Science.gov

Sample records for plan baltic expansion

  1. Expansion: A Plan for Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, A.P.

    This report provides selling brokers' guidelines for the successful expansion of their operations outlining a basic method of preparing an expansion plan. Topic headings are: The Pitfalls of Expansion (The Language of Business, Timely Financial Reporting, Regulatory Agencies of Government, Preoccupation with the Facade of Business, A Business Is a…

  2. Climate change and the Baltic Sea action plan: Model simulations on the future of the western Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedland, René; Neumann, Thomas; Schernewski, Gerald

    2012-12-01

    In this study we apply the model ERGOM to simulate the consequences of Climate Change as well as the combination of Climate Change with nutrient load reductions according to the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) on the Baltic Sea ecosystem. According to the simulations, Climate Change will cause an increase of the water temperature up to 3 K and a salinity decrease of 1.5 PSU until 2100. However, the implementation of the BSAP will have much stronger effects on the ecosystem. The model suggests that the western Baltic Sea will shift from a nitrogen (N) towards a phosphorus (P) limited system. As a consequence, N-fixation will strongly decrease. The same applies to nutrient-concentrations in winter, denitrification as well as detritus and chlorophyll concentrations in summer. The availability of N in summer, the Secchi depth and the oxygen saturation will increase. Our simulations suggest that the full implementation of the BSAP will cause imbalances in the Baltic Sea over decades before a new system state will be reached. Our results indicate that the Secchi depth alone is not a suitable indicator for the state of eutrophication. Concerning the Water Framework Directive (WFD), Climate Change might alter gradients and concentrations, e.g. of salinity, and in return this might require a re-definition of the WFD typology or a spatial shift of the surface water types, e.g. in Germany. The western Baltic Sea is strongly controlled by regional nutrient loads. Climate Change has only a limited effect on loads in the western Baltic. A re-definition of reference conditions and a good status because of Climate Change seems not necessary.

  3. Convex relaxations for gas expansion planning

    SciTech Connect

    Borraz-Sanchez, Conrado; Bent, Russell Whitford; Backhaus, Scott N.; Hijazi, Hassan; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Expansion of natural gas networks is a critical process involving substantial capital expenditures with complex decision-support requirements. Here, given the non-convex nature of gas transmission constraints, global optimality and infeasibility guarantees can only be offered by global optimisation approaches. Unfortunately, state-of-the-art global optimisation solvers are unable to scale up to real-world size instances. In this study, we present a convex mixed-integer second-order cone relaxation for the gas expansion planning problem under steady-state conditions. The underlying model offers tight lower bounds with high computational efficiency. In addition, the optimal solution of the relaxation can often be used to derive high-quality solutions to the original problem, leading to provably tight optimality gaps and, in some cases, global optimal solutions. The convex relaxation is based on a few key ideas, including the introduction of flux direction variables, exact McCormick relaxations, on/off constraints, and integer cuts. Numerical experiments are conducted on the traditional Belgian gas network, as well as other real larger networks. The results demonstrate both the accuracy and computational speed of the relaxation and its ability to produce high-quality solution

  4. Convex relaxations for gas expansion planning

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Borraz-Sanchez, Conrado; Bent, Russell Whitford; Backhaus, Scott N.; Hijazi, Hassan; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Expansion of natural gas networks is a critical process involving substantial capital expenditures with complex decision-support requirements. Here, given the non-convex nature of gas transmission constraints, global optimality and infeasibility guarantees can only be offered by global optimisation approaches. Unfortunately, state-of-the-art global optimisation solvers are unable to scale up to real-world size instances. In this study, we present a convex mixed-integer second-order cone relaxation for the gas expansion planning problem under steady-state conditions. The underlying model offers tight lower bounds with high computational efficiency. In addition, the optimal solution of the relaxation can often be used to derive high-quality solutionsmore » to the original problem, leading to provably tight optimality gaps and, in some cases, global optimal solutions. The convex relaxation is based on a few key ideas, including the introduction of flux direction variables, exact McCormick relaxations, on/off constraints, and integer cuts. Numerical experiments are conducted on the traditional Belgian gas network, as well as other real larger networks. The results demonstrate both the accuracy and computational speed of the relaxation and its ability to produce high-quality solution« less

  5. Transmission network expansion planning with simulation optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, Russell W; Berscheid, Alan; Toole, G. Loren

    2010-01-01

    Within the electric power literatW''e the transmi ssion expansion planning problem (TNEP) refers to the problem of how to upgrade an electric power network to meet future demands. As this problem is a complex, non-linear, and non-convex optimization problem, researchers have traditionally focused on approximate models. Often, their approaches are tightly coupled to the approximation choice. Until recently, these approximations have produced results that are straight-forward to adapt to the more complex (real) problem. However, the power grid is evolving towards a state where the adaptations are no longer easy (i.e. large amounts of limited control, renewable generation) that necessitates new optimization techniques. In this paper, we propose a generalization of the powerful Limited Discrepancy Search (LDS) that encapsulates the complexity in a black box that may be queJied for information about the quality of a proposed expansion. This allows the development of a new optimization algOlitlun that is independent of the underlying power model.

  6. Constraint Handling in Transmission Network Expansion Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallipeddi, R.; Verma, Ashu; Suganthan, P. N.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Bijwe, P. R.

    Transmission network expansion planning (TNEP) is a very important and complex problem in power system. Recently, the use of metaheuristic techniques to solve TNEP is gaining more importance due to their effectiveness in handling the inequality constraints and discrete values over the conventional gradient based methods. Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) generally perform unconstrained search and require some additional mechanism to handle constraints. In EA literature, various constraint handling techniques have been proposed. However, to solve TNEP the penalty function approach is commonly used while the other constraint handling methods are untested. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of different constraint handling methods like Superiority of Feasible Solutions (SF), Self adaptive Penalty (SP),E-Constraint (EC), Stochastic Ranking (SR) and the ensemble of constraint handling techniques (ECHT) on TNEP. The potential of different constraint handling methods and their ensemble is evaluated using an IEEE 24 bus system with and without security constraints.

  7. Generation and transmission expansion planning for renewable energy integration

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, Russell W; Berscheid, Alan; Toole, G. Loren

    2010-11-30

    In recent years the expansion planning problem has become increasingly complex. As expansion planning (sometimes called composite or integrated resource planning) is a non-linear and non-convex optimization problem, researchers have traditionally focused on approximate models of power flows to solve the problem. The problem has also been split into generation expansion planning (GEP) and transmission network expansion planning (TNEP) to improve computational tractability. Until recently these approximations have produced results that are straight-forward to combine and adapt to the more complex and complete problem. However, the power grid is evolving towards a state where the adaptations are no longer easy (e.g. large amounts of limited control, renewable generation, comparable generation and transmission construction costs) and necessitates new approaches. Recent work on deterministic Discrepancy Bounded Local Search (DBLS) has shown it to be quite effective in addressing the TNEP. In this paper, we propose a generalization of DBLS to handle simultaneous generation and transmission planning.

  8. 216-B-3 expansion ponds closure plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This document describes the activities for clean closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) of the 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds. The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds are operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and co-operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds consists of a series of three earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. The 3A, 3B, and 3C ponds are referred to as Expansion Ponds because they expanded the capability of the B Pond System. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the Bypass pipe (Project X-009). Water discharged to the Bypass pipe flows directly into the 216-B-3C Pond. The ponds were operated in a cascade mode, where the Main Pond overflowed into the 3A Pond and the 3A Pond overflowed into the 3C Pond. The 3B Pond has not received waste water since May 1985; however, when in operation, the 3B Pond received overflow from the 3A Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to the Expansion Ponds had the potential to have contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the dangerous waste portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA.

  9. Pseudodynamic planning for expansion of power distribution sytems

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez-Rosado, I.J. ); Gonen, T. )

    1991-02-01

    This paper presents basic and extended planning models, based on a pseudodynamic methodology, to solve the global expansion problem (sizing, locating, and timing) of distribution substations and feeders throughout the planning time period. The objective functions, that represent the expansion costs, are minimized by successive concatenated optimizations subject to the Kirchhoff's current law, power capacity limits and logical constraints, in the basic model. It also presents an extended model that is obtained by including the voltage drop constraints in the basic model.

  10. Powering the people: India's capacity expansion plans

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, S.

    2009-05-15

    India has become a global business power even though hundreds of millions of its citizens still live in poverty. To sustain economic growth and lift its people out of poverty, India needs more and more reliable power. Details of government plans for achieving those goals demonstrate that pragmatism may be in shorter supply than ambition and political will. 1 ref., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  11. IRP methods for Environmental Impact Statements of utility expansion plans

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallo, J.D.; Hemphill, R.C.; Veselka, T.D.

    1992-10-01

    Most large electric utilities and a growing number of gas utilities in the United States are using a planning method -- Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) - which incorporates demand-side management (DSM) programs whenever the marginal cost of the DSM programs are lower than the marginal cost of supply-side expansion options. Argonne National Laboratory has applied the IRP method in its socio-economic analysis of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) of power marketing for a system of electric utilities in the mountain and western regions of the United States. Applying the IRP methods provides valuable information to the participants in an EIS process involving capacity expansion of an electric or gas utility. The major challenges of applying the IRP method within an EIS are the time consuming and costly task of developing a least cost expansion path for each altemative, the detailed quantification of environmental damages associated with capacity expansion, and the explicit inclusion of societal-impacts to the region.

  12. IRP methods for Environmental Impact Statements of utility expansion plans

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallo, J.D.; Hemphill, R.C.; Veselka, T.D.

    1992-01-01

    Most large electric utilities and a growing number of gas utilities in the United States are using a planning method -- Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) - which incorporates demand-side management (DSM) programs whenever the marginal cost of the DSM programs are lower than the marginal cost of supply-side expansion options. Argonne National Laboratory has applied the IRP method in its socio-economic analysis of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) of power marketing for a system of electric utilities in the mountain and western regions of the United States. Applying the IRP methods provides valuable information to the participants in an EIS process involving capacity expansion of an electric or gas utility. The major challenges of applying the IRP method within an EIS are the time consuming and costly task of developing a least cost expansion path for each altemative, the detailed quantification of environmental damages associated with capacity expansion, and the explicit inclusion of societal-impacts to the region.

  13. Grid Expansion Planning for Carbon Emissions Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, Russell W.; Toole, Gasper L.

    2012-07-18

    There is a need to upgrade and expand electric power transmission and generation to meet specified renewable energy targets and simultaneously minimize construction cost and carbon emissions. Some challenges are: (1) Renewable energy sources have variable production capacity; (2) Deficiency of transmission capacity at desirable renewable generation locations; (3) Need to incorporate models of operations into planning studies; and (4) Prevent undesirable operational outcomes such as negative dispatch prices or curtailment of carbon neutral generation.

  14. WASP and electricity capacity expansion planning for emerging countries

    SciTech Connect

    Allentuck, J

    1980-11-01

    The WIEN Automatic System Planning Package (WASP) is typical of electrical generation capacity expansion planning models in general use today. It was developed by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) hence the name WIEN. It is available without charge to member states. Assistance in its use is available from IAEA staff and in addition it is well documented. The user of WASP should be aware of its uses and limitations especially, though not exclusively, in its application to emerging countries. This paper presents an overview of capacity expansion planning and its place in the economic planning process with reference to the emerging countries; describes in a general way the use of WASP; cautions care in the interpretation of WASP results; and suggests the way in which WASP can be used to assess innovative electric generating technologies.

  15. Generation capacity expansion planning in deregulated electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Deepak

    With increasing demand of electric power in the context of deregulated electricity markets, a good strategic planning for the growth of the power system is critical for our tomorrow. There is a need to build new resources in the form of generation plants and transmission lines while considering the effects of these new resources on power system operations, market economics and the long-term dynamics of the economy. In deregulation, the exercise of generation planning has undergone a paradigm shift. The first stage of generation planning is now undertaken by the individual investors. These investors see investments in generation capacity as an increasing business opportunity because of the increasing market prices. Therefore, the main objective of such a planning exercise, carried out by individual investors, is typically that of long-term profit maximization. This thesis presents some modeling frameworks for generation capacity expansion planning applicable to independent investor firms in the context of power industry deregulation. These modeling frameworks include various technical and financing issues within the process of power system planning. The proposed modeling frameworks consider the long-term decision making process of investor firms, the discrete nature of generation capacity addition and incorporates transmission network modeling. Studies have been carried out to examine the impact of the optimal investment plans on transmission network loadings in the long-run by integrating the generation capacity expansion planning framework within a modified IEEE 30-bus transmission system network. The work assesses the importance of arriving at an optimal IRR at which the firm's profit maximization objective attains an extremum value. The mathematical model is further improved to incorporate binary variables while considering discrete unit sizes, and subsequently to include the detailed transmission network representation. The proposed models are novel in the

  16. Generation expansion planning in a competitive electric power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Angela Shu-Woan

    This work investigates the application of non-cooperative game theory to generation expansion planning (GEP) in a competitive electricity industry. We identify fundamental ways competition changes the nature of GEP, review different models of oligopoly behavior, and argue that assumptions of the Cournot model are compatible with GEP. Applying Cournot theory of oligopoly behavior, we formulate a GEP model that may characterize expansion in the new competitive regime, particularly in pool-dominated generation supply industries. Our formulation incorporates multiple markets and is patterned after the basic design of the California ISO/PX system. Applying the model, we conduct numerical experiments on a test system, and analyze generation investment and market participation decisions of different candidate expansion units that vary in costs and forced outage rates. Simulations are performed under different scenarios of competition. In particular, we observe higher probabilistic measures of reliability from Cournot expansion compared to the expansion plan of a monopoly with an equivalent minimum reserve margin requirement. We prove several results for a subclass of problems encompassed by our formulation. In particular, we prove that under certain conditions Cournot competition leads to greater total capacity expansion than a situation in which generators collude in a cartel. We also show that industry output after introduction of new technology is no less than monopoly output. So a monopoly may lack sufficient incentive to introduce new technologies. Finally, we discuss the association between capacity payments and the issue of pricing reliability. And we derive a formula for computing ideal capacity payment rates by extending the Value of Service Reliability technique.

  17. Critical evaluation of the Global DOTS Expansion Plan.

    PubMed

    Enarson, Donald A; Billo, Nils E

    2007-05-01

    The development of the DOTS Expansion Plan has been a milestone in tuberculosis (TB) control at the global and national levels. Key challenges that remain are overcoming the weakness of a strategy built on case management, sustaining commitment, competing priorities, the threat of HIV, maintaining high quality of care and preventing drug resistance, building human resource capacity, improving diagnosis and fostering operations research. The ability to address these challenges will determine the success or failure of the Global Plan to Stop TB, 2006-2015. PMID:17639227

  18. Are recent changes in sediment manganese sequestration in the euxinic basins of the Baltic Sea linked to the expansion of hypoxia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, C.; Jilbert, T.; Conley, D. J.; Wolthers, M.; Slomp, C. P.

    2013-12-01

    Manganese (Mn) enrichments in sedimentary deposits are often used as an indicator of redox changes in the overlying waters (Calvert and Pedersen, 1993). In the Baltic Sea, layers of Mn-carbonates are believed to form after inflows of oxygenated waters into the deep anoxic basins and are, therefore, used as proxies for short term oxygenation events. In the present study we investigate Mn cycling in the Baltic Sea basin. We present pore water and sediment data of well-dated sediment cores from 8 sites capturing the full range of redox conditions. Our results show no major enrichments of Mn in the oxic and hypoxic sediments. These areas rather function as a source of dissolved Mn, with fluxes of Mn from the sediments into the bottom water. Nevertheless, compared to the existing reservoir of Mn in the anoxic water column the absolute flux of Mn from the oxic sites is small. In the deep basins, Mn is sequestered by two principal mechanisms. In the Gotland Deep, Mn-oxides form with inflows of oxygenated North Sea water and are subsequently transferred into Mn-carbonates as soon as the system turns anoxic again. In contrast, precipitation of Mn minerals in the Landsort Deep is decoupled from oxygenation events. Mn-carbonates and Mn-sulfides form due to the presence of a major source of dissolved Mn from the sediments below, and high input of organic matter from the water column, whose breakdown generates dissolved inorganic carbon and sulfide. Since approx. 1995, an intensification and expansion of hypoxia is recorded in observational data from the water column as well as in proxies (e.g. Mo content) in the sediments. This resulted in major changes in the burial of Mn. While Mn sequestration still continues in the Landsort Deep, this does not hold for the Gotland Basin. Here, Mn burial has decreased dramatically despite ongoing inflow events. We assume that the higher present-day sulfide concentration of the bottom waters leads to a faster reduction of the Mn

  19. Randomized discrepancy bounded local search for transmission expansion planning

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, Russell W; Daniel, William B

    2010-11-23

    In recent years the transmission network expansion planning problem (TNEP) has become increasingly complex. As the TNEP is a non-linear and non-convex optimization problem, researchers have traditionally focused on approximate models of power flows to solve the TNEP. Existing approaches are often tightly coupled to the approximation choice. Until recently these approximations have produced results that are straight-forward to adapt to the more complex (real) problem. However, the power grid is evolving towards a state where the adaptations are no longer easy (e.g. large amounts of limited control, renewable generation) and necessitates new approaches. Recent work on deterministic Discrepancy Bounded Local Search (DBLS) has shown it to be quite effective in addressing this question. DBLS encapsulates the complexity of power flow modeling in a black box that may be queried for information about the quality of proposed expansions. In this paper, we propose a randomization strategy that builds on DBLS and dramatically increases the computational efficiency of the algorithm.

  20. An optimization model for long-range transmission expansion planning

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, A. Jr.; Franca, P.M.; Said, A.

    1989-02-01

    In this paper is presented a static network synthesis method applied to transmission expansion planning. The static synthesis problem is formulated as a mixed-integer network flow model that is solved by an implicit enumeration algorithm. This model considers as the objective function the most productive trade off, resulting in low investment costs and good electrical performance. The load and generation nodal equations are considered in the constraints of the model. The power transmission law of DC load flow is implicit in the optimization model. Results of computational tests are presented and they show the advantage of this method compared with a heuristic procedure. The case studies show a comparison of computational times and costs of solutions obtained for the Brazilian North-Northeast transmission system.

  1. Popular but Troubled, Historically Black Medical School Plans Ambitious Expansion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Two years ago, the only historically black medical school west of the Mississippi faced a grim prognosis after county officials pulled the plug on its relationship with a troubled hospital. Today the medical school that has reportedly trained about a third of Los Angeles County's black and Hispanic physicians is back on its feet and planning an…

  2. OPEC production: Capital limitations, environmental movements may interfere with expansion plans

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail, I.A.H. )

    1994-05-09

    Obtaining capital is a critical element in the production expansion plans of OPEC member countries. Another issue that may impact the plans is the environmental taxes that may reduce the call on OPEC oil by 5 million b/d in 2000 and about 16 million b/d in the year 2010. This concluding part of a two-part series discusses the expansion possibilities of non-Middle East OPEC members, OPEC's capital requirements, and environmental concerns. Non-Middle East OPEC includes Algeria, Gabon, Indonesia, Libya, Nigeria, and Venezuela.

  3. Capricious Cables: Understanding the Key Concepts in Transmission Expansion Planning and Its Models

    SciTech Connect

    Donohoo, P.; Milligan, M.

    2014-06-01

    The extra-high-voltage transmission network is the bulk transport network of the electric power system. To understand how the future power system may react to planning decisions today, wide-area transmission models are increasingly used to aid decision makers and stakeholders. The goal of this work is to illuminate these models for a broader audience that may include policy makers or relative newcomers to the field of transmission planning. This paper explains the basic transmission expansion planning model formulation. It highlights six of the major simplifications made in transmission expansion planning models and the resulting need to contextualize model results using knowledge from other models and knowledge not captured in the modeling process.

  4. Are recent changes in sediment manganese sequestration in the euxinic basins of the Baltic Sea linked to the expansion of hypoxia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, C.; Jilbert, T.; Conley, D. J.; Wolthers, M.; Slomp, C. P.

    2015-08-01

    Expanding hypoxia in the Baltic Sea over the past century has led to the development of anoxic and sulfidic (euxinic) deep basins that are only periodically ventilated by inflows of oxygenated waters from the North Sea. In this study, we investigate the potential consequences of the expanding hypoxia for manganese (Mn) burial in the Baltic Sea using a combination of pore water and sediment analyses of dated sediment cores from eight locations. Diffusive fluxes of dissolved Mn from sediments to overlying waters at oxic, hypoxic and euxinic sites are consistent with an active release of Mn from these areas. Although the present-day fluxes are significant (ranging up to ca. 240 μmol m-2 d-1), comparison to published water column data suggests that the current benthic release of Mn is small when compared to the large pool of Mn already present in the hypoxic and anoxic water column. Our results highlight two modes of Mn carbonate formation in sediments of the deep basins. In the Gotland Deep area, Mn carbonates likely form from Mn oxides that are precipitated from the water column directly following North Sea inflows. In the Landsort Deep, in contrast, Mn carbonate and Mn sulfide layers appear to form independently of inflow events, and are possibly related to the much larger and continuous input of Mn oxides linked to sediment focusing. Whereas Mn-enriched sediments continue to accumulate in the Landsort Deep, this does not hold for the Gotland Deep area. Here, a recent increase in euxinia, as evident from measured bottom water sulfide concentrations and elevated sediment molybdenum (Mo), coincides with a decline in sediment Mn content. Sediment analyses also reveal that recent inflows of oxygenated water (since ca. 1995) are no longer consistently recorded as Mn carbonate layers. Our data suggest that eutrophication has not only led to a recent rise in sulfate reduction rates but also to a decline in reactive Fe input to these basins. We hypothesize that these

  5. HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA632. FLOOR PLAN OF EXPANSION SHOWS LOCATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA-632. FLOOR PLAN OF EXPANSION SHOWS LOCATION OF NEW CELLS, "HEAVY" CELL AT WEST END, "LIGHT" CELLS AT EAST. MOCK-UP AND STORAGE AREAS IN SOUTH HALF OF FLOOR. H.K. FERGUSON 895-MTR-ETR-632-A1, 12/1958. INL INDEX NO. 531-0632-00-279-101924, REV. 4. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. Capacity-expansion planning under uncertainty in the electric-utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Soyster, A.L.

    1980-07-25

    This document basically represents a comparison between theory and practice of capacity-expansion planning in the electric-utility industry. The purpose of the comparison is to provide avenues for further exploration in utility decision making. The focus of the Phase II study is upon the role of uncertainty in the decision-making process. The Phase I effort was directed at modeling the Averch-Johnson theory of the regulated utility. Part I of this report reviews the Anderson study (D. Anderson, Models for Determining Least-Cost Investments in Electricity Supply). The Anderson paper has become a standard reference for capacity-planning studies in the electric-utility industry. Part II examines uncertainty and the behavior of the firm. Part III reviews 5 models of electric-utility capacity planning under uncertainty, and Part IV is concerned with capacity-planning models in practice.

  7. The Role of Demand Resources In Regional Transmission Expansion Planning and Reliable Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, Brendan J

    2006-07-01

    Investigating the role of demand resources in regional transmission planning has provided mixed results. On one hand there are only a few projects where demand response has been used as an explicit alternative to transmission enhancement. On the other hand there is a fair amount of demand response in the form of energy efficiency, peak reduction, emergency load shedding, and (recently) demand providing ancillary services. All of this demand response reduces the need for transmission enhancements. Demand response capability is typically (but not always) factored into transmission planning as a reduction in the load which must be served. In that sense demand response is utilized as an alternative to transmission expansion. Much more demand response is used (involuntarily) as load shedding under extreme conditions to prevent cascading blackouts. The amount of additional transmission and generation that would be required to provide the current level of reliability if load shedding were not available is difficult to imagine and would be impractical to build. In a very real sense demand response solutions are equitably treated in every region - when proposed, demand response projects are evaluated against existing reliability and economic criteria. The regional councils, RTOs, and ISOs identify needs. Others propose transmission, generation, or responsive load based solutions. Few demand response projects get included in transmission enhancement plans because few are proposed. But this is only part of the story. Several factors are responsible for the current very low use of demand response as a transmission enhancement alternative. First, while the generation, transmission, and load business sectors each deal with essentially the same amount of electric power, generation and transmission companies are explicitly in the electric power business but electricity is not the primary business focus of most loads. This changes the institutional focus of each sector. Second

  8. Efficient expansion of global protected areas requires simultaneous planning for species and ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Polak, Tal; Watson, James E M; Fuller, Richard A; Joseph, Liana N; Martin, Tara G; Possingham, Hugh P; Venter, Oscar; Carwardine, Josie

    2015-04-01

    The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)'s strategic plan advocates the use of environmental surrogates, such as ecosystems, as a basis for planning where new protected areas should be placed. However, the efficiency and effectiveness of this ecosystem-based planning approach to adequately capture threatened species in protected area networks is unknown. We tested the application of this approach in Australia according to the nation's CBD-inspired goals for expansion of the national protected area system. We set targets for ecosystems (10% of the extent of each ecosystem) and threatened species (variable extents based on persistence requirements for each species) and then measured the total land area required and opportunity cost of meeting those targets independently, sequentially and simultaneously. We discover that an ecosystem-based approach will not ensure the adequate representation of threatened species in protected areas. Planning simultaneously for species and ecosystem targets delivered the most efficient outcomes for both sets of targets, while planning first for ecosystems and then filling the gaps to meet species targets was the most inefficient conservation strategy. Our analysis highlights the pitfalls of pursuing goals for species and ecosystems non-cooperatively and has significant implications for nations aiming to meet their CBD mandated protected area obligations. PMID:26064645

  9. Efficient expansion of global protected areas requires simultaneous planning for species and ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Polak, Tal; Watson, James E. M.; Fuller, Richard A.; Joseph, Liana N.; Martin, Tara G.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Venter, Oscar; Carwardine, Josie

    2015-01-01

    The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)'s strategic plan advocates the use of environmental surrogates, such as ecosystems, as a basis for planning where new protected areas should be placed. However, the efficiency and effectiveness of this ecosystem-based planning approach to adequately capture threatened species in protected area networks is unknown. We tested the application of this approach in Australia according to the nation's CBD-inspired goals for expansion of the national protected area system. We set targets for ecosystems (10% of the extent of each ecosystem) and threatened species (variable extents based on persistence requirements for each species) and then measured the total land area required and opportunity cost of meeting those targets independently, sequentially and simultaneously. We discover that an ecosystem-based approach will not ensure the adequate representation of threatened species in protected areas. Planning simultaneously for species and ecosystem targets delivered the most efficient outcomes for both sets of targets, while planning first for ecosystems and then filling the gaps to meet species targets was the most inefficient conservation strategy. Our analysis highlights the pitfalls of pursuing goals for species and ecosystems non-cooperatively and has significant implications for nations aiming to meet their CBD mandated protected area obligations. PMID:26064645

  10. Transmission Expansion Planning - A Multiyear Dynamic Approach Using a Discrete Evolutionary Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, M. C.; Saraiva, J. T.

    2012-10-01

    The basic objective of Transmission Expansion Planning (TEP) is to schedule a number of transmission projects along an extended planning horizon minimizing the network construction and operational costs while satisfying the requirement of delivering power safely and reliably to load centres along the horizon. This principle is quite simple, but the complexity of the problem and the impact on society transforms TEP on a challenging issue. This paper describes a new approach to solve the dynamic TEP problem, based on an improved discrete integer version of the Evolutionary Particle Swarm Optimization (EPSO) meta-heuristic algorithm. The paper includes sections describing in detail the EPSO enhanced approach, the mathematical formulation of the TEP problem, including the objective function and the constraints, and a section devoted to the application of the developed approach to this problem. Finally, the use of the developed approach is illustrated using a case study based on the IEEE 24 bus 38 branch test system.

  11. 77 FR 71013 - Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the Spring Mountain Raceway Expansion Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-28

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the Spring Mountain Raceway... Wildlife Service (Service), have received an application from Spring Mountain Raceway, LLC (applicant), for... reference to the Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the Spring Mountain Raceway Expansion...

  12. Planning for the impacts of Hadley cell expansion on water supply in Victoria, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, David; Timbal, Bertrand; Chiew, Francis; Hendon, Harry; Moran, Rae

    2013-04-01

    South-eastern Australia has recently experienced the worst drought of the instrumental record; the so-called Millennium drought (1997-2009). This drought was primarily a cool season phenomenon, with large reductions in rainfall observed during the Austral winter (April to October). This reduction in winter rainfall, combined with an absence of wet years and very wet months led to a reduction in streamflow across the region far greater than would be anticipated based on the 12 percent reduction in mean annual rainfall alone. These conditions have proven particularly challenging for water management and planning processes. Our research has linked the extent, duration and severity of this drought to the ongoing observed expansion of the Southern Hemisphere Hadley cell of 0.5 degrees per decade. This expansion has intensified the sub-tropical ridge over southern Australia, pushing cool season mid-latitude storm tracks further south, leading to a reduction in winter rainfall over the region. Modelling has shown that the expansion of the Hadley cell can only be reproduced if anthropogenic influences (greenhouse gases, aerosols and stratospheric ozone) are included in the models, thus providing evidence that the Millennium drought was at least partly attributable to climate change. Climate model projections also indicate that the expansion of the Hadley Cell is likely to continue. This means that the traditional winter "filling season" for water supply systems in Victoria may be less reliable in the future. However, in the light of the expansion of tropical influences, the cool season rainfall deficit may be offset to some extent by increased rainfall in the warmer months of the year. Given that the Millennium drought has been shown to be at least partly attributable to climate change and the considerable uncertainties associated with projected future changes, water planning and management processes in Victoria have been modified to be more robust, adaptive and flexible

  13. Fast and accurate sensitivity analysis of IMPT treatment plans using Polynomial Chaos Expansion.

    PubMed

    Perkó, Zoltán; van der Voort, Sebastian R; van de Water, Steven; Hartman, Charlotte M H; Hoogeman, Mischa; Lathouwers, Danny

    2016-06-21

    The highly conformal planned dose distribution achievable in intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) can severely be compromised by uncertainties in patient setup and proton range. While several robust optimization approaches have been presented to address this issue, appropriate methods to accurately estimate the robustness of treatment plans are still lacking. To fill this gap we present Polynomial Chaos Expansion (PCE) techniques which are easily applicable and create a meta-model of the dose engine by approximating the dose in every voxel with multidimensional polynomials. This Polynomial Chaos (PC) model can be built in an automated fashion relatively cheaply and subsequently it can be used to perform comprehensive robustness analysis. We adapted PC to provide among others the expected dose, the dose variance, accurate probability distribution of dose-volume histogram (DVH) metrics (e.g. minimum tumor or maximum organ dose), exact bandwidths of DVHs, and to separate the effects of random and systematic errors. We present the outcome of our verification experiments based on 6 head-and-neck (HN) patients, and exemplify the usefulness of PCE by comparing a robust and a non-robust treatment plan for a selected HN case. The results suggest that PCE is highly valuable for both research and clinical applications. PMID:27227661

  14. Fast and accurate sensitivity analysis of IMPT treatment plans using Polynomial Chaos Expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkó, Zoltán; van der Voort, Sebastian R.; van de Water, Steven; Hartman, Charlotte M. H.; Hoogeman, Mischa; Lathouwers, Danny

    2016-06-01

    The highly conformal planned dose distribution achievable in intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) can severely be compromised by uncertainties in patient setup and proton range. While several robust optimization approaches have been presented to address this issue, appropriate methods to accurately estimate the robustness of treatment plans are still lacking. To fill this gap we present Polynomial Chaos Expansion (PCE) techniques which are easily applicable and create a meta-model of the dose engine by approximating the dose in every voxel with multidimensional polynomials. This Polynomial Chaos (PC) model can be built in an automated fashion relatively cheaply and subsequently it can be used to perform comprehensive robustness analysis. We adapted PC to provide among others the expected dose, the dose variance, accurate probability distribution of dose-volume histogram (DVH) metrics (e.g. minimum tumor or maximum organ dose), exact bandwidths of DVHs, and to separate the effects of random and systematic errors. We present the outcome of our verification experiments based on 6 head-and-neck (HN) patients, and exemplify the usefulness of PCE by comparing a robust and a non-robust treatment plan for a selected HN case. The results suggest that PCE is highly valuable for both research and clinical applications.

  15. Novel binary PSO algorithm based optimization of transmission expansion planning considering power losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astuty; Haryono, T.

    2016-04-01

    Transmission expansion planning (TEP) is one of the issue that have to be faced caused by addition of large scale power generation into the existing power system. Optimization need to be conducted to get optimal solution technically and economically. Several mathematic methods have been applied to provide optimal allocation of new transmission line such us genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization and tabu search. This paper proposed novel binary particle swarm optimization (NBPSO) to determine which transmission line should be added to the existing power system. There are two scenerios in this simulation. First, considering transmission power losses and the second is regardless transmission power losses. NBPSO method successfully obtain optimal solution in short computation time. Compare to the first scenario, the number of new line in second scenario which regardless power losses is less but produces high power losses that cause the cost becoming extremely expensive.

