus ) in the Turku archipelago, northern Baltic sea for the period 1971–1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of PCB- and DDT-compounds in Baltic wildlife have been extensively studied during the last decade. Since the use of DDT was banned in the early 70's in many countries, including those in Baltic area, the level of DDT-compounds has decreased in the Baltic environment by PAASIVIRTA and LINKO (198o)o The use of PCBcompounds is now banned in Sweden

Raija Moilanen; Heikki Pyysalo; Kim Wickström; Reino Linko

1982-01-01

153

Numerical Modeling of the Wave Climate in the Southern Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - BLOMGREN, S.; LARSON, M., and HANSON, H., 2001. Numerical Modeling of the Wave Climate in the Southern Baltic Sea. Journal of Coastal Research, 17(2), 342-352. West Palm Beach (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208. The numerical spectral wave generation and propagation model WAVAD was used to derive the wave climate over 19 years at four locations in the southern Baltic Sea,

Sten Blomgren; Magnus Larson; Hans Hanson

2001-01-01

154

The 1881 census in the Russian Baltic provinces: An inventory and an assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1881 census of the Russian Baltic provinces of Livland, Estland, and Kurland was the first modern-type systematic population enumeration in the Baltic area. It had been preceded by enumerations of other kinds—land cadastres that included aggregate population counts (during Swedish control of the area) in the 17th century, and fiscal revisions (during Russian control of the area) that did

Andrejs Plakans; Charles Wetherell

2004-01-01

155

Non-native Species and Rates of Spread: Lessons from the Brackish Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Baltic Sea, a semi-enclosed brackish water region, has been inoculated by non-indigenous species for centuries. Today,\\u000a much of its biological diversity is of foreign origin (i.e. xenodiversity), intentionally or unintentionally moved by humans\\u000a over ecological and geographical barriers. As many as 98 introduced species have been recorded in the Baltic Sea and Kattegat.\\u000a The role and abundance of much

Erkki Leppäkoski; Sergej Olenin

2000-01-01

156

Long-chain alkenone patterns in the Baltic sea—an ocean-freshwater transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two different patterns of long-chain alkenones are found in surficial sediments of the Baltic Sea, which is the largest brackish water body on Earth. One pattern occurs in surficial sediments from the Western Baltic Sea where surface-water salinitiy is in excess of 7.7 PSU. It corresponds to the pattern produced by the marine coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi with a suite of

Hans-Martin Schulz; Anne Schöner; Kay-Christian Emeis

2000-01-01

157

Geochemical records of salt-water inflows into the deep basins of the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The estuarine circulation system of the Baltic Sea promotes stable stratification and bottom water anoxia in sedimentary basins of the Baltic proper. Ingressions of saline, oxygen-rich waters from the North Sea replace the oxygen depleted deep water. Timing and extent of the ingressions vary on time-scales of years to decades, and are largely determined by wind-strength and storm frequency over

T. Neumann; C. Christiansen; S. Clasen; K.-C. Emeis; H. Kunzendorf

1997-01-01

158

Heavy?metal pollution in surficial sediments from the Southern Baltic sea off Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gulf of Gda?sk is one of the pollution “hot spots”; of the Baltic Sea. In order to investigate heavy?metal pollution there, 31 bulk (<2 mm), surficial sediments from the Gulf of Gda?sk and the southern Baltic Sea were analyzed for 20 elements. Cobalt, Ni, Cs, Rb, Fe, Mg, Li, and K covary with Al and display an enrichment factor

P. Szefer; K. Szefer; G. P. Glasby; J. Pempkowiak; R. Kaliszan

1996-01-01

159

Ecological forecasting under climate change: the case of Baltic cod  

PubMed Central

Good decision making for fisheries and marine ecosystems requires a capacity to anticipate the consequences of management under different scenarios of climate change. The necessary ecological forecasting calls for ecosystem-based models capable of integrating multiple drivers across trophic levels and properly including uncertainty. The methodology presented here assesses the combined impacts of climate and fishing on marine food-web dynamics and provides estimates of the confidence envelope of the forecasts. It is applied to cod (Gadus morhua) in the Baltic Sea, which is vulnerable to climate-related decline in salinity owing to both direct and indirect effects (i.e. through species interactions) on early-life survival. A stochastic food web-model driven by regional climate scenarios is used to produce quantitative forecasts of cod dynamics in the twenty-first century. The forecasts show how exploitation would have to be adjusted in order to achieve sustainable management under different climate scenarios. PMID:20236982

Lindegren, Martin; Möllmann, Christian; Nielsen, Anders; Brander, Keith; MacKenzie, Brian R.; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

2010-01-01

160

[Accumulation of polycyclic arenes in Baltic Sea algae].  

PubMed

The paper presents data on the level of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and some other polycyclic arenes in alga and phanerogam specimens from different gulfs of the Baltic Sea. Algae were shown to absorb BP from sea water. The mean concentration of BP in sea water was under 0.004 microgram/1, while in algae it ranged 0.1-21.2 micrograms/kg dry weight. Algae accumulate BP to a higher degree than phanerogams. The highest concentrations of BP were found in algae Enteromorpha while the lowest ones in Furcellaria. In annual green algae, BP level was higher in autumn, i. e. at the end of vegetation period, than in spring. Brown algae Fucus vesiculosus is recommended for monitoring polycyclic arene pollution in the area from Vormsi Island to Käsmu and green algae Cladophora or Enteromorpha in the eastern part of the Finnish Gulf. PMID:4060672

Veldre, I A; Itra, A R; Paal'me, L P; Kukk, Kh A

1985-01-01

161

Underwater laser imaging experiments in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Underwater laser imaging is a useful tool for high resolution mapping and identification of threats in coastal and also turbid waters of harbors and ports. In the recent past, the French-German Research Institute of Saint-Louis (ISL) and the German Naval Research Department (WTD71-FWG) have performed different measurements in the Baltic Sea in the field of submarine laser imaging with the aim to evaluate the performance of laser gated viewing (LGV) and underwater laser scanning (ULS). Different scenarios were tested with respect to varying environmental conditions. Working near a harbor or on the open sea under sunny and calm or windy and rainy weather conditions, the measured turbidity, i.e. the attenuation coefficient of the water column, ranges from 0.4 m-1 to 3 m-1. The experiments and imaging results are discussed with respect to 2D and 3D image processing under the given environmental conditions.

Laurenzis, Martin; Christnacher, Frank; Scholz, Thomas; Metzger, Nicolas; Schertzer, Stefane; Bacher, Emmanuel

2014-10-01

162

PAH-profiles in sediment cores from the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

To document the historical input the PAH-profiles of sediment cores in two different basins of the Baltic Sea, the Gotland Basin (GB) and Arkona Basin (AB), were analysed by means of GC-MS. 35 PAHs were quantified in all samples, and additionally, several marker PAHs, like Cyclopenta[cd]phenanthrene (CCP) for combustion processes and retene for terrigenous input, were quantified in selected samples. The preindustrial sediments (older than 200-250 years) in the GB core illustrate concentrations <100 ng PAH15 g(-1) d.w. Calculated PAH-ratios indicated combustion processes as the main sources for both basins. The Perylene concentrations within the sediment cores decrease with increasing depth, along with an increase in relative percentage, indicating slow diagenetic processes. The preservation and enrichment of the introduced PAHs was more pronounced in the GB core. PMID:12146840

Ricking, M; Schulz, H M

2002-06-01

163

PUMa - modelling the groundwater flow in Baltic Sedimentary Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2009-2012 at University of Latvia and Latvia University of Agriculture project "Establishment of interdisciplinary scientist group and modelling system for groundwater research" is implemented financed by the European Social Fund. The aim of the project is to develop groundwater research in Latvia by establishing interdisciplinary research group and modelling system covering groundwater flow in the Baltic Sedimentary Basin. Researchers from fields like geology, chemistry, mathematical modelling, physics and environmental engineering are involved in the project. The modelling system is used as a platform for addressing scientific problems such as: (1) large-scale groundwater flow in Baltic Sedimentary Basin and impact of human activities on it; (2) the evolution of groundwater flow since the last glaciation and subglacial groundwater recharge; (3) the effects of climate changes on shallow groundwater and interaction of hydrographical network and groundwater; (4) new programming approaches for groundwater modelling. Within the frame of the project most accessible geological information such as description of geological wells, geological maps and results of seismic profiling in Latvia as well as Estonia and Lithuania are collected and integrated into modelling system. For example data form more then 40 thousands wells are directly used to automatically generate the geological structure of the model. Additionally a groundwater sampling campaign is undertaken. Contents of CFC, stabile isotopes of O and H and radiocarbon are the most significant parameters of groundwater that are established in unprecedented scale for Latvia. The most important modelling results will be published in web as a data set. Project number: 2009/0212/1DP/1.1.1.2.0/09/APIA/VIAA/060. Project web-site: www.puma.lu.lv

Kalvane, G.; Marnica, A.; Bethers, U.

2012-04-01

164

The expansive nondecelerative universe  

Microsoft Academic Search

(a) Hubble's discovery of the expansion of the Universe makes it possible to choose unambiguously from the models described by Friedmann's equations of universe dynamics. (b) From the present temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation, the specific entropy in the matter era and the model properties of the expansive nondecelerative universe, we can determine the present parameters of our

Vladimír Skalský

1993-01-01

165

BALTIMOS—a coupled modelling system for the Baltic Sea and its drainage basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major tasks of the Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX) are to simulate the water and energy cycles of the Baltic Sea catchment and to identify important processes, which are relevant to the climate in the Baltic region. A fully coupled regional climate model system for the Baltic Sea region, called BALTIMOS, was developed in the framework of the German climate research program DEKLIM by linking existing model components for the atmosphere, for the ocean including sea ice, and for hydrology. With this system, it is possible to model the complete water and energy cycles for the Baltic Sea catchment for today's climate, as well as for the future with climate scenarios. The emphasis in this paper is given to the description of the modelling system and on the comparison of the results of the fully coupled BALTIMOS system against the results of the uncoupled atmospheric component REMO for today's climate. Both simulations are driven at the atmospheric lateral boundaries with ECMWF analysis data from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) for 5 years each. In the uncoupled run, the sea surface temperature (SST) and ice surface temperature (IST) analysed by ECMWF are prescribed, while in the coupled run, SST and IST are provided by the ocean/sea ice model BSIOM. Several analysed parameters are very similar for the land part of the Baltic Sea catchment, while there are differences especially for surface and near-surface temperatures for the fraction of the Baltic Sea itself that indicate further research efforts. As no corrections for the modelled air-sea fluxes are applied for the coupled model system, it is a good result that no drift of the coupled model system is visible in the 5-year integration. The present paper gives an overview about the development of the coupled model system and shows results from first integrations of the system.

Lorenz, Philip; Jacob, Daniela

2014-11-01

166

Effects of an extensive Prymnesium polylepis bloom on breeding eiders in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of an extensive bloom of the potentially toxic Prymnesium polylepis (Haptophyta) on breeding eiders (Somateria mollissima) in the Baltic Sea were analysed. Increasing abundances of the alternate stage P. polylepis was detected by a marine monitoring programme in the autumn 2007. The bloom peaked between March and May 2008 in the southern, central and northwestern Baltic Proper and abundances of up to 5 × 106 cells l- 1 were recorded. At several sites P. polylepis constituted between 30 and 90% of the total phytoplankton biovolume. The flagellate was only recorded in low numbers in the northeastern Baltic Proper and Gulf of Finland. The abundances were low in 2007, 2009 and 2010. In 28 eider colonies situated in the southern and central Baltic Proper, sharp and synchronous declines in the number of nesting eiders were observed from 2007 to 2008. In colonies on Gotland in the central Baltic Proper, a 76% decrease, from 6650 nests to 1620 nests, was followed by increases in 2009 and 2010, although not up to numbers observed in 2007. At Utklippan and Ertholmene in the southern Baltic Proper, the observed decreases of 55%, from 144 to 65 nests, and 36%, from 1660 to 1060 nests, respectively, between 2007 and 2008, were followed by increases in 2009 and 2010 up to the level observed in 2007. By contrast, no general decline of the number of nesting eiders was observed from 2007 to 2008 in 75 colonies in the northeastern Baltic Proper and Gulf of Finland. Hence, the spatial distribution of the P. polylepis bloom in 2008 closely matched the observed distribution of extensive non-breeding of female eiders. We suggest that the intensive spring bloom of P. polylepis, either through a toxic or non-toxic pathway, affected the main benthic food of eiders, i.e. blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus × Mytilus edulis), at pre-breeding foraging sites close to the breeding sites, and, subsequently, the body condition of adult female eiders and their breeding propensity.

Larsson, K.; Hajdu, S.; Kilpi, M.; Larsson, R.; Leito, A.; Lyngs, P.

2014-04-01

167

Quantitative Analysis of Urban Expansion in Central China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantifying urban expansion forms is important to understanding regional urbanization processes and urban planning. For this purpose, conventional landscape indices are commonly used for quantitative analysis of urban landscape patterns. However, these landscape indices only reflect information for one particular temporal phase of landscape patterns. This paper studies and quantifies the dynamic changes of urban landscape from 1993 to 2006 in Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan metropolitan areas in Hunan province of China using landscape expansion index (LEI), which contains information of the formation processes of landscape patterns. The results indicate that there are three types of urban expansions: infilling, edge-expansion and outlying in the study area. The change of proportion of the three urban expansion types reveals that urban expansion patterns have changed from a messy, dispersed early development phase to more compact and reasonable layout from 1993 to 2006. Moreover, the urban expansion modes varied in different periods. From 1993 to 1996, the edge-expansion and outlying were the main types of urban expansion forms, indicating an early stage of rapid urban developments. Comparing with the edge-expansion, the outlying expansion increased rapidly in this period, which indicates urban development is messy and dispersion. Overall, the edge-expansion was the major type of urban expansion form during the study period with outlying as the second and rapidly-increasing major form of expansion prior to 1998, which indicates urbanization is in the early stage of rapid urban developments, and infilling as the second and rapidly-increasing major form of expansion after 1998.

Zeng, Y.; Xu, Y.; Li, S.; He, L.; Yu, F.; Zhen, Z.; Cai, C.

2012-08-01

168

The Russian-Baltic states boundary: a limit between peripheries or a link between European Union and the post-soviet states  

E-print Network

1 The Russian-Baltic states boundary: a limit between peripheries or a link between European Union to understand East Baltic area. Kaliningrad Oblast, the Russian exclave lying by the Baltic Sea, strengthens the interest of the purpose. The approach is mainly through port and railway traffics for goods, and through

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

169

Microsatellite markers for the Baltic clam, Macoma balthica (Linn, 1758), a key species concerned by changing southern limit, in exploited littoral ecosystems  

E-print Network

1 Microsatellite markers for the Baltic clam, Macoma balthica (Linné, 1758), a key species limit of the Baltic clam Macoma balthica strongly shifted northward. To understand the consequences on the function and structure of coastal ecosystems remain mostly unknown (Walther et al. 2002). The Baltic clam

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

170

Multispecies Virial Expansions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the virial expansion of mixtures of countably many different types of particles. The main tool is the Lagrange-Good inversion formula, which has other applications such as counting coloured trees or studying probability generating functions in multi-type branching processes. We prove that the virial expansion converges absolutely in a domain of small densities. In addition, we establish that the virial coefficients can be expressed in terms of two-connected graphs.

Jansen, Sabine; Tate, Stephen J.; Tsagkarogiannis, Dimitrios; Ueltschi, Daniel

2014-09-01

171

Geological Storage od CO2 in the Southern Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological Storage of CO2 in the Southern Baltic Sea Region The BASTOR project identifies and characterises the potential CO2 storage sites in the southern Baltic Sea. A regional theoretical storage capacity of 16Gt of CO2 in the Middle Cambrian sandstone beneath 900 metres of cap rock was estimated. 1.9Gt of this storage potential is estimated in the Dalders Monocline with some 743Mt CO2 in individual hydrocarbon and saline aquifer structures located mainly offshore Latvia and 128Mt in the Dalders Structure. Although the study has established a relatively large theoretical storage capacity, there is no effective capacity proven within these totals. Dynamic modelling undertaken in the Southern Swedish sector suggests that the relatively poor permeability and porosity characteristics would limit the injection rate to 0.5Mt per well per annum and restrict the reservoir pressure increase to 50% above the hydrostatic pressure for an injection period of 50 years. The dynamic modelling for this area suggests that an injection strategy for this sector would be limited to 5 injection wells giving a total injection capacity of 2.5 Mt per annum. Based on these results, the potential of the Southern Swedish offshore sector to sustain injection rates of CO2 required for regional industrial capture, even when using horizontal wells, brine extraction and hydraulic fracturing, would appear to be very low. Areas to the north east of the Monocline, such as offshore Latvia have been identified as having better reservoir quality despite limited data being available. These areas could sustain higher rates of injection and prove suitable areas for commercial storage. Furthermore, the regional storage capacity assessment demonstrated that there are sweet spots in the Cambrian reservoir such as onshore Latvia, where there is commercial gas storage, and both onshore and offshore Kaliningrad, where there is ongoing hydrocarbon production. The potential for seal failure was investigated as part of the BASTOR study and three possible modes of seal failure were identified. These include top seal failure, migration up the bounding fault planes and leakage across fault planes. The risk associated with all of these is considered low, based on currently available data. A test injection methodology aimed at assessing the commercial viability of CO2 injection in the Baltic Sea region has been designed. This includes the characterisation of reservoir, caprock and hydraulic properties, pump testing as well as CO2 migration and trapping using a phased approach methodology. An outline MMV programme has been developed based on the results of the dynamic modelling and the development phases of a CO2 injection site. Since the potential to store significant quantities of CO2 in the Swedish part of the Dalders Monocline appears to be limited, exploration efforts and the acquisition of new, site specific data through geophysical surveys, drilling and injection testing as well as detailed sampling and laboratory analyses, should be focussed on areas of better reservoir qualities than the current study area. New data covering the north eastern portion of the Dalders Monocline, in particular offshore Latvia and onshore as well as offshore Kaliningrad, would allow a detailed charterisation of individual potential sites for CO2 storage. This would also define site-specific seal integrity as well as chracterise small-scale fault structures that would ultimately dictate the potential injection and storage conditions.

Vernon, Richard; O'Neill, Nick; Pasquali, Riccardo; Niemi, Auli

2014-05-01

172

Electric Generation Expansion Analysis System. Volume 6. Installation manual. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

EGEAS is a modular state-of-the-art capacity expansion software package. It contains five capacity expansion analysis options ranging from preliminary analysis tools based on screening curves and linear programming to sophisticated nonlinear analysis tools utilizing a Generalized Benders' Decomposition algorithm and a Dynamic Programming algorithm. A stand alone, detailed probabilistic production costing algorithm is also available for prespecified expansion plan production

W. D. Fleck; L. Charny

1984-01-01

173

Iron cycling microbial communities in sediments of the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biogeochemical cycling of iron is a key early diagenetic process. However, limited information exists about the diversity and metabolic pathways of microorganisms linked to iron cycling in marine sediments. The goal of this study was to determine the bacterial community diversity in sediments showing ongoing dissimilatory iron reduction using 454-pyrosequencing as a first step in characterizing microorganisms potentially involved in iron reduction. For this purpose, two 35 cm cores were sampled from ferruginous sediments in the Skagerrak (SK) and the Bothnian Bay (BB) from the North-Sea Baltic Sea and the northern Baltic Sea respectively. Pore water profiles showed Fe2+ and Mn2+ levels of ~140-150 µM throughout the core below a 6 cm thick oxidized surface layer in SK sediments and ~300 µM below a 2 cm thick surface layer in BB sediments. Dissolved sulphide levels were below detection in both sediments. No significant depletion of SO42- occurred at both sites, further supported by stable S and O isotope analyses of dissolved sulfate at SK site. Only very minor net sulfate reduction is suggested here from the trend in sulphur isotope signatures, in agreement with previously reported gross microbial sulphate rate measurements (Canfield et al., 1993;GCA). Based on these biogeochemical constraints, Fe reduction in the studied sediments is therefore dominated by microbial dissimilatory iron reduction, while cryptic Fe-S-cycling can be largely excluded. 16S rRNA gene sequences indicate Proteobacteria as the dominating microbial group in these sediments. Potential iron and manganese reducing bacteria included Geobacteraceae, Pelobacteraceae, Shewanellaceae, and Oceanospirillales. Additionally, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were present. Also, Fe-oxidizers were present and their occurrence correlated in depth with a Fe-oxide-rich layer, most likely a former buried Fe-oxidation front. Gene sequences point to the presence of Mariprofundus in SK sediments and Gallionella in the brackisch BB sediment, hence, Fe oxidizers are adapted to the prevailing salinity. Beta diversity indicates that most diversity between the two sites is due to Gaiellaceae and Ellin6529 groups in BB and Phycisphaerae and Desulfobacteraceae in SK sediments. Considering the entire community in these zones of Fe reduction, it is clearly distinct from communities commonly found in sulphate reduction zones.

Reyes, Carolina; Delwig, Olaf; Noriega-Ortega, Beatriz; Dähnke, Kirstin; Böttcher, Michael E.; Friedrich, Michael W.

2014-05-01

174

Extreme Eutrophication and Anoxic Events in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The anoxic and reducing conditions in the deepest Baltic basins are today so extreme that there is nowhere else in the world that manganese sulfide minerals (both hexagonal and cubic MnS) are known to form and be preserved in sea-floor sediments. However, the same MnS mineralogy, reflecting similarly extreme reducing conditions, was also formed ca. 1500 C14-yrs ago in the Landsort Deep. Therefore, anthropogenic sources of nutrients are not necessarily the primary cause of modern eutrophication as is commonly assumed, and the reduction of these nutrient sources may not result in the desired impact on environmental conditions as many models would predict. Detailed element scans and thin-section studies using Markov-chain analyses have indicated cyclic variations on mm-, cm- and m-scales in both detrital and authigenic components, interpreted to relate to climatic or circulation changes. Carbon, sulfur and grain size vary together, suggesting the importance of organic matter for sulfur precipitation. In addition to favorable climatic and nutrient conditions, organic matter production is influenced by mixing processes and salinity changes that are associated with periodic inflow from the North Sea as part of the estuarine circulation that renews bottom water. We have calculated sedimentation rates and element fluxes. Detrital mineralogy was used to identify and partition sediment supply from idealized source types. Initially, the sediment contributions from glacial meltwater, sediment reworking and soil terrains have been modelled. Although human influence was much less 1500 C14-yrs ago, forest clearing and changed land use might have allowed greater erosion and nutrient supply. This is supported by an increased proportion of sediment supplied from soil terrains, but not supported by the slow total sedimentation rates (<0.4 mm yr) related to sapropel formation. Climatic influences and paleoceanographic dynamics are considered most important. Natural causes for rapid organic production, extreme eutrophication and anoxic precipitation of MnS minerals need to be better accounted for in models for eutrophication in the modern Baltic Sea.

Stevens, R. L.; Lepland, A.; Iskhakov, A.

2006-12-01

175

Ecosystem consequences of cyanobacteria in the northern Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria of the Baltic Sea have multiple effects on organisms that influence the food chain dynamics on several trophic levels. Cyanobacteria contain several bioactive compounds, such as alkaloids, peptides, and lipopolysaccharides. A group of nonribosomally produced oligopeptides, namely microcystins and nodularin, are tumor promoters and cause oxidative stress in the affected cells. Zooplankton graze on cyanobacteria, and when ingested, the hepatotoxins (nodularin) decrease the egg production of, for example, copepods. However, the observed effects are very variable, because many crustaceans are tolerant to nodularin and because cyanobacteria may complement the diet of grazers in small amounts. Cyanobacterial toxins are transferred through the food web from one trophic level to another. The transfer rate is relatively low in the pelagic food web, but reduced feeding and growth rates of fish larvae have been observed. In the benthic food web, especially in blue mussels, nodularin concentrations are high, and benthic feeding juvenile flounders have been observed to disappear from bloom areas. In the littoral ecosystem, gammarids have shown increased mortality and weakening of reproductive success under cyanobacterial exposure. In contrast, mysid shrimps seem to be tolerant to cyanobacterial exposure. In fish larvae, detoxication of nodularin poses a metabolic cost that is reflected as decreased growth and condition, which may increase their susceptibility to predation. Cyanobacterial filaments and aggregates also interfere with both hydromechanical and visual feeding of planktivores. The feeding appendages of mysid shrimps may clog, and the filaments interfere with prey detection of pike larvae. On the other hand, a cyanobacterial bloom may provide a refuge for both zooplankton and small fish. As the decaying bloom also provides an ample source of organic carbon and nutrients for the organisms of the microbial loop, the zooplankton species capable of selective feeding may thrive in bloom conditions. Cyanobacteria also compete for nutrients with other primary producers and change the nitrogen (N): phosphorus (P) balance of their environment by their N-fixation. Further, the bioactive compounds of cyanobacteria directly influence other primary producers, favoring cyanobacteria, chlorophytes, dinoflagellates, and nanoflagellates and inhibiting cryptophytes. As the selective grazers also shift the grazing pressure on other species than cyanobacteria, changes in the structure and functioning of the Baltic Sea communities and ecosystems are likely to occur during the cyanobacterial bloom season. PMID:17520934

Karjalainen, Miina; Engström-Ost, Jonna; Korpinen, Samuli; Peltonen, Heikki; Pääkkönen, Jari-Pekka; Rönkkönen, Sanna; Suikkanen, Sanna; Viitasalo, Markku

2007-04-01

176

Periodicity in Sediments from the Baltic Sea and in Greenland Ice as Climate Signals for the Late Quaternary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climatic records from Greenland ice and Baltic Sea provide as well information about global climate changes as about local basin peculiarities. Late Quaternary sediments have been accumulated in the Baltic Basin with high accumulation rates, qualifying them for the study of late Pleistocene to Holocene climate and environmental history in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic realm. Physical and geochemical

J. Harff; R. Endler; S. Kotov; T. Leipe; A. Witkowski

2009-01-01

177

Relationships between fish stock changes in the Baltic Sea and the M74 syndrome, a reproductive disorder of Atlantic  

E-print Network

Relationships between fish stock changes in the Baltic Sea and the M74 syndrome, a reproductive. Relationships between fish stock changes in the Baltic Sea and the M74 syndrome, a reproductive disorder in the BPr, primarily sprat, induce M74. By reducing the fishing pressure on cod (Gadus morhua) and by more

178

1 18 May 2003 Ris International Energy Conference Analysis of a future liberalised Lithuanian/Baltic Electricity  

E-print Network

/Baltic Electricity market Analysis of a future liberalised Lithuanian/Baltic Electricity market Risø International · Model used for the analyses · Results of analyses ­ Production patterns ­ Market prices on electricity of analyses ­ Production patterns ­ Market prices on electricity ­ Future situation for power plants ­ Welfare

179

Oceanographic connectivity and environmental correlates of genetic structuring in Atlantic herring in the Baltic Sea  

PubMed Central

Marine fish often show little genetic structuring in neutral marker genes, and Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in the Baltic Sea are no exception; historically, very low levels of population differentiation (FST ? 0.002) have been found, despite a high degree of interpopulation environmental heterogeneity in salinity and temperature. Recent exome sequencing and SNP studies have however shown that many loci are under selection in this system. Here, we combined population genetic analyses of a large number of transcriptome-derived microsatellite markers with oceanographic modelling to investigate genetic differentiation and connectivity in Atlantic herring at a relatively fine scale within the Baltic Sea. We found evidence for weak but robust and significant genetic structuring (FST = 0.008) explainable by oceanographic connectivity. Genetic differentiation was also associated with site differences in temperature and salinity, with the result driven by the locus Her14 which appears to be under directional selection (FST = 0.08). The results show that Baltic herring are genetically structured within the Baltic Sea, and highlight the role of oceanography and environmental factors in explaining this structuring. The results also have implications for the management of herring fisheries, the most economically important fishery in the Baltic Sea, suggesting that the current fisheries management units may be in need of revision. PMID:23745145

Teacher, Amber GF; André, Carl; Jonsson, Per R; Merilä, Juha

2013-01-01

180

Benthic competition and population dynamics of Monoporeia affinis and Marenzelleria sp. in the northern Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last two decades major changes of the benthic fauna have occurred in the northern Baltic Sea, the Gulf of Bothnia. The native amphipod, Monoporeia affinis, has shown a large-scale abundance decrease, while polychaetes, Marenzelleria spp. have invaded the system. Marenzelleria co-exist with the native fauna in the southern Baltic Sea, but in the north the pelagic production might be too low to allow co-existence. Thus, M. affinis might have been out-competed by Marenzelleria in the Gulf of Bothnia. This hypothesis was tested in a competition experiment with a high and a low fresh phytoplankton food supply. When exposed to high food supply both species showed stable or increased biomass over the four week test period. In low food supply, however, M. affinis was found to have a competitive advantage. The experimental data were also related to Baltic Sea monitoring data on primary production, sedimentation and invertebrate abundances. Data from the northern Baltic Sea show that the dominance in the benthic community by M. affinis was replaced by Marenzelleria around 2001. The amphipod decrease might be explained by a marked decrease in primary production during this period. Combining monitoring and experimental data suggests that the invasion of Marenzelleria did not cause the decrease of M. affinis in the northern Baltic Sea; it rather took advantage of the density gap that had occurred. A shift may thus have been established in the Bothnian Sea benthic community.

Eriksson Wiklund, A.-K.; Andersson, A.

2014-05-01

181

Biodiversity gradient in the Baltic Sea: a comprehensive inventory of macrozoobenthos data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Helsinki Commission Red List project 2009-2012, taxonomic and distributional data of benthic (macro) invertebrates were compiled by the present authors in a comprehensive checklist of the Baltic Sea fauna. Based on the most recent and comprehensive data, this paper presents the diversity patterns observed among benthic invertebrates in the Baltic Sea. As expected, the total number of species per sub-region generally declined along the salinity gradient from the Danish Straits to the northern Baltic Sea. This relationship is well known from the Baltic Sea and has resulted in a general assumption of an exponentially positive relationship between species richness and salinity for marine species, and a negative relationship for freshwater species. In 1934, Remane produced a diagram to describe the hypothetical distribution of benthic invertebrate diversity along a marine-freshwater salinity gradient. Our results clearly indicated the validity of this theory for the macrozoobenthic diversity pattern within the Baltic Sea. Categorisation of sub-regions according to species composition showed both separation and grouping of some sub-regions and a strong alignment of similarity patterns of zoobenthic species composition along the salinity gradient.

Zettler, Michael L.; Karlsson, Anna; Kontula, Tytti; Gruszka, Piotr; Laine, Ari O.; Herkül, Kristjan; Schiele, Kerstin S.; Maximov, Alexey; Haldin, Jannica

2014-03-01

182

Temporal variability of the Baltic Sea level based on satellite observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of this paper is to determine what are the most important time scales of variability of the sea level in the open Baltic Sea. The study is based on the 7-day resolution multimission global gridded sea level anomalies (SLA) for years 1992-2012 distributed by AVISO. For comparison satellite-derived SLA from the North Sea and North Atlantic, coastal data from the Stockholm tide gauge, the NCEP meteorological data, and river runoff data from the Balt-HYPE model have been also analyzed. We have applied time series analysis algorithms (Bendat and Piersol, 2011). Supporting earlier research, our results show that the variability of the sea level in the open Baltic Sea is highly coherent with the sea level in the North Sea. We have found out that the annual peak is not well pronounced in the open Baltic Sea SLA spectrum, but the semiannual peak is the most prevailing. In contrast, the annual peak is significant in the North Sea SLA power spectrum. The coherence between the open Baltic Sea and the Stockholm SLA is high and the SLA variability in these two locations is in phase. The results of the cross-spectral analysis between the SLA in the Baltic Sea and meteorological parameters (wind stress magnitude, zonal and meridional wind stress components, and barometric pressure at sea level) show that coherence is highest with the zonal wind stress component. Coherence between the river runoff and the SLA in Stockholm is not significant.

Stramska, Malgorzata

2013-11-01

183

Artificial radionuclides ??Sr and ²?¹Am in the sediments of the Baltic Sea: total and spatial inventories and some temporal trends.  

PubMed

The Baltic Sea was contaminated by radioactivity following global nuclear fallout and later by the Chernobyl accident. Despite the decrease of radioactivity caused by radioactive decay, radionuclides have a prolonged residence time in the water of the Baltic Sea due to slow water exchange and relatively rapid sedimentation. Very little is known about the amounts or spatial differences of ??Sr and ²?¹Am in the Baltic Sea sediments. In this study, 20 sediment cores taken around the Baltic Sea were investigated to estimate inventories of these radionuclides. The rough results show that the Chernobyl fallout added the amount of ??Sr in the same areas where the increase of ¹³?Cs can be detected, whereas this is not the case for ²?¹Am which is more evenly distributed in the sea bottom. In addition, local differences occur in the concentrations. These results are an important amendment to the radioactivity baseline of the Baltic Sea. PMID:23582977

Hutri, Kaisa-Leena; Mattila, Jukka; Ikäheimonen, Tarja Tuulikki; Vartti, Vesa-Pekka

2013-05-15

184

Enrichment of Omnivorous Cercozoan Nanoflagellates from Coastal Baltic Sea Waters  

PubMed Central

Free-living nano-sized flagellates are important bacterivores in aquatic habitats. However, some slightly larger forms can also be omnivorous, i.e., forage upon both bacterial and eukaryotic resources. This hitherto largely ignored feeding mode may have pronounced implications for the interpretation of experiments about protistan bacterivory. We followed the response of an uncultured group of omnivorous cercozoan nanoflagellates from the Novel Clade 2 (Cerc_BAL02) to experimental food web manipulation in samples from the Gulf of Gda?sk (Southern Baltic Sea). Seawater was either prefiltered through 5 µm filters to exclude larger predators of nanoflagellates (F-treatment), or prefiltered and subsequently 1?10 diluted with sterile seawater (F+D-treatment) to stimulate the growth of both, flagellates and bacteria. Initially, Cerc_BAL02 were rapidly enriched under both conditions. They foraged on both, eukaryotic prey and bacteria, and were highly competitive at low concentrations of food. However, these omnivores were later only successful in the F+D treatment, where they eventually represented almost one fifth of all aplastidic nanoflagellates. By contrast, their numbers stagnated in the F-treatment, possibly due to top-down control by a concomitant bloom of other, unidentified flagellates. In analogy with observations about the enrichment of opportunistically growing bacteria in comparable experimental setups we suggest that the low numbers of omnivorous Cerc_Bal02 flagellates in waters of the Gulf of Gda?sk might also be related to their vulnerability to grazing pressure. PMID:21966360

Piwosz, Kasia; Pernthaler, Jakob

2011-01-01

185

Inactivated phosphorus by added aluminum in Baltic Sea sediment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decreased phosphorus (P) retention in aquatic sediments during hypoxic periods results in increased P recycling to the water column. To revert to less productive conditions in the enclosed bays of the Baltic Sea archipelago, increased sediment P burial capacity is needed. Aluminum (Al) addition is considered to be a cost-effective lake restoration method, as it improves sediment P burial capacity. However, little is known about its ability to permanently bind P in brackish systems. In summer 2000, Al sulfate granules were added to a hypoxic bottom area in the Östhammar bay, Sweden. Sediment core samples from the area were collected 10 years later. A peak in Al and P was detected at 20 cm sediment depth, reflecting the added Al and P trapped to it. Only part of the added Al was recovered, but the recovered Al (8 g Al/m2) trapped P at a ratio of 5:1 (molar). Chemical fractionation showed that P extracted as "Al-P" constituted 55% of the trapped P, indicating that Al added also trapped P extracted as other P forms.

Rydin, Emil

2014-12-01

186

Seasonal Activity Budget of Adult Baltic Ringed Seals  

PubMed Central

Although ringed seals are important components in oceanic and fresh water ecosystems at high latitudes, little is known about how they exploit these harsh environments. Seasonal activity and diving behaviour of 19 adult Baltic ringed seals were studied by satellite telemetry. We elaborated an activity budget for ten months of the year, extending over the period from moult to the breeding season. Seals from three main regions showed explicit site fidelity and the distributions of animals tagged from different areas did not overlap, suggesting separate stocks. Both the mean duration and the mean depth of dives peaked in June and July. Seals spent 70% (females) to 85% (males) of their time diving in June and July which decreased to 50% in late autumn. Less than one percent of dives exceeded 10 min in females, while 10% of male dives lasted longer than 10 min in June to September. Less than one percent of dives lasted for more than 25 min. Both females and males were most active during day time and hauled out predominantly during the night. Activity patterns during the summer are suggested to be correlated to energy accumulation and prey availability. The information on seasonal activity budget is crucial for developing population energetic models where interactions between ringed seals and other trophic levels can be evaluated. PMID:18414676

Harkonen, Tero; Jüssi, Mart; Jüssi, Ivar; Verevkin, Michail; Dmitrieva, Lilia; Helle, Eero; Sagitov, Roustam; Harding, Karin C.