  16. Review of Jamaica Public Service Company, Ltd. least-cost expansion plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Koritarov, V.; Buehring, W.; Cirillo, R.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-02-28

    Argonne National Laboratory has been asked to review the least-cost expansion plan (LCEP) of the Jamaica Public Service Company, Ltd. (JPSCo). The material that has been initially provided to Argonne included: (1) An electronic copy of the data and results from JPSCo's running the WASP electric system expansion planning model, (2) Approximately 20 pages of a document 'JPSCo Generation Expansion Plan', marked 'DRAFT 002', date unknown, and (3) The report 'JPSCo Least Cost Generation Expansion Plans, (1999-2009)', January 1999. It was noticed that the 20 pages from the 'DRAFT 002' document were different from the January 1999 report. An explanation was provided to Argonne that the excerpt was from an earlier draft and that the review should focus on the January 1999 report. Further, the electronic copy of the WASP case did not correspond to either the January 1999 report or to the 20-page excerpt. Again, the reason for these discrepancies was that the WASP case provided to Argonne was an earlier case and not the final one that was presented in the report. Based on the review of the available material, Argonne experts have prepared and submitted to the National Investment Bank of Jamaica (NIBJ) a preliminary draft report containing the initial findings, comments, questions and observations. As many of the comments and questions raised in the preliminary review needed to be discussed with the appropriate staff of JPSCo and other Jamaican experts, a 3-day mission to Jamaica was carried out by one Argonne expert (V. Koritarov) in the period July 20-23, 1999. Besides JPSCo experts, the discussions and the review of the LCEP during the mission included several experts from NIBJ, Ministry of Energy, and the Petroleum Corporation of Jamaica. Mr. Koritarov also worked with the JPSCo technical staff to reconstruct the WASP base case that was used as a basis for the January 1999 report. The first step was to verify that the results obtained after the resimulation of this case

  17. Baltic Earth - Earth System Science for the Baltic Sea Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Markus; Rutgersson, Anna; Lehmann, Andreas; Reckermann, Marcus

    2014-05-01

    The Baltic Sea region, defined as its river catchment basin, spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It encompasses most of the Scandinavian Peninsula in the west; most of Finland and parts of Russia, Belarus, and the Baltic states in the east; and Poland and small parts of Germany and Denmark in the south. The region represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. Preliminary grand challenges and topics for which Working Groups have been installed include: • Salinity dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Land-Sea biogeochemical feedbacks in the Baltic Sea region • Natural hazards and extreme events in the Baltic Sea region • Understanding sea level dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Understanding regional variability of water and energy exchange • Utility of Regional Climate Models • Assessment of Scenario Simulations

  18. Nutrient trends through time in Sweden's Baltic Drainage Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, I.; Destouni, G.; Prieto, C.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in climate and land-use have and will continue to modify regional hydrology, in turn impacting environmental health, agricultural productivity and water resource quality and availability. The Baltic region is an area of interest as the coast spans nine countries- serving over 100 million people. The Baltic Sea contains one of the largest human caused hypoxic dead zones due to eutrophication driven by anthropogenic excess loading of nutrients. Policies to reduce these loads include also international directives and agreements, such as the EU Water Framework Directive, adopted in 2000 to protect and improve water quality throughout the European Union, and the Baltic Sea Action Plan under the Helsinki Commission aimed specifically at reducing the nutrient loading to and mitigating the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea. In light of these policies and amidst the number of studies on the Baltic Sea we ask, using the accessible nutrient and discharge data what does nutrient loading look like today? Are the most excessive loads going down? Observed nutrient and flow time series across Sweden allow for answering these questions, by spatial and temporal trend analysis of loads from various parts of Sweden to the Baltic Sea. Analyzing these observed time series in conjunction with the ecological health status classifications of the EU Water Framework Directive, allows in particular for answering the question if the loads into the water bodies with the poorest water quality, and from those to the Baltic Sea, are improving, being maintained or deteriorating. Such insight is required to contribute to relevant and efficient water and nutrient load management. Furthermore, empirically calculating nutrient loads, rather than only modeling, reveals that the water body health classification may not reflect what water bodies actually contribute the heaviest loads to the Baltic Sea. This work also underscores the importance of comprehensive analysis of all available data from

  19. Evaluating R and D options under uncertainty. Volume 3. An electric-utility generation-expansion planning model. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Borison, A.B.; Judd, B.R.; Morris, P.A.; Walters, E.C.

    1981-08-01

    This report describes an electric utility generation expansion model developed for use in research and development (R and D) planning under uncertainty. The model provides a framework for examining broad utility and R and D planning issues, rather than the specific generation expansion decisions of individual utilities. Unlike existing approaches, the model focuses directly on the demand, technological, and regulatory uncertainties and the long-term dynamics that affect the impact of R and D achievements. The model's somewhat aggregate approach to electric utility decision-making (to allow repeated application at low cost) can be modified, as needed, for more detailed utility planning. When fully implemented, the model can be applied to the analysis of issues such as technology adoption, reserve margin, unit size, reliability, storage and load management effects, lead time, and government regulation. The model inputs include demand, supply (generation technology characteristics), and external factors (regulatory constraints). The outputs are the optimal (minimum discounted expected cost) generation expansion plan, its cost, and other aspects of this plan. The model relies on three mathematical programming approaches: dynamic programming, iterative dynamic programming, and state-of-the-world decomposition. The state-of-the-world decomposition component separates the main problem into a set of individual scenario problems, each of which is solved with the iterative dynamic-programming component. The iterative dynamic-programming component, in turn, transforms each individual scenario problem into a series of even simpler problems, each of which is solved with the dynamic-programming component. Possible future extensions of the model involve increased operating detail, increased financial detail, explicit incorporation of storage and load management options, and more efficient treatment of closed-loop decision-making.

  20. Curonian Spit, Baltic Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    On July 25, 2006, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), flying on NASA's Terra satellite, captured this image of the Curonian (or Courland)spit, the Curonian Lagoon (also known as the Courland Lagoon) it encloses, and part of the Baltic Sea. Just 3,800 meters (about 12,460 feet) at its widest point, the spit encloses a lagoon of some 1,620 square kilometers (625 square miles). In this image, dark blue indicates deep water, and lighter blue indicates shallow and/or sediment-laden water. Different shades of blue distinguish the deeper Baltic Sea and the shallower Curonian Lagoon. Vegetation appears in varying shades of green, paved surfaces and bare ground appear in shades of beige and gray, and sandy areas appear off-white. Obvious sandy areas appear along the length of the spit. On the Baltic Sea side, a thin off-white band of beach runs the length of the spit; on the Curonian Lagoon side, intermittent beaches carve their way into the narrow strip of land.

  1. The Baltics: Regional energy profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    However, all three Baltic Republics are heavily dependent on primary energy imports. Domestic energy sources in the Baltics are limited to oil shale mines in Estonia, small oil deposits in Lithuania, peat, and some very small hydroelectric power plants. A RBMK nuclear power station, similar to Chernobyl, operates at Snieckus in Lithuania, but the reactor fuel is also imported from Russia. However, Lithuania and Estonia are net exporters of electricity despite their reliance on primary fuels imports. The major power stations in these two Republics are the Ignalina Nuclear Power Station and the two thermal power plants at Narva in Estonia which are fueled by oil shale. The only oil refinery in the Baltics is also located in Lithuania, at Mazeikiai. This refinery has the capacity to satisfy the demand for selected refined products of the entire region, including the Kaliningrad oblast, a noncontiguous part of Russia. The Mazeikiai refinery has operated at only forty to sixty percent capacity since 1990 due to halts in crude oil supplies from Russia. The Baltic Republics also import one hundred percent of their coal and natural gas supplies. Russia is the main trading partner for all the Baltic states, accounting for more than half of their trade flow. Mutual trade within the Baltics has been surprisingly low. Other Baltic states contribute less than ten percent to each Republic`s exports or imports, even less than Belarus or Ukraine. Aside from Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, only Kazakhstan contributes more than two percent to Baltics trade.

  2. The Baltics: Regional energy profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    However, all three Baltic Republics are heavily dependent on primary energy imports. Domestic energy sources in the Baltics are limited to oil shale mines in Estonia, small oil deposits in Lithuania, peat, and some very small hydroelectric power plants. A RBMK nuclear power station, similar to Chernobyl, operates at Snieckus in Lithuania, but the reactor fuel is also imported from Russia. However, Lithuania and Estonia are net exporters of electricity despite their reliance on primary fuels imports. The major power stations in these two Republics are the Ignalina Nuclear Power Station and the two thermal power plants at Narva in Estonia which are fueled by oil shale. The only oil refinery in the Baltics is also located in Lithuania, at Mazeikiai. This refinery has the capacity to satisfy the demand for selected refined products of the entire region, including the Kaliningrad oblast, a noncontiguous part of Russia. The Mazeikiai refinery has operated at only forty to sixty percent capacity since 1990 due to halts in crude oil supplies from Russia. The Baltic Republics also import one hundred percent of their coal and natural gas supplies. Russia is the main trading partner for all the Baltic states, accounting for more than half of their trade flow. Mutual trade within the Baltics has been surprisingly low. Other Baltic states contribute less than ten percent to each Republic's exports or imports, even less than Belarus or Ukraine. Aside from Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, only Kazakhstan contributes more than two percent to Baltics trade.

  3. Lower paleozoic of Baltic Area

    SciTech Connect

    Haselton, T.M.; Surlyk, F.

    1988-01-01

    The Baltic Sea offers a new and exciting petroleum play in northwestern Europe. The Kaliningrad province in the Soviet Union, which borders the Baltic Sea to the east, contains an estimated 3.5 billion bbl of recoverable oil from lower Paleozoic sandstones. To the south, in Poland, oil and gas fields are present along a trend that projects offshore into the Baltic. Two recent Petrobaltic wells in the southern Baltic have tested hydrocarbons from lower Paleozoic sandstone. Minor production comes from Ordovician reefs on the Swedish island of Gotland in the western Baltic. The Baltic synclise, which began subsiding in the late Precambrian, is a depression in the East European platform. Strate dip gently to the south where the Baltic Synclise terminates against a structurally complex border zone. Depth to the metamorphosed Precambrian basement is up to 4,000 m. Overlying basement is 200-300 m of upper Precambrian arkosic sandstone. The Lower Cambrian consists of shallow marine quartzites. During Middle and Late Camnbrian, restricted circulation resulted in anoxic conditions and the deposition of Alum shale. The Lower Ordovician consists of quartzites and shale. The Upper Ordovician includes sandstones and algal reefs. The Silurian contains marginal carbonates and shales. For the last 25 years, exploration in northwest Europe has concentrated on well-known Permian sandstone, Jurassic sandstone, and Cretaceous chalk plays. Extrapolation of trends known and exploited in eastern Europe could open an entirely new oil province in the lower Paleozoic in the Baltic.

  4. Planning for Secondary Expansion in Sub-Saharan Africa--Pathways towards Sustainable Financing. Research Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Investment in secondary schooling in sub-Saharan Africa has been neglected over the last two decades. Emphasis on universalising primary schooling has shaped national policy and flows of international assistance to favour rapid expansion at the first level of schooling. Though there are many good reasons for this emphasis, this has resulted in…

  5. Influences of hydrogeomorphology and chemical water quality on fish assemblages in the Nevėžis River, Lithuania: implications for river basin management plans in the Baltics.

    PubMed

    Čivas, Laurynas; Kesminas, Vytautas; Sullivan, S Mažeika P

    2016-02-01

    Further resolving physicochemical-fish associations would be of considerable benefit to advancing both scientific research and monitoring programs in the Baltic states. We collected 3 years of coordinated hydrogeomorphic, water-chemistry, and fish assemblage data at 11 study reaches along the Nevėžis River of central Lithuania and assessed their relative influence on fish assemblages. Of the 23 fish species surveyed in the Nevėžis River, omnivorous and tolerant species were most common. Both water chemistry and physical, hydrogeomorphic characteristics emerged as predictors of fish assemblage descriptors. The strength of evidence for biological oyxgen demand as a strong environmental driver was compelling for both the Lithuanian Fish Index (LFI) and percentage of simple lithophils. Channel substrate emerged in multiple models as a strong predictor variable (LFI, % intolerant species, % simple lithophils, % omnivores). Measures of channel size (drainage area, mean depth) contributed to models for multiple fish metrics including percentage of lithophils, percentage of omnivores, and percentage of intolerant species. This research represents novel work in the region, and our results are an important step in supporting the development of a comprehensive physicochemical research and monitoring program in Lithuania. PMID:26797815

  6. Optimum expansion planning of an unconventional generation system operating in parallel with a large scale network

    SciTech Connect

    Kabouris, J.; Contaxis, G.C. )

    1991-09-01

    This paper describes a package developed at the National Technical University of Athens which determines the optimal expansion policy over a period of N years for a limited size generation system consisting of wind generators (WECs) and photovoltaic (PV) panels operating in parallel with a large scale network. The produced energy from the wind generators and the photovoltaic panels is directly injected to the local grid or transmitted to the interconnected system. Given the meteorological data of the installation area, historical load data, the characteristics of the proposed additions (WECs and PV panels), the cost of the energy and the associated escalation rate, the package finds the optimal expansion policy for the period of next N years, utilizing a dynamic programming algorithm.

  7. What causes the barren bottoms of the Baltic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zillén, Lovisa; Conley, Daniel J.; Gustafsson, Bo G.

    2010-05-01

    , primarily driven by atmospheric changes over the North Atlantic region. However, this hypothesis has not yet been tested by model simulations and the potential climate forcing mechanism(s) behind the reconstructed long-term shifts in oxygen status in the Baltic Sea are still unclear. Hypoxia during the last two millennia can also be linked to population growth, technological development and land-use expansion phases, implying that historical trends in hypoxia may not have a natural cause, but result from anthropogenic impacts. We used a coupled physical-biogeochemical model to explore if shifts in oxygen conditions during the last two millennia in the Baltic Sea can be explained by physical forcing parameters that are known to affect bottom-water conditions in the Baltic Sea. To elucidate the driving mechanisms further, we studied the significance of changes in productivity on the size of the hypoxic area to assess the degree of human impact (eutrophication) on long time-scales. This study reveals the dominant physical forcing mechanism on hypoxia in the Baltic Sea and explains the shifts in bottom-water oxygen status during the last two millennia, especially through the MWP/LIA oscillation. We present new results on the significance of human perturbations on the marine environment and propose that cyanobacteria blooms may not be natural features of the Baltic Sea, but rather a consequence of enhanced phosphorus release that occurs together with hypoxia.

  8. Using Course Load Matrix Analysis To Support Departmental Planning for Enrollment Expansion. AIR 2002 Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Elizabeth A.; England, Martin D.

    The planning office of a large urban university produced an induced course load matrix (ICLM) analysis to support the university's plans for undergraduate enrollment growth at its three campuses. The ICLM tables, based on the complete course histories of the 1993 entering cohort, summarize the program and course selections of a cohort of students…

  9. 75 FR 36063 - Expansion and Extension of the Patent Application Backlog Reduction Stimulus Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ... advantage of the program. DATES: Effective Date: The changes in this notice are effective on June 24, 2010... Stimulus Plan, 74 FR 62285 (Nov. 27, 2009), 1349 Off. Gaz. Pat. Off. 304 (Dec. 22, 2009) (hereinafter.... See Patent Application Backlog Reduction Stimulus Plan, 74 FR at 62287, 1349 Off. Gaz. Pat. Off....

  10. An expansion plan for the 60 Hz power distribution system at KSC: LC-39 substations load allocation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalu, Alex

    1990-01-01

    The increasing load density in the LC-39 area of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) can be met by either modifying the existing substation and increasing its capacity or by planning an additional new substation. Evidence that the later approach is more economical, enhances the system reliability, and would produce more satisfactory performance indices is provided. Network theory is the basis for the optimal location determination of the proposed substation. A load reallocation plan which minimizes investment cost and power losses and meets other desirable system features is drafted. The report should be useful to the system designer and can be a useful guideline for future facility planners.

  11. Socio-economic and ecological impacts of global protected area expansion plans.

    PubMed

    Visconti, Piero; Bakkenes, Michel; Smith, Robert J; Joppa, Lucas; Sykes, Rachel E

    2015-11-01

    Several global strategies for protected area (PA) expansion have been proposed to achieve the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi target 11 as a means to stem biodiversity loss, as required by the Aichi target 12. However, habitat loss outside PAs will continue to affect habitats and species, and PAs may displace human activities into areas that might be even more important for species persistence. Here we measure the expected contribution of PA expansion strategies to Aichi target 12 by estimating the extent of suitable habitat available for all terrestrial mammals, with and without additional protection (the latter giving the counterfactual outcome), under different socio-economic scenarios and consequent land-use change to 2020. We found that expanding PAs to achieve representation targets for ecoregions under a Business-as-usual socio-economic scenario will result in a worse prognosis than doing nothing for more than 50% of the world's terrestrial mammals. By contrast, targeting protection towards threatened species can increase the suitable habitat available to over 60% of terrestrial mammals. Even in the absence of additional protection, an alternative socio-economic scenario, adopting progressive changes in human consumption, leads to positive outcomes for mammals globally and to the largest improvements for wide-ranging species. PMID:26460136

  12. Long-term power generation expansion planning with short-term demand response: Model, algorithms, implementation, and electricity policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, Timo

    Electric sector models are powerful tools that guide policy makers and stakeholders. Long-term power generation expansion planning models are a prominent example and determine a capacity expansion for an existing power system over a long planning horizon. With the changes in the power industry away from monopolies and regulation, the focus of these models has shifted to competing electric companies maximizing their profit in a deregulated electricity market. In recent years, consumers have started to participate in demand response programs, actively influencing electricity load and price in the power system. We introduce a model that features investment and retirement decisions over a long planning horizon of more than 20 years, as well as an hourly representation of day-ahead electricity markets in which sellers of electricity face buyers. This combination makes our model both unique and challenging to solve. Decomposition algorithms, and especially Benders decomposition, can exploit the model structure. We present a novel method that can be seen as an alternative to generalized Benders decomposition and relies on dynamic linear overestimation. We prove its finite convergence and present computational results, demonstrating its superiority over traditional approaches. In certain special cases of our model, all necessary solution values in the decomposition algorithms can be directly calculated and solving mathematical programming problems becomes entirely obsolete. This leads to highly efficient algorithms that drastically outperform their programming problem-based counterparts. Furthermore, we discuss the implementation of all tailored algorithms and the challenges from a modeling software developer's standpoint, providing an insider's look into the modeling language GAMS. Finally, we apply our model to the Texas power system and design two electricity policies motivated by the U.S. Environment Protection Agency's recently proposed CO2 emissions targets for the

  13. The dynamic wave expansion neural network model for robot motion planning in time-varying environments.

    PubMed

    Lebedev, Dmitry V; Steil, Jochen J; Ritter, Helge J

    2005-04-01

    We introduce a new type of neural network--the dynamic wave expansion neural network (DWENN)--for path generation in a dynamic environment for both mobile robots and robotic manipulators. Our model is parameter-free, computationally efficient, and its complexity does not explicitly depend on the dimensionality of the configuration space. We give a review of existing neural networks for trajectory generation in a time-varying domain, which are compared to the presented model. We demonstrate several representative simulative comparisons as well as the results of long-run comparisons in a number of randomly-generated scenes, which reveal that the proposed model yields dominantly shorter paths, especially in highly-dynamic environments. PMID:15896575

  14. The LWb blood group as a marker of prehistoric Baltic migrations and admixture.

    PubMed

    Sistonen, P; Virtaranta-Knowles, K; Denisova, R; Kucinskas, V; Ambrasiene, D; Beckman, L

    1999-06-01

    Archaeological findings and historical records indicate frequent migrations and exchange of genetic material between populations in the Baltic Sea area. However, there have so far been very few attempts to trace migrations in this area using genetic markers. We have studied the Baltic populations with respect to exceptional variations in the frequencies of the Landsteiner-Wiener (LW) blood group. The frequency of the uncommon LWb gene was high in the Balts, around 6% among Latvians and Lithuanians, very low among the other western Europeans (0-0.1%) and apparently absent in Asiatic and African populations. From the Baltic region of peak frequency there was a regular decline of LWb incidence (a descending cline) in the neighboring populations: 4.0% in the Estonians, 2.9% in the Finns, 2. 2% in the Vologda Russians, and 2.0% in the Poles. Thus the distribution of LWb suggests considerable and extensive Baltic admixture, especially in the north and northeast direction. In Southern Sweden with an LWb frequency of 0.3%, the Baltic influence appeared slight, while in the population of the Swedish island Gotland in the middle of the Baltic Sea there was a significantly increased LWb frequency of 1.0% compared with that of Western European countries. The distinction of codominantly inherited LW antigenic forms, LWa and LWb (previously Nea), is known to be due to a single base substitution. Based on our population data, it is plausible that the expansion of this point mutation occurred only once during human history. Furthermore, our data indicate that the expansion of the LWb mutation occurred in Balts and that LWb can be considered a 'Baltic tribal marker', its presence in other populations being an indicator of the degree of Baltic genetic influence. PMID:10364680

  15. State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) Environmental Checklist Form 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds Closure Plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds Closure Plan (Revision 1) consists of a Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application and a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure Plan. An explanation of the Part A submitted with this document is provided at the beginning of the Part A Section. The closure plan consists of nine chapters and five appendices. The 216-B-3 Pond System consists of a series of four earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds and the 216-B-3-3 Ditch that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. These four ponds, collectively. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the 216-B-3-3 Ditch. Water discharged to the 216-8-3-3 Ditch flows directly into the 216-B-3 Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to B Pond and the 216-B-3-3 Ditch contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the nonradioactive dangerous portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA. Mixed waste also may be considered a hazardous substance under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) when considering remediation of waste sites.

  16. Nitrogen surface water retention in the Baltic Sea drainage basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stålnacke, P.; Pengerud, A.; Vassiljev, A.; Smedberg, E.; Mörth, C.-M.; Hägg, H. E.; Humborg, C.; Andersen, H. E.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we estimate the surface water retention of nitrogen (N) in all the 117 drainage basins to the Baltic Sea with the use of a statistical model (MESAW) for source apportionment of riverine loads of pollutants. Our results show that the MESAW model was able to estimate the N load at the river mouth of 88 Baltic Sea rivers, for which we had observed data, with a sufficient degree of precision and accuracy. The estimated retention parameters were also statistically significant. Our results show that around 380 000 t of N are annually retained in surface waters draining to the Baltic Sea. The total annual riverine load from the 117 basins to the Baltic Sea was estimated at 570 000 t of N, giving a total surface water N retention of around 40%. In terms of absolute retention values, three major river basins account for 50% of the total retention in the 117 basins; i.e. around 104 000 t of N are retained in Neva, 55 000 t in Vistula and 32 000 t in Oder. The largest retention was found in river basins with a high percentage of lakes as indicated by a strong relationship between N retention (%) and share of lake area in the river drainage areas. For example in Göta älv, we estimated a total N retention of 72%, whereof 67% of the retention occurred in the lakes of that drainage area (Lake Vänern primarily). The obtained results will hopefully enable the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM) to refine the nutrient load targets in the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP), as well as to better identify cost-efficient measures to reduce nutrient loadings to the Baltic Sea.

  17. Mobile Launch Platform Vehicle Assembly Area (SWMU 056) Biosparge Expansion Interim Measures Work Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Michael S.; Daprato, Rebecca C.

    2016-01-01

    This document presents the design details for an Interim Measure (IM) Work Plan (IMWP) for the Mobile Launch Platform/Vehicle Assembly Building (MLPV) Area, located at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. The MLPV Area has been designated Solid Waste Management Unit Number 056 (SWMU 056) under KSC's Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Corrective Action Program. This report was prepared by Geosyntec Consultants (Geosyntec) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under contract number NNK09CA02B and NNK12CA13B, project control number ENV1642. The Advanced Data Package (ADP) presentation covering the elements of this IMWP report received KSC Remediation Team (KSCRT) approval at the December 2015 Team Meeting; the meeting minutes are included in Appendix A.

  18. An Efficient Method for Multi-objective Transmission Network Expansion Planning with MOMA in Consideration of Probabilistic Reliability Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakuta, Hiroki; Mori, Hiroyuki

    This paper proposes a new method for transmission network expansion planning (TNEP) with Multi-objective Memetic Algorithm (MOMA) in consideration of a probabilistic reliability index. Recently, power networks increase the degree of the uncertainties due to the new environment of power network liberations, the emergences of renewable energy, etc. As a result, the importance of improving power supply reliability with probabilistic approaches has been recognized in power system operation and planning. This paper formulates TNEP as a multi-objective optimization problem that optimizes a probabilistic reliability index as well as the construction cost to obtain a set of the Pareto solutions in Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS). This paper proposes a new method for TNEP with MOMA that combines Multi-objective meta-heuristics (MOMH) with Tabu Search (TS) to obtain better solution sets. MOMH is useful for evaluating a set of the Pareto solutions systematically while TS plays a key role to improve the solution quality. The effectiveness of the proposed method is successfully demonstrated in the IEEE 24-bus system.

  19. Pollution in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Rheinheimer, G

    1998-07-01

    The Baltic Sea is almost totally surrounded by land and therefore more endangered by pollution than other marine areas. The sources of marine pollution are municipal and industrial waste inputs directly into the sea or via rivers, and atmospheric inputs mainly from traffic and agriculture. The increase of inorganic plant nutrients (NH3, NOx, PO4) caused eutrophication and consequent oxygen depletion in coastal bottom waters as well as in the depths of the open sea. In the anoxic sediments, hydrogen sulfide can be produced by protein-decomposing and sulfate-reducing bacteria. The bottom fauna will be destroyed and only H2S tolerant microorganisms can survive. Originating from cellulose manufacturing and from paper mills, large amounts of poisonous chlorinated compounds contaminated the coastal waters of Sweden and Finland until the 1980s. Most of this material is still present in sediments of the central Baltic Sea and can be resuspended by near bottom currents. To reduce pollution and improve the situation in the Baltic Sea, the surrounding countries organized the Helsinki Convention, which came into force on 3.5.1980. The Helsinki Commission (HELCOM) founded in 1974 acts as coordinator and is responsible for the enforcement of the Baltic monitoring program and international research projects. The activities of HELCOM have led to the reduction of dangerous pollutants which in turn has caused the regeneration of flora and fauna in some areas. Further improvements can be expected. PMID:9722964

  20. Texaco scores a first in the Baltic

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-10-01

    Wells on the first of 2 small concrete platforms designed specifically for the fragile but harsh environment of the Baltic Sea will produce the first oil from that offshore area by late 1984. The consortium of Deutsche Texaco AG and Wintershall AG awarded contracts late last year for the platforms and drilling equipment needed to develop the Schwedeneck-See field in Kiel Bay, off the northern coast of West Germany. Severe winter weather in the area dictated the use of concrete platforms rather than conventional 6-pile steel structures. Ice forces, generated by high winds and moderate waves, demanded heavy-duty structures in spite of the shallow water. A complicating factor in the field development plan is the presence of a German Navy submarine practice area which influenced location of one of the platforms. This means that all wells will be directionally drilled, and the reach will be greater than under more favorable conditions.

  1. Deoxygenation of the Baltic Sea during the last century

    PubMed Central

    Carstensen, Jacob; Andersen, Jesper H.; Gustafsson, Bo G.; Conley, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Deoxygenation is a global problem in coastal and open regions of the ocean, and has led to expanding areas of oxygen minimum zones and coastal hypoxia. The recent expansion of hypoxia in coastal ecosystems has been primarily attributed to global warming and enhanced nutrient input from land and atmosphere. The largest anthropogenically induced hypoxic area in the world is the Baltic Sea, where the relative importance of physical forcing versus eutrophication is still debated. We have analyzed water column oxygen and salinity profiles to reconstruct oxygen and stratification conditions over the last 115 y and compare the influence of both climate and anthropogenic forcing on hypoxia. We report a 10-fold increase of hypoxia in the Baltic Sea and show that this is primarily linked to increased inputs of nutrients from land, although increased respiration from higher temperatures during the last two decades has contributed to worsening oxygen conditions. Although shifts in climate and physical circulation are important factors modulating the extent of hypoxia, further nutrient reductions in the Baltic Sea will be necessary to reduce the ecosystems impacts of deoxygenation. PMID:24706804

  2. Stratigraphic correlation for the IODP Expedition 347 - toward an integrated Baltic Sea Basin stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotilainen, Aarno; Hyttinen, Outi; Andrén, Thomas; Cotterill, Carol; Hale, Walter; IODP Expedition 347 Science Party, the

    2014-05-01

    The IODP Expedition 347 - "Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment" completed in September - November 2013 (offshore phase) was the 5th and the final mission-specific platform (MSP) expedition of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program. The expedition used a geotechnical drillship, the Greatship Manisha equipped with a Geoquip Marine coring rig, to core and wireline-log several sub-basins within the Baltic Sea, aiming to produce new information on the history of the Baltic Sea and climate change during the last glacial cycle. During the IODP Expedition 347 altogether over 1900 meters were successfully drilled at 8 Sites (M0059 - M0067) in the Lille Belt, Kattegat, Ångermanälven Estuary, Landsort Deep, Hanö Basin and Bornholm Basin with core recovery of approximately 1600 m (expansion adjusted core recovery of 91.46%). In this presentation, we show the preliminary results of regional stratigraphic correlation and splice results for the Expedition. That information provides a solid base for stratigraphic and high-resolution paleoenvironmental studies. Stratigraphic correlation consisted of the following: (1) ensuring the maximum core recovery on site, (2) seismic-core (sedimentary facies) correlation and (3) generating composite depth scales and splice records to each site. To obtain a complete sedimentary record, multiple adjacent holes were cored with an offset in depth of 0.5-1.5 m between cores from different holes. The continuity of recovery was assessed by generating composite sections that align prominent features in physical property data from adjacent holes. With the information gained by Fast Track Multi-Sensor Core Logger (MSCL) data, it was possible to adjust coring plan before the new hole, to ensure that intervals missing in previous cores could be recovered from an adjacent hole. Correlation between seismic profiles and cores used a simple estimation sound velocity vs. sediment type. Acquired depth was tested by comparison with major core surfaces, downhole logs

  3. Verbal Aspects in Germanic, Slavic, and Baltic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Alfred

    1949-01-01

    This study examines the theory of Prokosch concerning the Germanic-Slavic-Baltic tense and aspect systems. The interrelatedness and influence of languages and dialects in Slavic (Russian and Old Church Slavic), Baltic (Lithuanian), and Germanic (Old High German and Gothic) are demonstrated. Examples illustrating the use of the perfective present…

  4. Scandinavia and the Baltic Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Data from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera were combined to create this cloud-free natural-color mosaic of Scandinavia and the Baltic region. The image extends from 64oN, 0oE in the northwest to 56oN, 32oE in the southeast, and has been draped over a shaded relief Digital Terrain Elevation Model from the United States Geological Survey. It is displayed in an equidistant conic projection.

    The image area includes southern Norway, Sweden and Finland, northern Denmark, Estonia, Latvia and part of western Russia. Norway's rugged western coastline is deeply indented by fjords. Elongated lakes, formed by glacial erosion and deposition, are characteristic of the entire region, and are particularly dense throughout Finland and Sweden. Numerous islands are present, and a virtually continuous chain of small, scattered islands occur between Sweden and Finland. The northern and eastern waters of the Baltic Sea are almost fresh, since the Baltic receives saltwater only from the narrow and shallow sounds between Denmark and Sweden that connect it to the North Sea. Most of the major cities within the image area are coastal, including St. Petersburg, Stockholm, Helsinki, Riga, and Oslo.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  5. Sources of sedimentary biomarkers and proxies with potential paleoenvironmental significance for the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Jérôme; Arz, Helge W.

    2016-07-01

    The Baltic Sea is a shallow, semi-enclosed and intra-continental shelf sea characterized by anoxic bottom waters in the deepest basins, allowing for the preservation of sedimentary organic matter. In the present study, the most abundant, naturally-occurring lipids in surface sediments from the entire Baltic Sea and the Skagerrak area were identified and their potential sources were assigned. Together with long-chain n-alkanes derived from land plant leaf waxes, diploptene and branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are of allochthonous origin, while isoprenoid GDGTs, hydroxylated isoprenoid GDGTs (OH-GDGTs), n-C25:1, n-C27:1 and n-C29:1 alkenes are autochthonous lipids. The isoprenoid and OH-GDGTs are probably derived from Thaumarchaeota and the long-chain n-alkenes from phototrophic organisms. Significant correlations were found between indexes based on isoprenoid and OH-GDGTs and Baltic Sea surface and bottom temperatures. The calibrations obtained for surface temperature have statistically similar slopes, but different intercepts than calibrations established for the Nordic Seas. The branched and isoprenoid tetraether index can be used to estimate the percentage of soil (terrestrial) organic matter in the sediments of the Baltic Sea. High values of the Paq' ratio (defined here as the ratio of odd numbered n-C23 and n-C25 over n-C23 to n-C29 alkanes) in the northern Baltic Sea originate from the presence of both Sphagnum mosses in the drainage basin and submerged macrophytes, such as Potamogeton sp. and Myriophyllum sp., in the freshwater to brackish water of the coastal areas. The Paq' ratio may thus reflect fluctuations in the regional expansion of freshwater to brackish coastal environments in the Baltic Sea.

  6. Antiretroviral Therapy Program Expansion in Zambézia Province, Mozambique: Geospatial Mapping of Community-Based and Health Facility Data for Integrated Health Planning

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Troy D.; Ossemane, Ezequiel B.; Green, Ann F.; Ndatimana, Elisée; José, Eurico; Buehler, Charlotte P.; Wester, C. William; Vermund, Sten H.; Olupona, Omo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To generate maps reflecting the intersection of community-based Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) delivery points with facility-based HIV program demographic information collected at the district level in three districts (Ile, Maganja da Costa and Chinde) of Zambézia Province, Mozambique; in order to guide planning decisions about antiretroviral therapy (ART) program expansion. Methods Program information was harvested from two separate open source databases maintained for community-based VCT and facility-based HIV care and treatment monitoring from October 2011 to September 2012. Maps were created using ArcGIS 10.1. Travel distance by foot within a 10 km radius is generally considered a tolerable distance in Mozambique for purposes of adherence and retention planning. Results Community-based VCT activities in each of three districts were clustered within geographic proximity to clinics providing ART, within communities with easier transportation access, and/or near the homes of VCT volunteers. Community HIV testing results yielded HIV seropositivity rates in some regions that were incongruent with the Ministry of Health’s estimates for the entire district (2–13% vs. 2% in Ile, 2–54% vs. 11.5% in Maganja da Costa, and 23–43% vs. 14.4% in Chinde). All 3 districts revealed gaps in regional disbursement of community-based VCT activities as well as access to clinics offering ART. Conclusions Use of geospatial mapping in the context of program planning and monitoring allowed for characterizing the location and size of each district’s HIV population. In extremely resource limited and logistically challenging settings, maps are valuable tools for informing evidence-based decisions in planning program expansion, including ART. PMID:25329169

  7. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 distribution in Baltic Sea waters

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarev, L.N.; Gedeonov, L.I.; Ivanova, L.M.; Stepanov, A.V.

    1988-09-01

    The strontium-90 and cesium-137 concentrations determined in 1983 in the Baltic Sea proper and the Gulf of Finland and in the Soviet Baltic rivers are furnished. The cesium-137 content has been found to be directly proportional to the salinity of the water. Significant influx of technogenic radioactive contaminants from the North to the Baltic Sea was noted in 1983.

  8. Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber

    PubMed Central

    Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Seyfullah, Leyla J.; Sadowski, Friederike; Fleischmann, Andreas; Behling, Hermann; Schmidt, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    The fossil record of carnivorous plants is very scarce and macrofossil evidence has been restricted to seeds of the extant aquatic genus Aldrovanda of the Droseraceae family. No case of carnivorous plant traps has so far been reported from the fossil record. Here, we present two angiosperm leaves enclosed in a piece of Eocene Baltic amber that share relevant morphological features with extant Roridulaceae, a carnivorous plant family that is today endemic to the Cape flora of South Africa. Modern Roridula species are unique among carnivorous plants as they digest prey in a complex mutualistic association in which the prey-derived nutrient uptake depends on heteropteran insects. As in extant Roridula, the fossil leaves possess two types of plant trichomes, including unicellular hairs and five size classes of multicellular stalked glands (or tentacles) with an apical pore. The apices of the narrow and perfectly tapered fossil leaves end in a single tentacle, as in both modern Roridula species. The glandular hairs of the fossils are restricted to the leaf margins and to the abaxial lamina, as in extant Roridula gorgonias. Our discovery supports current molecular age estimates for Roridulaceae and suggests a wide Eocene distribution of roridulid plants. PMID:25453067

  9. Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Seyfullah, Leyla J; Sadowski, Friederike; Fleischmann, Andreas; Behling, Hermann; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2015-01-01

    The fossil record of carnivorous plants is very scarce and macrofossil evidence has been restricted to seeds of the extant aquatic genus Aldrovanda of the Droseraceae family. No case of carnivorous plant traps has so far been reported from the fossil record. Here, we present two angiosperm leaves enclosed in a piece of Eocene Baltic amber that share relevant morphological features with extant Roridulaceae, a carnivorous plant family that is today endemic to the Cape flora of South Africa. Modern Roridula species are unique among carnivorous plants as they digest prey in a complex mutualistic association in which the prey-derived nutrient uptake depends on heteropteran insects. As in extant Roridula, the fossil leaves possess two types of plant trichomes, including unicellular hairs and five size classes of multicellular stalked glands (or tentacles) with an apical pore. The apices of the narrow and perfectly tapered fossil leaves end in a single tentacle, as in both modern Roridula species. The glandular hairs of the fossils are restricted to the leaf margins and to the abaxial lamina, as in extant Roridula gorgonias. Our discovery supports current molecular age estimates for Roridulaceae and suggests a wide Eocene distribution of roridulid plants. PMID:25453067

  10. Expansion of discharge planning system in Japan: Comparison of results of a nationwide survey between 2001 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In response to the rapid aging of the population in Japan, many care systems have been created in quick succession. Establishment of discharge planning departments (DPDs) in hospitals is one of them. In this study, we compared the distribution and characteristics of DPDs and the characteristics of the hospitals that have DPDs between 2001 and 2010 in Japan. Methods We mailed a questionnaire about the characteristics of hospitals and existence and situation of DPDs to all general hospitals with 100 or more general beds in 2001 and in 2010. Results In 2001, of the 3,268 hospitals queried, 1,568 (48.0%) responded and 1,357 (41.5%) were selected for data analysis. In 2010, among 2,600 hospitals, 940 hospitals (36.1%) responded and 913 (35.1%) met the inclusion criteria. The percentage of hospitals with DPDs increased from 30% to more than 70% between the two surveys. More departments were under the direct control of the hospital director and more physicians participated in discharge planning activities in 2010 than in 2001. In 2001, private hospitals and hospitals with an affiliated institution or agency tended to have a DPD; however, the relationship between these factors and the presence of a DPD had disappeared in 2010. Larger hospitals and hospitals with more nurses per patient tended to have a DPD both in 2001 and 2010. Conclusions Since 2008, the establishment of a DPD has been directly connected to medical fees so hospital administrators might have recognized the DPD as a “necessary and paid for” department. Having a DPD was the majority’s policy in Japan, and we must recognize the importance of quality assurance through DPDs from now on, especially in small hospitals. PMID:22863296

  11. Status of Biodiversity in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Ojaveer, Henn; Jaanus, Andres; MacKenzie, Brian R.; Martin, Georg; Olenin, Sergej; Radziejewska, Teresa; Telesh, Irena; Zettler, Michael L.; Zaiko, Anastasija

    2010-01-01

    The brackish Baltic Sea hosts species of various origins and environmental tolerances. These immigrated to the sea 10,000 to 15,000 years ago or have been introduced to the area over the relatively recent history of the system. The Baltic Sea has only one known endemic species. While information on some abiotic parameters extends back as long as five centuries and first quantitative snapshot data on biota (on exploited fish populations) originate generally from the same time, international coordination of research began in the early twentieth century. Continuous, annual Baltic Sea-wide long-term datasets on several organism groups (plankton, benthos, fish) are generally available since the mid-1950s. Based on a variety of available data sources (published papers, reports, grey literature, unpublished data), the Baltic Sea, incl. Kattegat, hosts altogether at least 6,065 species, including at least 1,700 phytoplankton, 442 phytobenthos, at least 1,199 zooplankton, at least 569 meiozoobenthos, 1,476 macrozoobenthos, at least 380 vertebrate parasites, about 200 fish, 3 seal, and 83 bird species. In general, but not in all organism groups, high sub-regional total species richness is associated with elevated salinity. Although in comparison with fully marine areas the Baltic Sea supports fewer species, several facets of the system's diversity remain underexplored to this day, such as micro-organisms, foraminiferans, meiobenthos and parasites. In the future, climate change and its interactions with multiple anthropogenic forcings are likely to have major impacts on the Baltic biodiversity. PMID:20824189

  12. Persistent organic pollutants in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus)-an aspect of gender.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Sophia; Keddig, Nadia; Gerwinski, Wolfgang; Neukirchen, Jan; Kammann, Ulrike; Haarich, Michael; Hanel, Reinhold; Theobald, Norbert

    2016-06-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are monitored regularly in water, sediment, and biota in the Baltic Sea. Lipophilic substances are measured in remarkable concentrations especially in the fatty parts of fish, such as herring (Clupea harengus). However, less lipophilic POPs, e.g. perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), can also be detected. For the first time to our knowledge, this study provides a broad range of contaminant concentrations simultaneously measured in filet, liver, and gonads of both sexes of Baltic herring. We analysed organochlorines, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and PFCs in mature autumn-spawning individuals and found distinct organ pollutant pattern for all POPs in both sexes. POP concentrations found in the gonads of both sexes indicate that not only females but also males tend to reduce contaminants via reproduction. However, sex-dependent differences could be identified for hexachlorobenzene, PBDEs, and were most remarkable for PFCs. This transfer of contaminants to the gonads in both male and female herring is being underestimated, as it may directly affect the general reproduction success as well as the healthy development of the next generation. Hence, the accumulation of contaminants in the gonads should be considered one possible threat to a healthy wildlife as its achievement is stated by the Baltic Sea Action Plan. Inclusion of a periodic monitoring of POP concentrations in gonads of fish may be an important bioeffect measure to assess the environmental status of biota in the Baltic Sea. PMID:27226172

  13. Universal Expansion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArdle, Heather K.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a week-long activity for general to honors-level students that addresses Hubble's law and the universal expansion theory. Uses a discrepant event-type activity to lead up to the abstract principles of the universal expansion theory. (JRH)

  14. Seal dynamics on the Swedish west coast: Scenarios of competition as Baltic grey seal intrude on harbour seal territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, Carl Johan

    2012-07-01

    The Kattegat-Skagerrak region on the Swedish west coast is home to an abundant harbour seal population (Phoca vitulina) and a small scattered grey seal population (Halichoerus grypus). In addition, grey seal from the growing population in the Baltic Sea frequently migrate into the Kattegat-Skagerrak. Harbour seals on the west coast of Sweden show relatively high population growth (approximately 9%) compared to the Baltic grey seal in ice-free habitats (approximately 6%), which, in theory, makes harbour seal the stronger competitor of the two in this region. However, incidents of disease in harbour seals that lower population growth are becoming more frequent. These epidemics are primarily caused by the Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV), and may reduce population size with up to 70%. This study models the average development under potential scenarios of competing harbour- and Baltic grey seal populations using Leslie matrices and the Lotka-Volterra model of inter-specific competition. The model is parameterised with previously published data, and resource overlap is incorporated through density dependent pup survival. Using numerical methods short- and long-term abundances are simulated under weak, moderate and strong competition and for different frequencies of PDV epidemics. Results show that the harbour seals are resilient to competition while exerting a negative effect on grey seal abundance under moderate to strong competition. Hence Baltic grey seal benefit from weaker levels of competition. Under moderate and strong competition grey seal abundance is a direct function of the PDV frequency as this reduces the competitive strength of harbour seals. Theoretically this means that higher frequencies of PDV or other pathogens epidemics could facilitate an expansion of Baltic grey seal into Kattegat-Skagerrak. Independent of interaction strength and frequency of epidemics the projected changes to abundances are slow (50-100 years), and even in exceedingly stable

  15. Model estimates of the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea in the contemporary and future climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabchenko, V. A.; Karlin, L. N.; Isaev, A. V.; Vankevich, R. E.; Eremina, T. R.; Molchanov, M. S.; Savchuk, O. P.

    2016-01-01

    The St. Petersburg Baltic eutrophication model (SPBEM) is used to assess the ecological condition of the sea under possible changes in climate and nutrient loads in the 21st century. According to model estimates, in the future climate water quality will worsen, compared to modern conditions. This deterioration is stronger in the climate warming scenario with a stronger change in future near-surface air temperature. In the considered scenarios of climate change, climate warming will lead to an increase in the area of anoxic and hypoxic zones. Reduction of nutrient loading, estimated in accordance with the Baltic Sea Action Plan, will only be able to partially compensate for the negative effects of global warming.

  16. Nonlinear and Nonparametric Stochastic Model to Represent Uncertainty of Renewable Generation in Operation and Expansion Planning Studies of Electrical Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, T. M.; Alberto, J.

    2015-12-01

    The uncertainties of wind and solar generation patterns tends to be a critical factor in operation and expansion planning studies of electrical energy systems, as these generations are highly dependent on atmospheric variables which are difficult to predict. Traditionally, the uncertainty of renewable generation has been represented through scenarios generated by autoregressive parametric models (ARMA, PAR(p), SARIMA, etc.), that have been widely used for simulating the uncertainty of inflows and electrical demand. These methods have 3 disadvantages: (i) it is assumed that the random variables can be modelled through a known probability distribution, usually Weibull, log-normal, or normal, which are not always adequate; (ii) the temporal and spatial coupling of the represented variables are generally constructed from the Pearson Correlation, strictly requiring the hypothesis of data normality, that in the case of wind and solar generation is not met; (iii) there is an exponential increase in the model complexity due to its dimensionality. This work proposes the use of a stochastic model built from the combination of a non-parametric approach of a probability density function (the kernel density estimation method) with a dynamic Bayesian network framework. The kernel density estimation method is used to obtain the probability density function of the random variables directly from historical records, eliminating the need of choosing prior distributions. The Bayesian network allows the representation of nonlinearities in the temporal coupling of the time series, since they allow reproducing a compact probability distribution of a variable, subject to preceding stages. The proposed model was used to the generate wind power scenarios in long-term operation studies of the Brazilian Electric System, in which inflows of major rivers were also represented. The results show a considerable quality gain when compared to scenarios generated by traditional approaches.

  17. The sound speed anomaly of Baltic Seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Rohden, C.; Weinreben, S.; Fehres, F.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of the anomalous chemical composition of Baltic seawater on the speed of sound relative to seawater with quasi-standard composition was quantified at atmospheric pressure and temperatures of 1 to 46 °C. Three modern oceanographic time-of-flight sensors were applied in a laboratory setup for measuring the speed-of-sound difference δ w in a pure water diluted sample of North Atlantic seawater and a sample of Baltic seawater of the same conductivity, i.e. the same Practical Salinity (SP=7.766). The average δ w amounts to 0.069 ± 0.014 m s-1, significantly larger than the resolution and reproducibility of the sensors and independent of temperature. This magnitude for the anomaly effect was verified with offshore measurements conducted at different sites in the Baltic Sea using one of the sensors. The results from both measurements show values up to one order of magnitude smaller than existing predictions based on chemical models.

  18. The sound speed anomaly of Baltic seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Rohden, C.; Weinreben, S.; Fehres, F.

    2016-02-01

    The effect of the anomalous chemical composition of Baltic seawater on the speed of sound relative to seawater with quasi-standard composition was quantified at atmospheric pressure and temperatures of 1 to 46 °C. Three modern oceanographic time-of-flight sensors were applied in a laboratory setup for measuring the speed-of-sound difference δw in a pure water diluted sample of North Atlantic seawater and a sample of Baltic seawater of the same conductivity, i.e., the same practical salinity (SP = 7.766). The average δw amounts to 0.069 ± 0.014 m s-1, which is significantly larger than the resolution and reproducibility of the sensors and independent of temperature. This magnitude for the anomaly effect was verified with offshore measurements conducted at different sites in the Baltic Sea using one of the sensors. The results from both measurements show values up to 1 order of magnitude smaller than existing predictions based on chemical models.

  19. Sorption and predicted mobility of herbicides in Baltic soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determination of pesticide sorption under local conditions is required to predict off-site transport. Recent surveys detected pesticides in surface water and groundwater of the Baltic region, but there is little information in the peer-reviewed literature regarding the fate of pesticides in Baltic s...

  20. Language Politics and Practices in the Baltic States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle; Ozolins, Uldis; Ramoniene, Meilute; Rannut, Mart

    2008-01-01

    This monograph provides an overview of the language situation in the three Baltic countries: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. It examines the recent change in language regimes that the Baltic States have deliberately brought about since the restitution of their independence, the nature of these changes, the opposition they have engendered and the…

  1. China petrochemical expansion progressing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-05

    This paper reports on China's petrochemical expansion surge which is picking up speed. A worldscale petrochemical complex is emerging at Shanghai with an eye to expanding China's petrochemical exports, possibly through joint ventures with foreign companies, China Features reported. In other action, Beijing and Henan province have approved plans for a $1.2 billion chemical fibers complex at the proposed Luoyang refinery, China Daily reported.

  2. Sustainable Phosphorus Loadings from Effective and Cost-Effective Phosphorus Management Around the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Bryhn, Andreas C.

    2009-01-01

    Nutrient over-enrichment of the Baltic Sea, accompanied by intensified algal blooms and decreasing water clarity, has aroused widespread concern in the surrounding countries during the last four decades. This work has used a well-tested dynamic mass-balance model to investigate which decrease in total phosphorus loading would be required to meet the environmental goal to restore the trophic state in the Baltic Sea to pre-1960s levels. Furthermore, the extent to which various abatement options may decrease the phosphorus loading in a cost-effective manner has been studied. Upgrading urban sewage treatment in the catchment could, alone or in combination with banning phosphates in detergents, be sufficient to meet the set environmental goal, at an estimated annual basin-wide cost of 0.21–0.43 billion euro. Such a plan would potentially decrease the total phosphorus loading to the Baltic Sea with 6,650–10,200 tonnes per year. PMID:19412551

  3. The Baltic Klint beneath the central Baltic Sea and its comparison with the North Estonian Klint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuuling, Igor; Flodén, Tom

    2016-06-01

    Along its contact with the Baltic Shield, the margin of the East European Platform reveals a well-developed, flooded terraced relief. The most striking and consistent set of escarpments at the contact of the Lower Palaeozoic calcareous and terrigenous rocks, known as the Baltic Klint (BK), extends from northwest of Russia to the Swedish island of Öland. Marine seismic reflection profiling in 1990-2004 revealed the central Baltic Sea Klint (BSK) section in detail and enabled comparison of its geology/geomorphology with a classical klint-section onshore, namely the North Estonian Klint (NEK). The conception of the BK onshore, which is based on the land-sea separating terraced relief in northern Estonia, is not fully applicable beneath the sea. Therefore, we consider that the BSK includes the entire terraced Cambrian outcrop. We suggest the term "Baltic Klint Complex" to include the well-terraced margin of the Ordovician limestone outcrop, which is weakly developed in Estonia. Because of a steady lithological framework of the bedrock layers across the southern slope of the Fennoscandian Shield, the central BSK in the western and the NEK in the eastern part of the Baltic Homocline have largely identical morphologies. The North Estonian Ordovician limestone plateau with the calcareous crest of the BK extends across the central Baltic Sea, whereas morphological changes/variations along the Klint base occur due to the east-westerly lithostratigraphic/thickness changes in the siliciclastic Cambrian sequence. The verge of the NEK, located some 30-50 m above sea level, starts to drop in altitude as its east-westerly course turns to northeast-southwest in western Estonia. Further westwards, the BK shifts gradually into southerly deepening (0.1-0.2°) layers as its crest drops to c. 150 m below sea level (b.s.l.) near Gotska Sandön. This course change is accompanied by a considerable decrease in thickness of the platform sedimentary cover, as below the central Baltic Sea the

  4. Astaxanthin dynamics in Baltic Sea mesozooplankton communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoeijs, Pauline; Häubner, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    The red pigment astaxanthin is a powerful antioxidant, which occurs in eggs and body tissues of crustaceans and fish. It is produced by crustaceans from algal carotenoids. In a two-year field study we assessed natural concentrations and dynamics of astaxanthin in mesozooplankton communities in the brackish Baltic Sea area. Astaxanthin levels varied between 0.37 and 36 ng L- 1. They increased with salinity along the Baltic Sea gradient and were linked to zooplankton biomass and phytoplankton community composition. Astaxanthin concentrations showed typical seasonal patterns and varied from 0.2 to 5.1 ng ind- 1, 0.2 to 3.4 ng (μg C)- 1 and 6 to 100 ng mm- 3. These concentrations were inversely related to water temperature and strongly linked to zooplankton community composition. Communities dominated by the calanoid copepods Temora longicornis, Pseudocalanus acuspes and Eurytemora spp. generally held the highest concentrations. With increasing cladocerans:copepods biomass ratios community astaxanthin concentrations decreased and with higher relative biomass of Acartia spp. the proportion of astaxanthin diesters decreased. Diesters prevailed in the cold season and they are thought to improve the antioxidant protection of storage lipids during winter. Climate change causes higher temperature and lower salinity in the Baltic Sea proper. This modifies zooplankton community composition, but not necessarily into a community with lower concentrations of astaxanthin since T. longicornis (high concentrations) has been reported to increase with higher temperature. However, decreased astaxanthin production in the ecosystem is expected if a basin-wide increase in the cladocerans:copepods biomass ratios would occur with further climate change.

  5. Past occurrences of hypoxia in the Baltic Sea and the role of climate variability, environmental change and human impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zillén, Lovisa; Conley, Daniel J.; Andrén, Thomas; Andrén, Elinor; Björck, Svante

    2008-12-01

    and higher accumulation of organic carbon resulting in amplified hypoxia and enlarged distribution of laminated sediments. We suggest that hydrology changes in the drainage area on long time-scales have, as well as the inflow of saltier North Sea waters, controlled the deep oxic conditions in the Baltic Sea and that such changes have followed the general Holocene climate development in Northwest Europe. Increased hypoxia during the Medieval Warm Period also correlates with large-scale changes in land use that occurred in much of the Baltic Sea watershed during the early-medieval expansion. We suggest that hypoxia during this period in the Baltic Sea was not only caused by climate, but increased human impact was most likely an additional trigger. Large areas of the Baltic Sea have experienced intermittent hypoxic from at least AD 1900 with laminated sediments present in the Gotland Basin in the Baltic Proper since then and up to present time. This period coincides with the industrial revolution in Northwestern Europe which started around AD 1850, when population grew, cutting of drainage ditches intensified, and agricultural and forest industry expanded extensively.

  6. Pole tide in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, I. P.; Rabinovich, A. B.; Kulikov, E. A.

    2014-03-01

    The pole tide, which is driven by the Chandler Wobble, has a period of about 14 months and typical amplitudes in the World Ocean of ˜0.5 cm. However, in the Baltic Sea the pole tide is anomalously high. To examine this effect we used long-term hourly sea level records from 23 tide gauges and monthly records from 64 stations. The lengths of the series were up to 123 years for hourly records and 211 years for monthly records. High-resolution spectra revealed a cluster of neighboring peaks with periods from 410 to 440 days. The results of spectral analysis were applied to estimate the integral amplitudes of pole tides from all available tide gauges along the coast of the Baltic Sea. The height of the pole tide was found to gradually increase from the entrance (Danish Straits, 1.5-2 cm) to the northeast end of the sea. The largest amplitudes—up to 4.5-7 cm—were observed in the heads of the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia. Significant temporal fluctuations in amplitudes and periods of the pole tide were observed during the 19th and 20th centuries.

  7. An Earth System Science Program for the Baltic Sea Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, H. E. M.; Rutgersson, A.; Reckermann, M.

    2014-04-01

    From Russia in the east to Sweden, Denmark, and Germany in the west, reaching south to the tips of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Ukraine, the Baltic Sea watershed drains nearly 20% of Europe (see Figure 1). In the highly populated south, the temperate climate hosts intensive agriculture and industry. In the north, the landscape is boreal and rural. In the Baltic Sea itself, complex bathymetry and stratification patterns as well as extended hypoxic and anoxic deep waters add to the diversity. Yet in recent history, the differences across the Baltic Sea region have been more than physical: In the mid-20th century, the watershed was split in two.

  8. Expansion Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fei; Tillberg, Paul W.; Boyden, Edward S.

    2014-01-01

    In optical microscopy, fine structural details are resolved by using refraction to magnify images of a specimen. Here we report the discovery that, by synthesizing a swellable polymer network within a specimen, it can be physically expanded, resulting in physical magnification. By covalently anchoring specific labels located within the specimen directly to the polymer network, labels spaced closer than the optical diffraction limit can be isotropically separated and optically resolved, a process we call expansion microscopy (ExM). Thus, this process can be used to perform scalable super-resolution microscopy with diffraction-limited microscopes. We demonstrate ExM with effective ~70 nm lateral resolution in both cultured cells and brain tissue, performing three-color super-resolution imaging of ~107 μm3 of the mouse hippocampus with a conventional confocal microscope. PMID:25592419

  9. Horizontal Variation of Bacterioplankton in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Heinänen, Anne; Kuparinen, Jorma

    1991-01-01

    Variations in the thymidine incorporation rate, bacterial abundance, and mean cell volumes in the surface water (0.5 m) of the Baltic Sea in spring and summer were compared in studies with different spatial scales (570 nautical miles [nmi] [ca. 1056 km], 220 nmi [ca. 407 km], 24 nmi [ca. 44 km], 12 nmi [ca. 22 km], and 200 m). The objective of the comparison was to investigate whether a single sample taken at one sampling point is representative enough for researchers to make generalizations about a larger water area. Bacterioplankton variation was connected more to seasonal characteristics than to the spatial scale of sampling. Variation was greater and more random in spring than in summer. The state variables (bacterial abundance and mean cell volume) varied less than the rate variable (thymidine incorporation). The results suggest that the sampling design for bacterioplankton studies in northern temperate seas should be planned primarily according to the season and that more stress should be put on rate variable measurements than on those of state variables. PMID:16348580

  10. Benthic marine landscapes of the Eastern Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaskela, Anu; Kotilainen, Aarno; Orlova, Marina; Ronkainen, Minna; Rousi, Heta; Ryabchuk, Daria

    2014-05-01

    Benthic marine landscapes are a combination of ecologically relevant hydrographical and geological datasets that characterize potential broad scale habitat distribution patterns with the overall aim to allocate conservation efforts on biodiversity and spaces instead of single species. At the best the benthic marine landscapes describe both the habitat distribution as well as the characteristics of the physical environment. This kind of spatial knowledge that informs both about geology and biology at the regional scale is very usable in ecosystem based management (ESBM) of marine areas. Here we will present the benthic marine landscapes of the Eastern Gulf of Finland at the scale of 1:500 000 and explain the analysis methods behind. The study area in the Eastern Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea, is a transboundary marine area shared by Finland and Russia. The HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan along with EU, Finnish and Russian legislation requires both countries to identify and assess the state of the marine environment in the Gulf of Finland. These appoint the need for shared knowledge on the marine environment, its state, physical characteristics and distribution of habitats among others. In order to produce ecologically relevant marine landscapes we have collected geological, hydrographical and biological data from the transboundary study area and studied their correlation. The statistical analyses have been run with Primer -software (BEST and LINKTREE). The study is a part of ENPI CBC funded Finnish-Russian co-operation project, the TOPCONS (http://www.merikotka.fi/topcons/). Project aims to develop innovative spatial tools for the regional planning of the sea areas in the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea. The objective is to create methodology and tools to map the locations of the most diverse and sensitive marine landscapes. These will help the society when striving for the sustainable consolidation of human activities and the marine nature values. The TOPCONS is

  11. The history of sturgeon in the Baltic Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Popovic, Danijela; Panagiotopoulou, Hanna; Baca, Mateusz; Stefaniak, Krzysztof; Mackiewicz, Pawel; Makowiecki, Daniel; King, Tim L.; Gruchota, Jakub; Weglenski, Piotr; Stankovic, Anna

    2014-01-01

    For the past 2000 years at least, A. o. oxyrinchus has been the dominant sturgeon in the Baltic Sea, indicating a much earlier origin than previously suggested. The most similar extant sturgeon populations to the extinct Baltic stock are those from the St John and St Lawrence rivers in Canada. These populations should be considered the best source of breeding material for the ongoing sturgeon restitution programmes in Poland and Germany.

  12. PLA2G6-associated neurodegeneration (PLAN): Further expansion of the clinical, radiological and mutation spectrum associated with infantile and atypical childhood-onset disease

    PubMed Central

    Illingworth, M.A.; Meyer, E.; Chong, W.K.; Manzur, A.Y.; Carr, L.J.; Younis, R.; Hardy, C.; McDonald, F.; Childs, A.M.; Stewart, B.; Warren, D.; Kneen, R.; King, M.D.; Hayflick, S.J.; Kurian, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Phospholipase A2 associated neurodegeneration (PLAN) is a major phenotype of autosomal recessive Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation (NBIA). We describe the clinical phenotypes, neuroimaging features and PLA2G6 mutations in 5 children, of whom 4 presented with infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD). One other patient was diagnosed with the onset of PLAN in childhood, and our report highlights the diagnostic challenges associated with this atypical PLAN subtype. In this series, the neuroradiological relevance of classical PLAN features as well as apparent claval hypertrophy’ is explored. Novel PLA2G6 mutations were identified in all patients. PLAN should be considered not only in patients presenting with a classic INAD phenotype but also in older patients presenting later in childhood with non-specific progressive neurological features including social communication difficulties, gait disturbance, dyspraxia, neuropsychiatric symptoms and extrapyramidal motor features. PMID:24745848

  13. Thermal Expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Guglielmo; Perfetti, Mauro

    All solid materials, when cooled to low temperatures experience a change in physical dimensions which called "thermal contraction" and is typically lower than 1 % in volume in the 4-300 K temperature range. Although the effect is small, it can have a heavy impact on the design of cryogenic devices. The thermal contraction of different materials may vary by as much as an order of magnitude: since cryogenic devices are constructed at room temperature with a lot of different materials, one of the major concerns is the effect of the different thermal contraction and the resulting thermal stress that may occur when two dissimilar materials are bonded together. In this chapter, theory of thermal contraction is reported in Sect. 1.2 . Section 1.3 is devoted to the phenomenon of negative thermal expansion and its applications.

  14. Phosphorus recycling and burial in Baltic Sea sediments with contrasting redox conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slomp, Caroline P.; Mort, Haydon P.; Reed, Dan C.; Jilbert, Tom; Gustafsson, Bo G.

    2010-05-01

    The Baltic Sea is a classical example of a coastal system that is subject to an increased intensity and spatial extent of hypoxia due to human activities. The expansion of hypoxia since the 1960s is the result of increased inputs of nutrients from land (both from fertilizer and wastewater) and is negatively affecting living conditions for benthic organisms. In addition, the biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nutrients has been significantly altered. Water column studies have shown that the availability of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) is positively correlated with hypoxia due to release of phosphorus from sediment Fe-oxides and from organic matter upon the transition from oxic to hypoxic conditions. Thus, a large internal source of phosphorus exists in the sediment that largely controls short-term variability in water column DIP concentrations. In this presentation, we focus on results of recent field and modeling work for various parts of the Baltic Sea that confirm the role of Fe-bound P from seasonally hypoxic sediments at intermediate water depths as a major source of DIP. We also show that extended hypoxia and anoxia leads to depletion of sediment Fe-bound P and, ultimately, lower rates of sediment-water exchange of P. Authigenic Ca-P minerals appear to be only a relatively minor burial sink for P. The lack of major inorganic P burial makes the Baltic Sea sensitive to the feedback loop between increased hypoxia, enhanced regeneration of P and increased primary productivity. Historical records of bottom water oxygen at two sites (Bornholm, Northern Gotland) show a decline over the past century which is accompanied by a rise in values of typical sediment proxies for anoxia (total sulfur, molybdenum and organic C/P ratios). While sediment reactive P concentrations in anoxic basins are equal to or higher than at oxic sites, burial rates of P at hypoxic and anoxic sites are up to 20 times lower because of lower sedimentation rates. Nevertheless, burial of

  15. The national pharmacopoeias of the Baltic States.

    PubMed

    Kondratas, R; Gudienė, V; Simaitiene, Z; Maurina, B; Paju, K; Hinrikus, T; Raal, A

    2015-10-01

    After Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania proclaimed their independence in 1918 and began to create their national health care systems, one of their stated priorities was the formulation and publication of national pharmacopoeias. In order to accomplish this, working groups as well as commissions composed of pharmacists, medical specialists and even linguists had to be formed. The process was long and difficult. New terminology in native languages had to be created. Sources for the monographs had to be chosen, researched, analyzed and compared. There were organizational and financial problems. Nevertheless, by the late 1930s, all three Baltic States published their national pharmacopoeias. Officially, they were not able to use them for long because during World War II all three were occupied and annexed by the Soviet Union. Pharmacists in those countries were obliged to use the Soviet pharmacopoeias, although unofficially, they also made good use of their national ones. Currently, the European Pharmacopoeia is in use in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. PMID:26601427

  16. Changing seasonality of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahru, M.; Elmgren, R.; Savchuk, O. P.

    2015-11-01

    Changes in the phenology of physical and ecological variables associated with climate change are likely to have significant effect on many aspects of the Baltic ecosystems. We apply a set of phenological indicators to multiple environmental variables measured by satellite sensors for 17-35 years to detect possible changes in the seasonality in the Baltic Sea environment. We detect significant temporal changes such as earlier start of the summer season and prolongation of the productive season in multiple variables ranging from basic physical drivers to ecological status indicators. While increasing trends in the absolute values of variables like sea-surface temperature (SST), diffuse attenuation of light (Ked490) and satellite-detected chlorophyll concentration (CHL) are detectable, the corresponding changes in their seasonal cycles are more dramatic. For example, the cumulative sum of 30 000 W m-2 of surface incoming shortwave irradiance (SIS) was reached 23 days earlier in 2014 compared to the beginning of the time series in 1983. The period of the year with SST of at least 17 °C has almost doubled (from 29 days in 1982 to 56 days in 2014), the period with Ked490 over 0.4 m-1 has increased from about 60 days in 1998 to 240 days in 2013, i.e. quadrupled. The period with satellite-detected CHL of at least 3 mg m-3 has doubled from approximately 110 days in 1998 to 220 days in 2013. While the timing of both the phytoplankton spring and summer blooms have advanced, the annual CHL maximum that in the 1980s corresponded to the spring diatom bloom in May has now switched to the summer cyanobacteria bloom in July.

  17. Changing seasonality of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahru, Mati; Elmgren, Ragnar; Savchuk, Oleg P.