2008-01-01

187

Sorption and predicted mobility of herbicides in Baltic soils.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to determine sorption coefficients of eight herbicides (alachlor, amitrole, atrazine, simazine, dicamba, imazamox, imazethapyr, and pendimethalin) to seven agricultural soils from sites throughout Lithuania. The measured sorption coefficients were used to predict the susceptibility of these herbicides to leach to groundwater. Soil-water partitioning coefficients were measured in batch equilibrium studies using radiolabeled herbicides. In most soils, sorption followed the general trend pendimethalin > alachlor > atrazine approximately amitrole approximately simazine > imazethapyr > imazamox > dicamba, consistent with the trends in hydrophobicity (log K(ow)) except in the case of amitrole. For several herbicides, sorption coefficients and calculated retardation factors were lowest (predicted to be most susceptible to leaching) in a soil of intermediate organic carbon content and sand content. Calculated herbicide retardation factors were high for soils with high organic carbon contents. Estimated leaching times under saturated conditions, assuming no herbicide degradation and no preferential water flow, were more strongly affected by soil textural effects on predicted water flow than by herbicide sorption effects. All herbicides were predicted to be slowest to leach in soils with high clay and low sand contents, and fastest to leach in soils with high sand content and low organic matter content. Herbicide management is important to the continued increase in agricultural production and profitability in the Baltic region, and these results will be useful in identifying critical areas requiring improved management practices to reduce water contamination by pesticides. PMID:17701699

Sakaliene, Ona; Papiernik, Sharon K; Koskinen, William C; Spokas, Kurt A

2007-08-01

188

Impact of climate change on fish population dynamics in the Baltic sea: a dynamical downscaling investigation.  

PubMed

Understanding how climate change, exploitation and eutrophication will affect populations and ecosystems of the Baltic Sea can be facilitated with models which realistically combine these forcings into common frameworks. Here, we evaluate sensitivity of fish recruitment and population dynamics to past and future environmental forcings provided by three ocean-biogeochemical models of the Baltic Sea. Modeled temperature explained nearly as much variability in reproductive success of sprat (Sprattus sprattus; Clupeidae) as measured temperatures during 1973-2005, and both the spawner biomass and the temperature have influenced recruitment for at least 50 years. The three Baltic Sea models estimate relatively similar developments (increases) in biomass and fishery yield during twenty-first century climate change (ca. 28 % range among models). However, this uncertainty is exceeded by the one associated with the fish population model, and by the source of global climate data used by regional models. Knowledge of processes and biases could reduce these uncertainties. PMID:22926884

Mackenzie, Brian R; Meier, H E Markus; Lindegren, Martin; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Eero, Margit; Blenckner, Thorsten; Tomczak, Maciej T; Niiranen, Susa

2012-09-01

189

MPC&A training needs of the NIS/Baltics States.  

SciTech Connect

This report serves to document contract deliverables considered to be of continuing interest associated with two workshops conducted as part of an initial assessment of Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) training needs of the Newly Independent and Baltic States (NIS/Baltics). These workshops were held in Kiev, Ukraine, ca. 2003-2004, with the assistance of personnel from the George Kuzmycz Training Center (GKTC) of the Kiev Institute of Nuclear Research (KINR). Because of the dominant role Ukraine plays in the region in terms of the nuclear industry, one workshop focused exclusively on Ukrainian training needs, with participants attending from twelve Ukrainian organizations (plus U.S. DOE/NNSA representatives). The second workshop included participation by a further ten countries from the NIS/Baltics region. In addition, the training needs data developed during the workshop were supplemented by the outcomes of surveys and studies conducted by the GKTC.

Beck, David Franklin; Stoy-McLeod, Carol L.

2006-07-01

190

Less ice on the Baltic reduces the extent of hypoxic bottom waters and sedimentary phosphorus release  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A significant relation was established between the maximum extent of sea ice covering the Baltic Sea and the hypoxic area in the deeper parts of the Baltic Proper, with a lag of 2 years: for the period 1970-2000, less ice was correlated with a smaller anoxic area. At the same time, maximum ice extent is subject to a long-term climate-related decline, due to higher air temperatures and an increased frequency of westerly winds. Together, this suggests that the hypoxic area will decrease in the coming decades. Internal sedimentary phosphorus-loading is closely related to the hypoxic area and hence would decrease as well. Wind strength variability did not have a significant additive effect to the variance in hypoxic area already explained by sea ice extent. The observed lag is in agreement with the order of magnitude of estimated residence times in the shallower sub-basins feeding the Baltic Proper, where ice extent varies most.

Vermaat, Jan E.; Bouwer, Laurens M.

2009-05-01

191

Caesium-137 distribution, inventories and accumulation history in the Baltic Sea sediments.  

PubMed

The Baltic Sea is susceptible to pollution by hazardous substances due to limited water exchange, shallowness, and the large catchment area. Radionuclides, particularly (137)Cs, are one of the most hazardous anthropogenic substances present in the Baltic environment. This study was conducted to present (137)Cs present contamination that should further be a subject of reliable monitoring when the new Nuclear Power Plant is put into operation in the northern Poland. The sea-wide, up to date distribution of (137)Cs activities and inventories in the Baltic Sea bottom sediments are presented. The (137)Cs activity concentrations were measured in 30 cm long sediment cores collected at 22 sampling stations. Sediment accumulation rates were quantified by (210)Pb geochronology to follow the history of (137)Cs accumulation. The (137)Cs inventories and fluxes were calculated. Most of the Baltic Sea sediments accumulated (137)Cs in the range from 750 to 2675 Bq m(-2). The Bothnian Bay is severely contaminated by (137)Cs with inventories up to 95,191 Bq m(-2). This region is moreover characterized by extremely large patchiness of (137)Cs inventories. The (137)Cs annual fluxes are highest at the two stations located at the Bothnian Bay (342 Bq m(-2) and 527 Bq m(-2)) due to large Chernobyl (137)Cs contamination of that region and high sediment accumulation rates. When these stations are excluded, the recent, annual mean value of (137)Cs load to the Baltic Sea deposits is 38 ± 22 Bq m(-2). The distribution of radio-caesium inventories over the Baltic Sea nowadays reflects the pattern of Chernobyl contamination. The radio-caesium deposited in surface sediments is not permanently buried, but may be resuspended and redeposited by currents, bioturbation or anthropogenic activities. PMID:24121306

Zaborska, Agata; Winogradow, Aleksandra; Pempkowiak, Janusz

2014-01-01

192

Modeling the variations of salinity and temperature in the large Gulfs of the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modeling of salinity and temperature in Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf of Finland, and Gulf of Riga is investigated by using a coupled sea ice-ocean Baltic Sea model. 18 years, from late 1980 to the end of 1998, have been investigated. The forcing data extracted taken from a gridded meteorological data base, sea level data from the Kattegat, and river runoff data to the different subbasins of the Baltic Sea from a hydrological data base. To improve the gridded meteorological data base a statistical model for the reduction of geostrophic winds to surface winds was developed. In the analysis it was shown that the calculated long-term salinity and temperature structures were stable and in good agreement with observations. This was made possible by using three different strait-flow models connecting the subbasins of the Baltic Sea. The seasonal and interannual variations of temperature and salinity were also well simulated by the model, implying that the coupling between the atmosphere and the Baltic Sea as well as the diapycnal mixing are reasonably well understood. The water cycle and the surface heat balance were calculated using the 18-year simulation. In the water-balance calculations it was shown that the volume flows from the large gulfs of the Baltic Sea were mainly due to baroclinic transports and that net precipitation added freshwater during the studied period, particularly to the large gulfs. From the heat-balance calculation it is concluded that the Baltic Sea is almost in local balance with the atmosphere. The Bothnian Bay, Gulf of Finland and Gulf of Riga loose heat, whereas the Bothnian Sea gains heat, calculated as long-term means.

Omstedt, A.; Axell, L. B.

2003-03-01

193

Uniform gradient expansions  

E-print Network

Cosmological singularities are often discussed by means of a gradient expansion that can also describe, during a quasi-de Sitter phase, the progressive suppression of curvature inhomogeneities. While the inflationary event horizon is being formed the two mentioned regimes coexist and a uniform expansion can be conceived and applied to the evolution of spatial gradients across the protoinflationary boundary. It is argued that conventional arguments addressing the preinflationary initial conditions are necessary but generally not sufficient to guarantee a homogeneous onset of the conventional inflationary stage.

Giovannini, Massimo

2014-01-01

194

Past, present and future state of the biogeochemical Si cycle in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baltic Sea is one of many aquatic ecosystems that show long-term declines in dissolved silicate (DSi) concentrations due to anthropogenic alteration of the biogeochemical Si cycle. Reductions in DSi in aquatic ecosystems have been coupled to hydrological regulation reducing inputs, but also with eutrophication, although the relative significance of both processes remains unknown for the observed reductions in DSi concentrations. Here we combine present and historical data on water column DSi concentrations, together with estimates of present river DSi loads to the Baltic, the load prior to damming together with estimates of the long-term accumulation of BSi in sediments. In addition, a model has been used to evaluate the past, present and future state of the biogeochemical Si cycle in the Baltic Sea. The present day DSi load to the Baltic Sea is 855 ktons y - 1 . Hydrological regulation and eutrophication of inland waters can account for a reduction of 420 ktons y - 1 less riverine DSi entering the Baltic Sea today. Using published data on basin-wide accumulation rates we estimate that 1074 ktons y - 1 of biogenic silica (BSi) is accumulating in the sediments, which is 36% higher than earlier estimates from the literature (791 ktons y - 1 ). The difference is largely due to the high reported sedimentation rates in the Bothnian Sea and the Bothnian Bay. Using river DSi loads and estimated BSi accumulation, our model was not able to estimate water column DSi concentrations as burial estimates exceeded DSi inputs. The model was then used to estimate the BSi burial from measured DSi concentrations and DSi load. The model estimate for the total burial of BSi in all three basins was 620 ktons y - 1 , 74% less than estimated from sedimentation rates and sediment BSi concentrations. The model predicted 20% less BSi accumulation in the Baltic Proper and 10% less in the Bothnian Bay than estimated, but with significantly less BSi accumulation in the Bothnian Sea by a factor of 3. The model suggests there is an overestimation of basin-wide sedimentation rates in the Bothnian Bay and the Bothnian Sea. In the Baltic Proper, modelling shows that historical DSi concentrations were 2.6 times higher at the turn of the last century (ca. 1900) than at present. Although the DSi decrease has leveled out and at present there are only restricted areas of the Baltic Sea with limiting DSi concentrations, further declines in DSi concentrations will lead to widespread DSi limitation of diatoms with severe implications for the food web.

Conley, Daniel J.; Humborg, Christoph; Smedberg, Erik; Rahm, Lars; Papush, Liana; Danielsson, Åsa; Clarke, Annemarie; Pastuszak, Marianna; Aigars, Juris; Ciuffa, Daniele; Mörth, Carl-Magnus

2008-10-01

195

Ctenophore population recruits entirely through larval reproduction in the central Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

The comb jelly Mertensia ovum, widely distributed in Arctic regions, has recently been discovered in the northern Baltic Sea. We show that M. ovum also exists in the central Baltic but that the population consists solely of small-sized larvae (less than 1.6 mm). Despite the absence of adults, eggs were abundant. Experiments revealed that the larvae were reproductively active. Egg production and anticipated mortality rates suggest a self-sustaining population. This is the first account of a ctenophore population entirely recruiting through larval reproduction (paedogenesis). We hypothesize that early reproduction is favoured over growth to compensate for high predation pressure. PMID:22535640

Jaspers, Cornelia; Haraldsson, Matilda; Bolte, Sören; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Thygesen, Uffe H; Kiørboe, Thomas

2012-10-23

196

Expansion/De-expansion Tool to Quantify the Accuracy of Prostate Contours  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Accurate delineation of the prostate gland on computed tomography (CT) remains a persistent challenge and continues to introduce geometric uncertainty into the planning and delivery of external beam radiotherapy. We, therefore, developed an expansion/de-expansion tool to quantify the contour errors and determine the location of the deviations. Methods and Materials: A planning CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging scan were prospectively acquired for 10 patients with prostate cancer. The prostate glands were contoured by 3 independent observers using the CT data sets with instructions to contour the prostate without underestimation but to minimize overestimation. The standard prostate for each patient was defined using magnetic resonance imaging and CT on multiple planes. After registration of the CT and magnetic resonance imaging data sets, the CT-defined prostates were scored for accuracy. The contours were defined as ideal if they were within a 2.5-mm expansion of the standard without underestimation, acceptable if they were within a 5.0-mm expansion and a 2.5-mm de-expansion, and unacceptable if they extended >5.0 mm or underestimated the prostate by >2.5 mm. Results: A total of 636 CT slices were individually analyzed, with the vast majority scored as ideal or acceptable. However, none of the 30 prostate contour sets had all the contours scored as ideal or acceptable. For all 3 observers, the unacceptable contours were more likely from underestimation than overestimation of the prostate. The errors were more common at the base and apex than the mid-gland. Conclusions: The expansion/de-expansion tool allows for directed feedback on the location of contour deviations, as well as the determination of over- or underestimation of the prostate. This metric might help improve the accuracy of prostate contours.

Chung, Eugene; Stenmark, Matthew H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Evans, Cheryl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Providence Cancer Center, Novi, MI (United States); Narayana, Vrinda [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Providence Cancer Center, Novi, MI (United States); McLaughlin, Patrick W., E-mail: mclaughb@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Providence Cancer Center, Novi, MI (United States)

2012-05-01

197

Static gas expansion cooler  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a cooler for television cameras and other temperature sensitive equipment. The cooler uses compressed gas ehich is accelerated to a high velocity by passing it through flow passageways having nozzle portions which expand the gas. This acceleration and expansion causes the gas to undergo a decrease in temperature thereby cooling the cooler body and adjacent temperature sensitive equipment.

Guzek, J.C.; Lujan, R.A.

1984-01-01

198

Expansive motions Robert Connelly  

E-print Network

of a tensegrity structure. The links in the chain are bars, that cannot change their length, and between everyCxx, 52.50 Keywords: Carpenter's rule, expansive mappings, tensegrities 1 Carpenter's rule problems that this tensegrity is NOT rigid. But there are techniques for showing that tensegrities are rigid or not rigid

Connelly, Robert

199

AUTO-EXPANSIVE FLOW  

EPA Science Inventory

Physics suggests that the interplay of momentum, continuity, and geometry in outward radial flow must produce density and concomitant pressure reductions. In other words, this flow is intrinsically auto-expansive. It has been proposed that this process is the key to understanding...

200

Urban Expansion Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under an Egyptian government contract, PADCO studies urban growth in the Nile Area. They were assisted by LANDSAT survey maps and measurements provided by TAC. TAC had classified the raw LANDSAT data and processed it into various categories to detail urban expansion. PADCO crews spot checked the results, and correlations were established.

1985-01-01

201

A Special Trinomial Expansion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author takes up the special trinomial (1 + x + x[squared])[superscript n] and shows that the coefficients of its expansion are entries of a Pascal-like triangle. He also shows how to calculate these entries recursively and explicitly. This article could be used in the classroom for enrichment. (Contains 1 table.)

Ayoub, Ayoub B.

2006-01-01

202

Expansion of the Universe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, developed by Maxine Phaisalakani at the University of Toronto Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, introduces in a slide show presentation research that led to the discovery of the expansion of the universe. The site addresses many astronomical concepts including the big bang theory, dark matter, and the Doppler Effect.

Phaisalakani, Maxine

203

Egg production of turbot, Scophthalmus maximus, in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the brackish water Baltic Sea turbot spawn at ~ 6-9 psu along the coast and on offshore banks in ICES SD 24-29, with salinity influencing the reproductive success. The potential fecundity (the stock of vitellogenic oocytes in the pre-spawning ovary), egg size (diameter and dry weight of artificially fertilized 1-day-old eggs) and gonad dry weight were assessed for fish sampled in SD 25 and SD 28. Multiple regression analysis identified somatic weight, or total length in combination with Fulton's condition factor, as main predictors of fecundity and gonad dry weight with stage of maturity (oocyte packing density or leading cohort) as an additional predictor. For egg size, somatic weight was identified as main predictor while otolith weight (proxy for age) was an additional predictor. Univariate analysis using GLM revealed significantly higher fecundity and gonad dry weight for turbot from SD 28 (3378-3474 oocytes/g somatic weight) compared to those from SD 25 (2343 oocytes/g somatic weight), with no difference in egg size (1.05 ± 0.03 mm diameter and 46.8 ± 6.5 ?g dry weight; mean ± sd). The difference in egg production matched egg survival probabilities in relation to salinity conditions suggesting selection for higher fecundity as a consequence of poorer reproductive success at lower salinities. This supports the hypothesis of higher size-specific fecundity towards the limit of the distribution of a species as an adaptation to harsher environmental conditions and lower offspring survival probabilities. Within SD 28 comparisons were made between two major fishing areas targeting spawning aggregations and a marine protected area without fishing. The outcome was inconclusive and is discussed with respect to potential fishery induced effects, effects of the salinity gradient, effects of specific year-classes, and effects of maturation status of sampled fish.

Nissling, Anders; Florin, Ann-Britt; Thorsen, Anders; Bergström, Ulf

2013-11-01

204

Seabird Guano Fertilizes Baltic Sea Littoral Food Webs  

PubMed Central

Nutrient enrichment in coastal marine systems can have profound impacts on trophic networks. In the Baltic Sea, the population of Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) has increased nearly exponentially since the mid-1990s, and colonies of these seabirds can be important sources of nitrogen enrichment for nearby benthic communities due to guano runoff. In this study we used stable isotope analyses and diet mixing models to determine the extent of nitrogen enrichment from cormorant colonies, as well as to examine any possible changes in herbivore diet preferences due to enrichment. We found significantly higher levels of ?15N in samples from colony islands than control islands for producers (the dominant macroalga Fucus vesiculosus, filamentous algae, and periphyton) and herbivores, as well as a positive correlation between enrichment and nest density in colony sites. We also found that enrichment increased over the breeding season of the cormorants, with higher enrichment in late summer than early summer. While the amount of total nitrogen did not differ between colony and control sites, the amount of guano-based nitrogen in algae was >50% in most sites, indicating high nitrogen enrichment from colonies. Herbivores (the isopod Idotea balthica and the gastropod Theodoxus fluviatilis) preferred feeding upon the dominant macroalga Fucus vesiculosus rather than on filamentous algae or periphyton in both control and colony, and there was a significant increase in periphyton consumption near colony sites. Overall, guano from cormorant colonies seems to have effects on both producers and herbivores, as well as the potential to modify algae-herbivore interactions. PMID:23593452

Gagnon, Karine; Rothäusler, Eva; Syrjänen, Anneli; Yli-Renko, Maria; Jormalainen, Veijo

2013-01-01

205

Simulated distributions of Baltic Sea-ice in warming climate and consequences for the winter habitat of the Baltic ringed seal.  

PubMed

Sea-ice in the Baltic Sea in present and future climates is investigated. The Rossby Centre Regional Atmosphere-Ocean model was used to perform a set of 30-year-long time slice experiments. For each of the two driving global models HadAM3H and ECHAM4/OPYC3, one control run (1961-1990) and two scenario runs (2071-2100) based upon the SRES A2 and B2 emission scenarios were conducted. The future sea-ice volume in the Baltic Sea is reduced by 83% on average. The Bothnian Sea, large areas of the Gulf of Finland and Gulf of Riga, and the outer parts of the southwestern archipelago of Finland will become ice-free in the mean. The presented scenarios are used to study the impact of climate change on the Baltic ringed seal (Phoca hispida botnica). Climate change seems to be a major threat to all southern populations. The only fairly good winter sea-ice habitat is found to be confined to the Bay of Bothnia. PMID:15264604

Meier, H E Markus; Döscher, Ralf; Halkka, Antti

2004-06-01

206

Expansion tube test time predictions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interaction of an interface between two gases and strong expansion is investigated and the effect on flow in an expansion tube is examined. Two mechanisms for the unsteady Pitot-pressure fluctuations found in the test section of an expansion tube are proposed. The first mechanism depends on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of the driver-test gas interface in the presence of a strong expansion. The second mechanism depends on the reflection of the strong expansion from the interface. Predictions compare favorably with experimental results. The theory is expected to be independent of the absolute values of the initial expansion tube filling pressures.

Gourlay, Christopher M.

1988-01-01

207

Genetic population structure of sympatric and allopatric populations of Baltic ciscoes (Coregonus albula complex, Teleostei, Coregonidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Teleost fishes of the Coregonidae are good model systems for studying postglacial evolution, adaptive radiation and ecological speciation. Of particular interest is whether the repeated occurrence of sympatric species pairs results from in-situ divergence from a single lineage or from multiple invasions of one or more different lineages. Here, we analysed the genetic structure of Baltic ciscoes (Coregonus albula

Thomas Mehner; Kirsten Pohlmann; Che Elkin; Michael T Monaghan; Barbara Nitz; Jörg Freyhof

2010-01-01

208

A new species of the genus Crepidodera Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from Baltic amber.  

PubMed

A new flea-beetle species, Crepidodera svetlanae sp. nov. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini) is described and illustrated from the Baltic amber. The new species is compared with the fossil and recent species of the genus. A key to species of flea beetles known from fossil resin is provided. PMID:24943614

Bukejs, Andris

2014-01-01

209

A new species of Diochus from Baltic amber (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Diochini).  

PubMed

The first fossil of the staphylinine tribe Diochini Casey is described and figured from an inclusion in mid-Eocene (Lutetian) Baltic amber. Diochus electrussp. n. is distinguished from its congeners and the diversity of rove beetles (Staphylinidae s.l.) is summarized briefly. PMID:22144854

Chatzimanolis, Stylianos; Engel, Michael S

2011-01-01

210

Pyrosequencing reveals contrasting seasonal dynamics of taxa within Baltic Sea bacterioplankton communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in traits causes bacterial populations to respond in contrasting ways to environmental drivers. Learning about this will help us understand the ecology of individual populations in complex ecosystems. We used 454 pyrosequencing of the hypervariable region V6 of the 16S rRNA gene to study seasonal dynamics in Baltic Sea bacterioplankton communities, and link community and population changes to biological

Anders F Andersson; Lasse Riemann; Stefan Bertilsson

2010-01-01

211

Invited Feature History and scenarios of future development of Baltic Sea eutrophication  

E-print Network

-polar climate, are covered by boreal forest and wetlands, are sparsely populated, and the rivers drain by the 1950s when phytoplankton blooms were encountered close to large cities and linked to anthropogenic and the increase in anoxia in the deep basins of the central Baltic Sea (Fonselius, 1969). Over the next decades

Dippner, Joachim W.

212

Baltic amber fossils reveal early evolution of sexual dimorphism in stalk-eyed flies (Diptera: Diopsidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cladistic analysis of 16 species of extant and amber fossil stalk-eyed flies of the family Diopsidae places the fossil †Prosphyracephala succini (Loew) as the sister group of all other Diopsinae, the subfamily in which eye stalks occur. The study is based on a scoring including five old and 23 new finds of †P. succini from Baltic amber, and for

Marion Kotrba

2004-01-01

213

Island Biogeography Theory in Coastal Ecosystem Protection: The Baltic Sandy Shores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present data on Baltic sandy shores biodiversity and ecology. The importance of littoral benthic assemblages for coastal waters ecology is discussed, with emphasis on meiofauna and macrofauna. The structure and function of sandy assemblages is presented according to the methodology proposed by McLachlan for sandy shores and adopted from the island biogeography theory of Wilson and McArthur. Approximately

Lech Kotwicki; Jan Marcin; Katarzyna Grzelak

214

Cultural and Linguistic Diversity of the Baltic States in a New Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language questions are increasingly on the agenda in Europe. This paper addresses some problematic aspects of language teaching and learning that have come to the fore in the Baltic states after the European Union enlargement of 2004. First, the paper aims at providing relevant information about language policies in the former USSR and the…

Savickien, Ineta; Kaledaite, Violeta

2005-01-01

215

Integrated ecological assessment of Danish Baltic Sea coastal areas by means of phytoplankton and macrophytobenthos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Water Framework Directive (WFD) demands an integrated assessment of ecological quality based on biological parameters. In this context combined macrophytobenthos and phytoplankton data sets along the Danish Baltic Sea coast were analysed for similarities and differences in their response to abiotic variables. Zostera marina's depth limits showed a significantly negative correlation with concentrations of total-nitrogen, total phosphorus and chlorophyll

Sigrid Sagert; Dorte Krause Jensen; Peter Henriksen; Thorsten Rieling; Hendrik Schubert

2005-01-01

216

Mass budgets, pathways, and equilibrium states of two hexachlorocyclohexanes in the Baltic Sea environment.  

PubMed

The POPCYCLING-Baltic model, a non-steady-state multicompartmental mass balance model of long-term chemical fate in the Baltic Sea environment, is used to derive a quantitative understanding of the behavior of alpha- and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) from 1970 to 2000. The atmosphere is found to effectively distribute the HCHs within the Baltic Sea environment and beyond, resulting in relatively uniform concentrations in environmental compartments that do not directly receive emissions. This uniformity is the result of a large-scale redistribution of a relatively small fraction of the emitted HCHs from the agricultural systems in source areas to all other environmental compartments throughout the Baltic Sea region. The major fraction of the HCHs is degraded in the soils receiving the pesticide application. In areas where HCH-containing pesticides are used, HCHs evaporate from soils and water bodies and are advected away in the atmosphere. They are deposited to forests and water bodies when they reach remote regions. This redistribution is driven by the inclination of the HCHs to equalize their chemical potential within the environment, which is illustrated through the use of fugacity fractions. The model is believed to provide useful insight into the complex set of interactions that determine the overall fate of an environmental contaminant but which are inaccessible to measurements. PMID:11917986

Breivik, Knut; Wania, Frank

2002-03-01

217

Baltic Astronomy, vol.12, XXXXXX, 2003. Are Gamma Ray Burst Driven by Gravitational Waves?  

E-print Network

Baltic Astronomy, vol.12, XXX­XXX, 2003. Are Gamma Ray Burst Driven by Gravitational Waves? Loukas sheets (magnetic nulls). We demonstrate that the passage of strong pulses of Gravitational Waves through and become the driver for many types of astrophysical bursts. Key words: gravitational waves­compact objects

Vlahos, Loukas

218

Impact of climate change on the Baltic Sea ecosystem over the past 1,000 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change has a strong impact on ecosystem health, particularly in marginal seas such as the Baltic, for example causing the spreading of anoxic areas (oxygen-free areas, the so-called dead zones) through strong feedbacks. Marked ecosystem changes in the Baltic Sea have been recorded in the sedimentary archive, but the reasons are not fully understood. Here we report an integrated study of high-resolution sediment records (past 1,000 years) in combination with an ecosystem modelling approach, providing new insights into the functioning of the Baltic Sea ecosystem under natural and human-influenced climatic changes. Between the Little Ice Age and the Modern Warm Period the surface water temperatures reconstructed using TEX86 palaeothermometry increased by ~2°C. Simultaneously, the anoxic areas in the Baltic Sea began to expand significantly as evident from the accumulation of laminated sediments. Ecosystem model simulations support our findings of widespread oxic areas during the Little Ice Age. Backed up by the modelling results that take into account anthropogenic-influenced nutrient load scenarios, our results provide evidence that surface temperature changes strongly influence deepwater oxygenation. This highlights the risk of a continued spreading of anoxic areas during scenarios of continued climate warming in the future.

Kabel, Karoline; Moros, Matthias; Porsche, Christian; Neumann, Thomas; Adolphi, Florian; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Siegel, Herbert; Gerth, Monika; Leipe, Thomas; Jansen, Eystein; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

2012-12-01

219

N/P ratio of nutrient uptake in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The N/P ratio of nutrient uptake, i.e., the ratio of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) to dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) taken by primary producers, varies in different basins and in different seasons in the Baltic Sea. The N/P ratio of nutrient alteration fore and after spring blooms is not same as the N/P ratio of nutrient uptake, but the former can be regarded as an indicator for the later in the Baltic Sea. Based on the observed N/P ratio of nutrient alteration, we hypothesize a non-Redfield N/P ratio of nutrient uptake. The 3D-ecosystem model ERGOM coupled with the circulation model DMI-BSHcmod was used to test the hypothesis. When the Redfield ratio was used in the model, the DIP surplus after spring blooms was too high and resulted in the overly growth of cyanobacteria and too much nitrogen fixation. When the non-Redfield ratio was used in the model, the corresponding problem tended to disappear. In summary, we show that: (1) the Redfield N/P ratio of nutrient uptake in the Baltic Sea tends to be too high; (2) a lower N/P ratio 10:1 appears to work better than the Redfield value; and (3) the N/P ratio of nutrient uptake in the Baltic Proper during spring blooms is around 6:1.

Wan, Z.; Jonasson, L.; Bi, H.

2011-06-01

220

234U and 238U isotopes in water and sediments of the southern Baltic.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to determine the concentration of 234U and 238U and calculate the values of the 234U/238U activity ratio in waters and sediments from the various regions of the southern Baltic Sea: Gda?sk Deep, S?upsk Narrow and Bornholm Deep. The concentration of uranium in analysed sediments from southern Baltic increase with core depth to what probably is connected with diffusion from sediments to water through interstitial water, where uranium concentration is much higher than in bottom water. The highest concentrations of uranium were observed in sediments of S?upsk Narrow (0.66-7.11 mg kg(-1) d.w.) and S?upsk Bank (0.61-6.93 mg kg(-1) d.w.), the lowest in sediments from Bornholm Deep (0.54-3.77 mg kg(-1) d.w.). The 234U/238U activity ratio results indicated that the sedimentation of terrigenic material and Vistula River transport are the general sources of uranium in the southern Baltic sediments. The value of 234U/238U activity ratio in sediments from reduction areas from southern Baltic (Gda?sk Deep and Bornholm Deep) indicated that reduction process of U(VI) to U(IV) and removing of anthropogenic uranium from seawater to sediments constitutes a small part only in Gda?sk Deep. PMID:14689997

Skwarzec, B; Bory?o, A; Strumi?ska, D

2002-01-01

221

Activation of the marine ecosystem model 3D CEMBS for the Baltic Sea in operational mode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a new marine ecosystem model 3D CEMBS designed for the Baltic Sea. The ecosystem model is incorporated into the 3D POPCICE ocean-ice model. The Current Baltic Sea model is based on the Community Earth System Model (CESM from the National Center for Atmospheric Research) which was adapted for the Baltic Sea as a coupled sea-ice model. It consists of the Community Ice Code (CICE model, version 4.0) and the Parallel Ocean Program (version 2.1). The ecosystem model is a biological submodel of the 3D CEMBS. It consists of eleven mass conservation equations. There are eleven partial second-order differential equations of the diffusion type with the advective term for phytoplankton, zooplankton, nutrients, dissolved oxygen, and dissolved and particulate organic matter. This model is an effective tool for solving the problem of ecosystem bioproductivity. The model is forced by 48-hour atmospheric forecasts provided by the UM model from the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling of Warsaw University (ICM). The study was financially supported by the Polish State Committee of Scientific Research (grants: No N N305 111636, N N306 353239). The partial support for this study was also provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBaltyk founded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract no. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09. Calculations were carried out at the Academy Computer Centre in Gda?sk.

Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, Lidia; Jakacki, Jaromir; Janecki, Maciej; Nowicki, Artur

2013-04-01

222

Density and Absolute Salinity of the Baltic Sea 2006-2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The brackish water of the Baltic Sea is a mixture of ocean water from the Atlantic/North Sea with fresh water from various rivers draining a large area of lowlands and mountain ranges. The evaporation-precipitation balance results in an additional but minor excess of fresh water. The rivers carry different loads of salts washed out of the ground, in particular calcium carbonate, which cause a composition anomaly of the salt dissolved in the Baltic Sea in comparison to Standard Seawater. Directly measured seawater density shows a related anomaly when compared to the density computed from the equation of state as a function of Practical Salinity, temperature and pressure. Samples collected from different regions of the Baltic Sea during 2006-2009 were analysed for their density anomaly. The results obtained for the river load deviate significantly from similar measurements carried out forty years ago; the reasons for this decadal variability are not yet fully understood. An empirical formula is derived which estimates Absolute from Practical Salinity of Baltic Sea water, to be used in conjunction with the new Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater 2010 (TEOS-10), endorsed by IOC/UNESCO in June 2009 as the substitute for the 1980 International Equation of State, EOS-80. Our routine measurements of the samples were accompanied by studies of additional selected properties which are reported here: conductivity, density, chloride, bromide and sulphate content, total CO2 and alkalinity.

Feistel, R.; Weinreben, S.; Wolf, H.; Seitz, S.; Spitzer, P.; Adel, B.; Nausch, G.; Schneider, B.; Wright, D. G.

2010-01-01

223

Density and Absolute Salinity of the Baltic Sea 2006-2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The brackish water of the Baltic Sea is a mixture of ocean water from the Atlantic/North Sea with fresh water from various rivers draining a large area of lowlands and mountain ranges. The evaporation-precipitation balance results in an additional but minor excess of fresh water. The rivers carry different loads of salts washed out of the ground, in particular calcium carbonate, which cause a composition anomaly of the salt dissolved in the Baltic Sea in comparison to Standard Seawater. Directly measured seawater density shows a related anomaly when compared to the density computed from the equation of state as a function of Practical Salinity, temperature and pressure. Samples collected from different regions of the Baltic Sea during 2006-2009 were analysed for their density anomaly. The results obtained for the river load deviate significantly from similar measurements carried out forty years ago; the reasons for this decadal variability are not yet fully understood. An empirical formula is derived which estimates Absolute from Practical Salinity of Baltic Sea water, to be used in conjunction with the new Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater 2010 (TEOS-10), endorsed by IOC/UNESCO in June 2009 as the substitute for the 1980 International Equation of State, EOS-80. Our routine measurements of the samples were accompanied by studies of additional selected properties which are reported here: conductivity, density, chloride, bromide and sulphate content, total CO2 and alkalinity.

Feistel, R.; Weinreben, S.; Wolf, H.; Seitz, S.; Spitzer, P.; Adel, B.; Nausch, G.; Schneider, B.; Wright, D. G.

2009-08-01

224

Language Policy and the Internationalization of Higher Education in the Baltic Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the framework of the internationalization and globalization of higher education and competition for international students, the paper examines how language policy in higher education shapes the provision of study programs in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. It concludes that study programs in the Baltic states mostly follow the convention of a…

Kaša, Rita; Mhamed, Ali Ait Si

2013-01-01

225

Material transport from the nearshore to the basinal environment in the southern Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Processes involved in erosion, transport and deposition of cohesive materials are studied in a transect from shallow (16 m) to deep (47 m) water of the SW Baltic Sea. The wave- and current-induced energy input to the seabed in shallow water is high with strong variability and suspended matter concentrations may double within a few hours. Primary settling fluxes (from

C. Christiansen; K Edelvang; K Emeis; G Graf; S Jähmlich; J Kozuch; M Laima; T Leipe; A Löffler; L. C Lund-Hansen; A Miltner; K Pazdro; J Pempkowiak; G Shimmield; T Shimmield; J Smith; M Voss; G Witt

2002-01-01

226

Salinity changes in the central Baltic Sea (NW Europe) over the last 10000 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

We attempt a reconstruction of salinity levels of the central Baltic Sea based on diatom assemblages, the isotopic composition of organic matter and sedimentological expression of anoxia over the last 10 000 years. We use the data to investigate the dependence of salinity levels on climate evolution and isostasy. Changes in salinity of surface and deep waters were most pronounced

Kay-Christian Emeis; Ulrich Struck; Thomas Blanz; Alexander Kohly

2003-01-01

227

Development of anoxia during the Holocene fresh–brackish water transition in the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most pronounced environmental changes during the Holocene Baltic Sea history was the transition from the freshwater Ancylus Lake to the brackish water Litorina Sea. The establishment of brackish conditions during this transition (the A\\/L) was caused by an interplay of sea level rise and subsidence of sills in the Danish Straits. The northward progression of salt water

G Sohlenius; K.-C Emeis; E Andrén; T Andrén; A Kohly

2001-01-01

228

Baltic Astronomy, vol. 8, 535{574, 1999. GALAXY SURFACE PHOTOMETRY  

E-print Network

Baltic Astronomy, vol. 8, 535{574, 1999. GALAXY SURFACE PHOTOMETRY Bo Milvang-Jensen 1;2 and Inger@gemini.edu Received March 3, 2000 Abstract. We describe galaxy surface photometry based on #12;tting ellipses. As examples of applications of surface photometry we discuss the determination of the relative disk

229

Fauna and flora in submarine early Holocene lake-marl deposits from the southwestern Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of plant and animal macrofossils have been carried out on early-Holocene lake marls from the southwestern Baltic. The records have been dated to the interval from c. 8500 to 7800 14C years BP by correlating pollen assemblages to an onshore radiocarbon dated pollen diagram. The sediments contain from 5 to 81% carbonate, and only few macroscopic remains of wetland

Ole Bennike; Wolfram Lemke; Jørn Bo Jensen

1998-01-01

230

Future nutrient load scenarios for the Baltic Sea due to climate and lifestyle changes.  