    2016-02-01

    Changes in the phenology of physical and ecological variables associated with climate change are likely to have significant effect on many aspects of the Baltic ecosystem. We apply a set of phenological indicators to multiple environmental variables measured by satellite sensors for 17-36 years to detect possible changes in the seasonality in the Baltic Sea environment. We detect significant temporal changes, such as earlier start of the summer season and prolongation of the productive season, in several variables ranging from basic physical drivers to ecological status indicators. While increasing trends in the absolute values of variables like sea-surface temperature (SST), diffuse attenuation of light (Ked490) and satellite-detected chlorophyll concentration (CHL) are detectable, the corresponding changes in their seasonal cycles are more dramatic. For example, the cumulative sum of 30 000 W m-2 of surface incoming shortwave irradiance (SIS) was reached 23 days earlier in 2014 compared to the beginning of the time series in 1983. The period of the year with SST of at least 17 °C has almost doubled (from 29 days in 1982 to 56 days in 2014), and the period with Ked490 over 0.4 m-1 has increased from about 60 days in 1998 to 240 days in 2013 - i.e., quadrupled. The period with satellite-estimated CHL of at least 3 mg m-3 has doubled from approximately 110 days in 1998 to 220 days in 2013. While the timing of both the phytoplankton spring and summer blooms have advanced, the annual CHL maximum that in the 1980s corresponded to the spring diatom bloom in May has now shifted to the summer cyanobacteria bloom in July.

  18. Infrastructure of Baltic Region Transmission System: Analysis of Technical and Economic Factors of its Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obushevs, A.; Oleinikova, I.; Mutule, A.

    2014-08-01

    The operational conditions of new networks dictate new requirements for the transmission planning, which would include the electricity market figures and a sizable involvement of renewable generation. This paper focuses on the transmission expansion planning techniques based on the calculations of optimal power flows and on the concept of development planning and sustainability. A description is given for the mathematical model of calculations and analysis of transmission system. The results have shown that the Baltic transmission system infrastructure can successfully be analyzed based on the proposed methodology and developed mathematical model Baltijas valstu (Latvijas, Lietuvas un Igaunijas) energosistēmas ir cieši saistītas vēsturiski, un to darbība nav iespējama bez savstarpējas sadarbības attīstības un darba režīmu jautājumos. Ekonomisko attiecību īstenošanu enerģētikas sektorā paātrināja elektroenerģijas tirgus attīstība. Baltijas valstu enerģētikas politika ir integrēta ES enerģētikas stratēģijas sastāvdaļa, nosakot trīs galvenos mērķus: enerģētikas nozares konkurētspēja, ilgtspējīga attīstība un drošība. Visas trīs Baltijas energosistēmas veica lielu darba apjomu iekārtu modernizācijā un standartu saskaņošanā, kuras ir saskaņā ar Eiropas Savienības prasībām, kā arī par tirgus attiecību un tehnoloģiju standartu ieviešanu, lai nodrošinātu energoapgādes drošību un elektroenerģijas pieejamību patērētājiem Tomēr, ņemot vērā strauji mainīgos ārējos apstākļus, it īpaši ģeopolitiskos faktorus, Baltijas valstu enerģētikas politika būtu jāizskata ar mērķi novērtēt, kā šie faktori ietekmē energosistēmas ilgtspējīgu attīstību kopumā. No iepriekš minētā izriet, ka nepieciešama jauna nacionāla enerģētikas stratēģija, kura stiprinātu efektīvu ekonomisko un sociālo pamatu ilgtspējīgu attīstību Baltijas valstu nacionālā ekonomikā. Šī darba m

  19. The Baltic Basin Case Study—towards a sustainable Baltic Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansson, Bengt-Owe; Stålvant, Carl-Einar

    2001-12-01

    Four watersheds, each characterized by a major resource use were selected for the study: The Vistula River in Poland—agriculture; the Dalälven River in Sweden—forestry; the Archipelago Sea in Sweden, Finland, Estonia—tourism; and the Lake Peipsi in Estonia/Russia—fisheries/agriculture. The main objective was to examine the reactions of particular ecosystems within the Baltic Sea drainage area, and to assess sustainability conditions on the regional level. The degree of sustainability and impact on the Baltic Sea were investigated through workshops and seminars in the areas. Overviews of environmental and socio-economic conditions were succinctly summarized in commissioned papers. Interventions by and discussions with scholars, sector experts, administrators and stakeholders of the various sites laid the foundation for conceptualizing the interaction of natural and human forces for each case. The project was able to draw quite a number of conclusions, summarized as the following lessons learnt. In the Vistula Region, nutrient emissions have levelled off but shortage of freshwater is critical. Forestry in the Dalälven watershed is largely environmental-friendly, except for fragmentation of the landscape and its negative impact on biodiversity. In the Archipelago area a former low-energy community has been replaced by a leisure time society. Different types of tourism is developing, but despite this variety, an improved integration of ecological properties with socio-economic patterns is required in order to build a sustainable, living Archipelago. The lake Peipsi basin and the surrounding area suffer both from problems of resource management and economic backwardness. Parts of the local economy has lost access to the one time large Soviet market, although the Estonian side has apparently benefited from present economic growth. To cope with the division of the lake, a regime for trans-national management is unfolding. It is based on both informal and, to an

  20. Geometrical model of the Baltic artesian basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sennikovs, J.; Virbulis, J.; Bethers, U.

    2012-04-01

    Baltic artesian basin (BAB) is a multi-layer sedimentary basin spanning around 480'000 km2. BAB is located in the territory of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, parts of Poland, Russia, Belarus and large area of the Baltic Sea, including island of Gotland. The thickness of sedimentary cover is about 5000 m in the south-western part. Crystalline bedding reaches the surface in the northern and north-western parts. The aim of the present work is development of the model of geometric structure and three dimensional finite element mesh for the hydrogeological model of the whole BAB. The information that is used to build the geometrical structure includes: (1) Stratigraphic information from boreholes in Latvia and Estonia (2) Maps of height isolines of geological layers for Latvia and Lithuania (3) Maps of sub-quaternary deposits in Latvia and Lithuania (4) Maps of fault lines on the crystalline basement surface in Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia (5) Buried valley data from Latvia and Estonia (6) Earth topography data (7) Baltic sea depth data (8) Data from published geological cross-sections, information from books and other sources. Unification of the heterogeneous information from different sources, which are employed for building of the geometrical structure of the model are performed. Special algorithms are developed for this purpose considering the priority, importance and plausibility of each of the data sources. Pre-processing of the borehole information to screen out the outlying borehole data has been performed. Model of geological structure contains 42 layers. It includes aquifers and aquitards from Cambrian up to the Quaternary deposits. Fault displacements are incorporated into the model taking into account data from the published structural maps. Four reconstructed regional erosion surfaces (upper Ordovician, Devonian, Permian and Quaternary) are included into the model Three dimensional mesh of the geological structure is constructed layer-wise. The triangular

  1. 45 CFR 800.104 - Phased expansion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-facilitated SHOP must be consistent with the requirements for QHP issuers specified in 45 CFR 156.200(g). (2... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Phased expansion. 800.104 Section 800.104 Public... PROGRAM Multi-State Plan Program Issuer Requirements § 800.104 Phased expansion. (a) Phase-in. OPM...

  2. 45 CFR 800.104 - Phased expansion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-facilitated SHOP must be consistent with the requirements for QHP issuers specified in 45 CFR 156.200(g). (2... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Phased expansion. 800.104 Section 800.104 Public... PROGRAM Multi-State Plan Program Issuer Requirements § 800.104 Phased expansion. (a) Phase-in. OPM...

  3. BALTEX - A science broker for the Baltic Sea Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reckermann, M.; von Storch, H.; Langner, J.; Omstedt, A. T.

    2010-12-01

    BALTEX (the Baltic Sea Experiment) is an interdisciplinary research network of scientists involved in environmental research dedicated to the Baltic Sea drainage basin (including disciplines such as meteorology, hydrology, oceanography, biogeochemistry and climate research). Originally founded in 1992 as a Continental Scale Experiment in GEWEX (the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment within the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) of the World Meteorological Organization, WMO), it was intended to form a common science, communication and data platform with the overall goal to integrate efforts to gain a better understanding of the water and energy cycle in the Baltic Sea basin. BALTEX Phase II (since 2003) has extended the scope to research on regional climate change and variability, climate change impacts on biogeochemistry and water management, but also made first steps towards overarching social and political issues as cross-cutting activities in the context of the scientific objectives. An important aspect of BALTEX Phase II is a more holistic approach towards observing, understanding and modelling major environmental relevant for the entire Baltic Sea region. Parts of the BALTEX Phase II research activities thus contribute to the establishment of a high resolution integrated modelling system for Northern Europe, embedded in an Earth System Model. An outstanding product of BALTEX as a “knowledge broker” for regional political institutions is the BACC report. Following to a large extent the method of IPCC, a regional assessment report on climate change in the Baltic Sea basin was compiled, which summarizes the published scientifically legitimate knowledge on regional climate change in the Baltic Sea basin and its impacts. The assessment, known as the BACC report (BALTEX Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin; BACC author team 2008, Reckermann et al., 2008) was published in 2008 as a book. A survey among climate researchers in the area

  4. The regional geology and hydrocarbon potential of the Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Haselton, T.M. ); Brangulis, A.P.; Margulis, L.S. ); Kanev, S. )

    1991-08-01

    The Baltic Sea is roughly equivalent in size to the North Sea. Like the North Sea, is has an excellent oil prone source rock present over most of the area. In the entire Baltic Sea about 40 wells have been drilled. During the 1980s, exploration was carried out in the Soviet, Polish, and East German sectors of the Baltic Sea by Petrobaltic. Twenty-eight wells were drilled, 14 of which tested hydrocarbons. Two wells have been drilled in Danish waters and 11 in Swedish waters - all dry holes. Most of the Baltic Sea is included in the Baltic syneclise. In the deepest part of the basin a full Paleozoic and Mesozoic section is present. Major structural features are associated with reactivation of old basement faults. Most hydrocarbon discoveries are associated with structural arches. Exploration targets are Cambrian sandstones and Ordovician and Silurian reefs. The major discoveries are the B3 field in Poland and the D6 field offshore Lithuania and Kaliningrad, both of which have in-place reserves of around 100 million bbl. The Teisseyre-Tornquist line to the southwest represents the plate boundary between the East European platform and Europe. Repeated strike slip movements along this zone result in a complex pattern of extensional and compressional features in the Danish and German sectors. Primary exploration targets include Permian carbonates and sandstones as well as older zones. Gas has been tested in the German sector onshore.

  5. Parasitism at the ecosystem level in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Zander, C D; Reimer, L W

    2002-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is characterized by organisms that can tolerate brackish water. Because of the Sea's history during glacial times, its flora and fauna (and also their parasites) can be traced to marine, freshwater and genuine brackish elements beside glacial relics. Snails, planktonic copepods, benthic amphipods and isopods are important intermediate hosts of diverse helminths; in addition polychaetes, bivalves and fishes may also act as final hosts. The most important final hosts, beside fishes, were seals and birds; these were able to disperse the parasites over the whole of the Baltic. Decreasing salinity from west to east limits the distribution of many parasites. Several marine and genuine brackish water species have almost spread over the whole Baltic. Freshwater species, however, have a lower tolerance than marine species and are only rarely found in the western part. A serious problem in the Baltic is eutrophication which can lead to massive abundances of generalist parasites, in host populations as well as host individuals. The final stage of this influence can cause a general decrease of host abundance and, as a consequence, of all kinds of parasites, due to oxygen deficiency. In comparison with the species spectrum of other brackish waters in Europe, the Baltic presents some endemic parasites as well as sharing parasite species with the Mediterranean and even the Black Sea. PMID:12396220

  6. Note on trigonometric expansions of theta functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouikha, A. Raouf

    2003-04-01

    We are interested in properties of coefficients of certain expansions of the classical theta functions. We show that they are solutions of a differential system derived from the heat equation. We plan to explicitly give expressions of these coefficients.

  7. 34 CFR 361.35 - Innovation and expansion activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Council, consistent with the plan prepared under 34 CFR 364.21(i). (b) The State plan must— (1) Describe... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Innovation and expansion activities. 361.35 Section 361... Innovation and expansion activities. (a) The State plan must assure that the State will reserve and use...

  8. 34 CFR 361.35 - Innovation and expansion activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Council, consistent with the plan prepared under 34 CFR 364.21(i). (b) The State plan must— (1) Describe... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Innovation and expansion activities. 361.35 Section 361... Innovation and expansion activities. (a) The State plan must assure that the State will reserve and use...

  9. 34 CFR 361.35 - Innovation and expansion activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Council, consistent with the plan prepared under 34 CFR 364.21(i). (b) The State plan must— (1) Describe... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Innovation and expansion activities. 361.35 Section 361... Innovation and expansion activities. (a) The State plan must assure that the State will reserve and use...

  10. 34 CFR 361.35 - Innovation and expansion activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Council, consistent with the plan prepared under 34 CFR 364.21(i). (b) The State plan must— (1) Describe... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Innovation and expansion activities. 361.35 Section 361... Innovation and expansion activities. (a) The State plan must assure that the State will reserve and use...

  11. 34 CFR 361.35 - Innovation and expansion activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Council, consistent with the plan prepared under 34 CFR 364.21(i). (b) The State plan must— (1) Describe... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Innovation and expansion activities. 361.35 Section 361... Innovation and expansion activities. (a) The State plan must assure that the State will reserve and use...

  12. Marshak Lectureship Talk: Women in Physics in the Baltic States Region: Problems and Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satkovskiene, Dalia

    2008-03-01

    formulated. As changing the stereotypes is long lasting process it was decided firstly to concentrate strategy implementation plans on changes in science management policy tackling the problem from the top and allowing receive the most quick results. For this we created the regional Baltic States Network among the corresponding international women working groups, professional organizations (Scientific societies) and corresponding departments of the governmental institutions. BASNET also became a full member of European Platform of Women Scientists (EPWS)-prestige women organization signally influencing the European Community science policy.

  13. Response of the Baltic and North Seas to river runoff from the Baltic watershed - Physical and biological changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänninen, Jari; Vuorinen, Ilppo; Rajasilta, Marjut; Reid, Philip C.

    2015-11-01

    Selected Baltic Sea watershed River Runoff (BSRR) events during 1970-2000 were used as predictor in Generalised Linear Mixed Models (GLIMMIX) for evidence of simultaneous changes/chain of events (including possible time lags) in some chemical, physical and biological variables in the Baltic and North Sea ecosystems. Our aim was to explore for climatic-based explanation for ecological regime shifts that were documented semi-simultaneously in both ecosystems. Certain similarities were identified in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea salinity, oxygen concentration, temperature and phyto- and zooplankton parameters. These findings suggest that BSRR events which originate in the Baltic Sea catchment area modify and contribute to large scale ecosystem changes not only in the Baltic Sea, but also in the adjacent parts of the North Sea. However, the Baltic Sea inter-annual and inter-decadal variabilities of physical and biological parameters are driven by direct atmospheric forcing, typically with a relatively short lag. In contrast, such changes in the North Sea are influenced by both local and direct atmospheric forcing, typically with a longer lag than in the Baltic, and a more regional, indirect forcing from changes in the North Atlantic. We suggest that this interactive system partially is behind large scale ecosystem regime shifts found in both Seas. During our study period two such shifts have been identified independently from us in a study earlier in the Southern and Central Baltic in 1980s and 1990s and a later one in 2001/2002 in the North Sea. As a post hoc test we compared the 0+ year class strength of the North Sea herring with BSRR intensity, and found evidence for higher herring production in high BSRR periods, which further corroborates the idea of a remote effect from the large watershed area of the Baltic. Regime shifts as well as their semi-synchronous appearance in two neighbouring sea areas could be identified. GLIMMIX models provide opportunities for

  14. The acoustics of carved Baltic psaltery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peekna, Andres; Rossing, Thomas

    2001-05-01

    The Baltic psaltery family of plucked string instruments includes the kantele (Finland), the kannel (Estonia), the kokle (Latvia), the kankles (Lithuania), and the wing-shaped gusli (Northwestern Russia). In its archaic, carved form, it has a limited range, 5-13 strings, usually tuned diatonically. By means of electronic TV holography, we studied the modes of vibration of several psalteries based on historic instruments. On the better instruments, the main body resonances are well distributed in frequency so that they support the various strings. Good string-to-soundbox coupling also appears to play a role. A useful method for studying string-to-soundbox coupling involves scanning at intervals as low as 0.1 Hz for narrow peaks within the nominal tuning range of the strings, and comparing them to their neighboring body resonances, while using electronic TV holography. Predictions of the Helmholtz resonance from sound-hole dimensions and air-cavity volume while neglecting damping in the sound holes yield upper limits when many small sound holes are involved. The locations of the sound holes, as well as their area, are found to have significant effects on sound quality and volume.

  15. Evaluation of the Planning Target Volume in the Treatment of Head and Neck Cancer With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy: What Is the Appropriate Expansion Margin in the Setting of Daily Image Guidance?

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allen M.; Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang; Donald, Paul J.; Perks, Julian; Purdy, James A.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To compare patterns of disease failure among patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in conjunction with daily image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) for head and neck cancer, according to the margins used to expand the clinical target volume (CTV) to create a planning target volume (PTV). Methods and Materials: Two-hundred and twenty-five patients were treated with IMRT for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Daily IGRT scans were acquired using either kilovoltage or megavoltage volumetric imaging prior to each delivered fraction. The first 95 patients were treated with IMRT with 5-mm CTV-to-PTV margins. The subsequent 130 patients were treated using 3-mm PTV expansion margins. Results: Two-year estimates of overall survival, local-regional control, and distant metastasis-free survival were 76%, 78%, and 81%, respectively. There were no differences with respect to any of these endpoints among patients treated with 5-mm and 3-mm PTV expansion margins (p > 0.05, all). The 2-year local-regional control rate for patients treated with IMRT with 5-mm and 3-mm PTV margins was 78% and 78%, respectively (p = 0.96). Spatial evaluation revealed no differences in the incidences of marginal failures among those treated with 5-mm and 3-mm PTV margins. Conclusions: The use of 3-mm PTV expansion margins appears adequate and did not increase local-regional failures among patients treated with IMRT for head and neck cancer. These data demonstrate the safety of PTV reduction of less than 5 mm and support current protocols recommending this approach in the setting of daily IGRT.

  16. Projected habitat loss for Atlantic herring in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Illing, Björn; Moyano, Marta; Hufnagl, Marc; Peck, Myron A

    2016-02-01

    Projected, climate-driven changes in rainfall patterns are expected to alter the salinity (S) of estuaries and larger brackish water bodies, such as the Baltic Sea. Some marine fish larvae are potentially more sensitive to low salinity than older stages, hence we compared the low salinity tolerance of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) larvae at the individual and population levels including four populations in the North and Baltic Seas. Acute low salinity tolerance was similar (S = 1.9-2.7) across populations and increased with increasing body size. Based on this physiological threshold and a regionally down-scaled climate model, spawning habitats in the northern and eastern Baltic Sea are projected to be largely unsuitable for herring by 2100. Although adaptive mechanisms may attenuate the effect in some species, the limited physiological tolerance of fish larvae will remain an important bottleneck for the persistence of marine fish populations in brackish waters undergoing climate-driven freshening. PMID:26724744

  17. Paleozoic oil and gas complexes of the Baltic syneclise

    SciTech Connect

    Geodekyan, A.A.; Dubovskoy, I.T.; Kleshchev, K.A.; Mazur, V.B.; Ostrovskiy, M.I.; Sakalavskas, K.A.

    1981-10-01

    Principal directions for exploration of new commercial accumulations of oil and gas in the main Paleozoic prospective complexes in the Baltic syneclise, including its sea portion, have been based on an analysis of the lithologic-facies composition, structural features, attitude of the rocks, and the distribution of the reservoir horizons and possible different types of traps. The promise of the deep parts of the southeastern Baltic Sea region, where a large number of local uplifts have been identified, and traps of nonanticlinal and combined types have been recorded, is emphasized where the principal focus for the generation of oil hydrocarbons inthe Baltic syneclise is located. As compared with the land area, it is suggested that there is an increase in the supply stock and the capacity parameters of the traps and an improvement in the conditions of preservation of petroleum accumulations here.

  18. Oils and hydrocarbon source rocks of the Baltic syneclise

    SciTech Connect

    Kanev, S.; Margulis, L. ); Bojesen-Koefoed, J.A. ); Weil, W.A.; Merta, H. ); Zdanaviciute, O. )

    1994-07-11

    Prolific source rock horizons of varying thickness, having considerable areal extent, occur over the Baltic syneclise. These source sediments are rich and have excellent petroleum generation potential. Their state of thermal maturity varies form immature in the northeastern part of the syneclise to peak generation maturity in the southwestern part of the region-the main kitchen area. These maturity variations are manifest in petroleum composition in the region. Hence, mature oils occur in the Polish and Kaliningrad areas, immature oils in small accumulations in Latvian and central Lithuanian onshore areas, and intermediate oils in areas between these extremes. The oil accumulations probably result from pooling of petroleum generated from a number of different source rocks at varying levels of thermal maturity. Hence, no single source for petroleum occurrences in the Baltic syneclise may be identified. The paper describes the baltic syneclise, source rocks, thermal maturity and oils and extracts.

  19. The Baltic Sea natural long-term variability of salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimanke, Semjon; Markus Meier, H. E.

    2015-04-01

    The Baltic Sea is one of the largest brackish sea areas of the world. The sensitive state of the Baltic Sea is sustained by a fresh-water surplus by river discharge and precipitation on one hand as well as inflows of highly saline and oxygen-rich water masses from the North Sea on the other. Major inflows which are crucial for the renewal of the deep water occur very intermittent with a mean frequency of approximately one per year. Stagnation periods (periods without major inflows) lead for instance to a reduction of oxygen concentration in the deep Baltic Sea spreading hypoxic conditions. Depending on the amount of salt water inflow and fresh-water supply the deep water salinity of the Baltic Sea varies between 11 to 14 PSU on the decadal scale. The goal of this study is to understand the contribution of different driving factors for the decadal to multi-decadal variability of salinity in the Baltic Sea. Continuous measurement series of salinity exist from the 1950 but are not sufficiently long for the investigation of long-term fluctuations. Therefore, a climate simulation of more than 800 years has been carried out with the Rossby Center Ocean model (RCO). RCO is a biogeochemical regional climate model which covers the entire Baltic Sea. It is driven with atmospheric data dynamical downscaled from a GCM mimicking natural climate variability. The analysis focus on the role of variations in river discharge and precipitation, changes in wind speed and direction, fluctuations in temperature and shifts in large scale pressure patterns (e.g. NAO). Hereby, the length of the simulation will allow to identify mechanisms working on decadal to multi-decadal time scales. Moreover, it will be discussed how likely long stagnation periods are under natural climate variability and if the observed exceptional long stagnation period between 1983-1993 might be related to beginning climate change.

  20. Echoes from the past: a healthy Baltic Sea requires more effort.

    PubMed

    Kotilainen, Aarno T; Arppe, Laura; Dobosz, Slawomir; Jansen, Eystein; Kabel, Karoline; Karhu, Juha; Kotilainen, Mia M; Kuijpers, Antoon; Lougheed, Bryan C; Meier, H E Markus; Moros, Matthias; Neumann, Thomas; Porsche, Christian; Poulsen, Niels; Rasmussen, Peter; Ribeiro, Sofia; Risebrobakken, Bjørg; Ryabchuk, Daria; Schimanke, Semjon; Snowball, Ian; Spiridonov, Mikhail; Virtasalo, Joonas J; Weckström, Kaarina; Witkowski, Andrzej; Zhamoida, Vladimir

    2014-02-01

    Integrated sediment multiproxy studies and modeling were used to reconstruct past changes in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Results of natural changes over the past 6000 years in the Baltic Sea ecosystem suggest that forecasted climate warming might enhance environmental problems of the Baltic Sea. Integrated modeling and sediment proxy studies reveal increased sea surface temperatures and expanded seafloor anoxia (in deep basins) during earlier natural warm climate phases, such as the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Under future IPCC scenarios of global warming, there is likely no improvement of bottom water conditions in the Baltic Sea. Thus, the measures already designed to produce a healthier Baltic Sea are insufficient in the long term. The interactions between climate change and anthropogenic impacts on the Baltic Sea should be considered in management, implementation of policy strategies in the Baltic Sea environmental issues, and adaptation to future climate change. PMID:24414805

  1. Hot and Cold Ethnicities in the Baltic States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehala, Martin; Zabrodskaja, Anastassia

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the temperatures of the main ethnic groups in the Baltic states: Estonians, Latvians, Lithuanians, and their three Russian-speaking communities, and the Latgalian and Polish minority groups in Latvia and Lithuania, respectively. The study uses a triangulated methodology that includes a survey questionnaire for quantitative…

  2. Organic compounds in the water column of the eastern Baltic

    SciTech Connect

    Nemirovskaya, I.A.; Nesterova, M.P.; Pustel'nikov, O.S.

    1987-11-01

    This article describes the transport, distribution, concentration, chemistry, environmental consequences, and chemical control strategies of organic wastes--including waste hydrocarbons, industrial effluents and oil spills--in the Baltic Sea and in the regions along its shorelines. Data on seasonal and compositional variations in organic waste content are provided.

  3. Breaker zone aerosol dynamics in the southern Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Zielinski, T.; Zielinski, A.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents the results of lidar based investigations of aerosol concentrations and their size distributions over the breaker zones. The measurements were carried out under various weather conditions over breaker zones of the Gulf of Gdansk (1992) and from a station on the open Baltic Sea (International Experiment BAEX in 1993).

  4. Clustering in Engineering Education in the Baltic Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahrens, Andreas; Zascerinska, Jelena

    2011-01-01

    The contemporary situation in the Baltic region, namely, the lack of working places due to the structural problems, a high unemployment rate, the migration of highly qualified people and the low rate of self-employees, demands on innovation as an engine of the economic development with a strong impact on sustainable development in the European…

  5. Bird's nest fungi (Nidulariales: Nidulariaceae) in Baltic and Dominican amber.

    PubMed

    Poinar, George

    2014-03-01

    Nidula baltica sp. nov. and Cyathus dominicanus sp. nov. are described from Cenozoic Baltic and Dominican amber. These are the first fossil members of the Family Nidulariaceae and show that the basic characteristics of this group were already established some 40-50 million years ago. PMID:24607356

  6. The Professionalisation of Adult Educators in the Baltic States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jogi, Larissa; Gross, Marin

    2009-01-01

    Adult education and lifelong learning together form one of the priorities for development in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The important historical and social context in which the professional development of adult educators has been taking place in the Baltic States since they regained their independence in the 1990s is the changes that occurred…

  7. Past Occurrences of Hypoxia in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zillen, L.; Conley, D. J.; Bjorck, S.

    2007-12-01

    The hypoxic zone in the Baltic Sea has increased in area by about four times since 1950. Widespread oxygen deficiency below the halocline has severely reduced macro benthic communities in the Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Finland over the past decades and negatively effected food chain dynamics, fish habitats and fisheries in the entire Baltic Sea. In addition, hypoxia alters nutrient biogeochemical cycles. The cause of the increased hypoxia is believed to be enhanced eutrophication through increased anthropogenic input of nutrients, such as phosphorous and nitrogen. Conditions prior to the 1950s are considered as the benchmark and some authors suggest that the earlier Baltic Sea was an oligothrophic, clear-water body with oxygenated deep waters. By contrast, studies of short sediment cores reveal that hypoxia has been present in some of the deepest basins for at least the last 100-200 years. In addition, long sediment cores suggest that hypoxia in the Baltic Sea has occurred intermittently in deep basins over the last c. 8500 years. Thus, the occurrence of present day hypoxia in the deeper basins need not necessarily be attributed to human activity but rather to natural oceanographic, geologic and climate conditions. We present a compilation of previous publications that reported the occurrence of laminated sediments (i.e. a palaeo-proxy for hypoxia) in the Baltic Sea. This review shows that the deeper parts of the Baltic Sea have experienced either intermittent or more regular hypoxia during most of the Holocene and that more continuous laminations started to form c. 7800-8500 cal. yr BP ago, in association with the establishment of a permanent halocline during the transition from the Ancylus Lake to the Littorina Sea. Laminated sediments were more common during the early and late Holocene and coincided with intervals of high organic productivity (high TOC content) and high salinity during the Holocene Thermal Maximum and the Medieval Climate Optimum. This study

  8. IODP expedition 347: Baltic Sea basin paleoenvironment and biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrén, T.; Barker Jørgensen, B.; Cotterill, C.; Green, S.; IODP expedition 347 scientific party, the

    2015-12-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 347 cored sediments from different settings of the Baltic Sea covering the last glacial-interglacial cycle. The main aim was to study the geological development of the Baltic Sea in relation to the extreme climate variability of the region with changing ice cover and major shifts in temperature, salinity, and biological communities. Using the Greatship Manisha as a European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD) mission-specific platform, we recovered 1.6 km of core from nine sites of which four were additionally cored for microbiology. The sites covered the gateway to the North Sea and Atlantic Ocean, several sub-basins in the southern Baltic Sea, a deep basin in the central Baltic Sea, and a river estuary in the north. The waxing and waning of the Scandinavian ice sheet has profoundly affected the Baltic Sea sediments. During the Weichselian, progressing glaciers reshaped the submarine landscape and displaced sedimentary deposits from earlier Quaternary time. As the glaciers retreated they left a complex pattern of till, sand, and lacustrine clay, which in the basins has since been covered by a thick deposit of Holocene, organic-rich clay. Due to the stratified water column of the brackish Baltic Sea and the recurrent and widespread anoxia, the deeper basins harbor laminated sediments that provide a unique opportunity for high-resolution chronological studies. The Baltic Sea is a eutrophic intra-continental sea that is strongly impacted by terrestrial runoff and nutrient fluxes. The Holocene deposits are recorded today to be up to 50 m deep and geochemically affected by diagenetic alterations driven by organic matter degradation. Many of the cored sequences were highly supersaturated with respect to methane, which caused strong degassing upon core recovery. The depth distributions of conservative sea water ions still reflected the transition at the end of the last glaciation from fresh-water clays to

  9. Postglacial paleoceanographic environments in the Barents and Baltic seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, E. V.; Murdmaa, I. O.; Emelyanov, E. M.; Seitkalieva, E. A.; Radionova, E. P.; Alekhina, G. N.; Sloistov, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents reconstructions of ice sheet boundaries, lacustrine and marine paleobasins, as well as the connections of the Barents and Baltic seas with the North Atlantic from the Last Glacial Maximum to the Holocene. The reconstructions are based on original and published data obtained from the northern and western parts of the Barents Sea and Baltic depressions with account for the available regional schematic maps of deglaciation. The early deglaciation of the Scandinavian-Barents ice sheet culminated with the Bølling-Allerød interstadial (14.5-12.9 cal ka BP), which was characterized by a more vigorous Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and a corresponding increase in surface Atlantic water inflow into the Barents Sea through deep troughs. The Baltic Ice Lake (BIL) remained a dammed-up isolated basin during deglaciation from 16.0 to 11.7 cal ka BP. In the Younger Dryas (YD), the lake drained into the North Sea and was replaced by a brackish Yoldia Sea (YS) at the beginning of the Holocene (Preboreal, 11.7-10.7 cal ka BP), due to a limited connection between two basins through the Närke Strait. In the Barents Sea, the next increase in the Atlantic water influx into the deep basins corresponded to terminal YD and Preboreal events with a culmination in the Early Holocene. The Yoldia Sea became a lake again during the next stage, the Ancylus (~10.7-8.8 cal ka BP). Atlantic water inflow both into the Barents and Baltic seas varied during the Holocene, with a maximum contribution in the Early Holocene, when the Littorina Sea (LS, 8-4 cal ka BP) connection with the North Sea via the Danish Straits was formed to replace the Ancylus Lake. The recent, post-Littorina stage (PS, the last 4 cal ka) of the Baltic Sea evolution began in the Late Holocene.

  10. Methane fluxes and their controlling processes in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehder, G. J.; Fossing, H.; Lapham, L.; Endler, R.; Spiess, V.; Bruchert, V.; Nguyen, T.; Gülzow, W.; Schneider von Deimling, J.; Conley, D. J.; Jorgensen, B.

    2010-12-01

    The Baltic Sea is an ideal natural laboratory to study the methane cycle in the framework of diagenetic processes. With its brackish character and a gradient from nearly marine to almost limnic conditions, a strong permanent haline stratification leading to large vertical redox gradients in the water column, and a sedimentation history which resulted in the deposition of organic-rich young post-glacial sediments over older glacial and post-glacial strata with very low organic content, the Baltic allows to study the role of a variety of key parameters for early diagenetic processes including the methane cycle. Within the BONUS + Project “Baltic Gas”, a 3.5 week scientific expedition of RV Maria S. Merian in August 2010 was dedicated to study the methane cycle in the various basins of the Baltic Sea, with strong emphasis on the metabolic reactions of early diagenesis and the occurrence of shallow gas deposits. Various subbottom profiling systems were used to map the thickness and structure of organic-rich deposits and build the base for a detailed coring program for biogeochemical analysis, including methane, sulfur compounds, iron, and other compounds. Methane gradients in connection with the information of the areal extend of organic-rich deposits are used to estimate the diffusive flux from the sediments into the water column and the rate of methane oxidation, with changing importance of sulfate as oxidant along the salinity gradient. On selected key stations, rate measurements of methanogenic and methanotrophic reactions were executed. The methane distribution in the water column was comprehensively assessed, revealing amongst other findings a drastic increase in bottom water methane concentration between the post bloom summer situation and the situation in the winter of 2009, in connection to the occurrence of a benthic nepheloid layer. Air-sea flux measurements were executed along the ship’s track comprising all major basins of the Baltic. The talk gives

  11. An international scope of the regional journal Baltic Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartasiute, Stanislava

    2015-08-01

    The internationalization of publishing has been progressing in most fields of science, including astronomy and physics in particular. Along with high quality journals having a completely international readership, national and regional journals represent a significant part in number, whereas their average impact is very diverse and not always competitive. Based mainly on the Web of Science data, we will give a comparative analysis of astronomy journals published in/for countries with relatively small astronomical communities, such as Baltic and some Eastern European. Bibliometric statistics will be presented of one of such journals, Baltic Astronomy, established in 1992 as a result of cooperation between astronomers of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia. Since the first years of publishing this journal has been evolving from regional to the more internationalized status. The list of countries of contributing authors has expanded to 54, while only 19% of the articles are from the three Baltic countries, mainly from Lithuania (14%) and, to a much lesser extent, from Estonia (3%) and Latvia (2%). Recognizing the inadequacies of national and regional bases for dissemination and exchange of scientific information, the Baltic astronomical communities themselves move, however, towards internationalization: in international journals Latvia publishes twice and Estonia nearly ten times more articles than they do in Baltic Astronomy. Meanwhile Lithuanian astronomers publish nearly the same number of articles both outside and inside the region. In the light of progress being made toward consolidation of scholarly publications, a choice between a national/regional and international basis for publishing is becoming more decisive for the future of national and regional astronomy journals.

  12. Spectral quantification of Southern Baltic seabed roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szefler, K.; Tegowski, J.; Nowak, J.

    2012-12-01

    The work presents the fast and efficient tool for seafloor classification, where scales and shapes of geomorphological forms were taken into account. The precise bathymetry and seafloor texture was developed with multibeam echosounder at six different areas of size up to 10 by 20 km. This areas demonstrate typical geomorphological seafloor features of bottom relief at the southern Baltic Sea coastal waters. The acoustical measurements were accompanied by geological sampling and video inspection. High resolution mosaic maps were obtained as a result of multi-survey measurements with maximal spatial resolution of 0.05m. Such accuracy of the measurements allows to observe small geomorphologic forms as ripplemarks or pebbles. The most investigated polygons have bottom relief of polygenetic origin with relicts of periglacial forms together with contemporary forms of marine origin. In the studied areas different forms of sand accumulation were found, beginning with small ripplemarks ending at big sandy waves. In the seabed erosion zones the bottom surface is rough and varied with clearly formed embankments, abrasive platforms, inselbergs and stony gravely abrasive pavements on the bottom surface. Such geomorphic diversity of the bottom surface has allowed for development of consistent geomorphological classification system based mainly on spectral properties of seafloor roughness. Each analysed area was divided into squares (200 by 200 m) with an overlap between adjacent subareas of 75% a square size. Next, subdivided areas were spectrally transformed using a two dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D FFT). The spectral parameters as maximal value of spectral density function, spectral exponent and strength, spectral moments, mean frequency, spectral width and skewness for each characteristic type of bottom surface were determined relaying on the calculated 2D spectra. Moreover, other features characterised the corrugated surface as fractal dimension, radius of

  13. Near-Bottom Hypoxia Impacts Dynamics of Bacterioplankton Assemblage throughout Water Column of the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea)

    PubMed Central

    Laas, Peeter; Šatova, Elina; Lips, Inga; Lips, Urmas; Simm, Jaak; Kisand, Veljo; Metsis, Madis

    2016-01-01

    Over the past century the spread of hypoxia in the Baltic Sea has been drastic, reaching its ‘arm’ into the easternmost sub-basin, the Gulf of Finland. The hydrographic and climatological properties of the gulf offer a broad suite of discrete niches for microbial communities. The current study explores spatiotemporal dynamics of bacterioplankton community in the Gulf of Finland using massively parallel sequencing of 16S rRNA fragments obtained by amplifying community DNA from spring to autumn period. The presence of redoxcline and drastic seasonal changes make spatiotemporal dynamics of bacterioplankton community composition (BCC) and abundances in such estuary remarkably complex. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that analyses spatiotemporal dynamics of BCC in relation to phytoplankton bloom throughout the water column (and redoxcline), not only at the surface layer. We conclude that capability to survive (or benefit from) shifts between oxic and hypoxic conditions is vital adaptation for bacteria to thrive in such environments. Our results contribute to the understanding of emerging patterns in BCCs that occupy hydrographically similar estuaries dispersed all over the world, and we suggest the presence of a global redox- and salinity-driven metacommunity. These results have important implications for understanding long-term ecological and biogeochemical impacts of hypoxia expansion in the Baltic Sea (and similar ecosystems), as well as global biogeography of bacteria specialized inhabiting similar ecosystems. PMID:27213812

  14. Near-Bottom Hypoxia Impacts Dynamics of Bacterioplankton Assemblage throughout Water Column of the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea).

    PubMed

    Laas, Peeter; Šatova, Elina; Lips, Inga; Lips, Urmas; Simm, Jaak; Kisand, Veljo; Metsis, Madis

    2016-01-01

    Over the past century the spread of hypoxia in the Baltic Sea has been drastic, reaching its 'arm' into the easternmost sub-basin, the Gulf of Finland. The hydrographic and climatological properties of the gulf offer a broad suite of discrete niches for microbial communities. The current study explores spatiotemporal dynamics of bacterioplankton community in the Gulf of Finland using massively parallel sequencing of 16S rRNA fragments obtained by amplifying community DNA from spring to autumn period. The presence of redoxcline and drastic seasonal changes make spatiotemporal dynamics of bacterioplankton community composition (BCC) and abundances in such estuary remarkably complex. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that analyses spatiotemporal dynamics of BCC in relation to phytoplankton bloom throughout the water column (and redoxcline), not only at the surface layer. We conclude that capability to survive (or benefit from) shifts between oxic and hypoxic conditions is vital adaptation for bacteria to thrive in such environments. Our results contribute to the understanding of emerging patterns in BCCs that occupy hydrographically similar estuaries dispersed all over the world, and we suggest the presence of a global redox- and salinity-driven metacommunity. These results have important implications for understanding long-term ecological and biogeochemical impacts of hypoxia expansion in the Baltic Sea (and similar ecosystems), as well as global biogeography of bacteria specialized inhabiting similar ecosystems. PMID:27213812

  15. Evidence of chromosomal damage in common eiders (Somateria mollissima) from the Baltic Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matson, C.W.; Franson, J.C.; Hollmén, Tuula E.; Kilpi, Mikael; Hario, Martti; Flint, P.L.; Bickham, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Common eiders nesting in the Baltic Sea are exposed to generally high levels of contaminants including potentially genotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorines. Blood samples were collected from eiders at eight sites in the Baltic Sea and two sites in the Beaufort Sea. DNA content variation was estimated using the flow cytometric method, and subsequently utilized as a biomarker of genetic damage. We observed no significant differences in genetic damage among populations within either the Baltic or Beaufort Seas. However, eider populations from the Baltic Sea had significantly elevated estimates of genetic damage compared to populations from the Beaufort Sea.

  16. Evidence of chromosomal damage in common eiders (Somateria mollissima) from the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Matson, Cole W; Franson, J Christian; Hollmén, Tuula; Kilpi, Mikael; Hario, Martti; Flint, Paul L; Bickham, John W

    2004-12-01

    Common eiders nesting in the Baltic Sea are exposed to generally high levels of contaminants including potentially genotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorines. Blood samples were collected from eiders at eight sites in the Baltic Sea and two sites in the Beaufort Sea. DNA content variation was estimated using the flow cytometric method, and subsequently utilized as a biomarker of genetic damage. We observed no significant differences in genetic damage among populations within either the Baltic or Beaufort Seas. However, eider populations from the Baltic Sea had significantly elevated estimates of genetic damage compared to populations from the Beaufort Sea. PMID:15556194

  17. Anthropogenic and naturally produced brominated substances in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras) from two sites in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Dahlberg, Anna-Karin; Bignert, Anders; Legradi, Jessica; Legler, Juliette; Asplund, Lillemor

    2016-02-01

    In the eutrophicated Baltic Sea, several naturally produced hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) have been found in marine biota. OH-PBDEs are toxic to adult and developing zebrafish and shown to be potent disruptors of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Disturbed OXPHOS can result in altered energy metabolism and weight loss. In herring, the concentration of OH-PBDEs (i.e. 2'-OH-BDE68 and 6-OH-BDE47) has increased during the period 1980-2010 in the Baltic Proper. Over the same time period, the condition and fat content in Baltic herring have decreased. Given the toxicity and increasing trends of OH-PBDEs in Baltic herring it is important to further assess the exposure to OH-PBDEs in Baltic herring. In this study, the concentrations of OH-PBDEs and related brominated substances i.e. polybrominated phenols (PBPs), polybrominated anisoles (PBAs), methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in herring sampled in the northern Baltic Proper (Askö, n = 12) and the southern Bothnian Sea (Ängskärsklubb, n = 12). The geometric mean (GM) concentrations (ng/g l.w.) at Askö and Ängskärsklubb were; Σ2PBPs: 4.3 and 9.6, Σ(2)PBAs: 34 and 20, Σ(6)OH-PBDEs: 9.4 and 10, Σ(7)MeO-PBDEs: 42 and 150, Σ(6)PBDEs: 54 and 27, respectively. 6-OH-BDE47 dominated the OH-PBDE profile and comprised 87% (Askö) and 91% (Ängskärsklubb) of the ΣOH-PBDEs. At Ängskärsklubb the mean concentration of ΣMeO-PBDEs (150 ng/g l.w.) was 15 times higher than ΣOH-PBDEs. As other fish species are known to metabolically transform MeO-PBDEs to OH-PBDEs, high levels of MeO-PBDEs can be of concern as a precursor for more toxic OH-PBDEs in herring and their roe. PMID:26613358

  18. Evaluation of Baltic Sea transport properties using particle tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dargahi, Bijan; Cvetkovic, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    Particle tracking model (PTM) is an effective tool for quantifying transport properties of large water bodies such as the Baltic Sea. We have applied PTM to our fully calibrated and validated Baltic Sea 3D hydrodynamic model for a 10-years period (2000-9). One hundred particles were released at a constant rate during an initial 10-days period from all the Baltic Sea sub-basins, the major rivers, and the open boundary in the Arkona Basin. In each basin, the particles were released at two different depths corresponding to the deep water and middle water layers. The objectives of the PTM simulations were to analyse the intra-exchange processes between the Baltic Sea basins and to estimate the arrival times and the paths of particles released from the rivers. The novel contribution of this study is determining the paths and arrival times of deeper water masses rather than the surface masses. Advective and diffusive transport processes in the Bornholm and Arkona basins are both driven by the interacting flows of the northern basins of the Baltic Sea and the North Sea. Particles released from Arkona basin flows northwards along the Stople Channel. The Gotland basins are the major contributors to the exchange process in the Baltic Sea. We find high values of the advection ratio, indicative of a forced advective transport process. The Bay of Gdansk is probably the most vulnerable region in the Baltic Sea. This is despite the fact that the main exchanging basins are the Bornholm Sea and the Easter Gotland Basin. The main reason is the intensive supply of the particles from the northern basins that normally take about 3000 days to reach the Bay of Gdansk. The process maintains a high level of particle concentration (90%) along its coastlines even after the 10-years period. Comparing the particle paths in the Western and Eastern Gotland basins two interesting features were found. Particles travelled in all four directions in the former basin and the middle layer particles

  19. Projected future climate change and Baltic Sea ecosystem management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Agneta

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is likely to have large effects on the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Simulations indicate 2-4oC warming and 50-80% decreasing ice cover by 2100. Precipitation may increase ~30% in the north, causing increased land runoff of allochthonous organic matter (AOM) and organic pollutants. Salinity will decrease by about 2 units. Coupled physical-biogeochemical models indicate that in the south, bottom-water anoxia may spread, reducing cod recruitment and increasing sediment phosphorus release, promoting cyanobacterial blooms. In the north, heterotrophic bacteria will be favoured by AOM while phytoplankton may become hampered. More trophic levels in the food web will increase energy losses and consequently reduce fish production. Future management of the Baltic Sea must consider effects of climate change on the ecosystem dynamics and functions, as well as effects of anthrophogenic nutrient and pollutant load. Monitoring should have a holistic approach and encompass both autotrophic (phytoplankton) and heterotrophic (e.g. bacterial) processes.

  20. A new proposal concerning the botanical origin of Baltic amber

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Alexander P.; Tappert, Ralf; Muehlenbachs, Karlis; Boudreau, Marc; McKellar, Ryan C.; Basinger, James F.; Garrett, Amber

    2009-01-01

    Baltic amber constitutes the largest known deposit of fossil plant resin and the richest repository of fossil insects of any age. Despite a remarkable legacy of archaeological, geochemical and palaeobiological investigation, the botanical origin of this exceptional resource remains controversial. Here, we use taxonomically explicit applications of solid-state Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy, coupled with multivariate clustering and palaeobotanical observations, to propose that conifers of the family Sciadopityaceae, closely allied to the sole extant representative, Sciadopitys verticillata, were involved in the genesis of Baltic amber. The fidelity of FTIR-based chemotaxonomic inferences is upheld by modern–fossil comparisons of resins from additional conifer families and genera (Cupressaceae: Metasequoia; Pinaceae: Pinus and Pseudolarix). Our conclusions challenge hypotheses advocating members of either of the families Araucariaceae or Pinaceae as the primary amber-producing trees and correlate favourably with the progressive demise of subtropical forest biomes from northern Europe as palaeotemperatures cooled following the Eocene climate optimum. PMID:19570786

  1. Investigating the Structural Evolution of the Western Baltic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübscher, C.; Lykke-Anderson, H.; Hansen, M. Bak; Reicherter, K.

    2004-03-01

    The western Baltic Sea, located along the northern margin of the Central European Basin System (CEBS), is a world-class site for investigating the dynamics and stratigraphic evolution of a continental basin with marine geophysical data acquisition techniques. The universities of Aarhus and Hamburg have joined forces to investigate the post-Permian-to-recent structural evolution of the western Baltic, with special emphasis on neotectonic re-activation along major structural lineaments. Deep crustal structures of the CEBS are well established from previous studies. However, no systematic and localized research has yet been carried out to investigate the neotectonic activity in this region. In fact, the limited seismic resolution of previously available data prevented detailed research on Mesozoic and Cenozoic evolution or neotectonics.

  2. Numerical investigations of future ice conditions in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Haapala, J; Meier, H E; Rinne, J

    2001-08-01

    Global climate changes is expected to have an effect on the physical and ecological characteristics of the Baltic Sea. Estimates of future climate on the regional scale can be obtained by using either statistical or dynamical downscaling methods of global AOGCM scenario results. In this paper, we use 2 different coupled ice-ocean models of the Baltic Sea to simulate present and future ice conditions around 100 years from present. Two 10-year time slice experiments have been performed using the results of atmospheric climate model simulations as forcing, one representing pre-industrial climate conditions (control simulation), and the other global warming with a 150% increase in CO2 greenhouse gas concentration (scenario simulation). Present-day climatological ice conditions and interannual variability are realistically reproduced by the models. The simulated range of the maximum annual ice extent in the Baltic in both models together is 180 to 420 x 10(3) km2 in the control simulation and 45 to 270 x 10(3) km2 in the scenario simulation. The range of the maximum annual ice thickness is from 32 to 96 cm and from 11 to 60 cm in the control and scenario simulations, respectively. In contrast to earlier estimates, sea ice is still formed every winter in the Northern Bothnian Bay and in the most Eastern parts of the Gulf of Finland. Overall, the simulated changes of quantities such as ice extent and ice thickness, as well as their interannual variations are relatively similar in both models, which is remarkable, because the 2 coupled ice-ocean model systems have been developed independently. This increases the reliability of future projections of ice conditions in the Baltic Sea. PMID:11697256

  3. Access to distributed marine databases on the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, A.; Axe, P.; Bock, S.; Kaitala, S.; Manscher, O. H.; Rodriguez-Medina, M.; Olsonen, R.; Priha, I.; Tikka, K.

    2012-04-01

    Baltic Nest Institute, Stockholm University (Sweden) in cooperation with Department of Bioscience/DCE, National Centre for Environment and Energy, Aarhus University (Denmark), Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research (Germany), Finnish Environment Institute, Finnish Meteorological Institute and Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute developed a data assessment system, aimed at providing tools for online analysis of marine environmental data (temperature, salinity, chemical properties) from distributed collection of databases on the Baltic Sea. Such approach allows users to have fast access to the most recent data from all major data providers and providers remain in control of their data. The system contains a web data portal, which provides concurrent access to distributed marine databases and presents information in a unified way. Two client programs use the data portal and provide tools to analyse the data. The DAS - Data Assimilation System (http://nest.su.se/das/) accesses databases through the data portal and allow analysing the raw data and creating gridded data, which can be used as initial fields for 3D hydrodynamic models. A decision support system Nest (http://nest.su.se/nest/) developed and maintained at the Stockholm University as a tool to support decision-making at international negotiations regarding the Baltic Sea environment also uses the data portal to access marine data, provide access to the raw data and perform time-series analysis. The data portal designed to output data in a common format (CSV) for further post-processing using other software. It makes the system open to develop another client programs for data analysis.

  4. Characterisation of juvenile flatfish habitats in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florin, Ann-Britt; Sundblad, Göran; Bergström, Ulf

    2009-04-01

    Survival and growth of the earliest life-stages is considered a key factor in determining the abundance of many marine fish species. For flatfishes, the availability of high quality nursery areas is essential for successful recruitment. Regarding the Baltic Sea, there are large gaps in knowledge on factors that influence the distribution of flatfishes during this sensitive stage. To identify the characteristics of important nursery areas in the Baltic for flounder ( Platichthys flesus) and turbot ( Psetta maxima), a field survey with push net sampling was conducted in the northern Baltic proper during autumn 2006. The sampling stations were stratified to cover several different habitat types defined by substrate and wave exposure. Apart from density of young-of-the-year (YOY) flatfishes, a number of ecological characteristics of the habitat were recorded. Physical habitat variables included substrate type, salinity, depth, turbidity, vegetation and habitat structure. Variables describing biotic processes, such as prey availability and abundance of competitors, were also sampled. The relationships between the spatial distribution of species and these ecological characteristics were fitted to presence/absence data of juvenile flatfish using generalized additive models (GAM). The best habitat descriptors for flounder in order of contribution were: substrate, habitat structure, salinity, wave exposure and occurrence of filamentous algae. Positive effects of increasing wave exposure, salinity and structure were detected while a high cover of filamentous algae had a negative effect. Sand and gravel were preferred over soft and stony substrates. For turbot the best habitat descriptors in order of contribution were: occurrence of filamentous algae, substrate and turbidity. Turbot showed a preference for areas with a low cover of filamentous algae, high turbidity and sandy substrate. Prey availability and abundance of competitors were not included in the models, indicating

  5. Regional Ocean Colour Remote Sensing Algorithm for the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hieronymi, Martin; Muller, Dagmar; Krasemann, Hajo; Schonfeld, Wolfgang; Rottgers, Rudiger; Doerffer, Roland

    2015-12-01

    The Baltic Sea is a challenging study site from an optically point of view. Its partly highly absorbing waters are mainly associated with the presence of coloured dissolved organic matter and often accompanied by non-algae absorbing particles. In addition, the Baltic Sea area is characterised by massive annual surface blooms of cyanobacteria. In Europe, the Baltic Sea is a very specific and important case study with intense user interest. In the framework of different research projects as the “Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative”, the “SEOM OC Extreme Case 2 Waters”, and partly “MyOcean”, we aim to develop an optimised, error-characterised, regional ocean colour processor applicable to several satellite sensors, like MODIS, MERIS, VIIRS, and OLCI. The procedure, which is used to determine inherent optical properties and different water constituents’ concentrations from remote sensing reflectance, is an artificial Neural Network (NN). We provide first results of comparisons of in-situ data with different ocean colour products.

  6. Genetic structure of whitefish (Coregonus maraena) in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, Jens; Florin, Ann-Britt; Mo, Kerstin; Aho, Teija; Ryman, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Stocks of whitefish ( Coregonus maraena) in the northern part of the Baltic Sea have in many areas declined drastically during recent years. Causes for the decline are yet not fully understood, but knowledge on the genetic population structure of the species is pivotal for future conservation measures. In this study we analyse the genetic variation at seven microsatellite loci for whitefish from 18 different sites along the Swedish coast of the Baltic Sea. We found a strong dependence of isolation by distance ( R = 0.73), and a week but rather fine scaled genetic structure. In addition, there were differences between more northern and southern sites in the population genetic structure, where the degree of differentiation appears to be stronger in the north compared to the south. The results suggest that whitefish is a species suitable for local management with a regional context of the management strategy. In addition, the findings corroborate what is previously known for other coastal fish species in the Baltic Sea, such as perch and pike, suggesting that the majority of gene flow occurs between adjacent areas. Finally, our results highlight the potential for genetic subdivision even when the dependence of isolation by distance is strong.

  7. Changes in extreme sea levels in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieterich, Christian; Gröger, Matthias; Andersson, Helén; Nerheim, Signild; Jönsson, Anette

    2016-04-01

    A newly developed shallow water model for the Baltic Sea and North Sea is presented. The model is validated by means of a comparison with hindcast simulations with observational data sets. The aim of the development is to provide and apply a modelling tool to model extreme sea levels in the Baltic Sea, Kattegat and Skagerrak. The model approach will support the direct analysis of extreme sea level observations in the past and provide the possibility to extend the statistical data base by producing very long time series or very large ensembles of coastal sea levels. This effort is intended to contribute to an assessment of risks due to storm surges and coastal flooding in the 21st century along the coast of Sweden. By using different RCP climate scenarios downscaled with a regional, coupled climate model atmospheric forcing is available to project possible changes in extreme sea levels into the future. Projected sea level rise, changes in dynamical sea level in the North East Atlantic and tidal forcing in the northern North Sea are applied as boundary condition which allows to investigate their impact on the dynamics of regional sea level variability. Initial experiments focus on the impact of model resolution, resolution in the atmospheric forcing and the amount of details necessary in the bathymetry to faithfully model coastal sea level in the Baltic Sea and North Sea.

  8. A new radiation model for Baltic Sea ecosystem modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Thomas; Siegel, Herbert; Gerth, Monika

    2015-12-01

    Photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) is one of the key requirements for primary production in the ocean. The ambient PAR is determined by incoming solar radiation and optical properties of sea water and the optically active water constituents along the radiation pathway. Especially in coastal waters, the optical properties are affected by terrigenous constituents like yellow substances as well as high primary production. Numerical models for marine ecosystems account for the optical attenuation process in different ways and details. For the consideration of coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and shading effects of phytoplankton particles, we propose a dynamic parametrization for the Baltic Sea. Furthermore, products from biological turnover processes are implemented. Besides PAR and its attenuation coefficient, the model calculates the Secchi disk depth, a simple measurable parameter describing the transparency of the water column and a water quality parameter in the European Water Framework Directive. The components of the proposed optical model are partly implemented from other publications respectively derived from our own measurements for the area of investigation. The model allows a better representation of PAR with a more realistic spatial and temporal variability compared to former parametrizations. The effect is that regional changes of primary production, especially in the northern part of the Baltic Sea, show reduced productivity due to higher CDOM concentrations. The model estimates for Secchi disk depth are much more realistic now. In the northern Baltic Sea, simulated oxygen concentrations in deep water have improved considerably.

  9. Mass Balance of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A mass balance was assembled for perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in the Baltic Sea. Inputs (from riverine discharge, atmospheric deposition, coastal wastewater discharges, and the North Sea) and outputs (to sediment burial, transformation of the chemical, and the North Sea), as well as the inventory in the Baltic Sea, were estimated from recently published monitoring data. Formation of the chemicals in the water column from precursors was not considered. River inflow and atmospheric deposition were the dominant inputs, while wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents made a minor contribution (<5%). A mass balance of the Oder River watershed was assembled to explore the sources of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the river inflow. It indicated that WWTP effluents made only a moderate contribution to riverine discharge (21% for PFOA, 6% for PFOS), while atmospheric deposition to the watershed was 1–2 orders of magnitude greater than WWTP discharges. The input to the Baltic Sea exceeded the output for all four PFAAs, suggesting that inputs were higher during 2005–2010 than during the previous 20 years despite efforts to reduce emissions of PFAAs. One possible explanation is the retention and delayed release of PFAAs from atmospheric deposition in the soils and groundwater of the watershed. PMID:23528236

  10. On the causes of major Baltic inflows —an analysis of long time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schinke, Holger; Matthäus, Wolfgang

    1998-01-01

    Conditions for life in the deep water of the Baltic Sea are strongly influenced by inflows of highly saline and oxygenated water from the North Sea. These events - termed major Baltic inflows (MBI) - have episodic character, and are the only mechanisms by which the central Baltic deep water is renewed. Although the cycle of water renewal is well documented, certain meteorological and oceanographic processes determining it are either not very well understood or even partly unknown. Based on the data set of major inflows during the present century, long time series of relevant variables from the Baltic Sea itself (salinity, sea level), its drainage area (river runoff, precipitation), the whole Baltic region (air temperature) and from the North Atlantic and Europe (sea level pressure) are analyzed using statistical methods. Characteristic variations in the relevant meteorological, hydrological and oceanographic variables before and during major events are calculated in order to identify conditions favouring or preventing such events. Major Baltic inflows are characterized by two phases: (1) high pressure over the Baltic region with easterly winds followed by (2) several weeks of strong zonal wind and pressure fields over the North Atlantic and Europe. Major events may occur when only one of these is well developed, the probability of strong events is high if both phases are well developed and closely spaced in time. Variations in river runoff to the Baltic obviously have a greater impact on the occurrence of major events then hitherto supposed. The decreasing frequency and intensity of major inflows since the mid-1970s and the complete absence of such events from February 1983 to the beginning of 1993 is explained by increased zonal circulation linked with intensified precipitation in the Baltic region and increased river runoff to the Baltic. Possible anthropogenic impacts on changes in occurrence of major inflows due to river runoff regulations are indicated. The

  11. A gilled mushroom, Gerontomyces lepidotus gen. et sp. nov. (Basidiomycota: Agaricales), in Baltic amber.

    PubMed

    Poinar, George

    2016-09-01

    A densely scaled small mushroom in Baltic amber is described as Gerontomyces lepidotus gen. et sp. nov. and is characterized by a convex pileus 1.0 mm in diameter, distant to subdistant lamellae with smooth margins and a centrally inserted cylindrical, solid stipe. Its taxonomic placement is uncertain. This is the first mushroom described from Baltic amber. PMID:27567715

  12. Upwardly Mobile Languages: The Politics of Language in the Baltic States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozolins, Uldis

    1994-01-01

    Examines language policy in the Baltic states since they regained their independence from the Soviet Union. The article argues that each Baltic state has substantially realized its language policy aims and that the favorable response to language requirements at the group and individual level signals the extraordinary reversal of a colonial…

  13. The diet of whiting Merlangius merlangus in the western Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Ross, S D; Gislason, H; Andersen, N G; Lewy, P; Nielsen, J R

    2016-05-01

    The diet of whiting Merlangius merlangus in the western Baltic Sea was investigated and compared to the diet in the southern North Sea. Clupeids were important prey in both areas, but especially in the western Baltic Sea where they constituted up to 90% of the diet of larger individuals. Gobies, brown shrimps and polychaetes were the main prey of juveniles in the western Baltic Sea, while a wider range of species were consumed in the North Sea. The shift to piscivory occurred at smaller sizes in the western Baltic Sea and the fish prey consumed was proportionately larger than in the southern North Sea. Estimates of prey abundance and food intake of M. merlangus are required to evaluate its predatory significance in the western Baltic Sea, but its diet suggests that it could be just as significant a fish predator here as in the southern North Sea. PMID:27005681

  14. Atmospheric phosphorus load to the Baltic Sea - first measurements at the Utö Atmospheric and Marine Research station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruoho-Airola, Tuija; Saarnio, Karri; Hemmilä, Marja; Knuuttila, Seppo; Makkonen, Ulla; Vuorenmaa, Jussi

    2015-04-01

    The HELCOM (Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission) Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) has the overall objective of reaching the Baltic Sea in a good environmental status by 2021. The HELCOM Contracting Parties have agreed to restrict their nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea according to the BSAP Maximum Allowable Inputs (MAI) of nitrogen and phosphorus (P), which base on the eutrophication targets. Both waterborne and airborne loads should be taken into account in the implementation of the country allocation of nutrient reductions. The waterborne P load is regularly assessed in detail, whereas for the airborne part a very preliminary estimate is available due to insufficient monitoring data. At present a fixed estimate of 5 mg m-2 of atmospheric P deposition per year is used in the BSAP implementation. Measurements of bulk deposition and particulate concentration of P have been performed at the Utö Atmospheric and Marine Research station (59° 46'50N, 21° 22'23E) at the outer edge of the Archipelago Sea. Utö is a small rocky island without any arable land, so the local anthropogenic P emissions are low. Weekly bulk deposition measurements started in February, 2013 and the weekly sampling for the PM2.5 and the daily sampling for PM10 in 2014. Based on the results of the first year of the bulk deposition measurements, the annual wet deposition of total P in precipitation was nearly 5 mg m-2. For soluble PO4-P, the wet deposition in precipitation was about 2 mg m-2. The maximum concentrations were measured in late spring and in summer during the biological growing period. The level of the soluble PO4-P concentration in the PM10 particles was lower during the winter months (median 6 ng m-3) compared to the growing season (median 10 ng m-3). In fine particles (PM2.5), the PO4-P level was lower (1-2 ng m-3) than in the PM10 samples, often under the detection level of the IC method used. Natural biogenic aerosols like pollen, algae and fragments of leaves are

  15. Towards uncertainty estimation for operational forecast products - a multi-model-ensemble approach for the North Sea and the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golbeck, Inga; Li, Xin; Janssen, Frank

    2014-05-01

    Several independent operational ocean models provide forecasts of the ocean state (e.g. sea level, temperature, salinity and ice cover) in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea on a daily basis. These forecasts are the primary source of information for a variety of information and emergency response systems used e.g. to issue sea level warnings or carry out oil drift forecast. The forecasts are of course highly valuable as such, but often suffer from a lack of information on their uncertainty. With the aim of augmenting the existing operational ocean forecasts in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea by a measure of uncertainty a multi-model-ensemble (MME) system for sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface salinity (SSS) and water transports has been set up in the framework of the MyOcean-2 project. Members of MyOcean-2, the NOOS² and HIROMB/BOOS³ communities provide 48h-forecasts serving as inputs. Different variables are processed separately due to their different physical characteristics. Based on the so far collected daily MME products of SST and SSS, a statistical method, Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis is applied to assess their spatial and temporal variability. For sea surface currents, progressive vector diagrams at specific points are consulted to estimate the performance of the circulation models especially in hydrodynamic important areas, e.g. inflow/outflow of the Baltic Sea, Norwegian trench and English Channel. For further versions of the MME system, it is planned to extend the MME to other variables like e.g. sea level, ocean currents or ice cover based on the needs of the model providers and their customers. It is also planned to include in-situ data to augment the uncertainty information and for validation purposes. Additionally, weighting methods will be implemented into the MME system to develop more complex uncertainty measures. The methodology used to create the MME will be outlined and different ensemble products will be presented. In

  16. Lead mobilization during tectonic reactivation of the western Baltic Shield

    SciTech Connect

    Romer, R.L. Luleaa Univ. ); Wright, J.E. )

    1993-06-01

    Lead isotope data from sulfide deposits of the western part of the Baltic Shield define mixing lines in the [sup 206]Pb/[sup 204]Pb-[sup 207]Pb/[sup 204]Pb diagram. Lead from two types of sulfide deposits have been investigated: (1) Exhalative and volcanogenic deposits that are syngenetic with their host rocks; and (2) vein deposits. The syngenetic deposits locally show a very wide range of lead isotopic compositions that reflect a variable addition of highly radiogenic lead, while the vein deposits, although they have radiogenic lead isotopic compositions, exhibit only limited isotopic variations. In different provinces of the shield, both types of deposits fall on the same lead mixing array. The slope of the lead mixing lines varies as a function of the age of basement rocks and the age of the tectonic event which produced the lead mobilization and therefore relates the source rock age with the age of lead mobilization. Calculated mixing ages fall into several short time periods that correspond either to orogenic events or to major phases of continental rifting. The orogenic events are the ca 360--430 Ma Caledonian, ca 900--1100 Ma Sveconorwegian, and the ca 1800--1900 Ma Svecofennian orogenic cycles. The rifting events correspond to the formation of the ca 280 Ma Oslo rift and the Ordovician (ca 450 Ma) graben system in the area of the present Gulf of Bothnia. Each mixing age indicates that lead was mobilized, probably as a consequence of mild thermal disturbances, and that the crust was permeable to lead migration. The data show that the geographic distribution of sulfide deposits with highly radiogenic lead isotopic compositions coincides with old graben systems, orogenic belts, and orogenic forelands on the Baltic Shield. The ages of vein deposits and their geographic distribution demonstrate multiple tectonic reactivation of the interior of the Baltic Shield in response to orogenic events at its margin. 68 refs., 6 refs., 4 tabs.

  17. Ice-ocean-ecosystem operational model of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janecki, M.; Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, L.; Jakacki, J.; Nowicki, A.