PubMed

Dynamic model simulations of the future climate and projections of future lifestyles within the Baltic Sea Drainage Basin (BSDB) were considered in this study to estimate potential trends in future nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea. Total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads were estimated using a simple proxy based only on human population (to account for nutrient sources) and stream discharges (to account for nutrient transport). This population-discharge proxy provided a good estimate for nutrient loads across the seven sub-basins of the BSDB considered. All climate scenarios considered here produced increased nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea over the next 100 years. There was variation between the climate scenarios such that sub-basin and regional differences were seen in future nutrient runoff depending on the climate model and scenario considered. Regardless, the results of this study indicate that changes in lifestyle brought about through shifts in consumption and population potentially overshadow the climate effects on future nutrient runoff for the entire BSDB. Regionally, however, lifestyle changes appear relatively more important in the southern regions of the BSDB while climatic changes appear more important in the northern regions with regards to future increases in nutrient loads. From a whole-ecosystem management perspective of the BSDB, this implies that implementation of improved and targeted management practices can still bring about improved conditions in the Baltic Sea in the face of a warmer and wetter future climate. PMID:23765871

Hägg, Hanna Eriksson; Lyon, Steve W; Wällstedt, Teresia; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Claremar, Björn; Humborg, Christoph

2014-04-01

231

Peculiarities of environmental genotoxicity in offshore zones of the Baltic and North Seas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micronucleus test in different fish species has been considered a sensitive tool for the evaluation of genotoxic effects in coastal zones of the Baltic and North Seas. In the present study, micronuclei (MN) and other nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes from peripheral blood and cephalic kidney were analyzed in flounder (Platichthys flesus) and cod (Gadus morhua) from 9 offshore locations in

Aleksandras Rybakovas; Thomas Lang

232

Trends in heavy metal concentrations in the Western and Central Baltic Sea waters detected by using  

E-print Network

Trends in heavy metal concentrations in the Western and Central Baltic Sea waters detected by using 2003; accepted 10 October 2003 Abstract Heavy metal concentrations from annual sampling in the period and the accumulation of, inter alia, heavy metals. At irregular intervals, major inflows provide large volumes

Dippner, Joachim W.

233

Ultraprecise thermal expansion measurements of seven low expansion materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We summarize a large number of ultraprecise thermal expansion measurements made on seven different low expansivity materials. Expansion coefficients in the -150-300 C temperature range are shown for Owens-Illinois Cer-Vit C-101, Corning ULE 7971 (titanium silicate) and fused silica 7940, Heraeus-Schott Zerodur low-expansion material and Homosil fused silica, Universal Cyclops Invar LR-35, and Simonds Saw and Steel Super Invar.

Berthold, J. W., III; Jacobs, S. F.

1976-01-01

234

Bed expansion crucible tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Am\\/Cm program will vitrify the americium and curium currently stored in F-canyon. A batch flowsheet has been developed (with non-radioactive surrogate feed in place of the F-canyon solution) and tested full-scale in the 5-inch Cylindrical Induction Melter (CIM) facility at TNX. During a normal process run, a small bed expansion occurs when oxygen released from reduction of cerium (IV)

2000-01-01

235

Operator product expansion algebra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We establish conceptually important properties of the operator product expansion (OPE) in the context of perturbative, Euclidean ?4-quantum field theory. First, we demonstrate, generalizing earlier results and techniques of hep-th/1105.3375, that the 3-point OPE, < {O}_{A1}{O}_{A2}{O}_{A3} rangle = sum CC_{A1A2A3}C< {O}Crangle, usually interpreted only as an asymptotic short distance expansion, actually converges at finite, and even large, distances. We further show that the factorization identity C_{A1A2A3}B=sum CC_{A1A2}CC_{CA3}B is satisfied for suitable configurations of the spacetime arguments. Again, the infinite sum is shown to be convergent. Our proofs rely on explicit bounds on the remainders of these expansions, obtained using refined versions, mostly due to Kopper et al., of the renormalization group flow equation method. These bounds also establish that each OPE coefficient is a real analytic function in the spacetime arguments for non-coinciding points. Our results hold for arbitrary but finite loop orders. They lend support to proposals for a general axiomatic framework of quantum field theory, based on such "consistency conditions" and akin to vertex operator algebras, wherein the OPE is promoted to the defining structure of the theory.

Holland, Jan; Hollands, Stefan

2013-07-01

236

Long-term variability of extreme waves in the Caspian, Black, Azov and Baltic Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to study extreme storm waves in the Caspian, Black, Azov and Baltic Sea we used the spectral wave model SWAN. Significant wave height, swell and sea height, direction of propagation, their length and period were calculated with the NCEP/NCAR (1,9°x1,9°, 4-daily) reanalysis wind forcing from 1948 to 2010 in the Caspian, Black and Baltic Seas and with the NCEP/CFSR (0,3°x0,3°, 1 hour) for the period from 1979 to 2010 in the Azov Sea. The calculations were performed on supercomputers of Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU). The spatial resolution of the numerical grid was of order 5 km for the Caspian, Baltic and Black Seas, 2 km for the Azov Sea. These model wave hindcasts were used to calculate interannual and seasonal variability of the storm frequency, location and duration. The Initial Distribution Method and Annual Maxima Series Methods were used to study probable waves of a century reoccurrence. The long-term variability of extreme waves revealed different trends in the investigated seas. The Caspian and Azov seas decreased the storm activity, while in the Baltic Sea the number of storm cases increased and the Black Sea showed no significant trend. The of more than 12 m were observed in two centers in the middle part of the Caspian Sea and in the center of the Baltic Sea. In the Black Sea the extreme waves of the same probability of more than 14 m were found in the region to the south of the Crimean peninsula. In the Azov Sea the highest waves of a century reoccurrence do not exceed 5 m. The work was done in Natural Risk Assessment Laboratory, MSU under contract G.34.31.0007.

Arkhipkin, Victor; Dobroliubov, Sergey

2013-04-01

237

Characterization of the bacterioplankton community and its antibiotic resistance genes in the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

The residues from human environments often contain antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) that can contaminate natural environments; the clearest consequence of that is the selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The Baltic Sea is the second largest isolated brackish water reservoir on Earth, serving as a drainage area for people in 14 countries, which differ from one another in antibiotic use and sewage treatment policies. The aim of this study was to characterize the bacterioplankton structure and quantify ARGs (tetA, tetB, tetM, ermB, sul1, blaSHV, and ampC) within the bacterioplankton community of the Baltic Sea. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was applied to quantify ARGs from four different sampling sites of the Baltic Sea over 2 years, and the bacterial communities were profiled sequencing the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene on Illumina HiSeq2000. The results revealed that all the resistance genes targeted in the study were detectable from the Baltic Sea bacterioplankton. The percentage of tetA, tetB, tetM, ermB, and sul1 genes in the sea bacterial community varied between 0.0077% and 0.1089%, 0.0003% and 0.0019%, 0.0001% and 0.0105%, 0% and 0.0136%, and 0.0001% and 0.0438%, respectively. The most numerous ARG detected was the tetA gene and this gene also had the highest proportion in the whole microbial community. A strong association between bacterioplankton ARGs' abundance data and community phylogenetic composition was found, implying that the abundance of most of the studied ARGs in the Baltic Sea is determined by fluctuations in its bacterial community structure. PMID:23941523

Tiirik, Kertu; Nõlvak, Hiie; Oopkaup, Kristjan; Truu, Marika; Preem, Jens-Konrad; Heinaru, Ain; Truu, Jaak

2014-01-01

238

Assessment of PCDD/F source contributions in Baltic Sea sediment core records.  

PubMed

Spatial and temporal trends of sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the Baltic Sea were evaluated by positive matrix factorization (PMF) and principal component analysis (PCA). Sediment cores were sampled at eight coastal, one coastal reference, and six offshore sites covering the northern to the southern Baltic Sea. The cores, which covered the period 1919-2010, were sliced into 2-3 cm disks among which 8-11 disks per core (in total 141 disks) were analyzed for all tetra- through octa-CDD/Fs. Identification and apportionment of PCDD/F sources was carried out using PMF. Five stable model PCDD/F congener patterns were identified, which could be associated with six historically important source types: (i) atmospheric background deposition (ABD), (ii) use and production of penta-chlorophenol (PCP), (iii) use and production of tetra-chlorophenol (TeCP), (iv) high temperature processes (Thermal), (v) hexa-CDD-related sources (HxCDD), and (vi) chlorine-related sources (Chl), all of which were still represented in the surface layers. Overall, the last four decades of the period 1920-2010 have had a substantial influence on the Baltic Sea PCDD/F pollution, with 88 ± 7% of the total amount accumulated during this time. The 1990s was the peak decade for all source types except TeCP, which peaked in the 1980s in the northern Baltic Sea and has still not peaked in the southern part. The combined impact of atmospheric-related emissions (ABD and Thermal) was dominant in the open sea system throughout the study period (1919-2010) and showed a decreasing south to north trend (always >80% in the south and >50% in the north). Accordingly, to further reduce levels of PCDD/Fs in the open Baltic Sea ecosystem, future actions should focus on reducing atmospheric emissions. PMID:25103626

Assefa, Anteneh T; Tysklind, Mats; Sobek, Anna; Sundqvist, Kristina L; Geladi, Paul; Wiberg, Karin

2014-08-19

239

Bayesian approach to cluster expansions  

E-print Network

Cluster expansions have proven to be a valuable tool in alloy theory and other problems in materials science but the generation of cluster expansions can be a computationally expensive and time-consuming process. We present ...

Mueller, Timothy K.

240

Magma mingling in the panozero sanukitoid intrusion, baltic shield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2.7 Ga Panozero pluton is a composite intrusion comprising magmas of sanukitoid affinity, intrusive into the ca. 2.75 Ga Segozero greenstone belt in western Karelia in the Baltic Shield. The intrusion is predominantly a monzonite, is elliptical in form (9 x 6 km) and is undeformed. Along the eastern margin of the intrusion a wide variety of cogenetic magmas have been mapped ranging in composition from biotite-hornblendites, through monzo-gabbro and monzonite to quartz-monzonite. The contact relationships between the different phases of the intrusion are complex and imply magma mingling and incomplete mixing between magma types. The monzogabbros show a gradational relationship with the monzodiorites, but occur as inclusions within, and contain inclusions of, the monzonite implying two coexisting melts. Similar relationships exist between the monzonite and quartz monzonite and in places there is a gneissose banding of the darker phase within the lighter phase. The quartz-syenite is intrusive into all earlier phases, although the latest phase is hornblendite. This is present as net veining in gabbro and as irregular veins, dykes and as irregularly shaped xenoliths in monzonite, quartz monzonite and syenite. The irregular form and deformed state of the hornblendite inclusions within the earlier magmas implies that the hornblendite was emplaced whilst the host magma was hot. Also developed along the eastern margin of the intrusion are breccia pipes. These are found in the monzodiorites, monzonites and in quartz monzonites. They contain elliptical fragments up to 20 cm long of hornblendite, tremolitite, epidotised amphibolite and in the monzodiorite euhedral feldspars with felsic reaction rims. The matrix of the breccias is often very similar to the composition of their host rock. Many of the fragments are thought to be derived from the adjacent greenstone belt. However, metabasaltic rocks are not recorded from this part of the greenstone belt and so may be derived from a deeper structural level. There is also a close relationship between the hornblendite phase of the intrusion and the intrusion breccias, for hornblendite is present as inclusions in the breccias, but in one case is intruded along the margins of a breccia dyke. The presence of multiple co-genetic, immiscible magmas and of intrusion breccias in the Panozero sanukitoid intrusion suggests: (a) multiple magmas at upper crustal level linked through magmatic differentiation at depth, (b) that the current level of exposure represents a high structural level in the intrusion (i.e. near the roof), (c) the importance of water at a late stage of magmatic evolution.

Rollinson, H.

2003-04-01

241

REGIONAL WATER SUPPLY PLANNING AND  

E-print Network

CHAPTER 3 REGIONAL WATER SUPPLY PLANNING AND CAPACITY EXPANSION MODELS Messele Z. Ejeta California Department of Water Resources Sacramento, California Larry W. Mays Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Arizona State University Tempe, Arizona 3.1 INTRODUCTION Water supply planning on a regional scale

Mays, Larry W.

242

Construction Management: Planning Ahead.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains that preconstruction planning is essential when undertaking the challenges of a school building renovation or expansion, focusing on developing a detailed estimate, creating an effective construction strategy, conducting reviews and value-engineering workshops, and realizing savings through effective risk analysis and contingency…

Arsht, Steven

2003-01-01

243

CHRISTIAN ROSSIGNOL NORDIC-BALTIC SUMMER INSTITUTE Charg de recherche C.N.R.S. FOR SEMIOTIC AND STRUCTURAL STUDIES  

E-print Network

CHRISTIAN ROSSIGNOL NORDIC-BALTIC SUMMER INSTITUTE Chargé de recherche C.N.R.S. FOR SEMIOTIC AND STRUCTURAL STUDIES Lab. Parole et Langage ESA 6057 CNRS Semiotic of Translation 29 avenue Robert Schuman 15

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

244

Assessment of natal origin of pike ( Esox lucius ) in the Baltic Sea using Sr:Ca in otoliths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spawning habitat of pike (Esox lucius) in the Baltic Sea include brackish water bays, brooks and rivers. Elevated salinity concentrations are one of several stressors\\u000a that might increase the use and importance of freshwater habitats for spawning. In the Baltic Sea, one of the largest brackish\\u000a seas in the world, freshwater species like pike, perch (Perca fluviatilis), whitefish (Coregonus sp),

Olof Engstedt; Patrik Stenroth; Per Larsson; Lars Ljunggren; Mikael Elfman

2010-01-01

245

Records of southern and central Baltic Sea eutrophication in ? 13C and ? 15N of sedimentary organic matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Baltic Sea catchment area has seen considerable agricultural and industrial development over the last century, but observational evidence of eutrophication is ambiguous. We examined organic carbon accumulation rates and the stable isotope signature of ?13C and ?15N in organic matter in four 210Pb-dated short sediment cores from the southern and central Baltic Sea to search for sedimentary records of

U. Struck; K.-C. Emeis; M. Voss; C. Christiansen; H. Kunzendorf

2000-01-01

246

Temporal and spatial variability of surface fluxes over the ice edge zone in the northern Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three land-fast ice stations (one of them was the Finnish research ice breaker Aranda) and the German research aircraft Falcon were applied to measure the turbulent and radiation fluxes over the ice edge zone in the northern Baltic Sea during the Baltic Air-Sea-Ice Study (BASIS) field experiment from 16 February to 6 March 1998. The temporal and spatial variability of

B. Brümmer; D. Schröder; J. Launiainen; T. Vihma; A.-S. Smedman; M. Magnusson

2002-01-01

247

Expansible quantum secret sharing network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the practical applications, member expansion is a usual demand during the development of a secret sharing network. However, there are few consideration and discussion on network expansibility in the existing quantum secret sharing schemes. We propose an expansible quantum secret sharing scheme with relatively simple and economical quantum resources and show how to split and reconstruct the quantum secret among an expansible user group in our scheme. Its trait, no requirement of any agent's assistant during the process of member expansion, can help to prevent potential menaces of insider cheating. We also give a discussion on the security of this scheme from three aspects.

Sun, Ying; Xu, Sheng-Wei; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Niu, Xin-Xin; Yang, Yi-Xian

2013-08-01

248

Operator product expansion algebra  

SciTech Connect

We establish conceptually important properties of the operator product expansion (OPE) in the context of perturbative, Euclidean ?{sup 4}-quantum field theory. First, we demonstrate, generalizing earlier results and techniques of hep-th/1105.3375, that the 3-point OPE, =?{sub C}C{sub A{sub 1A{sub 2A{sub 3}{sup C}}}}, usually interpreted only as an asymptotic short distance expansion, actually converges at finite, and even large, distances. We further show that the factorization identity C{sub A{sub 1A{sub 2A{sub 3}{sup B}}}}=?{sub C}C{sub A{sub 1A{sub 2}{sup C}}}C{sub CA{sub 3}{sup B}} is satisfied for suitable configurations of the spacetime arguments. Again, the infinite sum is shown to be convergent. Our proofs rely on explicit bounds on the remainders of these expansions, obtained using refined versions, mostly due to Kopper et al., of the renormalization group flow equation method. These bounds also establish that each OPE coefficient is a real analytic function in the spacetime arguments for non-coinciding points. Our results hold for arbitrary but finite loop orders. They lend support to proposals for a general axiomatic framework of quantum field theory, based on such “consistency conditions” and akin to vertex operator algebras, wherein the OPE is promoted to the defining structure of the theory.

Holland, Jan [School of Mathematics, Cardiff University, Senghennydd Rd, Cardiff CF24 4AG (United Kingdom)] [School of Mathematics, Cardiff University, Senghennydd Rd, Cardiff CF24 4AG (United Kingdom); Hollands, Stefan [School of Mathematics, Cardiff University, Senghennydd Rd, Cardiff CF24 4AG (United Kingdom) [School of Mathematics, Cardiff University, Senghennydd Rd, Cardiff CF24 4AG (United Kingdom); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Leipzig, Brüderstr. 16, Leipzig, D-04103 (Germany)

2013-07-15

249

Load regulating expansion fixture  

DOEpatents

A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig.

Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

1998-12-15

250

Load regulating expansion fixture  

DOEpatents

A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components.

Wagner, Lawrence M. (San Jose, CA); Strum, Michael J. (San Jose, CA)

1998-01-01

251

Vacuum driven accelerated expansion  

E-print Network

It has been shown that an improved estimation of quantum vacuum energy can yield not only acceptable but also experimentally sensible results. The very idea consists in a straightforward extraction of gravitationally interacting part of the full quantum vacuum energy by means of gauge transformations. The implementation of the idea has been performed in the formalism of effective action, in the language of Schwinger's proper time and the Seeley-DeWitt heat kernel expansion, in the background of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker geometry.

Bogus?aw Broda; Piotr Bronowski; Marcin Ostrowski; Micha? Szanecki

2008-12-29

252

Stable Isotope Evidence for Late Medieval (14th–15th C) Origins of the Eastern Baltic Cod (Gadus morhua) Fishery  

PubMed Central

Although recent historical ecology studies have extended quantitative knowledge of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) exploitation back as far as the 16th century, the historical origin of the modern fishery remains obscure. Widespread archaeological evidence for cod consumption around the eastern Baltic littoral emerges around the 13th century, three centuries before systematic documentation, but it is not clear whether this represents (1) development of a substantial eastern Baltic cod fishery, or (2) large-scale importation of preserved cod from elsewhere. To distinguish between these hypotheses we use stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis to determine likely catch regions of 74 cod vertebrae and cleithra from 19 Baltic archaeological sites dated from the 8th to the 16th centuries. ?13C and ?15N signatures for six possible catch regions were established using a larger sample of archaeological cod cranial bones (n?=?249). The data strongly support the second hypothesis, revealing widespread importation of cod during the 13th to 14th centuries, most of it probably from Arctic Norway. By the 15th century, however, eastern Baltic cod dominate within our sample, indicating the development of a substantial late medieval fishery. Potential human impact on cod stocks in the eastern Baltic must thus be taken into account for at least the last 600 years. PMID:22110675

Orton, David C.; Makowiecki, Daniel; de Roo, Tessa; Johnstone, Cluny; Harland, Jennifer; Jonsson, Leif; Heinrich, Dirk; Enghoff, Inge Bødker; Lõugas, Lembi; Van Neer, Wim; Ervynck, Anton; Hufthammer, Anne Karin; Amundsen, Colin; Jones, Andrew K. G.; Locker, Alison; Hamilton-Dyer, Sheila; Pope, Peter; MacKenzie, Brian R.; Richards, Michael; O'Connell, Tamsin C.; Barrett, James H.

2011-01-01

253

Changes in dissolved silicate loads to the Baltic Sea — The effects of lakes and reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We tested the hypothesis that dissolved silicate (DSi) yields [kg km - 2 yr - 1 ] of 82 major watersheds of the Baltic Sea can be expressed as a function of the hydraulic load (HL) as a measure of water residence time and the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration, both variables potentially increasing the DSi yield. Most boreal rivers fitted a linear regression model using HL as an independent variable to explain the DSi yield. Rivers with high HL, i.e., shortest residence times, showed highest DSi yields up to 2300 kg km - 2 yr - 1 . This is most likely caused by an excess supply of DSi, i.e., the geochemical sources prevail over biological sinks in these boreal watersheds. The DSi yield for regulated and unregulated larger rivers of the boreal watersheds constituting about 40% of the total water discharge and of the total DSi load to the Baltic Sea, respectively, can be expressed as: DSi yield = 190 + 49.5 HL[m yr - 1 ] + 0.346 TOC [µM] ( R2 = 0.80). Since both HL and TOC concentrations have decreased after damming, the DSi yields have decreased significantly in the regulated boreal watersheds, for the River Luleälven we estimated more than 30%. The larger eutrophic watersheds draining cultivated landscape of the southern catchment of the Baltic Sea and representing about 50% of the annual water discharge to the Baltic Sea, deviated from this pattern and showed lower DSi yields between 60-580 kg km - 2 yr - 1 . DSi yields showed saturation curve like relationship to HL and it appears that DSi is retained in the watersheds efficiently through biogenic silica (BSi) production and subsequent sedimentation along the entire river network. The relationship between HL and DSi yields for all larger cultivated watersheds was best fitted by a Freundlich isotherm (DSi = 115.7HL 109; R2 = 0.73), because once lake and reservoir area exceeds 10% of the watershed area, minimum DSi yields were reached. To estimate an uperturbed DSi yield for the larger eutrophic southeastern watersheds is still difficult, since no unperturbed watersheds for comparison were available. However, a rough estimate indicate that the DSi flux from the cultivated watersheds to the Baltic Sea is nowadays only half the uperturbed flux. Overall, the riverine DSi loads to the Baltic Sea might have dropped with 30-40% during the last century.

Humborg, Christoph; Smedberg, Erik; Medina, Miguel Rodriguez; Mörth, Carl-Magnus

2008-10-01

254

Floating along buoyancy levels: Dispersal and survival of western Baltic fish eggs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertical distribution is an important feature of pelagic fish eggs and yolk sac larvae impacting their survival and dispersal, especially in heterogeneous and highly variable estuarine environments like the Baltic Sea. Egg densities determining the vertical distribution pattern were experimentally ascertained for cod (Gadus morhua), plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) and flounder (Platichthys flesus) from the western Baltic Sea. Plaice eggs floated at lower mean (±standard deviation) density range (1.0136 ± 0.0007 g cm-3) compared to cod (1.0146 ± 0.0009 g cm-3) and flounder eggs (1.0160 ± 0.0015 g cm-3), which floated on the highest density level. In flounder egg diameter was significantly related to egg density and in cod a weak correlation could be found between egg dry weight and density. All other relationships between female size, egg size, egg dry weight and egg density were not significant for any of the species. Available egg density data for Baltic Sea cod, plaice and flounder are summarized considering ICES subdivisions and stock management units. A hydrodynamic drift modeling approach was applied releasing drifters in the Belt Sea continuously from December to May, covering the species’ spawning seasons. The model implemented experimentally derived egg density ranges and included ontogenetic egg density modifications for cod eggs, increasing egg density from a late egg development stage to first hatch. A drifter was removed from the model, i.e. considered dead, when its initially prescribed density value exceeded the density range available at the temporally resolved geographical positions along the drift trajectories. Highest survival occurred during releases in April and May but no cohorts survived if they were drifted east into the central Arkona Basin or the central Baltic Sea, irrespective of whether a major Baltic Inflow (1992/1993) or a stagnation-year (1987/1988) was simulated. The dispersal characteristics of the surviving yolk sac larvae of all three species reflected retention within the Belt Sea or northwards transport through the Great Belt into the Kattegat and partly into the Skagerrak. There was no successful transport to more eastern Baltic areas past a hypothetical line from the island of Moen (Denmark) to Kap Arkona on Rügen Island (Germany).

Petereit, C.; Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Franke, A.; Köster, F. W.

2014-03-01

255

What can ARGO's tell us on the processes in Baltic Sea?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finnish Meteorological Institute has been testing ARGO floats in the Baltic Sea as a mean for collecting data from the sea areas that are not easily reachable by research vessels or remote sensing. The observational data for Baltic Sea off-shore areas is very sparse and new observational methods are needed to fill the gaps in our knowledge and collect new data for different purposes, such as, operational activities, modelling and ocean science. The ARGO floats have been used successfully in the deep oceans. However, applying the ARGO floats in Baltic Sea is not straight forward, as the conditions differ greatly: the water is brackish, some areas are heavily trafficked and the northern parts freeze during the winter. In addition, the mean depth is only 54 metres, which is only a fraction of depths where ARGO floats have commonly been used. FMI has deployed three ARGO floats in Baltic Sea for different missions. The first ARGO was deployed in 2012 with normal diving algorithm, which checks the pressure hourly. The second float was modified by Aalto University so that the algorithm checks the pressure every 15 minutes. The first float was deployed in the Bothnian Sea in May 2013 and it measured over 200 profiles during its half year mission. The float with faster pressure detection was deployed in the Bothnian Sea in May 2013, and during it's 4 month mission it measured succesfully over 120 profiles. Another, longer test is ongoing on Eastern Gotland basin, where another ARGO float was deployed at Aug 2013, and still measures at Jan 2014. This one differs from earlier experiments as it has additional oxygen and scattering meters, also the area of measurements is deeper (200+ meters). The missions so far indicate, that with proper control and monitoring, ARGO's can be operated, and can measure long series of profiles. In addition to the actual measurements, the movement of ARGO floats gives possibilities to analyse currents in deeper areas of Baltic, and help determining correlations between currents and bathymetry, for example. In this presentation we present and analyse the results from these experiments and discuss further possibilities of ARGO's in Baltic Sea.

Roiha, Petra; Siiriä, Simo-Matti; Nummelin, Aleksi; Aro, Eemeli; Purokoski, Tero

2014-05-01

256

The petroleum system of the lower Palaeozoic strata in the central part of the Baltic basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baltic Basin is an intra-cratonic sedimentary basin with conspicuous Early Palaeozoic sections. In terms of hydrocarbon prospectively, the it has been perceived as a classical oil basin with several tens of relatively small oil and gas fields occur there over a wide stratigraphic interval, ranging from the crystalline basement through the entire Lower Palaeozoic succession. Until now conventional oil has been predominantly produced in the basin, i.e. only few conventional gas accumulations have been found in the Polish Baltic Sea offshore. Petroleum potential within the basin also is associated with Silurian reefogenic and carbonate build-ups. New organic geochemistry data as well revealed the potential for shale gas/oil in the basin. The analysis of the composition of the organic matter and crude oils from Kaliningrad region (Russia) and Lithuanian revealed genesis and the general trends of the migration of hydrocarbons in the Baltic Basin. The organic matter of the source rocks is of similar composition and represents typical marine type II, showing considerable variations of the maturity thought the basin: ranging from immature in the eastern Lithuania and Kaliningrad region of Russia to oil window to the south-west. In some places the anomalously high maturity of organic matter, indicating the lower part of the wet gas/condensate window have been recorded, most probably being related to the locally increased paleo-temperatures. Oils of the Baltic Basin have low densities (< 31,1 API; 790.5-870.0 kg/m3), and low asphaltene (<2.2%) and sulphur (<0.44%) contents. The saturated hydrocarbon content varies from 35.3 to 77.8%, and the ratio of saturate to aromatic hydrocarbons ranges in 2.1-5.2, indicating long-distance hydrocarbons migration or high thermal maturities. Oils of the Baltic Basin are not biodegraded, despite their early emplacement (e.g. by the Lower Palaeozoic age) and the relatively low present reservoir temperatures. Results of biomarker and stable carbon isotope analyses allow three genetic oil groups to be distinguished in the Kaliningrad region. These oils appear to be confined to tectonically distinct areas suggesting that the hydrocarbons were derived from different kitchens. The hydrocarbon generation in the Baltic Basin started by the end of Silurian, while the basic phase is thought to occur in Devonian and Permian. Different source rocks contributed to the hydrocarbon expulsion. Slow deposition and tectonically stable regime ensured slow formation of the oil and gase-condensate fields with replenishing oil portions incoming with time: e.g. Cambrian oil traps could accumulate also Ordovician and Silurian oils.

Lazauskiene, Jurga; Zdanaviciute, Onyte

2013-04-01

257

Atlas of Urban Expansion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How have cities grown over time? Answers to this important question are provided in visual form via the Lincoln Land Institute's Atlas of Urban Expansion. This resource "provides the geographic and quantitative dimensions of urban expansion and its key attributes in cities the world over." Visitors to the site should start their own exploration by looking at "Making Room for a Planet of Cities," a policy report that examines how the world has become heavily urbanized over the past few decades. Much of the material within the Atlas can be found in the five sections presented on the left toolbar of this site. They include Section 2: A Representative Sample of 30 Cities, 1800-2000 and Section 3: Urban and National Data. The most incredible section here is Section 5: Google Earth Data for the Universe of 3646 Cities. It is a remarkable look at the accuracy of various maps portraying the world's primary cities in a variety of settings. Overall, this site is an invaluable resource for planners, demographers, policy folks, and anyone interested in the urban condition.

258

The relationship between metal concentrations and phenotypes in the Baltic clam Macoma balthica (L.) from the Gulf of Gdansk, southern Baltic.  

PubMed

Soft tissue accumulated concentrations of nine metals (V, As, Se, Ag, Cd, Pb, Mn, Cu and Zn) were studied in two main phenotypes (1) according to external shell colour (white and pink), and (2) according to shell shape (shell with a rounded posterior end--"regular" and with an elongate posterior end and a notable flexure--"irregular") of the Baltic clam Macoma balthica from southern Baltic Sea off Poland. No differences in metal concentrations were observed between colour-based phenotypes. By contrast, "irregular" clams exhibited generally higher concentrations of all elements in their tissues than "regular" bivalves. This finding provides the first reference on a potential linkage of shell deformation with tissue metal concentrations within one entire population of clams living in the same habitat. Different ability of metal handling in the shape-based phenotypes is presumably related to different physiological capacity of the bivalves induced by the selection effect of specific environmental conditions. It is suggested that unfavourable conditions in deep waters of the Gulf of Gdansk (e.g. hypoxia/anoxia, hydrogen sulphide, elevated bioavailability of metals) induces, in a certain part of the population, morphological deformation of shell (thereby leading to irregular shape) and in parallel physiological adaptations which result in greater sensitivity to trace metals of "irregular" clams. This hypothesis however, requires further investigation with special focus on genetic divergences between phenotypes because till now we cannot exclude the co-occurrence of two types (semi-species) of clams in the Gulf: an Atlantic type and a Baltic type. Genetic analysis with a use of DALP technique revealed strong intrapopulational polymorphism but no fingerprints or intraspecific polymorphism characterising any of the phenotypes considered (both colour- and shape-based). Since eight polymorphic loci were clearly identified further studies of population genetic structure hold optimistic promise. PMID:11996123

Sokolowski, Adam; Fichet, Denis; Garcia-Meunier, Pascale; Radenac, Gilles; Wolowicz, Maciej; Blanchard, Gerard

2002-05-01

259

The Baltic Sea: Geophysical and geochemical properties of Holocene sediment sequences as indicators of past environmental variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baltic Sea has undergone large environmental changes since the retreat of the Weischselian Ice-sheet. In the Late Glacial Period and the early Holocene these changes were most likely caused by natural environmental changes (i.e. changes in the morphology and depths of the Baltic basin and the sills). In more recent time anthropogenic impacts have become more important as a possible and likely cause for changes. During the whole Holocene period climate variability played an important role. However, the relative importance between humans and nature is largely unknown. Here we present the results of a combined geophysical and geochemical study on selected sediment sequences from the Baltic Sea within the two BONUS (Baltic Organisations Network For Funding Science) funded projects HYPER (HYPoxia mitigation for Baltic Sea Ecosystem Restoration) and Baltic GAS (GAS storage and effects of climate change and eutrophication). The over-all aim of these projects is to understand large-scale Baltic Sea ecosystem responses to environmental, climate and anthropogenic forcing. During two Baltic Sea research cruises in 2009 long sediment cores from 8 different locations were recovered. We present preliminary results from one site (LL19) located in the north central Baltic Proper at 169 m water depth. The Littorina Sea sediment record (i.e. the last c. 8000 years) is characterised by alternating periods of homogenised sediments (indicative of oxic conditions) and laminated sediments (indicative of hypoxic/anoxic conditions). Mineral magnetic properties illustrate clear changes between laminated and non-laminated sections of the core. The concentration of ferrimagnetic minerals, as revealed by initial magnetic susceptibility (?) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) is variable. The laminated sections in particular show high concentrations and to reveal the origin of the ferrimagnetic signal additional magnetic properties were measured, specifically the acquisition of rotational remanent magnetization (RRM), frequency dependency of susceptibility (?fd) and magnetic loops. These data show that magnetic assemblage of the laminated sections is dominated by a single-domain magnetic grain size. The elemental composition was measured with a high resolution Itrax XRF-scanner throughout the core. In addition, biogenic silica (BSi) and total organic carbon (TOC) were determined. Distinct changes of elemental contents between the laminated and homogenous sections in the Littorina Sea sediments were identified. A combination of the physical and geochemical properties of the sediment sequences and the construction of geochronologies will provide information about past environmental variability to identify casual relationships to climate and human impact in the Baltic Sea.

Lenz, Conny; Reinholdsson, Maja; Zillén, Lovisa; Conley, Daniel J.; Snowball, Ian

2010-05-01

260

Reservoir Simulation Used to Plan Diatomite Developement in Mountainous Region  

E-print Network

's ideal development plan. The steep hillsides prevent well pad development for about 22 vertical well locations in the 110 well expansion plan. Conventional production performs poorly in the area because the combination of relatively low permeability (1...

Powell, Richard

2012-10-19

261

The early planning and development of Oklahoma City  

E-print Network

An analysis of the planning, development, and implementation of Oklahoma City's Grand Boulevard. In the early days of 1909, a plan emerged to build an expansive parks and boulevard system to encircle Oklahoma City. Such ...

Humphreys, Blair D. (Blair David)

2009-01-01

262

Optical imaging. Expansion microscopy.  

PubMed

In optical microscopy, fine structural details are resolved by using refraction to magnify images of a specimen. We discovered that by synthesizing a swellable polymer network within a specimen, it can be physically expanded, resulting in physical magnification. By covalently anchoring specific labels located within the specimen directly to the polymer network, labels spaced closer than the optical diffraction limit can be isotropically separated and optically resolved, a process we call expansion microscopy (ExM). Thus, this process can be used to perform scalable superresolution microscopy with diffraction-limited microscopes. We demonstrate ExM with apparent ~70-nanometer lateral resolution in both cultured cells and brain tissue, performing three-color superresolution imaging of ~10(7) cubic micrometers of the mouse hippocampus with a conventional confocal microscope. PMID:25592419

Chen, Fei; Tillberg, Paul W; Boyden, Edward S

2015-01-30

263

Simulated sea surface temperature and heat fluxes in different climates of the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

The physical state of the Baltic Sea in possible future climates is approached by numerical model experiments with a regional coupled ocean-atmosphere model driven by different global simulations. Scenarios and recent climate simulations are compared to estimate changes. The sea surface is clearly warmer by 2.9 degrees C in the ensemble mean. The horizontal pattern of average annual mean warming can largely be explained in terms of ice-cover reduction. The transfer of heat from the atmosphere to the Baltic Sea shows a changed seasonal cycle: a reduced heat loss in fall, increased heat uptake in spring, and reduced heat uptake in summer. The interannual variability of surface temperature is generally increased. This is associated with a smoothed frequency distribution in northern basins. The overall heat budget shows increased solar radiation to the sea surface, which is balanced by changes of the other heat flux components. PMID:15264603

Döscher, Ralf; Meier, H E Markus

2004-06-01

264

The potential of current- and wind-driven transport for environmental management of the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

The ever increasing impact of the marine industry and transport on vulnerable sea areas puts the marine environment under exceptional pressure and calls for inspired methods for mitigating the impact of the related risks. We describe a method for preventive reduction of remote environmental risks caused by the shipping and maritime industry that are transported by surface currents and wind impact to the coasts. This method is based on characterizing systematically the damaging potential of the offshore areas in terms of potential transport to vulnerable regions of an oil spill or other pollution that has occurred in a particular area. The resulting maps of probabilities of pollution to be transported to the nearshore and the time it takes for the pollution to reach the nearshore are used to design environmentally optimized fairways for the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Proper, and south-western Baltic Sea. PMID:24414808

Soomere, Tarmo; Döös, Kristofer; Lehmann, Andreas; Meier, H E Markus; Murawski, Jens; Myrberg, Kai; Stanev, Emil

2014-02-01

265

75 FR 61415 - Admiralty National Monument: Tongass National Forest; Alaska; Expansion of Tailings Disposal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Admiralty National...Monument: Tongass National Forest; Alaska; Expansion...Review Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasure Plan...containment of hazardous chemicals, facility reclamation...2010. Forrest Cole, Forest Supervisor. [FR...

2010-10-05

266

Incorporating endogenous demand dynamics into long-term capacity expansion power system models for Developing countries  

E-print Network

This research develops a novel approach to long-term power system capacity expansion planning for developing countries by incorporating endogenous demand dynamics resulting from social processes of technology adoption. ...

Jordan, Rhonda LeNai

2013-01-01

267

Electric-generation expansion-analysis system. Volume 3. Computer program user's manual. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

EGEAS is a modular state-of-the-art capacity expansion software package. It contains five capacity expansion analysis options ranging from preliminary analysis tools based on screening curves and linear programming to sophisticated non-linear analysis tools utilizing a Generalized Benders' Decomposition algorithm and a Dynamic Programming algorithm. A stand alone, detailed probabilistic production costing algorithm is also available for prespecified expansion plan production

W. Fleck; L. Charny

1983-01-01

268

Electric-generation expansion analysis system. Volume 4. Programmer's manual. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

EGEAS is a modular state-of-the-art capacity expansion software package. It contains five capacity expansion analysis options ranging from preliminary analysis tools based on screening curves and linear programming to sophisticated non-linear analysis tools utilizing a Generalizd Benders' Decomposition algorithm and a Dynamic Programming algorithm. A stand alone, detailed probabilistic production costing algorithm is also available for prespecified expansion plan production

W. D. Fleck; L. Charny

1983-01-01

269

75 FR 30387 - Improving Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice of Agenda and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice of Agenda and Procedures for...system expansion planning models and software. The technical conference will be held...Technical Conference on Planning Models and Software Federal Energy Regulatory...

2010-06-01

270

Attitudes towards organ donation and transplantation – a study involving Baltic physicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to identify and describe attitudes towards organ donation and transplantation among a group of\\u000a Baltic physicians who are involved in this aspect of medical care. A total of 151 neurosurgeons, anesthesiologists, and neurologists\\u000a anonymously answered a questionnaire between February and March 1995. The majority of physicians said they would be willing\\u000a to donate their

M. Omnell Persson; P. Dmitriev; V. Shevelev; A. Zelvys; G. Hermerén; N. H. Persson

1998-01-01

271

A new species of Stigmatomyces from Baltic amber, the first fossil record of Laboulbeniomycetes.  

PubMed

A fossil ascomycete was found attached to the thorax of a stalk eyed fly (Diopsidae: Prosphyracephala succini) in a fragment of Baltic amber. The fungus is assigned to the extant genus Stigmatomyces and described as S. succini sp. nov. This find is the first fossil record of the order Laboulbeniales. At the same time it constitutes the oldest record of a parasitic fungus on an insect. The palaeohabitat is discussed with regard to the find. PMID:15912943

Rossi, Walter; Kotrba, Marion; Triebel, Dagmar

2005-03-01

272

The extinct Baltic amber genus Propelma Trjapitzin, a valid genus of Neanastatinae (Hymenoptera, Eupelmidae).  

PubMed

The extinct Eocene Baltic amber genus Propelma Trjapitzin 1963 is removed from synonymy under Eupelmus Dalman 1820 (Hymenoptera, Eupelmidae, Eupelminae) and treated as a valid genus within Neanastatinae Kalina 1984 based on examination of the holotype female of Propelma rohdendorfi Trjapitzin. Propelma rohdendorfi is redescribed, illustrated by photomacrographs, and compared to other described extant and extinct genera of Neanastatinae. Taxonomic, morphological and geological diversity of Neanastatinae relative to Eupelminae and Calosotinae is also discussed relative to potential age of the subfamily. PMID:23794842

Gibson, Gary A P

2013-01-01

273

A new genus and species of Dictyopharidae (Homoptera) from Rovno and Baltic amber based on nymphs.  

PubMed

Alicodoxa rasnitsynigen. et sp. n. (Dictyopharinae: Orthopagini) is described based on a nymph from Rovno amber; it also occurs in Baltic amber. A small additional wax plate dorsal to the large wax plate of abdominal tergites VI-VIII is first reported in this and other genera of Dictyopharidae. A lectotype is designated for Pseudophana reticulata Germar & Berendt, 1856 transferred to Protepiptera (Achilidae): Protepiptera reticulata (Germar & Berendt, 1856), comb. n. PMID:22259275

Emeljanov, Alexander F; Shcherbakov, Dmitry E

2011-01-01

274

A new species of the bee genus Ctenoplectrella in middle Eocene Baltic amber (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae).  

PubMed

A new species of the extinct bee genus Ctenoplectrella Cockerell (Megachilinae: Ctenoplectrellini) is described and figured from two females preserved in middle Eocene (Lutetian) Baltic amber. Ctenoplectrella phaetonsp. n. is distinguished from its congeners on the basis of its body proportions, integumental sculpturing, wing venation, and pubescence, and is one of the more distinctive members of the genus. A revised key to the species of Ctenoplectrella is provided. PMID:21852938

Gonzalez, Victor H; Engel, Michael S

2011-01-01

275

Boating and Navigation Activities Influence the Recruitment of Fish in a Baltic Sea Archipelago Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effects of boating and navigation activities on the recruitment of coastal fish in the Stockholm archipel- ago in the NW Baltic proper. The impacts were quantified by sampling metamorphosed young-of-the-year (Y-O-Y) fish in inlets adjacent to i) routes for medium-sized passen- ger ferries; ii) berths (small marinas) with small boats; and iii) references. Species with high preference

Alfred Sandström; Britas Klemens Eriksson; Peter Karås; Martin Isæus; Henrik Schreiber

2005-01-01

276

Developing Baltic cod recruitment models. II. Incorporation of environmental variability and species interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate whether a process-oriented approach based on the results of field, laboratory, and modelling studies can be used to develop a stock-environment-recruitment model for Central Baltic cod (Gadus morhua). Based on exploratory statistical analysis, significant variables influencing survival of early life stages and varying systemati - cally among spawning sites were incorporated into stock-recruitment models, first for major cod

Friedrich W. Köster; Hans-Harald Hinrichsen; Michael A. St. John; Dietrich Schnack; Brian R. MacKenzie; Jonna Tomkiewicz; Maris Plikshs

2001-01-01

277

The Mesozoic–Cenozoic structural framework of the Bay of Kiel area, western Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dense grid of multichannel high-resolution seismic sections from the Bay of Kiel in the western Baltic Sea has been interpreted\\u000a in order to reveal the Mesozoic and Cenozoic geological evolution of the northern part of the North German Basin. The overall\\u000a geological evolution of the study area can be separated into four distinct periods. During the Triassic and the

Martin Bak Hansen; Holger Lykke-Andersen; Ali Dehghani; Dirk Gajewski; Christian Hübscher; Morten Olesen; Klaus Reicherter

2005-01-01

278

10 years of innovative phytoplankton monitoring and research in the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 2003 Alg@line celebrates its ten-year anniversary as a full-time joint operational monitoring and information service in the Baltic Sea. The 'ship-of-opportunity' (SOOP) approach, i.e. unattended measurements and sampling on ferries and cargo ships, forms the backbone of Alg@line. The main objective of Alg@line is the monitoring of the phytoplankton community and harmful algal blooms. In addition to an almost

Heidi Hällfors; Eija Rantajärvi

2003-01-01

279

Direct Evidence for Production of Microcystins by Anabaena Strains from the Baltic Sea?  

PubMed Central

Anabaena is a filamentous, N2-fixing, and morphologically diverse genus of cyanobacteria found in freshwater and brackish water environments worldwide. It contributes to the formation of toxic blooms in freshwater bodies through the production of a range of hepatotoxins or neurotoxins. In the Baltic Sea, Anabaena spp. form late summer blooms, together with Nodularia spumigena and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. It has been long suspected that Baltic Sea Anabaena may produce microcystins. The presence of microcystins has been reported for the coastal regions of the Baltic proper, and a recent report also indicated the presence of the toxin in the open Gulf of Finland. However, at present there is no direct evidence linking Baltic Sea Anabaena spp. to microcystin production. Here we report on the isolation of microcystin-producing strains of the genus Anabaena in the open Gulf of Finland. The dominant microcystin variants produced by these strains included the highly toxic MCYST-LR as well as [d-Asp3]MCYST-LR, [d-Asp3]MCYST-HtyR, MCYST-HtyR, [d-Asp3,Dha7]MCYST-HtyR, and [Dha7]MCYST-HtyR variants. Toxic strains were isolated from the coastal Gulf of Finland as well as from the easternmost open-sea sampling station, where there were lower salinities than at other stations. This result suggests that lower salinity may favor microcystin-producing Anabaena strains. Furthermore, we sequenced 16S rRNA genes and found evidence for pronounced genetic heterogeneity of the microcystin-producing Anabaena strains. Future studies should take into account the potential presence of microcystin-producing Anabaena sp. in the Gulf of Finland. PMID:17766456

Halinen, Katrianna; Jokela, Jouni; Fewer, David P.; Wahlsten, Matti; Sivonen, Kaarina

2007-01-01

280

N/P ratio of nutrient uptake in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The N/P ratio of nutrient uptake, the change of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) relative to the change of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP), is a key parameter for many ecological models. In the Baltic Sea ecosystem, the N/P ratio of nutrient uptake varies among different basins and different seasons. The N/P ratio of nutrient alteration, i.e., the ratio of DIN to DIP altered before and after spring blooms, is not the same as the N/P ratio of nutrient uptake, but the former can be regarded as an indicator of the latter in the Baltic Sea. Based on the observed N/P ratio of nutrient alteration, we hypothesize a non-Redfield N/P ratio of nutrient uptake. The 3-D-ecosystem model ERGOM coupled with the circulation model DMI-BSHcmod was used to test this hypothesis. When the Redfield ratio was used in the model, the DIP surplus after spring blooms was too high and resulted in excessive growth of cyanobacteria and too much nitrogen fixation. When the non-Redfield ratio was used in the model, these problems tended to disappear. In summary, we show that: (1) the Redfield N/P ratio of nutrient uptake in the Baltic Sea tends to be too high; (2) a N/P ratio of 10:1 appears to work better than the Redfield value; and (3) the N/P ratio of nutrient uptake in the Baltic Proper during spring blooms is around 6:1. As the model limitation using one identical value for two N/P ratios for nutrient uptake and remineralization, the quantitative conclusions are only convincing as a model parameter even though it obviously improves model predictions. Whether this model parameter is consistent with the biological nutrient uptake is worth being further verified with some laboratory investigations or simulations using a more sophisticated model with independent N/P ratios for nutrient uptake and remineralization.

Wan, Z.; Jonasson, L.; Bi, H.

2011-10-01

281

Predicting juvenile Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) age from body and otolith size measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six age-prediction models based on otolith size (weight, length, and width) and fish size (standard length, SL, and weight) were developed for juvenile Baltic cod Gadus morhua (SL, 40e153 mm; age, 90e230 d). Models were built based on stepwise selection and com- pared using the Akaike information criterion (AIC). Reference age was estimated by count- ing the growth increments in

Dariusz P. Fey; Tomasz B. Linkowski

2006-01-01

282

Occurrence of the hepatotoxic cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena in the Baltic Sea and structure of the toxin.  

PubMed

Water blooms formed by potentially toxic species of cyanobacteria are a common phenomenon in the Baltic Sea in late summer. Twenty-five cyanobacterial bloom samples were collected from open and coastal waters of the Baltic Sea during 1985 to 1987, and their toxicity was determined by mouse bioassay. All of 5 bloom samples from the southern Baltic Sea, 6 of 6 from the open northern Baltic Sea (Gulf of Finland), and 7 of 14 Finnish coastal samples were found to contain hepatotoxic cyanobacteria. Nodularia spumigena and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae occurred together in high amounts in blooms from the open-sea areas. In addition, coastal samples contained the species Anabaena lemmermannii, Microcystis aeruginosa, and Oscillatoria agardhii. Eighteen hepatotoxic N. spumigena cultures were isolated from water bloom and open-sea water samples. High-pressure liquid chromatographic analysis of both hepatotoxic bloom samples and Nodularia strains showed a single toxic fraction. The toxin concentrations of the blooms were less than or equal to 2.4 mg/g of freeze-dried material, and those of laboratory-grown cultures were 2.5 to 8.0 mg/g of freeze-dried cells. A single toxin was isolated from three N. spumigena-containing bloom samples and three N. spumigena laboratory isolates. Amino acid analysis and low- and high-resolution fast-atom bombardment mass spectroscopy indicated that the toxin from all of the sources was a cyclic pentapeptide (molecular weight, 824) containing glutamic acid, beta-methylaspartic acid, arginine, N-methyldehydrobutyrine, and 3-amino-9-methoxy-2,6,8-trimethyl-10-phenyl-4,6-decadienoic acid.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2506812

Sivonen, K; Kononen, K; Carmichael, W W; Dahlem, A M; Rinehart, K L; Kiviranta, J; Niemela, S I

1989-08-01

283

Decadal-Scale Changes of Dinoflagellates and Diatoms in the Anomalous Baltic Sea Spring Bloom  

PubMed Central

The algal spring bloom in the Baltic Sea represents an anomaly from the winter-spring bloom patterns worldwide in terms of frequent and recurring dominance of dinoflagellates over diatoms. Analysis of approximately 3500 spring bloom samples from the Baltic Sea monitoring programs revealed (i) that within the major basins the proportion of dinoflagellates varied from 0.1 (Kattegat) to >0.8 (central Baltic Proper), and (ii) substantial shifts (e.g. from 0.2 to 0.6 in the Gulf of Finland) in the dinoflagellate proportion over four decades. During a recent decade (1995–2004) the proportion of dinoflagellates increased relative to diatoms mostly in the northernmost basins (Gulf of Bothnia, from 0.1 to 0.4) and in the Gulf of Finland, (0.4 to 0.6) which are typically ice-covered areas. We hypothesize that in coastal areas a specific sequence of seasonal events, involving wintertime mixing and resuspension of benthic cysts, followed by proliferation in stratified thin layers under melting ice, favors successful seeding and accumulation of dense dinoflagellate populations over diatoms. This head-start of dinoflagellates by the onset of the spring bloom is decisive for successful competition with the faster growing diatoms. Massive cyst formation and spreading of cyst beds fuel the expanding and ever larger dinoflagellate blooms in the relatively shallow coastal waters. Shifts in the dominant spring bloom algal groups can have significant effects on major elemental fluxes and functioning of the Baltic Sea ecosystem, but also in the vast shelves and estuaries at high latitudes, where ice-associated cold-water dinoflagellates successfully compete with diatoms. PMID:21747911

Klais, Riina; Tamminen, Timo; Kremp, Anke; Spilling, Kristian; Olli, Kalle

2011-01-01

284

Decadal-scale changes of dinoflagellates and diatoms in the anomalous baltic sea spring bloom.  

PubMed

The algal spring bloom in the Baltic Sea represents an anomaly from the winter-spring bloom patterns worldwide in terms of frequent and recurring dominance of dinoflagellates over diatoms. Analysis of approximately 3500 spring bloom samples from the Baltic Sea monitoring programs revealed (i) that within the major basins the proportion of dinoflagellates varied from 0.1 (Kattegat) to >0.8 (central Baltic Proper), and (ii) substantial shifts (e.g. from 0.2 to 0.6 in the Gulf of Finland) in the dinoflagellate proportion over four decades. During a recent decade (1995-2004) the proportion of dinoflagellates increased relative to diatoms mostly in the northernmost basins (Gulf of Bothnia, from 0.1 to 0.4) and in the Gulf of Finland, (0.4 to 0.6) which are typically ice-covered areas. We hypothesize that in coastal areas a specific sequence of seasonal events, involving wintertime mixing and resuspension of benthic cysts, followed by proliferation in stratified thin layers under melting ice, favors successful seeding and accumulation of dense dinoflagellate populations over diatoms. This head-start of dinoflagellates by the onset of the spring bloom is decisive for successful competition with the faster growing diatoms. Massive cyst formation and spreading of cyst beds fuel the expanding and ever larger dinoflagellate blooms in the relatively shallow coastal waters. Shifts in the dominant spring bloom algal groups can have significant effects on major elemental fluxes and functioning of the Baltic Sea ecosystem, but also in the vast shelves and estuaries at high latitudes, where ice-associated cold-water dinoflagellates successfully compete with diatoms. PMID:21747911

Klais, Riina; Tamminen, Timo; Kremp, Anke; Spilling, Kristian; Olli, Kalle

2011-01-01

285

Atmospheric BTEX concentrations in the vicinity of the crude oil refinery of the Baltic region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among chemical industries, petroleum refineries have been identified as large emitters of a wide variety of pollutants. Benzene,\\u000a toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) form an important group of aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) because of\\u000a their role in the troposphere chemistry and the risk posed to human health. A very large crude oil refinery of the Baltic\\u000a States (200,000 bbl\\/day) is

Pranas Baltr?nas; Edita Baltr?nait?; Vaida Šerevi?ien?; Paulo Pereira

286

Status of grey seals along mainland Europe from the Southwestern Baltic to France  

Microsoft Academic Search

The grey seal was a common species along mainland Europe during the Stone Age (8,000-5,500 BC). Along the North Sea coast populations started to decline substantially during the 11th century as a result of excessive hunting. The last breeding populations disappeared in the 16th century in the Wadden Sea, and before 1900 in the Kattegat-Skagerrak and the Southwestern Baltic as

Tero Härkönen; Sophie Brasseur; Jonas Teilmann; Cecile Vincent; Rune Dietz; Kai Abt; Peter Reijnders

2002-01-01

287

A new species of the bee genus Ctenoplectrella in middle Eocene Baltic amber (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new species of the extinct bee genus Ctenoplectrella Cockerell (Megachilinae: Ctenoplectrellini) is described and figured from two females preserved in middle Eocene (Lutetian) Baltic amber. Ctenoplectrella phaeton sp. n. is distinguished from its congeners on the basis of its body proportions, integumental sculpturing, wing venation, and pubescence, and is one of the more distinctive members of the genus. A revised key to the species of Ctenoplectrella is provided. PMID:21852938

Gonzalez, Victor H.; Engel, Michael S.

2011-01-01

288

Air-water exchange of brominated anisoles in the northern Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Bromophenols produced by marine algae undergo O-methylation to form bromoanisoles (BAs), which are exchanged between water and air. BAs were determined in surface water of the northern Baltic Sea (Gulf of Bothnia, consisting of Bothnian Bay and Bothnian Sea) during 2011-2013 and on a transect of the entire Baltic in September 2013. The abundance decreased in the following order: 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (2,4,6-TBA)>2,4-dibromoanisole (2,4-DBA)?2,6-dibromoanisole (2,6-DBA). Concentrations of 2,4-DBA and 2,4,6-TBA in September were higher in the southern than in the northern Baltic and correlated well with the higher salinity in the south. This suggests south-to-north advection and dilution with fresh riverine water enroute, and/or lower production in the north. The abundance in air over the northern Baltic also decreased in the following order: 2,4,6-TBA>2,4-DBA. However, 2,6-DBA was estimated as a lower limit due to breakthrough from polyurethane foam traps used for sampling. Water/air fugacity ratios ranged from 3.4 to 7.6 for 2,4-DBA and from 18 to 94 for 2,4,6-TBA, indicating net volatilization. Flux estimates using the two-film model suggested that volatilization removes 980-1360 kg of total BAs from Bothnian Bay (38000 km2) between May and September. The release of bromine from outgassing of BAs could be up to 4-6% of bromine fluxes from previously reported volatilization of bromomethanes and bromochloromethanes. PMID:24811233

Bidleman, Terry F; Agosta, Kathleen; Andersson, Agneta; Haglund, Peter; Nygren, Olle; Ripszam, Matyas; Tysklind, Mats

2014-06-01

289

The Impacts of Highway Expansion on Population Change: An Integrated Spatial Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of highways on transforming human society and promoting population change have been investigated in several disciplines, including geography, sociology, economics, and planning. Currently, the primary highway construction activity in the nation is highway expansion; however, this expansion has not been the focus of much of the existing…

Chi, Guangqing

2010-01-01

290

Hydrolysis of Baltic amber during thermal ageing--an infrared spectroscopic approach.  

PubMed

To enable conservation of amber in museums, understanding of chemical changes is crucial. While oxidation has been investigated particularly well for this natural polymer, further degradation phenomena in relation to humidity and pollutants are poorly studied or still unknown. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was explored with regard to Baltic amber. A systematic spectroscopic survey of a wide range of thermally aged model amber samples, exposed to different microclimatic conditions, showed significant changes in their spectra. Samples aged in a humid and acidic environment or exposed to a humid and alkaline atmosphere generally exhibited a higher absorbance intensity of carbonyl groups at frequencies assigned to acids than unaged samples, samples aged in drier conditions and samples immersed in an alkaline solution. Baltic amber comprises succinate ester, which may be hydrolysed into communol and succinic acid. The survey thus provided evidence about the progress of hydrolytic reactions during degradation of Baltic amber. Infrared spectroscopy was shown to have significant potential for providing qualitative and quantitative chemical information on hydrolysis of amber, which will be of interest for the development of preventive conservation techniques for museum collections of amber objects. PMID:23376267

Pastorelli, Gianluca; Shashoua, Yvonne; Richter, Jane

2013-04-01

291

Hydrolysis of Baltic amber during thermal ageing - An infrared spectroscopic approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To enable conservation of amber in museums, understanding of chemical changes is crucial. While oxidation has been investigated particularly well for this natural polymer, further degradation phenomena in relation to humidity and pollutants are poorly studied or still unknown. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was explored with regard to Baltic amber. A systematic spectroscopic survey of a wide range of thermally aged model amber samples, exposed to different microclimatic conditions, showed significant changes in their spectra. Samples aged in a humid and acidic environment or exposed to a humid and alkaline atmosphere generally exhibited a higher absorbance intensity of carbonyl groups at frequencies assigned to acids than unaged samples, samples aged in drier conditions and samples immersed in an alkaline solution. Baltic amber comprises succinate ester, which may be hydrolysed into communol and succinic acid. The survey thus provided evidence about the progress of hydrolytic reactions during degradation of Baltic amber. Infrared spectroscopy was shown to have significant potential for providing qualitative and quantitative chemical information on hydrolysis of amber, which will be of interest for the development of preventive conservation techniques for museum collections of amber objects.

Pastorelli, Gianluca; Shashoua, Yvonne; Richter, Jane

2013-04-01

292

Benthic biodiversity indices versus salinity gradient in the southern Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

The need to assess the environmental status of marine and coastal waters according to the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) encouraged the design of specific biotic indices to evaluate the response of benthic communities to human-induced changes in water quality. In the present study three of these indices, the traditional Shannon Wiener Index (H') and the more recently published AMBI (AZTI' Marine Biotic Index) and BQI (Benthic Quality Index), were tested along a salinity gradient in the southern Baltic Sea. The comparison of the three indices demonstrates that in the southern Baltic Sea the ecological quality (EcoQ) classification based on macrozoobenthic communities as indicator greatly depends on the biotic index chosen. We found a significant positive relation between species number, H', BQI and salinity resulting in EcoQ status of "Bad", "Poor" or "Moderate" in areas with a salinity value below 10 psu. The AMBI was less dependent on salinity but appear to partly overestimate the EcoQ status. Presently none of these biotic indices appear to be adjusted for application in a gradient system as given in the southern Baltic Sea. A potential approach describing how to overcome this limitation is discussed. PMID:17010998

Zettler, Michael L; Schiedek, Doris; Bobertz, Bernd

2007-01-01

293

Coupled ice-ocean model of the Baltic Sea - variability of ice cover.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

3D CEMBS (based on CESM/CCSM model) is a fully-coupled global climate model that provides state-of-the-art computer simulations of the Earth's past, present, and future climate states. It has been used to analyze ice cover of the Baltic Sea with a 2 kilometers horizontal resolution. For modeling ice CESM is using CICE4, which is the latest version of the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model, sometimes referred to as the Community Ice CodE. The model was forced by ECMWF atmospheric data (ERA 40 and ERA Interim reanalysis). 50-years hindcast scenario was performed. Anomalies of ice extension, ice thickness and ice area of the whole Baltic Sea are presented. This work was carried out in support of grant (No NN305 111636 - the Polish state Committee of Scienti?c Research). The partial support for this study was also provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBaltyk founded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract no. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09

Nowicki, A.; Janecki, M.; Jakacki, J.; Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, L.

2012-04-01

294

Long-term characteristics of simulated ice deformation in the Baltic Sea (1962-2007)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index is a frequently used measure for the mean winter conditions in Northern Europe. A positive, high index is associated with strong westerlies and anomalous warm temperatures. The effects on sea ice conditions in the Baltic Sea are twofold. Warm temperatures prevent sea ice formation. If ice is present nevertheless, the strong winds can promote the formation of ice ridges which hinders ship traffic. We use an ocean-sea ice model to investigate the NAO impact on the ridged ice area fraction in the Baltic during 1962-2007. Our simulations indicate that in the northern Bothnian Bay, a high NAO index is related to an anomalous accumulation of ridges, while in the rest of the Baltic Sea, the relationship is contrary. The NAO explains locally at most only 20-25% of the ridged ice fraction interannual variability which indicates the systems complexity. However, we find high skill with local correlations around 0.8 for annually averaged ridged ice fraction reconstructed from multilinear regression using winter averaged wind extremes, surface air temperature, and sea surface temperature (SST). This suggests that the amount of ridged ice in late winter can be derived from these routinely measured quantities. In large parts of the basin, it is sufficient to use the atmospheric parameters as a predictor, while in the eastern Bothnian Bay and southern Gulf of Finland, the SST is required to reconstruct the bulk of the ridged ice fraction.

LöPtien, U.; MâRtensson, S.; Meier, H. E. M.; HöGlund, A.

2013-02-01

295

Occurrence of Plasmids in the Aromatic Degrading Bacterioplankton of the Baltic Sea  

PubMed Central

Plasmids are mobile genetic elements that provide their hosts with many beneficial traits including in some cases the ability to degrade different aromatic compounds. To fulfill the knowledge gap regarding catabolic plasmids of the Baltic Sea water, a total of 209 biodegrading bacterial strains were isolated and screened for the presence of these mobile genetic elements. We found that both large and small plasmids are common in the cultivable Baltic Sea bacterioplankton and are particularly prevalent among bacterial genera Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter. Out of 61 plasmid-containing strains (29% of all isolates), 34 strains were found to carry large plasmids, which could be associated with the biodegradative capabilities of the host bacterial strains. Focusing on the diversity of IncP-9 plasmids, self-transmissible m-toluate (TOL) and salicylate (SAL) plasmids were detected. Sequencing the repA gene of IncP-9 carrying isolates revealed a high diversity within IncP-9 plasmid family, as well as extended the assumed bacterial host species range of the IncP-9 representatives. This study is the first insight into the genetic pool of the IncP-9 catabolic plasmids in the Baltic Sea bacterioplankton. PMID:24710296

Jutkina, Jekaterina; Heinaru, Eeva; Vedler, Eve; Juhanson, Jaanis; Heinaru, Ain

2011-01-01

296

High resolution model studies of transport of sedimentary material in the south-western Baltic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents high resolution model simulations of transport, deposition and resuspension of sedimentary material in the south-western Baltic, based on an upgrade of the sediment transport model described in the work of Kuhrts et al. [Kuhrts, C., Fennel, W., Seifert, T., 2004. Model studies of transport of sedimentary material in the Western Baltic. Journal of Marine Systems 52, 167.]. In the western Baltic, a grid spacing of at least 1 nautical mile is required to resolve the shallow and narrow bathymetry and the associated current patterns. A series of experimental model simulations is carried out with forcing data for the year 1993, which include a sequence of storms in January. Compared to earlier model versions, a more detailed description of potential deposition areas can be provided. The study quantifies the influence of enhanced bottom roughness caused by biological structures, like mussels and worm holes, provides estimates of the regional erosion risks for fine grained sediments, and analyses scenarios of the settling and spreading of material at dumping sites. Although the effects of changed bottom roughness, as derived from more detailed, re-classified sea floor data, are relatively small, the sediment transport and deposition patterns are clearly affected by the variation of the sea bed properties.

Seifert, Torsten; Fennel, Wolfgang; Kuhrts, Christiane

2009-02-01

297

Variability of the Baltic Sea level and floods in the Gulf of Finland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The statistical analysis of the long-term data on the variability of the Baltic Sea level has revealed the complicated character of the wave field structure. The wave field formed by the variable winds and the disturbances of the atmospheric pressure in the Baltic Sea is a superposition of standing oscillations with random phases. The cross spectral analysis of the synchronous observation series of the level in the Gulf of Finland has shown that the nodal lines of the standing dilatational waves are clearly traced with frequencies corresponding to the distance from the nodal line to the top of the gulf (a quarter of the wave length). Several areas of the water basin with clearly expressed resonant properties may be distinguished: the Gulfs of Finland, Riga, and Bothnia, Neva Bay, etc. The estimations of the statistical correlation of the sea level oscillations with the variation of the wind and atmospheric pressure indicate the dominant role of the zonal wind component during the formation of the floods in the Gulf of Finland. The probable reason for the extreme floods in St. Petersburg may be the resonance rocking of the eigenmode oscillations corresponding to the basic fundamental seiche mode of the Gulf of Finland with a period of 27 h when the repeated atmospheric disturbances in the Baltic Sea occur with a period of 1-2 days.

Kulikov, E. A.; Medvedev, I. P.

2013-03-01

298

The non-tidal loading by the Baltic Sea can be detected in GNSS coordinate time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baltic Sea is a well-monitored semi-enclosed sea in northern Europe. The tides in the Baltic Sea are minute and variation in the mass distribution of the sea is mostly caused by atmospheric pressure changes and wind. The same factors also control the so-called fill level of the Baltic, i.e., the amount of water exchange with the North Sea. The variation in the sea level can be abrupt and large, for example during storms. The variable load causes significant effects in geodetic measurements, especially near the coastline. Unlike tidal ocean loading, non-tidal ocean loading is so far not routinely corrected for in geodetic measurements. We have computed the time series of non-tidal loading due to Baltic Sea at 193 geodetic stations in northern Europe, for all the main geodetic observables: 3-D position, gravity, tilt and strain. For this we have used hourly observations of the sea level at the tide gauges of the Baltic Operational Oceanographic Service (BOOS, http://boos.org), to estimate the momentary sea level over the whole basin of the Baltic Sea. These sea level models are then convolved with Green's functions using the program SPOTL (Agnew, 2012, http://escholarship.org/uc/item/954322pg). The time period is four years, February 2008 to February 2012. The time series can be used for several purposes, e.g. for the studies of other error sources, to create stable time series and also to correct campaign measurements, which take place in varying conditions. Here we concentrate on the computed 3-D deformation. We compare it with daily GPS coordinate time series, both from precise point positioning and from double-difference solutions. Both vertical and horizontal deformation due to the Baltic loading can be detected in the GPS time series. The standard deviation of time series of coordinate differences are reduced by up to 30% when the loading is corrected for.

Virtanen, J. V.; Nordman, M.; Virtanen, H.; Nyberg, S.; Makinen, J.

2013-12-01

299

Nitrate source identification in the Baltic Sea using its isotopic ratios in combination with a Bayesian isotope mixing model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrate (NO3-) is the major nutrient responsible for coastal eutrophication worldwide and its production is related to intensive food production and fossil-fuel combustion. In the Baltic Sea NO3- inputs have increased 4-fold over recent decades and now remain constantly high. NO3- source identification is therefore an important consideration in environmental management strategies. In this study focusing on the Baltic Sea, we used a method to estimate the proportional contributions of NO3- from atmospheric deposition, N2 fixation, and runoff from pristine soils as well as from agricultural land. Our approach combines data on the dual isotopes of NO3- (?15N-NO3- and ?18O-NO3-) in winter surface waters with a Bayesian isotope mixing model (Stable Isotope Analysis in R, SIAR). Based on data gathered from 47 sampling locations over the entire Baltic Sea, the majority of the NO3- in the southern Baltic was shown to derive from runoff from agricultural land (33-100%), whereas in the northern Baltic, i.e. the Gulf of Bothnia, NO3- originates from nitrification in pristine soils (34-100%). Atmospheric deposition accounts for only a small percentage of NO3- levels in the Baltic Sea, except for contributions from northern rivers, where the levels of atmospheric NO3- are higher. An additional important source in the central Baltic Sea is N2 fixation by diazotrophs, which contributes 49-65% of the overall NO3- pool at this site. The results obtained with this method are in good agreement with source estimates based upon ?15N values in sediments and a three-dimensional ecosystem model, ERGOM. We suggest that this approach can be easily modified to determine NO3- sources in other marginal seas or larger near-coastal areas where NO3- is abundant in winter surface waters when fractionation processes are minor.

Korth, F.; Deutsch, B.; Frey, C.; Moros, C.; Voss, M.

2014-09-01

300

Prediction of near-bottom water salinity in the Baltic Sea using Ordinary Least Squares and Geographically Weighted Regression models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A map of spatial salinity distribution in the bottom water layers of the Baltic Sea is presented in this paper. The map has been constructed based on the data obtained from the ICES Dataset on Ocean Hydrography. The typical salinity values and the depth of halocline location in the major basins of the Baltic Sea are also presented. While the spatial salinity distribution is commonly derived by interpolation from the available data set, the linear regression model has been applied in this work. The analyzed data cover the period between 1913 and 2011, with a spatial resolution of ca. 10 km. In order to prepare the salinity map for the bottom water layers in the Baltic, the relationships between the salinity, depth and the distance from the Danish Straits have been determined by using Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR). Next, the salinity map was created by using the maps of regression coefficients, the digital elevation model (DEM) of the Baltic Sea, and the map of Euclidean distance from the Danish Straits. Subsequently the salinity values in the water layer above and below the halocline that are typical for the specific Baltic basins as well as the depth of location of the halocline were calculated based on the data extracted from the map by random point sampling. The calculated salinity values for the upper layer were similar to the values reported in the current publications on the subject of the Baltic Sea. On the other hand, the obtained salinity values for the layer below the halocline were slightly lower than those found in the literature, which is attributable to different methodology used. The obtained results demonstrate that GWR is a reliable tool for estimating the natural variation of salinity in the Baltic Sea. At the same time, we conclude that the Ordinary Least Squares regression should not be used to analyze similar data.

?ukawska-Matuszewska, Katarzyna; Urba?ski, Jacek Andrzej

2014-08-01

301

Nitrate source identification using its isotopic ratios in combination with a Bayesian isotope mixing model in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrate (NO3-) is the major nutrient responsible for coastal eutrophication worldwide and its production is related to intensive food production and fossil-fuel combustion. In the Baltic Sea NO3-inputs have increased four-fold over the last decades and now remain constantly high. NO3- source identification is therefore an important consideration in environmental management strategies. In this study focusing on the Baltic Sea, we used a method to estimate the proportional contributions of NO3- from atmospheric deposition, N2 fixation, and runoff from pristine soils as well as from agricultural land. Our approach combines data on the dual isotopes of NO3- (?15N-NO3- and ?18O-NO3-) in winter surface waters with a Bayesian isotope mixing model (Stable Isotope Analysis in R, SIAR). Based on data gathered from 46 sampling locations over the entire Baltic Sea, the majority of the NO3- in the southern Baltic was shown to derive from runoff from agricultural land (30-70%), whereas in the northern Baltic, i.e., the Gulf of Bothnia, NO3- originates from nitrification in pristine soils (47-100%). Atmospheric deposition accounts for only a small percentage of NO3- levels in the Baltic Sea, except for contributions from northern rivers, where the levels of atmospheric NO3- are higher. An additional important source in the central Baltic Sea is N2 fixation by diazotrophs, which contributes 31-62% of the overall NO3- pool at this site. The results obtained with this method are in good agreement with source estimates based upon ?15N values in sediments and a three-dimensional ecosystem model, ERGOM. We suggest that this approach can be easily modified to determine NO3- sources in other marginal seas or larger near-coastal areas where NO3- is abundant in winter surface waters when fractionation processes are minor.

Korth, F.; Deutsch, B.; Frey, C.; Moros, C.; Voss, M.