    2012-04-01

    3D-CEMBS is a fully coupled model adopted for the Baltic Sea and have been developed within the grant, wchich is supported by the Polish State Committee of Scientific Reasearch. The model is based on CESM1.0 (Community Earth System Model), in our configuration it consists of two active components (ocean and ice) driven by central coupler (CPL7). Ocean (POP version 2.1) and ice models (CICE model, version 4.0) are forced by atmospheric and land data models. Atmospheric data sets are provided by ICM-UM model from University of Warsaw. Additionally land model provides runoff of the Baltic Sea (currently 78 rivers). Ecosystem model is based on an intermediate complexity marine ecosystem model for the global domain (J.K. Moore et. al., 2002) and consists of 11 main components: zooplankton, small phytoplankton, diatoms, cyanobacteria, two detrital classes, dissolved oxygen and the nutrients nitrate, ammonium, phosphate and silicate. The model is configured at two horizontal resolutions, approximately 9km and 2km (1/12° and 1/48° respectively). The model bathymetry is represented as 21 vertical levels and the thickness of the first four layers were chosen to be five metres. 3D-CEMBS model grid is based on stereographic coordinates, but equator of these coordinates is in the centre of the Baltic Sea (rotated stereographic coordinates) and we can assume that shape of the cells are square and they are identical. Currently model works in a operational state. The model creates 48-hour forecasts every 6 hours (or when new atmospheric dataset is available). Prognostic variables such as temperature, salinity, ice cover, currents, sea surface height and phytoplankton concentration are presented online on a the website and are available for registered users. Also time series for any location are accessible. This work was carried out in support of grant No NN305 111636 and No NN306 353239 - the Polish state Committee of Scientific Research. The partial support for this study was

  18. PREFACE: 5th Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezinskis, G.; Bragina, L.; Colombo, P.; Frischat, G. H.; Grabis, J.; Greil, P.; Deja, J.; Kaminskas, R.; Kliava, J.; Medvids, A.; Nowak, I.; Siauciunas, R.; Valancius, Z.; Zalite, I.

    2011-12-01

    Logo This Volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering presents a selection of the contributions to the 5th Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials (BaltSilica2011) held at Riga Technical University, Riga, Latvia from 23-25 May 2011. The conference was organized by Riga Technical University (Latvia) and Kaunas University of Technology (Lithuania). The series of Baltic conferences on silicate materials was started since 2004: the first conference was held in Riga, Latvia, 2004; the second conference was held in Kaunas, Lithuania 2005; the third was held again in Riga, Latvia, 2007, and the fourth was held in Kaunas, Lithuania 2009. BaltSilica 2011 was attended by around 50 participants from Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Germany, Poland, Italy, France, Ukraine and Russia. In comparison with previous silicate materials conferences, the broadening of participating countries is an indication of the interest of scientists, engineers and students to exchange research ideas, latest results, and to find new research topics for cooperation in the fields of silicate, high temperature materials, and inorganic nanomaterials. The scientific programme included 8 invited plenary lectures 23 oral presentations and 25 posters [1]. Scientific themes covered in the conference and in this special issue: Natural and Artificial Stone Materials; Traditional and New Ceramic and Glass-Like Materials; Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials. This volume consists of 23 selected proceeding papers. The Editor of this special issue is grateful to all the contributors to BaltSilica 2011. I am also very grateful to the scientific committee, the local organizing committee, the session chairs, the referees who refereed the submitted articles to this issue, and to students from the Department of Silicate, High Temperature and Inorganic Nanomaterials Technology of the Riga Technical University who ensured the smooth running of the conference. Particular thanks goes to eight plenary

  19. Early Holocene lake ecosystem development in the southern Baltic lowlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Słowiński, Michał; Ott, Florian; Kramkowski, Mateusz; Noryśkiewicz, Agnieszka M.; Zawiska, Izabela; Dräger, Nadine; Theuerkauf, Martin; Hass, Christoph; Obremska, Milena; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Kordowski, Jarosław; Tjallingii, Rik; Rzodkiewicz, Monika; Schwab, Markus; Brauer, Achim

    2016-04-01

    The first millennia of the Holocene are characterized by gradual and rapid environmental changes following the warming at the beginning of the Holocene superimposed by short-term climatic instability. Landscape evolution during this period occurred at different time scales due to specific response times of landscape compartments like vegetation succession, soil formation and permafrost thawing. As a consequence, a spatiotemporally heterogeneous pattern of changes occurred particularly in regions close to the margins of the continental ice sheets like the Baltic region. Regional atmospheric circulation patterns were affected by cold catabatic winds from the remains of the Fennoscandian ice sheet. The ongoing deglaciation further influenced the regional climate through meltwater release and related changes in the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation. Both effects declined with the progressive ice sheet melt down. Additionally, the land-sea distribution in the North Sea changed drastically during the final melting phase of the glacial ice sheets. The Baltic Sea development is even more complex due to the strong glacio-isostatic adjustments effects that resulted in open and closed water stages affecting the entire Baltic realm. Consequently, the early Holocene interval of sediment records from the southern Baltic lowlands are not considered as straightforward palaeoclimate archives but need to be interpreted in a broader context. We present five partly varved lake records from northern Poland all including an intriguing highly organic-rich interval interrupting biochemical calcite precipitation at about the same time between 10.5 and 10.2 cal kyr BP. These sediment records have been correlated by independent age models based on varve counting, AMS 14C dating, biostratigraphy and tephrochronology. We present multi-proxy records of early Holocene sediments and our preliminary interpretation suggests hydrological processes as the main reason for the intriguing shifts

  20. An ant-associated mesostigmatid mite in Baltic amber

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Jason A.; Kontschán, Jenő; Walter, David E.; Perrichot, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Fossil mesostigmatid mites (Acari: Parasitiformes: Mesostigmata) are extremely rare, and specimens from only nine families, including four named species, have been described so far. A new record of Myrmozercon sp. described here from Eocene (ca 44–49 Myr) Baltic amber represents the first—and so far only—fossil example of the derived, extant family Laelapidae. Significantly, modern species of this genus are habitually myrmecophilous and the fossil mite described here is preserved attached to the head of the dolichoderine ant Ctenobethylus goepperti (Mayr, 1868). It thus offers the oldest unequivocal evidence for an ecological association between mesostigmatid mites and social insects in the order Hymenoptera. PMID:25209198

  1. Pen Branch delta expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.A.; Christensen, E.J.; Mackey, H.E.; Sharitz, R.R.; Jensen, J.R.; Hodgson, M.E.

    1984-02-01

    Since 1954, cooling water discharges from K Reactor ({anti X} = 370 cfs {at} 59 C) to Pen Branch have altered vegetation and deposited sediment in the Savannah River Swamp forming the Pen Branch delta. Currently, the delta covers over 300 acres and continues to expand at a rate of about 16 acres/yr. Examination of delta expansion can provide important information on environmental impacts to wetlands exposed to elevated temperature and flow conditions. To assess the current status and predict future expansion of the Pen Branch delta, historic aerial photographs were analyzed using both basic photo interpretation and computer techniques to provide the following information: (1) past and current expansion rates; (2) location and changes of impacted areas; (3) total acreage presently affected. Delta acreage changes were then compared to historic reactor discharge temperature and flow data to see if expansion rate variations could be related to reactor operations.

  2. Weakly relativistic plasma expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Fermous, Rachid Djebli, Mourad

    2015-04-15

    Plasma expansion is an important physical process that takes place in laser interactions with solid targets. Within a self-similar model for the hydrodynamical multi-fluid equations, we investigated the expansion of both dense and under-dense plasmas. The weakly relativistic electrons are produced by ultra-intense laser pulses, while ions are supposed to be in a non-relativistic regime. Numerical investigations have shown that relativistic effects are important for under-dense plasma and are characterized by a finite ion front velocity. Dense plasma expansion is found to be governed mainly by quantum contributions in the fluid equations that originate from the degenerate pressure in addition to the nonlinear contributions from exchange and correlation potentials. The quantum degeneracy parameter profile provides clues to set the limit between under-dense and dense relativistic plasma expansions at a given density and temperature.

  3. Thermal Expansion "Paradox."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakhruddin, Hasan

    1993-01-01

    Describes a paradox in the equation for thermal expansion. If the calculations for heating a rod and subsequently cooling a rod are determined, the new length of the cool rod is shorter than expected. (PR)

  4. Prospects of the New Science and Outreach Network Baltic Earth with Results of the Second Climate Change Assessment for the Baltic Sea Region (BACC II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reckermann, M.; Von Storch, H.; Omstedt, A. T.; Meier, M.; Rutgersson, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Baltic Sea region in Northern Europe spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most intensively studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. A major outcome of Baltic Earth will be the update of the BALTEX Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin (BACC II). This new study after 5 years finds the results of BACC I still valid. Climate change can be detected at the regional scale but attribution is still weak. The effect of changing atmospheric aerosol loads and land use change is largely unknown so far and needs further attention in the coming years. For the observed changes in biogeochemical and ecological systems, multiple drivers are at work of which climate change is one. Their relative importance still needs to be evaluated. When addressing climate change impacts on e.g. forestry, agriculture, urban

  5. Trauma research in the Baltic countries: from political oppression to recovery

    PubMed Central

    Kazlauskas, Evaldas; Zelviene, Paulina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of traumatic stress studies from the three Baltic countries—Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia—and reveal how specific social context contributes to the topics relevant in traumatic stress field in the region. Traumatic stress studies in the Baltic countries are closely related to the complicated history of the region. It was only since the restoration of independence of the Baltic States in the 1990s when traumatic stress studies could emerge. The start of the psychotraumatology in the Baltic States was inspired by the interest of the psychological effects of political violence. Four major topics in traumatic stress literature from the Baltic countries were identified in this article: political violence studies, epidemiology of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), disaster studies, and developmental aspects of trauma. Traumatic events prevalence was reported between 70 and 75%, and PTSD prevalence range 2–7% in the Baltic countries. The interest in psychotraumatology in the Baltic countries is rising. PMID:26996532

  6. Microsatellite variation in ringed seals (Phoca hispida): genetic structure and history of the Baltic Sea population.

    PubMed

    Palo, J U; Mäkinen, H S; Helle, E; Stenman, O; Väinölä, R

    2001-05-01

    Genetic variability and population structure of Baltic ringed seals and an Arctic reference population were assessed using eight microsatellite loci. Ringed seals colonized the Baltic Sea basin soon after deglaciation 11 500 years ago and are supposed to have remained largely isolated from the main Arctic stock since then, approximately 1000 generations. In the 1900s the Baltic population declined rapidly, and is now confined to three distinct breeding areas, with N < 6000 seals altogether. Microsatellite heterozygosity in ringed seals was higher than that in the closely related, boreal harbour seal and grey seal, for which the markers were initially developed. This is plausibly attributed to an overall greater population (species) size of ringed seals during the Quaternary. Allele frequency differentiation between the Baltic and Arctic ringed seals, conventionally treated as different subspecies, was weak. Assuming complete isolation, the divergence (FST=0.023) would imply a notably high postglacial effective population size, approximately 20 000 for the Baltic population. The isolation assumption however, seems unrealistic in the light of the data: a coalescent-based simulation approach to the likelihood of alternative demographic histories clearly favoured a scenario with recurrent gene flow to the Baltic, over one of complete isolation (drift only). Within the Baltic Sea, no differentiation was found between the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia breeding areas; the recent population decline and split have not yet affected the inbreeding levels of the disjunct breeding stocks. PMID:11554977

  7. Trauma research in the Baltic countries: from political oppression to recovery.

    PubMed

    Kazlauskas, Evaldas; Zelviene, Paulina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of traumatic stress studies from the three Baltic countries-Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia-and reveal how specific social context contributes to the topics relevant in traumatic stress field in the region. Traumatic stress studies in the Baltic countries are closely related to the complicated history of the region. It was only since the restoration of independence of the Baltic States in the 1990s when traumatic stress studies could emerge. The start of the psychotraumatology in the Baltic States was inspired by the interest of the psychological effects of political violence. Four major topics in traumatic stress literature from the Baltic countries were identified in this article: political violence studies, epidemiology of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), disaster studies, and developmental aspects of trauma. Traumatic events prevalence was reported between 70 and 75%, and PTSD prevalence range 2-7% in the Baltic countries. The interest in psychotraumatology in the Baltic countries is rising. PMID:26996532

  8. Fresh oxygen for the Baltic Sea — An exceptional saline inflow after a decade of stagnation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohrholz, V.; Naumann, M.; Nausch, G.; Krüger, S.; Gräwe, U.

    2015-08-01

    The ecological state of the Baltic Sea depends crucially on sufficiently frequent, strong deep water renewal on the periodic deep water renewal events by inflow of oxygen rich saline water from the North Sea. Due to the strong density stratification these inflows are the only source for deep water ventilation. Since the early eighties of the last century the frequency of inflow events has dropped drastically from 5 to 7 major inflows per decade to only one inflow per decade. Wide spread anoxic conditions became the usual state in the central Baltic. The rare major Baltic inflow (MBI) events in 1993 and 2003 could interrupt the anoxic bottom conditions only temporarily. After more than 10 years without a major Baltic inflow events, in December 2014 a strong MBI brought large amounts of saline and well oxygenated water into the Baltic Sea. Based on observations and numerical modeling, the inflow was classified as one of the rare very strong events. The inflow volume and the amount of salt transported into the Baltic were estimated to be with 198 km3 and 4 Gt, respectively. The strength of the MBI exceeded considerably the previous 2003 event. In the list of the MBIs since 1880, the 2014 inflow is the third strongest event together with the MBI in 1913. This inflow event will most probably turn the entire Baltic deep water from anoxic to oxic conditions, with substantial spread consequences for marine life and biogeochemical cycles.

  9. Hypoxia Sustains Cyanobacteria Blooms in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient over-enrichment is one of the classic triggering mechanisms for the occurrence of cyanobacteria blooms in aquatic ecosystems. In the Baltic Sea, cyanobacteria regularly occur in the late summer months and form nuisance accumulations in surface waters and their abundance has intensified significantly in the past 50 years attributed to human-induced eutrophication. However, the natural occurrence of cyanobacteria during the Holocene is debated. In this study, we present records of cyanobacteria pigments, water column redox proxies, and nitrogen isotopic signatures for the past ca. 8000 years from Baltic Sea sediment cores. Our results demonstrate that cyanobacteria abundance and nitrogen fixation are correlated with hypoxia occurring during three main intervals: (1) ca. 7000–4000 B.P. during the Littorina transgression, (2) ca. 1400–700 B.P. during the Medieval Climate Anomaly, and (3) from ca. 1950 A.D. to the present. Issues of preservation were investigated, and we show that organic matter and pigment profiles are not simply an artifact of preservation. These results suggest that cyanobacteria abundance is sustained during periods of hypoxia, most likely because of enhanced recycling of phosphorus in low oxygen conditions. PMID:24512281

  10. Hypoxia sustains cyanobacteria blooms in the Baltic sea.

    PubMed

    Funkey, Carolina P; Conley, Daniel J; Reuss, Nina S; Humborg, Christoph; Jilbert, Tom; Slomp, Caroline P

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient over-enrichment is one of the classic triggering mechanisms for the occurrence of cyanobacteria blooms in aquatic ecosystems. In the Baltic Sea, cyanobacteria regularly occur in the late summer months and form nuisance accumulations in surface waters and their abundance has intensified significantly in the past 50 years attributed to human-induced eutrophication. However, the natural occurrence of cyanobacteria during the Holocene is debated. In this study, we present records of cyanobacteria pigments, water column redox proxies, and nitrogen isotopic signatures for the past ca. 8000 years from Baltic Sea sediment cores. Our results demonstrate that cyanobacteria abundance and nitrogen fixation are correlated with hypoxia occurring during three main intervals: (1) ca. 7000-4000 B.P. during the Littorina transgression, (2) ca. 1400-700 B.P. during the Medieval Climate Anomaly, and (3) from ca. 1950 A.D. to the present. Issues of preservation were investigated, and we show that organic matter and pigment profiles are not simply an artifact of preservation. These results suggest that cyanobacteria abundance is sustained during periods of hypoxia, most likely because of enhanced recycling of phosphorus in low oxygen conditions. PMID:24512281

  11. Projected future climate change and Baltic Sea ecosystem management.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Agneta; Meier, H E Markus; Ripszam, Matyas; Rowe, Owen; Wikner, Johan; Haglund, Peter; Eilola, Kari; Legrand, Catherine; Figueroa, Daniela; Paczkowska, Joanna; Lindehoff, Elin; Tysklind, Mats; Elmgren, Ragnar

    2015-06-01

    Climate change is likely to have large effects on the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Simulations indicate 2-4 °C warming and 50-80 % decrease in ice cover by 2100. Precipitation may increase ~30 % in the north, causing increased land runoff of allochthonous organic matter (AOM) and organic pollutants and decreased salinity. Coupled physical-biogeochemical models indicate that, in the south, bottom-water anoxia may spread, reducing cod recruitment and increasing sediment phosphorus release, thus promoting cyanobacterial blooms. In the north, heterotrophic bacteria will be favored by AOM, while phytoplankton production may be reduced. Extra trophic levels in the food web may increase energy losses and consequently reduce fish production. Future management of the Baltic Sea must consider the effects of climate change on the ecosystem dynamics and functions, as well as the effects of anthropogenic nutrient and pollutant load. Monitoring should have a holistic approach, encompassing both autotrophic (phytoplankton) and heterotrophic (e.g., bacterial) processes. PMID:26022318

  12. Structural evolution and petroleum productivity of the Baltic basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ulmishek, G.F. )

    1991-08-01

    The Baltic basin is an oval depression located in the western part of the Russian craton; it occupies the eastern Baltic Sea and adjacent onshore areas. The basin contains more than 5,000 m of sedimentary rocks ranging from latest Proterozoic to Tertiary in age. These rocks consist of four tectonostratigraphic sequences deposited during major tectonic episodes of basin evolution. Principal unconformities separate the sequences. The basin is underlain by a rift probably filled with Upper Proterozoic rocks. Vendian and Lower Cambrian rocks (Baikalian sequence) form two northeast-trending depressions. The principal stage of the basin development was during deposition of a thick Middle Cambrian-Lower Devonian (Caledonian) sequence. This stage was terminated by the most intense deformations in the basin history. The Middle Devonian-Carboniferous (Hercynian) and Permian-Tertiary (Kimmerian-Alpine) tectonic and depositional cycles only slightly modified the basin geometry and left intact the main structural framework of underlying rocks. The petroleum productivity of the basin is related to the Caledonian tectonostratigraphic sequence that contains both source rocks and reservoirs. However, maturation of source rocks, migration of oil, and formation of fields took place mostly during deposition of the Hercynian sequence.

  13. Optically black waters in the northern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthon, Jean-François; Zibordi, Giuseppe

    2010-05-01

    The peculiar bio-optical properties of the northernmost waters of the Baltic Sea (Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay) are illustrated by exploiting unique in situ measurements of apparent and inherent optical properties collected in 2007. Specifically, this study shows that the high values of absorption by colored dissolved organic matter (ays(412) around 1.4 m-1) resulting from the presence of humic matter brought by the numerous Swedish and Finnish rivers alimenting the basin are not correlated with high concentrations of particles as generally observed in the southern Baltic Sea. As a consequence, extremely low values (i.e., less than 0.5) of the ratio of scattering to absorption are observed in the blue spectral region. The corresponding spectra of normalized water leaving radiance are close to satisfy the “black pixel” assumption in the blue and even in the green part of the visible spectrum. Consequently, the Bothnian Sea and most of all the Bothnian Bay, appear ideal candidates for studies on atmospheric corrections and vicarious calibration of ocean color sensors in coastal waters.

  14. Microplastic concentrations in beach sediments along the German Baltic coast.

    PubMed

    Stolte, Andrea; Forster, Stefan; Gerdts, Gunnar; Schubert, Hendrik

    2015-10-15

    The contamination with microplastic particles and fibres was evaluated on beaches along the German Baltic coast. Sediments were sampled near the Warnow and Oder/Peene estuaries, on Rügen island and along the Rostock coast to derive possible entry pathways. Seasonal variations were monitored along the Rostock coast from March to July 2014. After density separation in saline solution, floating particles were found to be dominated by sand grains. Water surface tension is shown to be sufficient to explain floatation of grains with sizes less than 1.5mm. Selecting intensely coloured particles and fibres, we find lower limits of the microplastic concentrations of 0-7 particles/kg and 2-11 fibres/kg dry sediment. The largest microplastic contaminations are measured at the Peene outlet into the Baltic Sea and in the North Sea Jade Bay. City discharges, industrial production sites, fishing activity and tourism are the most likely sources for the highest microplastic concentrations. PMID:26198261

  15. [History of German-Baltic relations in medicine].

    PubMed

    Tankler, H; Laschinski, G; Roots, I

    2004-04-30

    Today, the three Baltic countries Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, have well-known medical faculties with international standing. Their individual histories are briefly outlined. However, relations of the German academic world were closest with the university of Dorpat (today: Tartu). It was re-opened in 1802 by tsar Alexander I in order to keep young Baltic people from studying abroad. The medical faculty was its biggest faculty. The university was Russian, but the official language was German. So many a German professor came to Dorpat and many professors from Dorpat were offered a chair at a German university. The scientific imports connected Dorpat with other centres of West-European science, they brought knowledge and ideas and an exchange of information. The standard was high, and among the teaching staff was a handsome number of medical celebrities, e.g. the anatomist August Rauber and the surgeon Ernst von Bergmann. In Dorpat, Rudolf Buchheim brought a new science, experimental pharmacology, into being, which his pupil and successor, Oswald Schmiedeberg, fully established and propagated all over the world. PMID:15133742

  16. Accelerating the loop expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Ingermanson, R.

    1986-07-29

    This thesis introduces a new non-perturbative technique into quantum field theory. To illustrate the method, I analyze the much-studied phi/sup 4/ theory in two dimensions. As a prelude, I first show that the Hartree approximation is easy to obtain from the calculation of the one-loop effective potential by a simple modification of the propagator that does not affect the perturbative renormalization procedure. A further modification then susggests itself, which has the same nice property, and which automatically yields a convex effective potential. I then show that both of these modifications extend naturally to higher orders in the derivative expansion of the effective action and to higher orders in the loop-expansion. The net effect is to re-sum the perturbation series for the effective action as a systematic ''accelerated'' non-perturbative expansion. Each term in the accelerated expansion corresponds to an infinite number of terms in the original series. Each term can be computed explicitly, albeit numerically. Many numerical graphs of the various approximations to the first two terms in the derivative expansion are given. I discuss the reliability of the results and the problem of spontaneous symmetry-breaking, as well as some potential applications to more interesting field theories. 40 refs.

  17. Thermal expansion in nanoresonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancardo Viotti, Agustín; Monastra, Alejandro G.; Moreno, Mariano F.; Florencia Carusela, M.

    2016-08-01

    Inspired by some recent experiments and numerical works related to nanoresonators, we perform classical molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the thermal expansion and the ability of the device to act as a strain sensor assisted by thermally-induced vibrations. The proposed model consists in a chain of atoms interacting anharmonically with both ends clamped to thermal reservoirs. We analyze the thermal expansion and resonant frequency shifts as a function of temperature and the applied strain. For the transversal modes the shift is approximately linear with strain. We also present analytical results from canonical calculations in the harmonic approximation showing that thermal expansion is uniform along the device. This prediction also works when the system operates in a nonlinear oscillation regime at moderate and high temperatures.

  18. Novel Foraminal Expansion Technique

    PubMed Central

    Senturk, Salim; Ciplak, Mert; Oktenoglu, Tunc; Sasani, Mehdi; Egemen, Emrah; Yaman, Onur; Suzer, Tuncer

    2016-01-01

    The technique we describe was developed for cervical foraminal stenosis for cases in which a keyhole foraminotomy would not be effective. Many cervical stenosis cases are so severe that keyhole foraminotomy is not successful. However, the technique outlined in this study provides adequate enlargement of an entire cervical foraminal diameter. This study reports on a novel foraminal expansion technique. Linear drilling was performed in the middle of the facet joint. A small bone graft was placed between the divided lateral masses after distraction. A lateral mass stabilization was performed with screws and rods following the expansion procedure. A cervical foramen was linearly drilled medially to laterally, then expanded with small bone grafts, and a lateral mass instrumentation was added with surgery. The patient was well after the surgery. The novel foraminal expansion is an effective surgical method for severe foraminal stenosis. PMID:27559460

  19. Optimal Electric Utility Expansion

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1989-10-10

    SAGE-WASP is designed to find the optimal generation expansion policy for an electrical utility system. New units can be automatically selected from a user-supplied list of expansion candidates which can include hydroelectric and pumped storage projects. The existing system is modeled. The calculational procedure takes into account user restrictions to limit generation configurations to an area of economic interest. The optimization program reports whether the restrictions acted as a constraint on the solution. All expansionmore » configurations considered are required to pass a user supplied reliability criterion. The discount rate and escalation rate are treated separately for each expansion candidate and for each fuel type. All expenditures are separated into local and foreign accounts, and a weighting factor can be applied to foreign expenditures.« less

  20. Novel Foraminal Expansion Technique.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Ali Fahir; Senturk, Salim; Ciplak, Mert; Oktenoglu, Tunc; Sasani, Mehdi; Egemen, Emrah; Yaman, Onur; Suzer, Tuncer

    2016-08-01

    The technique we describe was developed for cervical foraminal stenosis for cases in which a keyhole foraminotomy would not be effective. Many cervical stenosis cases are so severe that keyhole foraminotomy is not successful. However, the technique outlined in this study provides adequate enlargement of an entire cervical foraminal diameter. This study reports on a novel foraminal expansion technique. Linear drilling was performed in the middle of the facet joint. A small bone graft was placed between the divided lateral masses after distraction. A lateral mass stabilization was performed with screws and rods following the expansion procedure. A cervical foramen was linearly drilled medially to laterally, then expanded with small bone grafts, and a lateral mass instrumentation was added with surgery. The patient was well after the surgery. The novel foraminal expansion is an effective surgical method for severe foraminal stenosis. PMID:27559460

  1. Airborne mapping of shallow water bathymetry in the optically complex waters of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahtmäe, Ele; Kutser, Tiit

    2016-04-01

    Accurate determination of the water depth is important for marine spatial planning, producing maritime charts for navigation, seabed morphology studies, and carrying out different activities in the coastal waters. Bathymetric data are lacking foremost in the shallow water regions as those areas are often inaccessible to the hydrographic ships carrying out echo sounding measurements. Remote sensing technology can be used as an alternative for shallow water bathymetry mapping. Varieties of empirical methods have been proposed for bathymetry retrieval, where the relationship between remotely sensed radiance of the water body and the water depth at sampled locations was established empirically. Two most widely used depth derivation methods, the linear band model proposed by Lyzenga (1978, 1985, 2006), and the log-transformed band ratio model proposed by Stumpf et al. (2003), were applied to the different preprocessing level airborne Hyspex hyperspectral images from the optically complex Baltic Sea area and evaluated for accuracy. Results showed that the Lyzenga linear band model outperformed the Stumpf log-transformed band ratio model. The best results were achieved with the atmospherically corrected images. The application of glint correction did not improve, but even reduced the accuracy of bathymetric maps.

  2. GIS analysis of effects of future Baltic sea level rise on the island of Gotland, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, Karin; Ekstedt, Karin; Jarsjö, Jerker

    2016-07-01

    Future sea level rise as a consequence of global warming will affect the world's coastal regions. Even though the pace of sea level rise is not clear, the consequences will be severe and global. Commonly the effects of future sea level rise are investigated for relatively vulnerable development countries; however, a whole range of varying regions needs to be considered in order to improve the understanding of global consequences. In this paper we investigate consequences of future sea level rise along the coast of the Baltic Sea island of Gotland, Sweden, with the aim to fill knowledge gaps regarding comparatively well-suited areas in developed countries. We study both the quantity of the loss of features of infrastructure, cultural, and natural value in the case of a 2 m sea level rise of the Baltic Sea and the effects of climate change on seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers, which indirectly cause saltwater intrusion in wells. We conduct a multi-criteria risk analysis by using lidar data on land elevation and GIS-vulnerability mapping, which gives the application of distance and elevation parameters formerly unimaginable precision. We find that in case of a 2 m sea level rise, 3 % of the land area of Gotland, corresponding to 99 km2, will be inundated. The features most strongly affected are items of touristic or nature value, including camping places, shore meadows, sea stack areas, and endangered plants and species habitats. In total, 231 out of 7354 wells will be directly inundated, and the number of wells in the high-risk zone for saltwater intrusion in wells will increase considerably. Some valuable features will be irreversibly lost due to, for example, inundation of sea stacks and the passing of tipping points for seawater intrusion into coastal aquifers; others might simply be moved further inland, but this requires considerable economic means and prioritization. With nature tourism being one of the main income sources of Gotland, monitoring and

  3. The occurrence and depth penetration of macroalgae along environmental gradients in the northern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinne, Henna; Salovius-Laurén, Sonja; Mattila, Johanna

    2011-08-01

    Eutrophication is known to affect the community structure of macroalgae by e.g. decreasing the depth penetration of species and by shifting dominance from perennial to annual species. However, there is substantial lack of knowledge in the Baltic Sea regarding the distribution of many of the macroalgal species, how natural environmental factors affect their occurrence and how they respond to eutrophication. As macroalgae are used as indicators of the quality of the sea areas in the EU legislation (Water Framework Directive, Marine Strategy Framework Directive), this kind of knowledge is essential. The aim of this study was to determine which variables were related to variation in species occurrence and their lower limit of occurrence in the Finnish marine area. The study was carried out on data from five study areas along the Finnish coastline and included about 30 taxa. Our results showed that both the macroalgal communities and the occurrence (presence/absence) of most of the species differed between the study areas and that the differences were mainly related to salinity and exposure, although also eutrophication related factors played a role. Of the perennial species, eutrophied conditions seemed to favour only the occurrence of Sphacelaria arctica and Polysiphonia fucoides. Secchi depth was important in determining the lower limit of occurrence of brown and red algal species. However, Secchi depth was rarely the only factor causing variation in the lower limit of occurrence as also exposure, salinity and slope of the shore affected it. We conclude that in the northern Baltic Sea, the taxonomic composition of the macroalgal communities is not a very useful indicator of eutrophication as perennial species seem to tolerate rather eutrophied conditions, when suitable substrate is available. The lower limit of occurrence of many of the brown and red algal species is a good indicator of eutrophication but due to lack of suitable substrate in more eutrophied areas

  4. Two new fossil species of Cryptocephalus Geoffroy (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from Baltic and Dominican Amber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new species of Cryptocephalus Geoffroy (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are described and illustrated from fossil resin: Cryptocephalus groehni sp. nov (Baltic amber) and Cryptocephalus kheelorum sp. nov. (Dominican amber). These are the first described species of Cryptocephalinae from fossil resin. ...

  5. Influence of sea level rise on the dynamics of salt inflows in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hordoir, Robinson; Axell, Lars; Löptien, Ulrike; Dietze, Heiner; Kuznetsov, Ivan

    2015-10-01

    The Baltic Sea is a marginal sea, located in a highly industrialized region in Central Northern Europe. Saltwater inflows from the North Sea and associated ventilation of the deep exert crucial control on the entire Baltic Sea ecosystem. This study explores the impact of anticipated sea level changes on the dynamics of those inflows. We use a numerical oceanic general circulation model covering both the Baltic and the North Sea. The model successfully retraces the essential ventilation dynamics throughout the period 1961-2007. A suite of idealized experiments suggests that rising sea level is associated with intensified ventilation as saltwater inflows become stronger, longer, and more frequent. Expressed quantitatively as a salinity increase in the deep central Baltic Sea, we find that a sea level rise of 1 m triggers a saltening of more than 1 PSU. This substantial increase in ventilation is the consequence of the increasing cross section in the Danish Straits amplified by a reduction of vertical mixing.

  6. Transferrin variants as markers of migrations and admixture between populations in the Baltic Sea region.

    PubMed

    Beckman, L; Sikström, C; Mikelsaar, A V; Krumina, A; Ambrasiene, D; Kucinskas, V; Beckman, G

    1998-01-01

    Transferrin (TF) types were examined by isoelectric focusing in an attempt to elucidate migrations and admixture between populations in the Baltic Sea region. A highly significant heterogeneity between populations was found with respect to TF*C subtypes as well as the rare TF variants B2, B0-1 and DCHI. With the exception for Estonia, increased frequencies of the TF*C3 allele were observed east of the Baltic Sea. The island of Gotland in the middle of the Baltic Sea also showed a high TF*C3 frequency indicating an eastern influence. The TF*DCHI allele, a marker of eastern (Finno-Ugric) influence, was found in Finland and Estonia and on the island of Gotland, but not in mainland Sweden and in the Baltic peoples (Latvians and Lithuanians). These results indicate the presence of a Finno-Ugric, most likely Estonian or Livonian, genetic influence in the Gotland population. PMID:9694249

  7. Radioactive pollution of the waters of the baltic sea during 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarev, L.N.; Kuznetsov, Yu.V.; Gedeonov, L.I.; Gavrilov, V.M.; Gritchenko, Z.G.; Ivanova, L.M.; Orlova, T.E.; Tishkova, N.A.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented from an investigation of radioactive pollution of the waters of the Baltic Sea during 1986. Inhomogeneities in the pollution of this area of water, due to varying density of atmospheric radioactive fallout, are detected. It is found that among the radionuclides entering the surface of the Baltic Sea in 1986 as a result of atmospheric transport, the main one in terms of radiation dose is cesium-137. Comparisons are made of the level of cesium-137 content in the waters of the Baltic Sea in 1986 and in preceding years. It is noted that even in the most polluted regions of the sea the cesium-137 content was 500 times less than the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) in the USSR for drinking water. The first results of the determination of plutonium-239 and 240 in the Baltic Sea are presented.

  8. Intrusion of radioactive industrially polluted water from North Sea into central Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Vakulovskiy, S.M.; Nikitin, A.I.