2014-04-01

302

Expansion of World Drylands Under Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world drylands including both semi-arid and arid regions comprise of one-third of the global land surfaces, which support 14% of the world's inhabitants and a significant share of the world agriculture. Because of meager annual precipitation and large potential evaporative water loss, the ecosystems over drylands are fragile and sensitive to the global change. By analyzing the observations during 1948-2008 and 20 fully coupled climate model simulations from CMIP5 for the period 1900-2100, this study evaluated the changes of the world drylands that are defined with a modified form of the Thornthwaite's moisture index. The results based on observational data showed that the world drylands are steadily expanding during the past 60 years. The areas occupied by drylands in 1994-2008 is about 2.0×10^6km^2 (or 4%) larger than the average during the 1950s. Such an expansion is also a robust feature in the simulations of the 20 global climate models, though the rate is much smaller in the models. A stronger expanding rate is projected during the first half of this century than the simulations in the last century, followed by accelerating expansion after 2050s under the high greenhouse gas emission scenario (RCP8.5). By the end of this century, the world drylands are projected to be over 58×10^6km^2 (or 11% increase compared to the 1961-1990 climatology). The projected expansion of drylands, however, is not homogeneous over the world drylands, with major expansion of arid regions over the southwest North America, the northern fringe of Africa, southern Africa and Australia. Major expansions of semi-arid regions are projected over the north side of the Mediterranean, southern Africa, North and South America. The global warming is the main factor causing the increase of potential evapotranspiration estimated by Penman-Monteith algorithm, which in turn dominants the expansion of drylands. The widening of Hadley cell, which has impact on both temperature and precipitation, also play an important role. This study accentuates the urgent to develop proactive planning and adaptation strategies for increasing aridity in the world drylands to reduce vulnerability and increase resilience in those regions.

Feng, S.; Fu, Q.; Hu, Q. S.

2012-12-01

303

Reprint of: The ecophysiology of Sprattus sprattus in the Baltic and North Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European sprat (Sprattus sprattus) was a main target species of the German GLOBEC program that investigated the trophodynamic structure and function of the Baltic and North Seas under the influence of physical forcing. This review summarizes literature on the ecophysiology of sprat with an emphasis on describing how environmental factors influence the life-history strategy of this small pelagic fish. Ontogenetic changes in feeding and growth, and the impacts of abiotic and biotic factors on vital rates are discussed with particular emphasis on the role of temperature as a constraint to life-history scheduling of this species in the Baltic Sea. A combination of field and laboratory data suggests that optimal thermal windows for growth and survival change during early life and are wider for eggs (5-17 °C) than in young (8- to 12-mm) early feeding larvae (5-12 °C). As larvae become able to successfully capture larger prey, thermal windows expand to include warmer waters. For example, 12- to 16-mm larvae can grow well at 16 °C and larger, transitional-larvae and early juveniles display the highest rates of feeding and growth at ?18-22 °C. Gaps in knowledge are identified including the need for additional laboratory studies on the physiology and behavior of larvae (studies that will be particularly critical for biophysical modeling activities) and research addressing the role of overwinter survival as a factor shaping phenology and setting limits on the productivity of this species in areas located at the northern limits of its latitudinal range (such as the Baltic Sea). Based on stage- and temperature-specific mortality and growth potential of early life stages, our analysis suggests that young-of-the year sprat would benefit from inhabiting warmer, near-shore environments rather than the deeper-water spawning grounds such as the Bornholm Basin (central Baltic Sea). Utilization of warmer, nearshore waters (or a general increase in Baltic Sea temperatures) is expected to accelerate growth rates but also enhance the possibility for density-dependent regulation of recruitment (e.g., top-down control of zooplankton resources) acting during the late-larval and juvenile stages, particularly when sprat stocks are at high levels.

Peck, Myron A.; Baumann, Hannes; Bernreuther, Matthias; Clemmesen, Catriona; Herrmann, Jens-Peter; Haslob, Holger; Huwer, Bastian; Kanstinger, Philipp; Köster, Fritz W.; Petereit, Christoph; Temming, Axel; Voss, Rudi

2012-12-01

304

Dissolved organic phosphorus in the Baltic Sea - temporal variability and utilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temporal variability of dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) concentrations in the Baltic Sea was investigated during three cruises in summer 2008, late winter/early spring 2009 and summer 2012 with focus on the central Baltic Sea. In summer 2008, characteristic cyanobacteria blooms occured in the Baltic Proper and DOP concentrations in the surface layer of 0.32 ± 0.05 µM have been estimated. In summer 2012, meteorological conditions did not favour intense cyanobacteria development and DOP concentrations were with 0.24 ± 0.04 µM lower on average. DOP degradation in autumn and winter resulted in lower concentrations of 0.21 ± 0.06 µM as can be seen in the winter cruise 2009. During the first two cruises also the spatial distribution of DOP in the surface layer between the Skagerrak and the northern Gulf of Bothnia could be measured. Highest summer concentrations of 0.32 ± 0.05 µM were found in the Baltic Proper, followed by the Gulf of Finland having on mean 0.25 ± 0.01 µM. DOP decreased down to 0.12 µM in the phosphorus limited Bay of Bothnia. Similar low concentrations were measured in the Skagerrak. The same spatial DOP pattern as in summer 2008 was observed in late winter/early spring 2009, but on lower concentration levels, except the Skagerrak and Kattegat were the spring bloom already has started. In addition, the bioavailable and refractory DOP fractions (B-DOP and R-DOP) were measured in time course experiments in 2008 and 2012, excluding C- and N- limitation. In summer 2008, the R-DOP constituted a higher proportion of DOP compared to B-DOP. A gradient has been observed from the northernmost station in the Bothnian Bay to the southern Baltic Proper. In the Bothnian Bay, only 0.01µM B-DOP could be detected, comprising 8% of DOP whereas B-DOP constituted a proportion of 25-29% in the Gotland Basin and up to 46% in the Gulf of Finland. In summer 2012, B-DOP concentrations of 0.09 ± 0.02 µM were measured in the eastern Gotland Basin corresponding to 27 - 40% of DOP. An additional supplied cocktail of DNA, RNA, ATP and phospholipides was used together with the natural B-DOP and stimulated bacteria growth by 15-26%.

Nausch, Günther; Nausch, Monika; Steinrücken, Pia; Balke, Jana; Woelk, Jana

2014-05-01

305

Genetic instability and clonal expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes can lead to clonal expansion. We study the evolutionary dynamics of this process and calculate the probability that inactivation of a tumor suppressor gene is preceded by mutations in genes that confer genetic instability. Unstable cells might have a slower rate of clonal expansion than stable cells because of an increased probability of generating lethal

Martin A. Nowak; Franziska Michor; Yoh Iwasa

2006-01-01

306

Cool Hot Rod (Thermal Expansion)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phenomenon is thermal expansion of copper. This demonstration allows an observer to see the effect of heating (and cooling) a copper tube. When heated, the copper tube lengthens and thickens. When cooled, the tube shrinks. The lengthening of the rod rotates a toothpick with an attached flag to make the expansion visible and measurable.

307

Expansive learning across workplace boundaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article analyses a collaborative effort of learning across workplace boundaries in a regional learning network of South Savo, Finland. The focus is on the Forum of In-house Development in the network. Our objective is to highlight a dialectical approach to boundaries that draws from the ideas of cultural–historical activity theory. Expansive transformation may be explored through the expansion of

Hannele Kerosuo; Hanna Toiviainen

2011-01-01

308

Hematoma Expansion is Common after Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Children  

PubMed Central

Importance Hematoma expansion is the only modifiable predictor of outcome in adult intracerebral hemorrhage; however, the frequency and clinical significance of hematoma expansion after childhood intracerebral hemorrhage are unknown. Objective To assess the frequency and extent of hematoma expansion in children with non-traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Three tertiary care pediatric hospitals. Participants Children (?37 weeks gestation-18 years) with non-traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage were enrolled in a three-center prospective observational study from 2007–2012 focused on predictors of outcome. For this planned sub-study of hematoma expansion, neonates ?28 days and participants with isolated intraventricular hemorrhage were excluded. Children with two head CTs within 48 hours were evaluated for hematoma expansion and were compared to children with only one head CT. Consent for the primary cohort was obtained from 73 of 87 eligible subjects (84%); 41 of 73 children enrolled in the primary cohort met all inclusion/exclusion criteria for this sub-study in whom 22 had two head CTs obtained within 48 hours that could be evaluated for hematoma expansion. Within our sub-study cohort, 21/41 (51%) were male, 25/41 (61%) were white, 16/25 (39%) were black, and median age was 7.7 years (interquartile range 2.0–13.4 years). Main Outcome Measure Primary outcome was prevalence of hematoma expansion. Results Of 73 children, 41 (56%) met inclusion criteria, and 22 (30%) had 2 head CTs to evaluate expansion. Among these 22 children, median time from symptom onset to first CT was two hours (interquartile range 1.3–6.5 hours). Median baseline hemorrhage volume was 19.5mL, 1.6% of brain volume. Hematoma expansion occurred in (7/22) 32%. Median expansion was 4mL (interquartile range 1–11mL). Three children had significant (>33%) expansion; two required urgent hematoma evacuation. Expansion was not associated with poorer outcome. Compared to children with only one head CT within 48 hours, children with two head CTs had larger baseline hemorrhage volumes (p=.05) and were more likely to receive treatment for elevated intracranial pressure (p<.001). Conclusions and Relevance Hematoma expansion occurs in children with intracerebral hemorrhage and may require urgent treatment. Repeat CT should be considered in children with either large hemorrhage or increased intracranial pressure. PMID:24296993

Beslow, Lauren A.; Ichord, Rebecca N.; Gindville, Melissa C.; Kleinman, Jonathan T.; Bastian, Rachel A.; Smith, Sabrina E.; Licht, Daniel J.; Hillis, Argye E.; Jordan, Lori C.

2013-01-01

309

Feeding ecology of dunlins Calidris alpina staging in the southern Baltic Sea, 2. Spatial and temporal variations in the harvestable fraction of their favourite prey Hediste diversicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial and temporal variations were studied in the distribution of the fraction of the polychaete Hediste diversicolor harvestable for dunlins Calidris alpina under non-tidal conditions in Baltic Sea windflats. The investigations were carried out in 1991 and 1995 near the island of Hiddensee, in the Bock and Bessin windflats, the most significant staging areas for shorebirds on the southern Baltic

Volker Dierschke; Jan Kube; Heike Rippe

1999-01-01

310

Changes in the C, N, P burial rates in some Baltic Sea sediments over the last 150 years—relevance to P regeneration rates and the phosphorus cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three major depositional basins (the Gdansk, Bornholm and Eastern Gotland basins) of the Baltic Proper, which together account for >50% of the depositional areas in the entire Baltic Sea, have accumulated increased amounts of sediment and organic carbon during the last 50years, as is shown in 210Pb-dated sediment cores. The shallow Arkona Basin has had constant accumulation rates and rate

K.-C Emeis; U Struck; T Leipe; F Pollehne; H Kunzendorf; C Christiansen

2000-01-01

311

Baltic Salmon, Salmo salar, from Swedish River Lule Älv Is More Resistant to Furunculosis Compared to Rainbow Trout  

PubMed Central

Background Furunculosis, caused by Aeromonas salmonicida, continues to be a major health problem for the growing salmonid aquaculture. Despite effective vaccination programs regular outbreaks occur at the fish farms calling for repeated antibiotic treatment. We hypothesized that a difference in natural susceptibility to this disease might exist between Baltic salmon and the widely used rainbow trout. Study Design A cohabitation challenge model was applied to investigate the relative susceptibility to infection with A. salmonicida in rainbow trout and Baltic salmon. The course of infection was monitored daily over a 30-day period post challenge and the results were summarized in mortality curves. Results A. salmonicida was recovered from mortalities during the entire test period. At day 30 the survival was 6.2% and 34.0% for rainbow trout and Baltic salmon, respectively. Significant differences in susceptibility to A. salmonicida were demonstrated between the two salmonids and hazard ratio estimation between rainbow trout and Baltic salmon showed a 3.36 higher risk of dying from the infection in the former. Conclusion The finding that Baltic salmon carries a high level of natural resistance to furunculosis might raise new possibilities for salmonid aquaculture in terms of minimizing disease outbreaks and the use of antibiotics. PMID:22276121

Holten-Andersen, Lars; Dalsgaard, Inger; Buchmann, Kurt

2012-01-01

312

Atom cooling by nonadiabatic expansion  

SciTech Connect

Motivated by the recent discovery that a reflecting wall moving with a square-root-in-time trajectory behaves as a universal stopper of classical particles regardless of their initial velocities, we compare linear-in-time and square-root-in-time expansions of a box to achieve efficient atom cooling. For the quantum single-atom wave functions studied the square-root-in-time expansion presents important advantages: asymptotically it leads to zero average energy whereas any linear-in-time (constant box-wall velocity) expansion leaves a nonzero residual energy, except in the limit of an infinitely slow expansion. For finite final times and box lengths we set a number of bounds and cooling principles which again confirm the superior performance of the square-root-in-time expansion, even more clearly for increasing excitation of the initial state. Breakdown of adiabaticity is generally fatal for cooling with the linear expansion but not so with the square-root-in-time expansion.

Chen Xi [Departamento de Quimica-Fisica, UPV-EHU, Apdo 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Department of Physics, Shanghai University, 200444 Shanghai (China); Muga, J. G. [Departamento de Quimica-Fisica, UPV-EHU, Apdo 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Campo, A. del [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College London, 53 Princes Gate, SW7 2PG London (United Kingdom); QOLS, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, SW7 2BW London (United Kingdom); Ruschhaupt, A. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Appelstrasse 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

2009-12-15

313

Genus expansion of HOMFLY polynomials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the planar limit of the' t Hooft expansion, the Wilson-loop vacuum average in the three-dimensional Chern-Simons theory (in other words, the HOMFLY polynomial) depends very simply on the representation (Young diagram), HR(A|q)|q=1 = (?1(A)|R|. As a result, the (knot-dependent) Ooguri-Vafa partition function becomes a trivial ? -function of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili hierarchy. We study higher-genus corrections to this formula for HR in the form of an expansion in powers of z = q - q-1. The expansion coefficients are expressed in terms of the eigenvalues of cut-and-join operators, i.e., symmetric group characters. Moreover, the z-expansion is naturally written in a product form. The representation in terms of cut-and-join operators relates to the Hurwitz theory and its sophisticated integrability. The obtained relations describe the form of the genus expansion for the HOMFLY polynomials, which for the corresponding matrix model is usually given using Virasoro-like constraints and the topological recursion. The genus expansion differs from the better-studied weak-coupling expansion at a finite number N of colors, which is described in terms of Vassiliev invariants and the Kontsevich integral.

Mironov, A. D.; Morozov, A. Yu.; Sleptsov, A. V.

2013-11-01

314

Monitoring the expansion of built-up areas in Seberang Perai region, Penang State, Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid urbanization has caused land use transformation and encroachment of built environment into arable agriculture land. Uncontrolled expansion could bring negative impacts to society, space and the environment. Therefore, information on expansion and future spatial pattern of built-up areas would be useful for planners and decision makers in formulating policies towards managing and planning for sustainable urban development. This study demonstrates the usage of Geographic Information System in monitoring the expansion of built-up area in Seberang Perai region, Penang State, Malaysia. Built-up area has increased by approximately 20% between 1990 and 2001 and further increased by 12% between 2001 and 2007. New development is expected to continue encroach into existing open space and agriculture area since those are the only available land in this study area. The information on statistics of the expansion of built-up area and future spatial pattern of urban expansion were useful in planning and managing urban spatial growth.

Samat, N.

2014-02-01

315

The governance of the mitigation of the Baltic Sea eutrophication: exploring the challenges of the formal governing system.  

PubMed

This article focuses on the governing system of the mitigation of eutrophication in the Baltic Sea. Policies and measures of the Baltic Sea coastal countries, the macro--regional (HELCOM) level, and the level of the European Union are described and governance challenges explicated. We found that the main challenges at different governance levels include: differences between coastal countries in terms of environmental conditions including environmental awareness, overlaps of policies between different levels, the lack of adequate spatial and temporal specification of policies, and the lack of policy integration. To help to meet these challenges, we suggest closer involvement of stakeholders and the public, the improvement of the interplay of institutions, and the introduction of a "primus motor" for the governance of the mitigation of eutrophication in the Baltic Sea. PMID:24414809

Tynkkynen, Nina; Schönach, Paula; Pihlajamäki, Mia; Nechiporuk, Dmitry

2014-02-01

316

Thermal Expansion of Polyurethane Foam  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Closed cell foams are often used for thermal insulation. In the case of the Space Shuttle, the External Tank uses several thermal protection systems to maintain the temperature of the cryogenic fuels. A few of these systems are polyurethane, closed cell foams. In an attempt to better understand the foam behavior on the tank, we are in the process of developing and improving thermal-mechanical models for the foams. These models will start at the microstructural level and progress to the overall structural behavior of the foams on the tank. One of the key properties for model characterization and verification is thermal expansion. Since the foam is not a material, but a structure, the modeling of the expansion is complex. It is also exacerbated by the anisoptropy of the material. During the spraying and foaming process, the cells become elongated in the rise direction and this imparts different properties in the rise direction than in the transverse directions. Our approach is to treat the foam as a two part structure consisting of the polymeric cell structure and the gas inside the cells. The polymeric skeleton has a thermal expansion of its own which is derived from the basic polymer chemistry. However, a major contributor to the thermal expansion is the volume change associated with the gas inside of the closed cells. As this gas expands it exerts pressure on the cell walls and changes the shape and size of the cells. The amount that this occurs depends on the elastic and viscoplastic properties of the polymer skeleton. The more compliant the polymeric skeleton, the more influence the gas pressure has on the expansion. An additional influence on the expansion process is that the polymeric skeleton begins to breakdown at elevated temperatures and releases additional gas species into the cell interiors, adding to the gas pressure. The fact that this is such a complex process makes thermal expansion ideal for testing the models. This report focuses on the thermal expansion tests and the response of the microstructure. A novel optical method is described which is appropriate for measuring thermal expansion at high temperatures without influencing the thermal expansion measurement. Detailed microstructural investigations will also be described which show cell expansion as a function of temperature. Finally, a phenomenological model on thermal expansion will be described.

Lerch, Bradley A.; Sullivan, Roy M.

2006-01-01

317

Breaking the Link between Environmental Degradation and Oil Palm Expansion: A Method for Enabling Sustainable Oil Palm Expansion  

PubMed Central

Land degradation is a global concern. In tropical areas it primarily concerns the conversion of forest into non-forest lands and the associated losses of environmental services. Defining such degradation is not straightforward hampering effective reduction in degradation and use of already degraded lands for more productive purposes. To facilitate the processes of avoided degradation and land rehabilitation, we have developed a methodology in which we have used international environmental and social sustainability standards to determine the suitability of lands for sustainable agricultural expansion. The method was developed and tested in one of the frontiers of agricultural expansion, West Kalimantan province in Indonesia. The focus was on oil palm expansion, which is considered as a major driver for deforestation in tropical regions globally. The results suggest that substantial changes in current land-use planning are necessary for most new plantations to comply with international sustainability standards. Through visualizing options for sustainable expansion with our methodology, we demonstrate that the link between oil palm expansion and degradation can be broken. Application of the methodology with criteria and thresholds similar to ours could help the Indonesian government and the industry to achieve its pro-growth, pro-job, pro-poor and pro-environment development goals. For sustainable agricultural production, context specific guidance has to be developed in areas suitable for expansion. Our methodology can serve as a template for designing such commodity and country specific tools and deliver such guidance. PMID:24039700

Smit, Hans Harmen; Meijaard, Erik; van der Laan, Carina; Mantel, Stephan; Budiman, Arif; Verweij, Pita

2013-01-01

318

Mapping present and future potential distribution patterns for a meso-grazer guild in the Baltic Sea  

PubMed Central

Aim The Baltic Sea is one of the world's largest semi-enclosed brackish water bodies characterized by many special features, including endemic species that may be particularly threatened by climate change. We mapped potential distribution patterns under present and future conditions for a community with three trophic levels. We analysed climate-induced changes in the species' distribution patterns and examined possible consequences for the chosen food web. Location Baltic Sea and northern Europe. Methods We developed two open-source workflow-based analytical tools: one for ecological niche modelling and another for raster layer comparison to compute the extent and intensity of change in species' potential distributions. Individual ecological niche models were generated under present conditions and then projected into a future climate change scenario (2050) for a food web consisting of a guild of meso-grazers (Idotea spp.), their host algae (Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus radicans) and their fish predator (Gasterosteus aculeatus). We used occurrence data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), literature and museum collections, together with five environmental layers at a resolution of 5 and 30 arc-minutes. Results Habitat suitability for Idotea balthica and Idotea chelipes in the Baltic Sea seems to be mostly determined by temperature and ice cover rather than by salinity. 2050 predictions for all modelled species show a northern/north-eastern shift in the Baltic Sea. The distribution ranges for Idotea granulosa and G. aculeatus are predicted to become patchier in the Baltic than in the rest of northern Europe, where the species will gain more suitable habitats. Main conclusions For the Baltic Sea, climate-induced changes resulted in a gain of suitable habitats for F. vesiculosus,I. chelipes and I. balthica, whereas lower habitat suitability was predicted for I. granulosa,F. radicans and G. aculeatus. The predicted north-eastern shift of I. balthica and I. chelipes into the distribution area of F. radicans in the Baltic Sea may result in increased grazing pressure. Such additional threats to isolated Baltic populations can lead to a higher extinction risk for the species, especially as climate changes are likely to be very rapid. PMID:25653464

Leidenberger, Sonja; De Giovanni, Renato; Kulawik, Robert; Williams, Alan R; Bourlat, Sarah J; Maggs, Christine

2015-01-01

319

Thermal expansion of graphite epoxy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two optical techniques to measure the thermal expansion of fiber-reinforced composites are discussed. These techniques are moire interferometry and Fizeau interferometry. The pertinent features of each setup are presented and the preparation of the composite specimens discussed. Thermal expansion measurements in the range 116 to 422 K for 0 deg, 90 deg, and quasi-isotropic graphite-epoxy composite laminates are presented.

Hyer, M. W.; Herakovich, C. T.; Post, D.

1982-01-01

320

Quantum vacuum and accelerated expansion  

E-print Network

A new approach to extraction of quantum vacuum energy, in the context of the accelerated expansion, is proposed, and it is shown that experimentally realistic orders of values can be derived. The idea has been implemented in the framework of the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker geometry in the language of the effective action in the relativistic formalism of Schwinger's proper time and Seeley-DeWitt's heat kernel expansion.

Bogus?aw Broda; Micha? Szanecki

2008-12-29

321

Symbolic Expansion of Transcendental Functions  

E-print Network

Higher transcendental function occur frequently in the calculation of Feynman integrals in quantum field theory. Their expansion in a small parameter is a non-trivial task. We report on a computer program which allows the systematic expansion of certain classes of functions. The algorithms are based on the Hopf algebra of nested sums. The program is written in C++ and uses the GiNaC library.

Stefan Weinzierl

2002-01-04

322

Organochlorine concentrations in diseased vs. healthy gull chicks from the northern Baltic.  

PubMed

The population decline of the nominate lesser black-backed gull Larus fuscus fuscus in the Gulf of Finland (northern Baltic) is caused by an exceedingly high chick mortality due to diseases. The chick diseases include degeneration in various internal organs (primarily liver), inflammations (mainly intestinal), and sepsis, the final cause of death. The hypothesis of starvation causing intestinal inflammations (leading to sepsis) was tested by attempting to reproduce lesions in apparently healthy herring gull L. argentatus chicks in captivity. The herring gull chicks were provided a similar low food-intake frequency as observed for the diseased chicks in the wild. However, empty alimentary tract per se did not induce the intestinal inflammations and therefore, inflammations seem to be innate or caused by other environmental factors in the diseased lesser black-backed chicks. They had very high concentrations of PCB in their liver; but the concentrations were not significantly higher than those of the healthy herring gull chicks, indicating a common exposure area for both species (i.e. the Baltic Sea). When compared to NOEL and LOEL values for TEQs in bird eggs our TEQ levels clearly exceed most or all of the values associated with effects. Compared with published data on fish-eating waterbirds, the DDE concentrations in the diseased lesser black-backed chicks were well above the levels previously correlated with decreased reproduction, while the residues in apparently healthy herring gulls were below those levels. The DDE/PCB ratio in lesser black-backs was significantly elevated, indicating an increased exposure to DDTs as compared with most other Baltic and circumpolar seabirds. The possible exposure areas of DDT in relation to differential migration habits of the two gull species are discussed. PMID:14638302

Hario, Martti; Hirvi, Juha-Pekka; Hollmén, Tuula; Rudbäck, Eeva

2004-01-01

323

Distribution and sources of (129)I in rivers of the Baltic region.  

PubMed

The concentration of (129)I was measured in 54 river waters discharging into the Baltic Sea from Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Germany. Sample collection was performed during a well-bracketed time interval (June-July 1999), thus allowing comparison of the rivers over a wide latitude range without the effect of long temporal spread. Although there is no direct input of anthropogenic (129)I in the watersheds, the concentration of the isotope is about two to three orders of magnitude higher than the expected pre-nuclear era natural values in the rivers of Finland and northern Sweden, and in the rivers of southern Sweden, Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia, Poland and Germany; the (129)I concentration may reach five orders of magnitude higher. Furthermore, there are significant correlations between the (129)I concentration and latitude and/or distance from the North Sea and between (129)I and Cl. These findings suggest seawater as a main source of (129)I to the rivers through atmospheric transport. Of the many chemical parameters investigated, the pH may account for some of the variability in (129)I concentrations of the rivers. The contribution from nuclear weapon tests and the Chernobyl accident to the riverine (129)I is insignificant compared to the releases from the nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. The total flux of (129)I by rivers to the Baltic Sea and related basins represents minor amounts of the isotope pool in these marine waters. External radioactivity hazards from (129)I are considered to be negligible in the Baltic region. However, as the main (129)I intake to the human body is likely through water, due to the large amount of daily water consumption, more concern should be given to internal radioactivity hazard that may be associated with the isotope's localized elevated concentration in the human organs. PMID:16527378

Aldahan, A; Kekli, A; Possnert, G

2006-01-01

324

Significance of archaeal nitrification in hypoxic waters of the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) of the phylum Thaumarchaeota are widespread, and their abundance in many terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems suggests a prominent role in nitrification. AOA also occur in high numbers in oxygen-deficient marine environments, such as the pelagic redox gradients of the central Baltic Sea; however, data on archaeal nitrification rates are scarce and little is known about the factors, for example sulfide, that regulate nitrification in this system. In the present work, we assessed the contribution of AOA to ammonia oxidation rates in Baltic deep basins and elucidated the impact of sulfide on this process. Rate measurements with (15)N-labeled ammonium, CO2 dark fixation measurements and quantification of AOA by catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that among the three investigated sites the highest potential nitrification rates (122-884?nmol?l(-1)per day) were measured within gradients of decreasing oxygen, where thaumarchaeotal abundance was maximal (2.5-6.9 × 10(5) cells per ml) and CO2 fixation elevated. In the presence of the archaeal-specific inhibitor GC7, nitrification was reduced by 86-100%, confirming the assumed dominance of AOA in this process. In samples spiked with sulfide at concentrations similar to those of in situ conditions, nitrification activity was inhibited but persisted at reduced rates. This result together with the substantial nitrification potential detected in sulfidic waters suggests the tolerance of AOA to periodic mixing of anoxic and sulfidic waters. It begs the question of whether the globally distributed Thaumarchaeota respond similarly in other stratified water columns or whether the observed robustness against sulfide is a specific feature of the thaumarchaeotal subcluster present in the Baltic Deeps.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 25 November 2014; doi:10.1038/ismej.2014.218. PMID:25423026

Berg, Carlo; Vandieken, Verona; Thamdrup, Bo; Jürgens, Klaus

2014-11-25

325

Diversity and abundance of freshwater Actinobacteria along environmental gradients in the brackish northern Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Actinobacteria are highly abundant in pelagic freshwater habitats and also occur in estuarine environments such as the Baltic Sea. Because of gradients in salinity and other environmental variables estuaries offer natural systems for examining factors that determine Actinobacteria distribution. We studied abundance and community structure of Bacteria and Actinobacteria along two transects in the northern Baltic Sea. Quantitative (CARD-FISH) and qualitative (DGGE and clone libraries) analyses of community composition were compared with environmental parameters. Actinobacteria accounted for 22-27% of all bacteria and the abundance changed with temperature. Analysis of 549 actinobacterial 16S rRNA sequences from four clone libraries revealed a dominance of the freshwater clusters acI and acIV, and two new subclusters (acI-B scB-5 and acIV-E) were assigned. Whereas acI was present at all stations, occurrence of acII and acIV differed between stations and was related to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and chlorophyll a (Chl a) respectively. The prevalence of the acI-A and acI-B subclusters changed in relation to total phosphorus (Tot-P) and Chl a respectively. Community structure of Bacteria and Actinobacteria differed between the river station and all other stations, responding to differences in DOC, Chl a and bacterial production. In contrast, the composition of active Actinobacteria (analysis based on reversely transcribed RNA) changed in relation to salinity and Tot-P. Our study suggests an important ecological role of Actinobacteria in the brackish northern Baltic Sea. It highlights the need to address dynamics at the cluster or subcluster phylogenetic levels to gain insights into the factors regulating distribution and composition of Actinobacteria in aquatic environments. PMID:19453610

Holmfeldt, Karin; Dziallas, Claudia; Titelman, Josefin; Pohlmann, Kirsten; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Riemann, Lasse

2009-08-01

326

Improving environmental and biodiversity monitoring in the Baltic Sea using DNA barcoding of Chironomidae (Diptera).  

PubMed

As for many other regions, environmental and biodiversity monitoring of the brackish Baltic Sea suffers from low species resolution for several taxa. One such case is the benthic larvae of midges Chironomidae (Diptera), which are estimated to constitute about 30% of the macrozoobenthos species of the Baltic Sea and are important indicators of environmental quality. We assessed the usefulness of COI (cytochrome oxidase I) gene barcoding to improve species resolution and its potential for implementation in monitoring programmes. Neighbour-Joining, Maximum parsimony and Bayesian-inference analyses all provided high congruency with morphological analyses of adult males for almost all 42 species studied. Barcoding was helpful to elucidate some cases of taxonomical difficulties, such as synonyms. In contrast to the high identification accuracy when using our local database, there were a number of cases where matching with GenBank and BOLD provided puzzling results. For reliable species identification at least 15-30 specimens from 5-10 well-distributed sites within the geographical range of the species might be needed in a database to adequately cover the intraspecific variability of chironomids. Implementation of DNA barcoding, as applied here, in monitoring would result in an increase from at present less than 10% to more than 90% successful chironomid species identification of Baltic Sea benthic samples, as it also would for many nearby lakes. Routine monitoring of benthic environmental samples based on Next-Generation sequencing techniques would provide a cost effective way to obtain a taxonomically much more complete assessment of environmental quality and biodiversity, as required by EU directives and national legislation. PMID:23280321

Brodin, Y; Ejdung, G; Strandberg, J; Lyrholm, T

2013-11-01

327

Does the zooplankton prey availability limit the larval habitats of pike in the Baltic Sea?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate whether the availability of suitable zooplankton prey limits the distribution of the coastal larval areas of pike ( Esox lucius) in two archipelago areas of the northern Baltic Sea and (2) compare the availability of zooplankton prey in spring between different types of coastal littoral habitat. According to the results, reed belt habitats formed by Phragmites australis constitute hot spots for zooplankton prey in the coastal ecosystem. During the spring, reed-covered shores of the inner archipelago maintained more than 10 times higher densities of copepods and cladocerans, the preferred prey for larval pike, compared to the other studied shores. Temperature conditions were also most favourable in the reed belt habitat. Thus, the reed belts of the inner and middle archipelago were shown to form the best habitat for larval pike in the coastal area of the northern Baltic Sea, and this was also the only habitat where pike larvae were found. Our results suggest that the poor survival and recruitment of pike in the outer archipelago, however, cannot exclusively be explained by sub-optimal feeding conditions of the larvae. There are also other important factors, presumably connected to the exposure to the open sea, that affect the distribution of the pike larvae. Our results, however, highlight the importance of sheltered coastal reed belt shores as reproduction habitat for spring-spawning fish in the northern Baltic Sea. Further, this study disproves the assumption that the seaweed bladder wrack ( Fucus vesiculosus) forms a reproduction habitat for pike in the coastal area.

Kallasvuo, Meri; Salonen, Maiju; Lappalainen, Antti

2010-01-01

328

Evaluation of the operational SAR based Baltic sea ice concentration products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea ice concentration is an important ice parameter both for weather and climate modeling and sea ice navigation. We have developed an fully automated algorithm for sea ice concentration retrieval using dual-polarized ScanSAR wide mode RADARSAT-2 data. RADARSAT-2 is a C-band SAR instrument enabling dual-polarized acquisition in ScanSAR mode. The swath width for the RADARSAT-2 ScanSAR mode is about 500 km, making it very suitable for operational sea ice monitoring. The polarization combination used in our concentration estimation is HH/HV. The SAR data is first preprocessed, the preprocessing consists of geo-rectification to Mercator projection, incidence angle correction fro both the polarization channels. and SAR mosaicking. After preprocessing a segmentation is performed for the SAR mosaics, and some single-channel and dual-channel features are computed for each SAR segment. Finally the SAR concentration is estimated based on these segment-wise features. The algorithm is similar as introduced in Karvonen 2014. The ice concentration is computed daily using a daily RADARSAT-2 SAR mosaic as its input, and it thus gives the concentration estimated at each Baltic Sea location based on the most recent SAR data at the location. The algorithm has been run in an operational test mode since January 2014. We present evaluation of the SAR-based concentration estimates for the Baltic ice season 2014 by comparing the SAR results with gridded the Finnish Ice Service ice charts and ice concentration estimates from a radiometer algorithm (AMSR-2 Bootstrap algorithm results). References: J. Karvonen, Baltic Sea Ice Concentration Estimation Based on C-Band Dual-Polarized SAR Data, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, in press, DOI: 10.1109/TGRS.2013.2290331, 2014.

Karvonen, Juha

329

The climate in the Baltic Sea region during the last millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variability and long-term climate change in the Baltic Sea region is investigated for the pre-industrial period of the last millennium. For the first time dynamical downscaling covering the complete millennium is conducted with a regional climate model in this area. As a result of changing external forcing conditions the model simulation shows warm conditions in the first centuries followed by a gradual cooling until c. 1700 before temperature increases in the last centuries. This long-term evolution, with a Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and a Little Ice Age (LIA), is in broad agreement with proxy-based reconstructions. However, the timing of warm and cold events is not captured at all times. We show that the regional response to the global climate anomalies is to a strong degree modified by the large-scale circulation in the model. In particular, we find that a positive NAO-phase simulated during MCA contributes to enhancing winter temperatures and precipitation in the region while a negative NAO-anomaly in the LIA reduces them. In a second step, the regional ocean model RCO is used to investigate the impact of atmospheric changes onto the Baltic Sea for two 100 yr time slices representing the MCA and the LIA. Besides the warming of the Baltic Sea the water becomes fresher at all levels during the MCA. This is induced by increased runoff and stronger westerly winds. Moreover, the oxygen concentrations in the deep layers are slightly reduced during the MCA. Additional sensitivity studies are conducted to investigate the impact of even higher temperatures and increased nutrient loads. The presented experiments suggest that changing nutrient loads may be more important determining oxygen depletion than changes in temperature or dynamic feedbacks.

Schimanke, S.; Meier, H. E. M.; Kjellström, E.; Strandberg, G.; Hordoir, R.

2012-04-01

330

Past and future changes of hypoxia in the Baltic Sea simulated with a Regional Climate Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hypoxia is a well known phenomenon in the deep basins of the Baltic Sea. Moreover, observations show that hypoxia increased by about 4 times since 1960. Climate change model studies indicate that this trend will continue within the 21st century. The reasons for recently expanding hypoxia are man-made as for instance due to increased nutrient loads and rising temperatures, respectively. Nevertheless, sediment proxy studies show that hypoxia was also prevalent during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA). Here, it is an open question to what extent this was connected to climate variability or human influence. Some studies indicate that a surplus of nutrient loads released from the Vikings could have significantly contributed to the increase of hypoxia. The goal of this study is to assess whether natural climate variability or the Vikings played the main role for the spreading of hypoxia during the MCA. Therefore, climate simulations of the last 1000 years have been carried out with the Rossby Center Ocean model (RCO). RCO is a biogeochemical regional climate model which covers the entire Baltic Sea. The model simulates a warmer and fresher Baltic Sea during the MCA. Moreover, oxygen concentrations are reduced up to 1ml/l in the Gotland deep due to climate variability only. However, this is not sufficient to change the general high oxygen conditions into hypoxia in the model. Therefore, in addition, sensitivity studies will be presented for the MCA with increased nutrient loads or stronger temperature signals to further investigate the interaction of climate variability and human made impact.

Schimanke, S.; Meier, H. E. M.

2012-04-01

331

Mercury in particulate matter over Polish zone of the southern Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Important Hg transformations can occur at the air-water interface where polluted terrestrial air masses meet humid, halogen-rich marine air masses over the southern Baltic Sea. These chemical and physical processes include gas-to-particle conversion that led to an increase of Hg associated with coarse particles, which due to higher dry deposition rates, enhanced local scale deposition and limited the transport of this toxic trace metal. Daily (24 h) sampling of size-segregated atmospheric particles revealed the sea to be a sink for Hg during winter months and as a source of Hg during summer months. Poland is one of the major Hg emitters among the Baltic States according to International HELCOM Reports. Thus, important measurements in this region were conducted over a one-year period from December 18, 2007 to December 15, 2008. The range in concentrations of Hg in particulate matter (2-142 pg m -3) at the Polish site are comparable to other measurements at sites along the coastal areas of the Baltic Sea. Annual Hg(p) represents 1% of the total atmospheric Hg (Hg TOT) under unpolluted or background ambient conditions. A major source of atmospheric Hg in this area is the combustion of fossil fuels, especially coal burning used for home heating. This was clearly seen in the statistically higher mean concentration of 24 pg m -3 observed during the heating season compared to the 15 pg m -3 measured during the non-heating season. Construction activities e.g., cement manufacturing, gravel extraction, and waste incineration during the warm season strongly influenced Hg concentrations and led to an increase in Hg(p) on working days compared to weekend days.

Beldowska, M.; Saniewska, D.; Falkowska, L.; Lewandowska, A.

2012-01-01

332

Site-specific cancer risk in the Baltic cohort of Chernobyl cleanup workers, 1986–2007  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess site-specific cancer risk in the Baltic cohort of Chernobyl cleanup workers 1986–2007. Methods The Baltic cohort includes 17,040 men from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania who participated in the environmental cleanup after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in 1986–1991, and who were followed for cancer incidence until the end of 2007. Cancer cases diagnosed in the cohort and in the male population of each country were identified from the respective national cancer registers. The proportional incidence ratio (PIR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to estimate the site-specific cancer risk in the cohort. For comparison and as it was possible, the site-specific standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated for the Estonian sub-cohort, which was not feasible for the other countries. Results Overall, 756 cancer cases were reported during 1986–2007. A higher proportion of thyroid cancers in relation to the male population was found (PIR=2.76; 95%CI 1.63–4.36), especially among those who started their mission shortly after the accident, in April–May 1986 (PIR=6.38; 95% CI 2.34–13.89). Also, an excess of oesophageal cancers was noted (PIR=1.52; 95% CI 1.06–2.11). No increased PIRs for leukaemia or radiation-related cancer sites combined were observed. PIRs and SIRs for the Estonian sub-cohort demonstrated the same site-specific cancer risk pattern. Conclusion Consistent evidence of an increase in radiation-related cancers in the Baltic cohort was not observed with the possible exception of thyroid cancer, where conclusions are hampered by known medical examination including thyroid screening among cleanup workers. PMID:23683549

Rahu, Kaja; Hakulinen, Timo; Smailyte, Giedre; Stengrevics, Aivars; Auvinen, Anssi; Inskip, Peter D.; Boice, John D.; Rahu, Mati

2013-01-01

333

Nematofauna of ducks of the genus Melanitta (Mergini, Anseriformes) from the south Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

A total of 10 individuals each of the common scoter (Melanitta nigra) and the velvet scoter (M. fusca) were examined for parasites. The scoters are marine ducks wintering at the south-western coast of the Baltic Sea. The scoters were found to be infected with 5 nematode species. While the common scoter supported Amidostomoides monodon, Epomidiostomum uncinatum, Tetrameres sp. and Echinuria hypognatha, the velvet scoter were hosts to A. monodon, E. hypognatha, and Streptocara crassicauda. This is the first record of Echinuria hypognatha in Poland. PMID:18702323

Kavetska, Katarzyna M

2008-01-01

334

[Digenea in Melanitta fusca and M. nigra (Mergini, Anseriformes) from the Baltic Sea].  

PubMed

Ten individuals of Melanitta fusca and M. nigra (Mergini, Anseriformes) each, wintering at the Polish Baltic coast, were examined for the presence of parasites. M. fusca yielded a total of 197 helminths, including 20 digeneans and 177 nematodes. The M. nigra individuals examined were found to support 923 helminths, including 62 digeneans, 860 nematodes, and a single cestode. M. fusca were hosts to the digeneans: Cryptocotyle concava, Notocotylus attenuatus and Psilostomum brevicolle. Digenea found in M. nigra represented: C. concava and Paramonostomum alveatum. The prevalence of P. brevicolle infection (60%) was higher than that of other digeneans; the maximum infection intensity was 40 C. concava individuals in a single M. nigra. PMID:18702322

Rzad, Izabella; Sitko, Jiljí; Kavetska, Katarzyna M; Jackowski, Andrzej

2008-01-01

335

The extinct Baltic amber genus Propelma Trjapitzin, a valid genus of Neanastatinae (Hymenoptera, Eupelmidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The extinct Eocene Baltic amber genus Propelma Trjapitzin 1963 is removed from synonymy under Eupelmus Dalman 1820 (Hymenoptera, Eupelmidae, Eupelminae) and treated as a valid genus within Neanastatinae Kalina 1984 based on examination of the holotype female of Propelma rohdendorfi Trjapitzin. Propelma rohdendorfi is redescribed, illustrated by photomacrographs, and compared to other described extant and extinct genera of Neanastatinae. Taxonomic, morphological and geological diversity of Neanastatinae relative to Eupelminae and Calosotinae is also discussed relative to potential age of the subfamily. PMID:23794842

Gibson, Gary A. P.

2013-01-01

336

Vertical distribution of (241)Pu in the southern Baltic Sea sediments.  

PubMed

The vertical distribution of plutonium (241)Pu in marine sediments can assist in determining the deposition history and sedimentation process of analyzed regions. In addition, (241)Pu/(239+240)Pu activity ratio could be used as a sensitive fingerprint for radioactive source identification. The present preliminary studies on vertical distribution of (241)Pu in sediments from four regions of the southern Baltic Sea are presented. The distribution of (241)Pu was not uniform and depended on sediment geomorphology and depth as well as location. The highest concentrations of plutonium were found in the surface layers of all analyzed sediments and originated from the Chernobyl accident. PMID:25455816

Strumi?ska-Parulska, Dagmara I

2014-12-15

337

CO2 Storage Capacity of Saline Aquifers in the Swedish Sector of the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is one of a range of options to reduce CO2 emissions in order to mitigate climate change in the future. The Intra-cratonic Baltic Sea Basin contains several saline aquifers which could be suitable for CO2 storage. In this study the CO2 storage capacity of the Cambrian När and Faludden sandstone members is evaluated within the Swedish sector of the Baltic Sea Basin. A probabilistic approach is adopted to characterise both the most likely storage capacity estimate as well as the associated uncertainty. The storage capacity within structural closures and stratigraphic traps is considered. Depth structure maps generated using a dense grid of vintage 2D marine seismic data are used to assess the storage potential in structural traps for both potential reservoirs. A regional scale stratigraphic trap is also considered for the Faludden reservoir. Key input properties for the CO2 storage capacity calculations such as porosity, CO2 density and storage efficiency factor are characterised based on available well log and core data. CO2 storage capacities for the structural and stratigraphic traps are then calculated using a Monte Carlo type approach where the input parameters are randomly perturbed within a set range. A statistical analysis of the input parameters is used to define the range within which these properties are allowed to vary, both spatially and at a given point. Finally these results are compared to others for the greater Baltic Sea region. This approach allows a most likely CO2 storage capacity estimate as well as low and high estimates to be obtained for the Swedish sector of the Baltic Sea in the investigated formations. Based on these results it appears that the largest storage capacity lies within the regional stratigraphic trap of the Faludden reservoir. The structural traps provide significantly smaller volumes when compared to the Faludden stratigraphic trap. The majority of the structural traps are also less certain than the Faludden stratigraphic trap as they assume a series of sealing faults to be present.

Sopher, Daniel; Juhlin, Christopher

2014-05-01

338

Late Quaternary records of Najas spp. (Najadaceae) from the southwestern Baltic region.  

PubMed

Seeds of the submerged vascular plants Najas marina, Najas minor and Najas flexilis are reported from submarine Holocene deposits from the southwestern part of the Baltic Sea, and we also report on a find of Najas minor from an Eemian deposit in Jutland, which is the first record of this species from the Eemian of Denmark. The common and widespread occurrence of especially the southern extralimital N. minor is indicative of higher than present summer temperatures during the period from 10300 to 8000cal.yearsBP. PMID:11389918

Bennike, O; Jensen, J B.; Lemke, W

2001-04-01

339

Sulfidization of lacustrine glacial clay upon Holocene marine transgression (Arkona Basin, Baltic Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Towards the end of the last deglaciation more than 13,500 years ago the southern Baltic Sea was a freshwater lake, the Baltic Ice Lake, for several thousand years during which iron-rich, organic-poor clay was deposited. The modern brackish-marine stage started about 8600 years ago with the deposition of organic-rich mud, which is today characterized by high rates of sulfate reduction and high concentrations of free sulfide. We studied the iron-sulfur diagenesis in gravity cores from the Arkona Basin, SW Baltic Sea, to track the progressing sulfidization front in the buried Ice Lake sediment. The geochemical zonation was unusual as the sulfate concentration dropped steeply by two thirds below which it increased again due to a deep sulfate reservoir. The reservoir had been established during the early Holocene marine period as sulfate and other seawater ions diffused down into the lake sediment for several thousand years. Sulfur isotope analyses confirmed its origin as seawater sulfate, while its oxygen isotope composition indicated a microbially catalyzed equilibration with ambient interstitial water, decoupled from net sulfate reduction. Today, hydrogen sulfide diffuses from the marine mud down into the lake sediment where a black band with high magnetic susceptibility and high iron monosulfide, greigite and elemental sulfur content shows progressing sulfidization of the large pool of solid-phase reactive iron. Dissolved iron from the deep Ice Lake sediment diffuses up to the sulfide front and provides a small supplement to the solid Fe(III) pool as a sulfide sink. Pyrite formation at the sulfidization front may involve surface-bound zero-valent sulfur while, above the front, polysulfides are in equilibrium with the system hydrogen sulfide - polysulfide - rhombic sulfur and may not be important for further pyrite formation. The Holocene iron-sulfur diagenesis observed in the Arkona Basin represents an important transitional state for post-glacial transgressions with organic-rich marine sediment overlying lacustrine clay, such as in other areas of the Baltic Sea or in the Black Sea.

Holmkvist, Lars; Kamyshny, Alexey; Brüchert, Volker; Ferdelman, Timothy G.; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

2014-10-01

340

Heavy quark mass expansion of fermion bilinears.  

E-print Network

??In dieser Arbeit wurden die Methoden der "heavy quark mass expansion" (HQME) und der "expansion by subgraphs" verwendet, um Operatorproduktentwicklungen für verschiedene Operatoren herzuleiten, die… (more)

Sieverding, Jan

2014-01-01

341

Rock expansion caused by ultrasound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has during many years been reported that materials' elastic modulus decrease when exposed to influences like mechanical impacts, ultrasound, magnetic fields, electricity and even humidity. Non-perfect atomic structures like rocks, concrete, or damaged metals exhibit a larger effect. This softening has most often been recorded by wave resonance measurements. The motion towards equilibrium is slow - often taking hours or days, which is why the effect is called Slow Dynamics [1]. The question had been raised, if a material expansion also occurs. 'The most fundamental parameter to consider is the volume expansion predicted to occur when positive hole charge carriers become activated, causing a decrease of the electron density in the O2- sublattice of the rock-forming minerals. This decrease of electron density should affect essentially all physical parameters, including the volume.' [2]. A new type of configuration has measured expansion of a rock subjected to ultrasound. A PZT was used as a pressure sensor while the combined thickness of the rock sample and the PZT sensor was held fixed. The expansion increased the stress in both the rock and the PZT, which gave an out-put voltage from the PZT. Knowing its material properties then made it possible to calculate the rock expansion. The equivalent strain caused by the ultrasound was approximately 3 x 10-5. The temperature was monitored and accounted for during the tests and for the maximum expansion the increase was 0.7 C, which means the expansion is at least to some degree caused by heating of the material by the ultrasound. The fraction of bonds activated by ultrasound was estimated to be around 10-5. References: [1] Guyer, R.A., Johnson, P.A.: Nonlinear Mesoscopic Elasticity: The Complex Behaviour of Rocks, Soils, Concrete. Wiley-VCH 2009 [2] M.M. Freund, F.F. Freund, Manipulating the Toughness of Rocks through Electric Potentials, Final Report CIF 2011 Award NNX11AJ84A, NAS Ames 2012.

Hedberg, C.; Gray, A.

2013-12-01

342

Ancient divisions, recent expansions: phylogeography and population genetics of the round goby Apollonia melanostoma.  

PubMed

During the past two decades, the round goby Apollonia melanostoma (=Neogobius melanostomus) has expanded its range via shipping transport and canals, extending north and west from the Ponto-Caspian region of Eurasia and to the North American Great Lakes. Exotic populations of the round goby have been very successful in the Baltic Sea and the Great Lakes regions, exerting significant ecological changes. Our study evaluates the population genetic and biogeographical structure of the round goby across its native and nonindigenous ranges, in light of geological history and its expansion pathways. We analyzed seven new nuclear microsatellite loci and mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene sequences from 432 individuals in 22 locations. Population structure was tested using F(ST)-analogs, phylogenetic trees, clustering diagrams, Bayesian assignment tests and nested clade analyses. Results show that native populations in the Black vs. the Caspian Sea basins diverge by 1.4% and c. 350,000 years, corresponding to closure of their prior connections and supporting the taxonomic separation of the Black Sea A. m. melanostoma from the Caspian Sea A. m. affinis. Their within-basin populations diverge by approximately 0.4% and 100,000 years. Nonindigenous populations in the Baltic Sea and Danube and Dnieper Rivers trace to separate northern Black Sea origins, whereas the upper Volga River system houses mixed populations of A. m. melanostoma and A. m. affinis. Native populations average twice the genetic diversity of most exotic sites; however, sites in the Volga River system have high diversity due to mixing of the two taxa. Our results highlight how vicariance and anthropogenic disturbances have shaped a rapidly expanding species' genetic heritage. PMID:18466236

Brown, Joshua E; Stepien, Carol A

2008-06-01

343

Great Historical Events That Were Significantly Affected by the Weather: Part 10, Crop Failure in Britain in 1799 and 1800 and the British Decision to Send a Naval Force to the Baltic Early in 1801.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1799 and 1800, crop failures struck the British Isles. The crop failure of 1799 was due to the combined effects of the cold winter of 1798-99 and the cool and rainy growing season of the year. The summer was characterized by the prevalence of low-pressure systems resembling cyclonic weather patterns of the winter.The crop failure of 1800 was mainly due to a drought early in summer. In July there was either no rain at all (especially in the south) or the amounts were negligible. The general synoptic situation indicated an extension of the Azores High to Britain and beyond to central Europe. In the London area the pressure in duly was never below 1020 mb.The wheat harvests of 1799 and 1800 were about one-half and three-quarters of the average, respectively. The deficiencies could not be made up by imports, for, at least in 1799, the weather conditions were also unfavorable to grain production in the countries of northern Europe that were "traditional" exporters of grain to Britain. We estimate that in the "bread-consumption year", October 1799 to September 1800, harvest and imports accounted for but 60% of the required quantity of wheat, the principal ingredient of bread in England and Wales at the time. In consequence of the bread scarcity, there were sharp rises in the price of bread and in bread riots. Some of the slogans of the rioters made mention of the French Revolution.In parallel with the increasing scarcity of bread, diplomatic relations between Britain and Russia worsened from 1799 on. Its significance on the bread crisis, as well as a crisis of naval supplies, was that the Baltic ports through which the grain of the northern countries (East Prussia, Poland, and Russia) was channeled for Britain stood under the tsar's direct or indirect control. The strained relations between Britain and Russia peaked in November 1800. On 18 November, Tsar Paul I imposed an embargo on British ships and their crews. This embargo meant that the bread scarcity was to become even graver, even more threatening, in 1801. On 28 November (apparently), the British cabinet decided to launch a naval war against Russia in the Baltic as soon as ice conditions permitted. In Dudley Pope's (1972) on words, "at this stage the climate governed Britian' naval strategy and planning for the Baltic". When the decision of late November was taken, it was directed against Russia alone. Its primary purpose was to break the embargo. Subsequent complications involving the other northern powers (mainly Denmark and Sweden), led to an extension of the plan of a naval war to include all the northern powers.

Neumann, J.; Kington, J.

1992-02-01

344

Low-income residents in three states view Medicaid as equal to or better than private coverage, support expansion.  

PubMed

Expansion of Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act to millions of low-income adults has been controversial, yet little is known about what these Americans themselves think about Medicaid. We conducted a telephone survey in late 2013 of nearly 3,000 low-income adults in three Southern states--Arkansas, Kentucky, and Texas--that have adopted different approaches to the options for expansion. Nearly 80 percent of our sample in all three states favored Medicaid expansion, and approximately two-thirds of uninsured respondents said that they planned to apply for either Medicaid or subsidized private coverage in 2014. Yet awareness of their state's actual expansion plans was low. Most viewed having Medicaid as better than being uninsured and at least as good as private insurance in overall quality and affordability. While the debate over Medicaid expansion continues, support for expansion is strong among low-income adults, and the perceived quality of Medicaid coverage is high. PMID:25298540

Epstein, Arnold M; Sommers, Benjamin D; Kuznetsov, Yelena; Blendon, Robert J

2014-11-01

345

FINREG : a financialregulatory model for utility capacity expansion plan evaluation  

E-print Network

A corporate financial/regulatory model, called FINREG, is presented to simulate a utility's accounting practices, financial policy and constraints, and ratemaking environment. For each year of simulation FINREG will yield ...

Klosowicz, Peter C.

1981-01-01

346

Application of Empirical Wave Run-Up Formulas to the Polish Baltic Sea Coast  

PubMed Central

Advanced, multidimensional models are typically applied when researching processes occurring in the nearshore. Relatively simple, empirical equations are commonly used in coastal engineering practice in order to estimate extreme wave run-up on beaches and coastal structures. However, they were mostly calibrated to the characteristics of oceanic coasts, which have different wave regime than a semi-enclosed basin like the Baltic Sea. In this paper we apply the formulas to the Polish Baltic Sea coast. The equations were adjusted to match local conditions in two test sites in Mi?dzyzdroje and Dziwnówek, where beaches are under continuous video surveillance. Data from WAM wave model and coastal gauge stations were used, as well as precise measurements of the beaches' cross-sections. More than 600 run-up events spanning from June to December 2013 were analysed, including surges causing dune erosion. Extreme wave run-up R2% was calculated and presented as a percentage value indicating what part of the beach was inundated. The method had a root-mean-square error of 6.1 and 6.5 percentage points depending on the test site. We consider it is a fast and computationally undemanding alternative to morphodynamic models. It will constitute a part of the SatBa?tyk Operating System-Shores, delivering forecasts of wave run-up on the beaches for the entire Polish coastline. PMID:25137155

Paprotny, Dominik; Andrzejewski, Pawe?; Terefenko, Pawe?; Furma?czyk, Kazimierz

2014-01-01

347

Silicon in the marine environment: Dissolved silica trends in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved silica (DSi) is an important nutrient for primary production. During the last decades, negative trends in DSi concentrations have been observed in coastal areas globally, with implications for the marine ecosystem. This tendency is mainly attributed to two processes: decrease in river loadings (as a result of water regulation and building of dams) and eutrophication in the coastal zone, with subsequent silica depletion. One such area affected by both an intensive water regulation and eutrophication is the Baltic Sea. The present study focused on the pelagic DSi trends in different parts of the Baltic Sea for the last three decades. It was found that there are decreasing trends for most of areas and water depths ranging between -0.05 and -1.2 ?mol Si l -1 yr -1. The trends are levelling out during the last decade. Since the riverine load of dissolved silica has not changed at a corresponding rate during the time period, the decrement is assumed to be mainly a result of the ongoing eutrophication within the marine water body. This assumption was strengthened by the increasing trends of inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus.

Papush, L.; Danielsson, Å.

2006-03-01

348

Radioactivity levels in some sediment samples from Red Sea and Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Levels of ²²?,²²?Ra, ²³²Th, ²¹?Pb, ²¹?Po and ??K in sediments from four monitoring areas, El Hamraween and Ras El Behar (Red Sea, Egypt) and LL3A and JML (Baltic Sea, Finland), have been investigated using alpha and gamma spectrometry. The average activity concentrations were 238±4 Bq kg?¹ (²²?Ra), 215±11 Bq kg?¹ (²¹?Pb) and 311±18 Bq kg?¹ (²¹?Po) for El Hamraween area. In Ras El Behar area, the corresponding values were 16±0.4, 18±1 and 20±5 Bq kg?¹, respectively. The activity concentrations for ²²?Ra, ²¹?Pb and ²¹?Po (uranium series) in El Hamraween bottom sediment are much high compared with those in Ras El Behar area, which indicates the enhanced levels due to the activities of phosphate mining and shipment operations in El Hamraween area. Excluding the influence of phosphate mining activities, it can be concluded that the levels of radioactivity in Baltic Sea sediments are higher than those in Red Sea sediments. PMID:21474472

Salahel Din, K; Vesterbacka, P

2012-01-01

349

Picocyanobacteria containing a novel pigment gene cluster dominate the brackish water Baltic Sea  

PubMed Central

Photoautotrophic picocyanobacteria harvest light via phycobilisomes (PBS) consisting of the pigments phycocyanin (PC) and phycoerythrin (PE), encoded by genes in conserved gene clusters. The presence and arrangement of these gene clusters give picocyanobacteria characteristic light absorption properties and allow the colonization of specific ecological niches. To date, a full understanding of the evolution and distribution of the PBS gene cluster in picocyanobacteria has been hampered by the scarcity of genome sequences from fresh- and brackish water-adapted strains. To remediate this, we analysed genomes assembled from metagenomic samples collected along a natural salinity gradient, and over the course of a growth season, in the Baltic Sea. We found that while PBS gene clusters in picocyanobacteria sampled in marine habitats were highly similar to known references, brackish-adapted genotypes harboured a novel type not seen in previously sequenced genomes. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the novel gene cluster belonged to a clade of uncultivated picocyanobacteria that dominate the brackish Baltic Sea throughout the summer season, but are uncommon in other examined aquatic ecosystems. Further, our data suggest that the PE genes were lost in the ancestor of PC-containing coastal picocyanobacteria and that multiple horizontal gene transfer events have re-introduced PE genes into brackish-adapted strains, including the novel clade discovered here. PMID:24621524

Larsson, John; Celepli, Narin; Ininbergs, Karolina; Dupont, Christopher L; Yooseph, Shibu; Bergman, Bigitta; Ekman, Martin

2014-01-01

350

Faunistic review of the cuckoo wasps of Fennoscandia, Denmark and the Baltic countries (Hymenoptera: Chrysididae).  

PubMed

A critical and annotated review of published records of the Chrysididae of the Nordic and Baltic countries and the Russian part of Fennoscandia is presented with some taxonomic and faunistic notes. A total of 73 species are listed from the region. Additionally, 17 species are deleted. Three species are recorded for the first time from Denmark, six species from Estonia, one from Finland, eleven from Latvia, four from Norway, one from Sweden and 15 from Russian Fennoscandia. Elampus foveatus and Chrysis pulcherrima are reported for the first time from the Nordic and Baltic countries. Lectotypes are designated for Hedychrum cupreum Dahlbom, 1845, Chrysis zetterstedti Dahlbom, 1845, Chrysis succincta var. chrysoprasina Trautmann, 1927, Chrysis succincta var. virideocincta Trautmann, 1927 and Chrysis succincta var. nordstromi Trautmann, 1927. Information and images of the holotypes of Hedychrum metallicum Dahlbom, 1854, Chrysis succincta var. westerlundi Trautmann, 1927 are given. Chrysis integra Dahlbom, 1829 is found to be a new synonym of Hedychridium ardens (Coquebert, 1801) and Chrysis scintillans Valkeila, 1971 a new synonym of Chrysis solida Haupt, 1957. Chrysis terminata Dahlbom, 1854 is reported for the first time as the valid name for C. ignita Form A sensu Linsenmaier, 1959.  PMID:25283536

Paukkunen, Juho; Rosa, Paolo; Soon, Villu; Johansson, Niklas; Odegaard, Frode

2014-01-01

351

Detection of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in the Baltic Countries and St. Petersburg Area  

PubMed Central

The spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is a global problem; however, no exact data on the epidemiology of carbapenemase in the Baltic countries and St. Petersburg area is available. We aimed to evaluate the epidemiology of carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in the Baltic States and St. Petersburg, Russia, and to compare the different methods for carbapenemase detection. From January to May 2012, all K. pneumoniae (n = 1983) and E. coli (n = 7774) clinical isolates from 20 institutions in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and St. Petersburg, Russia were screened for carbapenem susceptibility. The IMP, VIM, GIM, NDM, KPC, and OXA-48 genes were detected using real-time PCR and the ability to hydrolyze ertapenem was determined using MALDI-TOF MS. Seventy-seven strains were found to be carbapenem nonsusceptible. From these, 15 K. pneumoniae strains hydrolyzed ertapenem and carried the blaNDM gene. All of these strains carried integron 1 and most carried integron 3 as well as genes of the CTX-M-1 group. No carbapenemase-producing E. coli or K. pneumoniae strains were found in Estonia, Latvia, or Lithuania; however, NDM-positive K. pneumoniae was present in the hospital in St. Petersburg, Russia. A MALDI-TOF MS-based assay is a suitable and cost-effective method for the initial confirmation of carbapenemase production. PMID:24724086

Pavelkovich, Anastasia; Balode, Arta; Edquist, Petra; Egorova, Svetlana; Ivanova, Marina; Kaftyreva, Lidia; Konovalenko, Irina; Kõljalg, Siiri; Lillo, Jana; Lipskaya, Lidia; Parv, Kristel; Pärna, Katri; Rööp, Tiiu; Sepp, Epp; Štšepetova, Jelena; Naaber, Paul

2014-01-01

352

Decreasing ice coverage will reduce the breeding success of Baltic grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) females.  

PubMed

Baltic grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) alternate between land and ice breeding, depending on ice conditions. We show that the fitness of grey seal females in terms of pup mortality and quality is reduced when breeding on land as compared with ice. The mean preweaning mortality rate on land was 21.1% (range 0% to 31.6%), and correlated with birth density (range 0.5-5.2 pups 100 m(-2)). The mean mortality rate on ice was 1.5%, where the highest density was 0.2 pups 100 m(-2) in particularly dense breeding groups. Mean weights of pups born on ice were significantly greater (48.3 +/- 8.1 kg) at the onset of moult as compared with pups born on land (37.4 +/- 7.8 kg). Because indices of life-time net reproductive rate (pup survival) and pup quality (weaning weight and health) were more auspicious on ice as compared with land, diminishing ice fields will lower the fitness of Baltic grey seal females and substantially increase the risk for quasi-extinction. PMID:18488549

Jüssi, Mart; Härkönen, Tero; Helle, Eero; Jüssi, Ivar

2008-03-01

353

Microbial methane oxidation at the redoxcline of the Gotland Deep (Central Baltic Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane concentrations in the stratified water column of the Gotland Deep (Central Baltic Sea) show a strong gradient from high values in the saline deep water (max. 504nM) to low concentrations in the less dense, brackish surface water (about 4 nM). The steepest gradient is present within the redoxcline (between 115 and 135 m water depth) that separates the anoxic deep part from the oxygenated surface water, implying a methane consumption rate of 0.28 nM d-1. The process of microbial methane oxidation within the redoxcline is mirrored by a shift of the stable carbon isotope ratio of methane between the bottom water (?13C CH4 = -82.4‰) and the suboxic depth interval (?13C CH4 = -38.7‰). A water column sample from 100 m water depth was studied to identify the microorganisms responsible for the methane turnover at the redoxcline. Notably, methane monoxygenase gene expression analyses for the specific water depth demonstrated that accordant methanotrophic activity was due to only one microbial phylotype. An imprint of these organisms on the particular organic matter was revealed by distinctive lipid biomarkers showing bacteriohopanepolyols and lipid fatty acids characteristic for aerobic type I methanotrophic bacteria (e.g. 35-aminobacteriohopane-30,31,32,33,34-pentol). In conjunction with earlier findings, our results support the idea that biogeochemical cycles in Central Baltic Sea redoxclines are mainly driven by only a few microbial key species.

Schmale, O.; Blumenberg, M.; Kießlich, K.; Jakobs, G.; Berndmeyer, C.; Labrenz, M.; Thiel, V.; Rehder, G.

2012-07-01

354

Active bacterial community structure along vertical redox gradients in Baltic Sea sediment  

SciTech Connect

Community structures of active bacterial populations were investigated along a vertical redox profile in coastal Baltic Sea sediments by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and clone library analysis. According to correspondence analysis of T-RFLP results and sequencing of cloned 16S rRNA genes, the microbial community structures at three redox depths (179 mV, -64 mV and -337 mV) differed significantly. The bacterial communities in the community DNA differed from those in bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled DNA, indicating that the growing members of the community that incorporated BrdU were not necessarily the most dominant members. The structures of the actively growing bacterial communities were most strongly correlated to organic carbon followed by total nitrogen and redox potentials. Bacterial identification by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from clones of BrdU-labeled DNA and DNA from reverse transcription PCR (rt-PCR) showed that bacterial taxa involved in nitrogen and sulfur cycling were metabolically active along the redox profiles. Several sequences had low similarities to previously detected sequences indicating that novel lineages of bacteria are present in Baltic Sea sediments. Also, a high number of different 16S rRNA gene sequences representing different phyla were detected at all sampling depths.

Jansson, Janet; Edlund, Anna; Hardeman, Fredrik; Jansson, Janet K.; Sjoling, Sara

2008-05-15

355

Effect of Redox Conditions on Bacterial Community Structure in Baltic Sea Sediments with Contrasting Phosphorus Fluxes  

PubMed Central

Phosphorus release from sediments can exacerbate the effect of eutrophication in coastal marine ecosystems. The flux of phosphorus from marine sediments to the overlying water is highly dependent on the redox conditions at the sediment-water interface. Bacteria are key players in the biological processes that release or retain phosphorus in marine sediments. To gain more insight in the role of bacteria in phosphorus release from sediments, we assessed the effect of redox conditions on the structure of bacterial communities. To do so, we incubated surface sediments from four sampling sites in the Baltic Sea under oxic and anoxic conditions and analyzed the fingerprints of the bacterial community structures in these incubations and the original sediments. This paper describes the effects of redox conditions, sampling station, and sample type (DNA, RNA, or whole-cell sample) on bacterial community structure in sediments. Redox conditions explained only 5% of the variance in community structure, and bacterial communities from contrasting redox conditions showed considerable overlap. We conclude that benthic bacterial communities cannot be classified as being typical for oxic or anoxic conditions based on community structure fingerprints. Our results suggest that the overall structure of the benthic bacterial community has only a limited impact on benthic phosphate fluxes in the Baltic Sea. PMID:24667801

Steenbergh, Anne K.; Bodelier, Paul L. E.; Slomp, Caroline P.; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J.

2014-01-01

356

Champacyclin, a New Cyclic Octapeptide from Streptomyces Strain C42 Isolated from the Baltic Sea  

PubMed Central

New isolates of Streptomyces champavatii were isolated from marine sediments of the Gotland Deep (Baltic Sea), from the Urania Basin (Eastern Mediterranean), and from the Kiel Bight (Baltic Sea). The isolates produced several oligopeptidic secondary metabolites, including the new octapeptide champacyclin (1a) present in all three strains. Herein, we report on the isolation, structure elucidation and determination of the absolute stereochemistry of this isoleucine/leucine (Ile/Leu = Xle) rich cyclic octapeptide champacyclin (1a). As 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy could not fully resolve the structure of (1a), additional information on sequence and configuration of stereocenters were obtained by a combination of multi stage mass spectrometry (MSn) studies, amino acid analysis, partial hydrolysis and subsequent enantiomer analytics with gas chromatography positive chmical ionization/electron impact mass spectrometry (GC-PCI/EI-MS) supported by comparison to reference dipeptides. Proof of the head-to-tail cyclization of (1a) was accomplished by solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) compared to an alternatively side chain cyclized derivative (2). Champacyclin (1a) is likely synthesized by a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS), because of its high content of (d)-amino acids. The compound (1a) showed antimicrobial activity against the phytopathogen Erwinia amylovora causing the fire blight disease of certain plants. PMID:24317473

Pesic, Alexander; Baumann, Heike I.; Kleinschmidt, Katrin; Ensle, Paul; Wiese, Jutta; Süssmuth, Roderich D.; Imhoff, Johannes F.

2013-01-01

357

Biomarkers in the stratified water column of the Landsort Deep (Baltic Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water column of the Landsort Deep, central Baltic Sea, is stratified into an oxic, suboxic, and anoxic zone. This stratification controls the distributions of individual microbial communities and biogeochemical processes. In summer 2011, particulate organic matter was filtered from these zones using an in situ pump. Lipid biomarkers were extracted from the filters to establish water-column profiles of individual hydrocarbons, alcohols, phospholipid fatty acids, and bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs). As a reference, a cyanobacterial bloom sampled in summer 2012 in the central Baltic Sea Gotland Deep was analyzed for BHPs. The biomarker data from the surface layer of the oxic zone showed major inputs from cyanobacteria, dinoflagellates, and ciliates, while the underlying cold winter water layer was characterized by a low diversity and abundance of organisms, with copepods as a major group. The suboxic zone supported bacterivorous ciliates, type I aerobic methanotrophic bacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria, and, most likely, methanogenic archaea. In the anoxic zone, sulfate reducers and archaea were the dominating microorganisms as indicated by the presence of distinctive branched fatty acids: archaeol and pentamethylicosane (PMI) derivatives, respectively. Our study of in situ biomarkers in the Landsort Deep thus provided an integrated insight into the distribution of relevant compounds and describes useful tracers to reconstruct stratified water columns in the geological record.

Berndmeyer, C.; Thiel, V.; Schmale, O.; Wasmund, N.; Blumenberg, M.

2014-12-01

358

Biomarkers in the stratified water column of the Landsort Deep (Baltic Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water column of the Landsort Deep, central Baltic Sea, is stratified into an oxic, suboxic and anoxic zone. This stratification controls the distributions of individual microbial communities and biogeochemical processes. In summer 2011, particulate organic matter was filtered from these zones using an in~situ pump. Lipid biomarkers were extracted from the filters to establish water column profiles of individual hydrocarbons, alcohols, phospholipid fatty acids, and bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs). As a reference, a cyanobacterial bloom sampled in summer 2012 in the central Baltic Sea Gotland Deep was analyzed for BHPs. The biomarker data from the surface layer of the oxic zone showed major inputs from different cyanobacteria and eukaryotes such as dinoflagellates and ciliates, while the underlying cold winter water layer was characterized by a low diversity and abundance of organisms, with copepods as a major group. The suboxic zone supported bacterivorous ciliates, type I aerobic methanotrophic bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria, and, most likely, methanogenic archaea. In the anoxic zone, sulfate reducers and archaea were the dominating microorganisms as indicated by the presence of distinctive branched fatty acids, archaeol and PMI derivatives, respectively. Our study of in situ biomarkers in the Landsort Deep thus provided an integrated insight into the distribution of relevant players and the related biogeochemical processes in stratified water columns of marginal seas.

Berndmeyer, C.; Thiel, V.; Schmale, O.; Wasmund, N.; Blumenberg, M.

2014-06-01

359

Integrated ecological assessment of Danish Baltic Sea coastal areas by means of phytoplankton and macrophytobenthos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Water Framework Directive (WFD) demands an integrated assessment of ecological quality based on biological parameters. In this context combined macrophytobenthos and phytoplankton data sets along the Danish Baltic Sea coast were analysed for similarities and differences in their response to abiotic variables. Zostera marina's depth limits showed a significantly negative correlation with concentrations of total-nitrogen, total phosphorus and chlorophyll a as well as with Myrionecta rubra biomass and a strongly positive correlation with Secchi depth. The results documented that selected phytobenthos and phytoplankton indicators show correlated responses to water quality. All biotic and abiotic parameters clustered in two groups, indicating two trophic states but, at the same time, also two distinct salinity classes. One class was characterised by low nutrient levels and low salinity while the other class was characterised by high nutrient levels and high salinity, indicating that the mixing of relatively nutrient poor brackish Baltic water with more nutrient rich North Sea water overruled traditional estuarine gradients in the investigated area. The results therefore allow an analysis of the eutrophication state regarding the additional influence of decreased salinity on euryhaline marine species. The consequences of the results are discussed in relation to classification systems for brackish water ecosystems.

Sagert, Sigrid; Krause Jensen, Dorte; Henriksen, Peter; Rieling, Thorsten; Schubert, Hendrik

2005-04-01

360

Animal diversity in Baltic rocky shore macroalgae: can Cladophora glomerata compensate for lost Fucus vesiculosus?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The substitution of canopy-forming perennial algae by annual filamentous algae is a common phenomenon on eutrophicated rocky shores with potential consequences for marine biodiversity. In the upper littoral of the northern Baltic Sea, this process is exemplified by decreased occurrence of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus and increased amounts of filamentous algae (e.g. Cladophora glomerata and Pilayella littoralis). In this study, macrofauna communities of F. vesiculosus and C. glomerata during summer have been compared and the effects on littoral macroinvertebrates of a total or partial replacement of F. vesiculosus by C. glomerata have been estimated. The animal abundance and biomass were higher in C. glomerata than in corresponding amounts of F. vesiculosus (g dwt). Similar results were also obtained when animal abundance and biomass were extrapolated to algal cover per m 2 rocky substrate in the study area. Margalef's species richness was, on the other hand, higher in F. vesiculosus, whereas the Shannon-Wiener diversity was the same. The results indicate that C. glomerata maintains a high diversity of macroinvertebrates in the upper littoral zone of the northern Baltic Sea during summer. A possible substitution of F. vesiculosus by C. glomerata does not immediately affect macroinvertebrate diversity negatively in the littoral zone, although, it is difficult to assess the full consequences due to lack of comparable algal data at wider temporal and spatial scales.

Kraufvelin, Patrik; Salovius, Sonja

2004-10-01

361

Redox processes as revealed by voltammetry in the surface sediments of the Gotland Basin, Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfur cycling in marine sediments undergoes dramatic changes with changing redox conditions of the overlying waters. The upper sediments of the anoxic Gotland Basin, central Baltic Sea represent a dynamic redox environment with extensive mats of sulfide oxidizing bacteria covering the seafloor beneath the chemocline. In order to investigate sulfur redox cycling at the sediment-water interface, sediment cores were sampled over a transect covering 65 - 174 m water depth in August-September 2013. High resolution (0.25 mm minimum) vertical microprofiles of electroactive redox species including dissolved sulfide and iron were obtained with solid state Au-Hg voltammetric microelectrodes. This approach enabled a fine-scale comparison of porewater profiles across the basin. The steepest sulfide gradients (i.e. the highest sulfide consumption) occurred within the upper 10 mm in sediments covered by surficial mats (2.10 to 3.08 mmol m-2 day-1). In sediments under permanently anoxic waters (>140m), voltammetric signals for Fe(II) and aqueous FeS were detected below a subsurface maximum in dissolved sulfide, indicating a Fe flux originating from older, deeper sedimentary layers. Our results point to a unique sulfur cycling in the Gotland basin seafloor where sulfide accumulation is moderated by sulfide oxidation at the sediment surface and by FeS precipitation in deeper sediment layers. These processes may play an important role in minimizing benthic sulfide fluxes to bottom waters around the major basins of the Baltic Sea.

Yücel, Mustafa; Dale, Andy; Sommer, Stefan; Pfannkuche, Olaf

2014-05-01

362

Application of empirical wave run-up formulas to the Polish Baltic Sea coast.  

PubMed

Advanced, multidimensional models are typically applied when researching processes occurring in the nearshore. Relatively simple, empirical equations are commonly used in coastal engineering practice in order to estimate extreme wave run-up on beaches and coastal structures. However, they were mostly calibrated to the characteristics of oceanic coasts, which have different wave regime than a semi-enclosed basin like the Baltic Sea. In this paper we apply the formulas to the Polish Baltic Sea coast. The equations were adjusted to match local conditions in two test sites in Mi?dzyzdroje and Dziwnówek, where beaches are under continuous video surveillance. Data from WAM wave model and coastal gauge stations were used, as well as precise measurements of the beaches' cross-sections. More than 600 run-up events spanning from June to December 2013 were analysed, including surges causing dune erosion. Extreme wave run-up R2% was calculated and presented as a percentage value indicating what part of the beach was inundated. The method had a root-mean-square error of 6.1 and 6.5 percentage points depending on the test site. We consider it is a fast and computationally undemanding alternative to morphodynamic models. It will constitute a part of the SatBa?tyk Operating System-Shores, delivering forecasts of wave run-up on the beaches for the entire Polish coastline. PMID:25137155

Paprotny, Dominik; Andrzejewski, Pawe?; Terefenko, Pawe?; Furma?czyk, Kazimierz

2014-01-01

363

Internal ecosystem feedbacks enhance nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria blooms and complicate management in the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Eutrophication of the Baltic Sea has potentially increased the frequency and magnitude of cyanobacteria blooms. Eutrophication leads to increased sedimentation of organic material, increasing the extent of anoxic bottoms and subsequently increasing the internal phosphorus loading. In addition, the hypoxic water volume displays a negative relationship with the total dissolved inorganic nitrogen pool, suggesting greater overall nitrogen removal with increased hypoxia. Enhanced internal loading of phosphorus and the removal of dissolved inorganic nitrogen leads to lower nitrogen to phosphorus ratios, which are one of the main factors promoting nitrogenfixing cyanobacteria blooms. Because cyanobacteria blooms in the open waters of the Baltic Sea seem to be strongly regulated by internal processes, the effects of external nutrient reductions are scale-dependent. During longer time scales, reductions in external phosphorus load may reduce cyanobacteria blooms; however, on shorter time scales the internal phosphorus loading can counteract external phosphorus reductions. The coupled processes inducing internal loading, nitrogen removal, and the prevalence of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria can qualitatively be described as a potentially self-sustaining "vicious circle." To effectively reduce cyanobacteria blooms and overall signs of eutrophication, reductions in both nitrogen and phosphorus external loads appear essential. PMID:17520933

Vahtera, Emil; Conley, Daniel J; Gustafsson, Bo G; Kuosa, Harri; Pitkänen, Heikki; Savchuk, Oleg P; Tamminen, Timo; Viitasalo, Markku; Voss, Maren; Wasmund, Norbert; Wulff, Fredrik

2007-04-01

364

Solar Assisted Ground Source Heat Pump Performance in Nearly Zero Energy Building in Baltic Countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In near zero energy buildings (NZEB) built in Baltic countries, heat production systems meet the challenge of large share domestic hot water demand and high required heating capacity. Due to passive solar design, cooling demand in residential buildings also needs an assessment and solution. Heat pump systems are a widespread solution to reduce energy use. A combination of heat pump and solar thermal collectors helps to meet standard requirements and increases the share of renewable energy use in total energy balance of country. The presented paper describes a simulation study of solar assisted heat pump systems carried out in TRNSYS. The purpose of this simulation was to investigate how the performance of a solar assisted heat pump combination varies in near zero energy building. Results of three systems were compared to autonomous (independent) systems simulated performance. Different solar assisted heat pump design solutions with serial and parallel solar thermal collector connections to the heat pump loop were modelled and a passive cooling possibility was assessed. Simulations were performed for three Baltic countries: Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia.

Januševi?ius, Karolis; Streckien?, Giedr?

2013-12-01

365

Feeding ecology of dunlins Calidris alpina staging in the southern Baltic Sea, 1. Habitat use and food selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding habits of migrating dunlins Calidris alpina staging in different non-tidal coastal habitats in the southern Baltic Sea are described. The study also focuses on the structure of the benthic macrofauna of these habitats and the diet choice of dunlins. All investigations were carried out on Langenwerder Island (Wismar Bay), where different types of flats and beaches harbour a

Volker Dierschke; Jan Kube; Sandra Probst; Ulrich Brenning

1999-01-01

366

Happy birthday Willi Hennig!-Hyptia hennigi sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae), a fossil ensign wasp from Eocene Baltic amber.  

PubMed

The ensign wasp genus Hyptia Illiger was previously known from 52 extant New World species and one fossil species from Lower Miocene to Upper Oligocene Mexican amber. Hyptia hennigi sp. nov., from Eocene Baltic amber, is the oldest known species and the first member of the genus from the Old World. PMID:25277582

Jennings, John T; Krogmann, Lars; Priya, Priya

2013-01-01

367

Standing waves in the Gulf of Finland and their relationship to the basin-wide Baltic seiches  

E-print Network

Standing waves in the Gulf of Finland and their relationship to the basin-wide Baltic seiches Bror identify three different local oscillatory modes: one in the Gulf of Finland with the two distinct periods in the Gulf of Riga with the period 17 h. The most pronounced mode is that in the Gulf of Finland. No clear

Nycander, Jonas

368

Reservoir ages in Baltic Sea sediment—a case study of an isolation sequence from the Litorina Sea stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to quantify the reservoir age in Baltic Sea sediment, one sedimentary sequence from an isostatically isolated basin was subject to high-resolution AMS radiocarbon dates. Diatom analysis confirmed deposition during the Litorina Sea stage and later, in a freshwater lake. Macrofossils from well preserved seeds and other remnants from terrestrial plants were used for AMS datings. It is assumed

Anna Hedenström; Göran Possnert

2001-01-01

369

Investigation of LANDSAT imagery on correlations between ore deposits and major shield structures in Finland. [Baltic Shield  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. On the central Baltic Shield, the concept of drainage patterns can be extended to smaller scales in which case many cultural features become involved to the spatial patterns influenced by bedrock structure. Features resulting from agriculture activity and timbering often exaggerate the influence of the bedrock on the image texture.

Tuominen, H. V. (principal investigator); Kuosmanen, V.

1975-01-01

370

The influence of environmental conditions on early life stages of flounder (Platichthys flesus) in the central Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flounder (Platichthys flesus) is a temperate marine fish that is well adapted to the brackish waters of the Baltic Sea. There are two sympatric flounder populations in the Baltic Sea, pelagic and demersal spawners, which differ in their spawning habitat and egg characteristics. In the present study, pelagic spawning flounder of the central Baltic Sea was studied. We examined whether variations in hydrological regime can explain fluctuations in flounder early life stages that have occurred over the past 30 years (1970-2005). Using generalized additive modeling to explain the abundance of flounder eggs and larvae in a Latvian ichthyoplankton dataset, we evaluate the hypothesis that the available reproductive volume, defined as the water column with dissolved oxygen larger than 1 ml/l and salinity between 10.6 and 12 PSU, affects the survival of flounder ichthyoplankton and determines recruitment success. Both reproductive volume and spawning stock biomass were significant factors determining flounder ichthyoplankton abundance. Different measures of water temperature did not contribute significantly to the variability of eggs or larvae. However, recruitment did not correlate to the supply of larvae. The findings presented in this study on the relationship between flounder reproduction, spawning stock biomass and reproductive volume, as well as the lack of correlation to recruitment, are valuable for the understanding of flounder ecology in the Baltic Sea, and for developing the management of the species.

Ustups, Didzis; Müller-Karulis, Bärbel; Bergstrom, Ulf; Makarchouk, Andrej; Sics, Ivo

2013-01-01

371

Minority Language Rights before and after the 2004 EU Enlargement: The Copenhagen Criteria in the Baltic States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the effect of the recent European Union (EU) enlargement on minority language policies in the Baltic states, and in particular in Latvia and Estonia. I first look at the so-called Copenhagen political criteria conditioning EU accession and at the European Commission's monitoring system for assessing applicant countries'…

Adrey, Jean-Bernard

2005-01-01

372

Minority Language Rights Before and After the 2004 EU Enlargement: The Copenhagen Criteria in the Baltic States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the effect of the recent European Union (EU) enlargement on minority language policies in the Baltic states, and in particular in Latvia and Estonia. I first look at the so-called Copenhagen political criteria conditioning EU accession and at the European Commission's monitoring system for assessing applicant countries' compliance with such criteria. Focusing on changing language policies in

Jean-Bernard Adrey

2005-01-01

373

Horsehair worms (Nematomorpha) from the Baltic island Bornholm (Denmark), with notes on the biology of Gordius albopunctatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two species of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha), Gordius albopunctatus and Gordionus violaceus, are reported from eight streams on the Baltic island Bornholm. Males can be easily distinguished from each other by differing features in the posterior end, but females resemble each other and can be distinguished reliably only using scanning electron microscopy. Aquarium experiments showed that larvae and praepupae of Pomatophylax

Preben Kristensen

2006-01-01

374

Deep-water dynamics and boundary mixing in a nontidal stratified basin: A modeling study of the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

results from a tracer release experiment have shown that, similar to many lakes and ocean basins, deep-water mixing in the Baltic Sea is largely determined by mixing processes occurring in the energetic near-bottom region. Due to the complexity and small vertical extent of this region, however, previous modeling studies of the Baltic Sea have so far not been able to provide a numerically and physically sound representation of boundary mixing. Here we discuss first results from a nested high-resolution simulation of the central Baltic Sea that aims at a realistic description of the turbulent bottom boundary layer with the help of new numerical techniques (adaptive coordinates) and state-of-the-art turbulence modeling. Using a comprehensive data set from the Baltic Sea Tracer Release Experiment, we show that the model is able to reproduce the key dynamical processes (near-inertial waves, topographic waves, and a rim current) with excellent accuracy. Boundary mixing triggered by these processes was found to result in simulated basin-scale mixing rates in close agreement with observations, including a seasonal variability that has been emphasized in previous studies. These results may be relevant also for the description of mixing in large lakes and other stratified basins.

Holtermann, Peter L.; Burchard, Hans; Gräwe, Ulf; Klingbeil, Knut; Umlauf, Lars

2014-02-01

375

A Metagenomics Transect into the Deepest Point of the Baltic Sea Reveals Clear Stratification of Microbial Functional Capacities  

PubMed Central

The Baltic Sea is characterized by hyposaline surface waters, hypoxic and anoxic deep waters and sediments. These conditions, which in turn lead to a steep oxygen gradient, are particularly evident at Landsort Deep in the Baltic Proper. Given these substantial differences in environmental parameters at Landsort Deep, we performed a metagenomic census spanning surface to sediment to establish whether the microbial communities at this site are as stratified as the physical environment. We report strong stratification across a depth transect for both functional capacity and taxonomic affiliation, with functional capacity corresponding most closely to key environmental parameters of oxygen, salinity and temperature. We report similarities in functional capacity between the hypoxic community and hadal zone communities, underscoring the substantial degree of eutrophication in the Baltic Proper. Reconstruction of the nitrogen cycle at Landsort deep shows potential for syntrophy between archaeal ammonium oxidizers and bacterial denitrification at anoxic depths, while anaerobic ammonium oxidation genes are absent, despite substantial ammonium levels below the chemocline. Our census also reveals enrichment in genetic prerequisites for a copiotrophic lifestyle and resistance mechanisms reflecting adaptation to prevalent eutrophic conditions and the accumulation of environmental pollutants resulting from ongoing anthropogenic pressures in the Baltic Sea. PMID:24086414

Poole, Anthony M.; Sjöberg, Britt-Marie; Sjöling, Sara

2013-01-01

376

Distribution of the Siberian flying squirrel (Pteromys volans L.) in taiga isthmuses between Baltic and White Sea regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We focused our attention on three narrow isthmuses between the White and the Baltic Seas, which form important connections for the elements of northern taiga ecosystems, such as the Siberian flying squirrel. The method that we employed is based on the search of flying squirrel’s excrements on randomly selected 9 ha plots (more than 11700 plots studied in Russia and

Juri Kurhinen; Elena Kulebyakina; Evgeniy Zadiraka; Viktor Mamontov; Evgeniya Muravskaya; Ilpo K. Hanski

2011-01-01

377

THE FIRST FOSSIL REPRESENTATIVE OF THE GENUS A ANNAALLEETTRRIISS EDMUNDS, 1972 (INSECTA: EPHEMEROPTERA: ACANTHAMETROPODIDAE) FROM THE EOCENE BALTIC AMBER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The male subimago of Analetris secundus sp. nov. is described and illustrated from the Eocene Baltic amber. A new species presents the first fossil representative of the previously monotypic genus Analetris Edmunds, 1972. The extant species Analetris eximia Edmunds, 1972 is known from the Northwestern of the North America. Critical characters distinguishing these both species are discussed.

ROMAN J. GODUNKO

378

The thiamine deficiency syndrome M74, a reproductive disorder of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) feeding in the Baltic Sea,  

E-print Network

The thiamine deficiency syndrome M74, a reproductive disorder of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) feeding in the Baltic Sea, is related to the fat and thiamine content of prey fish Marja Keina¨nen1., and Vuorinen, P. J. 2012. The thiamine deficiency syndrome M74, a reproductive disorder of Atlantic salmon

379

RNA:DNA ratios of Baltic Sea herring larvae and copepods in embayment and open sea habitats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elucidation of important nursery habitats for young fish can aid in the management and assessment of fish stocks. Herring ( Clupea harengus) in the Baltic Sea primarily spawn in coastal areas, but larvae are also present in off-shore, open sea areas. To investigate if sheltered coastal habitats provide a better growth environment for larval herring, we compared short-term growth (as indexed by whole body RNA:DNA ratios) of larval herring from three habitat types of the northwest Baltic proper (sheltered inner bay, exposed outer bay, and open sea). In addition, we compared individual RNA content of adult female Eurytemora affinis (a common Baltic copepod) among these different habitats. High RNA levels in these copepods indicate high production of nauplii, which are important food for larval herring. Both RNA:DNA ratios of larval herring and RNA content of E. affinis were significantly greater in embayment habitats, suggesting that the sheltered coastal areas are high quality nursery habitats for young Baltic herring.

Höök, Tomas O.; Gorokhova, Elena; Hansson, Sture

2008-01-01

380

Bad matching between hatching and acidification: a pitfall for the burbot, Lota lota, off the river Kyrönjoki, Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The episodic acid runoff from the catchment areas of rivers with sulphide-bearing fine-grained sediments caused recruitment failures of burbot (Lotalota) in the Gulf of Bothnia. In the episodically acid river Kyrönjoki, emptying into the Gulf of Bothnia, the Baltic Sea, the burbot spawn in winter and the eggs were calculated on average to hatch on 10 May. This date coincided

Richard Hudd; Jakob Kjellman

2002-01-01

381

Origin and transport of terrestrial organic matter from the Oder lagoon to the Arkona Basin, Southern Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the origin and the transport of terrestrial organic matter from the River Oder to sediments in the Pomeranian Bight (Southern Baltic Sea) by using lignin as a molecular tracer. Approximately 40% of the organic carbon in Pomeranian Bight sediments are land-derived and the contribution of Oder lagoon organic carbon does not decrease significantly with increasing distance to land.

Anja Miltner; Kay-Christian Emeis

2000-01-01

382

Ostracod assemblages in late Quaternary varved glaciomarine clay of the Baltic Sea Yoldia stage in eastern middle Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four cored sites in eastern middle Sweden have been analysed for their content of calcareous fossils. The investigated sediments consist of late Quaternary varved clay deposited during the Baltic Sea Yoldia stage. Four regional palaeoecological units, A–D, have been established. Unit A reflects ice-proximal conditions, unit B optimal conditions for the benthic fauna and unit C the termination of a

Kristian Schoning; Stefan Wastegård

1999-01-01

383

Extraction studies of heavy-metal pollutants in surficial sediments from the southern Baltic Sea off Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surficial sediment samples from the Gulf of Gdansk and the southern Baltic Sea were analyzed for Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ag, Cr, Co, Ni, Mn, Cs, Rb, Fe, Ca, Mg, K, Na, Li, Sr, Al and P. Extraction techniques were used to establish the association of the elements with specific phases in the sediments. Elimination of grain size effects was

P. Szefer; G. P. Glasby; J. Pempkowiak; R. Kaliszan

1995-01-01

384

Comparative study of Regional Urban Growth (RUG) model projections for new EU members in central Europe and the Baltic States   

E-print Network

Urban modelling and land-cover changes are well discussed in literature and are in a focal point of many researches. Regional urban growth (RUG) model for central Europe and the Baltic States projects land-cover changes and their volume...

Langner, Pawel

2009-11-26

385

How does eutrophication affect different life stages of Fucus vesiculosus in the Baltic Sea? – a conceptual model  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last few decades the perennial seaweed Fucus vesiculosus L. has rapidly declined in large parts of the Baltic Sea. Indirect effects of eutrophication, such as increased turbidity, sedimentation, grazing and occurrence of filamentous algae, have generally been suggested as major factors causing the decline. It is only recently, however, that the effects of these factors have been experimentally

Rita Berger; Lena Bergström; Edna Granéli; Lena Kautsky

2004-01-01

386

Non-stationarity in the NAO-temperature relation over the Baltic Sea catchment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much attention is spent today to the reconstruction of past climates, increasing the amount and quality of (multi-)proxy-reconstructions from different regions. However, these reconstructions by means of statistical models usually assume a constant spatiotemporal relationship between the predictor variables and the predictands. Due to the complex nature of externally and internally forced climate variability on different time scales, reasoning arises to question and probably quantify the assumption about stationarity particularly for longer time scales. An advantage of the Baltic region is the high amount of quality-checked and long historical measurements (e.g. SLP, station temperature, gauge and sea-ice data) which make it possible to study the relationship between the large-scale forcing by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the near-surface climate of the Baltic Sea catchment area in more detail. In a first step of our approach we relate the NAO to the near-surface climate of the Baltic region on monthly and seasonal basis using running correlation analysis on decadal time scales. Results indicate that the circulation-climate-relationship shows large amounts of non-stationarities. For example, the running correlations between the NAO and station temperatures over the Baltic Sea catchment area in winter (DJF) vary in a range between 0.45Baltic Sea catchment area, we use simulations with solar, volcanic and greenhouse gas forcing as well as a control-simulation with constant conditions like in 1990. Similar to the findings in the first step, all modelling results with and without external forcing are showing large non-stationarities with decadal running correlations between 0

Schenk, F.; Hansson, D.; Wagner, S.; Zorita, E.

2009-04-01

387

Thermal expansion of Kevlar fibres and composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary knowledge of the thermal expansivity of a given composite material is essential for its engineering design. This can only be achieved by having an accurate knowledge of the thermal expansivities of the constituent materials and of the laws which predict the expansivity of the composite material as a function of the expansivities of its constituents and of their

S. Rojstaczer; D. Cohn; G. Marom

1985-01-01

388

Electric-generation-expansion analysis system. Volume 1: solution techniques, computing methods, and results. Final report. [EGEAS computer code  

Microsoft Academic Search

EGEAS is a modular state-of-the-art capacity expansion software package. It contains five capacity expansion analysis options ranging from preliminary analysis tools based on screening curves and linear programming to sophisticated non-linear analysis tools utilizing a Generalized Benders' Decomposition algorithm and a Dynamic Programming algorithm. A stand alone, detailed probabilistic production costing algorithm is also available for prespecified expansion plan production

M. C. Caramanis; F. C. Schweppe; R.D. Tabors

1982-01-01

389

SUMMARY PLAN DESCRIPTION Plan Name: MCWAH Vision Plan [Plan # 505  

E-print Network

Processing: Insurer with Administration by EyeMed Vision Care Premium Payments: Employer pays 100 Insurance Plan Year: July 1 ­ June 30 Employer\\Policyholder\\Plan Administrator\\Plan Sponsor: Medical College-1341366 Type of Plan, Funding, and Administration: Fully Insured Group Vision Plan Group Insurance Policy

390

Relativistic effects on plasma expansion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The expansion of electron-ion plasma is studied through a fully relativistic multi-fluids plasma model which includes thermal pressure, ambipolar electrostatic potential, and internal energy conversion. Numerical investigation, based on quasi-neutral assumption, is performed for three different regimes: nonrelativistic, weakly relativistic, and relativistic. Ions' front in weakly relativistic regime exhibits spiky structure associated with a break-down of quasi-neutrality at the expanding front. In the relativistic regime, ion velocity is found to reach a saturation limit which occurs at earlier stages of the expansion. This limit is enhanced by higher electron velocity.

Benkhelifa, El-Amine; Djebli, Mourad

2014-07-01

391

Relativistic effects on plasma expansion  

SciTech Connect

The expansion of electron-ion plasma is studied through a fully relativistic multi-fluids plasma model which includes thermal pressure, ambipolar electrostatic potential, and internal energy conversion. Numerical investigation, based on quasi-neutral assumption, is performed for three different regimes: nonrelativistic, weakly relativistic, and relativistic. Ions' front in weakly relativistic regime exhibits spiky structure associated with a break-down of quasi-neutrality at the expanding front. In the relativistic regime, ion velocity is found to reach a saturation limit which occurs at earlier stages of the expansion. This limit is enhanced by higher electron velocity.

Benkhelifa, El-Amine; Djebli, Mourad, E-mail: mdjebli@usthb.dz [USTHB, Faculty of Physics, Theoretical Physics Laboratory, B.P. 32 Bab-Ezzouar, 16079 Algiers (Algeria)

2014-07-15

392

Cosmological expansion and local physics  

SciTech Connect

The interplay between cosmological expansion and local attraction in a gravitationally bound system is revisited in various regimes. First, weakly gravitating Newtonian systems are considered, followed by various exact solutions describing a relativistic central object embedded in a Friedmann universe. It is shown that the 'all or nothing' behavior recently discovered (i.e., weakly coupled systems are comoving while strongly coupled ones resist the cosmic expansion) is limited to the de Sitter background. New exact solutions are presented which describe black holes perfectly comoving with a generic Friedmann universe. The possibility of violating cosmic censorship for a black hole approaching the big rip is also discussed.

Faraoni, Valerio; Jacques, Audrey [Physics Department, Bishop's University, 2600 College Street, Sherbrooke, Quebec, J1M 0C8 (Canada)

2007-09-15

393

Energy and the environment in the Baltic Sea region: A study of cooperative action from the Estonian perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to their geographic proximity and shared natural resources, cooperation on energy-related and environmental issues is particularly important for the nine countries surrounding the Baltic Sea. Currently, two projects are underway that have placed the level of cooperation within the region under the microscope: the environmental management work undertaken by the Helsinki Commission for the Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area (HELCOM) and the Nord Stream pipeline project, which, when completed, will provide the direct transportation of natural gas from Russia to Germany via the Baltic seafloor. Although both have been declared inclusive and decidedly Baltic ventures by some regional actors, reception of the cooperative efforts amongst the littoral Baltic countries has been markedly different. This study addresses these varying reactions by examining Estonia's participation in and subsequent perspectives on the HELCOM and Nord Stream projects. A theoretical framework grounded in the discipline of international relations is utilized to analyze Estonia's role in the projects and its position as a small state in a regional context. The primary areas of focus are how historical experiences and current levels of cooperation in the two endeavors have shaped Estonia's responses and, ultimately, its 'realist' perception of global politics. The study concludes that Estonia appears to have more substantive participation in HELCOM than in the Nord Stream project because of the tendency of states to securitize and, thus, prioritize the energy policy area over the environmental. Estonian foreign policy behavior, however, perpetuates the state-centric and power-centered policy processes that dominate the international political system.

Brauer, Alex P.

394

Seasonal contribution of terrestrial organic matter and biological oxygen demand to the Baltic Sea from three contrasting river catchments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To examine the potential influence of terrestrially derived DOM on the Baltic Sea, a year-long study of dissolved organic matter (DOM) was performed in three river catchments in Sweden. One catchment drains into the Bothnian Sea, while two southern catchments drain into the Baltic proper. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were positively correlated with discharge from forested catchments over the year. While the overall concentrations of DOC were several times higher in the southern two catchments, higher discharge in the northern catchment resulted in the annual loadings of DOC being on the same order of magnitude for all three catchments. Biological oxygen demand (BOD) was used as a proxy for the lability of carbon in the system. The range of BOD values was similar for all three catchments, however, the ratio of BOD to DOC (an indication of the labile fraction) in Ume river was four times higher than in the southern two catchments. Total annual BOD loading to the Baltic Sea was twice as high in the northern catchment than in the two southern catchments. Lower winter temperatures and preservation of organic matter in the northern catchment combined with an intense spring flood help to explain the higher concentrations of labile carbon in the northern catchment. Lower lability of DOM as well as higher colour in the southern catchments suggest that wetlands (i.e. peat bogs) may be the dominant source of DOM in these catchments, particularly in periods of low flow. With climate change expected to increase precipitation events and temperatures across the region, the supply and quality of DOM delivered to the Baltic Sea can also be expected to change. Our results indicate that DOM supply to the Baltic Sea from boreal rivers will be more stable throughout the year, and potentially have a lower bioavailability.

Reader, H. E.; Stedmon, C. A.; Kritzberg, E. S.

2014-06-01

395

Optimal Expansion of a Drinking Water Infrastructure System with Respect to Carbon Footprint, Cost Effectiveness and Water Demand  

EPA Science Inventory

Urban water infrastructure requires careful long-term expansion planning to reduce the risk from climate change during both the periods of economic boom and recession. As part of the adaptation management strategies, capacity expansion in concert with other management alternativ...

396

Dialect Expansion: The College Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers with training in TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) are often called upon to participate in programs to teach a standard English dialect to speakers of non-standard dialects ("dialect expansion"). A course outline is presented here which should respond to the needs of four groups: (1) college professors who recognize…

Preston, Dennis R.

397

Clamshell Thermal-Expansion Bellows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved bellows serves as thermal-expansion joint in vacuum-jacketed cyrogenic piping system. Made of Hastelloy C-22 and fabricated in field by welding two clam-shell-like half bellows. No protective paint or maintenance needed. Design modified to fit most thin-wall bellows.

Fesmire, J.; Moore, W. I.; Dipasquale, S. D.

1993-01-01

398

Term Definition Expansion DNA Sequencing  

E-print Network

Term Definition Expansion DNA Sequencing A laboratory technique used to determine the exact sequence of bases (A, C, G, and T) in a DNA molecule. Sequence(s) carr(y) the information a cell needs are not corrected, which can lead to breast cancer. A branch of pharmacology concerned with using DNA and amino acid

Puglisi, Joseph

399

Demic Expansions and Human Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographic expansions are caused by successful innovations, biological or cultural, that favor local growth and movement. They have had a powerful effect in determining the present patterns of human genetic geography. Modern human populations expanded rapidly across the Earth in the last 100,000 years. At the end of the Paleolithic (10,000 years ago) only a few islands and other areas

Luigi L. Cavalli-Sforza; Paolo Menozzi; Alberto Piazza

1993-01-01

400

The fossil crown wasp Electrostephanus petiolatus Brues in Baltic amber (Hymenoptera, Stephanidae): designation of a neotype, revised classification, and a key to amber Stephanidae  

E-print Network

The fossil crown wasp Electrostephanus petiolatus Brues comb. rev. (Stephanidae, Electrostephaninae) is redescribed from a single male preserved in middle Eocene Baltic amber. The holotype was lost or destroyed around the time of World War II...

Engel, Michael S.; Ortega-Blanco, Jaime

2008-12-17

401

Diatom stratigraphy and long-term dissolved silica concentrations in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many parts of the world coastal waters with anthropogenic eutrophication have experienced a gradual depletion of dissolved silica (DSi) stocks. This could put pressure on spring bloom diatom populations, e.g. by limiting the intensity of blooms or by causing shifts in species composition. In addition, eutrophication driven enhanced diatom growth is responsible for the redistribution of DSi from the water phase to the sediments, and changes in the growth conditions may be reflected in the sediment diatom stratigraphy. To test for changes in diatom communities we have analyzed four sediment cores from the Baltic Sea covering approximately the last 100 years. The sediment cores originate from the western Gulf of Finland, the Kattegat, the Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Riga. Three out of the four cores reveal only minor changes in composition of diatom assemblages, while the Gulf of Riga core contains major changes, occurring after the second World War. This area is set apart from the other Baltic Sea basins by a high frequency of low after spring bloom DSi concentrations (< 2 µmol L - 1 ) during a relatively well defined time period from 1991-1998. In 1991 to 1993 a rapid decline of DSi spring concentrations and winter stocks (down to 5 µmol L - 1 ) in the Gulf was preceded by exceptionally intense diatom spring blooms dominated by the heavily silicified species Thalassiosira baltica (1991-1992; up to 5.5 mg ww L - 1 ). T. baltica has been the principal spring bloom diatom in the Gulf of Riga since records began in 1975. DSi consumption and biomass yield experiments with cultured T. baltica suggest that intense blooms can potentially exhaust the DSi stock of the water column and exceed the annual Si dissolution in the Gulf of Riga. The phytoplankton time series reveals another exceptional T. baltica bloom period in 1981-1983 (up to 8 mg L - 1 ), which, however, took place before the regular DSi measurements. These periods may be reflected in the conspicuous accumulation of T. baltica frustules in the sediment core corresponding to ca. 1975-1985.

Olli, Kalle; Clarke, Annemarie; Danielsson, Åsa; Aigars, Juris; Conley, Daniel J.; Tamminen, Timo

2008-10-01

402

Spatial and temporal habitat partitioning by zooplankton in the Bornholm Basin (central Baltic Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deep basins in the Baltic Sea such as the Bornholm Basin (BB) are subject to seasonal changes in the strength of physico-chemical stratification. These depth-related changes in key abiotic factors are strong drivers of habitat partitioning by the autochthonous zooplankton community. Species-specific ecophysiological preferences often result in both seasonal and inter-annual changes in vertical abundance that, when combined with depth-specific water currents, also lead to horizontal differences in spatial distribution. The present study documented the seasonal and depth-specific changes in the abundance and species composition of zooplankton in the BB based upon broad-scale survey data: 832 vertically-resolved (10 m) multinet samples collected at nine stations between March 2002 and May 2003. Changes in the zooplankton community were significantly correlated with changes in ambient hydrography. Each of five taxa (Bosmina coregoni maritima, Acartia spp., Pseudocalanus spp., Temora longicornis, Synchaeta spp.) contributed >10% to the zooplankton community composition. The appearance of cladocerans was mainly correlated with the phenology of thermocline development in the spring. The cladoceran B. coregoni maritima was a dominant member of this community during the warmest periods, preferring the surface waters above the thermocline. Copepods exhibited distinct, ontogenetic and seasonal changes in their distribution. The rotifers (Synchaeta sp.) were the most abundant zooplankton in May. Based on a multivariate approach and the evaluation of vertical distribution patterns, five major habitat utilisation modes were identified that were based, to a large extent, on the dynamics of thermal and haline stratification of the Baltic Sea. Our statistical analysis of one of the most thorough datasets collected on Baltic zooplankton in recent decades reveals some of the factors that make this stratified system highly dynamic with respect to the spatial overlap between predators and prey. As fish and gelatinous plankton often feed in distinct layers and/or exhibit feeding migrations, the inhomogeneous distribution of potential prey can result in a spatial mismatch. Based on the five modes identified at the community level for zooplankton, we discuss how climate-driven hydrographic variability may influence the strength of trophic coupling within the Bornholm Basin.

Schulz, Jan; Peck, Myron A.; Barz, Kristina; Schmidt, Jörn Oliver; Hansen, Frank C.; Peters, Janna; Renz, Jasmin; Dickmann, Miriam; Mohrholz, Volker; Dutz, Jörg; Hirche, Hans-Jürgen

2012-12-01

403

Characterization of OMI tropospheric NO2 over the Baltic Sea region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite-based data are very important for air-quality applications in the Baltic Sea region, because they provide information on air pollution over the sea and where ground-based and aircraft measurements are not available. Both the emissions from urban sites over land and ships over sea, contribute to tropospheric NO2 levels. Tropospheric NO2 monitoring at high latitudes using satellite data is challenging because of the reduced light hours in winter and the weak signal due to the low Sun, which make the retrieval complex. This work presents a characterization of tropospheric NO2 columns based on case-study analysis in the Baltic Sea region, using the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) tropospheric NO2 standard product. Previous works have focused on larger seas and lower latitudes. The results of this paper showed that, despite the regional area of interest, it is possible to distinguish the signal from the main coastal cities and from the ships by averaging the data over a~seasonal time range. The summertime NO2 emission and lifetime values (E' = (1.5 ± 0.6) mol s-1 and ? = (3 ± 1) h, respectively) in Helsinki were estimated from the decay of the signal with distance from the city center. These results agree within the uncertainties with the emissions from the existing database. For comparison, the results for the cities of Saint Petersburg and Stockholm are also shown. The method developed for megacities was successfully applied to smaller-scale sources, in both size and intensity, which are located at high latitudes (~60° N). The same methodology could be applied to similar-scale cities elsewhere, as long as they are relatively isolated from other sources. Transport by the wind plays an important role in the Baltic Sea region. The NO2 spatial distribution is mainly determined by the contribution of westerly winds, which dominate the wind patterns during summer. The comparison between the ship emissions from model calculations and OMI NO2 tropospheric columns supports the applicability of satellite data for ship emission monitoring. In particular, both the ship emission data and the OMI observations showed similar year-to-year variability, with a drop in the year 2009, corresponding to the effect of the financial crisis.

Ialongo, I.; Hakkarainen, J.; Hyttinen, N.; Jalkanen, J.-P.; Johansson, L.; Boersma, K. F.; Krotkov, N.; Tamminen, J.

2014-08-01

404

Environmental Sensitivity Index: Estonian shoreline geology classification (Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At International Maritime Organization's (IMO) Marine Environment Protection Committee's 53rd session in July 2005, the Baltic Sea was designated as a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA). At the same time the oil transportation is growing significantly in the Baltic Sea area and especially in the Gulf of Finland exceeding 250 million tons a year by 2015. Despite of improving navigation measures there is a growing risk for incidental oil spills and associated oil pollution. Oil spill accident history and simulations show that once the oil spill at sea has occurred, it is almost impossible to prevent it from reaching ashore. Advice on sensitive shoreline likely to be impacted by the oil washing ashore is of critical importance in order to support decisions whether or not a response is necessary or what kind and extent of response is appropriate. Furthermore, choices made in cleanup strategies and the decisionmaking process in the aftermath of a spill are significantly affecting the cleanup costs. This paper introduces the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) shoreline geology classification adapted and modified according to the environmental conditions of the Estonian coast of the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) and ranked according to substrate type and grain size related natural persistence of oil and ease of cleanup. Relative exposure to wave (hydrodynamic energy level) and the shoreline slope are characterized and taken into account. The length of the shoreline is over 700 km. The most common shore types are till shores (40%) and sandy shores (25%). Long stretches of cliff shores (11% in total) and gravel-pebble shores (10%) on the close neighborhood of the cliffs are the most characteristic features of the Estonian coast of the Gulf of Finland. Silty shores and artificial shores make up to 7% and 6% respectively of the total shoreline length here. Over 2/3 of the shores here are with very high ESI values. Till shores are often covered by coarse gravel, pebble, cobble and boulders (finer grained sediments are washed away) making this type of the shores very difficult to clean up and at the same time creating ideal conditions for numerous biological species. Gravel-pebble shore is probably the most difficult shore type to recover from the potential oil pollution while the cliff shores are the most difficult to access from the land. Issue is exemplified by the series of the oil spill scenario simulation results showing the practical use of the adapted ESI shoreline geology classification.

Aps, Robert; Kopti, Madli; Tõnisson, Hannes; Orviku, Kaarel; Suursaar, Ülo

2013-04-01

405

Characterization of OMI tropospheric NO2 over the Baltic Sea region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite-based data are very important for air quality applications in the Baltic Sea area, because they provide information on air pollution over sea and there where ground-based network and aircraft measurements are not available. Both the emissions from urban sites over land and ships over sea, contribute to the tropospheric NO2 levels. The tropospheric NO2 monitoring at high latitudes using satellite data is challenging because of the reduced light hours in winter and the snow-covered surface, which make the retrieval complex, and because of the reduced signal due to low Sun. This work presents a detailed characterization of the tropospheric NO2 columns focused on part of the Baltic Sea region using the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) tropospheric NO2 standard product. Previous works have focused on larger seas and lower latitudes. The results showed that, despite the regional area of interest, it is possible to distinguish the signal from the main coastal cities and from the ships by averaging the data over a seasonal time range. The summertime NO2 emission and lifetime values (E = (1.0 ± 0.1) × 1028 molec. and ? = (3.0 ± 0.5) h, respectively) in Helsinki were estimated from the decay of the signal with distance from the city center. The method developed for megacities was successfully applied to a smaller scale source, in both size and intensity (i.e., the city of Helsinki), which is located at high latitudes (∼60° N). The same methodology could be applied to similar scale cities elsewhere, as far as they are relatively isolated from other sources. The transport by the wind plays an important role in the Baltic Sea area. The NO2 spatial distribution is mainly determined by the contribution of strong westerly winds, which dominate the wind patterns during summer. The comparison between the emissions from model calculations and OMI NO2 tropospheric columns confirmed the applicability of satellite data for ship emission monitoring. In particular, both the emission data and the OMI observations showed similar year-to-year variability, with a drop in year 2009, corresponding to the effect of the economical crisis.

Ialongo, I.; Hakkarainen, J.; Hyttinen, N.; Jalkanen, J.-P.; Johansson, L.; Boersma, F.; Krotkov, N.; Tamminen, J.

2014-01-01

406

The effects of temperature and salinity on reproductive success of Temora longicornis in the Baltic Sea: a copepod coping with a tough situation  

Microsoft Academic Search

At specific locations within the Baltic Sea, thermoclines and haloclines can create rapid spatial and temporal changes in\\u000a temperature (T) and salinity (S) exceeding 10°C and 9 psu with seasonal ranges in temperature exceeding 20°C. These wide ranges in abiotic factors affect\\u000a the distribution and abundance of Baltic Sea copepods via species-specific, physiological-based impacts on vital rates. In\\u000a this laboratory study,

Linda Holste; Michael A. St. John; Myron A. Peck

2009-01-01

407

Regional ocean climate simulations with a 3D ice-ocean model for the Baltic Sea. Part 1: model experiments and results for temperature and salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea surface temperatures and salinity profiles in the Baltic Sea have been analyzed under different climate conditions using a 3D coupled ice-ocean model. As a reference, hindcast simulations for the period 1980-93 have been performed using observed three-hourly meteorological forcing fields and observed monthly river runoff. The results are compared with available observations from monitoring stations. The observed Baltic Sea

H. E. M. Meier

2002-01-01

408

Biogeochemistry of sulfur in a sediment core from the west-central Baltic Sea: Evidence from stable isotopes and pyrite textures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biogeochemistry of the sulfur cycle in a ca. 5-m-long sediment core from the eastern slope (221 m water depth) of the Landsort Deep in the west-central Baltic Sea was investigated by analyzing the solid phase records of sulfur isotopes and pyrite textures, besides selected main and minor elements. The sediments were deposited during post-glacial history of the Baltic Sea

Michael E Böttcher; Aivo Lepland

2000-01-01

409

Belliella baltica gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel marine bacterium of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group isolated from surface water of the central Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bacterial isolate from the Baltic Sea, BA160T, was characterized for its physiological and biochemical features, fatty acid profile, G+C content and phylogenetic position based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. The strain was isolated from the surface water of the central Baltic Sea during the decay of a plankton bloom. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed a

Ingrid Brettar; Richard Christen; Manfred G. Hofl

2004-01-01

410

Crustal loading of Baltic Sea seiche oscillations disturbing geodetic earth tide observations - case study: interferometric tilt meter observations in Lohja Finland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

North-south oriented interferometric long base water level tilt meter is recording geodynamical tilt signals different kind e.g. crustal loading tilt caused by the Baltic Sea. Instrument is locating in the Tytyri mine, Lohja, southern Finland, in inland 30 km away from coastline of the Baltic Sea. Earth tide analyse of tilt observations shows deviating error estimates for phases in certain diurnal and semidiurnal wave groups of tidal potential model. Free oscillation waves (seiches) of the Baltic Sea have frequencies, which locate near or in diurnal and semidiurnal tidal frequency wave groups. The phases of free oscillations of the Baltic Sea do not fit in with the phases of tidal frequencies, because free oscillations exist random in time base and take place after Baltic Sea surface deformation caused by certain air pressure and wind conditions in that sea area. Oceanographers have identified upto 10 different modes of free oscillations in the Baltic Sea. Identification and modeling of the largest modes from the geodynamical tilt data are studied.

Ruotsalainen, Hannu

2014-05-01

411

hurricane plan UNO HURRICANE PLAN  

E-print Network

hurricane plan #12;UNO HURRICANE PLAN TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................................................... 1 I. HURRICANE EMERGENCY TEAMS Hurricane Emergency Implementation Team (HEIT)......................................... 2 PPoosstt

Li, X. Rong

412

Risk assessment for exemptions from ballast water management--the Baltic Sea case study.  

PubMed

The International Convention for the Control and Management of Ship's Ballast Water and Sediments sets requirements to prevent organism transfers. Vessels on certain routes can be exempted from such requirements based on risk assessment (RA). As the convention nears its entry into force, the interest in exemptions increases. Such RA should be conducted according to the International Maritime Organization G7 Guidelines. We present a RA study for exemptions applied to intra-Baltic shipping considering different RA methods, i.e., environmental matching, species specific method including target species and species biogeographical aspects. As reliable species data in the ports considered are unavailable and following the precautionary principle, no exemptions should be granted. To ensure data reliability, port baseline surveys and regular monitoring programs should be undertaken during the exemption period as new species found influence the RA result. The RA model prepared is considered as of value to other areas worldwide. PMID:23958222

David, Matej; Gollasch, Stephan; Leppäkoski, Erkki

2013-10-15

413

Light element distributions (N, B, Li) in Baltic Basin bentonites record organic sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distributions of nitrogen, boron and lithium were studied in illite-smectite from Ordovician-Silurian K-bentonites in the Baltic Basin. These trace elements are linked to thermal maturation of organic matter, creating fluid signatures that are distinct from those in regionally buried sediments. The fluid chemistry is ideally recorded in authigenic illite within the K-bentonite because B substitutes in tetrahedral sites of illite, Li in octahedral sites, and N is fixed in the interlayers as NH4+. Three nanometric size fractions of illite (<0.02 ?m; 0.02-0.05 ?m; 0.05-0.2 ?m) were compared within each sample. Boron and Li-isotope variations (>10‰) among these size fractions relate mainly to changes in fluid composition during illite growth.

Williams, Lynda B.; ?rodo?, Jan; Huff, Warren D.; Clauer, Norbert; Hervig, Richard L.

2013-11-01

414

Even low to medium nitrogen deposition impacts vegetation of dry, coastal dunes around the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Coastal dunes around the Baltic Sea have received small amounts of atmospheric nitrogen and are rather pristine ecosystems in this respect. In 19 investigated dune sites the atmospheric wet nitrogen deposition is 3-8kg Nha(-1)yr(-1). The nitrogen content of Cladonia portentosa appeared to be a suitable biomonitor of these low to medium deposition levels. Comparison with EMEP-deposition data showed that Cladonia reflects the deposition history of the last 3-6 years. With increasing nitrogen load, we observed a shift from lichen-rich short grass vegetation towards species-poor vegetation dominated by the tall graminoid Carex arenaria. Plant species richness per field site, however, does not decrease directly with these low to medium N deposition loads, but with change in vegetation composition. Critical loads for acidic, dry coastal dunes might be lower than previously thought, in the range of 4-6kg Nha(-1)yr(-1) wet deposition. PMID:19095336

Remke, Eva; Brouwer, Emiel; Kooijman, Annemieke; Blindow, Irmgard; Esselink, Hans; Roelofs, Jan G M

2009-03-01

415

Influence of water salinity on corrosion risk-the case of the southern Baltic Sea coast.  

PubMed

Water corrosivity in Gdansk Bay, Poland, the southern part of the Baltic Sea, was investigated. The analysed region is heavily industrialized, and the coastline is very diverse. Twenty-seven test points along the coastline were selected. Water parameters such as salinity, total dissolved solids content, resistivity, conductivity, oxygenation, pH and corrosion rate were determined. The results of the investigation are presented. Water samples were collected, and structural steel specimens were exposed in the water for 2 months. The corrosion rate for each test point was determined and plotted on a map. The spatial distribution of water parameters was calculated using the 'inverse distance to a power' method and presented on the maps. Salinity did not exceed 0.7 %, and average corrosion rate equalled 0.0585 mm/year. PMID:24696282

Zakowski, K; Narozny, M; Szocinski, M; Darowicki, K

2014-08-01

416

Subdivision of Holocene Baltic sea sediments by their physical properties [Gliederung holozaner ostseesedimente nach physikalischen Eigenschaften  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Holocene sediment sequence of a core taken within the centre of the Eastern Gotland Basin was subdivided into 12 lithostratigraphic units based on MSCL-data (sound velocity, wet bulk density, magnetic susceptibility) using a multivariate classification method. The lower 6 units embrace the sediments until the Litorina transgression, and the upper 6 units subdivide the brackish-marine Litorina- and post-Litorina sediments. The upper lithostratigraphic units reflect a change of anoxic (laminated) and oxic (non-laminated) sediments. By application of a numerical stratigraphic correlation method the zonation was extended laterally onto contiguous sediment cores within the central basin. Consequently the change of anoxic and oxic sediments can be used for a general lithostratigraphic subdivision of sediments of the Gotland Basin. A quantitative criterion based on the sediment-physical lithofacies is added to existing subdivisions of the Holocene in the Baltic Sea.

Harff, J.; Bohling, G.C.; Endler, R.; Davis, J.C.; Olea, R.A.

1999-01-01

417

Strontium and zinc concentrations in otoliths of common fish species in the northern Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Otoliths of perch (Perca fluviatilis), pike (Esox lucius) and European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) caught at different locations in the northern Baltic Sea along the Finnish west coast and at some rivers and lakes were subjected to elemental analyses with particle induced X-ray emission and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The strontium concentration in otoliths from whitefish (˜3300 ?g/g) was 2-3 times higher than that of perch and pike (˜1400 ?g/g), while within species the strontium concentration of otoliths from fish caught at different locations was in the same range. The strontium concentrations were lowest in fish from the lakes (˜450 ?g/g). Whitefish otoliths contained more zinc (˜60 ?g/g) than those of pike (˜30 ?g/g), while the zinc concentration in perch otoliths were below the detection limit. No spatial intraspecies variations in zinc concentrations were observed. X-ray diffraction showed that the otoliths consisted of aragonite solely.

Lill, J.-O.; Himberg, M.; Harju, L.; Ek, P.; Lindroos, A.; Wiklund, T.; Gunnelius, K.; Smått, J.-H.; Heselius, S.-J.; Hägerstrand, H.

2014-01-01

418

Microbially mediated methane and sulfur cycling in pockmark sediments of the Gdansk Basin, Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Russian sector of the Gdansk Basin (Baltic Sea), high organic matter influx fuels microbial processes resulting in the formation of reduced sediments with elevated methane concentrations. Investigated areas of geoacoustic anomalies (˜245 km2) were found to contain three distinct geomorphologic structures (pockmarks), with a total area of ˜1 km2. Methane anomalies recorded in the water above one of these pockmarks were traced as high as 10 m above the bottom. In pockmark sediments, sulfate reduction and anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) occurred at high rates of 33 and 50 µmol dm-3 day-1, respectively. Integrated over 0-180 cm sediment depths, AOM exceeded methanogenesis almost tenfold. High AOM rates resulted from methane influx from deeper sediment layers. The ?13C signature of methane carbon (-78.1 to -71.1‰) indicates the biogenic origin of pockmark methane. In pockmark sediments, up to 70% of reduced sulfur compounds was possibly produced via AOM.

Pimenov, Nikolay V.; Ulyanova, Marina O.; Kanapatsky, Timur A.; Veslopolova, Elena F.; Sigalevich, Pavel A.; Sivkov, Vadim V.

2010-06-01

419

Response of the ionosphere to the Baltic Sea earthquake of 21 September 2004  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GPS observations of the European permanent network were used to identify seismo-ionospheric precursors of Baltic Sea earthquake of 21 September 2004. It is a very rare event for this region of Europe (magnitude of about 5.0). This value is the threshold for the occurrence of seismic effects in the ionosphere. In total electron content (TEC) data over the region of the earthquake, a specific ionospheric anomaly appeared one day before the earthquake was detected. The ionospheric variability had a positive sign with an enhancement of about 4-5 TECU (1 TECU = 1016 electrons/m2) relative to the non-disturbed state of the ionosphere. The anomaly had a duration of 4-5 hours in the day time. The special size of this anomaly was about 1000 km. The characteristic parameters of the anomaly show that it can be associated with ionospheric precursors of an earthquake.

Krankowski, Andrzej; Zakharenkova, Irina E.; Shagimuratov, Irk I.

2006-03-01

420

Performance of the Earth Gravitational Model EGM08 over the Baltic countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth's gravitational models (EGM) in conjunction with regional terrestrial gravity data are often used in regional geoid determination. Due to availability, quality, and type of data, the performance of an EGM vary regionally. By comparing EGM regionally with that of external data sets that rely on the same gravity field the accuracy of the EGM can be validated. Accordingly, this study assesses the performance of the new high-resolution EGM08 model over the Baltic Sea region with emphasis to Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Several different sets of the "ground truth" data are used in the comparisons. First, the EGM08-derived height anomalies are compared with an existing regional geoid model. The detected discrepancies range within +/- 0.3 m with a mean of -0.02 m, whereas the standard deviation (STD) of the discrepancies amounts to 0.08 m. The largest discrepancies occur in the areas where only a few data points were available either for the regional geoid modeling or at the EGM08 compilation, or both. Second, the free-air gravity anomalies at the terrestrial data-points are compared with the EGM08-derived anomalies. The STD of the anomaly discrepancies is 2.6 mGal. Finally, the EGM08 model is validated with respect to GPS-levelling data. The STD of detected discrepancies is 0.06 m, with a mean of 0.49 m. Thus, the EGM08 based quantities agree reasonably well with the tested datasets. Evidently, most of the historic gravity data in the Baltic Sea region appear to be utilised at the EGM08 construction. Some facts about the data sets that should be mentioned here are that the gravity data within the land masses of the Baltic countries have been collected before 1990-ies, whereas the modern gravity networks were established decades after the historic gravity surveys. Furthermore, in mid 1990-ies a set of absolute gravity stations was established in the Baltic countries. Thereafter the national gravity networks were re-adjusted. Even though attempts were made to convert the historic survey results into the current gravity datum, the connections between the datasets remain still rather loose. Most likely the gravity network points and the results of new surveys were not used at the compilation of the EGM08. This study shows that the EGM08 agrees reasonably with the historic terrestrial data, whereas at certain geographical locations the EGM08 derived gravity values appear to be systematically biased from the modern gravity network data. Hence, there is still some space for further improvements of the contemporary EGM-s. Clearly, this requests a throughout international and well coordinated co-operation for reconcilation of the historic gravity surveys.

Ellmann, A.; Kaminskis, J.; Parseliunas, E.; Jürgenson, H.; Oja, T.

2009-04-01

421

Ecological Network Indicators of Ecosystem Status and Change in the Baltic Sea  

PubMed Central

Several marine ecosystems under anthropogenic pressure have experienced shifts from one ecological state to another. In the central Baltic Sea, the regime shift of the 1980s has been associated with food-web reorganization and redirection of energy flow pathways. These long-term dynamics from 1974 to 2006 have been simulated here using a food-web model forced by climate and fishing. Ecological network analysis was performed to calculate indices of ecosystem change. The model replicated the regime shift. The analyses of indicators suggested that the system’s resilience was higher prior to 1988 and lower thereafter. The ecosystem topology also changed from a web-like structure to a linearized food-web. PMID:24116045

Tomczak, Maciej T.; Heymans, Johanna J.; Yletyinen, Johanna; Niiranen, Susa; Otto, Saskia A.; Blenckner, Thorsten

2013-01-01

422

Aromatic compounds in molecular phase of Baltic amber-synchronous luminescence analysis.  

PubMed

Synchronous luminescence analysis was performed in order to identify aromatic compounds in solvent extracts of Baltic amber. The investigated extracts were obtained, for comparisons, as products of extraction by various techniques and solvents. Methylene chloride and ethanol were applied independently for extraction at the ambient temperature (conservative extraction), as well as at the temperature of solvent boiling (extraction in Soxhlet apparatus). Ethanol, as the solvent, was also used for extraction in an ultrasonic bath and for the decoction process. The extraction, by techniques mentioned, of the analysed amber has resulted in products generally containing the same groups of aromatics: mainly naphthalenes, phenanthrenes and anthracenes. Among phenanthrenes, in all samples the retene was also identified, being one of the characteristic links of the diagenetic chain of chemical transformations of vegetal precursors. The identification of a series of individual compounds made, using the synchronous luminescence technique, was verified by the record of conventional emission and excitation spectra. Presented identified compounds were also confirmed by the results of GC-MS analysis. The luminescence analysis was also performed comparatively for fossil resin from Galicia, Spain (Cretaceous) older than Baltic amber (Tertiary, Eocene). The obtained preliminary results of synchronous luminescence analysis suggest the possibility of diversification in this manner of fossil resins of various ages by characterisation of aromatisation degree and alkyl substitution of aromatic rings. It is since well known that aromatisation progress is an indicator of a natural process of maturation of fossil organic matter. However, a greater number of samples should be taken to further testify to the investigations. PMID:18968585

Matuszewska, Aniela; Czaja, Maria

2002-04-01

423

Unveiling Trophic Functions of Uncultured Protist Taxa by Incubation Experiments in the Brackish Baltic Sea  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Our knowledge of the phylogeny and diversity of aquatic protists is rapidly increasing due to molecular surveys and next-generation sequencing approaches. This has led to a considerable discrepancy between the taxa known from cultures and those known from environmental 18S rRNA gene sequences. Hence, it is generally difficult to assign ecological functions to new taxa detected by culture-independent molecular approaches. Methodology/Principal Findings A combination of unamended dark incubations and 18S rRNA sequencing was chosen to link molecular diversity data of uncultured protists with heterotrophic, presumably bacterivorous, growth. The incubations, conducted with Baltic Sea brackish water, resulted in a consistent shift from a protistan community dominated by phototrophs to one in which heterotrophs predominated. This was determined on the basis of cell abundance and 18S rRNA sequences derived from fingerprint analysis and clone libraries. The bulk of enriched phylotypes after incubation were related to hitherto uncultured marine taxa within chrysophytes, ochrophytes, choanoflagellates, cercozoans, and picobiliphytes, mostly represented in recently established or here defined environmental clades. Their growth in the dark, together with coinciding results from studies with a similar objective, provides evidence that these uncultured taxa represent heterotrophic or mixotrophic species. Conclusions/Significance These findings shed some light into the trophic role of diverse uncultured protists especially within functionally heterogeneous groups (e.g., chrysophytes, ochrophytes) and groups that appear to be puzzling with regard to their nutrition (picobiliphytes). Additionally, our results indicate that the heterotrophic flagellate community in the southwestern Baltic Sea is dominated by species of marine origin. The combination of unamended incubations with molecular diversity analysis is thus confirmed as a promising approach to explore the trophic mode of environmentally relevant protist taxa for which only sequence data are currently available. PMID:22860041

Weber, Felix; del Campo, Javier; Wylezich, Claudia; Massana, Ramon; Jürgens, Klaus

2012-01-01

424

Bloom-forming cyanobacteria support copepod reproduction and development in the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

It is commonly accepted that summer cyanobacterial blooms cannot be efficiently utilized by grazers due to low nutritional quality and production of toxins; however the evidence for such effects in situ is often contradictory. Using field and experimental observations on Baltic copepods and bloom-forming diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacteria, we show that cyanobacteria may in fact support zooplankton production during summer. To highlight this side of zooplankton-cyanobacteria interactions, we conducted: (1) a field survey investigating linkages between cyanobacteria, reproduction and growth indices in the copepod Acartia tonsa; (2) an experiment testing relationships between ingestion of the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena (measured by molecular diet analysis) and organismal responses (oxidative balance, reproduction and development) in the copepod A. bifilosa; and (3) an analysis of long term (1999-2009) data testing relationships between cyanobacteria and growth indices in nauplii of the copepods, Acartia spp. and Eurytemora affinis, in a coastal area of the northern Baltic proper. In the field survey, N. spumigena had positive effects on copepod egg production and egg viability, effectively increasing their viable egg production. By contrast, Aphanizomenon sp. showed a negative relationship with egg viability yet no significant effect on the viable egg production. In the experiment, ingestion of N. spumigena mixed with green algae Brachiomonas submarina had significant positive effects on copepod oxidative balance, egg viability and development of early nauplial stages, whereas egg production was negatively affected. Finally, the long term data analysis identified cyanobacteria as a significant positive predictor for the nauplial growth in Acartia spp. and E. affinis. Taken together, these results suggest that bloom forming diazotrophic cyanobacteria contribute to feeding and reproduction of zooplankton during summer and create a favorable growth environment for the copepod nauplii. PMID:25409500

Hogfors, Hedvig; Motwani, Nisha H; Hajdu, Susanna; El-Shehawy, Rehab; Holmborn, Towe; Vehmaa, Anu; Engström-Öst, Jonna; Brutemark, Andreas; Gorokhova, Elena

2014-01-01

425

Aerobic methanotrophy within the pelagic redox-zone of the Gotland Deep (central Baltic Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water column samples taken in summer 2008 from the stratified Gotland Deep (central Baltic Sea) showed a strong gradient in dissolved methane concentrations from high values in the saline deep water (max. 504 nM) to low concentrations in the less dense, brackish surface water (about 4 nM). The steep methane-gradient (between 115 and 135 m water depth) within the redox-zone, which separates the anoxic deep part from the oxygenated surface water (oxygen concentration 0-0.8 mL L-1), implies a methane consumption rate of 0.28 nM d-1. The process of microbial methane oxidation within this zone was evident by a shift of the stable carbon isotope ratio of methane between the bottom water (?13C CH4 = -82.4‰ and the redox-zone (?13C CH4 = -38.7‰. Water column samples between 80 and 119 m were studied to identify the microorganisms responsible for the methane turnover in that depth interval. Notably, methane monooxygenase gene expression analyses for water depths covering the whole redox-zone demonstrated that accordant methanotrophic activity was probably due to only one phylotype of the aerobic type I methanotrophic bacteria. An imprint of these organisms on the particular organic matter was revealed by distinctive lipid biomarkers showing bacteriohopanepolyols and lipid fatty acids characteristic for aerobic type I methanotrophs (e.g., 35-aminobacteriohopane-30,31,32,33,34-pentol), corroborating their role in aerobic methane oxidation in the redox-zone of the central Baltic Sea.

Schmale, O.; Blumenberg, M.; Kießlich, K.; Jakobs, G.; Berndmeyer, C.; Labrenz, M.; Thiel, V.; Rehder, G.

2012-12-01

426

Mercury in precipitation over the coastal zone of the southern Baltic Sea, Poland.  

PubMed

An investigation of atmospheric mercury was conducted in the urban coastal zone of the Gulf of Gdansk (Baltic Sea, Poland) in 2008. Rainwater samples were collected in bulk samplers and Hg concentration was determined using AAS method. Total mercury concentration ranged from 1.9 to 14.8 ng l(-1) (the mean was 8.3 ng l(-1) with standard deviation ±3.7), out of which about 34 % were water-soluble Hg(II) forms. Distribution of Hg species in rainwater was related to both the emission source and the atmospheric processes. During the sampling period, two maxima of Hg concentration in precipitation were observed: the first in the cold season and the second one in the warm season. Elevated concentrations of Hg in wintertime precipitation were generally the result of local urban atmospheric emission connected with the following anthropogenic sources: intensive combustion of fossil fuels in domestic furnaces, individual power/heat generating plants, and motor vehicles. During summertime, Hg° re-emitted from contaminated land and sea surfaces was photochemically oxidized by active atmospheric substances (e.g., hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen peroxide, halogens) and could be an additional source of atmospherically deposited Hg. The results presented in this work indicate that rainwater Hg concentration and deposition values are not much higher in comparison with other urban locations along the Baltic Sea basin and other coastal cities. However, the elevated mercury concentration in rainwater and, consequently, higher deposition ratio could appear occasionally as an effect of intensive anthropogenic emissions (domestic heating) and/or photochemical reactions. PMID:25189806

Siudek, Patrycja; Falkowska, Lucyna; Brodecka, Aleksandra; Kowalski, Artur; Frankowski, Marcin; Siepak, Jerzy

2015-02-01

427

Distribution and estimated release of sediment phosphorus in the northern Baltic Sea archipelagos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus contents in the sediments were determined in archipelago areas of the northern Baltic Sea (Svealand in Sweden and Åland, SW Finland and W Uusimaa in Finland) during 2008-2012. Spatial and vertical distribution of phosphorus was studied by analysing sediment samples from 345 stations of different seabed substrate types. A sequential extraction method was applied to evaluate the pool of the potentially mobile phosphorus, i.e., the amount of phosphorus that can be expected to be released from sediments to water with time, and possibly support primary production. In addition, vertical distribution of immobile phosphorus forms in the sediments was used as a tool to assess phosphorus burial. The uppermost 2 cm of sediments were calculated to contain 126,000 tonnes of phosphorus in the study area covering 19,200 km2 of the seafloor. Subtracting the assumed average background content (i.e. that assumed to be buried) of this total phosphorus content gave an estimation of 31,000-37,000 tonnes of potentially mobile phosphorus at the sediment surface. Redox sensitive iron-bound phosphorus accounts for two thirds of this pool. Compared with the total phosphorus input from the catchment of the entire Baltic Sea - 29,000 tonnes in 2009 - it can be concluded that the store of phosphorus that can be released with time from the sediments is large, and that internal phosphorus recycling processes thus may play a key role in phosphorus fluxes in the coastal zone. Spreading of hypoxia in the future, as recent modelling and sediment proxy results suggest, is likely to severely deteriorate the water quality, particularly in the archipelago areas where the water exchange is slow.

Puttonen, Irma; Mattila, Johanna; Jonsson, Per; Karlsson, O. Magnus; Kohonen, Tuula; Kotilainen, Aarno; Lukkari, Kaarina; Malmaeus, J. Mikael; Rydin, Emil

2014-05-01

428

Mesozooplankton Grazing on Picocyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea as Inferred from Molecular Diet Analysis  

PubMed Central

Our current knowledge on the microbial component of zooplankton diet is limited, and it is generally assumed that bacteria-sized prey is not directly consumed by most mesozooplankton grazers in the marine food webs. We questioned this assumption and conducted field and laboratory studies to examine picocyanobacteria contribution to the diets of Baltic Sea zooplankton, including copepods. First, qPCR targeting ITS-1 rDNA sequence of the picocyanobacteria Synechococcus spp. was used to examine picocyanobacterial DNA occurrence in the guts of Baltic zooplankton (copepods, cladocerans and rotifers). All field-collected zooplankton were found to consume picocyanobacteria in substantial quantities. In terms of Synechococcus quantity, the individual gut content was highest in cladocerans, whereas biomass-specific gut content was highest in rotifers and copepod nauplii. Moreover, the gut content in copepods was positively related to the picocyanobacteria abundance and negatively to the total phytoplankton abundance in the water column at the time of sampling. This indicates that increased availability of picocyanobacteria resulted in the increased intake of this prey and that copepods may rely more on picoplankton when food in the preferred size range declines. Second, a feeding experiments with a laboratory reared copepod Acartia tonsa fed a mixture of the picocyanobacterium Synechococcus bacillaris and microalga Rhodomonas salina confirmed that copepods ingested Synechococcus, even when the alternative food was plentiful. Finally, palatability of the picocyanobacteria for A. tonsa was demonstrated using uptake of 13C by the copepods as a proxy for carbon uptake in feeding experiment with 13C-labeled S. bacillaris. These findings suggest that, if abundant, picoplankton may become an important component of mesozooplankton diet, which needs to be accounted for in food web models and productivity assessments. PMID:24260175

Motwani, Nisha H.; Gorokhova, Elena

2013-01-01

429

Influence of temperature and precipitation on decadal Baltic Sea level variations in the 20th century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is known that interannual Baltic Sea level variations in the 20th century can be partially, but not totally, explained by the wind forcing linked to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and other atmospheric circulation patterns. Using regression analysis linking sea level variations (as predictand) and sea level pressure (SLP), precipitation and air temperature (included stepwise as predictors) it is investigated to what extent precipitation and temperature variations can also contribute to explain Baltic sea level variability, in addition to SLP. In wintertime, their additional contribution is small compared to that of SLP (of the order of additional 15% of variance), but it is statistically significant and their inclusion as predictors help to explain past deviations in the evolution of sea level, with higher than normal temperatures and precipitation values linked to a positive contribution to sea level anomalies. In summer, temperature and precipitation explain a substantial part of the sea level variability except in the Kattegat region. In summer positive sea level anomalies are linked to higher than normal rainfall but to lower than normal temperatures, suggesting that the statistical link between sea level and temperature may artificially arise by the observed negative correlation between temperature and rainfall. For some stations, temperature and precipitation can explain, in addition to the variance explained by SLP alone, 35% of the total variability. Since part of influence of temperature and precipitation might be already contained in SLP, this value represents a lower limit for the influence of these additional factors on sea level variability. However, recent trends of winter sea level in the last 20 yr cannot be described by a linear model with any of the predictors used in this study.

Hünicke, Birgit; Zorita, Eduardo

2006-01-01

430

Late summer metalimnetic oxygen minimum zone in the northern Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The frequently observed, but commonly ignored hydrographic characteristic of the Baltic Sea, the oxygen minimum zone (OMiZ) above and within the summertime thermocline, was studied during the 6-yr monitoring programme encompassing the Gulfs of Bothnia and Finland in the northern Baltic Sea. A temperature-anomaly-driven density gradient was found to be a prerequisite for the existence of the OMiZ. We determined the magnitude of the apparently utilized O 2 in the OMiZ by combining graphical analysis and empirical modelling. A sound criterion for distinguishing the cases in which the OMiZ had a biological origin, and not only a hydrodynamic one, was the accompanying ammonium maximum zone (AMaZ). Of a total of 46 stations visited, a density gradient was found at every station, an accompanying OMiZ at 37 stations, and an accompanying AMaZ at 20 stations. This suggests that biological activity is an essential factor in forming the OMiZ. We investigated to what extent the OMiZ was a manifestation of microbial decomposition of autochthonous organic matter, as zooplankton respiration was also a factor. As a study average, ~ 80% of the apparently utilized O 2 was consumed by the microbial decomposition process and ~ 20% of it by mesozooplankton respiration. According to the O 2 quota consumed in the process, the microbial community in the OMiZ of the Gulf of Finland decomposed, on average, 14% of all the organic matter settling from the euphotic zone in the time frame of mid-June to early August. A pronounced allochthonous organic carbon pool in the Gulf of Bothnia hinders a prompt estimation of a corresponding share for that basin.

Raateoja, M.; Kuosa, H.; Flinkman, J.; Pääkkönen, J.-P.; Perttilä, M.

2010-02-01

431

Concentrations of halogenated natural products versus PCB 153 in bivalves from the North and Baltic Seas.  

PubMed

Different halogenated natural products (HNPs) have been reported to occur in marine wildlife, particularly from regions with comparably little contamination with anthropogenic pollutants. The North Sea and the Baltic Sea have been known as a marine site heavily polluted with organohalogen compounds, and especially with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In this study we wished to determine the current abundance of HNPs in comparison with 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153), i.e. the major PCB congener in marine biota. For this purpose, forty blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) and oysters (Crassostrea gigas) from seven sites were analyzed on HNPs and PCB 153. Most of the samples contained HNPs in the form of polyhalogenated 1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrroles (PMBPs including Q1) and the mixed halogenated compound MHC-1. In addition we determined several polyhalogenated 1,1'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyrroles (PDBPs), 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-N-methylpyrrole and several novel homologs, as well as polybrominated N-methylindoles. The occurrence of these HNP groups were considerably different in the samples from different regions with varying sum concentrations up to 1930 ?g/kg lipids in blue mussels from Heligoland (North Sea) and much lower concentrations in samples from the Baltic Sea (up to 13 ?g/kg lipids). The concentrations of HNPs varied by two orders of magnitude, compared to a factor of 10 for PCB 153, suggesting that HNPs are more spatially (and perhaps temporally) variant than POPs. In the North Sea region Heligoland, HNPs were more abundant than PCB 153. PMID:24911775

Hauler, Carolin; Rimkus, Gerhard; Risacher, Célia; Knölker, Hans-Joachim; Vetter, Walter

2014-08-15

432

Nutrient land sea fluxes in oligothrophic and pristine estuaries of the Gulf of Bothnia, Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estuaries are often seen as important filters between land and the sea for inorganic and organic nutrients. This paper aims at estimating the estuarine fluxes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) and dissolved silicate for the major oligothrophic and pristine rivers running into the Bothnian Bay (BB) and the Bothnian Sea (BS), the northern subarctic subbasins of the Baltic Sea. Long-term data sets for these rivers and their estuaries as well as for the BB and BS were analyzed to assess whether these estuaries are sinks for inorganic nutrients. Most studied estuaries can be characterized as salt wedge estuaries with little exchange between the fresh seaward-flowing river water and the inward-flowing seawater. Estimates of water transit times ranged between 1 and 14 days. In most estuaries of the BB, N-depleted river water meets P-depleted seawater during the growth period. These findings were corroborated by mixing diagrams showing that the inner areas of the estuaries were N-depleted in summer. In the BS, on the other hand, both rivers and seawater were mostly N-depleted during summer. Thus, for most estuaries of this region of the Baltic Sea, primary productivity is presumably lower than or equal to that of offshore. The low productivity is also reflected in the sediments. The coastal sediments did not differ from the offshore stations in accumulation rates as well as the content of organic matter and nutrients, indicating that estu