    1985-02-01

    The problem of penetration of radioactive industrially polluted water into the central Baltic Sea was studied. The content of Cs-134 as determined in water near the bottom of deep water trenches along the path traveled by North Sea water entering the Baltic. Samples were taken at 5 locations, with Cs-134 concentrated from samples of several thousands of liters. It was found that radioactive pollution caused by the entry of water from the North Sea extends through the system of deep water depressions into the Baltic as far as the Gotland trench. The greatest degree of contamination is found in the Arkona depression adjacent to the straits. The concentration of Cs-134 in the Gdansk trench is one-half as great and in the Gotland trench one-third as great as in the Arkona depression. Radioactive contamination in the Baltic is attributed to discharge of radioactive wastes by plants at Windscale.

  9. Denitrification in the water column of the central Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalsgaard, Tage; De Brabandere, Loreto; Hall, Per O. J.

    2013-04-01

    Removal of fixed nitrogen in the water column of the eastern Gotland Basin, central Baltic Sea, was studied during two cruises in September 2008 and August 2010. The water column was stratified with anoxic sulfidic bottom water meeting oxic nitrate containing water at the oxic-anoxic interface. Anammox was never detected whereas denitrification was found in all incubations from anoxic depths and occurred immediately below the oxic-anoxic interface. Sulfide (H2S + HS- + S2-) was in most cases the only electron donor for denitrification but, in contrast to previous findings, denitrification was in some situations driven by organic matter alone. Nitrous oxide (N2O) became an increasingly important product of denitrification with increasing sulfide concentration and was >80% of the total N gas formation at 10 μM sulfide. The potential rates of denitrification measured in incubations at elevated NO3- or sulfide concentrations were converted to in situ rates using the measured water column concentrations of NO3- and sulfide and the actual measured relations between NO3- and sulfide concentrations and denitrification rates. In situ denitrification ranged from 0.24 to 15.9 nM N2 h-1. Assuming that these rates were valid throughout the anoxic NO3- containing zone, depth integrated in situ denitrification rates of 0.06-2.11 mmol N m-2 d-1 were estimated. The thickness of this zone was generally 3-6 m, which is probably what can be maintained through regular turbulent mixing induced by internal waves at the oxic-anoxic interface. However, layers of up to 55 m thickness with low O2 water (<10 μM) were observed which was probably the result of larger scale mixing. In such a layer nitrification may produce NO3- and once the O2 has been depleted denitrification will follow resulting in enormous rates per unit area. Even with an active denitrification layer of 3-6 m thickness the pelagic denitrification per unit area clearly exceeded sediment denitrification rates elsewhere in

  10. Variational data assimilation problem for the Baltic Sea thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, Natalia; Agoshkov, Valery; Parmuzin, Eugene

    2015-04-01

    The most versatile and promising technology for solving problems of monitoring and analysis of the natural environment is a four-dimensional variational data assimilation of observation data. In such problems not only the development and justification of algorithms for numerical solution of variational data assimilation problems but the properties of the optimal solution play an important role. In this work the variational data assimilation problems in the Baltic Sea water area were formulated and studied. Numerical experiments on restoring the ocean heat flux and obtaining solution of the system (temperature, salinity, velocity, and sea surface height) in the Baltic Sea primitive equation hydrodynamics model with assimilation procedure were carried out. In the calculations we used daily sea surface temperature observation from Danish meteorological Institute, prepared on the basis of measurements of the radiometer (AVHRR, AATSR and AMSRE) and spectroradiometer (SEVIRI and MODIS). The spatial resolution of the model grid with respect to the horizontal variables amounted to 0.0625x0.03125 degree. The results of the numerical experiments are presented. This study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project 13-01-00753, project 14-01-31195) and project 14-11-00609 by the Russian Science Foundation. References: 1 E.I. Parmuzin, V.I. Agoshkov, Numerical solution of the variational assimilation problem for sea surface temperature in the model of the Black Sea dynamics. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, 69-94 2 Zakharova N.B., Agoshkov V.I., Parmuzin E.I., The new method of ARGO buoys system observation data interpolation. Russian Journal of Numerical Analysis and Mathematical Modelling. Vol. 28, Issue 1, 2013. 3 Zalesny V.B., Gusev A.V., Chernobay S.Yu., Aps R., Tamsalu R., Kujala P., Rytkönen J. The Bal-tic Sea circulation modelling and assessment of marine pollution, Russ. J. Numer. Analysis and Math. Modelling, 2014, V 29

  11. Magnetic enhancement of Baltic Sea sapropels by greigite magnetofossils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinholdsson, M.; Snowball, I.; Zillén, L.; Lenz, C.; Conley, D. J.

    2013-03-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are known to biosynthesise single-domain magnetite (Fe3O4) for geomagnetic navigation and their relict magnetosomes (called magnetofossils) can control the magnetic properties of lake and marine sediments. Magnetotactic bacteria also produce greigite (Fe3S4) magnetosomes but, compared to those made of magnetite, relatively little is known about the sedimentary environments where they are produced and the magnetic properties of the preserved particles. We studied the magnetic properties of sediment cores from two basins (the North Central Baltic Proper and eastern Gotland Basin) that currently experience hypoxia and we discovered the magnetic enhancement of older laminated sapropels, which are a signal of past occurrences of anoxia and hypoxia in the Baltic Sea. Magnetic concentrates extracted from the laminated sapropels were characterised by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and we identified only single-domain greigite (Fe3S4) particles with a mean size of 55×75 nm, which we interpret as magnetofossils due to diagnostic chains of individual particles separated by an intact dividing membrane. The degree of magnetic enhancement in the laminated sapropels has a positive relationship with loss-on-ignition data, which indicates a link between the production of greigite magnetosomes, organic matter supply and preservation and redox conditions. The coercive force of collections of non-interacting greigite magnetofossils is ∼13 mT, which is considerably lower than the magnetite counterparts (∼30 mT) and strictly non-bacterial and larger greigite single-domain grains (∼60 mT). The values of the interparametric ratios of SIRM/χ, χARM/SIRM and χARM/χ that we obtain for our greigite magnetofossils overlap with those previously considered to be diagnostic of magnetosomal magnetite. The presence of bacterial greigite, which is easily detected by magnetic measurements, forms a proxy for hypoxia and

  12. Stable isotope signals of eutrophication in Baltic Sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, Maren; Larsen, Birger; Leivuori, Mirja; Vallius, Henry

    2000-07-01

    Increasing δ15N and δ13C values in coastal Baltic marine sediments are evaluated as indicator of changes in the trophic status of the ecosystem. The influence of eutrophication on the δ15N values was found to be so dominant that it even overprints the usually observed mixing gradient from terrestrial (low isotope values) to the marine environment (high isotope values). A distinct gradient in stable nitrogen isotope values from eutrophic coastal areas to open more oligotrophic waters in the central Baltic Sea and Gulf of Bothnia was found. Our data show high δ15N values in surface sediments: 13‰ in the Oder Lagoon and the Pomeranian Bight, over 9‰ in the Gulf of Riga (Daugava River), 7‰ in the inner Gulf of Finland (Neva River), 6.5‰ in the Curonian Lagoon (Nemunas River), and 5.7‰ in the Gdansk Deep (Vistula River). In the Baltic Sea Proper, significantly lower δ15N values of 3-5‰ are found. A decrease in δ15N values with depth/age of the sediment was indicated in some cores that were analyzed down to 15-40 cm depth in 1-cm steps. There is a great overall difference between pre-industrial δ15N values in coastal sediments and recent ones of 2.3-10‰. As explanations for this increase are suggested, elevated nutrient δ15N values of waste water in combination with fractionation processes like nutrient uptake by phytoplankton and denitrification and nitrification processes in rivers discharging into the coastal water. Delta 13C values in sediment surfaces off the river estuaries primarily indicate differences between the inorganic carbon signatures of the rivers. However, since the δ13C values also decrease downcore, we contribute this change to increased primary production caused by the enhanced nutrient load. Since both stable isotope values in sediments ( δ13C and δ15N) correlate downcore, this strongly suggests that the anthropogenic nutrient loads in the rivers might be the reason for the changes of stable isotope values.

  13. Tritium volume activity in the Baltic Sea in 1987-1989

    SciTech Connect

    Styro, D.B.; Korotkov, V.P.

    1994-11-01

    Tritium volume activities measured in the Baltic Sea are summarized in this paper. Activity levels were determined by the liquid scintillation method with a LS-1000 counter. The field investigations showed that the tritium volume activity in the Baltic Sea can change substantially in absolute magnitude. Therefore, average volume activity is used as an indicator of natural content. Correlations between calculated (averaged) tritium activity levels and the Chernobyl accident are very briefly discussed. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. The radiological exposure of man from radioactivity in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, S P; Bengtson, P; Bojanowsky, R; Hagel, P; Herrmann, J; Ilus, E; Jakobson, E; Motiejunas, S; Panteleev, Y; Skujina, A; Suplinska, M

    1999-09-30

    A radiological assessment has been carried out considering discharges of radioactivity to the Baltic Sea marine environment since 1950. The sources of radioactivity that have been evaluated are atmospheric nuclear-weapons fallout, fallout from the Chernobyl accident in 1986, discharges of radionuclides from Sellafield and La Hague transported into the Baltic Sea, and discharges of radionuclides from nuclear installations located in the Baltic Sea area. Dose rates from man-made radioactivity to individual members of the public (critical groups) have been calculated based on annual intake of seafood and beach occupancy time. The dose rates to individuals from the regions of the Bothnian Sea and Gulf of Finland are predicted to be larger than from any other area in the Baltic Sea due to the pattern of Chernobyl fallout. The dose rates are predicted to have peaked in 1986 at a value of 0.2 mSv year-1. Collective committed doses to members of the public have been calculated based on fishery statistics and predicted concentrations of radionuclides in biota and coastal sediments. The total collective dose from man-made radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is estimated at 2600 manSv, of which approximately two-thirds originate from Chernobyl fallout, approximately one-quarter from atmospheric nuclear-weapons fallout, approximately 8% from European reprocessing facilities, and approximately 0.04% from nuclear installations bordering the Baltic Sea area. An assessment of small-scale dumping of low-level radioactive waste in the Baltic Sea in the 1960s by Sweden and the Soviet Union has showed that doses to man from these activities are negligible. Dose rates and doses from natural radioactivity dominate except for the year 1986 where dose rates to individuals from Chernobyl fallout in some regions of the Baltic Sea approached those from natural radioactivity. PMID:10568271

  15. Urban Expansion Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Under an Egyptian government contract, PADCO studies urban growth in the Nile Area. They were assisted by LANDSAT survey maps and measurements provided by TAC. TAC had classified the raw LANDSAT data and processed it into various categories to detail urban expansion. PADCO crews spot checked the results, and correlations were established.

  16. A Special Trinomial Expansion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayoub, Ayoub B.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author takes up the special trinomial (1 + x + x[squared])[superscript n] and shows that the coefficients of its expansion are entries of a Pascal-like triangle. He also shows how to calculate these entries recursively and explicitly. This article could be used in the classroom for enrichment. (Contains 1 table.)

  17. Static gas expansion cooler

    DOEpatents

    Guzek, J.C.; Lujan, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a cooler for television cameras and other temperature sensitive equipment. The cooler uses compressed gas ehich is accelerated to a high velocity by passing it through flow passageways having nozzle portions which expand the gas. This acceleration and expansion causes the gas to undergo a decrease in temperature thereby cooling the cooler body and adjacent temperature sensitive equipment.

  18. Expansion of Pannes

    EPA Science Inventory

    For the Long Island, New Jersey, and southern New England region, one facet of marsh drowning as a result of accelerated sea level rise is the expansion of salt marsh ponds and pannes. Over the past century, marsh ponds and pannes have formed and expanded in areas of poor drainag...

  19. AUTO-EXPANSIVE FLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physics suggests that the interplay of momentum, continuity, and geometry in outward radial flow must produce density and concomitant pressure reductions. In other words, this flow is intrinsically auto-expansive. It has been proposed that this process is the key to understanding...

  20. Variability of atmospheric circulation patterns associated with large volume changes of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, A.; Post, P.

    2015-10-01

    Salinity and stratification in the deep basins of the Baltic Sea are linked to the occurrence of Major Baltic Inflows (MBIs) of higher saline water of North Sea origin, which occur sporadically and transport higher saline and oxygenated water to deeper layers. Since the mid-1970s, the frequency and intensity of MBIs have decreased. They were completely absent between February 1983 and January 1993. However, in spite of the decreasing frequency of MBIs, there was no obvious decrease of larger Baltic Sea volume changes (LVCs). A LVC is defined by a total volume change of at least 100 km3. LVCs can be identified from the sea level changes at Landsort which is known to represent the mean sea level of the Baltic Sea very well. Strong inflows leading to LVCs are associated to a special sequence of atmospheric circulation patterns. Our analysis based on Jenkinson-Collison circulation (JCC) types confirms that most effective inflows occur if about a month before the main inflow period, eastern air flow with anticyclonic vorticity over the western Baltic prevails. These conditions reduce the mean sea level of the Baltic Sea and lead to an increased saline stratification in the Belt Sea area. An immediate period of strong to very strong westerly winds trigger the inflow and force LVCs/MBIs. The lack of MBIs coincide with a negative trend of eastern types and a parallel increase of western type JCCs.

  1. Metazoan parasites from herring (Clupea harengus L.) as biological indicators in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Unger, Patrick; Klimpel, Sven; Lang, Thomas; Palm, Harry Wilhelm

    2014-09-01

    Zoographical distribution of metazoan fish parasites in herring, Clupea harengus, from the Baltic Sea was analysed in order to use them as potential biological indicators. A total of 210 herring from six different sampling sites were investigated, harbouring 12 different parasite species [five digeneans (D), one cestode (C), three nematodes (N) and three acanthocephalans (A)]. The distribution of the parasite species differed according to region, with a distinct gradient of decreasing species richness towards the east of the Baltic Sea. The western localities at Kiel Bay, Rügen and Poland had the highest parasite diversity, including the marine parasite species Anisakis simplex (s.s.) (N), Brachyphallus crenatus and Hemiurus luehei (both D). The eastern localities had low parasite species richness, predominated by the freshwater digenean Diplostomum spathaceum. We could identify three different Baltic herring stocks, the spring-spawning herring of the western Baltic reaching from the Kattegat to the German and Polish coast, the stock of the central Baltic proper and the northern stock of C. harengus var. membras of the Gulf of Finland. The limited distribution of the herring parasites within the Baltic Sea enables their use as biological indicators for migration patterns and stock separation. The acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus laevis that has already been used as an accumulation bioindicator for heavy metals was only recorded for the western herring stocks. However, the presence of mainly generalistic parasites and their uneven distribution patterns make their use as indicators for regional environmental and global change more difficult. PMID:25119368

  2. Paleogeographic sedimentation settings in the northern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimonis, E. S.; Emelyanov, E. M.; Vaikutene, G.

    2008-10-01

    The grain-size and chemical composition of the bottom sediments and their diatom assemblages from the northern Baltic Sea is discussed. Characteristic layers are distinguished based on the lithostratgraphy and sediment core correlation, which reflect the transition from the lacustrine to marine sedimentation settings during the initial Holocene. Sediment cores demonstrate lateral variations in the sedimentation patterns during the marine (Yoldia Sea), the lacustrine (Ancylus Lake), and the subsequent marine (Littorina Sea) stages: first two stages were characterized by the clay deposition, while the latter one featured accumulation of silty-clayey and clayey muds in bottom depressions. Sea-level fluctuations and corresponding environmental changes are recorded in microlaminated sequences, in particular, sapropelic muds.

  3. The groundwater exchange rate of the southern Baltic coastal lowland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burzyński, K.; Sadurski, A.

    1990-11-01

    The groundwater of the southern Baltic lowlands usually occurs in particular hydrogeological conditions. The lowland is mostly covered by peats several metres in thickness. Peatbog water is isolated from deeper aquifers and has different chemical composition. Salty, relic groundwater of marine origin from the Atlantic period of the Holocene (Littorina transgression) may have survived in the deeper coastal aquifers in places of sluggish flow. The results of mathematical modelling of groundwater circulation show that the flow rate and local directions of groundwater change during the year, depending on the rate of groundwater recharge by precipitation. We present here an unsteady flow model, which makes it possible to predict the water table fluctuations during a year at any point of the area studied. The calculation of the groundwater exchange rate did not confirm the presence of any places of very sluggish groundwater flow, where salty, young relic water might have survived.

  4. Bacterial methanogenesis in holocene sediments in the Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Lein, A.Y.; Namsaraev, B.B.; Trotsyuk, V.Y.; Ivanov, M.V.

    1981-01-01

    Soviet biologists have found evidence of viable methanogenic microorganisms in mud samples collected in 1978 from the Baltic Sea by the research ship Academician Kurchatov. Experiments with radioactive carbon and direct measurements of the samples' methane concentrations led to several conclusions: (1) the process of bacterial methanogenesis occurs mainly via carbon dioxide reduction, (2) the methanogenic intensity depends on the depth of the deposited sediment and its distance from land; shallow-water sediments found in gulfs produced more methane than deepwater ones taken from low spots, (3) organic-matter consumption during bacterial methane reduction makes up 0.14-7.9 mg of carbon/kg of wet mud per year; this is over 20 times less than during bacterial sulfate reduction, (4) The bulk of the methane generated migrates from the muds into the water and (5) marine sediments are undersaturated with methane, suggesting that the methane migrates via filtration of pore waters, not by diffusion.

  5. Allelopathic activity of the Baltic cyanobacteria against microalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żak, Adam; Musiewicz, Krzysztof; Kosakowska, Alicja

    2012-10-01

    The goal of this work was to investigate the influence of Baltic cyanobacteria Anabaena variabilis and Nodularia spumigena cells and cell-free filtrates on the growth of green algae Chlorella vulgaris. We have demonstrated that Anabaena variabilis and Nodularia spumigena caused allelopathic effects against microalgae. The cyanobacterial and microalgal cultures were provided on liquid medium, in 22 °C at continuous light. Cell-free filtrates were obtained by centrifugation and filtering aliquots of cyanobacterial cultures (including cultures in exponential and stationary phase of growth). Growth response of free cells (batch culture technique) and immobilized cultures (in alginate beads) of the unicellular green algae to cyanobacteria allelochemicals were tested and compared. In this experiment Anabaena variabilis supressed the growth of microalgae compared to control samples. Nodularia spumigena stimulated the growth of Chlorella vulgaris in most cases, however both positive and negative effects were observed.

  6. [Accumulation of polycyclic arenes in Baltic Sea algae].

    PubMed

    Veldre, I A; Itra, A R; Paal'me, L P; Kukk, Kh A

    1985-01-01

    The paper presents data on the level of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and some other polycyclic arenes in alga and phanerogam specimens from different gulfs of the Baltic Sea. Algae were shown to absorb BP from sea water. The mean concentration of BP in sea water was under 0.004 microgram/1, while in algae it ranged 0.1-21.2 micrograms/kg dry weight. Algae accumulate BP to a higher degree than phanerogams. The highest concentrations of BP were found in algae Enteromorpha while the lowest ones in Furcellaria. In annual green algae, BP level was higher in autumn, i. e. at the end of vegetation period, than in spring. Brown algae Fucus vesiculosus is recommended for monitoring polycyclic arene pollution in the area from Vormsi Island to Käsmu and green algae Cladophora or Enteromorpha in the eastern part of the Finnish Gulf. PMID:4060672

  7. Atmospheric circulation and storm events in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surkova, G. V.; Arkhipkin, Victor S.; Kislov, Alexander V.

    2015-09-01

    The storm events in the Baltic Sea are examined in connection with the main weather patterns grouped into the circulation types (CTs), and their changes in present climate. A calendar of storms was derived from results of wave model SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore) experiments for 1948-2011. Based on this calendar, a catalogue of atmospheric sea level pressure (SLP) fields was prepared for CTs from the NCEP/NCAR dataset. SLP fields were then analyzed using a pattern recognition algorithm which employed empirical orthogonal decomposition and cluster analysis. For every CT we conducted an analysis of their seasonal and interannual changes, along with their role in storm event formation. An increase of the storm CTs' frequency in the second part of the 20th century was shown to be in a close agreement with teleconnection circulation patterns such as the Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation and the Scandinavian blocking.

  8. On Suspended matter grain size in Baltic sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubnova, Ekaterina; Sivkov, Vadim; Zubarevich, Victor

    2016-04-01

    Suspended matter grain size data were gathered during the 25th research vessel "Akademik Mstislav Keldysh" cruise (1991, September-October). Initial quantitative data were obtained with a use of the Coulter counter and subsequently modified into volume concentrations (mm3/l) for size intervals. More than 80 samples from 15 stations were analyzed (depth range 0-355 m). The main goal of research was to illustrate the spatial variability of suspended matter concentration and dispersion in Baltic Sea. The mutual feature of suspended matter grain size distribution is the logical rise of particle number along with descending of particle's size. Vertical variability of grain size distribution was defined by Baltic Sea hydrological structure, including upper mixed layer - from the surface to the thermocline - with 35 m thick, cold intermediate layer - from the thermocline to the halocline- and bottom layer, which lied under the halocline. Upper layer showed a rise in total suspended matter concentration (up to 0.6 mm3/l), while cold intermediate level consisted of far more clear water (up to 0.1 mm3/l). Such a difference is caused by the thermocline boarding role. Meanwhile, deep bottom water experienced surges in suspended matter concentration owing to the nepheloid layer presence and "liquid bottom" effect. Coastal waters appeared to have the highest amount of particles (up to 5.0 mm3/l). Suspended matter grain size distribution in the upper mixed layer revealed a peak of concentration at 7 μ, which can be due to autumn plankton bloom. Another feature in suspended matter grain size distribution appeared at the deep layer below halocline, where both O2 and H2S were observed and red/ox barrier is. The simultaneous presence of Fe and Mn (in solutions below red/ox barrier) and O2 leads to precipitation of oxyhydrates Fe and Mn and grain size distribution graph peaking at 4.5 μ.

  9. Radiational tides at the southeastern coast of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovich, A. B.; Medvedev, I. P.

    2015-05-01

    The tides in the Baltic Sea are weak but unmistakably recognizable in sea-level spectra. Multiyear hourly tide gauge series enable us to examine specific tidal properties in detail and to identify some unexpected effects. Two nearby stations on the southeastern coast of the sea, namely Baltiysk, located in the strait connecting the Vistula Lagoon to the Baltic Sea, and Otkrytoe, on the coast of the Curonian Lagoon, are found to have very different character of tidal motions. Based on 13 years of simultaneous observations at these stations we constructed high-resolution spectra of sea level fluctuations that demonstrated that the tidal spectrum at Baltiysk is "classical" with sharp peaks corresponding to the major tidal constituents: M2, S2, N2, K1, O1, and P1. Unlike at Baltiysk, the main tidal peak at Otkrytoe is at the S1 frequency; the K1, P1, and S2 tidal harmonics also have significant peaks, while the other harmonics (including M2 and O1) are undistinguishable. Further analysis indicated that the tides at Baltiysk are generated by ordinary gravitational tidal forces, while at Otkrytoe they are induced by solar radiation, specifically by the breeze winds creating wind setups and setdowns in the Curonian Lagoon. Moreover, our findings demonstrate that the observed K1 and P1 peaks at Otkrytoe are related not to gravitational forces but to the seasonal modulation of the S1 radiational tidal constituent. The separate analysis of the "summer" and "winter" sea level spectra at Otkrytoe reveals prominent radiational tidal peaks (S1 and S2) in summer and the absence of these peaks in winter. The results of the analysis support the assumption that these motions are generated by the breeze winds associated with the sea/land temperature contrasts, which are substantial during the warm (ice-free) season but vague during the cold season when ice cover diminishes these contrasts.

  10. PUMa - modelling the groundwater flow in Baltic Sedimentary Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvane, G.; Marnica, A.; Bethers, U.

    2012-04-01

    In 2009-2012 at University of Latvia and Latvia University of Agriculture project "Establishment of interdisciplinary scientist group and modelling system for groundwater research" is implemented financed by the European Social Fund. The aim of the project is to develop groundwater research in Latvia by establishing interdisciplinary research group and modelling system covering groundwater flow in the Baltic Sedimentary Basin. Researchers from fields like geology, chemistry, mathematical modelling, physics and environmental engineering are involved in the project. The modelling system is used as a platform for addressing scientific problems such as: (1) large-scale groundwater flow in Baltic Sedimentary Basin and impact of human activities on it; (2) the evolution of groundwater flow since the last glaciation and subglacial groundwater recharge; (3) the effects of climate changes on shallow groundwater and interaction of hydrographical network and groundwater; (4) new programming approaches for groundwater modelling. Within the frame of the project most accessible geological information such as description of geological wells, geological maps and results of seismic profiling in Latvia as well as Estonia and Lithuania are collected and integrated into modelling system. For example data form more then 40 thousands wells are directly used to automatically generate the geological structure of the model. Additionally a groundwater sampling campaign is undertaken. Contents of CFC, stabile isotopes of O and H and radiocarbon are the most significant parameters of groundwater that are established in unprecedented scale for Latvia. The most important modelling results will be published in web as a data set. Project number: 2009/0212/1DP/1.1.1.2.0/09/APIA/VIAA/060. Project web-site: www.puma.lu.lv

  11. Environmental Gradients Explain Species Richness and Community Composition of Coastal Breeding Birds in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Nord, Maria; Forslund, Pär

    2015-01-01

    Scientifically-based systematic conservation planning for reserve design requires knowledge of species richness patterns and how these are related to environmental gradients. In this study, we explore a large inventory of coastal breeding birds, in total 48 species, sampled in 4646 1 km2 squares which covered a large archipelago in the Baltic Sea on the east coast of Sweden. We analysed how species richness (α diversity) and community composition (β diversity) of two groups of coastal breeding birds (specialists, i.e. obligate coastal breeders; generalists, i.e. facultative coastal breeders) were affected by distance to open sea, land area, shoreline length and archipelago width. The total number of species per square increased with increasing shoreline length, but increasing land area counteracted this effect in specialists. The number of specialist bird species per square increased with decreasing distance to open sea, while the opposite was true for the generalists. Differences in community composition between squares were associated with differences in land area and distance to open sea, both when considering all species pooled and each group separately. Fourteen species were nationally red-listed, and showed similar relationships to the environmental gradients as did all species, specialists and generalists. We suggest that availability of suitable breeding habitats, and probably also proximity to feeding areas, explain much of the observed spatial distributions of coastal birds in this study. Our findings have important implications for systematic conservation planning of coastal breeding birds. In particular, we provide information on where coastal breeding birds occur and which environments they seem to prefer. Small land areas with long shorelines are highly valuable both in general and for red-listed species. Thus, such areas should be prioritized for protection against human disturbance and used by management in reserve selection. PMID:25714432

  12. Expansion tube test time predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gourlay, Christopher M.

    1988-01-01

    The interaction of an interface between two gases and strong expansion is investigated and the effect on flow in an expansion tube is examined. Two mechanisms for the unsteady Pitot-pressure fluctuations found in the test section of an expansion tube are proposed. The first mechanism depends on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of the driver-test gas interface in the presence of a strong expansion. The second mechanism depends on the reflection of the strong expansion from the interface. Predictions compare favorably with experimental results. The theory is expected to be independent of the absolute values of the initial expansion tube filling pressures.

  13. Foraminiferal stable isotope constraints on salinity changes in the deglacial and early Holocene Baltic Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana Krupinski, Nadine; Filipsson, Helena; Bokhari-Friberg, Yasmin; Knudsen, Karen-Luise; Mackensen, Andreas; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Austin, William

    2015-04-01

    The northern European Baltic Sea shows evidence of strong coupling with North Atlantic climate over recent glacial-interglacial cycles, but existing climate proxy evidence from regional sediment records suggest that the coupling may occur through non-linear processes. High-resolution regional climate records in Europe and from the Baltic Sea are critical for evaluating this coupling and the regional sensitivity to North Atlantic and global climate signals. However, evaluating the drivers and mechanisms of proposed links between the North Atlantic and Baltic Sea climate has often been hampered by a lack of long, continuous, high-resolution climate records from this area. New high-resolution sediment cores collected by IODP/ECORD Expedition 347 (Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment) allow such records to be generated, including foraminiferal geochemistry records of Baltic Sea hydrographic conditions during the most recent deglaciation and early Holocene (~19-7 cal. ka). The dramatic changes in salinity, sea level, circulation, temperature, and oxygenation during this period, e.g. through massive meltwater release from proglacial lakes and the early Holocene inundation of the Baltic by seawater highlight these non-linear links between the Baltic and North Atlantic. This work uses benthic foraminiferal stable isotope records (δ18O and δ13C) from sites in the western Baltic (M0059, Lillebælt, early Holocene marine stage (Littorina Sea)) and Kattegat (M0060, Anholt, deglaciation) to constrain salinity changes during these intervals. Because of the dramatic changes in salinity this region experiences today and during the study periods, oxygen isotope records (δ18O) here primarily reflect a signal of changing salinity, with a reduced temperature effect. Early δ18O results from the western Baltic (M0059) show a trend of declining δ18O/salinity during the first several kyr of the Littorina Sea stage, in agreement with previous work indicating declining salinity due to gradual

  14. Bigravity from gradient expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Yasuho; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2016-05-01

    We discuss how the ghost-free bigravity coupled with a single scalar field can be derived from a braneworld setup. We consider DGP two-brane model without radion stabilization. The bulk configuration is solved for given boundary metrics, and it is substituted back into the action to obtain the effective four-dimensional action. In order to obtain the ghost-free bigravity, we consider the gradient expansion in which the brane separation is supposed to be sufficiently small so that two boundary metrics are almost identical. The obtained effective theory is shown to be ghost free as expected, however, the interaction between two gravitons takes the Fierz-Pauli form at the leading order of the gradient expansion, even though we do not use the approximation of linear perturbation. We also find that the radion remains as a scalar field in the four-dimensional effective theory, but its coupling to the metrics is non-trivial.

  15. The Impact of Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Yaffe, Mark J.; Steinert, Yvonne

    1990-01-01

    Postgraduate training for family physicians has become increasingly centred on 2-year residency programs. The expansion of family medicine residency programs in Quebec raises challenges: to uphold program standards, to recruit and develop new teachers, to recognize and respect the needs of students, to balance program objectives with service requirements for house staff, and to adapt to change within family medicine centers and their affiliated hospitals. Imagesp2054-ap2057-a PMID:21233950

  16. Ultraprecise thermal expansion measurements of seven low expansion materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berthold, J. W., III; Jacobs, S. F.

    1976-01-01

    We summarize a large number of ultraprecise thermal expansion measurements made on seven different low expansivity materials. Expansion coefficients in the -150-300 C temperature range are shown for Owens-Illinois Cer-Vit C-101, Corning ULE 7971 (titanium silicate) and fused silica 7940, Heraeus-Schott Zerodur low-expansion material and Homosil fused silica, Universal Cyclops Invar LR-35, and Simonds Saw and Steel Super Invar.

  17. Expansion/De-expansion Tool to Quantify the Accuracy of Prostate Contours

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eugene; Stenmark, Matthew H.; Evans, Cheryl; Narayana, Vrinda; McLaughlin, Patrick W.

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Accurate delineation of the prostate gland on computed tomography (CT) remains a persistent challenge and continues to introduce geometric uncertainty into the planning and delivery of external beam radiotherapy. We, therefore, developed an expansion/de-expansion tool to quantify the contour errors and determine the location of the deviations. Methods and Materials: A planning CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging scan were prospectively acquired for 10 patients with prostate cancer. The prostate glands were contoured by 3 independent observers using the CT data sets with instructions to contour the prostate without underestimation but to minimize overestimation. The standard prostate for each patient was defined using magnetic resonance imaging and CT on multiple planes. After registration of the CT and magnetic resonance imaging data sets, the CT-defined prostates were scored for accuracy. The contours were defined as ideal if they were within a 2.5-mm expansion of the standard without underestimation, acceptable if they were within a 5.0-mm expansion and a 2.5-mm de-expansion, and unacceptable if they extended >5.0 mm or underestimated the prostate by >2.5 mm. Results: A total of 636 CT slices were individually analyzed, with the vast majority scored as ideal or acceptable. However, none of the 30 prostate contour sets had all the contours scored as ideal or acceptable. For all 3 observers, the unacceptable contours were more likely from underestimation than overestimation of the prostate. The errors were more common at the base and apex than the mid-gland. Conclusions: The expansion/de-expansion tool allows for directed feedback on the location of contour deviations, as well as the determination of over- or underestimation of the prostate. This metric might help improve the accuracy of prostate contours.

  18. US foreign policy and the Baltic states. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Shuey, K.A.

    1996-03-01

    This thesis examines U. S. foreign policy toward the Baltic states from 1918 to 1991 to determine if the U.S. has been realistic in its dealings with small nations. An analysis of U.S. policy indicates that the United States acts hypocritically by accepting compromises on the very moral principals to which it claims to be the protectorate of when domestic political costs are high. The sacrifice of national values degrades the credibility of the moral high ground necessary for U.S. policy. This study reviews the events that occurred during the three major periods in U.S.-Baltic relations: The initial period of Baltic independence following World War I; the Soviet annexation of the Baltics during World War II: and finally the beginning of the second period of Baltic independence during the breakup of the Soviet Union. In all three cases U.S. policy was unclear and contradictory. The Baltic case provides a good example of the tendency for U.S. policy to be paradoxical and ineffective. This study concludes that despite the U.S. policy of nonrecognition of the Soviet annexation of the Baltic states during the Cold War, the United States failed to adhere to its principals when given the opportunity. In the process, it also neglected problems within its borders that required attention perhaps more urgently than those outside. The tendency for U.S. policy to ignore the issues that actually threaten its security internally and placing a higher priority on external matters that do not have a real impact on its standing could likely lead to its inadvertent downfall.

  19. Effects of an extensive Prymnesium polylepis bloom on breeding eiders in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, K.; Hajdu, S.; Kilpi, M.; Larsson, R.; Leito, A.; Lyngs, P.

    2014-04-01

    The effects of an extensive bloom of the potentially toxic Prymnesium polylepis (Haptophyta) on breeding eiders (Somateria mollissima) in the Baltic Sea were analysed. Increasing abundances of the alternate stage P. polylepis was detected by a marine monitoring programme in the autumn 2007. The bloom peaked between March and May 2008 in the southern, central and northwestern Baltic Proper and abundances of up to 5 × 106 cells l- 1 were recorded. At several sites P. polylepis constituted between 30 and 90% of the total phytoplankton biovolume. The flagellate was only recorded in low numbers in the northeastern Baltic Proper and Gulf of Finland. The abundances were low in 2007, 2009 and 2010. In 28 eider colonies situated in the southern and central Baltic Proper, sharp and synchronous declines in the number of nesting eiders were observed from 2007 to 2008. In colonies on Gotland in the central Baltic Proper, a 76% decrease, from 6650 nests to 1620 nests, was followed by increases in 2009 and 2010, although not up to numbers observed in 2007. At Utklippan and Ertholmene in the southern Baltic Proper, the observed decreases of 55%, from 144 to 65 nests, and 36%, from 1660 to 1060 nests, respectively, between 2007 and 2008, were followed by increases in 2009 and 2010 up to the level observed in 2007. By contrast, no general decline of the number of nesting eiders was observed from 2007 to 2008 in 75 colonies in the northeastern Baltic Proper and Gulf of Finland. Hence, the spatial distribution of the P. polylepis bloom in 2008 closely matched the observed distribution of extensive non-breeding of female eiders. We suggest that the intensive spring bloom of P. polylepis, either through a toxic or non-toxic pathway, affected the main benthic food of eiders, i.e. blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus × Mytilus edulis), at pre-breeding foraging sites close to the breeding sites, and, subsequently, the body condition of adult female eiders and their breeding propensity.

  20. Studies on counterstreaming plasma expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, N.; Thiemann, H.; Schunk, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Recent studies on counterstreaming plasma expansions are summarized. The basic phenomenon of plasma expansion is reviewed, and results from one-dimensional simulations of counterstreaming plasma expansion are discussed. Results from simulations based on an electrostatic particle-in-cell code, in which the dynamics of both the electrons and ions are exactly followed, are discussed. The formation of electrostatic shocks is addressed. Finally, results are presented on the ionospheric plasma expansion along the geomagnetic flux tubes by solving the hydrodynamic equations.

  1. Magnetic expansion of cosmic plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Wei-Hong

    1995-01-01

    Plasma expansion is common in many astrophysical phenomena. The understanding of the driving mechanism has usually been focused on the gas pressure that implies conversion of thermal energy into flow kinetic energy. However, 'cool' expansions have been indicated in stellar/solar winds and other expanding processes. Magnetic expansion may be the principal driving mechanism. Magnetic energy in the potential form can be converted into kinetic energy during global expansion of magnetized plasmas.

  2. Considering Renewables in Capacity Expansion Models: Capturing Flexibility with Hourly Dispatch

    SciTech Connect

    Barrows, Clayton; Mai, Trieu; Hale, Elaine; Lopez, Anthony; Eurek, Kelly

    2015-07-03

    The Resource Planning Model co-optimizes dispatch and capacity expansion using a simplified, chronological dispatch period representation and high-resolution resource, load and infrastructure data. The computational tractability of capacity expansion models depends on model simplifications. We demonstrate the effects of various dispatch period representations on model results using the Resource Planning Model.

  3. Variability of Atmospheric Circulation Patterns associated with Major Baltic Inflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, Piia; Lehmann, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Due to the narrow and shallow Danish Straits the water exchange between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea is greatly restrained. As a consequence the salt flux into the Baltic Sea is reduced, so that during stagnation periods where no strong inflows occur the permanent halocline weakens, and even disappears in some basins. Only Major Baltic inflows (MBIs), when large volumes of highly saline and oxygenated water invade over the sills, are capable to flow as dense bottom currents into the central deeps and replace the stagnant water there, simultaneously improving living conditions to biota. MBIs are typically forced by a sequence of easterly winds lasting for about 20 days followed by strong to very strong westerly winds of similar duration. Since the mid-1970s, the frequency and intensity of major inflows have decreased, and they were completely absent between February 1983 and January 1993. As the major inflows are mainly forced by the atmosphere, the reason for this kind of change is assumed to be connected to variations in the atmospheric circulation. There have been several studies where the changes in regional atmospheric circulation have been described through local wind climatology or modes of large scale low-frequency circulation variability, defined by means of principal component analysis. Another way to describe atmospheric circulation patterns is by classifying them into different atmospheric circulation types. The latter are well suited for describing sequences of circulation patterns in appropriate temporal (in hours) and spatial (regional to local) scales. Circulation types reflect real circulation patterns, which are easy to interpret, unlike the modes of variability, that cannot be considered as typical patterns of airflow, but just as building bricks for describing variability of the atmospheric circulation. Hence, our aim was to characterize the variability of sequences of atmospheric circulation patterns at the time of MBIs, to use this

  4. Geological Storage od CO2 in the Southern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernon, Richard; O'Neill, Nick; Pasquali, Riccardo; Niemi, Auli

    2014-05-01

    Geological Storage of CO2 in the Southern Baltic Sea Region The BASTOR project identifies and characterises the potential CO2 storage sites in the southern Baltic Sea. A regional theoretical storage capacity of 16Gt of CO2 in the Middle Cambrian sandstone beneath 900 metres of cap rock was estimated. 1.9Gt of this storage potential is estimated in the Dalders Monocline with some 743Mt CO2 in individual hydrocarbon and saline aquifer structures located mainly offshore Latvia and 128Mt in the Dalders Structure. Although the study has established a relatively large theoretical storage capacity, there is no effective capacity proven within these totals. Dynamic modelling undertaken in the Southern Swedish sector suggests that the relatively poor permeability and porosity characteristics would limit the injection rate to 0.5Mt per well per annum and restrict the reservoir pressure increase to 50% above the hydrostatic pressure for an injection period of 50 years. The dynamic modelling for this area suggests that an injection strategy for this sector would be limited to 5 injection wells giving a total injection capacity of 2.5 Mt per annum. Based on these results, the potential of the Southern Swedish offshore sector to sustain injection rates of CO2 required for regional industrial capture, even when using horizontal wells, brine extraction and hydraulic fracturing, would appear to be very low. Areas to the north east of the Monocline, such as offshore Latvia have been identified as having better reservoir quality despite limited data being available. These areas could sustain higher rates of injection and prove suitable areas for commercial storage. Furthermore, the regional storage capacity assessment demonstrated that there are sweet spots in the Cambrian reservoir such as onshore Latvia, where there is commercial gas storage, and both onshore and offshore Kaliningrad, where there is ongoing hydrocarbon production. The potential for seal failure was investigated as

  5. Expansion in condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, J.; Sajjad Zahir, M.

    1985-03-01

    We show that the product of local current operators in quantum chromodynamics (QCD), when expanded in terms of condensates, such as psi-barpsi, G/sup a//sub munu/ G/sup a//sub munu/, psi-barGAMMA psipsi-barGAMMApsi, f/sub a/bcG/sup a//sub munu/G/sup b//sub nualpha/ x G/sup c//sub alphamu/, etc., yields a series in Planck's constant. This, however, provides no hint that the higher terms in such an expansion may be less significant.

  6. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Lawrence M.; Strum, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components.

  7. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-12-15

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig.

  8. Iron cycling microbial communities in sediments of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Carolina; Delwig, Olaf; Noriega-Ortega, Beatriz; Dähnke, Kirstin; Böttcher, Michael E.; Friedrich, Michael W.

    2014-05-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of iron is a key early diagenetic process. However, limited information exists about the diversity and metabolic pathways of microorganisms linked to iron cycling in marine sediments. The goal of this study was to determine the bacterial community diversity in sediments showing ongoing dissimilatory iron reduction using 454-pyrosequencing as a first step in characterizing microorganisms potentially involved in iron reduction. For this purpose, two 35 cm cores were sampled from ferruginous sediments in the Skagerrak (SK) and the Bothnian Bay (BB) from the North-Sea Baltic Sea and the northern Baltic Sea respectively. Pore water profiles showed Fe2+ and Mn2+ levels of ~140-150 µM throughout the core below a 6 cm thick oxidized surface layer in SK sediments and ~300 µM below a 2 cm thick surface layer in BB sediments. Dissolved sulphide levels were below detection in both sediments. No significant depletion of SO42- occurred at both sites, further supported by stable S and O isotope analyses of dissolved sulfate at SK site. Only very minor net sulfate reduction is suggested here from the trend in sulphur isotope signatures, in agreement with previously reported gross microbial sulphate rate measurements (Canfield et al., 1993;GCA). Based on these biogeochemical constraints, Fe reduction in the studied sediments is therefore dominated by microbial dissimilatory iron reduction, while cryptic Fe-S-cycling can be largely excluded. 16S rRNA gene sequences indicate Proteobacteria as the dominating microbial group in these sediments. Potential iron and manganese reducing bacteria included Geobacteraceae, Pelobacteraceae, Shewanellaceae, and Oceanospirillales. Additionally, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were present. Also, Fe-oxidizers were present and their occurrence correlated in depth with a Fe-oxide-rich layer, most likely a former buried Fe-oxidation front. Gene sequences point to the presence of Mariprofundus in SK sediments and

  9. Morphological abnormalities in gonads of the Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras): Description of types and prevalence in the northern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Rajasilta, Marjut; Elfving, Mikael; Hänninen, Jari; Laine, Päivi; Vuorinen, Ilppo; Paranko, Jorma

    2016-03-01

    Due to heavy anthropogenic influence and variation of the environmental conditions in the Baltic Sea, reproductive disorders are becoming a major environmental concern. We show here an increasing prevalence of gonadal malformations in the Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras), a key species of the Baltic ecosystem and important in commercial fishery. During 1987-2014, the spawning herring population in the Archipelago Sea (AS) (North Baltic Sea, Finland) was monitored annually and analyzed for gross morphology of the gonads [total number (n) of analyzed fish = 38 284]. Four different types of malformations were repeatedly found and named as asymmetric, rudimentary, segmented, and branched gonads, but also hermaphroditic gonads and miscellaneous (unidentified) disorders were recorded. In 2013, additional samplings (n of fish analyzed = 541) showed similar malformations in herring from the Bothnian Sea. In some gonad types, histological examination revealed disintegration of seminiferous tubules and hyperplasia of the interstitial tissue. In 2014, the overall prevalence of malformations was still relatively low in the AS (frequency = 0-3.4 %; n = 750) and had apparently minimal effect on population recruitment. However, an increasing trend in the time-series (GLM; F = 32.65; p < 0.001) and a significantly higher prevalence in the Bothnian Sea (frequency = 0.7-5.0 %; n = 541; χ (2) = 6.24; p < 0.05) suggest that gonadal malformations may become a new threat for fish in the Baltic Sea. The observed gonad atrophies may be due to environmental endocrine disruption; however, also other explanations may exist and potential explanations are discussed. PMID:26446509

  10. University City Core Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia City Planning Commission, PA.

    A redevelopment plan for an urban core area of about 300 acres was warranted by--(1) unsuitable building conditions, (2) undesirable land usage, and (3) faulty traffic circulation. The plan includes expansion of two universities and creation of a regional science center, high school, and medical center. Guidelines for proposed land use and zoning…

  11. Expansible quantum secret sharing network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ying; Xu, Sheng-Wei; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Niu, Xin-Xin; Yang, Yi-Xian

    2013-08-01

    In the practical applications, member expansion is a usual demand during the development of a secret sharing network. However, there are few consideration and discussion on network expansibility in the existing quantum secret sharing schemes. We propose an expansible quantum secret sharing scheme with relatively simple and economical quantum resources and show how to split and reconstruct the quantum secret among an expansible user group in our scheme. Its trait, no requirement of any agent's assistant during the process of member expansion, can help to prevent potential menaces of insider cheating. We also give a discussion on the security of this scheme from three aspects.

  12. Biodiversity gradient in the Baltic Sea: a comprehensive inventory of macrozoobenthos data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zettler, Michael L.; Karlsson, Anna; Kontula, Tytti; Gruszka, Piotr; Laine, Ari O.; Herkül, Kristjan; Schiele, Kerstin S.; Maximov, Alexey; Haldin, Jannica

    2014-03-01

    In the Helsinki Commission Red List project 2009-2012, taxonomic and distributional data of benthic (macro) invertebrates were compiled by the present authors in a comprehensive checklist of the Baltic Sea fauna. Based on the most recent and comprehensive data, this paper presents the diversity patterns observed among benthic invertebrates in the Baltic Sea. As expected, the total number of species per sub-region generally declined along the salinity gradient from the Danish Straits to the northern Baltic Sea. This relationship is well known from the Baltic Sea and has resulted in a general assumption of an exponentially positive relationship between species richness and salinity for marine species, and a negative relationship for freshwater species. In 1934, Remane produced a diagram to describe the hypothetical distribution of benthic invertebrate diversity along a marine-freshwater salinity gradient. Our results clearly indicated the validity of this theory for the macrozoobenthic diversity pattern within the Baltic Sea. Categorisation of sub-regions according to species composition showed both separation and grouping of some sub-regions and a strong alignment of similarity patterns of zoobenthic species composition along the salinity gradient.

  13. Chemical physiological and morphological studies of feral baltic salmon (Salmo salar) suffering from abnormal fry mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Norrgren, L. . Dept. of Pathology Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm ); Andersson, T. . Dept. of Zoophysiology); Bergqvist, P.A. . Inst. of Environmental Chemistry); Bjoerklund, I. )

    1993-11-01

    In 1974, abnormally high mortality was recorded among yolk-sac fry of Baltic salmon (Salmo salar) originating from feral females manually stripped and fertilized with milt from feral males. The cause of this mortality, designated M74, is unknown. The hypothesis is that xenobiotic compounds responsible for reproduction failure in higher vertebrates in the Baltic Sea also interfere with reproduction in Baltic salmon. The significance of M74 should not be underestimated, because the syndrome has caused up to 75% yearly mortality of developing Baltic salmon yolk-sac larvae in a fish hatchery dedicated to production of smolt during the last two decades. The author cannot exclude the possibility that only a relatively low number of naturally spawned eggs develop normally because of M74. No individual pollutant has been shown to be responsible for the development of M74 syndrome. However, a higher total body burden of organochlorine substances may be responsible for the M74 syndrome. The presence of induced hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes in both yolk-sac fry suffering from M74 and adult feral females producing offspring affected by M74 supports this hypothesis. In addition, the P450 enzyme activity in offspring from feral fish is higher than the activity in yolk-sac fry from hatchery-raised fish, suggesting that feral Baltic salmon are influenced by organic xenobiotics.

  14. Using satellite data to estimate partial pressure of CO2 in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parard, Gaëlle; Charantonis, Anastase Alexandre; Rutgersson, Anna

    2016-03-01

    In this study we focused on estimating the pressure partial of CO2 (pCO2) in the entire Baltic Sea which can be considered a coastal area in its entirety. We used the self-organizing multiple linear output (SOMLO) method to estimate the ocean surface pCO2 in the Baltic Sea from the remotely sensed sea surface temperature, chlorophyll a, colored dissolved organic matter, net primary production, and mixed-layer depth. Uncertainties in the estimates include sparsity of in situ data used to train the algorithms, in particular, for some sectors and seasons. For this application we divided the Baltic Sea in four basins. When comparing the results obtained with this division to those obtained in previous studies, we notice a decrease in the root-mean-square error (<40 μatm) between the reconstruction of the pCO2 and their corresponding in situ measurements, as well as an increase of the correlation coefficient (> 0.96) between them. The outputs of this research have a horizontal resolution of 4 km and cover the 1998-2011 period. For the first time, a climatological mean distribution of surface water pCO2 over the Baltic Sea was calculated based on the SOMLO method with a mean pCO2 of 368.3 ± 100 μatm, and a range of 234-514 μatm. The seasonal variability is similar throughout the Baltic Sea, being high in winter and low in summer.

  15. Oceanographic connectivity and environmental correlates of genetic structuring in Atlantic herring in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Teacher, Amber GF; André, Carl; Jonsson, Per R; Merilä, Juha

    2013-01-01

    Marine fish often show little genetic structuring in neutral marker genes, and Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in the Baltic Sea are no exception; historically, very low levels of population differentiation (FST ≍ 0.002) have been found, despite a high degree of interpopulation environmental heterogeneity in salinity and temperature. Recent exome sequencing and SNP studies have however shown that many loci are under selection in this system. Here, we combined population genetic analyses of a large number of transcriptome-derived microsatellite markers with oceanographic modelling to investigate genetic differentiation and connectivity in Atlantic herring at a relatively fine scale within the Baltic Sea. We found evidence for weak but robust and significant genetic structuring (FST = 0.008) explainable by oceanographic connectivity. Genetic differentiation was also associated with site differences in temperature and salinity, with the result driven by the locus Her14 which appears to be under directional selection (FST = 0.08). The results show that Baltic herring are genetically structured within the Baltic Sea, and highlight the role of oceanography and environmental factors in explaining this structuring. The results also have implications for the management of herring fisheries, the most economically important fishery in the Baltic Sea, suggesting that the current fisheries management units may be in need of revision. PMID:23745145

  16. Sea level trends for all sections of the Baltic Sea coastline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Kristine S.; Høyer, Jacob L.; Suursaar, Ülo; Knudsen, Per; She, Jun

    2016-04-01

    To better understand influence of sea level rise on societal vulnerability and coastal erosion processes, it is important to know the sea level trend. The coastline of the Baltic Sea is not uniformly exposed, and therefore we will determine the sea level trend of the last 10, 50 and 100 years for all sections of the coastline. The observational record of sea level in the Baltic Sea is quite unique with several records of more than 100 years of data. However, the information is confined to the tide gauge locations. Here, we utilize a statistical method based on least squares regression and originally developed for short term sea level variability (Madsen et al. 2015, JGR, doi:10.1002/2015JC011070) to spread out the sea level information from selected tide gauges to all sections of the Baltic Sea coast. Monthly mean tide gauge observations are retrieved from PSMSL and supplemented with Estonian observations. The spatial distribution of the sea level is obtained from model reanalysis from the Copernicus Marine Service and satellite altimetry observations and land rise information is taken into account. Results are validated against independent tide gauges, providing a consistent record of 20th century sea level trends and variability, including uncertainties, for the entire Baltic Sea coastline. This work is sponsored by the EMODnet project Baltic Checkpoint.

  17. Modelling the Influence of Major Baltic Inflows on Near-Bottom Conditions at the Entrance of the Gulf of Finland

    PubMed Central

    Lessin, Gennadi; Raudsepp, Urmas; Stips, Adolf

    2014-01-01

    A coupled hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model was implemented in order to estimate the effects of Major Baltic Inflows on the near-bottom hydrophysical and biogeochemical conditions in the northern Baltic Proper and the western Gulf of Finland during the period 1991–2009. We compared results of a realistic reference run to the results of an experimental run where Major Baltic Inflows were suppressed. Further to the expected overall decrease in bottom salinity, this modelling experiment confirms that in the absence of strong saltwater inflows the deep areas of the Baltic Proper would become more anoxic, while in the shallower areas (western Gulf of Finland) near-bottom average conditions improve. Our experiment revealed that typical estuarine circulation results in the sporadic emergence of short-lasting events of near-bottom anoxia in the western Gulf of Finland due to transport of water masses from the Baltic Proper. Extrapolating our results beyond the modelled period, we speculate that the further deepening of the halocline in the Baltic Proper is likely to prevent inflows of anoxic water to the Gulf of Finland and in the longer term would lead to improvement in near-bottom conditions in the Baltic Proper. Our results reaffirm the importance of accurate representation of salinity dynamics in coupled Baltic Sea models serving as a basis for credible hindcast and future projection simulations of biogeochemical conditions. PMID:25393720

  18. Immediate versus chronic tissue expansion.

    PubMed

    Machida, B K; Liu-Shindo, M; Sasaki, G H; Rice, D H; Chandrasoma, P

    1991-03-01

    A quantitative comparison of the effects on tissues is performed between chronic tissue expansion, intraoperative expansion, and load cycling in a guinea pig model. Intra-operative expansion, which was developed by Sasaki as a method of immediate tissue expansion for small- to medium-sized defects, and load cycling, which was described by Gibson as a method using intraoperative pull, are compared with chronic tissue expansion on the basis of the following four parameters: amount of skin produced, flap viability, intraoperative tissue pressures, and histological changes. The chronically expanded group, which included booster and nonbooster expansions, produced a 137% increase in surface area, or a 52% increase in flap arc length, whereas intraoperative expansion resulted in a 31% increase in surface area, or a 15% increase in flap arc length. The load-cycled group, however, resulted in an almost negligible amount of skin increase. All three techniques exhibit immediate postexpansion stretchback. Flap viability is not impaired by any of the three techniques, in spite of the elevated pressures observed during expansion. Therefore, intraoperative expansion is effective primarily for limited expansion of small defects, whereas chronic tissue expansion still provides the greatest amount of skin increase when compared with other techniques. PMID:2029132

  19. Developmental defects in pelagic fish embryos from the western Baltic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    v. Westernhagen, H.; Dethlefsen, V.; Cameron, P.; Berg, J.; Fürstenberg, G.

    1988-03-01

    In February/March 1983 and 1984 a survey of pelagic fish eggs was conducted in the western Baltic (Kiel Bight), employing a horizontally towed plankton net (1 m Ø and 300 μm mesh). Maximum egg numbers in the upper meter of the S=21×10-3 salinity layer were 200·100 m-3. The most abundant eggs were cod (up to 142 eggs·100 m-3), followed by plaice (up to 74 eggs·100 m-3) and flounder (20 eggs·100 m-3). A considerable percentage of embryos of all species displayed aberrant development. In 1983 18% of cod, 22% of flounder and 24% of plaice eggs caught contained defective embryos; in 1984 this number was larger, ranging from 28% in plaice over 32% in cod to 44% in flounder. Early developmental stages showed the highest malformation rates (up to 51% in the case of early flounder embryos). With progressive development, malformations decreased in numbers, being lowest prior to hatching. Highest rates of malformations were recorded in the Mecklenburg Bight in 1983. A second area with high incidence of malformation rates was located south and east of the island of Langeland. Several reasons, including environmental and anthropogenic factors, for the occurrence of malformed embryos in pelagic fish eggs are discussed. The potential of malformation rates in embryos of pelagic fish eggs as a tool for monitoring is considered.

  20. The identity of Romanian amber (rumanite) with Baltic amber (succinite).

    SciTech Connect

    Stout, E. C.; Beck, C. W.; Anderson, K. B.; Chemistry; Vassar Coll.

    2000-11-01

    Romanian amber (rumanite) has been considered to be a separate species of fossil resin for more than a century. While earlier investigators held it to be very similar to succinite (Baltic amber), modern scholars have assigned it a distinctly different botanical origin. We have found that almost all of the constituents of the ether-soluble fractions of 13 specimens of authentic rumanite identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry have previously been reported in the soluble fraction of succinite, including succinic acid and its monoterpene esters. Additionally and significantly, the soluble fraction of rumanite contains a number defunctionalized compounds that do not preexist in succinite, but that are produced by pyrolysis of whole succinite or of its insoluble polymeric fraction. Simultaneous methylation pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of the polymeric fraction of seven of the rumanite specimens yielded further copious amounts of dimethyl succinate, a number of diterpene resin acid methyl esters, and additional defunctionalized compounds known to be pyrolysis products of succinite. The evidence shows conclusively that the botanical origin of rumanite is not distinct from that of succinite. Rather, rumanite is a succinite that has suffered partial thermal degradation in the course of the folding of the Oligocene Kliwa sandstone formation in which it is most commonly found.

  1. Dynamics of hydrophobic organic contaminants in the Baltic proper pelagial

    SciTech Connect

    Axelman, J.; Broman, D.; Naef, C.; Pettersen, H.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrophobic organic contaminants occur in different forms in natural water. Apart from being truly dissolved in water they partition into dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particles of different sizes including pelagic bacteria, phytoplankton and zooplankton. The distribution between the different forms is dependent on carbon turnover rates in and transport between the different compartments and on the physical and chemical properties of the compound in focus. The water phase, the DOC-phase and two particle size fractions, 0.2--2pm and 2--20 pm representing the base of the pelagic food web, were analyzed for their content of PCBs and PAHs during summer and winter conditions in the open sea in the Baltic proper. New methods for separating truly dissolved from DOC-bound compounds have been developed using a high capacity perfusion adsorbent and large scale gas sparging. The small particle size fraction was sampled using high volume tangential flow filtration. The possibility to separate between these four different compartments has given a more detailed picture of the short term dynamics of hydrophobic organic compounds in the important base of the pelagial food web.

  2. Seasonal Activity Budget of Adult Baltic Ringed Seals

    PubMed Central

    Harkonen, Tero; Jüssi, Mart; Jüssi, Ivar; Verevkin, Michail; Dmitrieva, Lilia; Helle, Eero; Sagitov, Roustam; Harding, Karin C.

    2008-01-01

    Although ringed seals are important components in oceanic and fresh water ecosystems at high latitudes, little is known about how they exploit these harsh environments. Seasonal activity and diving behaviour of 19 adult Baltic ringed seals were studied by satellite telemetry. We elaborated an activity budget for ten months of the year, extending over the period from moult to the breeding season. Seals from three main regions showed explicit site fidelity and the distributions of animals tagged from different areas did not overlap, suggesting separate stocks. Both the mean duration and the mean depth of dives peaked in June and July. Seals spent 70% (females) to 85% (males) of their time diving in June and July which decreased to 50% in late autumn. Less than one percent of dives exceeded 10 min in females, while 10% of male dives lasted longer than 10 min in June to September. Less than one percent of dives lasted for more than 25 min. Both females and males were most active during day time and hauled out predominantly during the night. Activity patterns during the summer are suggested to be correlated to energy accumulation and prey availability. The information on seasonal activity budget is crucial for developing population energetic models where interactions between ringed seals and other trophic levels can be evaluated. PMID:18414676

  3. Inactivated phosphorus by added aluminum in Baltic Sea sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rydin, Emil

    2014-12-01

    Decreased phosphorus (P) retention in aquatic sediments during hypoxic periods results in increased P recycling to the water column. To revert to less productive conditions in the enclosed bays of the Baltic Sea archipelago, increased sediment P burial capacity is needed. Aluminum (Al) addition is considered to be a cost-effective lake restoration method, as it improves sediment P burial capacity. However, little is known about its ability to permanently bind P in brackish systems. In summer 2000, Al sulfate granules were added to a hypoxic bottom area in the Östhammar bay, Sweden. Sediment core samples from the area were collected 10 years later. A peak in Al and P was detected at 20 cm sediment depth, reflecting the added Al and P trapped to it. Only part of the added Al was recovered, but the recovered Al (8 g Al/m2) trapped P at a ratio of 5:1 (molar). Chemical fractionation showed that P extracted as 'Al-P' constituted 55% of the trapped P, indicating that Al added also trapped P extracted as other P forms.

  4. Eye function of Mysidacea (Crustacea) in the northern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Lindström

    2000-03-30

    Eye spectral sensitivity, [S(lambda)], was measured in seven northern Baltic mysid species using an electroretinogram technique. Their S(lambda) curves were compared with the spectral distribution of underwater light at their normal habitats. In the littoral species Neomysis integer, Praunus flexuosus and Praunus inermis, the S(lambda) maxima, [S(lambda)(max)], were in the wavelength-bands of 525-535, 505-515 and 520-530 nm respectively. The neoimmigrant species Hemimysis anomala had a S(lambda)(max) around 500 nm and high sensitivity at 393 nm, possibly indicating UV-sensitivity. S(lambda) of the pelagic species Mysis mixta and Mysis relicta sp. II was at about 505-520 nm. M. relicta sp. I from Pojoviken Bay and fresh water humic Lake Pääjärvi had S(lambda)(max) at approximately 550 nm and 570 nm respectively. This is in accordance with a similar long-wavelength shift in light transmittance of the respective waters. The eyes of the latter population were also damaged by strong light. The pontocaspian neoimmigrant H. anomala is clearly adapted to waters transmitting more blue light. PMID:10699220

  5. [The Baltic countries as the birthplace of embryology. Contingencies of a transnational region of science].

    PubMed

    Riha, Ortrun; Schmuck, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Modern embryology is grounded on the research of Pander (theory of germ-layers), von Baer (human egg) and Rathke (branchial arches in mammals). All these scientists lived and worked in the Baltic region. They held professorships at the universities of Koenigsberg and Dorpat and at the Imperial Academy of St. Petersburg, thus moving between the Kingdom of Prussia and the Russian Czardom. Since the Baltic countries are not commonly considered to be predestined as a birthplace of embryology, special attention is turned to the coincidences that, there of all places, made those people focus on that special field of research. Considering the peripheral position of the Baltic, the paper examines personal relations, national identities, cultural exchange, and local working conditions, including room for development as well as formidable obstacles. PMID:21563375

  6. alpha1-antitrypsin (PI) alleles as markers of Westeuropean influence in the Baltic Sea region.

    PubMed

    Beckman, L; Sikström, C; Mikelsaar, A; Krumina, A; Kucinskas, V; Beckman, G

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of alpha1-antitrypsin (PI) alleles was studied in an attempt to elucidate migrations and admixture between populations in the Baltic Sea region. The frequency of the PI Z allele, a typically Northwesteuropean marker gene, showed a highly significant regional variation in the Baltic Sea region. The highest frequency (4.5%) was found in the western part of Latvia (Courland). The PI S allele, another marker of Westeuropean influence, also showed an increased frequency in the Courland population. These results indicate that among the populations east of the Baltic Sea the Curonian population has the most pronounced Westeuropean influence. Archaeological data have shown that from the 7th century and for several hundreds of years Courland received immigrations from mainland Sweden and the island of Gotland. We speculate that the increased frequencies of the PI Z alleles and S alleles in Courland may have been caused by these migrations. PMID:9858859

  7. MPC&A training needs of the NIS/Baltics States.

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, David Franklin; Stoy-McLeod, Carol L.

    2006-07-01

    This report serves to document contract deliverables considered to be of continuing interest associated with two workshops conducted as part of an initial assessment of Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) training needs of the Newly Independent and Baltic States (NIS/Baltics). These workshops were held in Kiev, Ukraine, ca. 2003-2004, with the assistance of personnel from the George Kuzmycz Training Center (GKTC) of the Kiev Institute of Nuclear Research (KINR). Because of the dominant role Ukraine plays in the region in terms of the nuclear industry, one workshop focused exclusively on Ukrainian training needs, with participants attending from twelve Ukrainian organizations (plus U.S. DOE/NNSA representatives). The second workshop included participation by a further ten countries from the NIS/Baltics region. In addition, the training needs data developed during the workshop were supplemented by the outcomes of surveys and studies conducted by the GKTC.

  8. The nutrient load from food waste generated onboard ships in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Wilewska-Bien, Magda; Granhag, Lena; Andersson, Karin

    2016-04-15

    The combination of the sensitive characteristics of the Baltic Sea and the intense maritime traffic makes the marine environment vulnerable to anthropogenic influences. The theoretical scenario calculated in this study shows that the annually generated food waste onboard ships in traffic in the Baltic Sea contains about 182tonnes of nitrogen and 34tonnes of phosphorus. Today, all food waste generated onboard can be legally discharged into the marine environment at a distance of 12NM from the nearest land. The annual load of nitrogen contained in the food waste corresponds to 52% of load of nitrogen from the ship-generated sewage. Future regulations for sewage discharge in the Baltic Sea will require significant reduction of total nitrogen and phosphorus released. The contribution of nutrients from food waste compared to sewage will therefore be relatively larger in the future, if food waste still can be legally discharged. PMID:26992746

  9. Factors influencing variability of mercury input to the southern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Bełdowska, Magdalena; Saniewska, Dominika; Falkowska, Lucyna

    2014-09-15

    The southern Baltic countries have been identified as significant sources of Hg into the sea. Are anthropogenic activities the sole source? How do meteorological parameters influence the deposition? Studies on input of Hg to the Baltic were conducted in 2008-2012 in the Polish coastal stations. The riverine load was found to depend directly or indirectly on the amount of precipitation and catchment type. Input of atmospheric Hg increased along with the number of precipitation episodes from remote maritime air masses, as well as with the number of days when continental air masses from regional (when domestic heating prevailed) and remote sources moved over the Baltic, during the heating season. During the non-heating season metal input was found to be proportional to episodes of rain from continental regional air masses and to the number of days under influence of continental and maritime air masses from regional sources. PMID:25066454

  10. Cryogenic expansion machine

    DOEpatents

    Pallaver, Carl B.; Morgan, Michael W.

    1978-01-01

    A cryogenic expansion engine includes intake and exhaust poppet valves each controlled by a cam having adjustable dwell, the valve seats for the valves being threaded inserts in the valve block. Each cam includes a cam base and a ring-shaped cam insert disposed at an exterior corner of the cam base, the cam base and cam insert being generally circular but including an enlarged cam dwell, the circumferential configuration of the cam base and cam dwell being identical, the cam insert being rotatable with respect to the cam base. GI CONTRACTUAL ORIGIN OF THE INVENTION The invention described herein was made in the course of, or under, a contract with the UNITED STATES ENERGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION.