Sample records for plan baltic expansion

  1. Climate change and the Baltic Sea action plan: Model simulations on the future of the western Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedland, René; Neumann, Thomas; Schernewski, Gerald

    2012-12-01

    In this study we apply the model ERGOM to simulate the consequences of Climate Change as well as the combination of Climate Change with nutrient load reductions according to the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) on the Baltic Sea ecosystem. According to the simulations, Climate Change will cause an increase of the water temperature up to 3 K and a salinity decrease of 1.5 PSU until 2100. However, the implementation of the BSAP will have much stronger effects on the ecosystem. The model suggests that the western Baltic Sea will shift from a nitrogen (N) towards a phosphorus (P) limited system. As a consequence, N-fixation will strongly decrease. The same applies to nutrient-concentrations in winter, denitrification as well as detritus and chlorophyll concentrations in summer. The availability of N in summer, the Secchi depth and the oxygen saturation will increase. Our simulations suggest that the full implementation of the BSAP will cause imbalances in the Baltic Sea over decades before a new system state will be reached. Our results indicate that the Secchi depth alone is not a suitable indicator for the state of eutrophication. Concerning the Water Framework Directive (WFD), Climate Change might alter gradients and concentrations, e.g. of salinity, and in return this might require a re-definition of the WFD typology or a spatial shift of the surface water types, e.g. in Germany. The western Baltic Sea is strongly controlled by regional nutrient loads. Climate Change has only a limited effect on loads in the western Baltic. A re-definition of reference conditions and a good status because of Climate Change seems not necessary.

  2. Probable causes for cyanobacterial expansion in the Baltic Sea: Role of anoxia and phosphorus retention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per Westman; Johanna Borgendahl; Thomas S. Bianchi; Nianhong Chen

    2003-01-01

    This study corroborates the hypothesis that nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria have probably occurred as an important component\\u000a of the phytoplankton community in the Baltic Sea at least since brackish water conditions were initiated 8,50014C yr BP. Pigment analyses indicate that extensive occurrences started prior to a sharp increase in nutrient levels dated to\\u000a 7,10014C yr BP. The cyanobacteria could have functioned as

  3. Constraint Handling in Transmission Network Expansion Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallipeddi, R.; Verma, Ashu; Suganthan, P. N.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Bijwe, P. R.

    Transmission network expansion planning (TNEP) is a very important and complex problem in power system. Recently, the use of metaheuristic techniques to solve TNEP is gaining more importance due to their effectiveness in handling the inequality constraints and discrete values over the conventional gradient based methods. Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) generally perform unconstrained search and require some additional mechanism to handle constraints. In EA literature, various constraint handling techniques have been proposed. However, to solve TNEP the penalty function approach is commonly used while the other constraint handling methods are untested. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of different constraint handling methods like Superiority of Feasible Solutions (SF), Self adaptive Penalty (SP),E-Constraint (EC), Stochastic Ranking (SR) and the ensemble of constraint handling techniques (ECHT) on TNEP. The potential of different constraint handling methods and their ensemble is evaluated using an IEEE 24 bus system with and without security constraints.

  4. 216-B-3 expansion ponds closure plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This document describes the activities for clean closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) of the 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds. The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds are operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and co-operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds consists of a series of three earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. The 3A, 3B, and 3C ponds are referred to as Expansion Ponds because they expanded the capability of the B Pond System. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the Bypass pipe (Project X-009). Water discharged to the Bypass pipe flows directly into the 216-B-3C Pond. The ponds were operated in a cascade mode, where the Main Pond overflowed into the 3A Pond and the 3A Pond overflowed into the 3C Pond. The 3B Pond has not received waste water since May 1985; however, when in operation, the 3B Pond received overflow from the 3A Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to the Expansion Ponds had the potential to have contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the dangerous waste portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA.

  5. IRP methods for Environmental Impact Statements of utility expansion plans

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallo, J.D.; Hemphill, R.C.; Veselka, T.D.

    1992-01-01

    Most large electric utilities and a growing number of gas utilities in the United States are using a planning method -- Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) - which incorporates demand-side management (DSM) programs whenever the marginal cost of the DSM programs are lower than the marginal cost of supply-side expansion options. Argonne National Laboratory has applied the IRP method in its socio-economic analysis of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) of power marketing for a system of electric utilities in the mountain and western regions of the United States. Applying the IRP methods provides valuable information to the participants in an EIS process involving capacity expansion of an electric or gas utility. The major challenges of applying the IRP method within an EIS are the time consuming and costly task of developing a least cost expansion path for each altemative, the detailed quantification of environmental damages associated with capacity expansion, and the explicit inclusion of societal-impacts to the region.

  6. IRP methods for Environmental Impact Statements of utility expansion plans

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallo, J.D.; Hemphill, R.C.; Veselka, T.D.

    1992-10-01

    Most large electric utilities and a growing number of gas utilities in the United States are using a planning method -- Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) - which incorporates demand-side management (DSM) programs whenever the marginal cost of the DSM programs are lower than the marginal cost of supply-side expansion options. Argonne National Laboratory has applied the IRP method in its socio-economic analysis of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) of power marketing for a system of electric utilities in the mountain and western regions of the United States. Applying the IRP methods provides valuable information to the participants in an EIS process involving capacity expansion of an electric or gas utility. The major challenges of applying the IRP method within an EIS are the time consuming and costly task of developing a least cost expansion path for each altemative, the detailed quantification of environmental damages associated with capacity expansion, and the explicit inclusion of societal-impacts to the region.

  7. WASP and electricity capacity expansion planning for emerging countries

    SciTech Connect

    Allentuck, J

    1980-11-01

    The WIEN Automatic System Planning Package (WASP) is typical of electrical generation capacity expansion planning models in general use today. It was developed by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) hence the name WIEN. It is available without charge to member states. Assistance in its use is available from IAEA staff and in addition it is well documented. The user of WASP should be aware of its uses and limitations especially, though not exclusively, in its application to emerging countries. This paper presents an overview of capacity expansion planning and its place in the economic planning process with reference to the emerging countries; describes in a general way the use of WASP; cautions care in the interpretation of WASP results; and suggests the way in which WASP can be used to assess innovative electric generating technologies.

  8. Load estimation in industrial power systems for expansion planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun-Lien Su

    2011-01-01

    To increase the competition in the future global shipbuilding markets, CSBC Corp., Taiwan (CSBC) has started to do an expansion plan to install more efficient facilities for valuing productivity and improving the overall efficiency of plant operations. The shipyard, however, has no power SCADA system due to old building ages and cost considerations and consequently real-time measurements for most load

  9. Distribution systems expansion planning by multi-stage branch exchange

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Nara; T. Satoh; H. Kuwabara; K. Aoki; M. Kitagawa; T. Ishihara

    1992-01-01

    The authors present a multistage branch exchange algorithm for solving expansion planning problems in distribution systems. Since it is formulated as a combinatorial optimization problem, it is difficult to solve such a large-scale problem accurately. Therefore, in order to find a solution quickly, the authors have developed a method based on the branch exchange technique which is able to find

  10. Technology Transfer Expansion Planned UTCA is conducting a major project

    E-print Network

    Carver, Jeffrey C.

    Technology Transfer Expansion Planned UTCA is conducting a major project to evaluate and extend its technology transfer activities (UTCA project 03217). Steven Jones and David Eckhoff of UAB are working to expand the current technology transfer program to showcase the successes of the UTCA projects. Samples

  11. Baltic Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magner, Thomas F., Ed.; Schmalstieg, William R., Ed.

    The 20 papers in this collection are: "The Dative of Subordination in Baltic and Slavic"--H. Andersen; "The Vocalic Phonemes of the Old Prussian Elbing Vocabulary"--M.L. Burwell; "The Nominative Plural and Preterit Singular of the Active Participles in Baltic"--W. Cowgill; "The State of Linguistics in Soviet Lithuania"--L. Dambriunas; "Accent in…

  12. Multi-year expansion planning for distribution systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koichi Nara; Taiji Satoh; Kenichi Aoki; Minoru Kitagawa

    1991-01-01

    A multi-term distribution system expansion planning method is proposed. Many mathematical programming approaches have been proposed in this area. However, because of the complexity of the problem or the limitations of a computational time and memory size, these methods can only be applied to a small-scale system. To solve large-scale problems, the authors propose a new decomposition algorithm based on

  13. Irrigated Agricultural Expansion Planning in Developing Countries : Income Redistribution Objective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allam, Mohamed N.; Marks, David H.

    1984-07-01

    The role of agricultural expansion investment in improving the income redistribution conditions in society has been of considerable concern to planners. In this paper an approach based on distributing the newly developed land to a poorer sector (landless farmers) in society to gain agricultural revenues and improve their income is investigated. A mathematical optimization model is built to determine the distribution of land and a pricing policy established for the new areas in such a way that (1) a specified (by the government) income increase to the farmers can be achieved, (2) a predetermined level of recovery of the expansion cost can be insured, (3) high agricultural efficiency in the new land can be maintained, and (4) redistribution benefits can be maximized. In a case study application of the model, no conflict is found between the economic efficiency and income redistribution cirtieria in agricultural expansion investment within the planning framework presented in the companion paper (Allam and Marks, this issue). For a specified cost recovery condition it is found that the least cost planning alternatives give the opportunity to the largest number of landless farmers to own the new land and receive a specified income increase from the agricultural revenues, but a conflict between government return from the investment and redistribution objectives is found. This conflict is addressed and the trade-off between the two objectives is illustrated.

  14. Irrigated Agricultural Expansion Planning in Developing Countries: Investment Scheduling Incorporating Drainage Water Reuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed N. Allam; David H. Marks

    1984-01-01

    Agricultural expansion planning in developing countries where there is extensive government involvement in the planning process can be defined in a two-level hierarchy. At the first level, the role of the agricultural expansion investment in achieving the strategic goals of the sector is to be determined. At the second level, analysis of the agricultural expansion is to be carried out

  15. Impact of unit commitment constraints on generation expansion planning with renewables

    E-print Network

    Palmintier, Bryan Stephen

    Growing use of renewables pushes thermal generators against operating constraints - e.g. ramping, minimum output, and operating reserves - that are traditionally ignored in expansion planning models. We show how including ...

  16. A multi - criteria approach to expansion planning of wind power plants in electric power systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Yu. Ivanova; N. I. Voropai; E. Handschin

    2005-01-01

    The paper addresses the problems of expansion planning of wind power plants in electric power systems. The Monte-Carlo simulation is used to estimate the wind power plants electricity output on the basis of wind velocities in the area. The general expansion problem is formed as a two level hierarchical multi-criteria problem. At the upper level of hierarchy consideration is given

  17. Irrigated Agricultural Expansion Planning in Developing Countries: Income Redistribution Objective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed N. Allam; David H. Marks

    1984-01-01

    The role of agricultural expansion investment in improving the income redistribution conditions in society has been of considerable concern to planners. In this paper an approach based on distributing the newly developed land to a poorer sector (landless farmers) in society to gain agricultural revenues and improve their income is investigated. A mathematical optimization model is built to determine the

  18. Irrigated agricultural expansion planning in developing countries: Performance vs. resilience vs. reliability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Nasr Allam; David Hunter Marks

    1988-01-01

    The conflict between performance measured in terms of economic and income redistribution objectives, resilience and reliability of irrigated agricultural expansions in developing countries is investigated via a planning framework consisting of three sequential optimization models. The first model determines the most economic planning alternatives. The second model examines, in terms of an income redistribution criterion, the social attractiveness of each

  19. Transmission system expansion planning with consideration of N-1 security constraints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Somphop Asadamongkol; Bundhit Eua-arporn

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a heuristic method for solving transmission system expansion problems (TSEP) with consideration of N-1 security constraints. The method is divided into two phases. An initial plan is established in the first phase by a search process which is based on a modified simplex method and sensitivity indices. The second phase starts from the initial plan and performs

  20. Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity -

    E-print Network

    Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity - conservation genetic risks associated with compensatory releases of salmon in the Baltic Sea Havs- och vattenmyndighetens rapport 2012:18 #12;Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity - conservation genetic risks associated with compensatory releases

  1. Irrigated Agricultural Expansion Planning in Developing Countries: Resilient System Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed N. Allam; David H. Marks

    1984-01-01

    A multicriteria optimization model is built to determine performance as well as operating rules of an agricultural system under future uncertainties inherent in the planning parameters. Performance of the agricultural systems is measured in terms of the economic efficiency and income redistribution criteria. The operating decisions are determined in such a way that the reduction in performance due to unpleasant

  2. Popular but Troubled, Historically Black Medical School Plans Ambitious Expansion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Two years ago, the only historically black medical school west of the Mississippi faced a grim prognosis after county officials pulled the plug on its relationship with a troubled hospital. Today the medical school that has reportedly trained about a third of Los Angeles County's black and Hispanic physicians is back on its feet and planning an…

  3. Application of particle swarm optimization technique and its variants to generation expansion planning problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Kannan; S. Mary Raja Slochanal; P. Subbaraj; Narayana Prasad Padhy

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the application of particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique and its variants to least-cost generation expansion planning (GEP) problem. The GEP problem is a highly constrained, combinatorial optimization problem that can be solved by complete enumeration. PSO is one of the swarm intelligence (SI) techniques, which use the group intelligence behavior along with individual intelligence to solve the

  4. A Decomposition Approach to Preventive Planning of Reactive Volt Ampere (VAR) Source Expansion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Nadira; W. M. Lebow; P. B. Usoro

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a two-level approach for determining the minimum cost expansion pattern (location and size) of new reactive compensation sources that would ensure steady-state secure operation of large scale power systems not only under a given set of operating conditions for the intact system, but also under contingency conditions. This preventive planning problem is decomposed into a var dispatch

  5. Algorithm for expansion planning in distribution systems taking faults into consideration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Nara; H. Kuwabara M-Kitagawa; M. Kitagawa; K. Ohtaka

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a solution algorithm for expansion planning in distribution systems in which fault cases are taken into consideration. The proposed method can take all the predetermined severe fault cases into consideration simultaneously, and can avoid installing excess facilities without affecting the ability for fault restoration. In the algorithm, the whole problem is decomposed into sub-problems according to pre-determined

  6. A planning model for expansion and stagnation of higher education in iran.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Aeen; Mojtahedzadeh, Rita; Saadat, Soheil; Karimi, Abdollah; Keshavarz Valian, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Iran universities of medical sciences have experienced a period of expansion in past decades. Now previous concerns are alleviated, and the former quantity-based policy has given a way to a more quality-seeking attitude. In this study, we developed a planning model for expansion and stagnation of higher education in Iranian universities of medical sciences based on workforce requirements of the country and capabilities of the universities. The plan provided an objectively documented base for the authorities to decide on developmental limits of universities. We devised guidelines for justifying existing programs within universities, assigning new undergraduate and postgraduate programs to universities, voluntary request of universities to cancel a program, and their request to offer new programs for the first time in the country, based on three factors: university educational status, each university-program educational status and the nation's need for each discipline. Related councils of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education legitimately approved the plan and guidelines. In this article, we introduced the methodology of developing the plan, described it and its related guidelines and discussed challenges and limitations we encountered in design and application phases. PMID:25369012

  7. The Role of Demand Resources In Regional Transmission Expansion Planning and Reliable Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL

    2006-07-01

    Investigating the role of demand resources in regional transmission planning has provided mixed results. On one hand there are only a few projects where demand response has been used as an explicit alternative to transmission enhancement. On the other hand there is a fair amount of demand response in the form of energy efficiency, peak reduction, emergency load shedding, and (recently) demand providing ancillary services. All of this demand response reduces the need for transmission enhancements. Demand response capability is typically (but not always) factored into transmission planning as a reduction in the load which must be served. In that sense demand response is utilized as an alternative to transmission expansion. Much more demand response is used (involuntarily) as load shedding under extreme conditions to prevent cascading blackouts. The amount of additional transmission and generation that would be required to provide the current level of reliability if load shedding were not available is difficult to imagine and would be impractical to build. In a very real sense demand response solutions are equitably treated in every region - when proposed, demand response projects are evaluated against existing reliability and economic criteria. The regional councils, RTOs, and ISOs identify needs. Others propose transmission, generation, or responsive load based solutions. Few demand response projects get included in transmission enhancement plans because few are proposed. But this is only part of the story. Several factors are responsible for the current very low use of demand response as a transmission enhancement alternative. First, while the generation, transmission, and load business sectors each deal with essentially the same amount of electric power, generation and transmission companies are explicitly in the electric power business but electricity is not the primary business focus of most loads. This changes the institutional focus of each sector. Second, market and reliability rules have, understandably, been written around the capabilities and limitations of generators, the historic reliability resources. Responsive load limitations and capabilities are often not accommodated in markets or reliability criteria. Third, because of the institutional structure, demand response alternatives are treated as temporary solutions that can delay but not replace transmission enhancement. Financing has to be based on a three to five year project life as opposed to the twenty to fifty year life of transmission facilities. More can be done to integrate demand response options into transmission expansion planning. Given the societal benefits it may be appropriate for independent transmission planning organizations to take a more proactive role in drawing demand response alternatives into the resource mix. Existing demand response programs provide a technical basis to build from. Regulatory and market obstacles will have to be overcome if demand response alternatives are to be routinely considered in transmission expansion planning.

  8. Efficient expansion of global protected areas requires simultaneous planning for species and ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Polak, Tal; Watson, James E. M.; Fuller, Richard A.; Joseph, Liana N.; Martin, Tara G.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Venter, Oscar; Carwardine, Josie

    2015-01-01

    The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)'s strategic plan advocates the use of environmental surrogates, such as ecosystems, as a basis for planning where new protected areas should be placed. However, the efficiency and effectiveness of this ecosystem-based planning approach to adequately capture threatened species in protected area networks is unknown. We tested the application of this approach in Australia according to the nation's CBD-inspired goals for expansion of the national protected area system. We set targets for ecosystems (10% of the extent of each ecosystem) and threatened species (variable extents based on persistence requirements for each species) and then measured the total land area required and opportunity cost of meeting those targets independently, sequentially and simultaneously. We discover that an ecosystem-based approach will not ensure the adequate representation of threatened species in protected areas. Planning simultaneously for species and ecosystem targets delivered the most efficient outcomes for both sets of targets, while planning first for ecosystems and then filling the gaps to meet species targets was the most inefficient conservation strategy. Our analysis highlights the pitfalls of pursuing goals for species and ecosystems non-cooperatively and has significant implications for nations aiming to meet their CBD mandated protected area obligations.

  9. Baltic Earth - Earth System Science for the Baltic Sea Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Markus; Rutgersson, Anna; Lehmann, Andreas; Reckermann, Marcus

    2014-05-01

    The Baltic Sea region, defined as its river catchment basin, spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It encompasses most of the Scandinavian Peninsula in the west; most of Finland and parts of Russia, Belarus, and the Baltic states in the east; and Poland and small parts of Germany and Denmark in the south. The region represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. Preliminary grand challenges and topics for which Working Groups have been installed include: • Salinity dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Land-Sea biogeochemical feedbacks in the Baltic Sea region • Natural hazards and extreme events in the Baltic Sea region • Understanding sea level dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Understanding regional variability of water and energy exchange • Utility of Regional Climate Models • Assessment of Scenario Simulations for the Baltic Sea 1960-2100 • Outreach and Communication • Education The issue of anthropogenic changes and impacts on the Earth system of the Baltic Sea region is recognized as a major topic, and shall receive special attention. The intention of the "Outreach and Communication" and "Education" groups will be to initiate and design potential outreach activities and to provide an arena for scientific exchange and discussion around the Baltic Sea, to communicate findings and exchange views within the Baltic Earth research community internally and to other researchers and society, both professionals and non-professionals. A regular international Baltic Earth Summer School shall be established from 2015. There will be a strong continuity related to BALTEX in infrastructure (secretariat, conferences, publications) and the network (people and institutions).

  10. Planning for the impacts of Hadley cell expansion on water supply in Victoria, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, David; Timbal, Bertrand; Chiew, Francis; Hendon, Harry; Moran, Rae

    2013-04-01

    South-eastern Australia has recently experienced the worst drought of the instrumental record; the so-called Millennium drought (1997-2009). This drought was primarily a cool season phenomenon, with large reductions in rainfall observed during the Austral winter (April to October). This reduction in winter rainfall, combined with an absence of wet years and very wet months led to a reduction in streamflow across the region far greater than would be anticipated based on the 12 percent reduction in mean annual rainfall alone. These conditions have proven particularly challenging for water management and planning processes. Our research has linked the extent, duration and severity of this drought to the ongoing observed expansion of the Southern Hemisphere Hadley cell of 0.5 degrees per decade. This expansion has intensified the sub-tropical ridge over southern Australia, pushing cool season mid-latitude storm tracks further south, leading to a reduction in winter rainfall over the region. Modelling has shown that the expansion of the Hadley cell can only be reproduced if anthropogenic influences (greenhouse gases, aerosols and stratospheric ozone) are included in the models, thus providing evidence that the Millennium drought was at least partly attributable to climate change. Climate model projections also indicate that the expansion of the Hadley Cell is likely to continue. This means that the traditional winter "filling season" for water supply systems in Victoria may be less reliable in the future. However, in the light of the expansion of tropical influences, the cool season rainfall deficit may be offset to some extent by increased rainfall in the warmer months of the year. Given that the Millennium drought has been shown to be at least partly attributable to climate change and the considerable uncertainties associated with projected future changes, water planning and management processes in Victoria have been modified to be more robust, adaptive and flexible. Short-term operational decisions are typically based on consideration of a range of future inflow scenarios which are informed not only by seasonal climate forecasts but also by the possibility of a return to the conditions experienced during the Millennium drought (that is, a continuing cool season rainfall deficit). In terms of longer term planning, water corporations are required to develop Water Supply-Demand Strategies with a view to balancing supply and demand over the next 50 years. In developing these strategies, water corporations have been asked to consider a range of plausible water availability futures, including climate change projections, as well as the possibility of an immediate return to the conditions experienced during the Millennium drought. These Water Supply-Demand Strategies include a range of options for reducing demand and augmenting supplies both on a short-term and long-term basis, including further investments in large scale water infrastructure. Improved understanding of the links between changes in the climate system and their impacts on water availability will allow refinement of the range of plausible future flow scenarios and thus greater confidence in the decision making process.

  11. Biotope map of the German Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Schiele, Kerstin S; Darr, Alexander; Zettler, Michael L; Friedland, René; Tauber, Franz; von Weber, Mario; Voss, Joachim

    2015-07-15

    Full-coverage maps on the distribution of marine biotopes are a necessary basis for Nature Conservation and Marine Spatial Planning. Yet biotope maps do not exist in many regions. We are generating the first full-coverage biotope map for the German Baltic Sea according to the HELCOM Underwater biotope and habitat classification system (HUB). Species distribution modelling is applied to create full-coverage spatial information of biological features. The results of biomass modelling of twelve target taxa and presence/absence modelling of three target taxa enabled the identification of biological levels up to HUB level 6. Environmental data on bathymetry, light penetration depth and substrate are used to identify habitat levels. HUB biotope levels were combined with HUB habitat levels to create a biotope map. Altogether, 68 HUB biotopes are identified in the German Baltic Sea. The new biotope map combining substrate characteristics and biological communities will facilitate marine management in the area. PMID:26003386

  12. Review of Jamaica Public Service Company, Ltd. least-cost expansion plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Koritarov, V.; Buehring, W.; Cirillo, R.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-02-28

    Argonne National Laboratory has been asked to review the least-cost expansion plan (LCEP) of the Jamaica Public Service Company, Ltd. (JPSCo). The material that has been initially provided to Argonne included: (1) An electronic copy of the data and results from JPSCo's running the WASP electric system expansion planning model, (2) Approximately 20 pages of a document 'JPSCo Generation Expansion Plan', marked 'DRAFT 002', date unknown, and (3) The report 'JPSCo Least Cost Generation Expansion Plans, (1999-2009)', January 1999. It was noticed that the 20 pages from the 'DRAFT 002' document were different from the January 1999 report. An explanation was provided to Argonne that the excerpt was from an earlier draft and that the review should focus on the January 1999 report. Further, the electronic copy of the WASP case did not correspond to either the January 1999 report or to the 20-page excerpt. Again, the reason for these discrepancies was that the WASP case provided to Argonne was an earlier case and not the final one that was presented in the report. Based on the review of the available material, Argonne experts have prepared and submitted to the National Investment Bank of Jamaica (NIBJ) a preliminary draft report containing the initial findings, comments, questions and observations. As many of the comments and questions raised in the preliminary review needed to be discussed with the appropriate staff of JPSCo and other Jamaican experts, a 3-day mission to Jamaica was carried out by one Argonne expert (V. Koritarov) in the period July 20-23, 1999. Besides JPSCo experts, the discussions and the review of the LCEP during the mission included several experts from NIBJ, Ministry of Energy, and the Petroleum Corporation of Jamaica. Mr. Koritarov also worked with the JPSCo technical staff to reconstruct the WASP base case that was used as a basis for the January 1999 report. The first step was to verify that the results obtained after the resimulation of this case were identical to those presented in the January 1999 report. Then, in the next step, the Argonne expert and JPSCo team reviewed this case in detail and performed certain modifications and improvements of data where necessary. These modifications and data adjustments resulted in a new base case that served as a basis for further review and for the sensitivity analyses. Several sensitivity analyses were performed together with JPSCo experts and the results were discussed with the JPSCo management and other Jamaican experts at the end of the mission. Additional sensitivity analyses, as well as the cases for high and low load forecasts, were conducted by Mr. Koritarov after returning from Jamaica. The main findings of the review and issues that have been discussed with the Jamaican team can be summarized.

  13. Least cost generation expansion planning for a regional electricity board in India considering green house gas mitigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Srivastava; A. K. Srivastava; U. K. Rout; D. Paul; P. Gupta; R. M. Shrestha

    2000-01-01

    Thermal power plants dominate electric power generation in India, which are the major contributor to green house gases (GHGs). Carbon dioxide is by far the most important greenhouse gas that causes global warming. This study offers valuable insight on the cost-effective efficient technologies available for GHG mitigation that need to be adopted in the power generation expansion plan. GHG emission

  14. Lower paleozoic of Baltic Area

    SciTech Connect

    Haselton, T.M.; Surlyk, F.

    1988-01-01

    The Baltic Sea offers a new and exciting petroleum play in northwestern Europe. The Kaliningrad province in the Soviet Union, which borders the Baltic Sea to the east, contains an estimated 3.5 billion bbl of recoverable oil from lower Paleozoic sandstones. To the south, in Poland, oil and gas fields are present along a trend that projects offshore into the Baltic. Two recent Petrobaltic wells in the southern Baltic have tested hydrocarbons from lower Paleozoic sandstone. Minor production comes from Ordovician reefs on the Swedish island of Gotland in the western Baltic. The Baltic synclise, which began subsiding in the late Precambrian, is a depression in the East European platform. Strate dip gently to the south where the Baltic Synclise terminates against a structurally complex border zone. Depth to the metamorphosed Precambrian basement is up to 4,000 m. Overlying basement is 200-300 m of upper Precambrian arkosic sandstone. The Lower Cambrian consists of shallow marine quartzites. During Middle and Late Camnbrian, restricted circulation resulted in anoxic conditions and the deposition of Alum shale. The Lower Ordovician consists of quartzites and shale. The Upper Ordovician includes sandstones and algal reefs. The Silurian contains marginal carbonates and shales. For the last 25 years, exploration in northwest Europe has concentrated on well-known Permian sandstone, Jurassic sandstone, and Cretaceous chalk plays. Extrapolation of trends known and exploited in eastern Europe could open an entirely new oil province in the lower Paleozoic in the Baltic.

  15. What causes the barren bottoms of the Baltic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zillén, Lovisa; Conley, Daniel J.; Gustafsson, Bo G.

    2010-05-01

    One of the largest impacts on the Baltic Sea ecosystem health is eutrophication, which causes hypoxia (< 2mg/l dissolved oxygen). It is estimated that the hypoxic zone in the Baltic Sea has increased about four times in area since 1960 due to surplus loads of waterborne and airborne nutrients (N and P) from anthropogenic sources. Hypoxia has barren vast areas of the sea-floor, reduced the macrobenthic communities and disrupted benthic food webs in the whole Baltic basin. Hypoxia alters nutrient biogeochemical cycles; it increases the internal load of phosphorus released from sediments, which causes low nitrogen/phosphorus (N/P) ratios during summer - a factor that favors cyanobacterial blooms. Hypoxia in the Baltic Sea is not unique to the modern era. Based on a compilation of Baltic geological records Zillén et al., (2008) showed that the deeper depressions of the Baltic Proper have experienced intermittent hypoxia during most of the Holocene. Hypoxia occurred basin-wide, at water depths varying between 73-240 m during three major periods; i.e. between c. 8000-4000, 2000-800 cal. yr BP and subsequent to AD 1800. These periods overlap the Holocene Thermal Maximum HTM (c. 9000-5000 cal. yr BP), the Medieval Warm Period MWP (c. AD 750-1200) and the modern historical period (AD 1800 to present). In contrast, oxic bottom conditions were common between c. 7000-6000, c. 4000-2000 and c. 800-200 cal. yr BP. The latter period coincides with the Little Ice Age (LIA) and its characteristic server winters. Although we know that hypoxia has occurred in the past and probably co-varied with external forces, such as climate change and nutrient fluxes, the relative importance of these two forcing mechanisms is unresolved, which restricts predictions about the Baltic Sea ecosystem response to future climate and anthropogenic stressors. Most previous research suggests that there may be a correlation between the oxygen conditions in the Baltic Sea and climate variability in the past, primarily driven by atmospheric changes over the North Atlantic region. However, this hypothesis has not yet been tested by model simulations and the potential climate forcing mechanism(s) behind the reconstructed long-term shifts in oxygen status in the Baltic Sea are still unclear. Hypoxia during the last two millennia can also be linked to population growth, technological development and land-use expansion phases, implying that historical trends in hypoxia may not have a natural cause, but result from anthropogenic impacts. We used a coupled physical-biogeochemical model to explore if shifts in oxygen conditions during the last two millennia in the Baltic Sea can be explained by physical forcing parameters that are known to affect bottom-water conditions in the Baltic Sea. To elucidate the driving mechanisms further, we studied the significance of changes in productivity on the size of the hypoxic area to assess the degree of human impact (eutrophication) on long time-scales. This study reveals the dominant physical forcing mechanism on hypoxia in the Baltic Sea and explains the shifts in bottom-water oxygen status during the last two millennia, especially through the MWP/LIA oscillation. We present new results on the significance of human perturbations on the marine environment and propose that cyanobacteria blooms may not be natural features of the Baltic Sea, but rather a consequence of enhanced phosphorus release that occurs together with hypoxia.

  16. An expansion plan for the 60 Hz power distribution system at KSC: LC39 substations load allocation plan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex Kalu

    1990-01-01

    The increasing load density in the LC-39 area of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) can be met by either modifying the existing substation and increasing its capacity or by planning an additional new substation. Evidence that the later approach is more economical, enhances the system reliability, and would produce more satisfactory performance indices is provided. Network theory is the basis for

  17. Incremental Clustering and Expansion for Faster Optimal Planning in Dec-POMDPs

    E-print Network

    Amato, Chris

    This article presents the state-of-the-art in optimal solution methods for decentralized partially observable Markov decision processes (Dec-POMDPs), which are general models for collaborative multiagent planning under ...

  18. The Baltics -- Banking Crises Observed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex Fleming; Lily Chu

    1996-01-01

    Lessons learned from banking crises in three Baltic republics -- crises that all developed in the context of simultaneous transition and adjustment, putting tremendous strain on banks and their enterprise borrowers.Fleming, Chu, and Bakker compare the banking crises experienced in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, examining the causes, effects, and policy responses.The starting point for the three banking systems was the

  19. Profitability and risk assessment of T&D capital expansion plans

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, J.; Clauhs, B. [Philadelphia Electric Company, PA (United States); Price, S.

    1995-12-01

    Financial risk and profitability of T&D plans are becoming more important in the emerging competitive utility environment. The incentive structure is changing, and utilities will have to focus on profitability rather than on relying on the guaranteed rate of return. As changes begin to occur, the traditional T&D planning processes will also change, and more adaptive, less risky capital investments such as mobile and modular transformers will be used with increasing frequency. Financial risk of T&D investments can be reduced by implementing incremental investment plans instead of traditional large investments. Since load growth is uncertain, modular investments have additional value due to increased flexibility. This additional value comes from the ability to match the capacity of the system more closely to different load growth outcomes.

  20. A Coordinated Production Planning Model with Capacity Expansion and Inventory Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sampath Rajagopalan; Jayashankar M. Swaminathan

    2001-01-01

    Motivated by a problem faced by a large manufacturer of a consumer product, we explore the interaction between production planning and capacity acquisition decisions in environments with demand growth. We study a firm producing multiple items in a multiperiod environment where demand for items is known but varies over time with a long-term growth and possible short-term fluctuations. The production

  1. The DOE Office of Environmental Management International Cooperative Program: Current Status and Plans for Expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdes, Kurt D.; Han, Ana M.; Marra, James C.; Fox, Kevin M.; Peeler, David K.; Smith, Michael E.; Jannik, Gerald T.; Farfan, Eduardo B.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.; Roach, Jay; Aloy, A. S.; Stefanovsky, S. V.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Lopukh, D. P.; Kim, Chenwoo

    2009-01-15

    The DOE-EM Office of Engineering and Technology is responsible for implementing EM’s international cooperative program. The Office of Engineering and Technology’s international efforts are aimed at supporting EM’s mission of risk reduction and accelerated cleanup of the environmental legacy of the nation's nuclear weapons program and government-sponsored nuclear energy research. To do this, EM pursues collaborations with government organizations, educational institutions, and private industry to identify and develop technologies that can address the site cleanup needs of DOE. Currently, DOE-EM is performing collaborative work with researchers at the Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI) and the SIA Radon Institute in Russia and the Ukraine’s International Radioecology Laboratory (IRL). Additionally, a task was recently completed with the Nuclear Engineering Technology Institute (NETEC) in South Korea. The objectives of these collaborations were to explore issues relating to high-level waste and to investigate technologies that could be leveraged to support EM site cleanup needs. In FY09, continued collaboration with the current partners is planned. Additionally, new research projects are being planned to expand the International Program. A collaborative project with Russian Electrotechnical University is underway to evaluate CCIM control and monitoring technologies. A Statement of Intent was recently signed between DOE-EM and the U.K. Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) to work cooperatively on areas of mutual interest. Under this umbrella, discussions were held with NDA representatives to identify potential areas for collaboration. Information and technical exchanges were identified as near-term actions to help meet the objectives of the Statement of Intent. Technical exchanges in identified areas are being pursued in FY09

  2. Dissolved organic matter in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoikkala, L.; Kortelainen, P.; Soinne, H.; Kuosa, H.

    2015-02-01

    Several factors highlight the importance of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in coastal ecosystems such as the Baltic Sea: 1) DOM is the main energy source for heterotrophic bacteria in surface waters, thus contributing to the productivity and trophic state of bodies of water. 2) DOM functions as a nutrient source: in the Baltic Sea, more than one-fourth of the bioavailable nutrients can occur in the dissolved organic form in riverine inputs and in surface water during summer. Thus, DOM also supports primary production, both directly (osmotrophy) and indirectly (via remineralization). 3) Flocculation and subsequent deposition of terrestrial DOM within river estuaries may contribute to production and oxygen consumption in coastal sediments. 4) Chromophoric DOM, which is one of the major absorbers of light entering the Baltic Sea, contributes highly to water color, thus affecting the photosynthetic depth as well as recreational value of the Baltic Sea. Despite its large-scale importance to the Baltic Sea ecosystem, DOM has been of minor interest compared with inorganic nutrient loadings. Information on the concentrations and dynamics of DOM in the Baltic Sea has accumulated since the late 1990s, but it is still sporadic. This review provides a coherent view of the current understanding of DOM dynamics in the Baltic Sea.

  3. The Baltic?a sea of invaders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erkki Leppäkoski; Stephan Gollasch; Piotr Gruszka; Henn Ojaveer; Sergej Olenin; Vadim Panov

    2002-01-01

    There are about 100 nonindigenous species recorded in the Baltic Sea. Invasive species have resulted in major changes in nearshore ecosystems, especially in coastal lagoons and inlets that can be identified as \\

  4. A multivariate Baltic Sea environmental index.

    PubMed

    Dippner, Joachim W; Kornilovs, Georgs; Junker, Karin

    2012-11-01

    Since 2001/2002, the correlation between North Atlantic Oscillation index and biological variables in the North Sea and Baltic Sea fails, which might be addressed to a global climate regime shift. To understand inter-annual and inter-decadal variability in environmental variables, a new multivariate index for the Baltic Sea is developed and presented here. The multivariate Baltic Sea Environmental (BSE) index is defined as the 1st principal component score of four z-transformed time series: the Arctic Oscillation index, the salinity between 120 and 200 m in the Gotland Sea, the integrated river runoff of all rivers draining into the Baltic Sea, and the relative vorticity of geostrophic wind over the Baltic Sea area. A statistical downscaling technique has been applied to project different climate indices to the sea surface temperature in the Gotland, to the Landsort gauge, and the sea ice extent. The new BSE index shows a better performance than all other climate indices and is equivalent to the Chen index for physical properties. An application of the new index to zooplankton time series from the central Baltic Sea (Latvian EEZ) shows an excellent skill in potential predictability of environmental time series. PMID:22430308

  5. international workshop on Reproductive Disorders in Baltic Vertebrate Wildlife

    E-print Network

    The 1 st international workshop on Reproductive Disorders in Baltic Vertebrate Wildlife (BALTREP) What is the status of, and the threats to reproductive health in Baltic region wildlife? December 7- 8

  6. Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Seyfullah, Leyla J; Sadowski, Friederike; Fleischmann, Andreas; Behling, Hermann; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2015-01-01

    The fossil record of carnivorous plants is very scarce and macrofossil evidence has been restricted to seeds of the extant aquatic genus Aldrovanda of the Droseraceae family. No case of carnivorous plant traps has so far been reported from the fossil record. Here, we present two angiosperm leaves enclosed in a piece of Eocene Baltic amber that share relevant morphological features with extant Roridulaceae, a carnivorous plant family that is today endemic to the Cape flora of South Africa. Modern Roridula species are unique among carnivorous plants as they digest prey in a complex mutualistic association in which the prey-derived nutrient uptake depends on heteropteran insects. As in extant Roridula, the fossil leaves possess two types of plant trichomes, including unicellular hairs and five size classes of multicellular stalked glands (or tentacles) with an apical pore. The apices of the narrow and perfectly tapered fossil leaves end in a single tentacle, as in both modern Roridula species. The glandular hairs of the fossils are restricted to the leaf margins and to the abaxial lamina, as in extant Roridula gorgonias. Our discovery supports current molecular age estimates for Roridulaceae and suggests a wide Eocene distribution of roridulid plants. PMID:25453067

  7. Baltic Sea management: Successes and failures.

    PubMed

    Elmgren, Ragnar; Blenckner, Thorsten; Andersson, Agneta

    2015-06-01

    Severe environmental problems documented in the Baltic Sea in the 1960s led to the 1974 creation of the Helsinki Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area. We introduce this special issue by briefly summarizing successes and failures of Baltic environmental management in the following 40 years. The loads of many polluting substances have been greatly reduced, but legacy pollution slows recovery. Top predator populations have recovered, and human exposure to potential toxins has been reduced. The cod stock has partially recovered. Nutrient loads are decreasing, but deep-water anoxia and cyanobacterial blooms remain extensive, and climate change threatens the advances made. Ecosystem-based management is the agreed principle, but in practice the various environmental problems are still handled separately, since we still lack both basic ecological knowledge and appropriate governance structures for managing them together, in a true ecosystem approach. PMID:26022317

  8. Quality, Impact and Success of ERP Systems: A Study Involving Some Firms in the Nordic-Baltic Region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Princely Ifinedo; Nazmun Nahar

    Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems are among the largest information technology (IT) investments made by firms. Such systems are diffusing rapidly in the Nordic-Baltic region of Europe. While studies discuss the diffusion of ERP in the region, few studies discuss their success in adopting firms. In this study, we explored the issue of ERP success by sampling the views of

  9. Practical applicability and preliminary results of the Baltic Environmental Satellite Remote Sensing System (SatBaltic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, B.; Ostrowska, M.; Bradtke, K.; Darecki, M.; Dera, J.; Dudzinska-Nowak, J.; Dzierzbicka, L.; Ficek, D.; Furmanczyk, K.; Kowalewski, M.; Krezel, A.; Majchrowski, R.; Paszkuta, M.; Ston-Egiert, J.; Stramska, M.; Zapadka, T.

    2012-04-01

    SatBaltic (Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment) project is being realized in Poland by the SatBaltic Scientific Consortium, specifically appointed for this purpose, which associates four scientific institutions: the Institute of Oceanology PAN in Sopot - coordinator, the University of Gda?sk (Institute of Oceanography), the Pomeranian Academy in S?upsk (Institute of Physics) and the University of Szczecin (Institute of Marine Sciences). We present the first the results of the first year and a half of SatBaltic's implementation. The final result of the project is to be the creation and setting in motion of the SatBaltic Operational System (SBOS), the aim of which is to monitor effectively and comprehensively the state of the Baltic Sea environment using remote sensing techniques. Various aspects of the practical applicability of SBOS to the monitoring of the Baltic ecosystem are discussed. We present some examples of the maps of the various characteristics of the Baltic obtained using the current version of SBOS, including algorithms and models that are still in an unfinished state. At the current stage of research, these algorithms apply mainly to the characteristics of the solar energy influx and the distribution of this energy among the various processes taking place in the atmosphere-sea system, and also to the radiation balance of the sea surface, the irradiance conditions for photosynthesis and the condition of plant communities in the water, sea surface temperature distributions and some other marine phenomena correlated with this temperature. Also given are results of preliminary inspections of the accuracy of the magnitudes shown on the maps.

  10. VI Symposium of Specialists in Electric Operational and Expansion Planning -VI SEPOPE, May 24-29,1998, Bahia, Brazil POWER SYSTEM PLANNING IN THE SOUTH AMERICA

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    -29,1998, Bahia, Brazil POWER SYSTEM PLANNING IN THE SOUTH AMERICA ELECTRIC MARKET RESTRUCTURING Hugh Rudnick function in the restructured electric markets in South America. It formulates the role of governments in the electric energy industry in Latin America. However, new electric sector regulations reducing the role

  11. What causes the barren bottoms of the Baltic?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lovisa Zillén; Daniel J. Conley; Bo G. Gustafsson

    2010-01-01

    One of the largest impacts on the Baltic Sea ecosystem health is eutrophication, which causes hypoxia (< 2mg\\/l dissolved oxygen). It is estimated that the hypoxic zone in the Baltic Sea has increased about four times in area since 1960 due to surplus loads of waterborne and airborne nutrients (N and P) from anthropogenic sources. Hypoxia has barren vast areas

  12. Sorption and predicted mobility of herbicides in Baltic soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determination of pesticide sorption under local conditions is required to predict off-site transport. Recent surveys detected pesticides in surface water and groundwater of the Baltic region, but there is little information in the peer-reviewed literature regarding the fate of pesticides in Baltic s...

  13. Nitrogen cycle of the Baltic Sea from an isotopic perspective Baltic Sea Research Institute-Warnemunde (IOW), Rostock, Germany

    E-print Network

    Dippner, Joachim W.

    Nitrogen cycle of the Baltic Sea from an isotopic perspective M. Voss Baltic Sea Research Institute. [1] Stable nitrogen isotope ratios (15 N/14 N; d15 N) were determined in sediments, suspended matter an average d15 N of 7.3 ± 2.1%, interpreted as a characteristic trace of residual anthropogenic nitrogen

  14. Past occurrences of hypoxia in the Baltic Sea and the role of climate variability, environmental change and human impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zillén, Lovisa; Conley, Daniel J.; Andrén, Thomas; Andrén, Elinor; Björck, Svante

    2008-12-01

    The hypoxic zone in the Baltic Sea has increased in area about four times since 1960 and widespread oxygen deficiency has severely reduced macro benthic communities below the halocline in the Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Finland, which in turn has affected food chain dynamics, fish habitats and fisheries in the entire Baltic Sea. The cause of increased hypoxia is believed to be enhanced eutrophication through increased anthropogenic input of nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus. However, the spatial variability of hypoxia on long time-scales is poorly known: and so are the driving mechanisms. We review the occurrence of hypoxia in modern time (last c. 50 years), modern historical time (AD 1950-1800) and during the more distant past (the last c. 10 000 years) and explore the role of climate variability, environmental change and human impact. We present a compilation of proxy records of hypoxia (laminated sediments) based on long sediment cores from the Baltic Sea. The cumulated results show that the deeper depressions of the Baltic Sea have experienced intermittent hypoxia during most of the Holocene and that regular laminations started to form c. 8500-7800 cal. yr BP ago, in association with the formation of a permanent halocline at the transition between the Early Littorina Sea and the Littorina Sea s. str. Laminated sediments were deposited during three main periods (i.e. between c. 8000-4000, 2000-800 cal. yr BP and subsequent to AD 1800) which overlap the Holocene Thermal Maximum (c. 9000-5000 cal. yr BP), the Medieval Warm Period (c. AD 750-1200) and the modern historical period (AD 1800 to present) and coincide with intervals of high surface salinity (at least during the Littorina s. str.) and high total organic carbon content. This study implies that there may be a correlation between climate variability in the past and the state of the marine environment, where milder and dryer periods with less freshwater run-off correspond to increased salinities and higher accumulation of organic carbon resulting in amplified hypoxia and enlarged distribution of laminated sediments. We suggest that hydrology changes in the drainage area on long time-scales have, as well as the inflow of saltier North Sea waters, controlled the deep oxic conditions in the Baltic Sea and that such changes have followed the general Holocene climate development in Northwest Europe. Increased hypoxia during the Medieval Warm Period also correlates with large-scale changes in land use that occurred in much of the Baltic Sea watershed during the early-medieval expansion. We suggest that hypoxia during this period in the Baltic Sea was not only caused by climate, but increased human impact was most likely an additional trigger. Large areas of the Baltic Sea have experienced intermittent hypoxic from at least AD 1900 with laminated sediments present in the Gotland Basin in the Baltic Proper since then and up to present time. This period coincides with the industrial revolution in Northwestern Europe which started around AD 1850, when population grew, cutting of drainage ditches intensified, and agricultural and forest industry expanded extensively.

  15. Methane fluxes in the southeastern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulyanova, Marina; Sivkov, Vadim; Kanapatskij, Timur; Sigalevich, Pavel; Pimenov, Nikolay

    2012-12-01

    New data from surveys of gas-bearing mud areas in the Gdansk Deep (southeastern Baltic Sea) were collected during four research cruises in 2009-2011. These revealed the presence of seven large pockmarks apart from the three already known, and enabled significant improvement of the existing digital map of gassy mud distribution. Based on geochemical sediment analyses, calculated diffusive methane fluxes from the upper (0-5 cm) seabed layer into near-bottom waters were highest—3.3 mmol/(m2 day)—in pockmark mud, contrasting strongly with the minimum value of 0.004 mmol/(m2 day) observed in typical, background mud. However, fluxes of less than 0.1 mmol/(m2 day) were observed in all sediment types, including pockmarks. In a newer attempt to roughly estimate budgets at a more regional scale, diffusive methane venting amounts to 280 × 106 mmol/day for southeastern Baltic Sea muddy sediments. Elongated pockforms in the southern Gotland Deep, known since the end of the 1980s as pockmarks, had methane concentrations that were similar to those of gassy mud from the Gdansk Basin, and there was no geo-acoustic evidence of considerably increased gas levels.

  16. Nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria stimulates production in Baltic food webs.

    PubMed

    Karlson, Agnes M L; Duberg, Jon; Motwani, Nisha H; Hogfors, Hedvig; Klawonn, Isabell; Ploug, Helle; Barthel Svedén, Jennie; Garbaras, Andrius; Sundelin, Brita; Hajdu, Susanna; Larsson, Ulf; Elmgren, Ragnar; Gorokhova, Elena

    2015-06-01

    Filamentous, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria form extensive summer blooms in the Baltic Sea. Their ability to fix dissolved N2 allows cyanobacteria to circumvent the general summer nitrogen limitation, while also generating a supply of novel bioavailable nitrogen for the food web. However, the fate of the nitrogen fixed by cyanobacteria remains unresolved, as does its importance for secondary production in the Baltic Sea. Here, we synthesize recent experimental and field studies providing strong empirical evidence that cyanobacterial nitrogen is efficiently assimilated and transferred in Baltic food webs via two major pathways: directly by grazing on fresh or decaying cyanobacteria and indirectly through the uptake by other phytoplankton and microbes of bioavailable nitrogen exuded from cyanobacterial cells. This information is an essential step toward guiding nutrient management to minimize noxious blooms without overly reducing secondary production, and ultimately most probably fish production in the Baltic Sea. PMID:26022324

  17. Future Climate Change in the Baltic Sea Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bøssing Christensen, Ole; Kjellström, Erik; Zorita, Eduardo; Sonnenborg, Torben; Meier, Markus; Grinsted, Aslak

    2015-04-01

    Regional climate models have been used extensively since the first assessment of climate change in the Baltic Sea region published in 2008, not the least for studies of Europe (and including the Baltic Sea catchment area). Therefore, conclusions regarding climate model results have a better foundation than was the case for the first BACC report of 2008. This presentation will report model results regarding future climate. What is the state of understanding about future human-driven climate change? We will cover regional models, statistical downscaling, hydrological modelling, ocean modelling and sea-level change as it is projected for the Baltic Sea region. Collections of regional model simulations from the ENSEMBLES project for example, financed through the European 5th Framework Programme and the World Climate Research Programme Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment, have made it possible to obtain an increasingly robust estimation of model uncertainty. While the first Baltic Sea assessment mainly used four simulations from the European 5th Framework Programme PRUDENCE project, an ensemble of 13 transient regional simulations with twice the horizontal resolution reaching the end of the 21st century has been available from the ENSEMBLES project; therefore it has been possible to obtain more quantitative assessments of model uncertainty. The literature about future climate change in the Baltic Sea region is largely built upon the ENSEMBLES project. Also within statistical downscaling, a considerable number of papers have been published, encompassing now the application of non-linear statistical models, projected changes in extremes and correction of climate model biases. The uncertainty of hydrological change has received increasing attention since the previous Baltic Sea assessment. Several studies on the propagation of uncertainties originating in GCMs, RCMs, and emission scenarios are presented. The number of studies on uncertainties related to downscaling and impact models is relatively small, but more are emerging. A large number of coupled climate-environmental scenario simulations for the Baltic Sea have been performed within the BONUS+ projects (ECOSUPPORT, INFLOW, AMBER and Baltic-C (2009-2011)), using various combinations of output from GCMs, RCMs, hydrological models and scenarios for load and emission of nutrients as forcing for Baltic Sea models. Such a large ensemble of scenario simulations for the Baltic Sea has never before been produced and enables for the first time an estimation of uncertainties.

  18. Seismic LAB or LID? The Baltic Shield Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grad, Marek; Tiira, Timo; Olsson, Sverker; Komminaho, Kari

    2013-04-01

    The problem of the asthenosphere for old Precambrian cratons, including East European Craton and its part - the Baltic Shield, is still discussed. To study the seismic lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath the Baltic Shield we used records of 9 local events with magnitudes in the range 2.7-5.9. The relatively big number of seismic stations in the Baltic Shield with a station spacing of 30-100 km permits for relatively dense recordings, and is sufficient in lithospheric scale. For modelling of the lower lithosphere and asthenosphere, the original data were corrected for topography and the Moho depth for each event and each station location, using a reference model with a 46 km thick crust. Observed P and S arrivals are significantly earlier than those predicted by the iasp91 model, which clearly indicates that lithospheric P and S velocities beneath the Baltic Shield are higher than in the global iasp91 model. For two northern events at Spitsbergen and Novaya Zemlya we observe a low velocity layer, 60-70 km thick asthenosphere, and the LAB beneath Barents Sea was found at depth of about 200 km. Sections for other events show continous first arrivals of P waves with no evidence for "shadow zone" in the whole range of registration, which could be interpreted as absence of asthenosphere beneath the central part of the Baltic Shield, or that LAB in this area occurs deeper (>200 km). The relatively thin low velocity layer found beneath southern Sweden, 15 km below the Moho, could be interpreted as small scale lithospheric inhomogeneities, rather than asthenosphere. Differentiation of the lid velocity beneath the Baltic Shield could be interpreted as regional inhomogeneity. It could also be interpreted as anisotropy of the Baltic Shield lithosphere, with fast velocity close to the east-west direction, and slow velocity close to the south-north direction.

  19. Seismic LAB or LID? The Baltic Shield case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grad, M.; Tiira, T.; Olsson, S.; Komminaho, K.

    2013-05-01

    The problem of the asthenosphere for old Precambrian cratons, including East European Craton and its part - the Baltic Shield, is still discussed. To study the seismic lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath the Baltic Shield we used records of 9 local events with magnitudes in the range 2.7-5.9. The relatively big number of seismic stations in the Baltic Shield with a station spacing of 30-100 km permits for relatively dense recordings, and is sufficient in lithospheric scale. For modelling of the lower lithosphere and asthenosphere, the original data were corrected for topography and the Moho depth for each event and each station location, using a reference model with a 46 km thick crust. Observed P and S arrivals are significantly earlier than those predicted by the iasp91 model, which clearly indicates that lithospheric P and S velocities beneath the Baltic Shield are higher than in the global iasp91 model. For two northern events at Spitsbergen and Novaya Zemlya we observe a low velocity layer, 60-70 km thick asthenosphere, and the LAB beneath Barents Sea was found at depth of about 200 km. Sections for other events show continous first arrivals of P waves with no evidence for "shadow zone" in the whole range of registration, which could be interpreted as absence of asthenosphere beneath the central part of the Baltic Shield, or that LAB in this area occurs deeper (>200 km). The relatively thin low velocity layer found beneath southern Sweden, 15 km below the Moho, could be interpreted as small scale lithospheric inhomogeneities, rather than asthenosphere. Differentiation of the lid velocity beneath the Baltic Shield could be interpreted as regional inhomogeneity. It could also be interpreted as anisotropy of the Baltic Shield lithosphere, with fast velocity close to the east-west direction, and slow velocity close to the south-north direction.

  20. Microsatellite variation in ringed seals (Phoca hispida): genetic structure and history of the Baltic Sea population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J U Palo; H S Mäkinen; E Helle; O Stenman; R Väinölä

    2001-01-01

    Genetic variability and population structure of Baltic ringed seals and an Arctic reference population were assessed using eight microsatellite loci. Ringed seals colonized the Baltic Sea basin soon after deglaciation 11 500 years ago and are supposed to have remained largely isolated from the main Arctic stock since then, ?1000 generations. In the 1900s the Baltic population declined rapidly, and

  1. The Baltic amber ant genus Bradoponera (Hymenoptera: Fomiddae), with description of two new species and a

    E-print Network

    Villemant, Claire

    The Baltic amber ant genus Bradoponera (Hymenoptera: Fomiddae), with description of two new species. The Baltic amber ant genus Bradoponem (Hymenoptera:Formicidae), with description of two new species. Keywords: Hymenoptera -Formicidae- ants-Bradoponera -new species - Proceratiini - Baltic amber - fossils

  2. Functional divergence in heat shock response following rapid speciation of Fucus spp. in the Baltic Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asunción Lago-Lestón; Catarina Mota; Lena Kautsky; Gareth A. Pearson

    2010-01-01

    In the Baltic Sea, the broadly distributed brown alga Fucus vesiculosus coexists in sympatry over part of its range (south west Gulf of Bothnia) with the Baltic endemic F. radicans sp. nov, while further north in colder and lower-salinity areas of the Baltic F. radicans occurs alone (north west Gulf of Bothnia). F. radicans appears to have arisen via rapid

  3. Marshak Lectureship Talk: Women in Physics in the Baltic States Region: Problems and Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satkovskiene, Dalia

    2008-03-01

    In this contribution the gender equality problem in physics will be discussed on the basis of the results obtained implementing the project ``Baltic States Network: Women in Sciences and High Technology'' (BASNET) initiated by Lithuanian women physicists and financed by European Commission. The main goal of BASNET project was creation of the regional Strategy how to deal with women in sciences problem in the Baltic States. It has some stages and the contribution follows them. The first one was in depth sociological study aiming to find out disincentives and barriers women scientists face in their career and work at science and higher education institutions. Analysis of results revealed wide range of problems concerned with science organization, management and financing common for both counterparts. However it also proved the existence of women discrimination in sciences. As main factors influencing women under-representation in Physics was found: the stereotypes existing in the society where physics is assigned to the masculine area of activity; failings of the science management system, where highest positions are distributed not using the institutionalized objective criteria but by voting, where the correctness of majority solutions is anticipated implicitly. In physics where male scientists are the majority (they also usually compose executive boards, committees etc.) results of such a procedures often are unfavorable for women. The same reasons also influence women ``visibility'' in physicist's community and as the consequence possibility to receive needed recourses for their research as well as appropriate presentation of results obtained. The study revealed also the conservatism of scientific community- reluctance to face existing in the scientific society problems and to start solving them. On the basis of the results obtained as well practice of other countries the common strategy of solving women in physics (sciences) in the Baltic States region was formulated. As changing the stereotypes is long lasting process it was decided firstly to concentrate strategy implementation plans on changes in science management policy tackling the problem from the top and allowing receive the most quick results. For this we created the regional Baltic States Network among the corresponding international women working groups, professional organizations (Scientific societies) and corresponding departments of the governmental institutions. BASNET also became a full member of European Platform of Women Scientists (EPWS)-prestige women organization signally influencing the European Community science policy.

  4. The regional geology and hydrocarbon potential of the Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Haselton, T.M. (Haselton 3D ApS, Klampenborg (Denmark)); Brangulis, A.P.; Margulis, L.S. (Soyuzmorinzhgeologiya, Riga, Lativa (USSR)); Kanev, S. (Vniimorgeo, Inst. of Submarine Geology and Geophysics, Riga, Lativa (USSR))

    1991-08-01

    The Baltic Sea is roughly equivalent in size to the North Sea. Like the North Sea, is has an excellent oil prone source rock present over most of the area. In the entire Baltic Sea about 40 wells have been drilled. During the 1980s, exploration was carried out in the Soviet, Polish, and East German sectors of the Baltic Sea by Petrobaltic. Twenty-eight wells were drilled, 14 of which tested hydrocarbons. Two wells have been drilled in Danish waters and 11 in Swedish waters - all dry holes. Most of the Baltic Sea is included in the Baltic syneclise. In the deepest part of the basin a full Paleozoic and Mesozoic section is present. Major structural features are associated with reactivation of old basement faults. Most hydrocarbon discoveries are associated with structural arches. Exploration targets are Cambrian sandstones and Ordovician and Silurian reefs. The major discoveries are the B3 field in Poland and the D6 field offshore Lithuania and Kaliningrad, both of which have in-place reserves of around 100 million bbl. The Teisseyre-Tornquist line to the southwest represents the plate boundary between the East European platform and Europe. Repeated strike slip movements along this zone result in a complex pattern of extensional and compressional features in the Danish and German sectors. Primary exploration targets include Permian carbonates and sandstones as well as older zones. Gas has been tested in the German sector onshore.

  5. Parasitism at the ecosystem level in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Zander, C D; Reimer, L W

    2002-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is characterized by organisms that can tolerate brackish water. Because of the Sea's history during glacial times, its flora and fauna (and also their parasites) can be traced to marine, freshwater and genuine brackish elements beside glacial relics. Snails, planktonic copepods, benthic amphipods and isopods are important intermediate hosts of diverse helminths; in addition polychaetes, bivalves and fishes may also act as final hosts. The most important final hosts, beside fishes, were seals and birds; these were able to disperse the parasites over the whole of the Baltic. Decreasing salinity from west to east limits the distribution of many parasites. Several marine and genuine brackish water species have almost spread over the whole Baltic. Freshwater species, however, have a lower tolerance than marine species and are only rarely found in the western part. A serious problem in the Baltic is eutrophication which can lead to massive abundances of generalist parasites, in host populations as well as host individuals. The final stage of this influence can cause a general decrease of host abundance and, as a consequence, of all kinds of parasites, due to oxygen deficiency. In comparison with the species spectrum of other brackish waters in Europe, the Baltic presents some endemic parasites as well as sharing parasite species with the Mediterranean and even the Black Sea. PMID:12396220

  6. The Implications of CEQA: You Better Plan For It

    E-print Network

    Handy, Susan L.

    Solar- Merced County Specific Plan- Fremont Prison Expansion- San Diego Hollywood Central Park- Hollywood #12;Planning Related CEQA Projects SOI Amendments Annexations Specific Plans General Plans Climate

  7. Skilful seasonal predictions of Baltic Sea ice cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpechko, Alexey Yu; Peterson, K. Andrew; Scaife, Adam A.; Vainio, Jouni; Gregow, Hilppa

    2015-04-01

    The interannual variability in the Baltic Sea ice cover is strongly influenced by large scale atmospheric circulation. Recent progress in forecasting of the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) provides the possibility of skilful seasonal predictions of Baltic Sea ice conditions. In this paper we use a state-of-the-art forecast system to assess the predictability of the Baltic Sea annual maximum ice extent (MIE). We find a useful level of skill in retrospective forecasts initialized as early as the beginning of November. The forecast system can explain as much as 30% of the observed variability in MIE over the period 1993–2012. This skill is derived from the predictability of the NAO by using statistical relationships between the NAO and MIE in observations, while explicit simulations of sea ice have a less predictive skill. This result supports the idea that the NAO represents the main source of seasonal predictability for Northern Europe.

  8. Hydroxylamine (NH2OH) in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, S.; Walter, S.; Nausch, G.; Bange, H. W.

    2004-10-01

    The vertical distribution of dissolved hydroxylamine (NH2OH) was measured for the first time at 10 stations in the western, southern and central Baltic Sea during a cruise in February 2004. The distribution of dissolved NH2OH was complex due to the interplay of in-situ production in the shallow western and southern Baltic Sea and the hydrographical setting in the central Baltic Sea caused by the major North Sea water inflow event in January 2003. We conclude that nitrification might be the major source of NH2OH, whereas anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) appeared to be negligible. We suggest that a "fresh" nitrifying system, in which the NH+4-oxidation rates exceeded the NO-2-oxidation rates, favoured the build-up of NH2OH.

  9. The Baltic Sea natural long-term variability of salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimanke, Semjon; Markus Meier, H. E.

    2015-04-01

    The Baltic Sea is one of the largest brackish sea areas of the world. The sensitive state of the Baltic Sea is sustained by a fresh-water surplus by river discharge and precipitation on one hand as well as inflows of highly saline and oxygen-rich water masses from the North Sea on the other. Major inflows which are crucial for the renewal of the deep water occur very intermittent with a mean frequency of approximately one per year. Stagnation periods (periods without major inflows) lead for instance to a reduction of oxygen concentration in the deep Baltic Sea spreading hypoxic conditions. Depending on the amount of salt water inflow and fresh-water supply the deep water salinity of the Baltic Sea varies between 11 to 14 PSU on the decadal scale. The goal of this study is to understand the contribution of different driving factors for the decadal to multi-decadal variability of salinity in the Baltic Sea. Continuous measurement series of salinity exist from the 1950 but are not sufficiently long for the investigation of long-term fluctuations. Therefore, a climate simulation of more than 800 years has been carried out with the Rossby Center Ocean model (RCO). RCO is a biogeochemical regional climate model which covers the entire Baltic Sea. It is driven with atmospheric data dynamical downscaled from a GCM mimicking natural climate variability. The analysis focus on the role of variations in river discharge and precipitation, changes in wind speed and direction, fluctuations in temperature and shifts in large scale pressure patterns (e.g. NAO). Hereby, the length of the simulation will allow to identify mechanisms working on decadal to multi-decadal time scales. Moreover, it will be discussed how likely long stagnation periods are under natural climate variability and if the observed exceptional long stagnation period between 1983-1993 might be related to beginning climate change.

  10. Disposal of chemical weapons in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Glasby, G P

    1997-11-01

    Large quantities of chemical warfare agents were dumped in the Baltic Sea after World War II (WWII). This included 32,000 t of chemical munitions containing approximately 11,000 t of chemical warfare agents which were dumped into the Bornholm Basin and 2000 t of chemical munitions containing approximately 1000 t in the Gotland Basin. Because this material was contained in wooden crates, it was distributed throughout the Baltic. The long-term environmental impact of these agents is unknown. PMID:9394485

  11. Changes of ethnic composition in the Baltic States.

    PubMed

    Zvidrins, P

    1994-01-01

    "The aim of this article is to analyze changes in the ethnic structure in the Baltics. The publication of the results of the 1989 Census data allows one to analyze the dynamics of ethnic structure in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania since the 1920s." The author notes that "as a result of significant changes in all demographic processes in the 90s, the proportion of the titular nationalities in all three Baltic States has increased for the first time, while the proportion of Slavs, particularly of Russians, decreased." PMID:12346272

  12. PLA2G6-associated neurodegeneration (PLAN): Further expansion of the clinical, radiological and mutation spectrum associated with infantile and atypical childhood-onset disease

    PubMed Central

    Illingworth, M.A.; Meyer, E.; Chong, W.K.; Manzur, A.Y.; Carr, L.J.; Younis, R.; Hardy, C.; McDonald, F.; Childs, A.M.; Stewart, B.; Warren, D.; Kneen, R.; King, M.D.; Hayflick, S.J.; Kurian, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Phospholipase A2 associated neurodegeneration (PLAN) is a major phenotype of autosomal recessive Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation (NBIA). We describe the clinical phenotypes, neuroimaging features and PLA2G6 mutations in 5 children, of whom 4 presented with infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD). One other patient was diagnosed with the onset of PLAN in childhood, and our report highlights the diagnostic challenges associated with this atypical PLAN subtype. In this series, the neuroradiological relevance of classical PLAN features as well as apparent claval hypertrophy’ is explored. Novel PLA2G6 mutations were identified in all patients. PLAN should be considered not only in patients presenting with a classic INAD phenotype but also in older patients presenting later in childhood with non-specific progressive neurological features including social communication difficulties, gait disturbance, dyspraxia, neuropsychiatric symptoms and extrapyramidal motor features. PMID:24745848

  13. Ecological risk perception in the societies in transition: Case study of Baltic States

    SciTech Connect

    Klavins, M.; Cimdins, P.; Rodinov, V. [Univ. of Latvia, Riga (Latvia)

    1994-12-31

    The state of the environment and human health in countries that arise after the collapse of the USSR in influenced by different factors. The heritage of the previous regime can be characterized with a high environmental pollution level. However the transition from centrally planned to a free market economy is accompanied not only with changes in the political and social system, but also with changes in attitudes and in environmental values. All these processes have been analyzed on example of Baltic states analyzing the changes in ecological risk perception in societies of different economical and political structure. The ecological risk perception at first is associated with education level, especially regarding environmental education. However another important aspect is the perception of ecological risk at level of state policy. Just now this aspect can be regarded as the most important factor in ecological risk perception. Surprisingly low is the role of scientifical expertise in the ecological risk identification.

  14. Disposal of chemical weapons in the Baltic Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. P. Glasby

    1997-01-01

    Large quantities of chemical warfare agents were dumped in the Baltic Sea after World War II (WWII). This included 32 000 t of chemical munitions containing approximately 11 000 t of chemical warfare agents which were dumped into the Bornholm Basin and 2000 t of chemical munitions containing approximately 1000 t in the Gotland Basin. Because this material was contained

  15. Clustering in Engineering Education in the Baltic Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahrens, Andreas; Zascerinska, Jelena

    2011-01-01

    The contemporary situation in the Baltic region, namely, the lack of working places due to the structural problems, a high unemployment rate, the migration of highly qualified people and the low rate of self-employees, demands on innovation as an engine of the economic development with a strong impact on sustainable development in the European…

  16. Countering narcotics and organized crime in the Baltic region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klas Kärrstrand; Anna Jonsson

    2007-01-01

    This article seeks to present a tentative account of organized crime and narcotics trafficking in the Baltic region as well as providing some recommendations on how to enhance regional cooperation in countering these threats. The article builds on previous research and on information provided by researchers and law enforcement personnel participating in the Silk Road Studies Program Workshop “Countering narcotics

  17. Regime shifts in vegetation composition of Baltic Sea coastal lagoons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kajsa Rosqvist; Johanna Mattila; Alfred Sandström; Martin Snickars; Mats Westerbom

    2010-01-01

    Vegetation communities, morphometric and water quality variables were sampled in 62 undisturbed coastal lagoons along a natural land-uplift gradient in the northern Baltic Sea. The lagoons had a morphological inlet threshold reflecting habitat isolation (i.e. the diminished connectedness of the lagoon to the sea) and located in different parts of the archipelago (corresponding to altering wave exposure). We used indirect

  18. Financial markets in the Baltic States: fit for the EU?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerhard Fink; Peter Haiss; Nobuko Inagawa

    1998-01-01

    The paper deals with the question whether banks in the Baltic States are in a position to exert a positive influence on enterprise performance. Effective, market-driven corporate governance by banks is discussed along the following four questions: are banks sound enough, large enough, strong enough, and skilled enough to have an impact on improving the efficiency of firms? Data on

  19. Life Strategies of Filamentous Algae in the Northern Baltic Proper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikko Kiirikki; Annamaija Lehvo

    1997-01-01

    Short lived filamentous algae are a major component of the rocky-shore macroalgal vegetation of eutrophic waters in the Baltic Sea. They show considerable variation in abundance both seasonally and from year to year. In this study the seasonal pattern of growth and reproduction is documented in six species to outline their life strategies. Five of the species studied were reproductive

  20. 34 CFR 361.35 - Innovation and expansion activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Innovation and expansion activities. 361.35 Section 361.35...Vocational Rehabilitation Services Administration § 361.35 Innovation and expansion activities. (a) The State plan must...

  1. Two centuries of mean Baltic Sea level variability - an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hünicke, Birgit; Zorita, Eduardo; Madsen, Kristine S.; Johannson, Milla

    2015-04-01

    The understanding of the processes which drive future climatic trends of sea-level on global to regional scales presumes the understanding of long-term variability in the observational period. This requires an accurate assessment of past and recent global and regional sea-level changes. Here, we review the observed changes (1800-2000) in mean sea-level variability in the Baltic region and the main (climate) drivers for these changes. We introduce the datasets available for studying sea-level and review the major published findings which can be derived from them. The Baltic is one of the most investigated sea-level sites in the world. It has a remarkable number of long and high quality densely spaced, tide gauge records with many stations in continuous operation since the late 19th century and some of the oldest sea-level records reporting since 200 years. More than 45 stations with at least 60 years of data have continued until recent times. Mean Baltic Sea level changes are dominated by crustal deformations due to the glacio-isostatic land movement effect. The basin-wide pattern of relative sea-level trends shows a clear north-south gradient with a negative rate of -8.2 mm/yr in the Gulf of Bothnia. Thus, RSL is falling in the northern Baltic (where the continental crust is uplifting at roughly 10 mm/yr) and rising in parts of the Southern Baltic. Baltic Sea level changes are affected by a sum of processes. These include thermo and halosteric effects, changes in wind, surface air-pressure and ocean currents, increasing freshwater input and gravitational effects. The decadal sea-level variability around the quasi-linear long-term trend is strongly influenced by westerly winds, closely related to the dominant large-scale sea-level pressure (SLP) pattern of the North Atlantic (NAO). The correlation between sea-level and SLP is highest in winter, but shows significant temporal and spatial heterogeneity with low values in southern Baltic parts. The decadal influence of other atmospheric forcing factors is found to vary geographically. The annual cycle in Baltic sea-level displays, in general, higher values during winter and lower values during spring with an increase in the amplitude (winter-spring sea-level trend) 1800-2000. The magnitude of these increasing trends is found to be basin-wide uniform (except for the Skagerrak area). The precise mechanisms responsible for this have not been completely ascertained, but are very likely not exclusively of regional to local origin (e.g. due to wind-driven changes). Baltic absolute sea-level estimated from recent combined analysis of geodetic information (measurements and models) and tide gauge observations, show positive trends in the range of 1.3 to 1.8 mm/yr, depending on the spatial and temporal coverage of the considered datasets (1800-2000). These values lie within the range of recent estimates of global trends. Recent changes in linear (30yr) gliding trends of Baltic tide-gauge records (1800-2000) show generally increasing trends, but similar or even slightly higher than recent 30-year rates were observed around 1900 and 1950. All sites show a slight acceleration of the sea-level rate, but the large decadal variability around these positive trends hampers to establish its local statistical significance.

  2. Spectral quantification of Southern Baltic seabed roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szefler, K.; Tegowski, J.; Nowak, J.

    2012-12-01

    The work presents the fast and efficient tool for seafloor classification, where scales and shapes of geomorphological forms were taken into account. The precise bathymetry and seafloor texture was developed with multibeam echosounder at six different areas of size up to 10 by 20 km. This areas demonstrate typical geomorphological seafloor features of bottom relief at the southern Baltic Sea coastal waters. The acoustical measurements were accompanied by geological sampling and video inspection. High resolution mosaic maps were obtained as a result of multi-survey measurements with maximal spatial resolution of 0.05m. Such accuracy of the measurements allows to observe small geomorphologic forms as ripplemarks or pebbles. The most investigated polygons have bottom relief of polygenetic origin with relicts of periglacial forms together with contemporary forms of marine origin. In the studied areas different forms of sand accumulation were found, beginning with small ripplemarks ending at big sandy waves. In the seabed erosion zones the bottom surface is rough and varied with clearly formed embankments, abrasive platforms, inselbergs and stony gravely abrasive pavements on the bottom surface. Such geomorphic diversity of the bottom surface has allowed for development of consistent geomorphological classification system based mainly on spectral properties of seafloor roughness. Each analysed area was divided into squares (200 by 200 m) with an overlap between adjacent subareas of 75% a square size. Next, subdivided areas were spectrally transformed using a two dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D FFT). The spectral parameters as maximal value of spectral density function, spectral exponent and strength, spectral moments, mean frequency, spectral width and skewness for each characteristic type of bottom surface were determined relaying on the calculated 2D spectra. Moreover, other features characterised the corrugated surface as fractal dimension, radius of autocorrelation, elevation slope, statistical and wavelet transformation parameters were estimated. The set of parameters was the input to the Principal Component Analysis and next to the unsupervised neural network algorithm which produced maps containing morphologically classified seabed areas. The obtained results revealed that acoustical technique provides very useful capabilities for the seafloor characterisation.

  3. Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis in the Baltic Sea—a supply-side invader?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henn Ojaveer; Stephan Gollasch; Andres Jaanus; Jonne Kotta; Ari O. Laine; Atis Minde; Monika Normant; Vadim E. Panov

    2007-01-01

    Although the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis (H. Milne-Edwards, 1853) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Varunidae) invaded the Baltic Sea about 80 years ago, published information\\u000a on its present distribution and abundance in this region is lacking. We provide here information on its Baltic-wide distribution\\u000a and long-term population dynamics. The species has been found all over the coastal Baltic Sea and also in some

  4. Geological Evolution and Resources of the Baltic Sea Area from the Precambrian to the Quaternary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saulius Šliaupa; Peer Hoth

    \\u000a The Baltic Sea is a young geomorphologic feature that formed during Quaternary time. It covers the western and the central\\u000a part of the Baltic sedimentary basin. The origin of the Baltic Sea and of the corresponding morphological low is still controversial,\\u000a considered by some as an erosional structure and as a tectonic depression by others. The chapter gives a summary

  5. Evaluation of the Planning Target Volume in the Treatment of Head and Neck Cancer With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy: What Is the Appropriate Expansion Margin in the Setting of Daily Image Guidance?

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allen M., E-mail: allen.chen@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California (United States); Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California (United States); Donald, Paul J.; Perks, Julian; Purdy, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To compare patterns of disease failure among patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in conjunction with daily image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) for head and neck cancer, according to the margins used to expand the clinical target volume (CTV) to create a planning target volume (PTV). Methods and Materials: Two-hundred and twenty-five patients were treated with IMRT for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Daily IGRT scans were acquired using either kilovoltage or megavoltage volumetric imaging prior to each delivered fraction. The first 95 patients were treated with IMRT with 5-mm CTV-to-PTV margins. The subsequent 130 patients were treated using 3-mm PTV expansion margins. Results: Two-year estimates of overall survival, local-regional control, and distant metastasis-free survival were 76%, 78%, and 81%, respectively. There were no differences with respect to any of these endpoints among patients treated with 5-mm and 3-mm PTV expansion margins (p > 0.05, all). The 2-year local-regional control rate for patients treated with IMRT with 5-mm and 3-mm PTV margins was 78% and 78%, respectively (p = 0.96). Spatial evaluation revealed no differences in the incidences of marginal failures among those treated with 5-mm and 3-mm PTV margins. Conclusions: The use of 3-mm PTV expansion margins appears adequate and did not increase local-regional failures among patients treated with IMRT for head and neck cancer. These data demonstrate the safety of PTV reduction of less than 5 mm and support current protocols recommending this approach in the setting of daily IGRT.

  6. Projected future climate change and Baltic Sea ecosystem management.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Agneta; Meier, H E Markus; Ripszam, Matyas; Rowe, Owen; Wikner, Johan; Haglund, Peter; Eilola, Kari; Legrand, Catherine; Figueroa, Daniela; Paczkowska, Joanna; Lindehoff, Elin; Tysklind, Mats; Elmgren, Ragnar

    2015-06-01

    Climate change is likely to have large effects on the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Simulations indicate 2-4 °C warming and 50-80 % decrease in ice cover by 2100. Precipitation may increase ~30 % in the north, causing increased land runoff of allochthonous organic matter (AOM) and organic pollutants and decreased salinity. Coupled physical-biogeochemical models indicate that, in the south, bottom-water anoxia may spread, reducing cod recruitment and increasing sediment phosphorus release, thus promoting cyanobacterial blooms. In the north, heterotrophic bacteria will be favored by AOM, while phytoplankton production may be reduced. Extra trophic levels in the food web may increase energy losses and consequently reduce fish production. Future management of the Baltic Sea must consider the effects of climate change on the ecosystem dynamics and functions, as well as the effects of anthropogenic nutrient and pollutant load. Monitoring should have a holistic approach, encompassing both autotrophic (phytoplankton) and heterotrophic (e.g., bacterial) processes. PMID:26022318

  7. The ethno-demographic status of the Baltic States.

    PubMed

    Mezs, I; Bunkse, E; Rasa, K

    1994-05-01

    "The essay examines historic and current ethnodemographic trends in spatial and cultural contexts in the Baltic States. Fifty years of Soviet rule, with deliberate policies to dilute the relative homogeneity of the Balts through ethnocide, in-migration, and political dominance by Moscow, has left tensions between citizens of the Baltic States and illegal immigrants, mostly Russians. Estonians, and Latvians, in particular, fear ethnic and cultural extinction. The process of ethnic dilution and mixing under the Soviets is examined in terms of rural-urban contexts, the workplace, employment, housing, and education. Europe's smallest ethnic group, the Livs of Latvia, is also examined. Current demographic trends are analysed and prospects for ethnic harmony in these multi-ethnic societies are interpreted. A recurrent theme is that Latvia, with 52% of the population Latvian, is facing the most difficulties; Lithuania, with 80% Lithuanians, the least." PMID:12319601

  8. Evaluation of Baltic Sea transport properties using particle tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dargahi, Bijan; Cvetkovic, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    Particle tracking model (PTM) is an effective tool for quantifying transport properties of large water bodies such as the Baltic Sea. We have applied PTM to our fully calibrated and validated Baltic Sea 3D hydrodynamic model for a 10-years period (2000-9). One hundred particles were released at a constant rate during an initial 10-days period from all the Baltic Sea sub-basins, the major rivers, and the open boundary in the Arkona Basin. In each basin, the particles were released at two different depths corresponding to the deep water and middle water layers. The objectives of the PTM simulations were to analyse the intra-exchange processes between the Baltic Sea basins and to estimate the arrival times and the paths of particles released from the rivers. The novel contribution of this study is determining the paths and arrival times of deeper water masses rather than the surface masses. Advective and diffusive transport processes in the Bornholm and Arkona basins are both driven by the interacting flows of the northern basins of the Baltic Sea and the North Sea. Particles released from Arkona basin flows northwards along the Stople Channel. The Gotland basins are the major contributors to the exchange process in the Baltic Sea. We find high values of the advection ratio, indicative of a forced advective transport process. The Bay of Gdansk is probably the most vulnerable region in the Baltic Sea. This is despite the fact that the main exchanging basins are the Bornholm Sea and the Easter Gotland Basin. The main reason is the intensive supply of the particles from the northern basins that normally take about 3000 days to reach the Bay of Gdansk. The process maintains a high level of particle concentration (90%) along its coastlines even after the 10-years period. Comparing the particle paths in the Western and Eastern Gotland basins two interesting features were found. Particles travelled in all four directions in the former basin and the middle layer particles reached the surface flow in the eastern most part of the Gulf of Finland. This implies mixing of deeper waters of the Western Gotland Basin with the sub-surface waters of the Gulf of Finland. We believe strong density current and upwelling processes drive the process. Surprisingly, the two rivers Narva and Venta have the highest spreading in comparison to other rivers. This is despite the relatively low flow discharge values that rules out a correlation between high moment flows and the extent of spreading. We found the flow discharge to be correlated with the advection lengths. The lack of any correlation for the other rivers, signifies different hydrodynamic characteristics among the basins. The results of our PTM study may be used for a general environmental assessment in terms of sensitivity of the various coastlines and rick to the release of contaminants in the Baltic Sea.

  9. Reconstructing the development of Baltic sea eutrophication 1850-2006.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Bo G; Schenk, Frederik; Blenckner, Thorsten; Eilola, Kari; Meier, H E Markus; Müller-Karulis, Bärbel; Neumann, Thomas; Ruoho-Airola, Tuija; Savchuk, Oleg P; Zorita, Eduardo

    2012-09-01

    A comprehensive reconstruction of the Baltic Sea state from 1850 to 2006 is presented: driving forces are reconstructed and the evolution of the hydrography and biogeochemical cycles is simulated using the model BALTSEM. Driven by high resolution atmospheric forcing fields (HiResAFF), BALTSEM reproduces dynamics of salinity, temperature, and maximum ice extent. Nutrient loads have been increasing with a noteworthy acceleration from the 1950s until peak values around 1980 followed by a decrease continuing up to present. BALTSEM shows a delayed response to the massive load increase with most eutrophic conditions occurring only at the end of the simulation. This is accompanied by an intensification of the pelagic cycling driven by a shift from spring to summer primary production. The simulation indicates that no improvement in water quality of the Baltic Sea compared to its present state can be expected from the decrease in nutrient loads in recent decades. PMID:22926877

  10. Projected future climate change and Baltic Sea ecosystem management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Agneta

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is likely to have large effects on the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Simulations indicate 2-4oC warming and 50-80% decreasing ice cover by 2100. Precipitation may increase ~30% in the north, causing increased land runoff of allochthonous organic matter (AOM) and organic pollutants. Salinity will decrease by about 2 units. Coupled physical-biogeochemical models indicate that in the south, bottom-water anoxia may spread, reducing cod recruitment and increasing sediment phosphorus release, promoting cyanobacterial blooms. In the north, heterotrophic bacteria will be favoured by AOM while phytoplankton may become hampered. More trophic levels in the food web will increase energy losses and consequently reduce fish production. Future management of the Baltic Sea must consider effects of climate change on the ecosystem dynamics and functions, as well as effects of anthrophogenic nutrient and pollutant load. Monitoring should have a holistic approach and encompass both autotrophic (phytoplankton) and heterotrophic (e.g. bacterial) processes.

  11. Access to distributed marine databases on the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, A.; Axe, P.; Bock, S.; Kaitala, S.; Manscher, O. H.; Rodriguez-Medina, M.; Olsonen, R.; Priha, I.; Tikka, K.

    2012-04-01

    Baltic Nest Institute, Stockholm University (Sweden) in cooperation with Department of Bioscience/DCE, National Centre for Environment and Energy, Aarhus University (Denmark), Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research (Germany), Finnish Environment Institute, Finnish Meteorological Institute and Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute developed a data assessment system, aimed at providing tools for online analysis of marine environmental data (temperature, salinity, chemical properties) from distributed collection of databases on the Baltic Sea. Such approach allows users to have fast access to the most recent data from all major data providers and providers remain in control of their data. The system contains a web data portal, which provides concurrent access to distributed marine databases and presents information in a unified way. Two client programs use the data portal and provide tools to analyse the data. The DAS - Data Assimilation System (http://nest.su.se/das/) accesses databases through the data portal and allow analysing the raw data and creating gridded data, which can be used as initial fields for 3D hydrodynamic models. A decision support system Nest (http://nest.su.se/nest/) developed and maintained at the Stockholm University as a tool to support decision-making at international negotiations regarding the Baltic Sea environment also uses the data portal to access marine data, provide access to the raw data and perform time-series analysis. The data portal designed to output data in a common format (CSV) for further post-processing using other software. It makes the system open to develop another client programs for data analysis.

  12. Microbial community of reduced pockmark sediments (Gdansk Deep, Baltic Sea)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. V. Shubenkova; A. V. Likhoshvai; T. A. Kanapatskii; N. V. Pimenov

    2010-01-01

    The microbial community of reduced pockmark sediments in the Russian sector of the Gdansk Deep, Baltic Sea, was investigated\\u000a by molecular biological techniques. Fluorescent in situ hybridization was used to determine the numbers of eubacteria, archaea,\\u000a and sulfate-reducing bacteria. Eubacteria were found to predominate in the upper 10 cm of the sediment (up to 5.3 × 109 cells\\/g wet sediment),

  13. On ecosystem-based regions in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojaveer, Evald; Kalejs, Margers

    2008-11-01

    Maintenance of diversity of life in the sea and supporting sustainable use of marine resources require an ecosystem approach. The principles of differentiation of large geographical units on the ecosystem basis that could be applied in research and for the assessment and management of ecosystems and resources in the Baltic Sea have not been satisfactorily formulated up to now. Long-term data series collected by the authors and literature sources were used to subdivide the Baltic Sea into regional ecosystem units. Ten regions (Kattegat, Belts and the Sound, Arkona, Southwest, Eastern and Northwest of the Baltic Proper, Gulf of Riga, Gulf of Finland, Bothnian Sea, Bothnian Bay) were differentiated, some of them including sub-regions. They were grouped into three macroregions (the Transition Area, Baltic Proper and Large Gulfs). Hydrodynamic and geomorphological characters and the areas of local populations of organisms developed as a result of adaptation of species to their habitats constituted the main basis of the division. Circular cyclonic density-dependent currents in the deeps facilitate levelling of the conditions and integrate ecosystems in the regions. They are also responsible for the establishment of the regional depots of nutrients. The nutrients for the biological production are supplied mainly via the zones of intense vertical mixing (high-energy zones) to the euphotic layer. The regions differ in essential environmental conditions. In the process of adaptation to their habitats fishes (herring Clupea harengus membras, sprat Sprattus sprattus balticus, cod Gadus morhua callarias, flounder Platichthys flesus trachurus etc.) and other organisms have developed infraspecific units. The ecosystems and infraspecific units of exploited species should be assessed and managed separately if their vital parameters significantly differ from one another.

  14. Characterisation of juvenile flatfish habitats in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florin, Ann-Britt; Sundblad, Göran; Bergström, Ulf

    2009-04-01

    Survival and growth of the earliest life-stages is considered a key factor in determining the abundance of many marine fish species. For flatfishes, the availability of high quality nursery areas is essential for successful recruitment. Regarding the Baltic Sea, there are large gaps in knowledge on factors that influence the distribution of flatfishes during this sensitive stage. To identify the characteristics of important nursery areas in the Baltic for flounder ( Platichthys flesus) and turbot ( Psetta maxima), a field survey with push net sampling was conducted in the northern Baltic proper during autumn 2006. The sampling stations were stratified to cover several different habitat types defined by substrate and wave exposure. Apart from density of young-of-the-year (YOY) flatfishes, a number of ecological characteristics of the habitat were recorded. Physical habitat variables included substrate type, salinity, depth, turbidity, vegetation and habitat structure. Variables describing biotic processes, such as prey availability and abundance of competitors, were also sampled. The relationships between the spatial distribution of species and these ecological characteristics were fitted to presence/absence data of juvenile flatfish using generalized additive models (GAM). The best habitat descriptors for flounder in order of contribution were: substrate, habitat structure, salinity, wave exposure and occurrence of filamentous algae. Positive effects of increasing wave exposure, salinity and structure were detected while a high cover of filamentous algae had a negative effect. Sand and gravel were preferred over soft and stony substrates. For turbot the best habitat descriptors in order of contribution were: occurrence of filamentous algae, substrate and turbidity. Turbot showed a preference for areas with a low cover of filamentous algae, high turbidity and sandy substrate. Prey availability and abundance of competitors were not included in the models, indicating that the distribution of flatfishes at the scales studied (tens of kilometres) is mainly governed by physical habitat properties. These results constitute the basis for future efforts on mapping of essential flatfish habitats in the Baltic Sea.

  15. Discharge and transport processes along the German Baltic Sea Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Herbert; Seifert, Torsten; Schernewski, Gerald; Gerth, Monika; Ohde, Thomas; Reißmann, Jan; Podsetchine, Victor

    2005-04-01

    The western Baltic Sea infront of the German coast is a highly variable dynamical system, dominated by a complex and small-scale morphometry, the water exchange between the Baltic and North Seas, and driven by local wind. Neither data collection, nor satellite images or model simulations alone were able to explain the observed spatial patterns and transport processes. Therefore, all these methods were combined to explain the dynamical features and to systematise them according to the typical local wind pattern and time series. The aim was to develop an instrument for regional authorities which supports the interpretation of coastal water monitoring data and forms a basis for an improved monitoring strategy. Satellite data of sea surface temperature and ocean colour from the sensors NOAA-AVHRR and SeaWiFS were applied for synoptic investigations in the entire region and Landsat-7-ETM+ for regional studies. Model simulations were performed for the western Baltic using a 3D model MOM-3 and for the Szczecin Lagoon using 2D model FEMFLOW. For the first time, regional particularities in the coastal dynamical features and processes are derived for the main wind directions and for transitions between dominant wind situations west and east as derived from wind statistics. The simulated transport of particles released from different coastal and open sea sources indicate the affected areas during changing forcing conditions. The results support the interpretation of acquired coastal monitoring data as well as the assessment and optimisation of the monitoring programme.

  16. Nitrogen retention in the Szczecin Lagoon, Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Voss, Maren; Deutsch, Barbara; Liskow, Iris; Pastuszak, Marianna; Schulte, Ulrike; Sitek, Stanis?aw

    2010-09-01

    Nitrogen (N) retention and transformation in the Szczecin Lagoon, southern Baltic Sea, were studied by means of budget calculations and stable isotope data of dissolved and particulate matter. Two stations, one located at the main outlet of the lagoon (Swina Strait) and the other 100 km to the south, on the Oder River (Widuchowa), were sampled biweekly over the years 2000-2002. The Oder River is one of the five largest rivers draining into the Baltic Sea and the largest one discharging its waters into the western Baltic. According to our data, the Oder River carried approximately 60 kt y(-1) total N, of which 7 kt y(-1) (<12 %) are particulate organic nitrogen and 46 kt y(-1) (77 %) dissolved inorganic nitrogen. Seasonal patterns of particulate nitrogen and nitrate concentrations were similar at Widuchowa and Swina Strait station, but nitrate concentrations in the Swina Strait were much lower, pointing not only to the dilution effect but also to considerable nutrient removal capacity (especially of nitrate) in the lagoon. The loss of nitrate suggests that denitrification is the major N-removal process, whereas primary production was only a minor contributor, due to the very low particle load. Combining budget calculations with stable isotope measurements reveal unique information about nitrogen turnover processes in the lagoon. PMID:20672205

  17. Mass Balance of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A mass balance was assembled for perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in the Baltic Sea. Inputs (from riverine discharge, atmospheric deposition, coastal wastewater discharges, and the North Sea) and outputs (to sediment burial, transformation of the chemical, and the North Sea), as well as the inventory in the Baltic Sea, were estimated from recently published monitoring data. Formation of the chemicals in the water column from precursors was not considered. River inflow and atmospheric deposition were the dominant inputs, while wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents made a minor contribution (<5%). A mass balance of the Oder River watershed was assembled to explore the sources of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the river inflow. It indicated that WWTP effluents made only a moderate contribution to riverine discharge (21% for PFOA, 6% for PFOS), while atmospheric deposition to the watershed was 1–2 orders of magnitude greater than WWTP discharges. The input to the Baltic Sea exceeded the output for all four PFAAs, suggesting that inputs were higher during 2005–2010 than during the previous 20 years despite efforts to reduce emissions of PFAAs. One possible explanation is the retention and delayed release of PFAAs from atmospheric deposition in the soils and groundwater of the watershed. PMID:23528236

  18. Genetic structure of whitefish (Coregonus maraena) in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, Jens; Florin, Ann-Britt; Mo, Kerstin; Aho, Teija; Ryman, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Stocks of whitefish ( Coregonus maraena) in the northern part of the Baltic Sea have in many areas declined drastically during recent years. Causes for the decline are yet not fully understood, but knowledge on the genetic population structure of the species is pivotal for future conservation measures. In this study we analyse the genetic variation at seven microsatellite loci for whitefish from 18 different sites along the Swedish coast of the Baltic Sea. We found a strong dependence of isolation by distance ( R = 0.73), and a week but rather fine scaled genetic structure. In addition, there were differences between more northern and southern sites in the population genetic structure, where the degree of differentiation appears to be stronger in the north compared to the south. The results suggest that whitefish is a species suitable for local management with a regional context of the management strategy. In addition, the findings corroborate what is previously known for other coastal fish species in the Baltic Sea, such as perch and pike, suggesting that the majority of gene flow occurs between adjacent areas. Finally, our results highlight the potential for genetic subdivision even when the dependence of isolation by distance is strong.

  19. Standing waves in the Gulf of Finland and their relationship to the basin-wide Baltic seiches

    E-print Network

    Nycander, Jonas

    Standing waves in the Gulf of Finland and their relationship to the basin-wide Baltic seiches Bror indications of basin-wide seiches in the Baltic could be found from our simulations. These results were in the Gulf of Finland and their relationship to the basin-wide Baltic seiches, J. Geophys. Res., 113, C03004

  20. The Baltic Sea as a dumping site of chemical munitions and chemical warfare agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleksandra Szarejko; Jacek Namie?nik

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of chemical weapons dumped in the Baltic Sea by the Allied and Soviet forces after World War II is presented. The types and properties of the chemical warfare agents found in the Baltic, as well as the known dumping regions, are described. The potential hazards for the environment arising from the long-term disposal of munitions

  1. Meeting the EU Water Framework Directive Through Watershed Demonstration Projects in the Baltic States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Davenport; Paul Thomas; Janette Marsh; Karen Scanlon; Sarah Lehmann

    IN 1998 the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), in cooperation with the Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Commission (ORSANCO) and the Conservation Technology Information Center (CTIC), initiated the Great Lakes\\/Baltic Sea Partnership to assist the Baltic Countries of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Russian Oblasts Kaliningrad and Pskov with watershed management capacity building. The purpose of the effort is to

  2. Biometrics of the Dunlin ( Calidris alpina ) Migrating in Autumn Along the Polish Baltic Coast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W?odzimierz Meissner; Robert Krupa

    2009-01-01

    Meissner W., Krupa R. 2009. Biometrics of the Dunlin (Calidris alpina) migrating in autumn along the Polish Baltic coast. Ring 31, 1: 3-13. The aim of this study is to present the general biometrical characteristics of Dunlins pass- ing the Polish Baltic coast during autumn migration. Data were collected between the first week of July and the end of September

  3. The observation of seiches in the Baltic Sea using a multi data set of water levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margitta Metzner; Martin Gade; Ingo Hennings; Alexander B Rabinovich

    2000-01-01

    This investigation addresses the difficult problem of using a multi data set of water levels to study seich oscillations in the Baltic Sea. The Baltic Sea is a semi-enclosed sea area and is connected with the North Atlantic Ocean through the North Sea. The applied method is based on the analysis of environmentally corrected radar altimeter (RA) data in conjunction

  4. The gulf of Bothnia: The northernmost part of the Baltic Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Sörlin

    1982-01-01

    The Baltic Sea, one of the largest brackish water areas in the world, can be characterized as a young, cold sea containing an impoverished ecosystem due to salinity stress. The present Baltic Sea was formed as late as 2000 to 2500 years ago when the Danish sounds became more narrow and shallow. The inflow of freshwater from the surrounding land

  5. Invited Feature History and scenarios of future development of Baltic Sea eutrophication

    E-print Network

    Dippner, Joachim W.

    Invited Feature History and scenarios of future development of Baltic Sea eutrophication Maren Voss: eutrophication climatic changes land use models catchment area Baltic Sea a b s t r a c t Nutrient loads from watersheds, atmospheric deposition, and cyanobacterial nitrogen fixation have led to eutrophication

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF CURRENTS ON POSSIBLE DISPERSION OF OIL PRODUCTS IN THE SOUTH-EAST BALTIC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donatas Pupienis; Paulius Jalinskas; Ignas Vyšniauskas

    2007-01-01

    Frequent spills of oil products represent one of the most urgent ecological problems of the Baltic Sea. Oil products are most widespread and rather dangerous pollutants of seas and oceans. Oil pollutants are especially dangerous to the Baltic Sea ecosystem where processes of self-cleaning are slower than in warmer waters. The aim of the present work was to analyse possible

  7. New fossil dermestid beetles (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) from the Baltic amber - III

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jakub PROKOP; Andreas HERRMANN

    2006-01-01

    New representatives of dermestid beetles are described from the Late Eocene to Early Oligocene inclusions of the Baltic amber, i. e. Anthrenus (Nathrenus) kerneggeri sp. nov., Attagenus balticus sp. nov., A. obesus sp. nov., Evorinea amberica sp. nov. and Phradonoma ambericum sp. nov. Taxonomy, new species, description, fossil, Coleoptera, Dermestidae, Tertiary, Eocene, Oligocene, Baltic amber

  8. Atmospheric phosphorus load to the Baltic Sea - first measurements at the Utö Atmospheric and Marine Research station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruoho-Airola, Tuija; Saarnio, Karri; Hemmilä, Marja; Knuuttila, Seppo; Makkonen, Ulla; Vuorenmaa, Jussi

    2015-04-01

    The HELCOM (Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission) Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) has the overall objective of reaching the Baltic Sea in a good environmental status by 2021. The HELCOM Contracting Parties have agreed to restrict their nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea according to the BSAP Maximum Allowable Inputs (MAI) of nitrogen and phosphorus (P), which base on the eutrophication targets. Both waterborne and airborne loads should be taken into account in the implementation of the country allocation of nutrient reductions. The waterborne P load is regularly assessed in detail, whereas for the airborne part a very preliminary estimate is available due to insufficient monitoring data. At present a fixed estimate of 5 mg m-2 of atmospheric P deposition per year is used in the BSAP implementation. Measurements of bulk deposition and particulate concentration of P have been performed at the Utö Atmospheric and Marine Research station (59° 46'50N, 21° 22'23E) at the outer edge of the Archipelago Sea. Utö is a small rocky island without any arable land, so the local anthropogenic P emissions are low. Weekly bulk deposition measurements started in February, 2013 and the weekly sampling for the PM2.5 and the daily sampling for PM10 in 2014. Based on the results of the first year of the bulk deposition measurements, the annual wet deposition of total P in precipitation was nearly 5 mg m-2. For soluble PO4-P, the wet deposition in precipitation was about 2 mg m-2. The maximum concentrations were measured in late spring and in summer during the biological growing period. The level of the soluble PO4-P concentration in the PM10 particles was lower during the winter months (median 6 ng m-3) compared to the growing season (median 10 ng m-3). In fine particles (PM2.5), the PO4-P level was lower (1-2 ng m-3) than in the PM10 samples, often under the detection level of the IC method used. Natural biogenic aerosols like pollen, algae and fragments of leaves are supposed to be important emission sources for the atmospheric P, which explains the measured seasonal behavior of the P concentration.

  9. Microsatellite variation in Daphnia pulex from both sides of the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Pálsson, S

    2000-08-01

    Despite large genetic differentiation among neighbouring populations of many freshwater zooplankton species, a macrogeographical homogeneity of allozyme variation is generally observed. A study on breeding systems in Scandinavian populations of Daphnia pulex suggested a latitudinally related cline in breeding system with both diploid cyclic parthenogens and diploid obligate parthenogens at the latitude of 60-61 degrees N. Variation at neutral markers may be more affected by selection at linked loci in such species than in strictly sexual species. In this paper I present a study of variation at five microsatellite loci in a total of 34 populations from small ponds and rockpools on both sides of the Baltic Sea at 60-61 degrees N. Two major groups, which may represent different species of the D. pulex complex, are defined with the microsatellites. Neighbouring populations show both similar and well differentiated genetic composition. Populations separated by larger geographical distances show only a large differentiation and a macrogeographic pattern. The large differentiation observed at small distances can be explained with small effective population size: variation at the microsatellite loci has been shaped by population bottlenecks followed with expansion in size, and possibly by selection. No conclusive evidence is found for obligative parthenogenesis. PMID:10964227

  10. Analytical mode for interim expansion of electrical energy generating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laidera, M.

    1982-10-01

    Some planning aspects concerning to the expansion of Brasilian Electric Power System are presented. It is also presented a model with the aim of formulating and evaluating expansions plans for hydro-thermal generation system characterized by high amount of hydraulic generation, absence of reversible power plants and possibility of long distance energy transmission. Such model gives an expansion plan based upon the scheduling of expansion alternatives, which are classified by their cost/benefit rate, taking into account the influence of new additions on the present system.

  11. Integrated framework for analysis: electric sector expansion in developing countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this dissertation is the development of an analytical framework for the assessment of electric sector expansion strategies in developing countries, in the context of overall development planning, and with particular emphasis on macroeconomic and social implications. The framework will ensure that each electric capacity expansion alternative is linked quantitatively and consistently with a given economic development plan.

  12. Towards uncertainty estimation for operational forecast products - a multi-model-ensemble approach for the North Sea and the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golbeck, Inga; Li, Xin; Janssen, Frank

    2014-05-01

    Several independent operational ocean models provide forecasts of the ocean state (e.g. sea level, temperature, salinity and ice cover) in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea on a daily basis. These forecasts are the primary source of information for a variety of information and emergency response systems used e.g. to issue sea level warnings or carry out oil drift forecast. The forecasts are of course highly valuable as such, but often suffer from a lack of information on their uncertainty. With the aim of augmenting the existing operational ocean forecasts in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea by a measure of uncertainty a multi-model-ensemble (MME) system for sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface salinity (SSS) and water transports has been set up in the framework of the MyOcean-2 project. Members of MyOcean-2, the NOOS² and HIROMB/BOOS³ communities provide 48h-forecasts serving as inputs. Different variables are processed separately due to their different physical characteristics. Based on the so far collected daily MME products of SST and SSS, a statistical method, Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis is applied to assess their spatial and temporal variability. For sea surface currents, progressive vector diagrams at specific points are consulted to estimate the performance of the circulation models especially in hydrodynamic important areas, e.g. inflow/outflow of the Baltic Sea, Norwegian trench and English Channel. For further versions of the MME system, it is planned to extend the MME to other variables like e.g. sea level, ocean currents or ice cover based on the needs of the model providers and their customers. It is also planned to include in-situ data to augment the uncertainty information and for validation purposes. Additionally, weighting methods will be implemented into the MME system to develop more complex uncertainty measures. The methodology used to create the MME will be outlined and different ensemble products will be presented. In addition, some preliminary results based on the statistical analysis of the uncertainty measures provide first estimates of the regional and temporal performance of the ocean models for each parameter. ²Northwest European Shelf Operational Oceanography System ³High-resolution Operational Model of the Baltic / Baltic Operational Oceanographic System

  13. Expansive admixtures (mainly ettringite)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Nagataki; H. Gomi

    1998-01-01

    The hydration chemistry of expansive cements is described with emphasis on the components for formation of ettringites. Expansive cement concrete as ‘shrinkage-compensating concrete’ or ‘chemical prestressing concrete’ is applied to many kinds of concrete construction. This paper outlines the chemical composition of calcium sulfoaluminate and lime-based expansive admixtures and discusses the expanding mechanism, chemical prestressing, and typical properties of expansive

  14. Magnetic enhancement of Baltic Sea sapropels by greigite magnetofossils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinholdsson, M.; Snowball, I.; Zillén, L.; Lenz, C.; Conley, D. J.

    2013-03-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are known to biosynthesise single-domain magnetite (Fe3O4) for geomagnetic navigation and their relict magnetosomes (called magnetofossils) can control the magnetic properties of lake and marine sediments. Magnetotactic bacteria also produce greigite (Fe3S4) magnetosomes but, compared to those made of magnetite, relatively little is known about the sedimentary environments where they are produced and the magnetic properties of the preserved particles. We studied the magnetic properties of sediment cores from two basins (the North Central Baltic Proper and eastern Gotland Basin) that currently experience hypoxia and we discovered the magnetic enhancement of older laminated sapropels, which are a signal of past occurrences of anoxia and hypoxia in the Baltic Sea. Magnetic concentrates extracted from the laminated sapropels were characterised by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and we identified only single-domain greigite (Fe3S4) particles with a mean size of 55×75 nm, which we interpret as magnetofossils due to diagnostic chains of individual particles separated by an intact dividing membrane. The degree of magnetic enhancement in the laminated sapropels has a positive relationship with loss-on-ignition data, which indicates a link between the production of greigite magnetosomes, organic matter supply and preservation and redox conditions. The coercive force of collections of non-interacting greigite magnetofossils is ?13 mT, which is considerably lower than the magnetite counterparts (?30 mT) and strictly non-bacterial and larger greigite single-domain grains (?60 mT). The values of the interparametric ratios of SIRM/?, ?ARM/SIRM and ?ARM/? that we obtain for our greigite magnetofossils overlap with those previously considered to be diagnostic of magnetosomal magnetite. The presence of bacterial greigite, which is easily detected by magnetic measurements, forms a proxy for hypoxia and anoxia, thus aiding the palaeoenvironmental interpretation of how oxygen conditions in the Baltic Sea have changed over time.

  15. Variational data assimilation problem for the Baltic Sea thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, Natalia; Agoshkov, Valery; Parmuzin, Eugene

    2015-04-01

    The most versatile and promising technology for solving problems of monitoring and analysis of the natural environment is a four-dimensional variational data assimilation of observation data. In such problems not only the development and justification of algorithms for numerical solution of variational data assimilation problems but the properties of the optimal solution play an important role. In this work the variational data assimilation problems in the Baltic Sea water area were formulated and studied. Numerical experiments on restoring the ocean heat flux and obtaining solution of the system (temperature, salinity, velocity, and sea surface height) in the Baltic Sea primitive equation hydrodynamics model with assimilation procedure were carried out. In the calculations we used daily sea surface temperature observation from Danish meteorological Institute, prepared on the basis of measurements of the radiometer (AVHRR, AATSR and AMSRE) and spectroradiometer (SEVIRI and MODIS). The spatial resolution of the model grid with respect to the horizontal variables amounted to 0.0625x0.03125 degree. The results of the numerical experiments are presented. This study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project 13-01-00753, project 14-01-31195) and project 14-11-00609 by the Russian Science Foundation. References: 1 E.I. Parmuzin, V.I. Agoshkov, Numerical solution of the variational assimilation problem for sea surface temperature in the model of the Black Sea dynamics. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, 69-94 2 Zakharova N.B., Agoshkov V.I., Parmuzin E.I., The new method of ARGO buoys system observation data interpolation. Russian Journal of Numerical Analysis and Mathematical Modelling. Vol. 28, Issue 1, 2013. 3 Zalesny V.B., Gusev A.V., Chernobay S.Yu., Aps R., Tamsalu R., Kujala P., Rytkönen J. The Bal-tic Sea circulation modelling and assessment of marine pollution, Russ. J. Numer. Analysis and Math. Modelling, 2014, V 29, No. 2, pp. 129-138.

  16. The baltic sea ferry guidance and information system (BAFEGIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, Horst

    1997-12-01

    The Baltic Sea Ferry Guidance and Information System (BAFEGIS) is a project initiated by the German and the Swedish Maritime Administration comprising ECDIS onboard and in VTS centres in conjunction with broadcast AIS, as well as shore-based route monitoring and customized hydro-meteorological forecast ser vices. The ECDIS are provided with official ENCs and regular updates by the German and the Swedish Hy drographic Service. Currently four ferries are operating between Rostock/Travemünde and Trelleborg involved. The organization of the project and the role of ECDIS in VTS and future VTMIS are described.

  17. Ice-ocean-ecosystem operational model of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janecki, M.; Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, L.; Jakacki, J.; Nowicki, A.

    2012-04-01

    3D-CEMBS is a fully coupled model adopted for the Baltic Sea and have been developed within the grant, wchich is supported by the Polish State Committee of Scientific Reasearch. The model is based on CESM1.0 (Community Earth System Model), in our configuration it consists of two active components (ocean and ice) driven by central coupler (CPL7). Ocean (POP version 2.1) and ice models (CICE model, version 4.0) are forced by atmospheric and land data models. Atmospheric data sets are provided by ICM-UM model from University of Warsaw. Additionally land model provides runoff of the Baltic Sea (currently 78 rivers). Ecosystem model is based on an intermediate complexity marine ecosystem model for the global domain (J.K. Moore et. al., 2002) and consists of 11 main components: zooplankton, small phytoplankton, diatoms, cyanobacteria, two detrital classes, dissolved oxygen and the nutrients nitrate, ammonium, phosphate and silicate. The model is configured at two horizontal resolutions, approximately 9km and 2km (1/12° and 1/48° respectively). The model bathymetry is represented as 21 vertical levels and the thickness of the first four layers were chosen to be five metres. 3D-CEMBS model grid is based on stereographic coordinates, but equator of these coordinates is in the centre of the Baltic Sea (rotated stereographic coordinates) and we can assume that shape of the cells are square and they are identical. Currently model works in a operational state. The model creates 48-hour forecasts every 6 hours (or when new atmospheric dataset is available). Prognostic variables such as temperature, salinity, ice cover, currents, sea surface height and phytoplankton concentration are presented online on a the website and are available for registered users. Also time series for any location are accessible. This work was carried out in support of grant No NN305 111636 and No NN306 353239 - the Polish state Committee of Scientific Research. The partial support for this study was also provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBaltyk founded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract no. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09. Calculations were done at the Academic Computer Center in Gdansk.

  18. An ant-associated mesostigmatid mite in Baltic amber.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Jason A; Kontschán, Jen?; Walter, David E; Perrichot, Vincent

    2014-09-01

    Fossil mesostigmatid mites (Acari: Parasitiformes: Mesostigmata) are extremely rare, and specimens from only nine families, including four named species, have been described so far. A new record of Myrmozercon sp. described here from Eocene (ca 44-49 Myr) Baltic amber represents the first-and so far only-fossil example of the derived, extant family Laelapidae. Significantly, modern species of this genus are habitually myrmecophilous and the fossil mite described here is preserved attached to the head of the dolichoderine ant Ctenobethylus goepperti (Mayr, 1868). It thus offers the oldest unequivocal evidence for an ecological association between mesostigmatid mites and social insects in the order Hymenoptera. PMID:25209198

  19. PREFACE: 5th Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezinskis, G.; Bragina, L.; Colombo, P.; Frischat, G. H.; Grabis, J.; Greil, P.; Deja, J.; Kaminskas, R.; Kliava, J.; Medvids, A.; Nowak, I.; Siauciunas, R.; Valancius, Z.; Zalite, I.

    2011-12-01

    Logo This Volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering presents a selection of the contributions to the 5th Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials (BaltSilica2011) held at Riga Technical University, Riga, Latvia from 23-25 May 2011. The conference was organized by Riga Technical University (Latvia) and Kaunas University of Technology (Lithuania). The series of Baltic conferences on silicate materials was started since 2004: the first conference was held in Riga, Latvia, 2004; the second conference was held in Kaunas, Lithuania 2005; the third was held again in Riga, Latvia, 2007, and the fourth was held in Kaunas, Lithuania 2009. BaltSilica 2011 was attended by around 50 participants from Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Germany, Poland, Italy, France, Ukraine and Russia. In comparison with previous silicate materials conferences, the broadening of participating countries is an indication of the interest of scientists, engineers and students to exchange research ideas, latest results, and to find new research topics for cooperation in the fields of silicate, high temperature materials, and inorganic nanomaterials. The scientific programme included 8 invited plenary lectures 23 oral presentations and 25 posters [1]. Scientific themes covered in the conference and in this special issue: Natural and Artificial Stone Materials; Traditional and New Ceramic and Glass-Like Materials; Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials. This volume consists of 23 selected proceeding papers. The Editor of this special issue is grateful to all the contributors to BaltSilica 2011. I am also very grateful to the scientific committee, the local organizing committee, the session chairs, the referees who refereed the submitted articles to this issue, and to students from the Department of Silicate, High Temperature and Inorganic Nanomaterials Technology of the Riga Technical University who ensured the smooth running of the conference. Particular thanks goes to eight plenary speakers who provided interesting findings and thoughtful overviews in the scientific themes of the conference. Special thanks go to Prof., Dr.rer.nat. Günther Heinz Frischat (Germany) who encouraged and supported the organization of these scientific meetings from the very first BaltSilica conferences. With warm regards and best wishes for the next BaltSilica conference. The Conference Chairman Gundars Mezinskis Reference [1] Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials. Book of abstracts of the 5th Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials BaltSilica 2011 : 23-25 May 2011, Riga, Latvia ed G Mezinskis, G Sedmale, J Setina, I Sperberga, L Krage, I Pavlovska, D Andersone (Riga: RTU Publishing House) p 94

  20. Prospects of the New Science and Outreach Network Baltic Earth with Results of the Second Climate Change Assessment for the Baltic Sea Region (BACC II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reckermann, M.; Von Storch, H.; Omstedt, A. T.; Meier, M.; Rutgersson, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Baltic Sea region in Northern Europe spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most intensively studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. A major outcome of Baltic Earth will be the update of the BALTEX Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin (BACC II). This new study after 5 years finds the results of BACC I still valid. Climate change can be detected at the regional scale but attribution is still weak. The effect of changing atmospheric aerosol loads and land use change is largely unknown so far and needs further attention in the coming years. For the observed changes in biogeochemical and ecological systems, multiple drivers are at work of which climate change is one. Their relative importance still needs to be evaluated. When addressing climate change impacts on e.g. forestry, agriculture, urban complexes and the marine and terrestrial environment in the Baltic Sea basin, a broad perspective is needed which considers not only climate change but also other significant factors such as emission changes, demographic, economic as well as land-use changes.

  1. Structural evolution and petroleum productivity of the Baltic basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ulmishek, G.F. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The Baltic basin is an oval depression located in the western part of the Russian craton; it occupies the eastern Baltic Sea and adjacent onshore areas. The basin contains more than 5,000 m of sedimentary rocks ranging from latest Proterozoic to Tertiary in age. These rocks consist of four tectonostratigraphic sequences deposited during major tectonic episodes of basin evolution. Principal unconformities separate the sequences. The basin is underlain by a rift probably filled with Upper Proterozoic rocks. Vendian and Lower Cambrian rocks (Baikalian sequence) form two northeast-trending depressions. The principal stage of the basin development was during deposition of a thick Middle Cambrian-Lower Devonian (Caledonian) sequence. This stage was terminated by the most intense deformations in the basin history. The Middle Devonian-Carboniferous (Hercynian) and Permian-Tertiary (Kimmerian-Alpine) tectonic and depositional cycles only slightly modified the basin geometry and left intact the main structural framework of underlying rocks. The petroleum productivity of the basin is related to the Caledonian tectonostratigraphic sequence that contains both source rocks and reservoirs. However, maturation of source rocks, migration of oil, and formation of fields took place mostly during deposition of the Hercynian sequence.

  2. Seasonal thermally-induced front in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demchenko, N.

    2009-04-01

    Mean-annual characteristics of thermohaline fields (1990-1996; Janssen et al., 1999) of the Baltic Sea along the section "Gdansk bay - Gotland sea" under conditions of early-spring heating are analyzed. Location of water with temperature of maximum density (hereafter Tmd; Tmd ~2.4C for S=7.6 psu) is identified. Under the same conditions of heating from the surface, shallow parts are stably thermally stratified, whilst waters in deeper regions have temperature near the Tmd throughout the upper layer of the thickness of about 30 m. Mean-annual horizontal density gradient between these parts is about 10-6-10-7kg/m4, what is of the same order than in Ladoga lake (Drabkova, Rumiantsev, 2002) under corresponding conditions. Mean-annual speed of propagation of the isotherm, corresponding to the Tmd (accounting for the salinity variations) is about 15 km/day. Analysis of field measurements, performed by Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research (Institut f

  3. Hypoxia is increasing in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Conley, Daniel J; Carstensen, Jacob; Aigars, Juris; Axe, Philip; Bonsdorff, Erik; Eremina, Tatjana; Haahti, Britt-Marie; Humborg, Christoph; Jonsson, Per; Kotta, Jonne; Lännegren, Christer; Larsson, Ulf; Maximov, Alexey; Medina, Miguel Rodriguez; Lysiak-Pastuszak, Elzbieta; Remeikaité-Nikiené, Nijolé; Walve, Jakob; Wilhelms, Sunhild; Zillén, Lovisa

    2011-08-15

    Hypoxia is a well-described phenomenon in the offshore waters of the Baltic Sea with both the spatial extent and intensity of hypoxia known to have increased due to anthropogenic eutrophication, however, an unknown amount of hypoxia is present in the coastal zone. Here we report on the widespread unprecedented occurrence of hypoxia across the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea. We have identified 115 sites that have experienced hypoxia during the period 1955-2009 increasing the global total to ca. 500 sites, with the Baltic Sea coastal zone containing over 20% of all known sites worldwide. Most sites experienced episodic hypoxia, which is a precursor to development of seasonal hypoxia. The Baltic Sea coastal zone displays an alarming trend with hypoxia steadily increasing with time since the 1950s effecting nutrient biogeochemical processes, ecosystem services, and coastal habitat. PMID:21770387

  4. Two new fossil species of Cryptocephalus Geoffroy (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from Baltic and Dominican Amber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new species of Cryptocephalus Geoffroy (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are described and illustrated from fossil resin: Cryptocephalus groehni sp. nov (Baltic amber) and Cryptocephalus kheelorum sp. nov. (Dominican amber). These are the first described species of Cryptocephalinae from fossil resin. ...

  5. Genetic differentiation of southeast Baltic populations of sea trout inferred from single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Po?wierz-Kotus, A; Berna?, R; D?bowski, P; Kent, M P; Lien, S; Kesler, M; Titov, S; Leli?na, E; Jespersen, H; Drywa, A; Wenne, R

    2014-02-01

    Sea trout (Salmo trutta m. trutta) is a migratory form of brown trout common in the Baltic Sea. Nine populations from the southeast Baltic (Poland; Lithuania; Denmark, Bornholm; Estonia and Russia) were genotyped using iPLEX Gold technology (Sequenom) with 62 informative SNPs. A diagnostic panel of 23 SNPs was applied to estimate genetic differentiation and assess the population structure of Baltic sea trout. The highest level of pairwise FST differences was observed between the Russian (East Gulf of Finland) and Polish (Baltic main basin) populations. The lowest differences were between the two Polish and the Polish and Lithuanian populations. A genetic similarity was noted between the Estonian Riguldi River and Danish Bornholm populations, and this finding was supported by a Bayesian and factorial correspondence analysis. Diversity within populations was highest for populations from Estonia and lowest for the Lithuanian population. Genetic structure analysis indicated that individuals from the nine populations were clustered into four groups. PMID:24236931

  6. Hypoxia Is Increasing in the Coastal Zone of the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Hypoxia is a well-described phenomenon in the offshore waters of the Baltic Sea with both the spatial extent and intensity of hypoxia known to have increased due to anthropogenic eutrophication, however, an unknown amount of hypoxia is present in the coastal zone. Here we report on the widespread unprecedented occurrence of hypoxia across the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea. We have identified 115 sites that have experienced hypoxia during the period 1955–2009 increasing the global total to ca. 500 sites, with the Baltic Sea coastal zone containing over 20% of all known sites worldwide. Most sites experienced episodic hypoxia, which is a precursor to development of seasonal hypoxia. The Baltic Sea coastal zone displays an alarming trend with hypoxia steadily increasing with time since the 1950s effecting nutrient biogeochemical processes, ecosystem services, and coastal habitat. PMID:21770387

  7. New species of Late Eocene dermestid beetles (Coleoptera, Dermestidae) from the Rovno and Baltic ambers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Zhantiev

    2006-01-01

    Fossil beetles of the family Dermestidae are reviewed. Three new species are described: Dermestes progenitor and Megatoma electra from the Baltic amber and Dermestes vetustus from the Rovno amber (Late Eocene).

  8. Convex Relaxations for Gas Expansion Planning

    E-print Network

    2015-06-24

    ber of compressor stations, the length and diameter of the pipeline sections, and the inlet and outlet ... the assumption that the network is radial (the head loss equations are convex when flows are fixed), the ...... Phd thesis, School in Business,.

  9. Transmission Expansion Planning Using an AC Model ...

    E-print Network

    Periodicals

    2013-01-02

    COUENNE and BARON are designed for solving both convex and non-convex .... sidering how many lines should be built in a given transmission corridor ...... [15] R. A. Waltz and T. D. Plantenga, Knitro user's manual, version 7.0, Sept. 2010 ...

  10. Long-chain alkenone patterns in the Baltic sea—an ocean-freshwater transition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans-Martin Schulz; Anne Schöner; Kay-Christian Emeis

    2000-01-01

    Two different patterns of long-chain alkenones are found in surficial sediments of the Baltic Sea, which is the largest brackish water body on Earth. One pattern occurs in surficial sediments from the Western Baltic Sea where surface-water salinitiy is in excess of 7.7 PSU. It corresponds to the pattern produced by the marine coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi with a suite of

  11. Microhabitat segregation of the amphipod genus Gammarus (Crustacea: Amphipoda) in the Northern Baltic Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuli Korpinen; Mats Westerbom

    2010-01-01

    Closely related species may occupy very similar niches but are often found to diverge by one or more traits when they share\\u000a the same habitat. Five indigenous and sympatric Gammarus species are characteristic for the Baltic rocky littoral ecosystem. Yet, the species-specific distribution of these sympatric\\u000a gammarids has not been well studied in the northern Baltic Sea. This study was

  12. Geochemical records of salt-water inflows into the deep basins of the Baltic Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Neumann; C. Christiansen; S. Clasen; K.-C. Emeis; H. Kunzendorf

    1997-01-01

    The estuarine circulation system of the Baltic Sea promotes stable stratification and bottom water anoxia in sedimentary basins of the Baltic proper. Ingressions of saline, oxygen-rich waters from the North Sea replace the oxygen depleted deep water. Timing and extent of the ingressions vary on time-scales of years to decades, and are largely determined by wind-strength and storm frequency over

  13. Denitrification in the water column of the central Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalsgaard, Tage; De Brabandere, Loreto; Hall, Per O. J.

    2013-04-01

    Removal of fixed nitrogen in the water column of the eastern Gotland Basin, central Baltic Sea, was studied during two cruises in September 2008 and August 2010. The water column was stratified with anoxic sulfidic bottom water meeting oxic nitrate containing water at the oxic-anoxic interface. Anammox was never detected whereas denitrification was found in all incubations from anoxic depths and occurred immediately below the oxic-anoxic interface. Sulfide (H2S + HS- + S2-) was in most cases the only electron donor for denitrification but, in contrast to previous findings, denitrification was in some situations driven by organic matter alone. Nitrous oxide (N2O) became an increasingly important product of denitrification with increasing sulfide concentration and was >80% of the total N gas formation at 10 ?M sulfide. The potential rates of denitrification measured in incubations at elevated NO3- or sulfide concentrations were converted to in situ rates using the measured water column concentrations of NO3- and sulfide and the actual measured relations between NO3- and sulfide concentrations and denitrification rates. In situ denitrification ranged from 0.24 to 15.9 nM N2 h-1. Assuming that these rates were valid throughout the anoxic NO3- containing zone, depth integrated in situ denitrification rates of 0.06-2.11 mmol N m-2 d-1 were estimated. The thickness of this zone was generally 3-6 m, which is probably what can be maintained through regular turbulent mixing induced by internal waves at the oxic-anoxic interface. However, layers of up to 55 m thickness with low O2 water (<10 ?M) were observed which was probably the result of larger scale mixing. In such a layer nitrification may produce NO3- and once the O2 has been depleted denitrification will follow resulting in enormous rates per unit area. Even with an active denitrification layer of 3-6 m thickness the pelagic denitrification per unit area clearly exceeded sediment denitrification rates elsewhere in the Baltic Sea. When extrapolated to the entire Baltic Proper (BP) denitrification in the water column was in the range of 132-547 kton N yr-1 and was thus at least as important as sediment denitrification which has recently been estimated to 191 kton N yr-1. With a total external N-input of 773 kton N yr-1 it is clear that denitrification plays a significant role in the N-budget of the BP.

  14. Negative thermal expansion materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. S. O.; Mary, T. A.; Sleight, A. W.

    The recent discovery of negative thermal expansion over an unprecedented temperature range in ZrW 2O 8 (which contracts continuously on warming from below 2 K to above 1000 K) has stimulated considerable interest in this unusual phenomenon. Negative and low thermal expansion materials have a number of important potential uses in ceramic, optical and electronic applications. We have now found negative thermal expansion in a large new family of materials with the general formula A 2(MO 4) 3. Chemical substitution dramatically influences the thermal expansion properties of these materials allowing the production of ceramics with negative, positive or zero coefficients of thermal expansion, with the potential to control other important materials properties such as refractive index and dielectric constant. The mechanism of negative thermal expansion and the phase transitions exhibited by this important new class of low-expansion materials will be discussed.

  15. Negative thermal expansion materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. S. O.; Mary, T. A.; Sleight, A. W.

    1998-04-01

    The recent discovery of negative thermal expansion over an unprecedented temperature range in ZrW2O8 (which contracts continuously on warming from below 2 K to above 1000 K) has stimulated considerable interest in this unusual phenomenon. Negative and low thermal expansion materials have a number of important potential uses in ceramic, optical and electronic applications. We have now found negative thermal expansion in a large new family of materials with the general formula A2(MO4)3. Chemical substitution dramatically influences the thermal expansion properties of these materials allowing the production of ceramics with negative, positive or zero coefficients of thermal expansion, with the potential to control other important materials properties such as refractive index and dielectric constant. The mechanism of negative thermal expansion and the phase transitions exhibited by this important new class of low-expansion materials will be discussed.

  16. Long-term model study of nutrient and detritus dynamics in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kõuts, Mariliis; Raudsepp, Urmas; Maljutenko, Ilja; Liis Treimann, Meri

    2015-04-01

    Eutrophication resulting from direct and indirect input of nutrients is considered one of the major environmental problems in the sub-basins of the Baltic Sea. Stronger eutrophication is manifested through increased summer cyanobacteria blooms and expanding hypoxia. It has been recognized that cycling of organic matter is a considerable source of nutrients in the Baltic Sea. Nutrient pools in the sediments have increased over the last decades. Our study aims at understanding the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea by looking at spatial patterns and temporal variation of biogeochemical parameters. We are focusing on spatial detritus dynamics during the period of 40 years in the Baltic Sea. Model simulations were performed using a three-dimensional free-surface hydrodynamic model GETM coupled with the ERGOM biogeochemical model. The model domain covers the entire Baltic Sea area and the period modelled is 1966-2006. Our results show that nutrient and detritus dynamics differ between shallow and deep areas. Seasonal cycle is dominant in the shallow areas (water depth less than 60 m approximately) and nutrients - organic matter are recycling there. Deep areas, however, could be storage areas of organic matter where halocline acts as a kind of barrier for nutrients to be transported to the upper layer. Still, nutrients are mixed from the upper halocline into the upper layer and fuel primary production there. Deep areas therefore become important source of nutrients especially during MBIs. Horizontal transport of nutrients from upstream basins of the Baltic Sea is a considerable source of nutrients for downstream basins.

  17. Metazoan parasites from herring (Clupea harengus L.) as biological indicators in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Unger, Patrick; Klimpel, Sven; Lang, Thomas; Palm, Harry Wilhelm

    2014-09-01

    Zoographical distribution of metazoan fish parasites in herring, Clupea harengus, from the Baltic Sea was analysed in order to use them as potential biological indicators. A total of 210 herring from six different sampling sites were investigated, harbouring 12 different parasite species [five digeneans (D), one cestode (C), three nematodes (N) and three acanthocephalans (A)]. The distribution of the parasite species differed according to region, with a distinct gradient of decreasing species richness towards the east of the Baltic Sea. The western localities at Kiel Bay, Rügen and Poland had the highest parasite diversity, including the marine parasite species Anisakis simplex (s.s.) (N), Brachyphallus crenatus and Hemiurus luehei (both D). The eastern localities had low parasite species richness, predominated by the freshwater digenean Diplostomum spathaceum. We could identify three different Baltic herring stocks, the spring-spawning herring of the western Baltic reaching from the Kattegat to the German and Polish coast, the stock of the central Baltic proper and the northern stock of C. harengus var. membras of the Gulf of Finland. The limited distribution of the herring parasites within the Baltic Sea enables their use as biological indicators for migration patterns and stock separation. The acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus laevis that has already been used as an accumulation bioindicator for heavy metals was only recorded for the western herring stocks. However, the presence of mainly generalistic parasites and their uneven distribution patterns make their use as indicators for regional environmental and global change more difficult. PMID:25119368

  18. Allelopathic activity of the Baltic cyanobacteria against microalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?ak, Adam; Musiewicz, Krzysztof; Kosakowska, Alicja

    2012-10-01

    The goal of this work was to investigate the influence of Baltic cyanobacteria Anabaena variabilis and Nodularia spumigena cells and cell-free filtrates on the growth of green algae Chlorella vulgaris. We have demonstrated that Anabaena variabilis and Nodularia spumigena caused allelopathic effects against microalgae. The cyanobacterial and microalgal cultures were provided on liquid medium, in 22 °C at continuous light. Cell-free filtrates were obtained by centrifugation and filtering aliquots of cyanobacterial cultures (including cultures in exponential and stationary phase of growth). Growth response of free cells (batch culture technique) and immobilized cultures (in alginate beads) of the unicellular green algae to cyanobacteria allelochemicals were tested and compared. In this experiment Anabaena variabilis supressed the growth of microalgae compared to control samples. Nodularia spumigena stimulated the growth of Chlorella vulgaris in most cases, however both positive and negative effects were observed.

  19. Foraminiferal stable isotope constraints on salinity changes in the deglacial and early Holocene Baltic Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana Krupinski, Nadine; Filipsson, Helena; Bokhari-Friberg, Yasmin; Knudsen, Karen-Luise; Mackensen, Andreas; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Austin, William

    2015-04-01

    The northern European Baltic Sea shows evidence of strong coupling with North Atlantic climate over recent glacial-interglacial cycles, but existing climate proxy evidence from regional sediment records suggest that the coupling may occur through non-linear processes. High-resolution regional climate records in Europe and from the Baltic Sea are critical for evaluating this coupling and the regional sensitivity to North Atlantic and global climate signals. However, evaluating the drivers and mechanisms of proposed links between the North Atlantic and Baltic Sea climate has often been hampered by a lack of long, continuous, high-resolution climate records from this area. New high-resolution sediment cores collected by IODP/ECORD Expedition 347 (Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment) allow such records to be generated, including foraminiferal geochemistry records of Baltic Sea hydrographic conditions during the most recent deglaciation and early Holocene (~19-7 cal. ka). The dramatic changes in salinity, sea level, circulation, temperature, and oxygenation during this period, e.g. through massive meltwater release from proglacial lakes and the early Holocene inundation of the Baltic by seawater highlight these non-linear links between the Baltic and North Atlantic. This work uses benthic foraminiferal stable isotope records (?18O and ?13C) from sites in the western Baltic (M0059, Lillebælt, early Holocene marine stage (Littorina Sea)) and Kattegat (M0060, Anholt, deglaciation) to constrain salinity changes during these intervals. Because of the dramatic changes in salinity this region experiences today and during the study periods, oxygen isotope records (?18O) here primarily reflect a signal of changing salinity, with a reduced temperature effect. Early ?18O results from the western Baltic (M0059) show a trend of declining ?18O/salinity during the first several kyr of the Littorina Sea stage, in agreement with previous work indicating declining salinity due to gradual shoaling over the entrance sills to the Baltic after the initial seawater inundation. Initial results from the Kattegat (M0060) demonstrate moderate or sometimes large changes in ?18O/salinity during deglaciation, highlighting the potential at this site to link new, high-resolution data to regional changes in ice sheet position and meltwater release and/or North Atlantic or global climate fluctuations.

  20. Mapping the Cosmological Expansion

    E-print Network

    Eric V. Linder

    2008-03-07

    The ability to map the cosmological expansion has developed enormously, spurred by the turning point one decade ago of the discovery of cosmic acceleration. The standard model of cosmology has shifted from a matter dominated, standard gravity, decelerating expansion to the present search for the origin of acceleration in the cosmic expansion. We present a wide ranging review of the tools, challenges, and physical interpretations. The tools include direct measures of cosmic scales through Type Ia supernova luminosity distances, and angular distance scales of baryon acoustic oscillation and cosmic microwave background density perturbations, as well as indirect probes such as the effect of cosmic expansion on the growth of matter density fluctuations. Accurate mapping of the expansion requires understanding of systematic uncertainties in both the measurements and the theoretical framework, but the result will give important clues to the nature of the physics behind accelerating expansion and to the fate of the universe.

  1. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF FUGITIVE EMISSION CHANGE DUE TO REFINERY EXPANSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses a statistical approach for determining if a planned petroleum refinery expansion can be carried out without increasing fugitive emissions. The random uncertainty of the empirically determined emission factors is taken into account during the determination. Th...

  2. Icy heritage: ecological evolution of the postglacial Baltic Sea reflected in the allozymes of a living fossil, the priapulid Halicryptus spinulosus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Schreiber; M. Eisinger; H. Rumohr; V. Storch

    1996-01-01

    Genetic variation of 16 allozyme loci in 397 Halicryptus spinulosus (Priapulida) revealed overall polymorphism of P=0.438 and Hardy-Weinberg expectations for heterozygosity of He=0.060 for Baltic Sea stocks, He=0.143 for the White Sea and He=0.121 for Iceland. Maximal unbiased standard distances of D=0.0693 separated Baltic and White Sea populations. Nordic and Baltic populations could be distinguished by allozymes, but Baltic subsamples

  3. Geological Storage od CO2 in the Southern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernon, Richard; O'Neill, Nick; Pasquali, Riccardo; Niemi, Auli

    2014-05-01

    Geological Storage of CO2 in the Southern Baltic Sea Region The BASTOR project identifies and characterises the potential CO2 storage sites in the southern Baltic Sea. A regional theoretical storage capacity of 16Gt of CO2 in the Middle Cambrian sandstone beneath 900 metres of cap rock was estimated. 1.9Gt of this storage potential is estimated in the Dalders Monocline with some 743Mt CO2 in individual hydrocarbon and saline aquifer structures located mainly offshore Latvia and 128Mt in the Dalders Structure. Although the study has established a relatively large theoretical storage capacity, there is no effective capacity proven within these totals. Dynamic modelling undertaken in the Southern Swedish sector suggests that the relatively poor permeability and porosity characteristics would limit the injection rate to 0.5Mt per well per annum and restrict the reservoir pressure increase to 50% above the hydrostatic pressure for an injection period of 50 years. The dynamic modelling for this area suggests that an injection strategy for this sector would be limited to 5 injection wells giving a total injection capacity of 2.5 Mt per annum. Based on these results, the potential of the Southern Swedish offshore sector to sustain injection rates of CO2 required for regional industrial capture, even when using horizontal wells, brine extraction and hydraulic fracturing, would appear to be very low. Areas to the north east of the Monocline, such as offshore Latvia have been identified as having better reservoir quality despite limited data being available. These areas could sustain higher rates of injection and prove suitable areas for commercial storage. Furthermore, the regional storage capacity assessment demonstrated that there are sweet spots in the Cambrian reservoir such as onshore Latvia, where there is commercial gas storage, and both onshore and offshore Kaliningrad, where there is ongoing hydrocarbon production. The potential for seal failure was investigated as part of the BASTOR study and three possible modes of seal failure were identified. These include top seal failure, migration up the bounding fault planes and leakage across fault planes. The risk associated with all of these is considered low, based on currently available data. A test injection methodology aimed at assessing the commercial viability of CO2 injection in the Baltic Sea region has been designed. This includes the characterisation of reservoir, caprock and hydraulic properties, pump testing as well as CO2 migration and trapping using a phased approach methodology. An outline MMV programme has been developed based on the results of the dynamic modelling and the development phases of a CO2 injection site. Since the potential to store significant quantities of CO2 in the Swedish part of the Dalders Monocline appears to be limited, exploration efforts and the acquisition of new, site specific data through geophysical surveys, drilling and injection testing as well as detailed sampling and laboratory analyses, should be focussed on areas of better reservoir qualities than the current study area. New data covering the north eastern portion of the Dalders Monocline, in particular offshore Latvia and onshore as well as offshore Kaliningrad, would allow a detailed charterisation of individual potential sites for CO2 storage. This would also define site-specific seal integrity as well as chracterise small-scale fault structures that would ultimately dictate the potential injection and storage conditions.

  4. Periodicity in Sediments from the Baltic Sea and in Greenland Ice as Climate Signals for the Late Quaternary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Harff; R. Endler; S. Kotov; T. Leipe; A. Witkowski

    2009-01-01

    Climatic records from Greenland ice and Baltic Sea provide as well information about global climate changes as about local basin peculiarities. Late Quaternary sediments have been accumulated in the Baltic Basin with high accumulation rates, qualifying them for the study of late Pleistocene to Holocene climate and environmental history in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic realm. Physical and geochemical

  5. Plankton of the Baltic estuarine ecosystems with emphasis on Neva Estuary: a review of present knowledge and research perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irena V Telesh

    2004-01-01

    Different levels of eutrophication and pollution in the Baltic coastal waters in general, and in estuaries particularly define variations in the buffering capacity of ecosystems of these important filter zones between rivers and the adjacent Baltic Proper. Phyto- and zooplankton in the estuaries form important components of the pelagic food webs that participate in producing and structuring the matter, energy,

  6. Temporal and spatial variation in the growth rates of Baltic herring ( Clupea harengus membras L.) larvae during summer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Hakala; M. Viitasalo; H. Rita; E. Aro; J. Flinkman; I. Vuorinen

    2003-01-01

    It has been suggested that larval survival determines the year-class strength in most marine fish species. During their growth and development, the ability of the larvae to catch prey and avoid predation will increase. However, the factors affecting short-term changes in the growth of Baltic Sea herring have been little studied in the field. We collected Baltic herring (Clupea harengus

  7. Characterization of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the Baltic Sea by excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Piotr Kowalczuk; Joanna Ston; William J. Cooper; Robert F. Whitehead; Michael J. Durako

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is the major light absorber in the Baltic Sea. In this study, excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectra and UV-visible absorption spectra of CDOM are reported as a function of salinity. Samples from different locations and over different seasons were collected during four cruises in 2002 and 2003 in the Baltic Sea in both Pomeranian

  8. Characterization of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the Baltic Sea by excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Piotr Kowalczuk; Joanna Sto?-Egiert; William J. Cooper; Robert F. Whitehead; Michael J. Durako

    2005-01-01

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is the major light absorber in the Baltic Sea. In this study, excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectra and UV–visible absorption spectra of CDOM are reported as a function of salinity. Samples from different locations and over different seasons were collected during four cruises in 2002 and 2003 in the Baltic Sea in both Pomeranian

  9. Physiological and proteomic responses in Mytilus edulis exposed to PCBs and PAHs extracted from Baltic Sea sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Björne Olsson; Brian P. Bradley; Michael Gilek; Olof Reimer; Jenn L. Shepard; Michael Tedengren

    2004-01-01

    Stress responses in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis. L.) exposed to rganic pollutants were measured using several physiological measures and as changes in protein expression. Blue mussels from the Baltic Sea were exposed for 6 days in a flow-through system to two fractions of extracted Baltic sediments (containing primarily PAHs or PCBs) from one industrially impacted site and one off-shore site.

  10. Hydrography and mollusc faunas of the Baltic and the White Sea–North Sea seaway in the Eemian

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Svend Funder; Igor Demidov; Yadviga Yelovicheva

    2002-01-01

    Palynologically dated mollusc and cirriped faunas from a region extending from the North Sea through the Baltic and Karelia to the Arkhangelsk region show that the hydrography of the Baltic was very different from the Holocene. For 2–2.5 ka in the Early Eemian a seaway existed from the Barents to the North Sea through Karelia, until it was severed at

  11. Modelling the Influence of Major Baltic Inflows on Near-Bottom Conditions at the Entrance of the Gulf of Finland

    PubMed Central

    Lessin, Gennadi; Raudsepp, Urmas; Stips, Adolf

    2014-01-01

    A coupled hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model was implemented in order to estimate the effects of Major Baltic Inflows on the near-bottom hydrophysical and biogeochemical conditions in the northern Baltic Proper and the western Gulf of Finland during the period 1991–2009. We compared results of a realistic reference run to the results of an experimental run where Major Baltic Inflows were suppressed. Further to the expected overall decrease in bottom salinity, this modelling experiment confirms that in the absence of strong saltwater inflows the deep areas of the Baltic Proper would become more anoxic, while in the shallower areas (western Gulf of Finland) near-bottom average conditions improve. Our experiment revealed that typical estuarine circulation results in the sporadic emergence of short-lasting events of near-bottom anoxia in the western Gulf of Finland due to transport of water masses from the Baltic Proper. Extrapolating our results beyond the modelled period, we speculate that the further deepening of the halocline in the Baltic Proper is likely to prevent inflows of anoxic water to the Gulf of Finland and in the longer term would lead to improvement in near-bottom conditions in the Baltic Proper. Our results reaffirm the importance of accurate representation of salinity dynamics in coupled Baltic Sea models serving as a basis for credible hindcast and future projection simulations of biogeochemical conditions. PMID:25393720

  12. Benthic competition and population dynamics of Monoporeia affinis and Marenzelleria sp. in the northern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson Wiklund, A.-K.; Andersson, A.

    2014-05-01

    During the last two decades major changes of the benthic fauna have occurred in the northern Baltic Sea, the Gulf of Bothnia. The native amphipod, Monoporeia affinis, has shown a large-scale abundance decrease, while polychaetes, Marenzelleria spp. have invaded the system. Marenzelleria co-exist with the native fauna in the southern Baltic Sea, but in the north the pelagic production might be too low to allow co-existence. Thus, M. affinis might have been out-competed by Marenzelleria in the Gulf of Bothnia. This hypothesis was tested in a competition experiment with a high and a low fresh phytoplankton food supply. When exposed to high food supply both species showed stable or increased biomass over the four week test period. In low food supply, however, M. affinis was found to have a competitive advantage. The experimental data were also related to Baltic Sea monitoring data on primary production, sedimentation and invertebrate abundances. Data from the northern Baltic Sea show that the dominance in the benthic community by M. affinis was replaced by Marenzelleria around 2001. The amphipod decrease might be explained by a marked decrease in primary production during this period. Combining monitoring and experimental data suggests that the invasion of Marenzelleria did not cause the decrease of M. affinis in the northern Baltic Sea; it rather took advantage of the density gap that had occurred. A shift may thus have been established in the Bothnian Sea benthic community.

  13. Coccolithophores and calcite saturation state in the Baltic and Black Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyrrell, T.; Schneider, B.; Charalampopoulou, A.; Riebesell, U.

    2008-04-01

    The Baltic and Black Seas are both brackish, that is to say both have salinities intermediate between freshwater and seawater. The coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi is abundant in one, the Black Sea, but absent from the other, the Baltic Sea. Here we present summertime coccolithophore measurements confirming this difference, as well as data on the calcium carbonate saturation state of the Baltic Sea. We find that the Baltic Sea becomes undersaturated (or nearly so) in winter, with respect to both the aragonite and calcite mineral forms of CaCO3. Data for the Black Sea are more limited, but it appears to remain strongly supersaturated year-round. The absence of E. huxleyi from the Baltic Sea could therefore potentially be explained by dissolution of their coccoliths in winter, suggesting that minimum annual (wintertime) saturation states could be most important in determining future ocean acidification impacts. In addition to this potential importance of winter saturation state, alternative explanations are also possible, either related to differences in salinity or else to differences in silicate concentrations.

  14. Coccolithophores and calcite saturation state in the Baltic and Black Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyrrell, T.; Schneider, B.; Charalampopoulou, A.; Riebesell, U.

    2007-10-01

    The Baltic and Black Seas are both brackish, that is to say both have salinities intermediate between freshwater and seawater. The coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi is abundant in one, the Black Sea, but absent from the other, the Baltic Sea. Here we present summertime coccolithophore measurements confirming this difference, as well as data on the calcium carbonate saturation state of the Baltic Sea. We find that the Baltic Sea becomes undersaturated (or nearly so) in winter, with respect to both the aragonite and calcite mineral forms of CaCO3. Data for the Black Sea are more limited, but it appears to remain strongly supersaturated year-round. The absence of E. huxleyi from the Baltic Sea could therefore potentially be explained by dissolution of their coccoliths in winter, suggesting that minimum annual (wintertime) saturation states could be most important in determining future ocean acidification impacts. In addition to this potential importance of winter saturation state, alternative explanations are also possible, either related to differences in salinity or else to differences in silicate concentrations.

  15. Biodiversity gradient in the Baltic Sea: a comprehensive inventory of macrozoobenthos data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zettler, Michael L.; Karlsson, Anna; Kontula, Tytti; Gruszka, Piotr; Laine, Ari O.; Herkül, Kristjan; Schiele, Kerstin S.; Maximov, Alexey; Haldin, Jannica

    2014-03-01

    In the Helsinki Commission Red List project 2009-2012, taxonomic and distributional data of benthic (macro) invertebrates were compiled by the present authors in a comprehensive checklist of the Baltic Sea fauna. Based on the most recent and comprehensive data, this paper presents the diversity patterns observed among benthic invertebrates in the Baltic Sea. As expected, the total number of species per sub-region generally declined along the salinity gradient from the Danish Straits to the northern Baltic Sea. This relationship is well known from the Baltic Sea and has resulted in a general assumption of an exponentially positive relationship between species richness and salinity for marine species, and a negative relationship for freshwater species. In 1934, Remane produced a diagram to describe the hypothetical distribution of benthic invertebrate diversity along a marine-freshwater salinity gradient. Our results clearly indicated the validity of this theory for the macrozoobenthic diversity pattern within the Baltic Sea. Categorisation of sub-regions according to species composition showed both separation and grouping of some sub-regions and a strong alignment of similarity patterns of zoobenthic species composition along the salinity gradient.

  16. Levels and congener profiles of PBDEs in edible Baltic, freshwater, and farmed fish in Finland.

    PubMed

    Airaksinen, Riikka; Hallikainen, Anja; Rantakokko, Panu; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Vuorinen, Pekka J; Mannio, Jaakko; Kiviranta, Hannu

    2015-03-17

    Fish is the major source of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) for Finnish consumers. To estimate the PBDE contamination in fish that Finns regularly consume as food, a large-scale sampling was undertaken in 2009-2010. Altogether 207 samples of 17 edible fish species were collected from commercially and recreationally important fishing areas in the Baltic Sea, freshwater lakes, and farming facilities. The analysis of 15 PBDE congeners was performed in an accredited testing laboratory with high-resolution gas chromatography mass spectrometry. In all of the samples, the ?15PBDE varied between 0.029 and 73 ng/g fw. The most abundant congeners were BDE-47 (average proportion 42%), -99 (8.4%), -100 (11%), -154 (5.6%), and -209 (27%). High levels of BDE-209 were observed in the Baltic Sea, off the coast of Pori, in Baltic herring, perch, pike, and pike-perch. Overall, the PBDE levels in Baltic and freshwater fish were low. The levels in farmed whitefish were slightly higher than in wild whitefish. The reasons for the high BDE-209 levels in Baltic herring in Pori and the elevated levels of PBDEs in farmed whitefish should be investigated more thoroughly. PMID:25699573

  17. Modelling of the groundwater flow in Baltic Artesian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virbulis, J.; Sennikovs, J.; Bethers, U.

    2012-04-01

    Baltic Artesian Basin (BAB) is a multi-layered complex hydrogeological system underlying about 480'000 km2 in the territory of Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland, Russia, Belarus and the Baltic Sea. The model of the geological structure contains 42 layers including aquifers and aquitards from Cambrian up to the Quaternary deposits. The finite element method was employed for the calculation of the steady state three-dimensional groundwater flow with free surface. The horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities of geological materials were assumed constant in each of the layers. The Precambrian basement forms the impermeable bottom of the model. The zero water exchange is assumed through the side boundaries of BAB. Simple hydrological model is applied on the surface. The level of the lakes, rivers and the sea is fixed as constant hydraulic head in corresponding mesh points. The infiltration is set as a flux boundary condition elsewhere. Instead of extensive coupling with hydrology model, a constant mean value of 70 mm/year was assumed as an infiltration flux for the whole BAB area and this value was adjusted during the automatic calibration process. Averaged long-term water extraction was applied at the water supply wells with large debits. In total 49 wells in Lithuania (total abstraction 45000 m3/day), 161 in Latvia (184000 m3/day) and 172 in Estonia (24000 m3/day) are considered. The model was calibrated on the statistically weighted (using both spatial and temporal weighting function) borehole water level measurements applying automatic parameter optimization method L-BFGS-B for hydraulic conductivities of each layer. The steady-stade calculations were performed for the situations corresponding to undisturbed situation (1950-ies), intensive groundwater use (1980-ies) and present state situation (after 2000). The distribution of piezometric heads and principal flows inside BAB was analyzed based on the model results. The results demonstrate that generally the flow is directed from southeast to northwest, but the more shallow aquifers show strong influence by local topography. There is an intensive transient flow in Cm aquifer system and this flow is separated from upper layers by thick aquitard O-S. About 25% of the aquifers volume is under free flowing artesian conditions. Acknowledgement The present work has been funded by the European Social Fund project "Establishment of interdisciplinary scientist group and modelling system for groundwater research" (Project No. 2009/0212/1DP/1.1.1.2.0/09/APIA/VIAA/060)

  18. Extreme Eutrophication and Anoxic Events in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, R. L.; Lepland, A.; Iskhakov, A.

    2006-12-01

    The anoxic and reducing conditions in the deepest Baltic basins are today so extreme that there is nowhere else in the world that manganese sulfide minerals (both hexagonal and cubic MnS) are known to form and be preserved in sea-floor sediments. However, the same MnS mineralogy, reflecting similarly extreme reducing conditions, was also formed ca. 1500 C14-yrs ago in the Landsort Deep. Therefore, anthropogenic sources of nutrients are not necessarily the primary cause of modern eutrophication as is commonly assumed, and the reduction of these nutrient sources may not result in the desired impact on environmental conditions as many models would predict. Detailed element scans and thin-section studies using Markov-chain analyses have indicated cyclic variations on mm-, cm- and m-scales in both detrital and authigenic components, interpreted to relate to climatic or circulation changes. Carbon, sulfur and grain size vary together, suggesting the importance of organic matter for sulfur precipitation. In addition to favorable climatic and nutrient conditions, organic matter production is influenced by mixing processes and salinity changes that are associated with periodic inflow from the North Sea as part of the estuarine circulation that renews bottom water. We have calculated sedimentation rates and element fluxes. Detrital mineralogy was used to identify and partition sediment supply from idealized source types. Initially, the sediment contributions from glacial meltwater, sediment reworking and soil terrains have been modelled. Although human influence was much less 1500 C14-yrs ago, forest clearing and changed land use might have allowed greater erosion and nutrient supply. This is supported by an increased proportion of sediment supplied from soil terrains, but not supported by the slow total sedimentation rates (<0.4 mm yr) related to sapropel formation. Climatic influences and paleoceanographic dynamics are considered most important. Natural causes for rapid organic production, extreme eutrophication and anoxic precipitation of MnS minerals need to be better accounted for in models for eutrophication in the modern Baltic Sea.

  19. Artificial radionuclides ??Sr and ²?¹Am in the sediments of the Baltic Sea: total and spatial inventories and some temporal trends.

    PubMed

    Hutri, Kaisa-Leena; Mattila, Jukka; Ikäheimonen, Tarja Tuulikki; Vartti, Vesa-Pekka

    2013-05-15

    The Baltic Sea was contaminated by radioactivity following global nuclear fallout and later by the Chernobyl accident. Despite the decrease of radioactivity caused by radioactive decay, radionuclides have a prolonged residence time in the water of the Baltic Sea due to slow water exchange and relatively rapid sedimentation. Very little is known about the amounts or spatial differences of ??Sr and ²?¹Am in the Baltic Sea sediments. In this study, 20 sediment cores taken around the Baltic Sea were investigated to estimate inventories of these radionuclides. The rough results show that the Chernobyl fallout added the amount of ??Sr in the same areas where the increase of ¹³?Cs can be detected, whereas this is not the case for ²?¹Am which is more evenly distributed in the sea bottom. In addition, local differences occur in the concentrations. These results are an important amendment to the radioactivity baseline of the Baltic Sea. PMID:23582977

  20. Impact of climate change on ecological quality indicators and biogeochemical fluxes in the Baltic sea: a multi-model ensemble study.

    PubMed

    Meier, H E Markus; Müller-Karulis, Bärbel; Andersson, Helén C; Dieterich, Christian; Eilola, Kari; Gustafsson, Bo G; Höglund, Anders; Hordoir, Robinson; Kuznetsov, Ivan; Neumann, Thomas; Ranjbar, Zohreh; Savchuk, Oleg P; Schimanke, Semjon

    2012-09-01

    Multi-model ensemble simulations using three coupled physical-biogeochemical models were performed to calculate the combined impact of projected future climate change and plausible nutrient load changes on biogeochemical cycles in the Baltic Sea. Climate projections for 1961-2099 were combined with four nutrient load scenarios ranging from a pessimistic business-as-usual to a more optimistic case following the Helsinki Commission's (HELCOM) Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP). The model results suggest that in a future climate, water quality, characterized by ecological quality indicators like winter nutrient, summer bottom oxygen, and annual mean phytoplankton concentrations as well as annual mean Secchi depth (water transparency), will be deteriorated compared to present conditions. In case of nutrient load reductions required by the BSAP, water quality is only slightly improved. Based on the analysis of biogeochemical fluxes, we find that in warmer and more anoxic waters, internal feedbacks could be reinforced. Increased phosphorus fluxes out of the sediments, reduced denitrification efficiency and increased nitrogen fixation may partly counteract nutrient load abatement strategies. PMID:22926879

  1. Upwelling events may cause cyanobacteria blooms in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasmund, Norbert; Nausch, Günther; Voss, Maren

    2012-02-01

    Cyanobacteria blooms in the Baltic Sea appear after upwelling events, which transport phosphate-rich intermediate water to the surface. The growth potential of diazotrophic cyanobacteria in upwelled water was studied in a mesocosm (tank) experiment in summer 2007. An Anabaena bloom was only induced in the tanks filled with upwelled surface water but not in those filled with surface water from outside the upwelling cell and with intermediate water. The low initial cyanobacteria biomass in the intermediate water could not grow to bloom concentrations within three weeks. It is concluded that mixing of upwelled water with surrounding surface water forms a precondition for a cyanobacteria bloom. An additional mesocosm experiment conducted in 2009 revealed that mixing of intermediate water with surface water had the same stimulating effect on nitrogen fixation and cyanobacteria growth as artificial phosphate input. Phosphate input stimulates the growth of Nodularia and Anabaena more than that of Aphanizomenon. We suggest that the upwelled phosphate-rich intermediate water has to be mixed with the surface water containing physiologically “young” cyanobacteria biomass of at least 20 mg/m3 as an inoculum in order to initiate a cyanobacteria bloom.

  2. Inactivated phosphorus by added aluminum in Baltic Sea sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rydin, Emil

    2014-12-01

    Decreased phosphorus (P) retention in aquatic sediments during hypoxic periods results in increased P recycling to the water column. To revert to less productive conditions in the enclosed bays of the Baltic Sea archipelago, increased sediment P burial capacity is needed. Aluminum (Al) addition is considered to be a cost-effective lake restoration method, as it improves sediment P burial capacity. However, little is known about its ability to permanently bind P in brackish systems. In summer 2000, Al sulfate granules were added to a hypoxic bottom area in the Östhammar bay, Sweden. Sediment core samples from the area were collected 10 years later. A peak in Al and P was detected at 20 cm sediment depth, reflecting the added Al and P trapped to it. Only part of the added Al was recovered, but the recovered Al (8 g Al/m2) trapped P at a ratio of 5:1 (molar). Chemical fractionation showed that P extracted as 'Al-P' constituted 55% of the trapped P, indicating that Al added also trapped P extracted as other P forms.

  3. Bacterial diversity and function in the Baltic Sea with an emphasis on cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Sivonen, Kaarina; Halinen, Katrianna; Sihvonen, Leila M; Koskenniemi, Kerttu; Sinkko, Hanna; Rantasärkkä, Kaisa; Moisander, Pia H; Lyra, Christina

    2007-04-01

    In this article we summarize the current knowledge of Baltic Sea cyanobacteria, focusing on diversity, toxicity, and nitrogen fixation in the filamentous heterocystous taxa. We also review the recent results of our microbial diversity studies in planktonic and benthic habitats in the Baltic Sea. Based on molecular analyses, we have improved the understanding of cyanobacterial population structure by assessing genetic diversity within species that are morphologically inseparable. Moreover, we have studied microbial functions such as toxin production and nitrogen fixation in situ under different environmental conditions. Phosphorus limitation of bloom-forming, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria was clearly verified, emphasizing the importance of continuous efforts to reduce this element in the Baltic Sea. We have designed a rapid and reliable detection method for the toxic cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena, which can be used to study bloom formation of this important toxin producer. PMID:17520932

  4. Pharmacokinetics of thiamine in female Baltic salmon (Salmo salar L.) broodfish.

    PubMed

    Koski, Perttu; Bäckman, Christina; Pelkonen, Olavi

    2005-01-01

    A thiamine deficiency disease termed M74 syndrome affects the yolk-sac fry of wild and feral Baltic salmon. However, very little is known about the pharmacokinetics of thiamine in salmon. This study examined the pharmacokinetics of thiamine hydrochloride injected intraperitoneally into feral and farmed Baltic salmon females preparing for spawning. The total thiamine concentrations in the eggs and white muscle of feral females were only half of those in the farmed fish after injection. The relative inefficiency of the incorporation of thiamine into the eggs in feral Baltic salmon may be a predisposition factor for M74 syndrome. The relative bioavailability of intraperitoneally-injected thiamine hydrochloride was shown to be ca. 94% of that administered intra-aortically. A far lower intraperitoneal dose (ca. 20mgkg(-1) fish) than currently used was shown to elevate the total thiamine concentration in the eggs above the critical threshold of M74 syndrome. PMID:21783470

  5. Uranium and thorium in muscle tissue of fish taken from the southern Baltic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szefer, Piotr; Szefer, Krystyna; Falandysz, Jerzy

    1990-03-01

    The determination of U and Th was carried out on pooled samples of muscle tissue of cod ( Gadus morhua), herring ( Clupea harengus), sprat ( Sprattus sprattus) and some other species of fish caught in 1981 in the southern Baltic. The levels of U obtained in the present study are generally within the ranges presented by other authors for fish from different aquatic regions of the world. The concentrations of U are similar to those found for Th in Baltic fish analysed. The concentration factors CFU(Th), discrimination factors DFU/Th and Th/U ratios (by weight) were calculated and discussed. These coefficients were also compared with values determined in other Baltic organisms. Transfer of U and Th along a food chain from potential prey (diet) to fish as predator (consumer) was quantified with a transfer factor.

  6. MPC&A training needs of the NIS/Baltics States.

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, David Franklin; Stoy-McLeod, Carol L.

    2006-07-01

    This report serves to document contract deliverables considered to be of continuing interest associated with two workshops conducted as part of an initial assessment of Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) training needs of the Newly Independent and Baltic States (NIS/Baltics). These workshops were held in Kiev, Ukraine, ca. 2003-2004, with the assistance of personnel from the George Kuzmycz Training Center (GKTC) of the Kiev Institute of Nuclear Research (KINR). Because of the dominant role Ukraine plays in the region in terms of the nuclear industry, one workshop focused exclusively on Ukrainian training needs, with participants attending from twelve Ukrainian organizations (plus U.S. DOE/NNSA representatives). The second workshop included participation by a further ten countries from the NIS/Baltics region. In addition, the training needs data developed during the workshop were supplemented by the outcomes of surveys and studies conducted by the GKTC.

  7. Operational SAR-based sea ice drift monitoring over the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karvonen, J.

    2012-07-01

    An algorithm for computing ice drift from pairs of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images covering a common area has been developed at FMI. The algorithm has been developed based on the C-band SAR data over the Baltic Sea. It is based on phase correlation in two scales (coarse and fine) with some additional constraints. The algorithm has been running operationally in the Baltic Sea from the beginning of 2011, using Radarsat-1 ScanSAR wide mode and Envisat ASAR wide swath mode data. The resulting ice drift fields are publicly available as part of the MyOcean EC project. The SAR-based ice drift vectors have been compared to the drift vectors from drifter buoys in the Baltic Sea during the first operational season, and also these validation results are shown in this paper. Also some navigationally useful sea ice quantities, which can be derived from ice drift vector fields, are presented.

  8. The influence of upwelling and entrainment on the algal bloom in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennet, Peeter; Kuosa, Harri; Tamsalu, Rein

    2000-07-01

    Hydrodynamic processes control many geochemical and ecological processes in the sea. In this paper, the influence of up- and downwelling and entrainment on the ecosystem components are studied. The ecohydrodynamic model was initially used to simulate the whole Baltic Sea to get the boundary conditions for the Gulf of Riga. Then, to study the influence of different hydrodynamic conditions on the algal bloom, three simulations were made for the Gulf of Riga using different boundary and entrainment conditions. It appears that upwelling in the gulf was strongly dependent on open boundary conditions between the Baltic Proper and the gulf. The vertical transport in the Gulf of Riga was many times more intensive in the calculation system Baltic Proper and Gulf of Riga, than in the case where only the Gulf of Riga was simulated. The blue-green algal bloom was influenced by the vertical transport due to different nutrients' limitation mechanism.

  9. Recapitulation Cluster expansions

    E-print Network

    Langevin, Rémi

    Associated polymer models. Generalizations Associated polymer model = same partition ratios More preciselyRecapitulation Cluster expansions: Overview and new convergence results II. Equivalent polymer: polymers, animals, . . . Incompatibility constraint: (with ) Activities z = {z}P CP. The basic ("finite

  10. On the dynamics of oxygen, phosphorus and cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea; A model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eilola, Kari; Meier, H. E. Markus; Almroth, Elin

    2009-01-01

    Oxygen and phosphorus dynamics and cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea are discussed using results from the Swedish Coastal and Ocean Biogeochemical model (SCOBI) coupled to the Rossby Centre Ocean model (RCO). The high-resolution circulation model is used to simulate the time period from 1902 to 1998 using reconstructed physical forcing and climatological nutrient loads of the late 20th century. The analysis of the results covers the last 30 years of the simulation period. The results emphasize the importance of internal phosphorus and oxygen dynamics, the variability of physical conditions and the natural long-term variability of phosphorus supplies from land on the phosphorus content in the Baltic Sea. These mechanisms play an important role on the variability of available surface layer phosphorus in late winter in the Baltic Sea. The content of cyanobacteria increases with the availability of phosphorus in the surface layers of the Baltic proper and the probability for large cyanobacteria blooms in the model is rapidly increased at higher concentrations of excess dissolved inorganic phosphorus in late winter. The natural increase of phosphorus supplies from land due to increased river runoff since the early 1970s may to a large degree explain the increased phosphorus content in the Baltic proper. Another significant fraction of the increase is explained by the release of phosphorus from increased anoxic areas during the period. These results refer to the long-term variability of the phosphorus cycle. In accordance to earlier publications is the short-term (i.e. interannual) variability of the phosphorus content in the Baltic proper mainly explained by oxygen dependent sediment fluxes.

  11. Non-tidal loading by the Baltic Sea: comparison of modelled deformation with GNSS time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordman, Maaria; Virtanen, Heikki; Nyberg, Sonja; Mäkinen, Jaakko; Virtanen, Jenni

    2013-04-01

    The Baltic Sea is a well-monitored semi-enclosed sea in northern Europe. The mass variations of the Baltic Sea are mostly due to atmospheric pressure changes and wind, which redistribute the water within the basin and also govern the so-called fill level, the amount of water exchange with the North Sea. The variations in the sea level can be abrupt and and large, for example during storms. The variable load may cause significant effects in geodetic measurements, especially near the coastline. We have computed the time series of non-tidal loading due to Baltic Sea for 193 stations in northern Europe. These stations are used for GNSS, absolute and relative gravity measurements and other geodetic observations.. We have used hourly observations of the sea level at the tide gauges of the Baltic Operational Oceanographic Service (BOOS, http://boos.org) to estimate the momentary sea level over the whole basin of the Baltic Sea. These sea level models are then convolved with Green's functions for the Gutenberg-Bullen Earth model using program SPOTL (Agnew, 2012, http://escholarship.org/uc/item/954322pg) to obtain gravity change, deformation in three dimensions and change in tilt and strain. The time period is four years, February 2008 to February 2012. The time series could be used for several purposes, e.g. for the studies of other error sources, to create stable time series and also to correct campaign measurements, which take place in varying conditions. In this study we have compared the computed deformation to coordinate changes measured by GNSS at selected stations around the Baltic Sea. We use two different daily time series of GNSS positions: the PPP (Precise Point Positioning) time series provided by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL, http://sideshow.jpl.nasa.gov/post/series.html) and a double difference solution computed at our institute.

  12. Transplant experiments uncover Baltic Sea basin-specific responses in bacterioplankton community composition and metabolic activities

    PubMed Central

    Lindh, Markus V.; Figueroa, Daniela; Sjöstedt, Johanna; Baltar, Federico; Lundin, Daniel; Andersson, Agneta; Legrand, Catherine; Pinhassi, Jarone

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenically induced changes in precipitation are projected to generate increased river runoff to semi-enclosed seas, increasing loads of terrestrial dissolved organic matter and decreasing salinity. To determine how bacterial community structure and functioning adjust to such changes, we designed microcosm transplant experiments with Baltic Proper (salinity 7.2) and Bothnian Sea (salinity 3.6) water. Baltic Proper bacteria generally reached higher abundances than Bothnian Sea bacteria in both Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea water, indicating higher adaptability. Moreover, Baltic Proper bacteria growing in Bothnian Sea water consistently showed highest bacterial production and beta-glucosidase activity. These metabolic responses were accompanied by basin-specific changes in bacterial community structure. For example, Baltic Proper Pseudomonas and Limnobacter populations increased markedly in relative abundance in Bothnian Sea water, indicating a replacement effect. In contrast, Roseobacter and Rheinheimera populations were stable or increased in abundance when challenged by either of the waters, indicating an adjustment effect. Transplants to Bothnian Sea water triggered the initial emergence of particular Burkholderiaceae populations, and transplants to Baltic Proper water triggered Alteromonadaceae populations. Notably, in the subsequent re-transplant experiment, a priming effect resulted in further increases to dominance of these populations. Correlated changes in community composition and metabolic activity were observed only in the transplant experiment and only at relatively high phylogenetic resolution. This suggested an importance of successional progression for interpreting relationships between bacterial community composition and functioning. We infer that priming effects on bacterial community structure by natural episodic events or climate change induced forcing could translate into long-term changes in bacterial ecosystem process rates. PMID:25883589

  13. Attributing causes of regional climate change in the Baltic Sea area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhend, Jonas; Gaillard-Lemdahl, Marie-José; Hansson, Hans-Christen

    2015-04-01

    Here we assess to what extent the effect of forcing mechanisms on the observed climate change in the Baltic Sea area can be detected. In particular, we assess the effect of factors causing large-scale warming (mainly anthropogenic greenhouse gases) and the regional effect of atmospheric aerosols and land-cover and land-use changes. Unfortunately, only very few targeted analyses for the Baltic catchment area are available at the moment, but findings at the regional scale are generally qualitatively consistent with global or hemispheric analyses. The observed warming in summer cannot be explained without human influence (in particular the warming effect of increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations). In other seasons and for other aspects of regional warming, findings are mixed or not significant as of yet. In addition, large-scale circulation and rainfall changes in the northern hemisphere and the Arctic have been detected to exceed natural internal variability. Other aspects of regional climate change including changes in storminess, snow properties, runoff and the changing physical properties of the Baltic Sea have not been formally attributed to human influence yet. Scientific understanding of the effect of aerosols on regional climate is still accumulating. It is likely that the major emission changes in Europe have had an effect on the climate in the Baltic region, the magnitude of which, however, is still unknown. Development of the modelling capability and targeted analyses are urgently needed to reduce the uncertainties related to the effect of aerosol changes on regional observed climate change. Historic deforestation and recent reforestation are the major anthropogenic land-cover changes affecting the Baltic Sea area. From all studies at hand it can be concluded that there is no evidence that anthropogenic land-cover change would be one of the forcings behind the recent warming in the Baltic region. However, past anthropogenic land-cover change may have influenced regional climate significantly already more than two thousand years ago.

  14. Caesium-137 distribution, inventories and accumulation history in the Baltic Sea sediments.

    PubMed

    Zaborska, Agata; Winogradow, Aleksandra; Pempkowiak, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is susceptible to pollution by hazardous substances due to limited water exchange, shallowness, and the large catchment area. Radionuclides, particularly (137)Cs, are one of the most hazardous anthropogenic substances present in the Baltic environment. This study was conducted to present (137)Cs present contamination that should further be a subject of reliable monitoring when the new Nuclear Power Plant is put into operation in the northern Poland. The sea-wide, up to date distribution of (137)Cs activities and inventories in the Baltic Sea bottom sediments are presented. The (137)Cs activity concentrations were measured in 30 cm long sediment cores collected at 22 sampling stations. Sediment accumulation rates were quantified by (210)Pb geochronology to follow the history of (137)Cs accumulation. The (137)Cs inventories and fluxes were calculated. Most of the Baltic Sea sediments accumulated (137)Cs in the range from 750 to 2675 Bq m(-2). The Bothnian Bay is severely contaminated by (137)Cs with inventories up to 95,191 Bq m(-2). This region is moreover characterized by extremely large patchiness of (137)Cs inventories. The (137)Cs annual fluxes are highest at the two stations located at the Bothnian Bay (342 Bq m(-2) and 527 Bq m(-2)) due to large Chernobyl (137)Cs contamination of that region and high sediment accumulation rates. When these stations are excluded, the recent, annual mean value of (137)Cs load to the Baltic Sea deposits is 38 ± 22 Bq m(-2). The distribution of radio-caesium inventories over the Baltic Sea nowadays reflects the pattern of Chernobyl contamination. The radio-caesium deposited in surface sediments is not permanently buried, but may be resuspended and redeposited by currents, bioturbation or anthropogenic activities. PMID:24121306

  15. Negative thermal expansion materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. O. Evans; T. A. Mary; A. W. Sleight

    1998-01-01

    The recent discovery of negative thermal expansion over an unprecedented temperature range in ZrW2O8 (which contracts continuously on warming from below 2 K to above 1000 K) has stimulated considerable interest in this unusual phenomenon. Negative and low thermal expansion materials have a number of important potential uses in ceramic, optical and electronic applications. We have now found negative thermal

  16. Negative thermal expansion materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. O Evans; T. A Mary; A. W Sleight

    1997-01-01

    The recent discovery of negative thermal expansion over an unprecedented temperature range in ZrW2O8 (which contracts continuously on warming from below 2 K to above 1000 K) has stimulated considerable interest in this unusual phenomenon. Negative and low thermal expansion materials have a number of important potential uses in ceramic, optical and electronic applications. We have now found negative thermal

  17. The Cost of Improving Gas Supply Security in the Baltic States

    E-print Network

    Noel, Pierre; Findlater, Sachi; Chyong, Chi Kong

    2012-01-23

    of aquifer based UGS. Among the three Baltic States only Latvia has suitable geological structures. 30 The existing UGS facility (at In?ukalns) is aquifer based and many other structures are suitable candidates (DAVIS et al, 2006). Any strategic storage... source. The journey time given here is for Arzew port in Algeria to the Baltic Coast. Daily transit volume boil off [%] [7] Information obtained from LNG industry experts. mcm per 125tcm vessel [once regasified] [8] The volume of LNG is approximately 600...

  18. Diseases and environmental contaminants in seals from the Baltic and the Swedish west coast.

    PubMed

    Olsson, M; Karlsson, B; Ahnland, E

    1994-09-16

    Investigations have shown that Baltic grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) and ringed seal (Phoca hispida) suffer from a disease complex described as a primary lesion in the adrenals causing secondary reactions in various other organs. Studies on historical Baltic grey seal skull bone material show that the prevalence of affected animals started to increase after World War II. The disease complex explains the dramatic decrease in the Baltic grey and ringed seal population during the 1960s and 1970s and is believed to be caused by environmental pollutants. In 1988, about 60% of the harbor seal population (Phoca vitulina) along the Swedish west coast and in the southwestern part of the Baltic died in the PDV epizootic (Phocine Distemper Virus). Whether the course of the epizootic was altered by environmental pollutants is still an open question. Studies on historical harbor seal skull bone material from both the Baltic and the Swedish west coast show that the incidence of skull bone lesions has also increased in these populations since World War II, indicating the presence of unnatural stress factors. After the epizootic, the harbor seal populations both in the Baltic and along the Swedish west coast have increased in number. Chemical analysis of tissues has been performed on the three seal species collected in various areas of the Baltic and the Swedish west coast. The concentrations of 17 metals and non-metal elements, sDDT and PCBs, DDE and PCB methylsulfones, toxaphene, chlordanes, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, PCDDs and PCDFs have been determined in selected groups of seals in order to determine spatial, species and age variations in concentrations. Furthermore, healthy animals have been compared to diseased animals. Spatial variation was found mostly within the group of organohalogenated compounds, a group of contaminants where a strong covariation between the various compounds was also found. On the basis of the analytical results as well as the pathological findings on Baltic seals, the group of DDE and PCB methyl sulfones is tentatively suggested to be more important in explaining the disease complex than coplanar structures including dioxins. PMID:7973608

  19. TWENTY YEARS OF HUMAN RESEARCH ETHICS COMMITTEES IN THE BALTIC STATES

    PubMed Central

    DRANSEIKA, VILIUS; GEFENAS, EUGENIJUS; CEKANAUSKAITE, ASTA; HUG, KRISTINA; MEZINSKA, SIGNE; PEICIUS, EIMANTAS; SILIS, VENTS; SOOSAAR, ANDRES; STROSBERG, MARTIN

    2011-01-01

    Two decades have passed since the first attempts were made to establish systematic ethical review of human research in the Baltic States. Legally and institutionally much has changed. In this paper we provide an historical and structural overview of ethical review of human research and identify some problems related to the role of ethical review in establishing quality research environment in these countries. Problems connected to (a) public availability of information, (b) management of conflicts of interest, (c) REC composition and motivation of REC members, and (d) differing levels of stringency of ethical review for different types of studies, are identified. Recommendations are made to strengthen cooperation among the Baltic RECs. PMID:21134108

  20. Planning Alcoholism Services; Participant Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This workbook is designed to build or improve the basic planning skills needed by persons responsible for program planning in alcohol service agencies. An understanding of the generic planning process in the development or expansion of community alcoholism-realted services can be acquired through the use of this guide. The workbook attempts to…

  1. Eemian sea-level highstand in the eastern Baltic Sea linked to long-duration White Sea connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miettinen, Arto; Head, Martin J.; Knudsen, Karen Luise

    2014-02-01

    Revised diatom and new dinoflagellate cyst and benthic foraminiferal data from the eastern Baltic Sea have refined our understanding of Eemian (Last Interglacial; 131-119.5 ka) sea-level change on the Russian Karelia, a former seaway linking the Baltic to the White Sea. Results from Peski, eastern Baltic show the initiation of marine conditions just before 131 ka in the latest Saalian, after the opening of a connection to the North Sea. Following the onset of the Eemian marine highstand and the opening of the White Sea connection at around 130.25 ka, near-fully marine conditions persisted in the eastern Baltic area for ca 6 kyr, until ca 124 ka. For most of the Eemian, a strong thermal stratification in the eastern Baltic resulted from an Arctic and possible North Atlantic water component from the White Sea merging with warmer waters from the North Sea. From ca 124 ka, decreasing salinity indicates the end of the marine highstand and a simultaneous closure of the Baltic Sea-White Sea connection, i.e. a duration of ca 6 kyr for this seaway. The main influence of White Sea inflow appears to be restricted to the eastern Baltic area, although a large submerged area in the Russian Karelia associated with temperate Atlantic waters could have assisted in creating a more oceanic climate for Central Europe.

  2. Heavy metals in zooplankton from the Southern Baltic.

    PubMed

    Pempkowiak, J; Walkusz-Miotk, J; Be?dowski, J; Walkusz, W

    2006-03-01

    Samples of zooplankton and suspended matter were collected using a Bongo net (0.33/0.50 mm mesh net), and Nucleopore filters, respectively, from the Southern Baltic off Poland. Major classes of zooplankton, and selected heavy metals (Fe, Co, Ni, Mn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr) were determined in the collected samples. Concentrations of heavy metals in zooplankton were corrected for metals contributed by particulate matter adhering to zooplankton organisms. Heavy metals levels measured in nearshore samples (Bay of Gda?sk, Pomeranian Bay) were higher than those in the samples from the open sea. The only exception was cadmium exhibiting larger concentrations in the offshore as compared to the nearshore samples (0.8 vs. 1.3 microg/g d.w.). This was attributed to decreased concentrations, of both dissolved and particulate cadmium, caused by algal bloom. Larger concentrations of heavy metals in the Bay of Gda?sk in comparison with the Pomeranian Bay (e.g. Cd-1.3 vs. 0.8 microg/g, Cu-20.5 vs. 8.3 microg/g, Pb-12.9 vs. 1.2 microg/g, Cr-12.4 vs. 1.4 microg/g) were attributed to the direct discharge of the Vistula river to the Bay of Gda?sk, while the Pomeranian Bay receives the Odra river runoff indirectly, via the Szczecin Lagoon. The nonlinear estimation of the data set was used to evaluate concentrations of heavy metals in Copepoda and Cladocera. Copepoda proved to be enriched with heavy metals in comparison with Cladocera. PMID:16139327

  3. Mapping Baltic Sea shallow water environments with airborne remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahtmäe, Ele; Kutser, Tiit; Kotta, Jonne; Pärnoja, Merli; Möller, Tiia; Lennuk, Lennart

    2012-11-01

    It is known that the structure of benthic macrophyte and invertebrate habitats indicate the quality of coastal water. Thus, a large-scale analysis of the spatial patterns of coastal marine habitats makes it possible to adequately estimate the status of valuable coastal marine habitats, provide better evidence for environmental changes, and describe the processes behind the changes. Knowing the spatial distribution of benthic habitats is also important from the coastal management point of view. Our previous results clearly demonstrated that remote sensing methods can be used to map water depth and distribution of taxonomic groups of benthic algae (e.g., red, green, and brown algae) in the optically complex coastal waters of the Baltic Sea. We have as well shown that benthic habitat mapping should be done at high spatial resolution owing to the small-scale heterogeneity of such habitats in Estonian coastal waters. Here we tested the capability of high spatial resolution hyperspectral airborne image in its application for mapping benthic habitats. A big challenge is to define appropriate mapping classes that are also meaningful from the ecological point of view. In this study two benthic habitat classification schemes—broader level and finer level—were defined for the study area. The broader level classes were relatively well classified, but discrimination among the units of the finer classification scheme posed a considerable challenge and required a careful approach. Benthic habitat classification provided the highest accuracy in the case of the Spectral Angle Mapper classification method applied to a radiometrically corrected image. Further processing levels, such as spatial filtering and glint correction, decreased the classification accuracy.

  4. Seabird guano fertilizes Baltic Sea littoral food webs.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Karine; Rothäusler, Eva; Syrjänen, Anneli; Yli-Renko, Maria; Jormalainen, Veijo

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment in coastal marine systems can have profound impacts on trophic networks. In the Baltic Sea, the population of Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) has increased nearly exponentially since the mid-1990 s, and colonies of these seabirds can be important sources of nitrogen enrichment for nearby benthic communities due to guano runoff. In this study we used stable isotope analyses and diet mixing models to determine the extent of nitrogen enrichment from cormorant colonies, as well as to examine any possible changes in herbivore diet preferences due to enrichment. We found significantly higher levels of ?(15)N in samples from colony islands than control islands for producers (the dominant macroalga Fucus vesiculosus, filamentous algae, and periphyton) and herbivores, as well as a positive correlation between enrichment and nest density in colony sites. We also found that enrichment increased over the breeding season of the cormorants, with higher enrichment in late summer than early summer. While the amount of total nitrogen did not differ between colony and control sites, the amount of guano-based nitrogen in algae was >50% in most sites, indicating high nitrogen enrichment from colonies. Herbivores (the isopod Idotea balthica and the gastropod Theodoxus fluviatilis) preferred feeding upon the dominant macroalga Fucus vesiculosus rather than on filamentous algae or periphyton in both control and colony, and there was a significant increase in periphyton consumption near colony sites. Overall, guano from cormorant colonies seems to have effects on both producers and herbivores, as well as the potential to modify algae-herbivore interactions. PMID:23593452

  5. Accelerating the loop expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Ingermanson, R.

    1986-07-29

    This thesis introduces a new non-perturbative technique into quantum field theory. To illustrate the method, I analyze the much-studied phi/sup 4/ theory in two dimensions. As a prelude, I first show that the Hartree approximation is easy to obtain from the calculation of the one-loop effective potential by a simple modification of the propagator that does not affect the perturbative renormalization procedure. A further modification then susggests itself, which has the same nice property, and which automatically yields a convex effective potential. I then show that both of these modifications extend naturally to higher orders in the derivative expansion of the effective action and to higher orders in the loop-expansion. The net effect is to re-sum the perturbation series for the effective action as a systematic ''accelerated'' non-perturbative expansion. Each term in the accelerated expansion corresponds to an infinite number of terms in the original series. Each term can be computed explicitly, albeit numerically. Many numerical graphs of the various approximations to the first two terms in the derivative expansion are given. I discuss the reliability of the results and the problem of spontaneous symmetry-breaking, as well as some potential applications to more interesting field theories. 40 refs.

  6. Assessment of the Present and Future Offshore Wind Power Potential: A Case Study in a Target Territory of the Baltic Sea Near the Latvian Coast

    PubMed Central

    Teilans, Artis

    2013-01-01

    Offshore wind energy development promises to be a significant domestic renewable energy source in Latvia. The reliable prediction of present and future wind resources at offshore sites is crucial for planning and selecting the location for wind farms. The overall goal of this paper is the assessment of offshore wind power potential in a target territory of the Baltic Sea near the Latvian coast as well as the identification of a trend in the future wind energy potential for the study territory. The regional climate model CLM and High Resolution Limited Area Model (Hirlam) simulations were used to obtain the wind climatology data for the study area. The results indicated that offshore wind energy is promising for expanding the national electricity generation and will continue to be a stable resource for electricity generation in the region over the 21st century. PMID:23983619

  7. Marshak Lectureship Talk: Women in Physics in the Baltic States Region: Problems and Solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dalia Satkovskiene

    2008-01-01

    In this contribution the gender equality problem in physics will be discussed on the basis of the results obtained implementing the project ``Baltic States Network: Women in Sciences and High Technology'' (BASNET) initiated by Lithuanian women physicists and financed by European Commission. The main goal of BASNET project was creation of the regional Strategy how to deal with women in

  8. Fauna and flora in submarine early Holocene lake-marl deposits from the southwestern Baltic Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ole Bennike; Wolfram Lemke; Jørn Bo Jensen

    1998-01-01

    Studies of plant and animal macrofossils have been carried out on early-Holocene lake marls from the southwestern Baltic. The records have been dated to the interval from c. 8500 to 7800 14C years BP by correlating pollen assemblages to an onshore radiocarbon dated pollen diagram. The sediments contain from 5 to 81% carbonate, and only few macroscopic remains of wetland

  9. Shift from denitrification to anammox after inflow events in the central Baltic Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hannig; G. Lavik; M. M. M. Kuypers; K. Jurgens

    2007-01-01

    Incubation experiments with 15N-labeled compounds (NO { 3 and NH z 4 ) were performed during three cruises (2002, 2004, and 2005) to study the loss of inorganic N as dinitrogen gas (N2) via denitrification and anammox in the water column of the Gotland Deep (central Baltic Sea). 15N incubations did not provide evidence for direct conversion of NO {

  10. Late and Postglacial Sea-Level Change and Paleoenvironments in the Oder Estuary, Southern Baltic Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Müller

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge of sea-level change in the southern Baltic Sea region is important for understanding the variations in late Pleistocene and Holocene sea-level change across northern Europe. These variations are a consequence of the response of the Earth's crust to the deglaciation of Fennoscandia and of the water added to the oceans from the melting of all Pleistocene ice sheets. The

  11. Cultural and Linguistic Diversity of the Baltic States in a New Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savickien, Ineta; Kaledaite, Violeta

    2005-01-01

    Language questions are increasingly on the agenda in Europe. This paper addresses some problematic aspects of language teaching and learning that have come to the fore in the Baltic states after the European Union enlargement of 2004. First, the paper aims at providing relevant information about language policies in the former USSR and the…

  12. Effects of boating activities on aquatic vegetation in the Stockholm archipelago, Baltic Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. K. Eriksson; A. Sandstrom; M. Isaeus; H. Schreiber; P. Karas

    2004-01-01

    The aquatic vegetation in 44 similar shallow and sheltered inlets exposed to different kinds of disturbances by boating was studied in a rocky archipelago in the Baltic Sea. The results indicate that both recreational boating activities and traffic by medium sized ferryboats may cause significant changes in community composition and have significant negative effects on species richness and the development

  13. Aerosol-water distribution of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the Baltic Sea region.

    PubMed

    Sobek, Anna; Arp, Hans Peter H; Wiberg, Karin; Hedman, Jenny; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2013-01-15

    Atmospheric deposition is a major pathway of PCDD/Fs to the Baltic Sea. We studied the aerosol-water distribution for aerosols collected close to the Baltic Sea in order to investigate the availability of pollutants sorbed to aerosols deposited on water. Aerosols were analyzed for both total concentration (Soxhlet extraction) and the freely dissolved water concentration (extraction with 17-?m polyoxymethylene equilibrium passive samplers). Concentrations of PCDD/F and sum PCB-7 in aerosols were 65-1300 pg/g dw TEQ and 22-100 ng/g dw, respectively. Organic carbon (OC)-normalized aerosol-water distribution ratios (K(aer-water,OC)) were consistently lower (factor 2-60) than previously determined sediment organic carbon-water distribution ratios (K(sed,OC)). Hence PCDD/Fs and PCBs entering the Baltic Sea through aerosol deposition seem to be more available for desorption to the water phase than PCDD/Fs and PCBs sorbed to sediment. Further, we investigated whether aerosol-water distribution may be predicted from the air-aerosol partitioning constant multiplied by the Henry's Law constant. This proposed model for aerosol-water distribution underestimated measured values for PCBs by factors of 1-17 and for PCDD/Fs by more than a factor 10. These findings can be used to improve future fate modeling of PCBs and PCDD/Fs in marine environments and specifically the Baltic Sea. PMID:23214413

  14. The trophic state of the Baltic Sea a century ago: a model simulation study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Schernewski; T. Neumann

    2005-01-01

    We apply a 3-D circulation model with a biogeochemical module (ERGOM) for the simulation of trophic conditions in the Baltic Sea a century ago. One aim is to provide reference or background data for nitrogen, phosphorus and chlorophyll, which is required for the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). We assume that the situation a century ago serves

  15. Mapping and Classifying the Marine Habitats of the Archipelago Sea, the northern Baltic Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aarno T. Kotilainen; M. Reijonen

    We show the methods used and the results of the marine habitat mapping project (VALKO) from the Archipelago Sea, the northern Baltic Sea. The VALKO -project is part of the Finnish Inventory Programme for the Underwater Marine Environment (VELMU). VALKO is a co-operative project between a number of authorities. GTK coordinates the project, whose main objective is to produce marine

  16. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in herring from the Southern Baltic, 1981

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerzy Falandysz

    1984-01-01

    Summary A total of 295 samples of muscle tissue from herring netted in 1981 in the southern part of the Baltic Sea were analysed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and analogues (DDE and DDD), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and isomers of benzenehexachloride (alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-BHC). The mean values obtained for herring muscle tissue relating to wet weight were: 8.6 µg

  17. Submarine Groundwater Discharge controlled by wind: An example from Eckernförde Bay, Southwestern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholten, Jan; Kreuzburg, Matthias; Knoeller, Kay; Rapaglia, John; Schlüter, Michael; Schubert, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Little information is so far available on the occurrences of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in the southwestern Baltic Sea. We report here on the results of a systematic SGD survey along the coast of German southwestern Baltic Sea. Based on geochemical tracer measurements (radon, radium isotopes, salinity) in seawater and measurements of pore water salinity in marine surface sediments, we could identify SGD locations related to coastal aquifers that are discharging directly at the beachfront. More frequently diffuse discharge from near shore sediments was observed. Such SGD was characterized by significantly lower pore water salinities compared to ambient sea water. Pore water salinity was monitored using an in situ CTD and water discharge was measured using seepage meters. Interstitial water salinity was marked by strong temporal variation, with generally lower values during periods of low sea level. This relationship indicates that diffusive SGD is largely controlled by the sea level, which, in turn, controls the hydraulic gradient between land and sea. In the Southwestern Baltic Sea the sea level is mainly determined by the wind regime. Within this study, several locations were identified in which SGD is associated with high nitrate concentrations indicating the importance of SGD for the nutrient balance of the Southwestern Baltic Sea.

  18. pattern of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar )i n the Baltic Sea with management implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marja-Liisa Koljonen; Håkan Jansson; Tiit Paaver; Oleg Vasin; Jarmo Koskiniemi

    The genetic structure and isolation pattern of the Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar) throughout its range in the Baltic Sea were examined as a starting point for a conservation strategy for the species in this area. The allozyme variation in seven polymorphic loci was studied in 5125 salmon from 24 rivers in four countries. A clear dichotomy was observed between

  19. Regional Tourism Competition in the Baltic States: a Spatial Stochastic Frontier Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dmitry Pavlyuk

    2010-01-01

    This paper aimed at a statistical analysis of competition for tourists between regions within Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania) and estimation relative efficiency levels of regions. We apply a modern approach called Spatial Stochastic Frontier and corresponded to spatial modification of a stochastic frontier model. We specify two alternative spatial stochastic frontier models – distance and travel-time based to identify

  20. A new species of Diochus from Baltic amber (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Diochini)

    PubMed Central

    Chatzimanolis, Stylianos; Engel, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The first fossil of the staphylinine tribe Diochini Casey is described and figured from an inclusion in mid-Eocene (Lutetian) Baltic amber. Diochus electrus sp. n. is distinguished from its congeners and the diversity of rove beetles (Staphylinidae s.l.) is summarized briefly. PMID:22144854

  1. Assessment of undiscovered conventional and continuous oil and gas resources of the Baltic Depression Province, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers, Heidi M.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 282 million barrels of conventional oil, 576 billion cubic feet of conventional gas, 1.3 billion barrels of continuous oil, and 4.6 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the Baltic Depression Province.

  2. SEA SURFACE CURRENT FIELDS IN THE BALTIC SEA DERIVED FROM MULTI-SENSOR SATELLITE DATA

    E-print Network

    Hamburg,.Universität

    -sensor, algae blooms, surface currents, optical flow ABSTRACT: Mesoscale dynamic sea surface featuresSEA SURFACE CURRENT FIELDS IN THE BALTIC SEA DERIVED FROM MULTI-SENSOR SATELLITE DATA Benjamin, such as eddies, fronts, or dipoles, are of key importance for our understanding of local dynamics of the marine

  3. Air Baltic and SAS – a case study in the European airline industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maik Huettinger

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – No-frills carriers have revolutionized Europe's aviation market and have changed the airline business in a dramatic way. Having entered most of the countries in Central Europe, the wave has also reached the Baltics. The purpose of this paper is to reveal how a Scandinavian carrier entered the market with a subsidiary airline, by combining elements of low-cost and

  4. Trinodes puetzi sp. nov., a new fossil species described from the Baltic Amber (Coleoptera: Dermestidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jakub PROKOP

    2006-01-01

    A new fossil dermestid beetle Trinodes puetzi sp. nov. from the Baltic amber (Eocene-Oligocene) of the Russia (Kaliningradskaya oblast) is described and compared with related extant species. New species differs from all known species by the form of antennal club, especially by the relative length and the form of terminal antennomere.

  5. Impact of climate change on the Baltic Sea ecosystem over the past 1,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabel, Karoline; Moros, Matthias; Porsche, Christian; Neumann, Thomas; Adolphi, Florian; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Siegel, Herbert; Gerth, Monika; Leipe, Thomas; Jansen, Eystein; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change has a strong impact on ecosystem health, particularly in marginal seas such as the Baltic, for example causing the spreading of anoxic areas (oxygen-free areas, the so-called dead zones) through strong feedbacks. Marked ecosystem changes in the Baltic Sea have been recorded in the sedimentary archive, but the reasons are not fully understood. Here we report an integrated study of high-resolution sediment records (past 1,000 years) in combination with an ecosystem modelling approach, providing new insights into the functioning of the Baltic Sea ecosystem under natural and human-influenced climatic changes. Between the Little Ice Age and the Modern Warm Period the surface water temperatures reconstructed using TEX86 palaeothermometry increased by ~2°C. Simultaneously, the anoxic areas in the Baltic Sea began to expand significantly as evident from the accumulation of laminated sediments. Ecosystem model simulations support our findings of widespread oxic areas during the Little Ice Age. Backed up by the modelling results that take into account anthropogenic-influenced nutrient load scenarios, our results provide evidence that surface temperature changes strongly influence deepwater oxygenation. This highlights the risk of a continued spreading of anoxic areas during scenarios of continued climate warming in the future.

  6. Late Quaternary records of Najas spp. (Najadaceae) from the southwestern Baltic region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ole Bennike; Jørn Bo Jensen; Wolfram Lemke

    2001-01-01

    Seeds of the submerged vascular plants Najas marina, Najas minor and Najas flexilis are reported from submarine Holocene deposits from the southwestern part of the Baltic Sea, and we also report on a find of Najas minor from an Eemian deposit in Jutland, which is the first record of this species from the Eemian of Denmark. The common and widespread

  7. Lateglacial of Lake Onega — Contribution to the history of the eastern Baltic basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matti Saarnisto; Tuulikki Grönlund; Ilpo Ekman

    1995-01-01

    New stratigraphy data especially diatom analyses are presented from the area north of Lake Onega relevant to the discussion on possible Lateglacial connection between the Baltic Sea and White Sea. Following the deglaciation 12,000–11,000 years ago Lake Onega basin was occupied by a system of ice dammed lakes which drained to the Lake Ladoga basin. When the ice retreated from

  8. Activation of the marine ecosystem model 3D CEMBS for the Baltic Sea in operational mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, Lidia; Jakacki, Jaromir; Janecki, Maciej; Nowicki, Artur

    2013-04-01

    The paper presents a new marine ecosystem model 3D CEMBS designed for the Baltic Sea. The ecosystem model is incorporated into the 3D POPCICE ocean-ice model. The Current Baltic Sea model is based on the Community Earth System Model (CESM from the National Center for Atmospheric Research) which was adapted for the Baltic Sea as a coupled sea-ice model. It consists of the Community Ice Code (CICE model, version 4.0) and the Parallel Ocean Program (version 2.1). The ecosystem model is a biological submodel of the 3D CEMBS. It consists of eleven mass conservation equations. There are eleven partial second-order differential equations of the diffusion type with the advective term for phytoplankton, zooplankton, nutrients, dissolved oxygen, and dissolved and particulate organic matter. This model is an effective tool for solving the problem of ecosystem bioproductivity. The model is forced by 48-hour atmospheric forecasts provided by the UM model from the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling of Warsaw University (ICM). The study was financially supported by the Polish State Committee of Scientific Research (grants: No N N305 111636, N N306 353239). The partial support for this study was also provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBaltyk founded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract no. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09. Calculations were carried out at the Academy Computer Centre in Gda?sk.

  9. Trends in heavy metal concentrations in the Western and Central Baltic Sea waters detected by using

    E-print Network

    Dippner, Joachim W.

    Trends in heavy metal concentrations in the Western and Central Baltic Sea waters detected by using 2003; accepted 10 October 2003 Abstract Heavy metal concentrations from annual sampling in the period and the accumulation of, inter alia, heavy metals. At irregular intervals, major inflows provide large volumes

  10. Preliminary program for Reproductive Disorders in Baltic Vertebrate Wildlife (BALTREP 2011)

    E-print Network

    Lundstedt- Enkel and Jonas Malmsten 09.00 ­ 9.30 Anomalies of the reproductive system in the St. LawrencePreliminary program for Reproductive Disorders in Baltic Vertebrate Wildlife (BALTREP 2011) 7 ­ 8 in context with other stressors: effects on wildlife reproduction and sustainability Val Beasley, Key note

  11. The dynamics of the dune vegetation on the Polish Baltic coast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Piotrowska

    1988-01-01

    This paper deals with the Baltic coastline in Poland. Features of the climate, geomorphology, substratum, soils and vegetation are outlined. The historical forest succession is based on the results of palynological studies of fossil soils. The present-day dynamics of the plant communities are examined from the viewpoint of primary succession, regression, regeneration and secondary succession. The primary succession on moving

  12. PHOTOCHEMICAL MINERALIZATION OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC NITROGEN TO AMMONIUM IN THE BALTIC SEA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solar radiation-induced photochemistry can be considered as a new source of nutrients when photochemical reactions release bioavailable nitrogen from biologically non-reactive dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). Pretreatments of Baltic Sea waters in the dark indicated that >72% of ...

  13. Exploitation of biological resources of the Baltic Sea by estonia in 1928–1995

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henn Ojaveer

    1999-01-01

    The main exploitable biological resources in the Estonian zone of the Baltic Sea are fish stocks. Fishes of marine origin constitute the main bulk (on the average 91%) of catches. Some freshwater and migratory fishes, having usually only marginal role in the total weight of fish landings, are of special importance for local fishermen in certain regions. Other living resources

  14. Animal diversity in Baltic rocky shore macroalgae: can Cladophora glomerata compensate for lost Fucus vesiculosus?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrik Kraufvelin; Sonja Salovius

    2004-01-01

    The substitution of canopy-forming perennial algae by annual filamentous algae is a common phenomenon on eutrophicated rocky shores with potential consequences for marine biodiversity. In the upper littoral of the northern Baltic Sea, this process is exemplified by decreased occurrence of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus and increased amounts of filamentous algae (e.g. Cladophora glomerata and Pilayella littoralis). In this

  15. The influence of nutrient load and climate forcing on the Baltic Sea biogeochemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Janssen; M. Schmidt; T. Neumann; T. Seifert; W. Fennel

    2003-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is a shallow semi-enclosed marginal sea. Its strongly hindered water exchange with the open ocean together with large fresh water supply by several rivers make it the largest brackish water body of the the world. The large nutrient load of the rivers and atmospheric nitrogen entrainment showed a quite strong anthropogenic signal during the last decades. The

  16. Uniform gradient expansions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2015-06-01

    Cosmological singularities are often discussed by means of a gradient expansion that can also describe, during a quasi-de Sitter phase, the progressive suppression of curvature inhomogeneities. While the inflationary event horizon is being formed the two mentioned regimes coexist and a uniform expansion can be conceived and applied to the evolution of spatial gradients across the protoinflationary boundary. It is argued that conventional arguments addressing the preinflationary initial conditions are necessary but generally not sufficient to guarantee a homogeneous onset of the conventional inflationary stage.

  17. Long-term trends of hypoxia in the coastal zone, north-western Baltic proper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrén, Thomas; Norbäck Ivarsson, Lena; Andrén, Elinor

    2015-04-01

    The Baltic Sea coastal zone contains over 20 % of all identified hypoxic sites worldwide and shows an increasing trend since 1950 (Conley et al. 2011). In the open Baltic Sea, hypoxia events are recorded during three time periods: about 8000-4000, 2000-800 cal. yr. BP, and from AD 1800 up to present, but in the coastal zone data on long-term trends are lacking (Zillén et al. 2008). Different views have been proposed of what caused the oscillation in the oxygen content at sea bottoms in the open Baltic Sea e.g. changes in agricultural practice, fluctuations in human population density and climate change. The role of humans and climate in driving the eutrophication and hypoxia in the Baltic Sea needs to be understood and there is an urgent need for increased knowledge of the historical extent of hypoxia and the driving forces for formation in the coastal zone. This project aims to disentangle the role of human induced and natural climate-driven processes that have resulted in times of eutrophication and hypoxia in the Baltic Sea during the last 2000 years. Research focus is put on the coastal zone and carefully selected estuaries along the Swedish east coast, where responses to changed human land-use can be expected to be first recorded. Eight sites, from the Stockholm archipelago to Bråviken, have been cored and sediments lithologically described and dated by radiocarbon using preferably terrestrial macrofossils. Preliminary results of age models, sedimentation rates, and lithologies will be presented. Lithological descriptions using laminated sediments as a proxy for hypoxic bottom water conditions will significantly increase the knowledge on the distribution of hypoxia and the extension of areas of laminated sediments in time and space in the coastal area. References: Conley, D.J., Carstensen, J., Aigars, J., Axe, P., Bonsdorff, E., Eremina, T., Haahti, B.-M., Humborg, C., Jonsson, P., Kotta, J., Lännegren, C., Larsson, U., Maximov, A., Rodriguez Medina, M., Lysiak-Pastuszak, E., Remeikaite-Nikien, N., Walve, J., Wilhelms, S., Zillén, L. 2011. Hypoxia Is Increasing in the Coastal Zone of the Baltic Sea. Environmental Science & Technology 45, 6777-6783. Zillén, L., Conley, D.J., Andrén, T., Andrén, E. & Björck, S. 2008. Past occurrences of hypoxia in the Baltic Sea and the role of climate variability, environmental change and human impact. Earth Science Reviews 91, 77-92.

  18. Expansion/De-expansion Tool to Quantify the Accuracy of Prostate Contours

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eugene; Stenmark, Matthew H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Evans, Cheryl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Providence Cancer Center, Novi, MI (United States); Narayana, Vrinda [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Providence Cancer Center, Novi, MI (United States); McLaughlin, Patrick W., E-mail: mclaughb@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Providence Cancer Center, Novi, MI (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Accurate delineation of the prostate gland on computed tomography (CT) remains a persistent challenge and continues to introduce geometric uncertainty into the planning and delivery of external beam radiotherapy. We, therefore, developed an expansion/de-expansion tool to quantify the contour errors and determine the location of the deviations. Methods and Materials: A planning CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging scan were prospectively acquired for 10 patients with prostate cancer. The prostate glands were contoured by 3 independent observers using the CT data sets with instructions to contour the prostate without underestimation but to minimize overestimation. The standard prostate for each patient was defined using magnetic resonance imaging and CT on multiple planes. After registration of the CT and magnetic resonance imaging data sets, the CT-defined prostates were scored for accuracy. The contours were defined as ideal if they were within a 2.5-mm expansion of the standard without underestimation, acceptable if they were within a 5.0-mm expansion and a 2.5-mm de-expansion, and unacceptable if they extended >5.0 mm or underestimated the prostate by >2.5 mm. Results: A total of 636 CT slices were individually analyzed, with the vast majority scored as ideal or acceptable. However, none of the 30 prostate contour sets had all the contours scored as ideal or acceptable. For all 3 observers, the unacceptable contours were more likely from underestimation than overestimation of the prostate. The errors were more common at the base and apex than the mid-gland. Conclusions: The expansion/de-expansion tool allows for directed feedback on the location of contour deviations, as well as the determination of over- or underestimation of the prostate. This metric might help improve the accuracy of prostate contours.

  19. Contemporary changes in precipitation extremes in Poland in comparison to changes in other parts of Baltic Sea Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibig, Joanna; J?druszkiewicz, Joanna

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the paper is detection and attribution of changes in precipitation extremes in Poland on the ground of similar changes in the rest of Baltic Sea Basin. The indices defined by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) are computed for a number of stations from Poland and surrounding countries. Among them are: Monthly maximum 1-day precipitation (Rx1day), monthly maximum consecutive 5-day precipitation (Rx5day), pricipitation intensity index(RRw,) annual number of days with daily precipitation ? 10mm and ? 20mm (R10mm and R20mm), maximum length of dry spell (CDD), maximum length of wet spell (CWD), annual total from days when daily total is equal at least 95 percentile and 99 percentile calculated in reference period 1961-1990 from daily totals equal at leat 1 mm (R95pTOT and R99pTOT). The daily precipitation records from more than hundred stations from the period 1951-2012 were used. The changes in annual values and their variability are analysed. The regions of similar changes are distinguished both for Poland and for the whole Baltic Sea Region. In the second part of the paper the attribution of large scale mechanisms causing detected changes is planned. The set of possible large scale predictors is prepared. Among them are indices of atmospheric and oceanic circulation in the European-North Atlantic Region: the North Atlantic Oscillation index, The Scandinavian index, the East Atlantic index, and the Atlantic Multiannual Oscillation. Additionally the large scale fields of sea level pressure and humidity and temperature from low troposphere are used. The records of indices were taken from NCDC (http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/data/teledoc). The large scale fields data were taken from NCAR/NCEP Reanalysis. Among the methodologies used to detect the mechanisms of precipitation extreme changes are: correlation analysis, composites and Canonical Correlation Analysis. The work is supported by grant 2012/05/B/ST10/00945 founded by Polish National Science.

  20. Expansion of the Universe

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Phaisalakani, Maxine

    This website, developed by Maxine Phaisalakani at the University of Toronto Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, introduces in a slide show presentation research that led to the discovery of the expansion of the universe. The site addresses many astronomical concepts including the big bang theory, dark matter, and the Doppler Effect.

  1. Urban Expansion Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Under an Egyptian government contract, PADCO studies urban growth in the Nile Area. They were assisted by LANDSAT survey maps and measurements provided by TAC. TAC had classified the raw LANDSAT data and processed it into various categories to detail urban expansion. PADCO crews spot checked the results, and correlations were established.

  2. On the proper choice of wind stress drag coefficient for ROMS model in the numerical simulation of the Baltic variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, Igor; Kulikov, Evgueni

    2014-05-01

    Baltic Sea circulation is largely dominated by the wind forcing. Changes in the wind regimes may influence strong variability in surface currents and, thus, accurate representation of the wind forcing is critically important for the accurate simulation of the Baltic Sea circulation. We used ROMS for simulation of the dynamics of Baltic Sea and analysed the sensitivity of the results to the formulation of surface wind stress for which different formulations of the drag coefficients were tested. Surface wind speed has been taken from CFSR reanalysis. The main focus of the study is on the representation of statistical characteristics of the sea level variability. The reliability of simulations with different wind stress formulations has been tested against the data from 40 tide gauge stations in the Baltic Sea.

  3. Expansion tube test time predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gourlay, Christopher M.

    1988-01-01

    The interaction of an interface between two gases and strong expansion is investigated and the effect on flow in an expansion tube is examined. Two mechanisms for the unsteady Pitot-pressure fluctuations found in the test section of an expansion tube are proposed. The first mechanism depends on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of the driver-test gas interface in the presence of a strong expansion. The second mechanism depends on the reflection of the strong expansion from the interface. Predictions compare favorably with experimental results. The theory is expected to be independent of the absolute values of the initial expansion tube filling pressures.

  4. Calculating the water and heat balances of the Baltic Sea using ocean modelling and available meteorological, hydrological and ocean data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders Omstedt; Christian Nohr

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we aim to analyse Baltic Sea water and heat balances for the BALTEX\\/BRIDGE study period and to put these into a climatic perspective. The study period---the three years starting October 1999---was a time of enhanced observational and modelling activities in the Baltic Sea region and of the major field activity of BALTEX Phase I programme. The present

  5. Effect of major Baltic inflows on the vertical distribution of hydrophysical parameters, oxygen and inorganic nutrients in the Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Finland: a numerical modelling experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessin, Gennadi; Stips, Adolf

    2013-04-01

    Certain meteorological and oceanographic conditions cause episodic inflows of highly saline and usually oxygen-rich water into the Baltic Sea termed major Baltic inflows (MBI). These events ventilate the deep water of the Central Baltic Sea, but also increase stratification stability and suppress vertical mixing. During stagnation periods the deep water oxygen pool is exhausted and salinity is decreasing due to mixing processes. While the effect of MBIs on the deep area of the Central Baltic received much attention in the recent years, less is known about their influence on hydrophysical and ecological conditions in the Baltic sub-basins. It is a fact, that despite a reduction in nutrient discharge to the Baltic Sea from agricultural runoff and industrial production in the beginning of 1990s, in the Gulf of Finland (GoF) near-bottom oxygen conditions became worse and phosphate concentrations have even increased during the recent decade. This is raising the question of the role that MBIs play in the exchange of water and material between Baltic Proper and the GoF. To improve our understanding of the effects of MBIs on the interaction of the Gulf of Finland and the Baltic Proper, the hydrodynamic model GETM coupled with the ecosystem model ERGOM was applied to the Baltic Sea area for the period 1991-2009. Model performance was validated and showed good agreement with the available measurement data at HELCOM monitoring stations BY15, LL17, LL12, LL7 and LL3A, which represent a transition from the Gotland Deep to the eastern GoF. To exclude the effect of MBIs, an experimental model run without imposed sea-level variations at the open boundary in Kattegat was performed, thus excluding one of the major factors driving the barotropic inflows to the Baltic Sea. Model results have shown that in no-inflow situations, surface salinity is lower by about 1 PSU and near-bottom salinity by about 2 PSU in the Baltic Proper, while in the GoF the difference is about 0.5 and 1.5 PSU, respectively. There is no significant difference in surface temperature values, but in the absence of inflows near-bottom temperature is in general lower. In the case without inflows, near-bottom oxygen content in the GoF is higher and phosphate concentration is lower, while in the Baltic Proper the situation is opposite. Nitrate is either absent or very low in the Baltic Proper, while in the GoF its concentration is higher than in the "default" case. Comparison of model results has shown that variability of stratification clearly influenced vertical distributions of all the parameters. Our results confirm that MBIs have played a distinct role in shaping the status of the GoF ecosystem during recent decades and emphasize the fact that the exchange between Baltic Proper and the GoF should receive proper attention in the process of the Baltic Sea ecosystem management.

  6. Recent trends and variations in Baltic Sea temperature, salinity, stratification and circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elken, Jüri; Lehmann, Andreas; Myrberg, Kai

    2015-04-01

    The presentation highlights the results of physical oceanography from BACC II (Second BALTEX Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea basin) book based on the review of recent literature published until 2013. We include also information from some more recent publications. A recent warming trend in sea surface waters has been clearly demonstrated by all available methods: in-situ measurements, remote sensing data and modelling tools. In particular, remote sensing data for the period 1990-2008 indicate that the annual mean SST has increased even by 1°C per decade, with the greatest increase in the northern Bothnian Bay and also with large increases in the Gulf of Finland, the Gulf of Riga, and the northern Baltic Proper. Although the increase in the northern areas is affected by the recent decline in the extent and duration of sea ice, and corresponding changes in surface albedo, warming is still evident during all seasons and with the greatest increase occurring in summer. The least warming of surface waters (0.3-0.5°C per decade) occurred northeast of Bornholm Island up to and along the Swedish coast, probably owing to an increase in the frequency of coastal upwelling forced by the westerly wind events. Comparing observations with the results of centennial-scale modelling, recent changes in sea water temperature appear to be within the range of the variability observed during the past 500 years. Overall salinity pattern and stratification conditions are controlled by river runoff, wind conditions, and salt water inflows through the Danish straits. The mean top-layer salinity is mainly influenced by the accumulated river runoff, with higher salinity during dry periods and lower salinity during wet periods. Observations reveal a low-salinity period above the halocline starting in the 1980s. The strength of stratification and deep salinity are reduced when the mean zonal wind stress increases, as it occurred since 1987. Major Baltic Inflows of highly saline water of North Sea origin occur sporadically and transport high-saline water into the deep layers of the Baltic Sea. These inflow events occur when high pressure over the Baltic region with easterly winds is followed by several weeks of strong westerly winds; changes in the inflow activity are related to the frequency of deep cyclones and their pathways over the Baltic area. Major inflows are often followed by a period of stagnation during which saline stratification decreases and oxygen deficiency develops in the deep basins of the central Baltic. Major inflows are usually of barotropic character. They normally occur during winter and spring and transport relatively cold, salty and oxygen-rich waters to the deep basins. Since 1996, another type of inflows have been observed during summer or early autumn. These inflows are of baroclinic character and transport high-saline, but warm and low-oxygen water into the deep layers of the Baltic Sea. Event-like water exchange and mixing anomalies, driven by specific atmospheric forcing patterns like sequences of deep cyclones, occur also in other parts of the Baltic Sea.

  7. Iodide and iodate (129I and 127I) in surface water of the Baltic Sea, Kattegat and Skagerrak.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Violeta; Yi, Peng; Hou, Xiaolin; Aldahan, Ala; Roos, Per; Possnert, Göran

    2011-12-15

    Despite the common incorporation of iodine in the biological cycle and occurrence of huge contamination of the radioactive isotope (129)I in the Baltic Proper, Skagerrak and Kattegat, there is no data on chemical speciation of iodine in these waters. We here present first time data on iodine isotopes (129)I and (127)I species as iodide and iodate in surface seawater samples collected from 16 locations in August 2006 and 19 locations in April 2007 in the Baltic Proper, Skagerrak and Kattegat. After extensive separation methods, the isotopes concentrations were determined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) technique for the (129)I and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) for (127)I. High concentrations of both isotopes species were found in the Skagerrak-Kattegat basins, whereas the values in the Baltic Proper are low for both species. The ratios of (129)I(-)/(129)IO(3)(-) and (127)I(-)/(127)IO(3)(-) significantly increase from south to central Baltic Sea, and iodide (both isotopes) appears as the predominant inorganic iodine species along the Baltic Sea. The results show insignificant change in (129)I and (127)I speciation and suggest that reduction of iodate and oxidation of iodide in Skagerrak and Kattegat may be a slow process. Additionally, the positive correlation between salinity and iodide and iodate (both isotopes) may reflect effective control of Skagerrak water mass on iodine distribution in surface water of the Baltic Sea. PMID:22033356

  8. Range expansion of mutualists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Melanie J. I.; Korolev, Kirill S.; Murray, Andrew W.; Nelson, David R.

    2012-02-01

    The expansion of a species into new territory is often strongly influenced by the presence of other species. This effect is particularly striking for the case of mutualistic species that enhance each other's proliferation. Examples range from major events in evolutionary history, such as the spread and diversification of flowering plants due to their mutualism with pollen-dispersing insects, to modern examples like the surface colonisation of multi-species microbial biofilms. Here, we investigate the spread of cross-feeding strains of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on an agar surface as a model system for expanding mutualists. Depending on the degree of mutualism, the two strains form distinctive spatial patterns during their range expansion. This change in spatial patterns can be understood as a phase transition within a stepping stone model generalized to two mutualistic species.

  9. On the Eastern Baltic environment changes: a case study of the Curonian Lagoon area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pustelnikovas, Olegas

    2008-01-01

    Sea level fluctuation, neotectonic movement, variation of sedimentation conditions, human impact play an important role in sea development. Water level fluctuation and vertical movements determine the rates of the long-term sedimentation process. The sea level rises (sinking of coasts south of 56° N), and its amplitude increases from 1.5 mm y-1 (in the beginning of the 20th century) to 3-4 mm y-1 (predicted for the 22nd century). The rise of coasts (sinking of sea level) and uplift is evident in the central and especially northern Baltic (1-9 mm y-1). These factors speed up the erosion of shallow areas, eutrophication and rapid accumulation of sedimentary matter in local lagoons. The latter processes complicate the ecological situation in the shallow (mouth) areas. Human activity takes place in the river areas, lagoons and geochemical barriers. The mentioned factors modifity the rates of sedimentation (0.6-15 mm y-1) in the Baltic Sea basin, which reach their maximum in the shallow lagoons of the Eastern Baltic (2.5-15.0 mm y-1). A synthesis of the data obtained by the author and information contained in references made it possible to make a many-sided forecast regarding a more than a thousand-year development of the Curonian Lagoon and the Eastern Baltic. A rapid transformation of coasts will take place, the nearshore basins - Viainameri (Estonia), the Gulf of Riga, the Curonian and Vistula lagoons, the Puck Bay - will shallow. Nearby new shallow lagoons will appear in the place of these basins. The Eastern Baltic lagoons (Curonian and Vistula) in future will become similar to the present state of the Polish Pomeranian coastal zone where the Leba, Gardno and other lakes which used to be vast lagoons are in the final stage of degradation. The predicted development of the Eastern Baltic will take place if the range of tectonic movements and sea level changes remains the same and there will be no human invasion with supermodern technologies into the natural processes.

  10. Trend Analysis of Nitrogen Deposition to Baltic Sea and its sub basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semeena, V. S.; Jerzy, Bartnicki

    2009-04-01

    Since the beginning of last century, Baltic Sea has changed from a clear-water sea into a eutrophic marine environment. Eutrophication is the major problem in the Baltic Sea. Excessive nitrogen and phosphorus loads coming from land-based sources within and outside the catchment area of the bordering countries of the Baltic Sea are the main cause of the eutrophication in the sea. Even though a major part of nitrogen(75%) and phosphorus load(95%) enter the sea via rivers or as water-born discharges, 25% of the nitrogen load comes as atmospheric deposition. Numerical models are the best tools to measure atmospheric deposition into sea waters. We have used the latest version of the Unified EMEP model - which has been developed at the EMEP/MSC-W (Meteorological Synthesizing Centre - West of EMEP) for simulating atmospheric transport and deposition of acidifying and eutrophying compounds as well as photo-oxidants in Europe- to study the trends in atmospheric deposition of nitrogen into Baltic Sea for the period 1995-2006. The model domain covers Europe and the Atlantic Ocean. The model grid (of the size 170×133) has a horizontal resolution of 50 km at 60o N, which is consistent with the resolution of emission data reported to CLRTAP. Approximately 10 of these layers are placed below 2 km to obtain high resolution of the boundary layer which is of special importance to the long range transport of air pollution. EMEP model has been thouroughly validated (Fagerli et.al.[1], Simpson et.al.[2], Simpson et.al.[3] ) The contribution of deposition of nitrogen into Baltic Sea from each of the bordering countries of the Baltic Sea and the deposition trends for the period 1995-2006 has been analysed and the results will be presented. References: [1]. Fagerli H., Simpson D. and Aas W.: Model performance for sulphur and nitrogen compounds for the period 1980 to 2000. [In:] L. Tarra?on, (editor), Transboundary Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground Level Ozone in Europe. EMEP Status Report 1/2003, Part II Unified EMEP Model Performance, pages 1-66. The Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo, Norway, 2003. [2]. Simpson D., Butterbach-Bahl K., Fagerli H., Kesik M. and Skiba U.: Deposition and Emissions of Reactive Nitrogen over European Forests: A Modelling Study. Atmos. Environ., 2006, 40(29), 5712-5726. [3]. Simpson D., Fagerli H., Hellsten S., Knulst K. and Westling O.: Comparison of modelled and monitored deposition fluxes of sulphur and nitrogen to ICP-forest sites in Europe. Biogeosciences, 2006, 337-355.

  11. What can ARGO's tell us on the processes in Baltic Sea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roiha, Petra; Siiriä, Simo-Matti; Nummelin, Aleksi; Aro, Eemeli; Purokoski, Tero

    2014-05-01

    Finnish Meteorological Institute has been testing ARGO floats in the Baltic Sea as a mean for collecting data from the sea areas that are not easily reachable by research vessels or remote sensing. The observational data for Baltic Sea off-shore areas is very sparse and new observational methods are needed to fill the gaps in our knowledge and collect new data for different purposes, such as, operational activities, modelling and ocean science. The ARGO floats have been used successfully in the deep oceans. However, applying the ARGO floats in Baltic Sea is not straight forward, as the conditions differ greatly: the water is brackish, some areas are heavily trafficked and the northern parts freeze during the winter. In addition, the mean depth is only 54 metres, which is only a fraction of depths where ARGO floats have commonly been used. FMI has deployed three ARGO floats in Baltic Sea for different missions. The first ARGO was deployed in 2012 with normal diving algorithm, which checks the pressure hourly. The second float was modified by Aalto University so that the algorithm checks the pressure every 15 minutes. The first float was deployed in the Bothnian Sea in May 2013 and it measured over 200 profiles during its half year mission. The float with faster pressure detection was deployed in the Bothnian Sea in May 2013, and during it's 4 month mission it measured succesfully over 120 profiles. Another, longer test is ongoing on Eastern Gotland basin, where another ARGO float was deployed at Aug 2013, and still measures at Jan 2014. This one differs from earlier experiments as it has additional oxygen and scattering meters, also the area of measurements is deeper (200+ meters). The missions so far indicate, that with proper control and monitoring, ARGO's can be operated, and can measure long series of profiles. In addition to the actual measurements, the movement of ARGO floats gives possibilities to analyse currents in deeper areas of Baltic, and help determining correlations between currents and bathymetry, for example. In this presentation we present and analyse the results from these experiments and discuss further possibilities of ARGO's in Baltic Sea.

  12. Constraints on Cardassian Expansion

    E-print Network

    W. J. Frith

    2003-11-10

    High redshift supernovae and Cosmic Microwave Background data are used to constrain the Cardassian expansion model (Freese & Lewis 2002), a cosmology in which a modification to the Friedmann equation gives rise to a flat, matter-dominated Universe which is currently undergoing a phase of accelerated expansion. In particular, the precision of the positions of the Doppler peaks in the CMB angular power spectrum provided by WMAP tightly constrains the cosmology. The available parameter space is further constrained by various high redshift supernova datasets taken from Tonry et al. (2003), a sample of 230 supernovae collated from the literature, in which fits to the distance and extinction have been recomputed where possible and a consistent zero-point has been applied. In addition, the Cardassian model can also be loosely constrained by inferred upper limits on the epoch at which the Cardassian term in the modified Friedmann equation begins to dominate the expansion (z_eq). Using these methods, a Cardassian cosmology is constrained at the 2 sigma level to 0.191, as opposed to the supernova data which supports a high-Omega_m, low-n cosmology.

  13. Evolution of Medicaid Managed Care Systems and Eligibility Expansions

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Leighton; Ellwood, Marilyn; Hoag, Sheila; Ormond, Barbara; Wooldridge, Judith

    2000-01-01

    The States of Tennessee, Hawaii, Rhode Island, Oklahoma, and Maryland initiated section 1115 demonstration projects to reform their State Medicaid programs, featuring large expansions of Medicaid managed care. The projects were controversial and chaotic in the beginning but have matured with time. Survey data indicate that Tennessee's expansion reduced uninsurance rates among low-income persons. States must periodically assess the adequacy of capitation rates to ensure that enough plans participate. States and plans gradually developed their quality assurance systems but still need improvement. PMID:12500318

  14. The relationship between metal concentrations and phenotypes in the Baltic clam Macoma balthica (L.) from the Gulf of Gdansk, southern Baltic.

    PubMed

    Sokolowski, Adam; Fichet, Denis; Garcia-Meunier, Pascale; Radenac, Gilles; Wolowicz, Maciej; Blanchard, Gerard

    2002-05-01

    Soft tissue accumulated concentrations of nine metals (V, As, Se, Ag, Cd, Pb, Mn, Cu and Zn) were studied in two main phenotypes (1) according to external shell colour (white and pink), and (2) according to shell shape (shell with a rounded posterior end--"regular" and with an elongate posterior end and a notable flexure--"irregular") of the Baltic clam Macoma balthica from southern Baltic Sea off Poland. No differences in metal concentrations were observed between colour-based phenotypes. By contrast, "irregular" clams exhibited generally higher concentrations of all elements in their tissues than "regular" bivalves. This finding provides the first reference on a potential linkage of shell deformation with tissue metal concentrations within one entire population of clams living in the same habitat. Different ability of metal handling in the shape-based phenotypes is presumably related to different physiological capacity of the bivalves induced by the selection effect of specific environmental conditions. It is suggested that unfavourable conditions in deep waters of the Gulf of Gdansk (e.g. hypoxia/anoxia, hydrogen sulphide, elevated bioavailability of metals) induces, in a certain part of the population, morphological deformation of shell (thereby leading to irregular shape) and in parallel physiological adaptations which result in greater sensitivity to trace metals of "irregular" clams. This hypothesis however, requires further investigation with special focus on genetic divergences between phenotypes because till now we cannot exclude the co-occurrence of two types (semi-species) of clams in the Gulf: an Atlantic type and a Baltic type. Genetic analysis with a use of DALP technique revealed strong intrapopulational polymorphism but no fingerprints or intraspecific polymorphism characterising any of the phenotypes considered (both colour- and shape-based). Since eight polymorphic loci were clearly identified further studies of population genetic structure hold optimistic promise. PMID:11996123

  15. The Baltic Sea: Geophysical and geochemical properties of Holocene sediment sequences as indicators of past environmental variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, Conny; Reinholdsson, Maja; Zillén, Lovisa; Conley, Daniel J.; Snowball, Ian

    2010-05-01

    The Baltic Sea has undergone large environmental changes since the retreat of the Weischselian Ice-sheet. In the Late Glacial Period and the early Holocene these changes were most likely caused by natural environmental changes (i.e. changes in the morphology and depths of the Baltic basin and the sills). In more recent time anthropogenic impacts have become more important as a possible and likely cause for changes. During the whole Holocene period climate variability played an important role. However, the relative importance between humans and nature is largely unknown. Here we present the results of a combined geophysical and geochemical study on selected sediment sequences from the Baltic Sea within the two BONUS (Baltic Organisations Network For Funding Science) funded projects HYPER (HYPoxia mitigation for Baltic Sea Ecosystem Restoration) and Baltic GAS (GAS storage and effects of climate change and eutrophication). The over-all aim of these projects is to understand large-scale Baltic Sea ecosystem responses to environmental, climate and anthropogenic forcing. During two Baltic Sea research cruises in 2009 long sediment cores from 8 different locations were recovered. We present preliminary results from one site (LL19) located in the north central Baltic Proper at 169 m water depth. The Littorina Sea sediment record (i.e. the last c. 8000 years) is characterised by alternating periods of homogenised sediments (indicative of oxic conditions) and laminated sediments (indicative of hypoxic/anoxic conditions). Mineral magnetic properties illustrate clear changes between laminated and non-laminated sections of the core. The concentration of ferrimagnetic minerals, as revealed by initial magnetic susceptibility (?) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) is variable. The laminated sections in particular show high concentrations and to reveal the origin of the ferrimagnetic signal additional magnetic properties were measured, specifically the acquisition of rotational remanent magnetization (RRM), frequency dependency of susceptibility (?fd) and magnetic loops. These data show that magnetic assemblage of the laminated sections is dominated by a single-domain magnetic grain size. The elemental composition was measured with a high resolution Itrax XRF-scanner throughout the core. In addition, biogenic silica (BSi) and total organic carbon (TOC) were determined. Distinct changes of elemental contents between the laminated and homogenous sections in the Littorina Sea sediments were identified. A combination of the physical and geochemical properties of the sediment sequences and the construction of geochronologies will provide information about past environmental variability to identify casual relationships to climate and human impact in the Baltic Sea.

  16. Towards an improved understanding of Baltic Sea hypoxia during the Holocene: preliminary results from IODP Expedition 347

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slomp, Caroline; Dijkstra, Nikki; Egger, Matthias; Gustafsson, Bo; Ash, Jeanine; Bauersachs, Thorsten; Hardisty, Dalton; Martin, Ellen; Riedinger, Natascha; Andren, Thomas; Barker Jorgensen, Bo

    2015-04-01

    The Baltic Sea is a restricted brackish-marine basin that is highly sensitive to changes in climate and anthropogenic activity. Due to its salinity stratification, the Baltic Sea is particularly vulnerable to hypoxia (oxygen concentrations < 2 ml/L). Besides the modern, human-induced period of hypoxia (since A.D. 1960), there is evidence for two earlier major intervals of hypoxia since the transition of the Baltic Sea from the Ancylus freshwater phase to the Littorina brackish-marine phase. These are the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM), ca. 8-4 ka, and the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), ca. 1-0.7 ka (Zillen et al., 2008; Jilbert and Slomp, 2013). While changes in salinity, temperature and the input and recycling of nutrients all may contribute to the development of hypoxia in the Baltic Sea, their relative importance in driving the hypoxia during the MCA and HTM is still incompletely understood. Here, we use porewater and sediment geochemical data obtained during the IODP Expedition 347: Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment (September 13 - November 1, 2013) to obtain further insight into the role of changes in salinity and phosphorus recycling during the HTM. We focus on three sites along the modern salinity gradient in the Baltic Sea, Sites M0059, M0063 and M0065. Our results indicate that bottom water salinity in the Baltic Proper was higher during the HTM than at present, confirming previous studies that increased salinity stratification may have contributed to the development of hypoxia during the HTM. We also discuss evidence for temporal changes and spatial differences in primary productivity and phosphorus burial and recycling in the Baltic Sea and their potential role in contributing to the development of hypoxia during the HTM and MCA. References: Jilbert, T., and Slomp, C.P. (2013). Rapid high-amplitude variability in Baltic Sea hypoxia during the Holocene. Geology 41, 1183-1186. doi: 10.1130/g34804.1. Zillén, L., Conley, D.J., Andrén, T., Andrén, E., and Björck, S. (2008). Past occurrences of hypoxia in the Baltic Sea and the role of climate variability, environmental change and human impact. Earth-Science Reviews 91, 77-92. doi: 10.1016/j.earscirev.2008.10.001.

  17. RES-E Support Policies In The Baltic States: Development Aspect (Part I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobinaite, V.; Priedite, I.

    2015-02-01

    Despite quite similar conditions (natural resources) for electricity production from renewable energy sources (RES-E) in three Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania), significant differences exist in these countries as to the RES-E production volume. In Latvia this volume is the highest, while in Estonia and Lithuania it is half as high. One of the factors that determine the RES-E production volumes is support policies, which in the Baltic States are different. The main objective of this work was to analyze and compare these support policies. The results have shown that for rapid RES-E development the most effective policy is to be market-oriented (as in Estonia), whereas for more stable development such policy should be producer-oriented (as in Lithuania).

  18. Eutrophication, risk management and sustainability. The perceptions of different stakeholders in the northern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, Cecilia

    2013-01-15

    The environmental condition of the Baltic Sea is not only of concern for natural scientists. The awareness of the deteriorating state of the ecosystem has become an issue of interdisciplinary interest, and the amount of organizations with the marine environment and ecosystem health on the agenda is large. To present holistic and sustainable solutions and results of the actions taken, an active cooperation between all stakeholder groups and levels are needed. How different stakeholders in the northern Baltic Sea perceive the structures and assessments of the eutrophication were analyzed by semi-structured interviews with 17 stakeholders representing authorities, scientists, NGOs and national interest organizations. The focus was the view of the governance structures, risk assessment, management and communication. There was an overall consensus that eutrophication is a serious problem. Still variations in the opinions both within and between the stakeholder groups were seen. The scientists were most divergent from the rest. PMID:23174306

  19. The potential of current- and wind-driven transport for environmental management of the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Soomere, Tarmo; Döös, Kristofer; Lehmann, Andreas; Meier, H E Markus; Murawski, Jens; Myrberg, Kai; Stanev, Emil

    2014-02-01

    The ever increasing impact of the marine industry and transport on vulnerable sea areas puts the marine environment under exceptional pressure and calls for inspired methods for mitigating the impact of the related risks. We describe a method for preventive reduction of remote environmental risks caused by the shipping and maritime industry that are transported by surface currents and wind impact to the coasts. This method is based on characterizing systematically the damaging potential of the offshore areas in terms of potential transport to vulnerable regions of an oil spill or other pollution that has occurred in a particular area. The resulting maps of probabilities of pollution to be transported to the nearshore and the time it takes for the pollution to reach the nearshore are used to design environmentally optimized fairways for the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Proper, and south-western Baltic Sea. PMID:24414808

  20. Ecology, evolution, and management strategies of northern pike populations in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Per; Tibblin, Petter; Koch-Schmidt, Per; Engstedt, Olof; Nilsson, Jonas; Nordahl, Oscar; Forsman, Anders

    2015-06-01

    Baltic Sea populations of the northern pike (Esox lucius) have declined since the 1990s, and they face additional challenges due to ongoing climate change. Pike in the Baltic Sea spawn either in coastal bays or in freshwater streams and wetlands. Pike recruited in freshwater have been found to make up about 50 % of coastal pike stocks and to show natal homing, thus limiting gene flow among closely located spawning sites. Due to natal homing, sub-populations appear to be locally adapted to their freshwater recruitment environments. Management actions should therefore not involve mixing of individuals originating from different sub-populations. We offer two suggestions complying with this advice: (i) productivity of extant freshwater spawning populations can be boosted by modifying wetlands such that they promote spawning and recruitment; and (ii) new sub-populations that spawn in brackish water can potentially be created by transferring fry and imprinting them on seemingly suitable spawning environments. PMID:26022327

  1. A 35-year hindcast for the Baltic Sea (1980-2014) - a statistical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gräwe, Ulf; Holtermann, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The Baltic Sea is a semi-enclosed sea with limited water exchange. The most important process that leads to deep water renewal of the Baltic Sea are inflows of dense, saline North Sea water. These water masses have to pass narrow channels and sills in the Danish Straits and three basins with increasing depth. Along this path, the inflowing gravity currents are subject to entrainment, vertical and horizontal mixing. Thus, physical and numerical mixing are crucial for the proper propagation of these inflows. Additionally, a permanent halocline and a summer thermocline are challenging for state of the art ocean models. Moreover, Holtermann et al (2014) could show, that boundary mixing in the deep basins dominates the vertical mixing of tracers. To tackle these challenges, we used the General Estuarine Transport Model (GETM) to give a state estimate for the Baltic Sea for the period 1980-2014. The setup has a horizontal resolution of 1 nm. In the vertical, terain following coordinates are used. A special feature of GETM is that it can run with vertical adaptive coordinates. Here we use an adaptation towards stratification. The minimum layer thickness is limited to 30 cm. We also include the effects of wind waves (by radiation stresses, and changes in the bottom stresses) into our simulations. The atmospheric forcing is taken from the global reanalysis of the NCEP-CFSR (Saha et al 2011) with a spatial resolution of 30 km and hourly values. The model validation at selected stations in the Baltic Sea shows an average Bias of ±0.15 psu and a RMSE of 0.4 psu. These values are similar to the data assimilation runs of Fu et al (2011) or Liu et al (2013). However, one has to note that our simulations are free runs without any nudging or data assimilation. Driven by the good performance of the model, we use the model output to provide a state estimate of the actual climate period (1980-2010). The analysis includes a quantification and estimation of: surge levels with a 30-year return period temperature maxima with a return period of 30 years (in the surface and bottom waters) duration of heat waves warming and desalination trends age of water masses with last surface contact. The presented model results might act as a reference to compare climate projections with the present state of the Baltic Sea. Moreover, the model system will act as inner core of a coupled hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model (ERGOM). References: Fu, W., She, J. & Dobrynin, M. A 20-year reanalysis experiment in the Baltic Sea using three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) method. Ocean Sci. 8, 827--844 (2012). Holtermann, P. L., Burchard, H., Gräwe, U., Klingbeil, K. & Umlauf, L. Deep-water dynamics and boundary mixing in a nontidal stratified basin: A modeling study of the Baltic Sea. J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 119, 1465--1487 (2014). Liu, Y., Meier, H. E. M. & Axell, L. Reanalyzing temperature and salinity on decadal time scales using the ensemble optimal interpolation data assimilation method and a 3D ocean circulation model of the Baltic Sea. J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 118, 5536--5554 (2013). Saha, S. et al. The NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91, 1015--1057 (2010).

  2. Planning for uncertainty: NYISO planning process and smart grid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Adams; H. Chao; C. Custer; B. Lamanna

    2008-01-01

    To maintain the capability to reliably run the New York power systems and its electricity market, NYISO has developed a comprehensive planning process to systematically address the reliability needs and system expansion under the condition of limited rights-of-way and tight available transmission capability. Market responses to the planning process have been active, and specific technologies have been introduced utilizing ldquosmart

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments of the southern Baltic Sea--trends and fate.

    PubMed

    Konat, J; Kowalewska, G

    2001-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been determined in recent [0-1(2), 1(2)-5 and 5-10 cm deep layers] sediments from different sites of the southern Baltic Sea, including the Szczecin Lagoon, collected from May 1996 to October 1999, i.e. before and after the great flood in Poland of July/August 1997. The PCB distribution has been correlated with location and hydrological conditions as well as with organic carbon, algal pigments and their derivatives in the sediments. The sum of PCB (seven congeners) was equal to approximately 1-149 ng/g dry wt., on average this was rather low (up to 40 ng/g). There was a decreasing trend in PCBs concentrations in the bottom sediments of the southern Baltic in 1996 but considerable amounts were still accumulated there. The flood of 1997 caused a distinct increase of PCB concentration level in the sediments, which again showed a decreasing trend in the next few years. This illustrates that at present the main source of PCBs for the southern Baltic are not a direct consequence of human activity, but from floods and heavy rains washing these compounds from land to the sea. Algae and algal detritus play an important role in the transport and distribution of PCBs in the southern Baltic. High correlation of PCBs with chlorophyll a derivatives--products of zooplankton grazing--indicates that PCBs are ingested by zooplankton with phytoplankton and then exuded with fecal pellets. PCBs bound to algal detritus or to fecal pellets in the water column are transferred to sediments, there they may be trapped either in a bonded and unchanged form or resuspended, remobilized and/or dechlorinated, depending on their properties and environmental conditions. PMID:11763260

  4. Satellite mapping of Baltic Sea Secchi depth with multiple regression models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, Andy

    2015-08-01

    Secchi depth is a measure of water transparency. In the Baltic Sea region, Secchi depth maps are used to assess eutrophication and as input for habitat models. Due to their spatial and temporal coverage, satellite data would be the most suitable data source for such maps. But the Baltic Sea's optical properties are so different from the open ocean that globally calibrated standard models suffer from large errors. Regional predictive models that take the Baltic Sea's special optical properties into account are thus needed. This paper tests how accurately generalized linear models (GLMs) and generalized additive models (GAMs) with MODIS/Aqua and auxiliary data as inputs can predict Secchi depth at a regional scale. It uses cross-validation to test the prediction accuracy of hundreds of GAMs and GLMs with up to 5 input variables. A GAM with 3 input variables (chlorophyll a, remote sensing reflectance at 678 nm, and long-term mean salinity) made the most accurate predictions. Tested against field observations not used for model selection and calibration, the best model's mean absolute error (MAE) for daily predictions was 1.07 m (22%), more than 50% lower than for other publicly available Baltic Sea Secchi depth maps. The MAE for predicting monthly averages was 0.86 m (15%). Thus, the proposed model selection process was able to find a regional model with good prediction accuracy. It could be useful to find predictive models for environmental variables other than Secchi depth, using data from other satellite sensors, and for other regions where non-standard remote sensing models are needed for prediction and mapping. Annual and monthly mean Secchi depth maps for 2003-2012 come with this paper as Supplementary materials.

  5. Production of fuel products by the thermal dissolution of enriched Baltic combustible shale

    SciTech Connect

    Vol-Epshtein, A.B.; Gorlov, E.G.; Shpilberg, M.B.

    1983-01-01

    The thermal dissolution of enriched Baltic shale (kerogen-70) in the presence of an organosilicon compound reduces the formation of gas and raises the solubility of its organic matter and, when the sludge from the process is coked, it decreases the formation of semicoke and gas; as a result of this, the yield of liquid products calculated on the shale processed is increased one and a half times.

  6. Ecotoxicity assessment of natural attenuation effects at a historical dumping site in the western Baltic Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Leipe; Michael Kersten; Susanne Heise; Christa Pohl; Gesine Witt; Gladys Liehr; Michael Zettler; Franz Tauber

    2005-01-01

    During the late 1950s and early 1960s of the past century, industrial waste material highly enriched in various contaminants (heavy metals, PAHs) was dumped in the inner Mecklenburg Bay, western Baltic Sea. Large-scale shifts in the spatial distribution of heavy metals in surface sediments were mapped by geochemical monitoring in the mid-1980s and 12years later in 1997. A further study

  7. Air-water exchange of brominated anisoles in the northern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Bidleman, Terry F; Agosta, Kathleen; Andersson, Agneta; Haglund, Peter; Nygren, Olle; Ripszam, Matyas; Tysklind, Mats

    2014-06-01

    Bromophenols produced by marine algae undergo O-methylation to form bromoanisoles (BAs), which are exchanged between water and air. BAs were determined in surface water of the northern Baltic Sea (Gulf of Bothnia, consisting of Bothnian Bay and Bothnian Sea) during 2011-2013 and on a transect of the entire Baltic in September 2013. The abundance decreased in the following order: 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (2,4,6-TBA)>2,4-dibromoanisole (2,4-DBA)?2,6-dibromoanisole (2,6-DBA). Concentrations of 2,4-DBA and 2,4,6-TBA in September were higher in the southern than in the northern Baltic and correlated well with the higher salinity in the south. This suggests south-to-north advection and dilution with fresh riverine water enroute, and/or lower production in the north. The abundance in air over the northern Baltic also decreased in the following order: 2,4,6-TBA>2,4-DBA. However, 2,6-DBA was estimated as a lower limit due to breakthrough from polyurethane foam traps used for sampling. Water/air fugacity ratios ranged from 3.4 to 7.6 for 2,4-DBA and from 18 to 94 for 2,4,6-TBA, indicating net volatilization. Flux estimates using the two-film model suggested that volatilization removes 980-1360 kg of total BAs from Bothnian Bay (38000 km2) between May and September. The release of bromine from outgassing of BAs could be up to 4-6% of bromine fluxes from previously reported volatilization of bromomethanes and bromochloromethanes. PMID:24811233

  8. Trophic Status of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea: A Comparison of Coastal and Open Areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Wasmund; A. Andrushaitis; E. ?ysiak-Pastuszak; B. Müller-Karulis; G. Nausch; T. Neumann; H. Ojaveer; I. Olenina; L. Postel; Z. Witek

    2001-01-01

    Primary production, nutrient concentrations, phytoplankton biomass (incl. chlorophylla) and water transparency (Secchi depth), are important indicators of eutrophication. Earlier basin-wide primary production estimates for the Baltic Sea, a shallow shelf sea, were based mainly on open-sea data, neglecting the fundamentally different conditions in the large river plumes, which might have substantially higher production. Mean values of the period 1993–1997 of

  9. Pore water nutrient profiles and dynamics in soft bottoms of the northern Baltic Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kalervo Mäkelä; Liisa Tuominen

    2003-01-01

    Chemical profiles of nutrients at the sediment–water interface were measured in the northern Baltic Sea. A whole core squeezer technique capable of mm-scale resolution was used to obtain the vertical profiles of NO3-, NO2-, o-P, NH4+ and Si in the soft bottom sediments. The profiles were compared with nutrient flux and denitrification measurements. In the Gulf of Finland, the profiles

  10. A new species of Stigmatomyces from Baltic amber, the first fossil record of Laboulbeniomycetes.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Walter; Kotrba, Marion; Triebel, Dagmar

    2005-03-01

    A fossil ascomycete was found attached to the thorax of a stalk eyed fly (Diopsidae: Prosphyracephala succini) in a fragment of Baltic amber. The fungus is assigned to the extant genus Stigmatomyces and described as S. succini sp. nov. This find is the first fossil record of the order Laboulbeniales. At the same time it constitutes the oldest record of a parasitic fungus on an insect. The palaeohabitat is discussed with regard to the find. PMID:15912943

  11. A dinoflagellate cyst record of Holocene climate and hydrological changes along the southeastern Swedish Baltic coast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shi-Yong Yu; Björn E. Berglund

    2007-01-01

    A high-resolution, well-dated dinoflagellate cyst record from a lagoon of the southeastern Swedish Baltic Sea reveals climate and hydrological changes during the Holocene. Marine dinoflagellate cysts occurred initially at about 8600 cal yr BP, indicating the onset of the Littorina transgression in the southeastern Swedish lowland associated with global sea level rise, and thus the opening of the Danish straits. Both

  12. Vital Electronics, the key to the developing dynamic GIS for the Baltic or other maritime environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ted Kochanski; Andrzej Rucinski; Andrzej Stepnowski; Marcin Waraksa; Jerzy Zurek

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic GIS can provide geospatial information in real-time in support of first responses to natural disasters (e.g. flooding on the Baltic ecosystem), man-made disasters (e.g. oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico), and for Search and Rescue (SAR) missions. All these scenarios require the integration between the real time data acquisition and dynamic GIS. The proposed Vital Electronic System for

  13. Storm surges in the Western Baltic Sea: the present and a possible future

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulf Gräwe; Hans Burchard

    2011-01-01

    Globally-coupled climate models are generally capable of reproducing the observed trends in the globally averaged atmospheric temperature or mean sea level. However, the global models do not perform as well on regional\\/local scales. Here, we present results from four 100-year ocean model experiments for the Western Baltic Sea. In order to simulate storm surges in this region, we have used

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in Baltic Sea sediments and bivalves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna-Liisa Pikkarainen

    2007-01-01

    The levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (p,p?-DDT, p,p?-DDD, p,p?-DDE, ?-HCH, ?-HCH, HCB) were determined in Baltic Sea sediments and bivalves. Concentrations of PCBs in surface sediment (0–5cm), calculated as the sum of seven CBs (CB28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180) in one centimeter slices, ranged from 0.04 to 6.2?gkg?1 on a dry weight basis (dw), and

  15. Contrasting geochemical cycling of hafnium and neodymium in the central Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tian-Yu; Stumpf, Roland; Frank, Martin; Be?dowski, Jacek; Staubwasser, Michael

    2013-12-01

    The central Baltic Sea is a marginal brackish basin which comprises anoxic bottom waters and is surrounded by geological source terrains with a wide variety of compositions and ages. This allows the investigation of water mass mixing using radiogenic isotope compositions of Nd and Hf as well as their geochemical cycling across varying redox conditions in the water column. In this study, we present the distribution of Nd and Hf concentrations and their isotopic compositions for 6 depth profiles and 3 surface water sites obtained during a cruise in the central Baltic Sea onboard the RV Oceania as a part of the international GEOTRACES program. The results obtained indicate that Nd isotopes effectively trace the mixing between more radiogenic saline waters from the south and unradiogenic fresh waters from the north, which helps to understand the reliability of Nd isotopes as water mass tracer in the open ocean. In surface waters, Nd shows higher concentrations and less radiogenic isotope compositions at the northern stations, which are progressively diluted and become more radiogenic to the south, consistent with the counterclockwise circulation pattern of central Baltic Sea surface waters. In contrast to the variable Nd concentrations, Hf shows much less variability. At the Gotland Deep station, the Nd concentrations of the euxinic waters are higher by a factor >10 than those of the overlying oxygen-depleted waters, whereas Hf only shows small concentration variations. This indicates faster removal of Hf from the water column than Nd. Moreover, the dissolved Hf isotope signatures document great variability but no consistent mixing trends. Our explanation is that Hf has a lower residence time than Nd, and also that the Hf isotope signatures of the sources are highly heterogeneous, which is attributed to their differing magmatic and tectonic histories as well as incongruent post-glacial weathering around the central Baltic Sea.

  16. Decadal-Scale Changes of Dinoflagellates and Diatoms in the Anomalous Baltic Sea Spring Bloom

    PubMed Central

    Klais, Riina; Tamminen, Timo; Kremp, Anke; Spilling, Kristian; Olli, Kalle

    2011-01-01

    The algal spring bloom in the Baltic Sea represents an anomaly from the winter-spring bloom patterns worldwide in terms of frequent and recurring dominance of dinoflagellates over diatoms. Analysis of approximately 3500 spring bloom samples from the Baltic Sea monitoring programs revealed (i) that within the major basins the proportion of dinoflagellates varied from 0.1 (Kattegat) to >0.8 (central Baltic Proper), and (ii) substantial shifts (e.g. from 0.2 to 0.6 in the Gulf of Finland) in the dinoflagellate proportion over four decades. During a recent decade (1995–2004) the proportion of dinoflagellates increased relative to diatoms mostly in the northernmost basins (Gulf of Bothnia, from 0.1 to 0.4) and in the Gulf of Finland, (0.4 to 0.6) which are typically ice-covered areas. We hypothesize that in coastal areas a specific sequence of seasonal events, involving wintertime mixing and resuspension of benthic cysts, followed by proliferation in stratified thin layers under melting ice, favors successful seeding and accumulation of dense dinoflagellate populations over diatoms. This head-start of dinoflagellates by the onset of the spring bloom is decisive for successful competition with the faster growing diatoms. Massive cyst formation and spreading of cyst beds fuel the expanding and ever larger dinoflagellate blooms in the relatively shallow coastal waters. Shifts in the dominant spring bloom algal groups can have significant effects on major elemental fluxes and functioning of the Baltic Sea ecosystem, but also in the vast shelves and estuaries at high latitudes, where ice-associated cold-water dinoflagellates successfully compete with diatoms. PMID:21747911

  17. The extinct Baltic amber genus Propelma Trjapitzin, a valid genus of Neanastatinae (Hymenoptera, Eupelmidae).

    PubMed

    Gibson, Gary A P

    2013-01-01

    The extinct Eocene Baltic amber genus Propelma Trjapitzin 1963 is removed from synonymy under Eupelmus Dalman 1820 (Hymenoptera, Eupelmidae, Eupelminae) and treated as a valid genus within Neanastatinae Kalina 1984 based on examination of the holotype female of Propelma rohdendorfi Trjapitzin. Propelma rohdendorfi is redescribed, illustrated by photomacrographs, and compared to other described extant and extinct genera of Neanastatinae. Taxonomic, morphological and geological diversity of Neanastatinae relative to Eupelminae and Calosotinae is also discussed relative to potential age of the subfamily. PMID:23794842

  18. Allelopathy of Baltic Sea cyanobacteria: no evidence for the role of nodularin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SANNA SUIKKANEN; JONNA ENGSTROM-OST; JOUNI JOKELA; KAARINA SIVONEN; MARKKU VIITASALO

    2006-01-01

    Extracts of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Nodularia spumigena, the two most common cyano- bacteria forming recurrent blooms in the Baltic Sea, decrease the abundance of some phytoplankton species via the release of allelopathic substances. We investigated how cell-free filtrates of the two cyanobacteria, as well as purified hepatotoxin nodularin, produced by N. spumigena affected cell numbers, chlorophyll a content and 14CO2

  19. A climatological data set of temperature and salinity for the Baltic Sea and the North Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Janssen; C. Schrum; J. O. Backhaus

    1999-01-01

    Summary  A climatological monthly mean data set for temperature and salinity in the area of the North Sea and Baltic Sea is presented.\\u000a More than 3.1 million temperature observations (2.9 million for salinity) collected during the period 1900 to 1996 were compiled\\u000a and gridded on a 10×10 km grid with 18 vertical levels.\\u000a \\u000a The monthly mean horizontal distributions of temperature and

  20. Acoustical classification of the bottom sediments in the southern Baltic Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaros?aw T?gowski

    2005-01-01

    The basic relationship is described between the parameters of backscattered acoustic signal and the seabed type in the Polish Economic Zone of the Baltic Sea. The properties of the bottom backscattered signal were investigated using a single frequency narrow beam echosounder working at a frequency of 30kHz. For approximately 15,000 averaged echo pulses acquired in the survey area, calculations of

  1. Even low to medium nitrogen deposition impacts vegetation of dry, coastal dunes around the Baltic Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Remke; Emiel Brouwer; Annemieke Kooijman; Irmgard Blindow; Hans Esselink; Jan G. M. Roelofs

    2009-01-01

    Coastal dunes around the Baltic Sea have received small amounts of atmospheric nitrogen and are rather pristine ecosystems in this respect. In 19 investigated dune sites the atmospheric wet nitrogen deposition is 3-8 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1). The nitrogen content of Cladonia portentosa appeared to be a suitable biomonitor of these low to medium deposition levels. Comparison with EMEP-deposition data

  2. Arctic atmospheric circulation patterns responsible for dry and cold air inflows to the Baltic Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, Piia; Sepp, Mait

    2015-04-01

    Essential changes have taken place in atmospheric circulation over the Northern Atlantic in winter and spring during the second half of the 20th century. The winter temperature rise in Europe is frequently attributed to the intensification of zonal flow on the Northern Atlantic region and the same is valid for the Baltic Sea region. Intensification of zonal circulation and its expression through NAO and AO indices have been thoroughly studied, but less is known about mechanisms causing declination from the zonality of flow. Extremely cold weather in winter and spring in Baltic Sea region is related to the radiative cooling or advection of cold air masses. In both cases, the typical western flow is blocked and the region is directly influenced by atmospheric circulation conditions in the Arctic through the cold air advection events. Our aim is to study which large scale atmospheric circulation patterns are responsible for this kind of cold air advection to the Baltic Sea region in winter and spring (from December to May). The second task is to identify if this kind of circulation has become less frequent in the region under research beginning from the last half of the 20th century till now. Describing the atmospheric circulation patterns we use several classifications of atmospheric circulation on daily level. The domain of the classifications covers Atlantic-European sector of the Arctic, including area between Greenland and Novaya Zemlya archipelago. Manual classifications by Vangengeim-Girs and Dzerdzejevski are used, but also several newly calculated ones, that apply different classification methods from cost733class software. For the latter ones geopotential height fields at 500 hPa level from NCEP-NCAR reanalysis are classified for the period 1948-2013. The cold air advection events are determined by daily temperature drops by at least 3°C during 24 hours. The circulation types that bring advection of cold Arctic air to the Baltic Sea region are analysed in detail.

  3. Operator product expansion algebra

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, Jan [School of Mathematics, Cardiff University, Senghennydd Rd, Cardiff CF24 4AG (United Kingdom)] [School of Mathematics, Cardiff University, Senghennydd Rd, Cardiff CF24 4AG (United Kingdom); Hollands, Stefan [School of Mathematics, Cardiff University, Senghennydd Rd, Cardiff CF24 4AG (United Kingdom) [School of Mathematics, Cardiff University, Senghennydd Rd, Cardiff CF24 4AG (United Kingdom); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Leipzig, Brüderstr. 16, Leipzig, D-04103 (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    We establish conceptually important properties of the operator product expansion (OPE) in the context of perturbative, Euclidean ?{sup 4}-quantum field theory. First, we demonstrate, generalizing earlier results and techniques of hep-th/1105.3375, that the 3-point OPE, =?{sub C}C{sub A{sub 1A{sub 2A{sub 3}{sup C}}}}, usually interpreted only as an asymptotic short distance expansion, actually converges at finite, and even large, distances. We further show that the factorization identity C{sub A{sub 1A{sub 2A{sub 3}{sup B}}}}=?{sub C}C{sub A{sub 1A{sub 2}{sup C}}}C{sub CA{sub 3}{sup B}} is satisfied for suitable configurations of the spacetime arguments. Again, the infinite sum is shown to be convergent. Our proofs rely on explicit bounds on the remainders of these expansions, obtained using refined versions, mostly due to Kopper et al., of the renormalization group flow equation method. These bounds also establish that each OPE coefficient is a real analytic function in the spacetime arguments for non-coinciding points. Our results hold for arbitrary but finite loop orders. They lend support to proposals for a general axiomatic framework of quantum field theory, based on such “consistency conditions” and akin to vertex operator algebras, wherein the OPE is promoted to the defining structure of the theory.

  4. Construction Management: Planning Ahead.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arsht, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Explains that preconstruction planning is essential when undertaking the challenges of a school building renovation or expansion, focusing on developing a detailed estimate, creating an effective construction strategy, conducting reviews and value-engineering workshops, and realizing savings through effective risk analysis and contingency…

  5. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-12-15

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig.

  6. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Lawrence M. (San Jose, CA); Strum, Michael J. (San Jose, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components.

  7. Thermal expansion of solids

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, C.Y. [ed.; Taylor, R.E.

    1998-12-01

    This book gives an in-depth look at the theory of thermal expansion of solids and the techniques for measuring this property. The individual chapters are written by 13 recognized experts on all aspects of the subject who collectively represent almost 500 years of professional activity. While the data presented in the text are mainly placed there to emphasize a point, the analyzed data on reference materials are assembled in the final chapter. The book is Volume I-4 in the CINDAS Data Series on Material Properties.

  8. Trends in the variation of the sea level in the lagoons of the Southeastern Baltic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navrotskaya, S. E.; Chubarenko, B. V.

    2013-02-01

    This paper analyses the global tendency of the sea level rise (SLR) and its long term influence on the sea level upstream drainage cascade based on the example of the level's variation in the Vistula Lagoon of the Baltic Sea compared to the other lagoons and coastal regions of the southeastern part of the Baltic Sea. A steady positive trend in the water level variations was revealed; its magnitude varies significantly depending on the time period. In general, during the 100-150 year period, the rate of the SLR in the lagoons and coastal areas of the Baltic Sea (1.7-1.8 mm per year) is close to the SLR rate in the World Ocean. In the second half of the 20th century, the increased rate of the SLR in the lagoons and marine areas became stronger (up to 3.6 mm per year in the Vistula Lagoon and in 1959-2006 in the sea and exceeded the rate of global ocean SLR). It dramatically increased at the end of the last century both in the lagoons and in the sea (up to 10.0-15.0 mm per year). This is the response not only to the global climate warming but it is likely that it is also a response to the changes of the climate driving forces that influence the regimes of the local wind and precipitation in the catchment.

  9. Ice formation and growth shape bacterial community structure in Baltic Sea drift ice.

    PubMed

    Eronen-Rasimus, Eeva; Lyra, Christina; Rintala, Janne-Markus; Jürgens, Klaus; Ikonen, Vilma; Kaartokallio, Hermanni

    2015-02-01

    Drift ice, open water and under-ice water bacterial communities covering several developmental stages from open water to thick ice were studied in the northern Baltic Sea. The bacterial communities were assessed with 16S rRNA gene terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism and cloning, together with bacterial abundance and production measurements. In the early stages, open water and pancake ice were dominated by Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria, which are common bacterial groups in Baltic Sea wintertime surface waters. The pancake ice bacterial communities were similar to the open-water communities, suggesting that the parent water determines the sea-ice bacterial community in the early stages of sea-ice formation. In consolidated young and thick ice, the bacterial communities were significantly different from water bacterial communities as well as from each other, indicating community development in Baltic Sea drift ice along with ice-type changes. The thick ice was dominated by typical sea-ice genera from classes Flavobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, similar to those in polar sea-ice bacterial communities. Since the thick ice bacterial community was remarkably different from that of the parent seawater, results indicate that thick ice bacterial communities were recruited from the rarer members of the seawater bacterial community. PMID:25764550

  10. Population modelling of Acartia spp. in a water column ecosystem model for the Southern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, L.; ?mijewska, I. M.; Mudrak, S.; Jakacki, J.; Lemieszek, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes numerical simulations of the seasonal dynamics of Acartia spp. in the Southern Baltic Sea. The studies were carried out using a structured zooplankton population model adapted to Acartia spp. The population model with state variables for eggs, nauplii, five copepodites stages and adults was coupled with a marine ecosystem model. Four state variables for the carbon cycle represent the functional units of phytoplankton, pelagic detritus, benthic detritus, and bulk zooplankton, which represent all zooplankton other than the structured population. The annual cycle simulated for 2000 under realistic weather and hydrographic conditions was studied with the coupled ecosystem-zooplankton model applied to a water column in the Gda?sk Gulf (Southern Baltic Sea). The vertical profiles of selected state variables were compared to the physical forcing to study differences between bulk and structured zooplankton biomass. The simulated population dynamics of Acartia spp. and zooplankton as one biomass state variable were compared with observations in the Gda?sk Gulf. Simulated generation times are more affected by temperature than food conditions except during the spring phytoplankton bloom. The numerical studies are a following step in understanding how the population dynamics of a dominant species in the Southern Baltic Sea interact with the environment.

  11. Population modelling of Acartia spp. in a water column ecosystem model for the southern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, Lidia; Zmijewska, Maria; Mudrak, Stella; Lemieszek, Anna; Jakacki, Jaromir; Janecki, Maciej

    2010-05-01

    This paper describes numerical simulations of the seasonal dynamics of Acartia spp. in the southern Baltic Sea. The studies were carried out using a structured zooplankton population model adapted to Acartia spp. The population model with state variables for eggs, nauplii, five copepodites stages and adults was coupled with a marine ecosystem model. Four state variables for the carbon cycle represent the functional units of phytoplankton, pelagic detritus, benthic detritus, and bulk zooplankton, which represent all zooplankton other than the structured population. The annual cycle simulated for 2000 under realistic weather and hydrographic conditions was studied with the coupled ecosystem-zooplankton model applied to a water column in the Gda?sk Gulf (southern Baltic Sea). The vertical profiles of selected state variables were compared to the physical forcing to study differences between bulk and structured zooplankton biomass. The simulated population dynamics of Acartia spp. and zooplankton as one biomass state variable were compared with observations in the Gda?sk Gulf. Simulated generation times are more affected by temperature than food conditions except during the spring phytoplankton bloom. The numerical studies are a following step in understanding how the population dynamics of a dominant species in the southern Baltic Sea interact with the environment. This work was carried out in support of grant (the Polish state Committee of Scientific Research).

  12. Renewed circulation scheme of the Baltic Sea - based on the 40-year simulation with GETM.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maljutenko, Ilja; Raudsepp, Urmas

    2015-04-01

    The general circulation of the Baltic Sea has been characterized as cyclonic in all sub-basins based on numerous measurements and model simulations. From the long-term hydrodynamical simulation our model results have verified the general cyclonic circulation in the Baltic Proper and in the Gulf of Bothnia, but the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Riga have shown tendency to anticyclonic circulation. We have applied the General Estuarine Transport Model ( GETM ) for the period of 1966 - 2006 with a 1 nautical mile horizontal resolution and density adaptive bottom following vertical coordinates to make it possible to simulate horizontal and vertical density gradients with better precision. The atmospheric forcing from dynamically downscaled ERA40-HIRLAM and parametrized lateral boundary conditions are applied. Model simulation show close agreement with measurements conducted in the main monitoring stations in the BS during the simulation period. The geostrophic adjustment of density driven currents along with the upward salinity flux due to entrainment could explain the anticyclonic circulation and strong coastal current. Mean vertical velocities show that upward and downward movements are forming closed vertical circulation loops along the bottom slope of the Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Bothnia. The model has also reproduced patchy vertical movement across the BS with some distinctive areas of upward advective fluxes in the GoF along the thalweg. The distinctive areas of deepwater upwelling are also evident in the Gdansk Basin, western Gotland Basin, northern Gotland Basin and in the northen part of the Bothnia Sea.

  13. Climate change during the last 200 years in the Baltic Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutgersson, Anna; Käyhkö, Jukka; Jaagus, Jaak; Rasmus, Sirpa; Schenk, Frederik; Stendel, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Observed changes in atmospheric conditions, river run-off and cryosphere in the Baltic Sea drainage basin are described over the past 200-300 years. The Baltic Sea area is relatively unique with a dense observational network covering an extended time period. Data analysis covers three periods: an early period with sparse and relatively uncertain measurements, a period with well developed synoptic stations, and a final period with 30+ years of satellite data and sounding systems. The atmospheric circulation in the European/Atlantic sector has an important role in the regional climate of the Baltic Sea basin, especially the North Atlantic Oscillation. A continued warming have been observed, in particularly during spring the warming have also been stronger over northern regions. There have been observed a northward shift of storm tracks and increased cyclonic activity has been observed in recent decades with an increased persistence of weather types. No long-term trend in have been observed in annual wind statistics since the 19th century, but considerable variations on (multi-)decadal timescale. Neither have any long term trend have been observed in precipitation, but an indication for an increased length of precipitation periods and possibly an increased risk of extreme precipitation events. No statistical significant trends have been detected in annual river discharges, however, winter discharges increase due to higher temperatures and there are regional variations in discharge cyclicity. Warming have resulted in reduction of snow cover, especially because of earlier snow melt and also a decrease in glacier coverage.

  14. A pre-operational 3-D variational data assimilation system in the North/Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, w.

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes the implementation and evaluation of a pre-operational three dimensional variational (3DVAR) data assimilation system for the North/Baltic Sea. Univariate analysis for temperature and salinity is applied in a 3DVAR scheme in which the horizontal component of the background error covariance is modeled by an isotropic recursive filter (IRF) and the vertical component is represented by dominant Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs) of the background error. Observations of temperature and salinity (T/S) profiles in the North/Baltic Sea are assimilated in the year of 2005. Effect of the 3DVAR scheme is assessed by a comparison between data assimilation run and control run. The statistical analysis indicates that the model simulation is significantly improved with the 3DVAR scheme. On average, the root mean square error (RMSE) of temperature and salinity is reduced by 0.2 °C and 0.25 psu in the North/Baltic Sea. In addition, the bias of temperature and salinity is also decreased by 0.1 °C and 0.2 psu, respectively. Starting from an analyzed initial state, one month simulation without assimilation is carried out with the aim of examining the persistence of the initial impact. It is shown that the assimilated initial state can impact the model simulation for nearly two weeks. The influence on salinity is more pronounced than temperature.

  15. The hydrodynamic part of the 3D CEMBS model for the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, Lidia; Jakacki, Jaromir; Janecki, Maciej; Nowicki, Artur

    2013-04-01

    The paper presents a hydrodynamic part of the coupled ice-ocean model 3D CEMBS designed for the Baltic Sea. It is based on the Community Earth System Model (CESM from the National Center for Atmospheric Research). It was adopted for the Baltic Sea as a coupled sea-ice model. It consists of the Community Ice Code (CICE model, version 4.0) and the Parallel Ocean Program (version 2.1). The models are linked through the coupler (CPL7) based on the Model Coupling Toolkit library. The ocean model has 21 vertical levels and horizontal grid of 600x640 cells. Horizontal resolution is approximately 2km. It is forced by atmospheric fields from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts and in operational mode from 48-hour atmospheric forecasts provided by the UM model from the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling of Warsaw University (ICM). The study was financially supported by the Polish State Committee of Scientific Research (grants: No N N305 111636, N N306 353239). The partial support for this study was also provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBaltyk founded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract no. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09. Calculations were carried out at the Academy Computer Centre in Gdansk.

  16. Environmental genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in the offshore zones of the Baltic and the North Seas.

    PubMed

    Rybakovas, Aleksandras; Barsiene, Janina; Lang, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Micronuclei (MN), nuclear buds (NB) and fragmented-apoptotic cells (FA) were analyzed in mature peripheral blood and immature cephalic kidney erythrocytes of flounder (Platichthys flesus), dab (Limanda limanda) and cod (Gadus morhua) from 12 offshore sites in the Baltic Sea (479 specimens) and 11 sites in the North Sea (291 specimens), which were collected during three research vessel cruises in December 2002, 2003 and in September 2004. The highest levels of environmental genotoxicity (frequencies of MN up to 0.5 per thousand, NB - up to 0.75 per thousand) and cytotoxicity (FA - up to 0.53 per thousand) were observed in flatfishes from areas close to oil and gas platforms in the North Sea and in zones related to the extensive shipping and potentially influenced by contamination from large European Rivers (Elbe, Vistula, Oder). In dab from the offshore zones of the North Sea, the levels of nuclear abnormalities were higher as compared to those in dab from the Baltic Sea. Responses in immature kidney erythrocytes were higher than in mature erythrocytes from peripheral blood. MN frequency lower than 0.05 per thousand (the Baltic Sea) and lower than 0.1 per thousand (the North Sea) could be suspected as a reference level in the peripheral blood erythrocytes of flatfish. PMID:19616842

  17. REGIONAL WATER SUPPLY PLANNING AND

    E-print Network

    Mays, Larry W.

    CHAPTER 3 REGIONAL WATER SUPPLY PLANNING AND CAPACITY EXPANSION MODELS Messele Z. Ejeta California Department of Water Resources Sacramento, California Larry W. Mays Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Arizona State University Tempe, Arizona 3.1 INTRODUCTION Water supply planning on a regional scale

  18. The Baltic Macoma: abundance and distribution of an important winter food of diving ducks in Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorde, D.G.; Haramis, G.M.

    1997-01-01

    Poor water quality and widespread depletion of wild celery (Vallisneria americana) and other submerged aquatic plants important as waterfowl foods has resulted in the continued dependence of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) on Baltic clams (Macoma balthica) as their primary winter food. Despite this dependence, no information exists regarding the distribution and abundance of Baltic clams, and changes that occur in Baltic clam populations over time. We conducted benthic surveys to determine the distribution and abundance of Macoma balthica and M. mitchelli in major tributaries of the upper and middle Chesapeake Bay. Tributaries sampled included the Chester River south to Monie Bay on the Eastern Shore, and Middle River to the Potomac River on the western shore of Maryland. Data on depth, bottom type, shellfish, and submerged aquatic vegetation were recorded. The Baltic clam had the highest frequency of occurrence (50%), followed by M. mitchelli (36%). Other species of clams occurred in less than 14% of the 2995 sites sampled. In addition, every third month since June 1991, we have studied seasonal changes in Baltic clam abundance and recruitment at 13 high abundance sites. Recruitment was recorded at only one high density site (97% increase) between June and September transect surveys. Clam length histograms clearly indicated a new year class and depletion of older cohorts. Average summer decline in Baltic clam abundance at the other 12 sites was 59% and ranged from -11% to -97%. Based on clam length, younger cohorts were depleted at a higher rate. More than half of the Baltic clam population was depleted during the summer and spring recruitment was low.

  19. Zambia : long-term generation expansion study - executive summary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Conzelmann; V. Koritarov; W. Buehring; T. Veselka

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze possible long-term development options of the Zambian electric power system in the period up to 2015. The analysis involved the hydro operations studies of the Zambezi river basin and the systems planning studies for the least-cost generation expansion planning. Two well-known and widely accepted computer models were used in the analysis: PC-VALORAGUA

  20. Spatial sensitivity of inorganic carbon to model setup: North Sea and Baltic Sea with ECOSMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castano Primo, Rocio; Schrum, Corinna; Daewel, Ute

    2015-04-01

    In ocean biogeochemical models it is critical to capture the key processes adequately so they do not only reproduce the observations but that those processes are reproduced correctly. One key issue is the choice of parameters, which in most cases are estimates with large uncertainties. This can be the product of actual lack of detailed knowledge of the process, or the manner the processes are implemented, more or less complex. In addition, the model sensitivity is not necessarily homogenous across the spatial domain modelled, which adds another layer of complexity to biogeochemical modelling. In the particular case of the inorganic carbon cycle, there are several sets of carbonate constants that can be chosen. The calculated air-sea CO2 flux is largely dependent on the parametrization chosen. In addition, the different parametrizations all the underlying processes that in some way impact the carbon cycle beyond the carbonate dissociation and fluxes give results that can be significantly different. Examples of these processes are phytoplankton growth rates or remineralization rates. Despite their geographical proximity, the North and Baltic Seas exhibit very different dynamics. The North Sea receives important inflows of Atlantic waters, while the Baltic Sea is an almost enclosed system, with very little exchange from the North Sea. Wind, tides, and freshwater supply act very differently, but dominantly structure the ecosystem dynamics on spatial and temporal scales. The biological community is also different. Cyanobacteria, which are important due to their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen, and they are only present in the Baltic Sea. These differentiating features have a strong impact in the biogeochemical cycles and ultimately shape the variations in the carbonate chemistry. Here the ECOSMO model was employed on the North Sea and Baltic Sea. The model is set so both are modelled at the same time, instead of having them run separately. ECOSMO is a 3-D coupled physical-biogeochemical model, which resolves the cycles of nitrogen, phosphorus and silicate. It includes 3 functional groups of phytoplankton and 2 groups of zooplankton. In addition, an inorganic carbon module has been incorporated and coupled. Alkalinity and DIC are chosen as prognostic variables, from which pH, pCO2 and air-sea CO2 flux are calculated. The model is run with different sets of carbonate dissociation parameters, air-sea flux parametrizations, phytoplankton growth and remineralization rates. The sensitivity of the inorganic carbon variables will be assessed, both in the whole model domain and the North and Baltic Sea independently. We search for the critical parameters that have a larger impact, whether such impact is spatially dependent and the effect on the validation of the carbonate module.

  1. Meteorological conditions influencing the formation of level ice within the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, A. K.; Krezel, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Baltic Sea is covered by ice every winter and on average, the ice-covered area is 45% of the total area of the Baltic Sea. The beginning of ice season usually starts in the end of November, ice extent is the largest between mid-February and mid-March and sea ice disappears completely in May. The ice covered areas during a typical winter are the Gulf of Bothnia, the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Riga. The studies of sea ice in the Baltic Sea are related to two aspects: climate and marine transport. Depending on the local weather conditions during the winter different types of sea ice can be formed. From the point of winter shipping it is important to locate level and deformed ice areas (rafted ice, ridged ice, and hummocked ice). Because of cloud and daylight independency as well as good spatial resolution, SAR data seems to be the most suitable source of data for sea ice observation in the comparatively small area of the Baltic Sea. We used ASAR Wide Swath Mode data with spatial resolution 150 m. We analyzed data from the three winter seasons which were examples of severe, typical and mild winters. To remove the speckle effect the data were resampled to 250 m pixel size and filtred using Frost filter 5x5. To detect edges we used Sobel filter. The data were also converted into grayscale. Sea ice classification was based on Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA). Object-based methods are not a common tool in sea ice studies but they seem to accurately separate level ice within the ice pack. The data were segmented and classified using eCognition Developer software. Level ice were classified based on texture features defined by Haralick (Grey Level Co-Occurrence Matrix homogeneity, GLCM contrast, GLCM entropy and GLCM correlation). The long-term changes of the Baltic Sea ice conditions have been already studied. They include date of freezing, date of break-up, sea ice extent and some of work also ice thickness. There is a little knowledge about the relationship of short term changes in sea ice cover and meteorological conditions. In following studies we analyzed the formation of level sea ice depending on some weather conditions (temperature, humidity, pressure at sea level, 10 meter wind). It can be clearly seen that the most important factors influencing formation of level ice are the temperature and wind.

  2. Modeling the pathways and ages of inflowing salt- and freshwater in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markus Meier, H. E.

    2007-09-01

    A three-dimensional, eddy-permitting ocean circulation model with implemented bottom boundary layer model and flux-corrected transport scheme is used to calculate the pathways and ages of various water masses in the Baltic Sea. The agreement between simulated and observed temperature and salinity profiles of the period 1980-2004 is satisfactory. Especially the renewal of the deep water in the Baltic proper by gravity-driven dense bottom flows is better simulated than in previous versions of the model. Based upon these model results details of the mean circulation are analyzed. For instance, it is found that after the major Baltic inflow in January 2003 saline water passing the S?upsk Furrow flows directly towards northeast along the eastern slope of the Hoburg Channel. However, after the baroclinic summer inflow in August/September 2002 the deep water flow spreads along the southwestern slope of the Gdansk Basin. Further, the model results show that the patterns of mean vertical advective fluxes across the halocline that close the large-scale vertical circulation are rather patchy. Mainly within distinct areas are particles of the saline inflow water advected vertically from the deep water into the surface layer. To analyze the time scales of the circulation mean ages of various water masses are calculated. It is found that at the sea surface of the Bornholm Basin, Gotland Basin, Bothnian Sea, and Bothnian Bay the mean ages associated to inflowing water from Kattegat amount to 26-30, 28-34, 34-38, and 38-42 years, respectively. Largest mean sea surface ages of more than 30 years associated to the freshwater of the rivers are found in the central Gotland Basin and Belt Sea. At the bottom the mean ages are largest in the western Gotland Basin and amount to more than 36 years. In the Baltic proper vertical gradients of ages associated to the freshwater inflow are smaller than in the case of inflowing saltwater from Kattegat indicating an efficient recirculation of freshwater in the Baltic Sea.

  3. Recruitment processes in Baltic sprat - A re-evaluation of GLOBEC Germany hypotheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, Rüdiger; Peck, Myron A.; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Clemmesen, Catriona; Baumann, Hannes; Stepputtis, Daniel; Bernreuther, Matthias; Schmidt, Jörn O.; Temming, Axel; Köster, Fritz W.

    2012-12-01

    The GLOBEC Germany program (2002-2007) had the ambitious goal to resolve the processes impacting the recruitment dynamics of Baltic sprat (Sprattus sprattus L.) by examining various factors affecting early life history stages. At the start of the research program, a number of general recruitment hypotheses were formulated, i.e. focusing on (1) predation, (2) food availability, (3) physical parameters, (4) the impact of current systems, and finally (5) the importance of top-down vs bottom-up effects. The present study synthesizes the results of field sampling (2002 and 2003), laboratory experiments, and modeling studies to re-evaluate these hypotheses for the Baltic sprat stock. Recruitment success was quite different in the 2 years investigated. Despite a lower spawning stock biomass in 2003, the total number of recruits was almost 2-fold higher that year compared to 2002. The higher recruitment success in 2003 could be attributed to enhanced survival success during the post-larval/juvenile stage, a life phase that appears to be critical for recruitment dynamics. In the state of the Baltic ecosystem during the period of investigation, we consider bottom-up control (e.g. temperature, prey abundance) to be more important than top-down control (predation mortality). This ranking in importance does not vary seasonally. Prevailing water circulation patterns and the transport dynamics of larval cohorts have a strong influence on sprat recruitment success. Pronounced transport to coastal areas is detrimental for year-class strength particularly at high sprat stock sizes. A suggested mechanism is density-dependant regulation of survival via intra- and inter-specific competition for prey in coastal areas. A documented change in larval vertical migration behavior between the early 1990s and early 2000s increased the transport potential to the coast, strengthening the coupling between inter-annual differences in the magnitude and direction of wind-driven surface currents and year-to-year changes in reproductive success. However, due to the strong linkages and feed-back loops in the Baltic Sea food web, the most robust projections of the future strength of the Baltic sprat stock will need to take into account climate-driven changes in both abiotic (e.g., drift trajectories) and biotic (trophodynamic) factors. Although our understanding of processes affecting pre-recruit (larval) growth and survival has been advanced by the integrated research conducted within the GLOBEC Germany program, key mechanisms potentially affecting life stages outside of the spawning basins remain to be explored including the dynamics of coastal habitats of juveniles and the feeding and overwintering grounds of adults.

  4. Dissolved organic phosphorus in the Baltic Sea - temporal variability and utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nausch, Günther; Nausch, Monika; Steinrücken, Pia; Balke, Jana; Woelk, Jana

    2014-05-01

    The temporal variability of dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) concentrations in the Baltic Sea was investigated during three cruises in summer 2008, late winter/early spring 2009 and summer 2012 with focus on the central Baltic Sea. In summer 2008, characteristic cyanobacteria blooms occured in the Baltic Proper and DOP concentrations in the surface layer of 0.32 ± 0.05 µM have been estimated. In summer 2012, meteorological conditions did not favour intense cyanobacteria development and DOP concentrations were with 0.24 ± 0.04 µM lower on average. DOP degradation in autumn and winter resulted in lower concentrations of 0.21 ± 0.06 µM as can be seen in the winter cruise 2009. During the first two cruises also the spatial distribution of DOP in the surface layer between the Skagerrak and the northern Gulf of Bothnia could be measured. Highest summer concentrations of 0.32 ± 0.05 µM were found in the Baltic Proper, followed by the Gulf of Finland having on mean 0.25 ± 0.01 µM. DOP decreased down to 0.12 µM in the phosphorus limited Bay of Bothnia. Similar low concentrations were measured in the Skagerrak. The same spatial DOP pattern as in summer 2008 was observed in late winter/early spring 2009, but on lower concentration levels, except the Skagerrak and Kattegat were the spring bloom already has started. In addition, the bioavailable and refractory DOP fractions (B-DOP and R-DOP) were measured in time course experiments in 2008 and 2012, excluding C- and N- limitation. In summer 2008, the R-DOP constituted a higher proportion of DOP compared to B-DOP. A gradient has been observed from the northernmost station in the Bothnian Bay to the southern Baltic Proper. In the Bothnian Bay, only 0.01µM B-DOP could be detected, comprising 8% of DOP whereas B-DOP constituted a proportion of 25-29% in the Gotland Basin and up to 46% in the Gulf of Finland. In summer 2012, B-DOP concentrations of 0.09 ± 0.02 µM were measured in the eastern Gotland Basin corresponding to 27 - 40% of DOP. An additional supplied cocktail of DNA, RNA, ATP and phospholipides was used together with the natural B-DOP and stimulated bacteria growth by 15-26%.

  5. Feeding ecology of dunlins Calidris alpina staging in the southern Baltic Sea, 2. Spatial and temporal variations in the harvestable fraction of their favourite prey Hediste diversicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Volker Dierschke; Jan Kube; Heike Rippe

    1999-01-01

    Spatial and temporal variations were studied in the distribution of the fraction of the polychaete Hediste diversicolor harvestable for dunlins Calidris alpina under non-tidal conditions in Baltic Sea windflats. The investigations were carried out in 1991 and 1995 near the island of Hiddensee, in the Bock and Bessin windflats, the most significant staging areas for shorebirds on the southern Baltic

  6. Relationship between the optical properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter and total concentration of dissolved organic carbon in the southern Baltic Sea region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovanni M. Ferrari; Mark D. Dowell; Stefania Grossi; Cristina Targa

    1996-01-01

    Absorption and fluorescence of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) measurements were performed during three oceanographic surveys in 1994 in the southern Baltic Sea (Polish area of the Baltic Proper). DOC was measured both by high-temperature catalytic oxidation (HTCO) and low-temperature oxidation (LTO) conventional persulphate methods. CDOM fluorescence was shown to be highly correlated with absorption,

  7. Recycling of manganese from anoxic sediments in stagnant basins by seawater inflow: a study of surface sediments from the Gotland Basin, Baltic Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uwe Heiser; Thomas Neumann; Jan Scholten; Doris Stüben

    2001-01-01

    The occurrence of Mn carbonates in sapropelic sediments has been proposed to indicate that the host sediment originally accumulated under oxygenated bottomwaters. In the central Baltic Sea, Ca-rich rhodochrosite layers in sapropelic sediments have been related to inflows of oxic seawater from the North Sea into the brackish, predominantly anoxic, deeps of the central Baltic. This study attempts to verify

  8. Seismic reprocessing of 2D marine seismic reflection data from the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sopher, D.; Juhlin, C.

    2012-04-01

    Large quantities of seismic reflection data acquired in the Baltic Sea before 1990 exist. Several decades later, it is common that these datasets are considered to be obsolete. However re-processing these data using modern technology can provide significant uplift in the quality of the final product. As highlighted by this study, opportunities to extract additional subsurface information from these historical data at a relatively low cost are significant. In this study, several historical 2D seismic reflection lines from different vintages acquired between 1970 and 1990 in the Baltic Sea have been re-processed from raw shot gathers using current techniques and computer hardware. A significant uplift has been achieved in pre-stack gathers and the final stacked images when compared to the original processing. As a result a more confident interpretation of the shallow crustal sedimentary sequence is obtained, which differs notably from the interpretation of the original data. The potential benefits of seismic data re-processing are wide ranging. However, in this case the reprocessed lines form a small part of a large publicly available historical dataset of 2D seismic reflection data acquired in the Baltic Sea. Reprocessing this dataset could therefore provide valuable information which would be of interest for a number of research areas. These could include the evaluation of the CO2 storage potential in Scandinavia and the Baltic states, improving the understanding of Baltic Sea geology and evaluating remaining hydrocarbon potential. The data presented consists of lines from 3 different 2D marine surveys acquired using a single towed streamer. The offset range across all 3 acquisitions is 65m to 1397m, both airgun and water gun sources were used. Receiver spacing across the 3 surveys varied from 6.25 to 50m. The study profiles are located in the Southern Baltic Sea, with two intersecting profiles lying approximately 50km south of Öland and one profile lying 10km to the south east of Gotland. A revised processing flow for these Baltic Sea data has been developed and implemented. This provides general improvements to the processing flow as well as specifically targeting two significant data issues which exist in the original stacked sections. The first is the presence of high angle linear noise which is identified as diffracted multiple energy. This noise is thought to be generated as a result of undulating structure at the top of a layer with a sharp impedance increase located in the shallow subsurface. In this study this noise is successfully attenuated by filtering out negative dips by means of an FK mute applied to shot and receiver gathers. The second issue is multiple energy. In this case, the same sharp impedance increase located in the near subsurface acts together with the seabed to generate significant multiple noise. Deconvolution applied in the Tau P domain is found to be the most effective method for attenuating multiples in this dataset. This study therefore highlights the uplift in final stacked image and tangible differences in interpretation which can be achieved when re-processing historical seismic data with modern day technology.

  9. Baltic Salmon, Salmo salar, from Swedish River Lule Älv Is More Resistant to Furunculosis Compared to Rainbow Trout

    PubMed Central

    Holten-Andersen, Lars; Dalsgaard, Inger; Buchmann, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Background Furunculosis, caused by Aeromonas salmonicida, continues to be a major health problem for the growing salmonid aquaculture. Despite effective vaccination programs regular outbreaks occur at the fish farms calling for repeated antibiotic treatment. We hypothesized that a difference in natural susceptibility to this disease might exist between Baltic salmon and the widely used rainbow trout. Study Design A cohabitation challenge model was applied to investigate the relative susceptibility to infection with A. salmonicida in rainbow trout and Baltic salmon. The course of infection was monitored daily over a 30-day period post challenge and the results were summarized in mortality curves. Results A. salmonicida was recovered from mortalities during the entire test period. At day 30 the survival was 6.2% and 34.0% for rainbow trout and Baltic salmon, respectively. Significant differences in susceptibility to A. salmonicida were demonstrated between the two salmonids and hazard ratio estimation between rainbow trout and Baltic salmon showed a 3.36 higher risk of dying from the infection in the former. Conclusion The finding that Baltic salmon carries a high level of natural resistance to furunculosis might raise new possibilities for salmonid aquaculture in terms of minimizing disease outbreaks and the use of antibiotics. PMID:22276121

  10. Steamflood expansion using slim-hole injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, E.L.; Johnson, K.R.; Kirby, R.H. [Chevron U.S.A. Inc., Bakersfield, CA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes a successful steam-injection vertical expansion recently implemented in California`s Midway Sunset field with slim-hole injection wells. Slim-hole injectors were chosen over conventional injectors to reduce capital investment. The savings allowed drilling of additional injection wells, which were used to optimize steam placement on the basis of reservoir architecture. Two vertical expansion designs were compared at a fixed cost with either conventional or slim-hole steam injectors. The conventional well design had 10 injection wells and three temperature-observation wells. The steam drive targets were two steeply dipping turbidite depositional lobes containing multiple, vertically segregated sand bodies. Selection of conventional well locations was based on the upper primary reservoir compromising injection location in the lower secondary reservoir. The slim-hole plan, consisting of 38 injectors and 10 temperature-observation wells, was selected because of its advantages. The capital cost for the slim-hole wells was about the same as the conventional program. Approximately three slim-hole injectors could be drilled for the cost of one conventional injector. With additional wells, injector locations were optimized for both the upper primary and lower secondary reservoirs. These additional injection wells provided improved profile control and steamflood management of the individual sand bodies within each reservoir. As a result of the vertical expansion, incremental production has increased steadily since project startup.

  11. Resin reinforced expansion anchor system

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, C.A.; Wright, R.L.

    1988-08-16

    An expansion anchor assembly is described in combination with a dual compartment resin and cartridge inserted into a mine roof opening, the anchor assembly including: (a) an elongated bolt having a head at one end and threaded for a portion of its length at the other end; (b) an expansion member engaged with the threaded end of the bolt; (c) the expansion member including an expansion shell having a plurality of leaf segments; (d) a first means for engaging the expansion shell with the elongated bolt; (e) a wedge threaded on the elongated bolt for engagement with the expansion shell to urge the latter into gripping engagement with the mine roof; (f) a first resin passageway means on the outer surface of the wedge for permitting resin to gravitate therethrough; (g) the leaf segments of the expansion shell being separated to form a second resin passageway means aligned with the first resin passageway means, whereby resin may gravitate downwardly through substantially the entire length of the assembly, and (h) a second means within the first passageway and engageable with one of the leaf segments to prevent relative rotation of the wedge member with respect to the expansion shell; (i) the resin being mixed upon rotation of the bolt and expansion member and gravitating downwardly through the first and second passageway means into engagement with that portion of the mine roof defining the mine roof opening.

  12. Burial Ground Expansion Hydrogeologic Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Gaughan , T.F.

    1999-02-26

    Sirrine Environmental Consultants provided technical oversight of the installation of eighteen groundwater monitoring wells and six exploratory borings around the location of the Burial Ground Expansion.

  13. Incorporating endogenous demand dynamics into long-term capacity expansion power system models for Developing countries

    E-print Network

    Jordan, Rhonda LeNai

    2013-01-01

    This research develops a novel approach to long-term power system capacity expansion planning for developing countries by incorporating endogenous demand dynamics resulting from social processes of technology adoption. ...

  14. 62 FR 33392 - City of Albany, KY, Cagle Water Expansion Project; Final Environmental Impact Statement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-06-19

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service...Albany, KY, Cagle Water Expansion Project...required by the Kentucky Agriculture Water Quality Plan, which...implemented. Each new agriculture operation would...

  15. 62 FR 19099 - City of Albany, Kentucky, Cagle Water Expansion Project; Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-04-18

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service...Albany, Kentucky, Cagle Water Expansion Project...required by the Kentucky Agriculture Water Quality Plan, which...implemented. Each new agriculture operation would...

  16. The Impacts of Highway Expansion on Population Change: An Integrated Spatial Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chi, Guangqing

    2010-01-01

    The effects of highways on transforming human society and promoting population change have been investigated in several disciplines, including geography, sociology, economics, and planning. Currently, the primary highway construction activity in the nation is highway expansion; however, this expansion has not been the focus of much of the existing…

  17. Relationships between colored dissolved organic matter and dissolved organic carbon in different coastal gradients of the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Harvey, E Therese; Kratzer, Susanne; Andersson, Agneta

    2015-06-01

    Due to high terrestrial runoff, the Baltic Sea is rich in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), the light-absorbing fraction of which is referred to as colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Inputs of DOC and CDOM are predicted to increase with climate change, affecting coastal ecosystems. We found that the relationships between DOC, CDOM, salinity, and Secchi depth all differed between the two coastal areas studied; the W Gulf of Bothnia with high terrestrial input and the NW Baltic Proper with relatively little terrestrial input. The CDOM:DOC ratio was higher in the Gulf of Bothnia, where CDOM had a greater influence on the Secchi depth, which is used as an indicator of eutrophication and hence important for Baltic Sea management. Based on the results of this study, we recommend regular CDOM measurements in monitoring programmes, to increase the value of concurrent Secchi depth measurements. PMID:26022322

  18. Hybrid origin of Baltic salmon-specific parasite Gyrodactylus salaris: a model for speciation by host switch for hemiclonal organisms.

    PubMed

    Kuusela, Jussi; Zietara, Marek S; Lumme, J

    2007-12-01

    Host switching explains the high species number of ectoparasitic, viviparous, mainly parthenogenetic but potentially hermaphroditic flatworms of the genus Gyrodactylus. The starlike mitochondrial phylogeny of Gyrodactylus salaris suggested parallel divergence of several clades on grayling (also named as Gyrodactylus thymalli) and an embedded sister clade on Baltic salmon. The hypothesis that the parasite switched from grayling to salmon during the glacial diaspora was tested using a 493-bp nuclear DNA marker ADNAM1. The parasites on salmon in lakes Onega and Ladoga were heterozygous for divergent ADNAM1 alleles WS1 and BS1, found as nearly fixed in grayling parasites in the White Sea and Baltic Sea basins, respectively. In the Baltic salmon-specific mtDNA clade, the WS/BS heterozygosity was maintained in 23 out of the 24 local clones. The permanently heterozygous clade was endemic in the Baltic Sea basin, and it had accumulated variation in mtDNA (31 variable sites on 1600 bp) and in the alleles of the nuclear locus (two point mutations and three nucleotide conversions along 493 bp). Mendelian shuffling of the nuclear alleles between the local clones indicated rare sex within the clade, but the WS/BS heterozygosity was lost in only one salmon hatchery clone, which was heterozygous WS1/WS3. The Baltic salmon-specific G. salaris lineage was monophyletic, descending from a single historical hybridization and consequential host switch, frozen by permanent heterozygosity. A possible time for the hybridization of grayling parasite strains from the White Sea and Baltic Sea basins was during the Eemian interglacial 132 000 years bp. Strains having a separate divergent mtDNA observed on farmed rainbow trout, and on salmon in Russian lake Kuito were suggested to be clones derived from secondary and tertiary recombination events. PMID:17971088

  19. Modelling of LIBS plasma expansion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Colonna; A. Casavola; M. Capitelli

    2001-01-01

    A one-dimensional time-dependent fluid dynamic model has been developed to describe the expansion of the plume produced by laser ablation. The model includes chemical reactions considered in local thermodynamic equilibrium to describe the expansion of a TiO plasma. The results are discussed in connection with LIBS plasmas.

  20. Bone expansion in facial rejuvenation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rómulo Guerrero Vicuña; Adriana Salazar Giottonini

    1994-01-01

    Soft tissues and bone structures of the face are both affected by aging, but the bone is the more important element in the three-dimensional contour and suspension of the soft tissue. Bone expansion augments bone volume in the midface. A lamellar split osteotomy of the midface is used for bone expansion, and cranial bone grafts fill spaces created by the

  1. Cool Hot Rod (Thermal Expansion)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The phenomenon is thermal expansion of copper. This demonstration allows an observer to see the effect of heating (and cooling) a copper tube. When heated, the copper tube lengthens and thickens. When cooled, the tube shrinks. The lengthening of the rod rotates a toothpick with an attached flag to make the expansion visible and measurable.

  2. Calculating the water and heat balances of the Baltic Sea using ocean modelling and available meteorological, hydrological and ocean data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omstedt, Anders; Nohr, Christian

    2004-08-01

    In this paper we aim to analyse Baltic Sea water and heat balances for the BALTEX/BRIDGE study period and to put these into a climatic perspective. The study period—the three years starting October 1999—was a time of enhanced observational and modelling activities in the Baltic Sea region and of the major field activity of BALTEX Phase I programme. The present study follows the example of earlier work, where Baltic Sea modelling was used as a tool for synthesizing available data and closing the water and heat balances. The modelling approach was validated with independent data sets of observations from salinity and temperature. The model simulation was also compared with the coupled atmosphere Baltic Sea model system, HIRLAM BALTEX, which was run in a delayed data assimilation mode.The results indicate that accurate long-term net water and net heat balances (mean errors over decadal time scales are about 600 m3 s-1 and 2 W m-2 respectively) can be calculated using current Baltic Sea modelling and meteorological and hydrological data available from the BALTEX data centres. The accuracy of the individual terms in the water and heat balances is, however, still unknown. The study illustrated that negative net precipitation rates are possible, with the year 2002 standing out from the rest of the 30-yr study period. The calculated inter-annual variability of the net heat loss between atmosphere and Baltic Sea during the BALTEX/BRIDGE period indicated large variations (±10 W m-2). It has also been shown that the Baltic Sea annual mean temperature has not increased during the studied period despite an atmospheric warming of 1 °C. The reason has been explained by the heat balance that indicated no trend in the Baltic Sea net heat loss.

  3. Long and Short Term Variability of the Main Physical Parameters in the Coastal Area of the SE Baltic Proper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingelaite, Toma; Rukseniene, Viktorija; Dailidiene, Inga

    2015-04-01

    Keywords: SE Baltic Sea, coastal upwelling, IR Remote Sensing The memory of the ocean and seas of atmospheric forcing events contributes to the long-term climate change. Intensifying climate change processes in the North Atlantic region including Baltic Sea has drawn widespread interest, as a changing water temperature has ecological, economic and social impact in coastal areas of the Europe seas. In this work we analyse long and short term variability of the main physical parameters in the coastal area of the South Eastern Baltic Sea Proper. The analysis of long term variability is based on monitoring data measured in the South Eastern Baltic Sea for the last 50 years. The main focus of the long term variability is changes of hydro meteorological parameters relevant to the observed changes in the climate.The water salinity variations in the Baltic Sea near the Lithuanian coast and in the Curonian Lagoon, a shallow and enclosed sub-basin of the Baltic Sea, were analysed along with the time series of some related hydroclimatic factors. The short term water temperature and salinity variations were analysed with a strong focus on coastal upwelling events. Combining both remote sensing and in situ monitoring data physical parameters such as vertical salinity variations during upwelling events was analysed. The coastal upwelling in the SE Baltic Sea coast, depending on its scale and intensity, may lead to an intrusion of colder and saltier marine waters to the Curonian Lagoon resulting in hydrodynamic changes and pronounced temperature drop extending for 30-40 km further down the Lagoon. The study results show that increasing trends of water level, air and water temperature, and decreasing ice cover duration are related to the changes in meso-scale atmospheric circulation, and more specifically, to the changes in regional and local wind regime climate. That is in a good agreement with the increasing trends in local higher intensity of westerly winds, and with the winter NAO index that indicates the change and variations of the atmospheric circulation in the North Atlantic region, including the Baltic Sea area. This work is supported by "Lithuanian Maritime Sectors' Technologies and Environmental Research Development" project Nr. VP1-3.1-ŠMM-08-K-01-019 funded by the European Social Fund Agency.

  4. Model simulations of dense bottom currents in the Western Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchard, Hans; Janssen, Frank; Bolding, Karsten; Umlauf, Lars; Rennau, Hannes

    2009-01-01

    Only recently, medium intensity inflow events into the Baltic Sea have gained more awareness because of their potential to ventilate intermediate layers in the Southern Baltic Sea basins. With the present high-resolution model study of the Western Baltic Sea a first attempt is made to obtain model based realistic estimates of turbulent mixing in this area where dense bottom currents resulting from medium intensity inflow events are weakened by turbulent entrainment. The numerical model simulation which is carried out using the General Estuarine Transport Model (GETM) during nine months in 2003 and 2004 is first validated by means of three automatic stations at the Drogden and Darss Sills and in the Arkona Sea. In order to obtain good agreement between observations and model results, the 0.5×0.5 nautical mile bathymetry had to be adjusted in order to account for the fact that even at that scale many relevant topographic features are not resolved. Current velocity, salinity and turbulence observations during a medium intensity inflow event through the Øresund are then compared to the model results. Given the general problems of point to point comparisons between observations and model simulations, the agreement is fairly good with the characteristic features of the inflow event well represented by the model simulations. Two different bulk measures for mixing activity are then introduced, the vertically integrated decay of salinity variance, which is equal to the production of micro-scale salinity variance, and the vertically integrated turbulent salt flux, which is related to an increase of potential energy due to vertical mixing of stably stratified flow. Both measures give qualitatively similar results and identify the Drogden and Darss Sills as well as the Bornholm Channel as mixing hot spots. Further regions of strong mixing are the dense bottom current pathways from these sills into the Arkona Sea, areas around Kriegers Flak (a shoal in the western Arkona Sea) and north-west of the island of Rügen.

  5. Significance of archaeal nitrification in hypoxic waters of the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Berg, Carlo; Vandieken, Verona; Thamdrup, Bo; Jürgens, Klaus

    2015-06-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) of the phylum Thaumarchaeota are widespread, and their abundance in many terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems suggests a prominent role in nitrification. AOA also occur in high numbers in oxygen-deficient marine environments, such as the pelagic redox gradients of the central Baltic Sea; however, data on archaeal nitrification rates are scarce and little is known about the factors, for example sulfide, that regulate nitrification in this system. In the present work, we assessed the contribution of AOA to ammonia oxidation rates in Baltic deep basins and elucidated the impact of sulfide on this process. Rate measurements with (15)N-labeled ammonium, CO2 dark fixation measurements and quantification of AOA by catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that among the three investigated sites the highest potential nitrification rates (122-884?nmol?l(-1)per day) were measured within gradients of decreasing oxygen, where thaumarchaeotal abundance was maximal (2.5-6.9 × 10(5) cells per ml) and CO2 fixation elevated. In the presence of the archaeal-specific inhibitor GC7, nitrification was reduced by 86-100%, confirming the assumed dominance of AOA in this process. In samples spiked with sulfide at concentrations similar to those of in situ conditions, nitrification activity was inhibited but persisted at reduced rates. This result together with the substantial nitrification potential detected in sulfidic waters suggests the tolerance of AOA to periodic mixing of anoxic and sulfidic waters. It begs the question of whether the globally distributed Thaumarchaeota respond similarly in other stratified water columns or whether the observed robustness against sulfide is a specific feature of the thaumarchaeotal subcluster present in the Baltic Deeps. PMID:25423026

  6. Seasonal variations of hydroxylated and methoxylated brominated diphenyl ethers in blue mussels from the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Löfstrand, Karin; Liu, Xitao; Lindqvist, Dennis; Jensen, Sören; Asplund, Lillemor

    2011-07-01

    Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) found at high levels in the Baltic biota are mainly natural products, but can also be formed through metabolism or abiotic oxidation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The formation of OH-PBDEs is of concern since there is growing evidence of phenolic toxicity. This study investigates seasonal variations in levels of OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs, focusing on an exposed species, the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), sampled in the Baltic Sea in May, June, August and October of 2008. Both the OH-PBDE and MeO-PBDE levels in the mussels showed seasonal variations from May to October, the highest concentration of each congener appearing in June. The seasonal variation was more marked for OH-PBDEs than in MeO-PBDEs, but all congeners showed the same trends, except 6-MeO-BDE47 and 2'-MeO-BDE68, which did not significantly decline in concentrations after June. Biotic or abiotic debromination is suggested as a possible reason for the rapid decrease in methoxylated penta- and hexa-BDE concentrations observed in blue mussels from June to August, while the tetraBDE concentrations were stable. In addition, 1,3,7/1,3,8-tribrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins showed the same seasonal variation. The seasonal variations indicates natural formation and are unlikely to be due to transformation of anthropogenic precursors. The levels of PBDEs were fairly constant over time and considerably lower than those of the OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs. The timing of the peaks in concentrations suggests that filamentous macro-algae may be important sources of these compounds found in the blue mussels from this Baltic Sea location. PMID:21288551

  7. A Eulerian nutrient to fish model of the Baltic Sea — A feasibility-study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radtke, Hagen; Neumann, Thomas; Fennel, Wolfgang

    2013-09-01

    A nutrient-to-fish-model with an explicit two-way interaction between a biogeochemical model of the lower food web and a fish model component is presented for the example of the Baltic Sea, demonstrating the feasibility of a consistent coupling of the upper and lower parts of the food web in a Eulerian model system. In the Baltic Sea, the fish stock is dominated by two prey species (sprat and herring) and one predator (cod). The dynamics of the fish model is driven by size (mass-class) dependent predator-prey interactions while the interaction between the biogeochemical and Fish model component is established through feeding of prey fish on zooplankton and recycling of fish biomass to nutrients and detritus. The fish model component is coupled to an advanced three dimensional biogeochemical model (ERGOM, Neumann et al., 2002). A horizontally explicit representation of fish requires the implementation of fish behavior. As a first step, we propose an algorithm to stimulate fish migration by letting the fish follow the food. Moreover, fish species are guided to their respective spawning areas. Results of first three-dimensional simulations are presented with emphasis on the transport of matter by moving fish. The spawning areas of cod and sprat are in the deep basins, which are not well reached by advective transport. Hence the deposition of matter in these areas by spawning fish could play some role in the distribution of matter. The approach is not limited to applications for the Baltic and the model can be transferred also to other systems.

  8. Nutrient loads within the Sava River Catchment and comparison with load relations in the Baltic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levi, Lea; Cvetkovic, Vladimir; Destouni, Georgia

    2015-04-01

    This study compiles estimates of total nitrogen and phosphorus loads in the Sava River Catchment (SRC), investigates the load relations to human drivers of excess nutrient loading, and compares them with corresponding relations implied by data reported for the Baltic region. Nutrient load data, associated average discharge concentrations (ratio of load to water discharge) and their relations to human drivers are investigated across subcatchments of the SRC with different agricultural and population conditions. The Zagreb subcatchment, which has the smallest area but the highest population density and runoff among the investigated SRC subcatchments, exhibits the highest loads of both nitrogen and phosphorus. Overall for the SRC, results show high correlation (R2=0.93-0.95) of nutrient loads with population density and of concentrations with farmland share. A further question investigated here is then to what degree these relations are comparable with such relations found also for the Baltic region. The two regions are otherwise quite different in their climatic, agricultural and wastewater treatment conditions, so relation consistency, even if surprising, would be important in indicating some degree of relation transferability worthy of further investigation also in other regions. For the Baltic region corresponding correlations to those found in the SRC are in the range R2=0.79-0.88. In particular nitrogen and phosphorus concentration correlations with farmland share are qualitatively consistent between the regions. At the same time, phosphorus concentration correlation with population density shows quite different results between regions. Obtained results indicate a certain level of transferability of dependencies between the two regions and call for further detailed investigations on finer spatial-temporal scales.

  9. Late Quaternary records of Najas spp. (Najadaceae) from the southwestern Baltic region.

    PubMed

    Bennike, O; Jensen, J B.; Lemke, W

    2001-04-01

    Seeds of the submerged vascular plants Najas marina, Najas minor and Najas flexilis are reported from submarine Holocene deposits from the southwestern part of the Baltic Sea, and we also report on a find of Najas minor from an Eemian deposit in Jutland, which is the first record of this species from the Eemian of Denmark. The common and widespread occurrence of especially the southern extralimital N. minor is indicative of higher than present summer temperatures during the period from 10300 to 8000cal.yearsBP. PMID:11389918

  10. Developing a data assimilative forecasting system of the biogeochemistry of the North and Baltic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losa, Svetlana; Nerger, Lars; Lorkowski, Ina; Bruening, Thorger; Janssen, Frank; Lebreton, Carole; Brockmann, Carsten

    2015-04-01

    A biogeochemical forecasting system of the North and Baltic Seas is developed based on the HIROMB-BOOS circulation Model (HBM) coupled with the ERGOM ecosystem model and augmented by observational data assimilation (DA). The DA system is built within the Parallel Data Assimilation Framework (http://pdaf.awi.de). In the frame of ensemble based DA techniques, we consider various aspects and strategies of the biogeochemical state and parameter estimation when assimilating MODIS satellite chlorophyll "a" and NOAA's sea surface temperature observations. In particular, we discuss identification of crucial ecosystem parameters, assumed stoichiometry and scaling biogeochemical variables in the presence of non-Gaussianity.

  11. Holocene Sedimentation in the Ångermanälven River Estuary, the northern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotilainen, Aarno; Hyttinen, Outi; Obrochta, Stephen; Andrén, Thomas; Ryabchuk, Daria; Snowball, Ian; IODP Expedition 347 Science Party, The

    2015-04-01

    In the IODP Expedition 347 - "Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment" - two sites in the Ångermanälven River estuary were drilled. Sites M0061 and M0062 are located at about 62°47'N, in an area which was deglaciated ca. 10 ka ago. It has long been known that varve deposition is an ongoing process in Ångermanälven estuary, and that it has continued so several thousand years back in time. It has also been shown that a correlation exists between maximum daily discharge and mean varve thickness at least AD 1901-1971 in the Ångermanälven River (Sander et al. 2002). Studying varve thickness and sediment geochemistry potentially yield estimations on past changes in precipitation and sedimentation processes in the estuary. In this presentation, the preliminary results from site M0062 are shown. The core recovery was approximately 36 m and the sediment sequence was divided into two lithological units (Expedition 347 Scientists, 2014). The lowest Unit 2 (17.09-35.9 mbsf) consists of well-sorted sand, deposited by a (glacio)fluvial system. Unit 1 (0-17.09 mbsf) showed transition from glacial lake varves to brackish marine couplets. The uppermost 18 metres were analysed for grain-size and elemental geochemistry every 0.3-0.5 m. From selected intervals, a 1mm-resolution XRF-scanning of the split core surface was done to compare changes in the relative abundance of light elements. Results from Ångermanälven were compared with measurements from glacial varved sediments, retrieved from the eastern Gulf of Finland. This work is also part of "Climate - ice sheet - sea interactions - evolution of the Baltic Sea Basin over the past 60000 years (CISU)" which is a new joint research project with The Academy of Finland and The Russian Foundation for Basic Research. The CISU project is coordinated by Geological Survey of Finland and the other partners are Helsinki University and A.P. Karpinsky Russian Geological Research Institute (VSEGEI), Russia. The project bases on the IODP Expedition 347 material and new sediment core material from the eastern Gulf of Finland. Expedition 347 Scientists, 2014. Baltic Sea Basin Paleoenvironment: paleoenvironmental evolution of the Baltic Sea Basin through the last glacial cycle. IODP Prel. Rept., 347. 102 pages. doi:10.2204/iodp.pr.347.2014. http://publications.iodp.org/preliminary_report/347/ Sander, M., Bengtsson, L., Holmquist, B., Wohlfarth, B., and Cato, I., 2002. The relationship between annual varve thickness and maximum annual discharge (1909-1971). J. Hydrol., 263(1-4):23-35. doi:10.1016/S0022-1694(02)00030-6.

  12. Pardee prep plant expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, T.; Pinson, K.; Bethell, P. [Cumberland River Coal (United States)

    2007-01-15

    By adding a heavy-media vessel and improving the fine coal circuit, Cumberland River Coal's Pardee preparation plant (in Wise County, VA) increased raw feed capacity with minimal disruptions. The plan called for the installation of a heavy media vessel to treat 5 x 1/2 inch material with a cyclone circuit processing 1/2 inch x 1 mm, and a deslime column flotation circuit. The article describes the new circuit design and the construction process. In January 2006, the plant's raw feed capacity averaged 765 tph over six days. The article was adapted from a paper presented at Coal prep 2006 (2-4 May, Lexington, KY (United States)). 3 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  13. Atom cooling by nonadiabatic expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Xi [Departamento de Quimica-Fisica, UPV-EHU, Apdo 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Department of Physics, Shanghai University, 200444 Shanghai (China); Muga, J. G. [Departamento de Quimica-Fisica, UPV-EHU, Apdo 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Campo, A. del [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College London, 53 Princes Gate, SW7 2PG London (United Kingdom); QOLS, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, SW7 2BW London (United Kingdom); Ruschhaupt, A. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Appelstrasse 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    Motivated by the recent discovery that a reflecting wall moving with a square-root-in-time trajectory behaves as a universal stopper of classical particles regardless of their initial velocities, we compare linear-in-time and square-root-in-time expansions of a box to achieve efficient atom cooling. For the quantum single-atom wave functions studied the square-root-in-time expansion presents important advantages: asymptotically it leads to zero average energy whereas any linear-in-time (constant box-wall velocity) expansion leaves a nonzero residual energy, except in the limit of an infinitely slow expansion. For finite final times and box lengths we set a number of bounds and cooling principles which again confirm the superior performance of the square-root-in-time expansion, even more clearly for increasing excitation of the initial state. Breakdown of adiabaticity is generally fatal for cooling with the linear expansion but not so with the square-root-in-time expansion.

  14. Genetic differentiation of brackish water populations of cod Gadus morhua in the southern Baltic, inferred from genotyping using SNP-arrays.

    PubMed

    Po?wierz-Kotus, A; Kijewska, A; Petereit, C; Berna?, R; Wi?caszek, B; Arnyasi, M; Lien, S; Kent, M P; Wenne, R

    2015-02-01

    The Baltic is a semi-enclosed sea characterised by decreasing salinity in the eastern and northern direction with only the deeper parts of the southern Baltic suitable as spawning grounds for marine species like cod. Baltic cod exhibits various adaptations to brackish water conditions, yet the inflow of salty North Sea water near the bottom remains an influence on the spawning success of the Baltic cod. The eastern Baltic population has been very weakly studied in comparison with the western population. The aim of this study is to demonstrate for the first time genetic differentiation by the use of a large number of SNPs between eastern and western Baltic populations existing in differentiated salinity conditions. Two cod samples were collected from the Bay of Gda?sk, Poland and one from the Kiel Bight, Germany. Samples were genotyped using a cod derived SNP-array (Illumina) with 10 913 SNPs. A selection of diagnostic SNPs was performed. A set of 7944 validated SNPs were analysed to assess the differentiation of three samples of cod. Results indicated a clear distinctness of the Kiel Bight from the populations of the eastern Baltic. FST comparison between both eastern samples was non-significant. Clustering analysis, principal coordinates analysis and assignment test clearly indicated that the eastern samples should be considered as one subpopulation, well differentiated from the western subpopulation. With the SNP approach, no differentiation between groups containing 'healthy' and 'non-healthy' cod individuals was observed. PMID:24910372

  15. Thermal expansion of carbon structures.

    SciTech Connect

    Schelling, P. K.; Keblinski, P.; Materials Science Division; Rennselaer Polytechnic Inst.

    2003-07-15

    Using an empirical bond-order potential, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and lattice dynamics calculations, we study the thermal expansion of diamond, graphite and single-walled carbon nanotubes. MD simulations demonstrate that, while the C-C bond length increases at a similar rate with increasing temperature in all structures, the thermal expansion coefficient varies greatly in a manner consistent with experiment. An analysis of the mode-dependent Grueneisen parameters provides a detailed picture of how structure influences the competition between various vibrational modes associated with negative and positive Grueneisen parameters in determining the overall thermal expansion coefficient.

  16. Monitoring the expansion of built-up areas in Seberang Perai region, Penang State, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samat, N.

    2014-02-01

    Rapid urbanization has caused land use transformation and encroachment of built environment into arable agriculture land. Uncontrolled expansion could bring negative impacts to society, space and the environment. Therefore, information on expansion and future spatial pattern of built-up areas would be useful for planners and decision makers in formulating policies towards managing and planning for sustainable urban development. This study demonstrates the usage of Geographic Information System in monitoring the expansion of built-up area in Seberang Perai region, Penang State, Malaysia. Built-up area has increased by approximately 20% between 1990 and 2001 and further increased by 12% between 2001 and 2007. New development is expected to continue encroach into existing open space and agriculture area since those are the only available land in this study area. The information on statistics of the expansion of built-up area and future spatial pattern of urban expansion were useful in planning and managing urban spatial growth.

  17. Breaking the link between environmental degradation and oil palm expansion: a method for enabling sustainable oil palm expansion.

    PubMed

    Harmen Smit, Hans; Meijaard, Erik; van der Laan, Carina; Mantel, Stephan; Budiman, Arif; Verweij, Pita

    2013-01-01

    Land degradation is a global concern. In tropical areas it primarily concerns the conversion of forest into non-forest lands and the associated losses of environmental services. Defining such degradation is not straightforward hampering effective reduction in degradation and use of already degraded lands for more productive purposes. To facilitate the processes of avoided degradation and land rehabilitation, we have developed a methodology in which we have used international environmental and social sustainability standards to determine the suitability of lands for sustainable agricultural expansion. The method was developed and tested in one of the frontiers of agricultural expansion, West Kalimantan province in Indonesia. The focus was on oil palm expansion, which is considered as a major driver for deforestation in tropical regions globally. The results suggest that substantial changes in current land-use planning are necessary for most new plantations to comply with international sustainability standards. Through visualizing options for sustainable expansion with our methodology, we demonstrate that the link between oil palm expansion and degradation can be broken. Application of the methodology with criteria and thresholds similar to ours could help the Indonesian government and the industry to achieve its pro-growth, pro-job, pro-poor and pro-environment development goals. For sustainable agricultural production, context specific guidance has to be developed in areas suitable for expansion. Our methodology can serve as a template for designing such commodity and country specific tools and deliver such guidance. PMID:24039700

  18. Expansion of algebraic numbers Complexity of words

    E-print Network

    Waldschmidt, Michel

    Expansion of algebraic numbers Complexity of words Words and transcendence Continued fractions Survey of some recent results on the complexity of expansions of algebraic numbers Michel Waldschmidt Expansion of algebraic numbers Complexity of words Words and transcendence Continued fractions Diophantine

  19. 18 CFR 154.309 - Incremental expansions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incremental expansions. 154.309 Section 154.309 Conservation...Filed With Changes § 154.309 Incremental expansions. (a) For every expansion for which incremental rates are...

  20. 18 CFR 154.309 - Incremental expansions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Incremental expansions. 154.309 Section 154.309 Conservation...Filed With Changes § 154.309 Incremental expansions. (a) For every expansion for which incremental rates are...

  1. Simulated wave-driven sediment transport along the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soomere, Tarmo; Viška, Maija

    2014-01-01

    Alongshore variations in sediment transport along the eastern Baltic Sea coast from the Sambian (Samland) Peninsula up to Pärnu Bay in the Gulf of Riga are analysed using long-term (1970-2007) simulations of the nearshore wave climate and the Coastal Engineering Research Centre (CERC) wave energy flux model applied to about 5.5 km long beach sectors. The local rate of bulk transport is the largest along a short section of the Sambian Peninsula and along the north-western part of the Latvian coast. The net transport has an overall counter-clockwise nature but contains a number of local temporary reversals. The alongshore sediment flux has several divergence and convergence points. One of the divergence points at the Akmenrags Cape divides the sedimentary system of the eastern coast of the Baltic Proper into two almost completely separated compartments in the simulated wave climate. Cyclic relocation of a highly persistent convergence point over the entire Curonian Spit suggests that this landform is in almost perfect dynamical equilibrium in the simulated approximation of the contemporary wave climate.

  2. Biomass and number of fish impinged at a nuclear power plant by the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Bryhn, Andreas C; Bergenius, Mikaela A J; Dimberg, Peter H; Adill, Anders

    2013-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the number and biomass of impinged fish at Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant in Sweden, located on the coast of the Baltic Sea. Of particular interest was the number of impinged individuals of the critically endangered European eel (Anguilla anguilla) which is regularly caught in the cooling system. Another aim was to determine the comparability of the results from Forsmark and results from impingement studies in other types of waters. Cross-systems studies make it possible to (1) estimate fish loss at plants where fish is not counted, and (2) to predict changes in fish loss from changes in electricity production or cooling water use. In 2010, 31,300,000 fish with a total biomass of 62,600 kg were impinged at Forsmark. In 2011, 27,300,000 fish weighing 38,500 kg were impinged. The maximum peak in total fish number and biomass occurred in spring. The most critical period for herring was in late summer and early autumn. Regarding eel, the largest impingement losses were recorded in November. The number of fish agreed with earlier established quantities of impinged fish in both freshwater and marine ecosystems. The study also estimated that 1,300 critically endangered eels could survive at Forsmark each year if a fish return system would be constructed to allow the passage of fish from the plant back to the Baltic Sea. PMID:23880915

  3. Life cycle strategies of bloom-forming, filamentous cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suikkanen, Sanna; Kaartokallio, Hermanni; Hällfors, Seija; Huttunen, Maija; Laamanen, Maria

    2010-02-01

    Late-summer blooms of the Nostocalean cyanobacteria Nodularia spumigena, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Anabaena spp., occur annually over vast areas of the Baltic Sea. Apart from the planktonic bloom period, the annual cycle of these cyanobacteria is poorly known. With a combination of pelagial monitoring, sedimentation traps and germination experiments, we studied the annual cycle of formation, sedimentation and germination of cyanobacterial akinetes (resting stages) in the northern Baltic Sea during 2005-2006. Akinetes were only rarely encountered in the fall plankton, but they were abundant in the near-bottom sedimentation trap from the middle of July to August. All three taxa formed akinetes, but the numbers of A. flos-aquae akinetes were generally low. Of the three taxa, only Anabaena spp. were regularly found to germinate from the sediment samples. Estimates of Anabaena viable seed bank size ranged from 205 to 1913 akinetes g -1 (ww) of sediment. Aphanizomenon flos-aquae never germinated, and N. spumigena did so only occasionally. It is concluded that the three co-occurring taxa probably have different life cycle strategies, A. flos-aquae being holoplanktonic and Anabaena spp. planktonic during summer, but overwintering as akinetes in the bottom. Summer populations of N. spumigena may originate from both sedimented akinetes and trichomes that overwinter in the water column.

  4. Picocyanobacteria containing a novel pigment gene cluster dominate the brackish water Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, John; Celepli, Narin; Ininbergs, Karolina; Dupont, Christopher L; Yooseph, Shibu; Bergman, Bigitta; Ekman, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Photoautotrophic picocyanobacteria harvest light via phycobilisomes (PBS) consisting of the pigments phycocyanin (PC) and phycoerythrin (PE), encoded by genes in conserved gene clusters. The presence and arrangement of these gene clusters give picocyanobacteria characteristic light absorption properties and allow the colonization of specific ecological niches. To date, a full understanding of the evolution and distribution of the PBS gene cluster in picocyanobacteria has been hampered by the scarcity of genome sequences from fresh- and brackish water-adapted strains. To remediate this, we analysed genomes assembled from metagenomic samples collected along a natural salinity gradient, and over the course of a growth season, in the Baltic Sea. We found that while PBS gene clusters in picocyanobacteria sampled in marine habitats were highly similar to known references, brackish-adapted genotypes harboured a novel type not seen in previously sequenced genomes. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the novel gene cluster belonged to a clade of uncultivated picocyanobacteria that dominate the brackish Baltic Sea throughout the summer season, but are uncommon in other examined aquatic ecosystems. Further, our data suggest that the PE genes were lost in the ancestor of PC-containing coastal picocyanobacteria and that multiple horizontal gene transfer events have re-introduced PE genes into brackish-adapted strains, including the novel clade discovered here. PMID:24621524

  5. Aerosol-cloud interaction determined by satellite data over the Baltic Sea countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saponaro, Giulia; Kolmonen, Pekka; Sogacheva, Larisa; de Leeuw, Gerrit

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigates the use of long-term satellite data to assess the influence of aerosols upon cloud parameters over the Baltic Sea region. This particular area offers the contrast of a very clean environment (Fennoscandia) against a more polluted one (Germany, Poland). The datasets consists of Collection 6 Level 3 daily observations from 2002 to 2014 collected by the NASA's Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) instrument on-board the Aqua platform. The MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD) product is used as a proxy for the number concentration of aerosol particles while the cloud effective radius (CER) and cloud optical thickness (COT) describe cloud microphysical and optical properties respectively. Satellite data have certain limitations, such as the restriction to summer season due to solar zenith angle restrictions and the known problem of the ambiguity of the aerosol-cloud interface, for instance. Through the analysis of a 12-years dataset, distribution maps provide information on a regional scale about the first aerosol indirect effect (AIE) by determining the aerosol-cloud interaction (ACI). The ACI is defined as the change in cloud optical depth or effective radius as a function of aerosol load for a fixed liquid water path (LWP). The focusing point of the current study is the evaluation of regional trends of ACI over the observed area of the Baltic Sea.

  6. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in cod from the southern Baltic, 1983.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, J

    1986-02-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-benzenehexachloride (BHC; HCH), p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT (sigma DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) levels have been determined in muscle tissue of 207 cod (Gadus morhua) netted during 1983 in different regions in the southern part of the Baltic Sea. The mean levels found for cod muscle tissue (microgram/kg) related to wet weight were: 0.65 HCB, 1.2 alpha-BHC, 9.0 beta-BHC, 2.8 gamma-BHC, delta-BHC remained undetected, 13 sigma BHC, 4.4 p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD and o,p'-DDT remained undetected, 4.0 p,p'-DDD, 1.8 p,p'-DDT, 10 sigma DDT and 55 PCBs. The results are compared with levels found in cod caught in different regions of the Baltic Sea during 1967-1983, and reported previously by other authors. PMID:3085379

  7. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in herring from the southern Baltic, 1983.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, J

    1986-02-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-benzenehexachloride (BHC, HCH), p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT (sigma DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) levels have been determined in muscle tissue of 187 herring (Clupea harengus) netted during 1983 in a different regions in the southern part of the Baltic Sea. The mean levels found for herring muscle tissue related to wet weight (microgram/kg) were: 14 HCB, 18 alpha-BHC, 23 beta-BHC, 14 gamma-BHC, delta-BHC remained undetected, 56 sigma BHC, 115 p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD and o,p'-DDT remained undetected, 84 p,p'-DDD, 51 p,p'-DDT, 250 sigma DDT and 530 PCB. The levels of organochlorine pesticides determined in wet muscles or extractable lipids of herring are nearly 2-3 times as high as those noted in fish sampled in the same area in two years before, whilst for PCBs the wet weight levels were comparable, and when based on a lipid weight are somewhat higher. The results are compared with levels found in herring collected in different regions of the Baltic Sea during 1965-1983, and reported previously by other authors. PMID:3085378

  8. Solar Assisted Ground Source Heat Pump Performance in Nearly Zero Energy Building in Baltic Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Januševi?ius, Karolis; Streckien?, Giedr?

    2013-12-01

    In near zero energy buildings (NZEB) built in Baltic countries, heat production systems meet the challenge of large share domestic hot water demand and high required heating capacity. Due to passive solar design, cooling demand in residential buildings also needs an assessment and solution. Heat pump systems are a widespread solution to reduce energy use. A combination of heat pump and solar thermal collectors helps to meet standard requirements and increases the share of renewable energy use in total energy balance of country. The presented paper describes a simulation study of solar assisted heat pump systems carried out in TRNSYS. The purpose of this simulation was to investigate how the performance of a solar assisted heat pump combination varies in near zero energy building. Results of three systems were compared to autonomous (independent) systems simulated performance. Different solar assisted heat pump design solutions with serial and parallel solar thermal collector connections to the heat pump loop were modelled and a passive cooling possibility was assessed. Simulations were performed for three Baltic countries: Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia.

  9. Egg production of Acartia spp. in the southern Baltic Sea - numerical simulation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, L.; Lemieszek, A.; Zmijewska, I. M.

    2009-04-01

    The paper presents description of egg production of Acartia spp. in the changing environmental conditions in the southern Baltic Sea (Gda?sk Deep) by means of modeling. Here, the hypothesis that food-saturated rate of production of egg matter is equivalent to specific growth rate of copepods is used. The average number of eggs produced per day by one female of Acartia as a function of growth rate, i.e., multiplying expgN3 - 1 from the growth rate of naupliar stage equation by Wfemale / Wegg is obtained. The copepod model, reduced to a zero-dimensional population model, which was calibrated for Acartia spp. at environmental conditions typical for the southern Baltic Sea was used determining the effects of temperature and food concentration on growth rate for each of model stages (see Part 1). In this part the egg production as a function of the above mentioned parameters is evaluated. Also, the rate of reproduction during the seasons in the upper layer at the Gda?sk Deep is determined.

  10. Numerical simulation of the dynamics of phytoplankton blooms in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, Lidia; Jakacki, Jaromir; Janecki, Maciej; Nowicki, Artur

    2013-04-01

    Dynamics of phytoplankton blooms in the Baltic Sea has been analyzed applying the numerical ecosystem model 3DCEMBS. The model consists of the hydrodynamic model (POP, version 2.1) and the ice model (CICE, version 4.0), which are imposed by the atmospheric data model (DATM7). The ecosystem module of the 3D-CEMBS model has been activated in 2012 in the operational mode. It consists of 11 main variables: biomass of small-size phytoplankton and large-size phytoplankton - diatoms and cyanobacteria, zooplankton biomass, dissolved and molecular detritus, dissolved oxygen concentration, as well as concentrations of nutrients, including: nitrates, ammonia, phosphates and silicates. The study was financially supported by the Polish State Committee of Scientific Research (grants: No N N305 111636, N N306 353239). The partial support for this study was also provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBaltyk founded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract no. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09. Calculations were carried out at the Academy Computer Centre in Gda?sk.

  11. Application of empirical wave run-up formulas to the Polish Baltic Sea coast.

    PubMed

    Paprotny, Dominik; Andrzejewski, Pawe?; Terefenko, Pawe?; Furma?czyk, Kazimierz

    2014-01-01

    Advanced, multidimensional models are typically applied when researching processes occurring in the nearshore. Relatively simple, empirical equations are commonly used in coastal engineering practice in order to estimate extreme wave run-up on beaches and coastal structures. However, they were mostly calibrated to the characteristics of oceanic coasts, which have different wave regime than a semi-enclosed basin like the Baltic Sea. In this paper we apply the formulas to the Polish Baltic Sea coast. The equations were adjusted to match local conditions in two test sites in Mi?dzyzdroje and Dziwnówek, where beaches are under continuous video surveillance. Data from WAM wave model and coastal gauge stations were used, as well as precise measurements of the beaches' cross-sections. More than 600 run-up events spanning from June to December 2013 were analysed, including surges causing dune erosion. Extreme wave run-up R2% was calculated and presented as a percentage value indicating what part of the beach was inundated. The method had a root-mean-square error of 6.1 and 6.5 percentage points depending on the test site. We consider it is a fast and computationally undemanding alternative to morphodynamic models. It will constitute a part of the SatBa?tyk Operating System-Shores, delivering forecasts of wave run-up on the beaches for the entire Polish coastline. PMID:25137155

  12. Atmospheric pathways of chlorinated pesticides and natural bromoanisoles in the northern Baltic Sea and its catchment.

    PubMed

    Bidleman, Terry; Agosta, Kathleen; Andersson, Agneta; Brorström-Lundén, Eva; Haglund, Peter; Hansson, Katarina; Laudon, Hjalmar; Newton, Seth; Nygren, Olle; Ripszam, Matyas; Tysklind, Mats; Wiberg, Karin

    2015-06-01

    Long-range atmospheric transport is a major pathway for delivering persistent organic pollutants to the oceans. Atmospheric deposition and volatilization of chlorinated pesticides and algae-produced bromoanisoles (BAs) were estimated for Bothnian Bay, northern Baltic Sea, based on air and water concentrations measured in 2011-2012. Pesticide fluxes were estimated using monthly air and water temperatures and assuming 4 months ice cover when no exchange occurs. Fluxes were predicted to increase by about 50 % under a 2069-2099 prediction scenario of higher temperatures and no ice. Total atmospheric loadings to Bothnian Bay and its catchment were derived from air-sea gas exchange and "bulk" (precipitation + dry particle) deposition, resulting in net gains of 53 and 46 kg year(-1) for endosulfans and hexachlorocyclohexanes, respectively, and net loss of 10 kg year(-1) for chlordanes. Volatilization of BAs releases bromine to the atmosphere and may limit their residence time in Bothnian Bay. This initial study provides baseline information for future investigations of climate change on biogeochemical cycles in the northern Baltic Sea and its catchment. PMID:26022329

  13. Immunosuppression in harbour seals fed fish from the contaminated Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, P.S. [Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre, Pieterburen (Netherlands); [National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Swart, R.L. de [Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre, Pieterburen (Netherlands); [Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands); Timmerman, H.H.; Loveren, H. van; Vos, J.G. [National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Vedder, L.J. [Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre, Pieterburen (Netherlands); Reijnders, P.J.H. [DLO Inst. for Forestry and Nature Research, Den Burg (Netherlands); Osterhaus, A.D.M.E. [Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam, NL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Environmental contaminants including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls have been shown to be immunotoxic in laboratory animals, but little information exists as to their possible effect on mammals in the natural environment. Recent virus-induced mass mortalities among marine mammals occupying high trophic levels have led to much speculation regarding a possible contributory role of pollutants in these events. The authors undertook a two-year captive feeding experiment with harbor seals, Phoca vitulina, where one group was fed herring from the contaminated Baltic Sea and a second group was fed relatively uncontaminated herring from the Atlantic Ocean. During the course of the experiment, they regularly sampled blood and undertook a series of immune function tests. They observed a significant impairment of natural killer cell activity and T-lymphocyte function, in vitro, in the group of seals fed the Baltic Sea fish. In addition, seals of this group were less able to mount a specific humoral and delayed type hypersensitivity response to a protein antigen, ovalbumin, upon immunization. Increased numbers of granulocytes in this group may have reflected periodic bacterial infections as a consequence of impaired immune function. Their results suggest that pollutants accumulated through the food chain in contaminated marine waters may suppress normal immune responses in marine mammals and lead to an increased susceptibility to opportunistic infection.

  14. An attempt to reconstruct the observed climate trends in the Baltic Sea Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkhordarian, A.; Von Storch, H.; Mechoso, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    In the past decades, the climate in the Baltic Sea Basin has undergone a change with a magnitude that is beyond the estimated range of natural variability. We test the hypothesis that this change may be understood as a manifestation of global warming due to increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Our approach is based on verifying whether observed trends in climate parameters over the Baltic Sea region during the last decades are consistent with regional climate model simulation in response to GHG forcing. For research we use several datasets: 1) multi-decadal trends derived from different observational data sets, 2) an estimate of natural (internal + external) variability provided by a 2,000-year paleoclimatic model simulation, and 3) GHG-signals derived from downscaled A1B and RCP4.5 scenarios (from ENSEMBLES and CORDEX). We find that changes in temperature support our hypothesis that the effect of GHG is needed to reconstruct the observed warming. However, those changes in precipitation and surface solar radiation are partially inconsistent with the hypothesis. We conclude that beyond the regional manifestation of global warming; more human-made drivers are present. Regional emission of industrial aerosols has been reduced strongly in this region, and we suggest that this reduction may constitute the missing driver.

  15. Organohalogen concentrations and feeding status in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) of the Baltic Sea during the spawning run.

    PubMed

    Vuorinen, Pekka J; Kiviranta, Hannu; Koistinen, Jaana; Pöyhönen, Outi; Ikonen, Erkki; Keinänen, Marja

    2014-01-15

    Changes in the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Baltic salmon muscle were studied during the spawning migration from the southern Baltic Sea to rivers flowing into the northern Gulf of Bothnia and during the spawning period. The aim was to obtain information to facilitate the arrangement of salmon fisheries such that the human dioxin intake is taken into account. The EC maximum allowable total toxic equivalent concentration (WHO-TEQPCDD/F+PCB) was exceeded in the muscle of the majority of the migrating salmon, except in the Baltic Proper. The fresh-weight-based concentrations of all toxicant groups in salmon tended to be the lowest in the Baltic Proper and the Northern Quark, and all toxicant concentrations, except PCDDs and PCDFs, were significantly higher in the spawning salmon than in the salmon caught during the spawning run. The fat content of the salmon muscle decreased by 60% during the spawning run, and the lipid-based total toxicant concentrations were consequently 4.2-6.2 times higher during the spawning period than during the spawning migration. However, the toxicants were concentrated just before spawning, and thus there is no essential difference related to whether the salmon are caught in the sea or the recreational river fishery. PMID:24056447

  16. Distribution of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) in the tissues of Baltic ringed and grey seals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. M Hyyti; M Nyman; M. L Willis; H Raunio; O Pelkonen

    2001-01-01

    Information about the expression of CYP1A in wildlife species is essential for understanding the impact of organochlorine exposure on the health status of an exposed population. Therefore, we aimed at characterising a putative CYP1A enzyme expression in both hepatic and extrahepatic tissues of ringed and grey seals from the Baltic Sea and from less polluted waters. The cellular localisation of

  17. Groundfish overfishing, diatom decline, and the marine silica cycle: Lessons from Saanich Inlet, Canada, and the Baltic Sea cod crash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Timor; Yahel, Gitai; Yahel, Ruthy; Tunnicliffe, Verena; Herut, Barak; Snelgrove, Paul; Crusius, John; Lazar, Boaz

    2009-12-01

    In this study, we link groundfish activity to the marine silica cycle and suggest that the drastic mid-1980s crash of the Baltic Sea cod (Gadus morhua) population triggered a cascade of events leading to decrease in dissolved silica (DSi) and diatom abundance in the water. We suggest that this seemingly unrelated sequence of events was caused by a marked decline in sediment resuspension associated with reduced groundfish activity resulting from the cod crash. In a study in Saanich Inlet, British Columbia, Canada, we discovered that, by resuspending bottom sediments, groundfish triple DSi fluxes from the sediments and reduce silica accumulation therein. Using these findings and the available oceanographic and environmental data from the Baltic Sea, we estimate that overfishing and recruitment failure of Baltic cod reduced by 20% the DSi supply from bottom sediments to the surface water leading to a decline in the diatom population in the Baltic Sea. The major importance of the marginal ocean in the marine silica cycle and the associated high population density of groundfish suggest that groundfish play a major role in the silica cycle. We postulate that dwindling groundfish populations caused by anthropogenic perturbations, e.g., overfishing and bottom water anoxia, may cause shifts in marine phytoplankton communities.

  18. Investigation of LANDSAT imagery on correlations between ore deposits and major shield structures in Finland. [Baltic Shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuominen, H. V. (principal investigator); Kuosmanen, V.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. On the central Baltic Shield, the concept of drainage patterns can be extended to smaller scales in which case many cultural features become involved to the spatial patterns influenced by bedrock structure. Features resulting from agriculture activity and timbering often exaggerate the influence of the bedrock on the image texture.

  19. Feeding ecology of dunlins Calidris alpina staging in the southern Baltic Sea, 1. Habitat use and food selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Volker Dierschke; Jan Kube; Sandra Probst; Ulrich Brenning

    1999-01-01

    The feeding habits of migrating dunlins Calidris alpina staging in different non-tidal coastal habitats in the southern Baltic Sea are described. The study also focuses on the structure of the benthic macrofauna of these habitats and the diet choice of dunlins. All investigations were carried out on Langenwerder Island (Wismar Bay), where different types of flats and beaches harbour a

  20. Minority Language Rights before and after the 2004 EU Enlargement: The Copenhagen Criteria in the Baltic States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrey, Jean-Bernard

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of the recent European Union (EU) enlargement on minority language policies in the Baltic states, and in particular in Latvia and Estonia. I first look at the so-called Copenhagen political criteria conditioning EU accession and at the European Commission's monitoring system for assessing applicant countries'…

  1. Wave energy potential in the Baltic Sea and the Danish part of the North Sea, with reflections on the Skagerrak

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Urban Henfridsson; Viktoria Neimane; Kerstin Strand; Robert Kapper; Hans Bernhoff; Oskar Danielsson; Mats Leijon; Jan Sundberg; Karin Thorburn; Ellerth Ericsson; Karl Bergman

    2007-01-01

    Wave power, along with renewable energy-generating sources like tides and streams, is underestimated considering its advantageous physical properties and predictability. This paper examines possible examples of wave power installations in the Baltic Sea and the Danish part of the North Sea. Hindcasting data is used allowing estimations of wave energy generated and results show promising areas in the North Sea,

  2. An unusual new species of Hallodapomimus Herczek, 2000 from the Eocene Baltic amber (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Miridae, Phylinae)

    PubMed Central

    Herczek, Aleksander; Popov, Yuri A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Hallodapomimus antennatus sp. n. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, Miridae, Phylinae, Hallodapini) is described from a macropterous female found in Eocene Baltic amber. The new species can be recognized readily from the other species of the genus, mainly due to its unusual second antennal segment. A key for the identification of all known fossil Hallodapini is presented. PMID:25878530

  3. Extraction studies of heavy-metal pollutants in surficial sediments from the southern Baltic Sea off Poland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Szefer; G. P. Glasby; J. Pempkowiak; R. Kaliszan

    1995-01-01

    Surficial sediment samples from the Gulf of Gdansk and the southern Baltic Sea were analyzed for Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ag, Cr, Co, Ni, Mn, Cs, Rb, Fe, Ca, Mg, K, Na, Li, Sr, Al and P. Extraction techniques were used to establish the association of the elements with specific phases in the sediments. Elimination of grain size effects was

  4. Numerical simulation of the dynamics of nutrients pool in the Baltic Sea using the ecosystem model 3D-CEMB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, Lidia; Jakacki, Jaromir; Janecki, Maciej; Nowicki, Artur

    2013-04-01

    The 3D ecosystem numerical model 3D-CEMBS has been used to investigate seasonal variability of nutrients concentration in the Baltic Sea. In addition this study shows vertical and horizontal distribution of nutrients in the Baltic Sea. Model domain is an extended Baltic Sea area divided into 600x640 horizontal grid cells. Aside from standard hydrodynamic parameters 3D-CEMBS has an ecosystem module that produces ecological variables such as: three types of phytoplankton, two detrital classes, dissolved oxygen and the nutrients (nitrate, ammonium, phosphate and silicate). The presented model allows prediction of parameters that describe distribution of nutrients concentration and phytoplankton biomass. 3D-CEMBS can be used to study the influence of different hydrodynamic and biogeochemical processes on distributions of these variables in a larger scale. The study was financially supported by the Polish State Committee of Scientific Research (grants: No N N305 111636, N N306 353239). The partial support for this study was also provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBaltyk founded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract no. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09. Calculations were carried out at the Academy Computer Centre in Gda?sk.

  5. Bad matching between hatching and acidification: a pitfall for the burbot, Lota lota, off the river Kyrönjoki, Baltic Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Hudd; Jakob Kjellman

    2002-01-01

    The episodic acid runoff from the catchment areas of rivers with sulphide-bearing fine-grained sediments caused recruitment failures of burbot (Lotalota) in the Gulf of Bothnia. In the episodically acid river Kyrönjoki, emptying into the Gulf of Bothnia, the Baltic Sea, the burbot spawn in winter and the eggs were calculated on average to hatch on 10 May. This date coincided

  6. Does removal of an alien predator from small islands in the Baltic Sea induce a trophic cascade?

    E-print Network

    Oksanen, Lauri

    Does removal of an alien predator from small islands in the Baltic Sea induce a trophic cascade known as a trophic cascade. Because alien predators can have a disproportionate impact, compared communities than native predators. We studied the indirect effects of the removal of an alien predator

  7. An evaluation of MODIS and SeaWiFS bio-optical algorithms in the Baltic Sea

    E-print Network

    Stramski, Dariusz

    (>100%). The MODIS K_490 algorithm for estimating the diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwellingAn evaluation of MODIS and SeaWiFS bio-optical algorithms in the Baltic Sea Miroslaw Dareckia was used to evaluate the performance of standard Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS

  8. THE FIRST FOSSIL REPRESENTATIVE OF THE GENUS A ANNAALLEETTRRIISS EDMUNDS, 1972 (INSECTA: EPHEMEROPTERA: ACANTHAMETROPODIDAE) FROM THE EOCENE BALTIC AMBER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROMAN J. GODUNKO

    The male subimago of Analetris secundus sp. nov. is described and illustrated from the Eocene Baltic amber. A new species presents the first fossil representative of the previously monotypic genus Analetris Edmunds, 1972. The extant species Analetris eximia Edmunds, 1972 is known from the Northwestern of the North America. Critical characters distinguishing these both species are discussed.

  9. Terrestrial organic matter in surface sediments of the Baltic Sea, Northwest Europe, as determined by CuO oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miltner, Anja; Emeis, Kay-Christian

    2001-04-01

    We studied the distribution and composition of terrestrial organic matter in sediments of the Baltic Sea (Northwest Europe). To this end, surface sediments from all basins of the Baltic Sea were analyzed for their lignin oxidation product yields and compositions after CuO oxidation. Lignin oxidation product yields depend on the concentration of organic carbon and range from 0.4 to 10.2 mg g -1 total organic carbon (TOC). On the basis of an average of 13 mg g -1 TOC in two river sediments, we estimate that the upper limit of terrestrial organic matter in Baltic Sea sediments is 30% of TOC. The contribution of terrestrial organic matter differed between the individual basins, depending on the distance from runoff discharge areas and on the area occupied by each submarine catchment. Lignin composition showed a relative decrease of angiosperm tissue from the Southwest to the Northeast, reflecting the shift from temperate to boreal vegetation type. The Gotland and the Bornholm Seas, which have no significant river input, were characterized by high relative contributions of nonwoody, strongly altered material. The source may either be a mixture of pollen and peat being eroded from geologically older strata at the seafloor or laterally advected material from the other basins. However, the pronounced compositional differences between the basins indicated that interbasin transport of terrestrial organic matter is less important than direct river input, although river signals can only be traced at a few places in the Baltic Sea.

  10. Effects of filamentous algae and deposited matter on the survival of Fucus vesiculosus L. germlings in the Baltic Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rita Berger; Emma Henriksson; Lena Kautsky; Torleif Malm

    2003-01-01

    As a result of increased nutrient levels in the Baltic Sea during thepast 50 years, mass developments of filamentous algae have become a commonfeature along the Swedish east coast and deposition of organic matter has alsoincreased. To test whether these two factors have any effects on the early lifestages of Fucus vesiculosus a number of laboratory andfield studies were conducted.

  11. Effects of filamentous algae and sediment on recruitment and survival of Fucus serratus (Phaeophyceae) juveniles in the eutrophic Baltic Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Isæus; Torleif Malm; Sofia Persson; Andreas Svensson

    2004-01-01

    Eutrophication of the Baltic Sea has increased both the growth of annual filamentous algae and the rate of sedimentation. Together these factors may have a detrimental effect on the survival of perennial macroalgal populations. The aim of this research was to study how these factors affect the colonization success of Fucus serratus at the local level. We investigated the settlement

  12. SOME POSSIBILITIES OF THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF THE MOLECULAR PHASE OF BALTIC AMBER AND OTHER NATURAL RESINS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Matuszewska; A. John

    SUMMARY TLC has been used for comparative investigation of the group composition of ethanol extracts obtained from natural resins of different origin and geological age. The main object of the analysis was an extract of Baltic amber from the tertiary period. An extract of an older (cretaceous period) fossil resin from Spain was also analysed, as also were several con-

  13. Thermal expansion of bismuth telluride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Pavlova; Yu. I. Shtern; R. E. Mironov

    2011-01-01

    The results of X-ray and dilatometric measurements of the thermal expansion of bismuth telluride in the temperature range\\u000a of 4.2–850 K have been critically analyzed. The joint statistical processing of the experimental data has been performed by\\u000a the least squares method and the most reliable temperature dependences of the linear thermal expansion coefficients along\\u000a the principal crystallographic axes ?\\u000a a

  14. Taylor expansions in chemical potential

    E-print Network

    Rajiv Gavai; Sourendu Gupta; Rajarshi Roy

    2003-12-03

    Properties of QCD at finite chemical potential are extracted using Taylor series expansions. The continuum limits of lattice results are presented. The result of expanding the free energy density, ie, the pressure, to 6th order in the expansion is shown. The Taylor coefficients of the chiral condensate are also shown. Relations between various Taylor coefficients are demonstrated. All this information is utilised to remove various lattice artifacts from the determination of the Wroblewski parameter in strangeness production.

  15. Low thermal expansion poreless ceramics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Sugawara; Kozo Abe; Toshio Mukai

    2003-01-01

    Low thermal expansion ceramics have been required for ultra precision nanometer positioning stage in the semiconductor equipments. Especially pore-less advanced ceramics have been playng an important part as mirror materials in the optical equipments. Nippon Steel produces Sialon and NEXCERA as the solutions for these demands. Sialon based on silicon nitride shows a thermal expansion of 1.3 x 10-6\\/K with

  16. Residential construction on expansive soils

    E-print Network

    Phipps, James Frederick

    1993-01-01

    RESIDENTIAl. CONSTRUCTION ON EXPANSIVE SOILS A Thesis by JAMES FREDERICK PHIPPS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SClENCE May 1993... Major Subject: Civil Engineering RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION ON EXPANSIVE SOILS A Thesis by JAMES FREDERICK PHIPPS Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as lo style...

  17. Population dynamics of a dominant species (Pseudocalanus, Acartia and Temora) in the Gulf of Gdansk (southern Baltic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, L.; Janecki, M.; Lemieszek, A.; Jakacki, J.; Nowicki, A.

    2012-04-01

    Copepods are the most important secondary producers of the world ocean. They represent an important link between phytoplankton, microzooplankton and higher trophic levels such as fish. With regard to their role in marine food webs, it is important to know how environmental variations affect their population. The population dynamics of a dominant species (Pseudocalanus, Acartia and Temora) in the southern Baltic Sea have been investigated within the grant which is supported by the Polish State Committee of Scientific Research. We intend to study the impact of climate changes on the development of the investigated copepods in the southern Baltic Sea through the impact of food concentration, temperature and salinity within the next few decades. Therefore, the goal within grant-Poland is developing the marine ecosystem model for Baltic Sea 3D CEMBSv2 (a coupled biological-hydrodynamic model) with a new 3D copepod model. 3D CEMBSv2 is a fully coupled model adopted for the Baltic Sea. The model is based on CESM1.0 (Community Earth System Model), in our configuration it consists of two active components (ocean and ice) driven by central coupler (CPL7). Ocean (POP version 2.1) and ice models (CICE model, version 4.0) are forced by atmospheric and land data models. Atmospheric data sets are provided by ICM-UM model from University of Warsaw. Additionally land model provides runoff of the Baltic Sea (currently 78 rivers). Ecosystem model is based on an intermediate complexity marine ecosystem model for the global domain and consists of 11 main components: zooplankton, small phytoplankton, diatoms, cyanobacteria, two detrital classes, dissolved oxygen and the nutrients nitrate, ammonium, phosphate and silicate. The copepod model consists of ten state variables with masses and numbers for each of five model stage, grouping stages to: the non feeding stages and eggs are represented by the stage - eggs-N2, following are the naupliar stages - N3-N6, then two copepodite stages - C1 - C3 and C4 - C5 and finally the adult stage - C6. The Baltic zooplankton is composed of microzooplankton, mezozooplankton and macroplankton with characteristic ichtyoplankton forms. The structure of mezozooplankton in the Gdansk Gulf mainly consisted of four taxa: copepoda, cladocera, rotatoria and meroplankton. The most important species in the Gdansk Gulf are copepoda: Acartia spp. (i.e. A. bifilosa, A. longiremis and A. tonsa), Temora longicornis, Pseudocalanus minutus elongatus and Centropages hamatus and cladocera: Bosmina coregoni maritime and Podon polyphemoides. Copepoda dominate numerically, while in the warm season Cladocera are subdominants. The study describes numerical simulations of the seasonal dynamics of Acartia spp., Temora longicornis and Pseudocalanus minutus elongatus in the southern Baltic Sea using a three-dimensional version of the coupled ecosystem-copepod model. In the case of the Baltic Sea, food concentration and temperature are the main factors controlling copepod development, and salinity is a masking factor. The surface water salinity of the southern Baltic is constant at 7-8 PSU. It is included in the present study. The simulated population dynamics were compared with observations at the Gulf of Gdansk. This work is supported by the Polish State Committee of Scientific Research [grant number: NN306 353239 and No. N N305 111636]. The partial support for this study was also provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBaltyk founded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract no. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09. Calculations were done at the Academic Computer Center in Gdansk.

  18. Palaeoenvironments in the southern Baltic Sea Basin during Marine Isotope Stage 3: a multi-proxy reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anjar, Johanna; Adrielsson, Lena; Bennike, Ole; Björck, Svante; Filipsson, Helena L.; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Knudsen, Karen Luise; Larsen, Nicolaj Krog; Möller, Per

    2012-02-01

    Sediment cores from Kriegers Flak in the southwestern Baltic Sea provide a unique possibility to study the Middle Weichselian history of the Baltic Basin. Three Weichselian interstadial units have been identified and are attributed to Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3, 60-25 ka). The oldest unit A is characterized by a deglaciation sequence, gradually turning into brackish-water clay. The low-diversity benthic foraminiferal fauna, stable oxygen isotope values and Mg/Ca ratios indicate low temperature and salinity for unit A. A hiatus separates unit A from the overlying unit B, which was deposited in wetlands and shallow lakes between 42 and 36 cal. ka BP. Macrofossil and pollen analyses indicate deposition of unit B in an area dominated by a tree-less open tundra environment, possibly with some birch and pine in sheltered positions. The uppermost unit C is characterized by clay deposition, including redeposition of material from older sediments (unit B). Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages indicate deposition of unit C between 26 and 28.5 ka. Radiocarbon ages of 39 and 40 cal. ka BP for unit C are considered to be too old. The following depositional model is suggested: (I) Isostatic depression of the region after an advance of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet (SIS), most likely the Ristinge ice advance, previously dated to c. 55-50 ka, enabled an inflow of marine waters into the Baltic Basin during the deposition of unit A. (II) Isostatic rebound caused a regression at Kriegers Flak, and a hiatus between units A and B. (III) Wetlands and smaller lakes formed in the uplifted area between 42 and 36 cal. ka BP (unit B). (IV) Deposition of glaciolacustrine clays at Kriegers Flak demonstrates that a growing SIS dammed Kattegat and the Baltic Basin c. 28.5 to 26 ka. The new evidence from Kriegers Flak provides a solid framework for future MIS 3 palaeoenvironmental reconstructions in the circum-Baltic area.

  19. Impaired immune function in seals and laboratory rats exposed to dioxin-like compounds from Baltic herring

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, P.S. [Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre, Pieterburen (Netherlands); [National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Swart, R.L. de [Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre, Pieterburen (Netherlands); [Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands); Timmerman, H.H.; Loveren, H. van [National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Osterhaus, A.D.M.E. [Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre, Pieterburen (Netherlands); [National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands); [Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Complex mixtures of lipophilic contaminants have been shown to affect certain top predators in the aquatic food chain, including seals. A recent demonstration that harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) fed Baltic Sea herring displayed impaired natural killer cell activity and T-lymphocyte function represented the first demonstration of immunotoxicity induced by ambient levels of contaminants in the environment. While these animals had a lower ability to respond to immunizations with inactivated vaccines, specific antibody responses, and in vitro antigen-specific lymphoproliferative responses, obvious constraints limited the ability to extend these results with host resistance tests or an evaluation of thymus and other lymphoid organs. The authors therefore set up a parallel study by exposing pregnant laboratory rats to the same Baltic herring contaminant mixture as received the seals. They then examined immune function parameters and host resistance to virus infection. As in the seals, rat pups of the Baltic group had impaired T-lymphocyte function. In addition, thymus cells and/or their precursors appeared to be targeted, as their numbers and function were reduced in the rats. Following challenge with rat cytomegalovirus in a host resistance study, rat pups in the Baltic group had impaired natural killer cell responses to the virus infection, and lower specific CD8 + (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte) responses following in vitro stimulation. By extrapolation, these results suggest that the impaired immune responses observed in the Baltic group of seals may lead to a less effective defense against virus infections in marine mammals inhabiting polluted coastal waters. Toxicological profiles and results of both the captive seal and laboratory rat experiments tend to implicate the 2,3,7,8-TCDD-like PCB, dioxin and furan congeners in the immunosuppression, and point to a major role for the PCBs.

  20. Asymptotic Expansions, 1/Z Expansions, and the Critical Nuclear Charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Gordon

    2014-03-01

    The quantum mechanical three-body problem defies analytic solution, and so computationally intensive approximation methods involving, for example, variational calculations with large correlated basis sets must be used. This talk will review recent work to explore the outer fringes of the quantum mechanical three-body problem for heliumlike atoms. Asymptotic expansions provide a surprisingly simple and accurate account of highly excited Rydberg states with high angular momentum. 1 / Z expansions, where Z is the nuclear charge, provide results for an entire isoelectronic sequence within a single calculation. Its radius of convergence is thought to be related to the critical nuclear charge Zc for a state to be bound. For Z expansions and the critical nuclear charge. Research suppoted by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, and by SHARCNET.

  1. The fossil crown wasp Electrostephanus petiolatus Brues in Baltic amber (Hymenoptera, Stephanidae): designation of a neotype, revised classification, and a key to amber Stephanidae

    E-print Network

    Engel, Michael S.; Ortega-Blanco, Jaime

    2008-12-17

    The fossil crown wasp Electrostephanus petiolatus Brues comb. rev. (Stephanidae, Electrostephaninae) is redescribed from a single male preserved in middle Eocene Baltic amber. The holotype was lost or destroyed around the time of World War II...

  2. Multiple piston expansion chamber engine

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, F.W.

    1986-02-18

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine. This engine consists of a cylinder with an auxiliary piston reciprocating in the cylinder; a working piston reciprocating within the auxiliary piston; an auxiliary chamber above the auxiliary piston; a combustion chamber above the working piston and providing a dwell for the auxiliary piston at TDC starting from when the working piston is between 40 degrees before to about TDC and on passing TDC entering an expansion stroke. The auxiliary piston remains at TDC until the working piston expansion stroke is underway and at a point where the working piston is between 20 and 160 degrees past TDC during the expansion stroke at which point the auxiliary piston leaves TDC and moves toward BDC. A controller communicating with the combustion chamber and the auxiliary chamber to prevent communication of combusted products from the combustion chamber above the working piston to the chamber above the auxiliary piston while the auxiliary piston is at TDC. The piston at TDC permits communication only during the working piston expansion stroke continuing past the point between 20 and 160 degrees past TDC, and a following exhaust stroke of the working piston so as to utilize energy of expansion from the auxiliary piston as it expands until the working piston has passed through BDC and returns to about TDC during the exhaust stroke of the working piston.

  3. Nutrient fluxes via submarine groundwater discharge to the Bay of Puck, southern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Szymczycha, Beata; Vogler, Susanna; Pempkowiak, Janusz

    2012-11-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been recognized as an important exchange pathway between hydrologic reservoirs due to its impact on biogeochemical cycles of the coastal ocean. This study reports nutrient concentrations and loads delivered by SGD into the Bay of Puck, the southern Baltic Sea. Measurements were carried out between September, 2009 and October, 2010 at groundwater seepage sites identified by low salinity of pore water. Groundwater fluxes, measured using seepage meters, ranged from 3 to 22 L m(-2)day(-1). Average concentrations of nutrients in groundwater samples collected were as follows: 0.4 ?mol L(-1) nitrate (NO(3)), 0.8 ?mol L(-1) nitrite (NO(2)), 18.2 ?mol L(-1) ammonium (NH(4)) and 60.6 ?mol L(-1) orthophosphate (PO(4)). Levels of NH(4) and PO(4) were significantly higher in samples from SGD sites than in seawater. Seawater and SGD samples showed similar NO(2) concentrations but SGD samples exhibited lower NO(3) levels than those observed in seawater samples. Measured seepage water fluxes and nutrient concentrations were used to calculate nutrient loads discharged into the study area while the literature groundwater flux and the measured nutrient concentrations were used to estimate nutrient loads discharged into the Bay of Puck. The estimates suggest that SGD delivers a dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) load of 49.9 ± 18.0 t yr(-1) and a PO(4)(-) load of 56.3 ± 5.5tyr(-1) into the Bay of Puck. The projected estimates are significant in comparison with loads delivered to the bay from other, well-recognized sources (705 ty r(-1) and 105 ty r(-1) respectively for DIN and PO(4)). Nutrient discharge input loads were projected to the entire Baltic Sea The extrapolated values indicate SGD contributes a significant proportion of phosphate load but only an insignificant proportion of DIN load. Further studies are necessary to better understand SGD contributions to the nutrient budget in the Baltic Sea. PMID:22975306

  4. Environmental Sensitivity Index: Estonian shoreline geology classification (Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aps, Robert; Kopti, Madli; Tõnisson, Hannes; Orviku, Kaarel; Suursaar, Ülo

    2013-04-01

    At International Maritime Organization's (IMO) Marine Environment Protection Committee's 53rd session in July 2005, the Baltic Sea was designated as a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA). At the same time the oil transportation is growing significantly in the Baltic Sea area and especially in the Gulf of Finland exceeding 250 million tons a year by 2015. Despite of improving navigation measures there is a growing risk for incidental oil spills and associated oil pollution. Oil spill accident history and simulations show that once the oil spill at sea has occurred, it is almost impossible to prevent it from reaching ashore. Advice on sensitive shoreline likely to be impacted by the oil washing ashore is of critical importance in order to support decisions whether or not a response is necessary or what kind and extent of response is appropriate. Furthermore, choices made in cleanup strategies and the decisionmaking process in the aftermath of a spill are significantly affecting the cleanup costs. This paper introduces the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) shoreline geology classification adapted and modified according to the environmental conditions of the Estonian coast of the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) and ranked according to substrate type and grain size related natural persistence of oil and ease of cleanup. Relative exposure to wave (hydrodynamic energy level) and the shoreline slope are characterized and taken into account. The length of the shoreline is over 700 km. The most common shore types are till shores (40%) and sandy shores (25%). Long stretches of cliff shores (11% in total) and gravel-pebble shores (10%) on the close neighborhood of the cliffs are the most characteristic features of the Estonian coast of the Gulf of Finland. Silty shores and artificial shores make up to 7% and 6% respectively of the total shoreline length here. Over 2/3 of the shores here are with very high ESI values. Till shores are often covered by coarse gravel, pebble, cobble and boulders (finer grained sediments are washed away) making this type of the shores very difficult to clean up and at the same time creating ideal conditions for numerous biological species. Gravel-pebble shore is probably the most difficult shore type to recover from the potential oil pollution while the cliff shores are the most difficult to access from the land. Issue is exemplified by the series of the oil spill scenario simulation results showing the practical use of the adapted ESI shoreline geology classification.

  5. Diatom stratigraphy and long-term dissolved silica concentrations in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olli, Kalle; Clarke, Annemarie; Danielsson, Åsa; Aigars, Juris; Conley, Daniel J.; Tamminen, Timo

    2008-10-01

    In many parts of the world coastal waters with anthropogenic eutrophication have experienced a gradual depletion of dissolved silica (DSi) stocks. This could put pressure on spring bloom diatom populations, e.g. by limiting the intensity of blooms or by causing shifts in species composition. In addition, eutrophication driven enhanced diatom growth is responsible for the redistribution of DSi from the water phase to the sediments, and changes in the growth conditions may be reflected in the sediment diatom stratigraphy. To test for changes in diatom communities we have analyzed four sediment cores from the Baltic Sea covering approximately the last 100 years. The sediment cores originate from the western Gulf of Finland, the Kattegat, the Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Riga. Three out of the four cores reveal only minor changes in composition of diatom assemblages, while the Gulf of Riga core contains major changes, occurring after the second World War. This area is set apart from the other Baltic Sea basins by a high frequency of low after spring bloom DSi concentrations (< 2 µmol L - 1 ) during a relatively well defined time period from 1991-1998. In 1991 to 1993 a rapid decline of DSi spring concentrations and winter stocks (down to 5 µmol L - 1 ) in the Gulf was preceded by exceptionally intense diatom spring blooms dominated by the heavily silicified species Thalassiosira baltica (1991-1992; up to 5.5 mg ww L - 1 ). T. baltica has been the principal spring bloom diatom in the Gulf of Riga since records began in 1975. DSi consumption and biomass yield experiments with cultured T. baltica suggest that intense blooms can potentially exhaust the DSi stock of the water column and exceed the annual Si dissolution in the Gulf of Riga. The phytoplankton time series reveals another exceptional T. baltica bloom period in 1981-1983 (up to 8 mg L - 1 ), which, however, took place before the regular DSi measurements. These periods may be reflected in the conspicuous accumulation of T. baltica frustules in the sediment core corresponding to ca. 1975-1985.

  6. Iron oxide reduction in deep Baltic Sea sediments: the potential role of anaerobic oxidation of methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egger, Matthias; Slomp, Caroline P.; Dijkstra, Nikki; Sapart, Célia J.; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Kasten, Sabine; Riedinger, Natascha; Barker Jørgensen, Bo

    2015-04-01

    Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas and its emission from marine sediments to the atmosphere is largely controlled by anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). Traditionally, sulfate is considered to be the most important electron acceptor for AOM in marine sediments. However, recent studies have shown that AOM may also be coupled to the reduction of iron (Fe) oxides (Beal et al., 2009; Riedinger et al., 2014; Egger et al., 2014). In the Baltic Sea, the transition from the Ancylus freshwater phase to the Littorina brackish/marine phase (A/L-transition) ca. 9-7 ka ago (Zillén et al., 2008) resulted in the accumulation of methanogenic brackish/marine sediments overlying Fe-oxide rich lacustrine deposits. The downward diffusion of methane from the brackish/marine sediments into the lake sediments leads to an ideal diagenetic system to study a potential coupling between Fe oxide reduction and methane oxidation. Here, we use porewater and sediment geochemical data obtained at sites M0063 and M0065 during the IODP Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment Expedition 347 in 2013 to identify the potential mechanisms responsible for the apparent Fe oxide reduction in the non-sulfidic limnic sediments below the A/L transition. In this presentation, we will review the various explanations for the elevated ferrous Fe in the porewater in the lake sediments and we will specifically address the potential role of the reaction of methane with Fe-oxides. References: Beal E. J., House C. H. and Orphan V. J. (2009) Manganese- and iron-dependent marine methane oxidation. Science 325, 184-187. Egger M., Rasigraf O., Sapart C. J., Jilbert T., Jetten M. S. M., Röckmann T., van der Veen C., Banda N., Kartal B., Ettwig K. F. and Slomp C. P. (2014) Iron-mediated anaerobic oxidation of methane in brackish coastal sediments. Environ. Sci. Technol. 49, 277-283. Riedinger N., Formolo M. J., Lyons T. W., Henkel S., Beck A. and Kasten S. (2014) An inorganic geochemical argument for coupled anaerobic oxidation of methane and iron reduction in marine sediments. Geobiology 12, 172-181. Zillén L., Conley D. J., Andrén T., Andrén E. and Björck S. (2008) Past occurrences of hypoxia in the Baltic Sea and the role of climate variability, environmental change and human impact. Earth-Science Rev. 91, 77-92.

  7. Spatial and temporal habitat partitioning by zooplankton in the Bornholm Basin (central Baltic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Jan; Peck, Myron A.; Barz, Kristina; Schmidt, Jörn Oliver; Hansen, Frank C.; Peters, Janna; Renz, Jasmin; Dickmann, Miriam; Mohrholz, Volker; Dutz, Jörg; Hirche, Hans-Jürgen

    2012-12-01

    The deep basins in the Baltic Sea such as the Bornholm Basin (BB) are subject to seasonal changes in the strength of physico-chemical stratification. These depth-related changes in key abiotic factors are strong drivers of habitat partitioning by the autochthonous zooplankton community. Species-specific ecophysiological preferences often result in both seasonal and inter-annual changes in vertical abundance that, when combined with depth-specific water currents, also lead to horizontal differences in spatial distribution. The present study documented the seasonal and depth-specific changes in the abundance and species composition of zooplankton in the BB based upon broad-scale survey data: 832 vertically-resolved (10 m) multinet samples collected at nine stations between March 2002 and May 2003. Changes in the zooplankton community were significantly correlated with changes in ambient hydrography. Each of five taxa (Bosmina coregoni maritima, Acartia spp., Pseudocalanus spp., Temora longicornis, Synchaeta spp.) contributed >10% to the zooplankton community composition. The appearance of cladocerans was mainly correlated with the phenology of thermocline development in the spring. The cladoceran B. coregoni maritima was a dominant member of this community during the warmest periods, preferring the surface waters above the thermocline. Copepods exhibited distinct, ontogenetic and seasonal changes in their distribution. The rotifers (Synchaeta sp.) were the most abundant zooplankton in May. Based on a multivariate approach and the evaluation of vertical distribution patterns, five major habitat utilisation modes were identified that were based, to a large extent, on the dynamics of thermal and haline stratification of the Baltic Sea. Our statistical analysis of one of the most thorough datasets collected on Baltic zooplankton in recent decades reveals some of the factors that make this stratified system highly dynamic with respect to the spatial overlap between predators and prey. As fish and gelatinous plankton often feed in distinct layers and/or exhibit feeding migrations, the inhomogeneous distribution of potential prey can result in a spatial mismatch. Based on the five modes identified at the community level for zooplankton, we discuss how climate-driven hydrographic variability may influence the strength of trophic coupling within the Bornholm Basin.

  8. Thermal expansion of Kevlar fibres and composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Rojstaczer; D. Cohn; G. Marom

    1985-01-01

    A preliminary knowledge of the thermal expansivity of a given composite material is essential for its engineering design. This can only be achieved by having an accurate knowledge of the thermal expansivities of the constituent materials and of the laws which predict the expansivity of the composite material as a function of the expansivities of its constituents and of their

  9. Optimal Generation Expansion Planning with Electric Energy Storage Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Yasuda; K. Nishiya; J. Hasegawa; R. Yokoyama

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents fficient method which provides the optimal generation mix and the optimal (development) pr for not only generators o for electric e storage systems. The approximations method, in which the dynamic programming and the gradient method are combined, is developed to determine the optimal generation mix with energy storage systems. The dynamic p ges are time periods and

  10. Low thermal expansion poreless ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, Jun; Abe, Kozo; Mukai, Toshio

    2003-05-01

    Low thermal expansion ceramics have been required for ultra precision nanometer positioning stage in the semiconductor equipments. Especially pore-less advanced ceramics have been playng an important part as mirror materials in the optical equipments. Nippon Steel produces Sialon and NEXCERA as the solutions for these demands. Sialon based on silicon nitride shows a thermal expansion of 1.3 x 10-6/K with a high Young's modulus of 300 GPa. Newly-developed NEXCERA based on cordierite ceramics shows near-zero thermal expansion around the room temperature with a Young's modulus of 130 GPa. For these advanced ceramics, near-net shape sintering, direct bonding and mirror polishing are available. These technologies will provide us new design possibilities in precision engineering fields like optical system.

  11. Planning Report, 1999-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada Univ. and Community Coll. System, Reno. Office of the Chancellor.

    This report, submitted by the Board of Regents of the University and Community College System of Nevada (UCCSN), outlines anticipated programs and expansion of existing programs, anticipated costs and resources, and other information concerning the comprehensive planning of the UCCSN for the next 4 years. The first section of the report includes…

  12. INTEGRATED PLANNING MODEL - EPA APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Integrated Planning Model (IPM) is a multi-regional, dynamic, deterministic linear programming (LP) model of the electric power sector in the continental lower 48 states and the District of Columbia. It provides forecasts up to year 2050 of least-cost capacity expansion, elec...

  13. Fishery Notes Alaska Plans New

    E-print Network

    near Juneau, Main Bay in Prince William Sound, Ship Creek near Anchorage, and at Kotzebue Sound will produce fish for Alaska's burgeoning sport fishing popu- lation, and will help maintain the commercial salmon industry at a more constant level. Planned expansion of the Ship Creek hatchery complex

  14. Local adaptation and oceanographic connectivity patterns explain genetic differentiation of a marine diatom across the North Sea-Baltic Sea salinity gradient.

    PubMed

    Sjöqvist, C; Godhe, A; Jonsson, P R; Sundqvist, L; Kremp, A

    2015-06-01

    Drivers of population genetic structure are still poorly understood in marine micro-organisms. We exploited the North Sea-Baltic Sea transition for investigating the seascape genetics of a marine diatom, Skeletonema marinoi. Eight polymorphic microsatellite loci were analysed in 354 individuals from ten locations to analyse population structure of the species along a 1500-km-long salinity gradient ranging from 3 to 30 psu. To test for salinity adaptation, salinity reaction norms were determined for sets of strains originating from three different salinity regimes of the gradient. Modelled oceanographic connectivity was compared to directional relative migration by correlation analyses to examine oceanographic drivers. Population genetic analyses showed distinct genetic divergence of a low-salinity Baltic Sea population and a high-salinity North Sea population, coinciding with the most evident physical dispersal barrier in the area, the Danish Straits. Baltic Sea populations displayed reduced genetic diversity compared to North Sea populations. Growth optima of low salinity isolates were significantly lower than those of strains from higher native salinities, indicating local salinity adaptation. Although the North Sea-Baltic Sea transition was identified as a barrier to gene flow, migration between Baltic Sea and North Sea populations occurred. However, the presence of differentiated neutral markers on each side of the transition zone suggests that migrants are maladapted. It is concluded that local salinity adaptation, supported by oceanographic connectivity patterns creating an asymmetric migration pattern between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, determines genetic differentiation patterns in the transition zone. PMID:25892181

  15. Expansion-based passive ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barniv, Yair

    1993-01-01

    A new technique of passive ranging which is based on utilizing the image-plane expansion experienced by every object as its distance from the sensor decreases is described. This technique belongs in the feature/object-based family. The motion and shape of a small window, assumed to be fully contained inside the boundaries of some object, is approximated by an affine transformation. The parameters of the transformation matrix are derived by initially comparing successive images, and progressively increasing the image time separation so as to achieve much larger triangulation baseline than currently possible. Depth is directly derived from the expansion part of the transformation. To a first approximation, image-plane expansion is independent of image-plane location with respect to the focus of expansion (FOE) and of platform maneuvers. Thus, an expansion-based method has the potential of providing a reliable range in the difficult image area around the FOE. In areas far from the FOE the shift parameters of the affine transformation can provide more accurate depth information than the expansion alone, and can thus be used similarly to the way they were used in conjunction with the Inertial Navigation Unit (INU) and Kalman filtering. However, the performance of a shift-based algorithm, when the shifts are derived from the affine transformation, would be much improved compared to current algorithms because the shifts - as well as the other parameters - can be obtained between widely separated images. Thus, the main advantage of this new approach is that, allowing the tracked window to expand and rotate, in addition to moving laterally, enables one to correlate images over a very long time span which, in turn, translates into a large spatial baseline - resulting in a proportionately higher depth accuracy.

  16. Expansion-based passive ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barniv, Yair

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a new technique of passive ranging which is based on utilizing the image-plane expansion experienced by every object as its distance from the sensor decreases. This technique belongs in the feature/object-based family. The motion and shape of a small window, assumed to be fully contained inside the boundaries of some object, is approximated by an affine transformation. The parameters of the transformation matrix are derived by initially comparing successive images, and progressively increasing the image time separation so as to achieve much larger triangulation baseline than currently possible. Depth is directly derived from the expansion part of the transformation. To a first approximation, image-plane expansion is independent of image-plane location with respect to the focus of expansion (FOE) and of platform maneuvers. Thus, an expansion-based method has the potential of providing a reliable range in the difficult image area around the FOE. In areas far from the FOE the shift parameters of the affine transformation can provide more accurate depth information than the expansion alone, and can thus be used similarly to the way they have been used in conjunction with the Inertial Navigation Unit (INU) and Kalman filtering. However, the performance of a shift-based algorithm, when the shifts are derived from the affine transformation, would be much improved compared to current algorithms because the shifts--as well as the other parameters--can be obtained between widely separated images. Thus, the main advantage of this new approach is that, allowing the tracked window to expand and rotate, in addition to moving laterally, enables one to correlate images over a very long time span which, in turn, translates into a large spatial baseline resulting in a proportionately higher depth accuracy.

  17. The Identity Crisis of Educational Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Henry M.

    Educational planning is presently confronted by an identity crisis. As long as it was believed that educational expansion was a principal ingredient for securing economic growth, democratic political processes, and greater equality of economics and social participation, the tenets and practice of educational planning were rarely questioned.…

  18. Relativistic effects on plasma expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Benkhelifa, El-Amine; Djebli, Mourad, E-mail: mdjebli@usthb.dz [USTHB, Faculty of Physics, Theoretical Physics Laboratory, B.P. 32 Bab-Ezzouar, 16079 Algiers (Algeria)

    2014-07-15

    The expansion of electron-ion plasma is studied through a fully relativistic multi-fluids plasma model which includes thermal pressure, ambipolar electrostatic potential, and internal energy conversion. Numerical investigation, based on quasi-neutral assumption, is performed for three different regimes: nonrelativistic, weakly relativistic, and relativistic. Ions' front in weakly relativistic regime exhibits spiky structure associated with a break-down of quasi-neutrality at the expanding front. In the relativistic regime, ion velocity is found to reach a saturation limit which occurs at earlier stages of the expansion. This limit is enhanced by higher electron velocity.

  19. Nonlinear Message Expansion for Hash Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian-Dong Liu; Hui-Na Jiang; Shu-Tao Huang

    2008-01-01

    This paper carries out a statistical analysis on the nonlinear diffusion & propagation of the SHA message expansion. The nonlinear expansion of the message is realized through the rolled-out and folded-over of the integer tent maps, and a piece-wise-nonlinear message expansion scheme is further given. Compared with SHA-256 message expansion, the message expansion mode presented in this paper has enhanced

  20. National Science Board Approves VLA Expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-11-01

    The National Science Board, the governing body for the National Science Foundation (NSF), has approved an expansion project for the Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in New Mexico. The board recommended an NSF award of approximately 58.3 million for the project over the next decade. The action came at the Board's meeting in Washington on Nov. 15. The Very Large Array The Very Large Array "This approval means that the VLA, already the most scientifically productive ground-based telescope in all of astronomy, will remain at the cutting edge of astrophysical research through the coming decades," said Paul Vanden Bout, director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). The expansion project will replace aging equipment left over from the VLA's construction during the 1970s with modern technology, improving the VLA's scientific capabilities more than tenfold. Using the existing 27 dish antennas, each weighing 230 tons, the Expanded VLA will have greatly improved ability to image distant celestial objects and to decipher the physical nature of those objects. In addition to the 58.3 million NSF allocation, the governments of Canada and Mexico plan to provide funding for the VLA expansion. The VLA Expansion Project was formally proposed to the NSF, which owns the VLA, last year. Also last year, the project received a strong endorsement from the Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee of the National Research Council, the working arm of the National Academies of Sciences and Engineering. That committee had been given the task of setting nationwide priorities for astronomy spending over the next decade. The Survey Committee report listed the Expanded VLA as an important contributor to new understanding in three high-priority research areas for the next decade: studies of star and planet formation; research into black holes; and unraveling details about the "dawn of the modern universe." Dedicated in 1980, the VLA is the most powerful, flexible and widely- used radio telescope in the world. It brought dramatically-improved observational capabilities to the scientific community two decades ago, and has contributed significantly to nearly every branch of astronomy. More than 2,200 scientists have used the VLA for more than 10,000 separate observing projects. Astronomers seek more than twice as much VLA observing time than can be provided. Since the VLA's dedication, many technical improvements have made it much more capable than its original design contemplated. However, some of the technologies incorporated into the VLA during its construction, while highly advanced for their time, now limit its capabilities. The VLA Expansion Project will replace those older technologies with modern technology, allowing the VLA to realize its full potential as a tool for scientific research. "Keeping the VLA at the forefront of technology is an important priority, and we are fortunate that Sen. Pete Domenici (R-NM) has recognized this for many years. We appreciate his longtime support for this valuable scientific facility," Vanden Bout said. "Senator Domenici is one of the VLA's strongest advocates, and as a leader in the U.S. Senate, has continually supported the VLA and its expansion in Congress and the Federal Government," Vanden Bout added. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  1. Assessment the Synoptic Variability of Vertical Thermal Structure in Baltic Sea Waters on the Base of in-situ Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, A.; Klevantsov, J.; Rozhkov, V.

    2004-12-01

    The thermal regime of sea's active layer is determined by its interaction with atmosphere, thermal balance, wind and convective water mixing. The question about assessment of synoptic variability of thermal stratification in Baltic Sea waters has not yet solved. The purpose of the present work was to determine the bounds of synoptic variability of vertical temperature profiles T(z) at the all seasons on the example of Bornholm Basin in the Baltic Sea. On the base of the large array of episodic measurements at the international stations BY, situated in key regions of the Baltic Sea, the principles of annual rhythmic of vertical distribution of water temperature are given in the paper [1]. However, this data does not allow separate the synoptic variability from seasonal and inter-annual diapasons, since measurements at fixed horizon belong to different synoptic events at different years. During 1978-1988 the State Oceanographic Institute (Leningrad/Saint-Petersburg Branch) on the base of Russian RV "Rudolf Samoylovich" was carrying out observations of hydrological and hydro-chemical elements of Baltic Sea waters at the stations BY [2]. The originality of carried out work is that for the first time continuous series of measurements for elements of vertical thermo-haline structure with duration from day to several months and discreteness of 3 hour were executed. These observations got name "Multi-daily Stations". This data alongside with the data of episodic observations allows separate synoptic variability of water temperature profile and assess its degree. Vertical thermal structure of sea waters has been typified based on the parameters of profile geometry. The degree of synoptic variability in each element of profile T(z) for all the seasons has determined. It has been showed, that the enthalpy is the optimal thermal regime parameter for separating the synoptic diapason from others. It has also been showed, that synoptic variability of water temperature in deep layer is not significant. References 1. Terziev, F.S., Rozhkov, V.A., Smirnova, A.I.// Hydrometeorology and Hydro-chemistry of USSR seas, Vol. III. The Baltic Sea, Issue 2. Hydro-chemical Conditions and Oceanographic Basis for Biological Productivity, pp. 149-197, 1994 2. Davidan, I.N., Gusev, A.K., Savchuk, O.P., Chernyshova, E.S., Shadrin, P.S.// Representativity of seasonal surveys in the Baltic sea/ Proc. of III BASYS Annual Science Conf., Warnemünde, Germany, 20 - 22.09.1999. Paper SP 8 - 7, p. 83

  2. Modeling the Role of pH on Baltic Sea Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hinners, Jana; Hofmeister, Richard; Hense, Inga

    2015-01-01

    We simulate pH-dependent growth of cyanobacteria with an ecosystem model for the central Baltic Sea. Four model components—a life cycle model of cyanobacteria, a biogeochemical model, a carbonate chemistry model and a water column model—are coupled via the framework for aquatic biogeochemical models. The coupled model is forced by the output of a regional climate model, based on the A1B emission scenario. With this coupled model, we perform simulations for the period 1968–2098. Our simulation experiments suggest that in the future, cyanobacteria growth is hardly affected by the projected pH decrease. However, in the simulation phase prior to 1980, cyanobacteria growth and N2-fixation are limited by the relatively high pH. The observed absence of cyanobacteria before the 1960s may thus be explained not only by lower eutrophication levels, but also by a higher alkalinity. PMID:25830591

  3. Subdivision of Holocene Baltic sea sediments by their physical properties [Gliederung holozaner ostseesedimente nach physikalischen Eigenschaften

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harff, Jan; Bohling, G.C.; Endler, R.; Davis, J.C.; Olea, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Holocene sediment sequence of a core taken within the centre of the Eastern Gotland Basin was subdivided into 12 lithostratigraphic units based on MSCL-data (sound velocity, wet bulk density, magnetic susceptibility) using a multivariate classification method. The lower 6 units embrace the sediments until the Litorina transgression, and the upper 6 units subdivide the brackish-marine Litorina- and post-Litorina sediments. The upper lithostratigraphic units reflect a change of anoxic (laminated) and oxic (non-laminated) sediments. By application of a numerical stratigraphic correlation method the zonation was extended laterally onto contiguous sediment cores within the central basin. Consequently the change of anoxic and oxic sediments can be used for a general lithostratigraphic subdivision of sediments of the Gotland Basin. A quantitative criterion based on the sediment-physical lithofacies is added to existing subdivisions of the Holocene in the Baltic Sea.

  4. NEMO-Nordic : A NEMO based ocean modelling configuration for Baltic & North Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hordoir, Robinson; Schimanke, Semjon; Axell, Lars; Gröger, Matthias; Dieterich, Christian; Liu, Ye; Höglund, Anders; Kuznetsov, Ivan; Ljungemyr, Patrik; Nygren, Petter; Jönsson, Anette; Meier, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Based on the NEMO ocean engine, three regional setups for the North Sea and Baltic Sea domain have been developed : the NEMO-Nordic configuration is declined in an operational setup, a stand-alone version used for climate and process studies, and a NEMO-Nordic-RCA4 atmosphere/ocean coupled configuration used for downscalling climate scenarios. We give a brief overview of the options chosen within the NEMO engine to design the configurations. Based on the results provided by each of the three configurations, we also provide an assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of NEMO-Nordic. Finally, a validation of the configurations is provided based on an extensive comparison between in-situ measurements and model results for temperature, salinity, sea-ice extent, sea level and mean circulation.

  5. Organochlorine compounds in Baltic salmon and trout. I. Chlorinated hydrocarbons and chlorophenols 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Vuorinen, P.J.; Paasivirta, J.; Piilola, T.; Surma-Aho, K.; Tarhanen, J.

    1985-01-01

    Polychlorinated hydrocarbons and chlorophenol compounds were analyzed in three populations of Baltic salmon (Salmo salar) and one population of Bothnian Bay trout (Salmo trutta). Muscles, livers an unfertilized eggs were studied and the analysis results treated by standard statistical methods. PCB, DDT residues, HCB and lindan were detected in most, 2,3,6-t-richlorocymene in some samples at levels which are near to the global baseline. Ten chlorophenol compounds were detected, 34DCC at 0-1000 ..mu..g/kg the other 0-100 ..mu..g/kg (fresh weight) levels. Chlorohydrocarbons showed some significant positive correlations with weight, and fat contents of the fish. Significances of the differences between populations and tissues were low or negligible except that the chlorophenols in liver were at clearly higher level than in muscle or eggs.

  6. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sprats from the southern Baltic, 1981.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, J

    1984-06-01

    102 samples of the muscle tissue of sprat netted in 1981 in the southern part of the Baltic Sea were analysed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its analogues (DDE and DDD), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and isomers of benzenehexachloride (alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-BHC). The mean values obtained related to wet weight for sprat muscle meat were: 6.4 micrograms HCB/kg, 11 micrograms alpha-BHC/kg, 20 micrograms gamma-BHC/kg, 33 micrograms p,p'-DDE/kg, 42 micrograms p,p'-DDD/kg, 31 micrograms p,p'-DDT/kg, 110 micrograms sigma DDT/kg and 670 micrograms PCB/kg; beta-BHC was detectable in trace amounts and delta-BHC was undetected. The results are compared with values reported previously by other authors. PMID:6435326

  7. Spatial variability of winter bacterioplankton community composition in the Gulf of Finland (the Baltic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laas, Peeter; Simm, Jaak; Lips, Inga; Metsis, Madis

    2014-01-01

    The microbial communities in the Baltic Sea are extremely diverse and highly dynamic and undergoing shifts in dominant phylotypes in response to spatial and temporal environmental gradients. We present the first study of wintertime bacterioplankton with a high-throughput sequencing approach. Using barcoded pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene we investigated the bacterial diversity and spatial distribution of winter picoplankton communities in the Gulf of Finland. We analyzed ten samples and identified 609 OTUs (operational taxanomic units), mostly members of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Cyanobacteria. Most abundant OTUs of the dataset were identified as Sulfurimonas and Pelagibacter, which dominated the near-bottom and surface layers, respectively. Surface communities yielded about the same species richness estimates than a previous study conducted in same area during springtime.

  8. Microbially mediated methane and sulfur cycling in pockmark sediments of the Gdansk Basin, Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimenov, Nikolay V.; Ulyanova, Marina O.; Kanapatsky, Timur A.; Veslopolova, Elena F.; Sigalevich, Pavel A.; Sivkov, Vadim V.

    2010-06-01

    In the Russian sector of the Gdansk Basin (Baltic Sea), high organic matter influx fuels microbial processes resulting in the formation of reduced sediments with elevated methane concentrations. Investigated areas of geoacoustic anomalies (˜245 km2) were found to contain three distinct geomorphologic structures (pockmarks), with a total area of ˜1 km2. Methane anomalies recorded in the water above one of these pockmarks were traced as high as 10 m above the bottom. In pockmark sediments, sulfate reduction and anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) occurred at high rates of 33 and 50 µmol dm-3 day-1, respectively. Integrated over 0-180 cm sediment depths, AOM exceeded methanogenesis almost tenfold. High AOM rates resulted from methane influx from deeper sediment layers. The ?13C signature of methane carbon (-78.1 to -71.1‰) indicates the biogenic origin of pockmark methane. In pockmark sediments, up to 70% of reduced sulfur compounds was possibly produced via AOM.

  9. Results of seismological observations in the western Kaliningrad region and in the Baltic Sea water area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovachev, S. A.

    2008-09-01

    In 2006 2007, researchers of the IO RAS conducted seismological observations in the Baltic Sea and western Kaliningrad region with the use of ocean-bottom and land-based autonomous seismic stations. According to maps of general seismic zoning of the territory of Russia, the Kaliningrad region is aseismic. However, a series of seismic phenomena with magnitudes of about 5 and sources located near the Bay of Gdansk coast occurred here in September 2004. The total duration of the IO RAS seismological observations in five areas of the region under investigation was more than 200 days. The analysis of seismic records of the IO RAS network located sources of two local weak earthquakes with magnitudes M L = 3.4 3.5, which indicates that the seismic process in the western part of the Kaliningrad region continues and the region is far from being seismically stable.

  10. Condition of South-Eastern Baltic Sea Shores and Methods of Protecting Them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrowski, Rafa?; Pruszak, Zbigniew; Babakov, Alexander

    2014-06-01

    The paper describes lithodynamic and morphodynamic processes occurring in the main part of the south-eastern Baltic coastal area, namely on the sea shores from the Vistula mouth in the Gulf of Gdansk to the Lithuanian-Latvian border. The study area is subject to intensive natural coastal changes, as well as shore evolution caused by anthropogenic impacts at several locations. Methods of coastal protection against erosion and shore stabilization systems applied in the past and currently are described. The paper deals with the causes of the dynamics of beach/dune shores and cliffs. It presents the authors' field observations of 2010-2013, as well as previously gained knowledge and the results of Polish, Russian and joint Polish-Russian field surveys.

  11. Trends in storm surge probability of occurrence along the Polish Baltic Sea coast

    E-print Network

    Paprotny, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    When assessing the hazard brought by storm surges on the coast, a frequency analysis is often conducted. An issue of particular concern is the sea level rise (SLR), thought to have an impact on maximum water levels. In this study, three gauge stations with long records dating back to the 19th century and located along the Polish Baltic Sea coast were analyzed. Different theoretical distributions were tested in order to find the best-fitting one. Gumbel distribution was chosen and estimated for 40-year moving periods. The location parameter soared in all tide gauges, but the shape parameter was stable in Gdansk and decreased in the other two. In effect, theoretical annual maximum water levels followed the SLR in Gdansk, whereas most extreme storm surges had no trend in Swinoujscie and a negative one in Kolobrzeg. A possible explanation for this was investigated (change in atmospheric circulation measured by NAO index).

  12. Nitrogen concentrations and losses from agricultural streams in the Nordic and Baltic countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stålnacke, Per; Bechmann, Marianne; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte; Iital, Arvo; Kyllmar, Katarina; Koskiaho, Jari; Lagzdins, Ainis; Povilaitis, Arvydas

    2015-04-01

    Assessment of long-term trends is one of the key objectives in most national water quality monitoring programmes. It is for example essential that we know how long it can take to detect the response in agricultural streams to changes in agriculture and implemented measures, because such information is needed to allow environmental authorities and decision and policy makers to establish realistic goals. Thus, long-term monitoring data is the key to cover future management needs and demands such as implementation of various EU-Directives (e.g., WFD, the Nitrates Directive). This paper in a uniform fashion examines the levels and temporal trends of nitrogen concentrations and losses in streams draining agricultural catchment areas in the Nordic and Baltic countries. 35 catchments (range 0.1-33km2) in Norway (9), Denmark (5), Sweden (8), Finland (4), Estonia (3), Latvia (3) and Lithuania (3) were selected for the study. Most of these catchments are part of national water quality monitoring programmes and initially selected to represent the major crops, soil types and climatic conditions in each country. The longest time series where 23 years (1988-2010) while the shortest one was 10 years (2002-2011). The reasons for these identified trends and no-trends will be discussed during the oral presentation in relation to land use, agricultural management and implementation of mitigation measures. Furthermore, the difference in mean level concentrations and losses will be discussed in relation to differences in climate, land use and agricultural management Overall the results show that agricultural catchments in the Nordic and Baltic countries exhibit different levels of nitrogen concentrations and losses, with a large interannual variability in all catchments. For example, the overall range in annual long-term mean TN losses was 6-102 kg N ha-1. Nearly one third of the investigated agricultural catchments showed statistically significant downward trends in nitrogen losses or concentrations. The most decreasing trends are prominent in Denmark and Sweden, whereas a few increasing tendencies were found in the Baltic countries. Evidently, a majority of the 'best' monitored small agricultural catchments in the Nordic/Baltic region do not show any significant improvement in nitrogen water quality. This could at first sight be regarded as evidence of a great failure of the implementation of mitigation measures in the various countries. But as pointed out by many authors, there is normally a time-lag between the implemented measures and when we can detect improvement in our agricultural streams; some authors have shown time-lags effects of decades and beyond. Nonetheless, our results indicate that targeted strategies over time towards reduced nitrogen losses from agricultural land (as in the case of Denmark and Sweden) may significantly improve nitrogen surface water quality in small agricultural streams.

  13. Ecological Network Indicators of Ecosystem Status and Change in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Tomczak, Maciej T.; Heymans, Johanna J.; Yletyinen, Johanna; Niiranen, Susa; Otto, Saskia A.; Blenckner, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Several marine ecosystems under anthropogenic pressure have experienced shifts from one ecological state to another. In the central Baltic Sea, the regime shift of the 1980s has been associated with food-web reorganization and redirection of energy flow pathways. These long-term dynamics from 1974 to 2006 have been simulated here using a food-web model forced by climate and fishing. Ecological network analysis was performed to calculate indices of ecosystem change. The model replicated the regime shift. The analyses of indicators suggested that the system’s resilience was higher prior to 1988 and lower thereafter. The ecosystem topology also changed from a web-like structure to a linearized food-web. PMID:24116045

  14. Concentrations and enantiomer fractions of organochlorine compounds in Baltic species hit by reproductive impairment.

    PubMed

    Wiberg, Karin; Bergman, Anders; Olsson, Mats; Roos, Anna; Blomkvist, Gun; Haglund, Peter

    2002-12-01

    Concentrations and enantiomer fractions (EFs) of organochlorine compounds (OCs) were determined in tissues of gray seal (Halichoerus grypus) and salmon (Salmo salar) originating from the Baltic Sea. The selected seal specimens ranged from starved to unstarved animals, and some of them suffered from a disease complex, while the salmon samples originated from individuals, which were known to produce offspring with and without the M74 syndrome. Significant differences in residue levels and EFs were found between seal groups but not between M74 salmon and non-M74 salmon. The relations between chemical and biological variables of seal samples were investigated with multivariate statistics. Poor health status correlated strongly with age, while bad nutrition condition was associated mainly with high pollution loads and distinctively nonracemic chiral OC compositions. High biotransformation rate (as indicated by fraction of chlordane metabolites in relation to total level of chlordanes) was also associated with large deviations from racemic values and high contaminant levels. PMID:12463547

  15. Legal prerequisites for ecosystem-based management in the Baltic Sea area: The example of eutrophication.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Annika K; Bohman, Brita

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of law in the management of the Baltic Sea, with focus on eutrophication. It aims to identify legal instruments or structures realizing an ecosystem approach. This also includes a discussion of the prerequisites of law as contributor to ecosystem-based management (EBM), as well as evaluation of current legal instruments. While ecosystem approach to environmental management is central to contemporary environmental management policy, it is still unclear what such an approach entails in concrete legal terms. The scope of the analysis stretches from international and EU legal regimes, to implementation and regulation within the national legal systems. A conclusion is that the management structures need further development to properly realize EBM, for example, through concretization of management measures, and clarification of duties and responsibilities for their realization. PMID:26022320

  16. Baltic Sea ecosystem-based management under climate change: Synthesis and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Blenckner, Thorsten; Österblom, Henrik; Larsson, Per; Andersson, Agneta; Elmgren, Ragnar

    2015-06-01

    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) has emerged as the generally agreed strategy for managing ecosystems, with humans as integral parts of the managed system. Human activities have substantial effects on marine ecosystems, through overfishing, eutrophication, toxic pollution, habitat destruction, and climate change. It is important to advance the scientific knowledge of the cumulative, integrative, and interacting effects of these diverse activities, to support effective implementation of EBM. Based on contributions to this special issue of AMBIO, we synthesize the scientific findings into four components: pollution and legal frameworks, ecosystem processes, scale-dependent effects, and innovative tools and methods. We conclude with challenges for the future, and identify the next steps needed for successful implementation of EBM in general and specifically for the Baltic Sea. PMID:26022332

  17. Even low to medium nitrogen deposition impacts vegetation of dry, coastal dunes around the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Remke, Eva; Brouwer, Emiel; Kooijman, Annemieke; Blindow, Irmgard; Esselink, Hans; Roelofs, Jan G M

    2009-03-01

    Coastal dunes around the Baltic Sea have received small amounts of atmospheric nitrogen and are rather pristine ecosystems in this respect. In 19 investigated dune sites the atmospheric wet nitrogen deposition is 3-8kg Nha(-1)yr(-1). The nitrogen content of Cladonia portentosa appeared to be a suitable biomonitor of these low to medium deposition levels. Comparison with EMEP-deposition data showed that Cladonia reflects the deposition history of the last 3-6 years. With increasing nitrogen load, we observed a shift from lichen-rich short grass vegetation towards species-poor vegetation dominated by the tall graminoid Carex arenaria. Plant species richness per field site, however, does not decrease directly with these low to medium N deposition loads, but with change in vegetation composition. Critical loads for acidic, dry coastal dunes might be lower than previously thought, in the range of 4-6kg Nha(-1)yr(-1) wet deposition. PMID:19095336

  18. Preparations to use Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) in sea ice remote sensing in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leppäranta, M.; Kuittinen, R.; Kemppainen, H.

    Remote sensing methods are largely used in ice mapping in the Baltic Sea. The next significant step will come true in next decade with satellite Synthetic Aperture Radars (SAR); in particular, SAR is weather independent and provides information of ice roughness. As an early phase of a joint Finnish-Swedish research programme BEPERS (Bothnian Experiment in Preparation for ERS-1), a field experiment ``BEPERS Pilot Study'' was carried through in 1987. The French VARAN-S X-band SAR was chartered for this experiment. Four study areas of around 10 × 50 km size were chosen representing different ice types and conditions. Intensive ground and remote sensing observations were made for correct interpretation of the SAR images. Digital analyses of the SAR images showed that the ice cover could be classified into four classes: 1) open water or bare smooth ice, 2) smooth of slightly deformed ice, 3) ridges and 4) leads with brash ice.

  19. The Thermal Expansion Of Feldspars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovis, G. L.; Medford, A.; Conlon, M.

    2009-12-01

    Hovis and others (1) investigated the thermal expansion of natural and synthetic AlSi3 feldspars and demonstrated that the coefficient of thermal expansion (?) decreases significantly, and linearly, with increasing room-temperature volume (VRT). In all such feldspars, therefore, chemical expansion limits thermal expansion. The scope of this work now has been broadened to include plagioclase and Ba-K feldspar crystalline solutions. X-ray powder diffraction data have been collected between room temperature and 925 °C on six plagioclase specimens ranging in composition from anorthite to oligoclase. When combined with thermal expansion data for albite (2,3,4) a steep linear trend of ? as a function of VRT emerges, reflecting how small changes in composition dramatically affect expansion behavior. The thermal expansion data for five synthetic Ba-K feldspars ranging in composition from 20 to 100 mole percent celsian, combined with data for pure K-feldspar (3,4), show ?-VRT relationships similar in nature to the plagioclase series, but with a slope and intercept different from the latter. Taken as a group all Al2Si2 feldspars, including anorthite and celsian from the present study along with Sr- (5) and Pb-feldspar (6) from other workers, show very limited thermal expansion that, unlike AlSi3 feldspars, has little dependence on the divalent-ion (or M-) site occupant. This apparently is due to the necessitated alternation of Al and Si in the tetrahedral sites of these minerals (7), which in turn locks the tetrahedral framework and makes the M-site occupant nearly irrelevant to expansion behavior. Indeed, in feldspar series with coupled chemical substitution it is the change away from a 1:1 Al:Si ratio that gives feldspars greater freedom to expand. Overall, the relationships among ?, chemical composition, and room-temperature volume provide useful predictive tools for estimating feldspar thermal expansion and give insight into the controls of expansion behavior in this important mineral system. We thank the Earth Sciences Division of the National Science Foundation for support of this research via grant EAR-0408829, which has provided valuable learning experiences for the undergraduate coauthors of this abstract. We appreciate the cooperation of the Department of Mineral Sciences, Smithsonian Institution, which provided five of the plagioclase specimens. Thanks to Tony Abraham, Department of Earth Sciences, Cambridge University, who conducted a portion of the high-temperature X-ray experiments. The Ba-K feldspar crystalline solutions were synthesized and chemically characterized in the 1970's at Harvard University by our good friend, Dr. Jun Ito, now deceased. (1) Hovis, Morabito, Spooner, Mott, Person, Henderson, Roux and Harlov, 2008, American Mineralogist, (2) Stewart and von Limbach, 1967, American Journal of Science, (3) Hovis and Graeme-Barber, 1997, American Mineralogist, (4) Hovis, Brennan, Keohane, and Crelling, 1999, The Canadian Mineralogist, (5) Henderson, 1984, Progress in Experimental Petrology, NERC Report, Volume 6, (6) Benna, Tribaudino, and Bruno, 1999, American Mineralogist, (7) Lowenstein, 1954, American Mineralogist.

  20. 77 FR 70174 - Waterway Suitability Assessment for Expansion of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Houston and Texas City, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ...Waterway Suitability Assessment for Expansion of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Houston and Texas City, TX AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...operator planning new construction to expand or modify marine terminal operations in an existing facility handling Liquefied...

  1. Dimethyl sulfide in the Baltic Sea: Annual variability in relation to biological activity

    SciTech Connect

    Leck, C.; Larsson, U.; Bagander, L.E.; Johansson, S.; Hajdu, S. (Univ. of Stockholm (Sweden))

    1990-03-15

    The in situ variation of dimethyl sulfide (CH{sub 3}SCH{sub 3}, DMS) at a fixed station in a coastal area of the Baltic Sea has been studied for a period of time (January 1987 to June 1988) covering the annual biological cycle. DMS in the surface waters of the brackish Baltic Sea showed a clear seasonal variation, ranging from 2 to 200 ng S/l. Lowest concentrations were in winter, peak values followed the spring bloom, and a pronounced maximum was found during the summer. Concentrations above low winter levels occurred only when the trophogenic layer was depleted of inorganic nitrogen. From data it is clear that the seasonal variation in DMS concentration is related to biological activity. However, the authors did not find any correlations between DMS concentration and gross parameters such as chlorophyll a, total phytoplankton biomass, or primary production on an annual basis. Further, they were not able to relate high DMS concentrations to any particular phytoplankton species or species assemblages. It appears that DMS production is primarily associated with phytoplankton growth under nitrogen-limited conditions and not with certain species. The authors found a significant correlation of ambient DMS concentration with copepod and total zooplankton biomass, suggesting zooplankton grazing pressure as the major factor responsible for the liberation of {beta}-dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) from phytoplankton cells and thus for the DMS production. The turnover time of DMS in the water column was calculated to be of the order of 2 days, and the most effective sink process seems to be microbiological and/or chemical origin.

  2. Dissolved iron (II) in the Baltic Sea surface water and implications for cyanobacterial bloom development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitbarth, E.; Gelting, J.; Walve, J.; Hoffmann, L. J.; Turner, D. R.; Hassellöv, M.; Ingri, J.

    2009-04-01

    Iron chemistry measurements were conducted during summer 2007 at two distinct locations in the Baltic Sea (Gotland Deep and Landsort Deep) to evaluate the role of iron for cyanobacterial bloom development in these estuarine waters. Depth profiles of Fe(II) were measured by chemiluminescent flow injection analysis (CL-FIA) and reveal several origins of Fe(II) to the water column. Photoreduction of Fe(III)-complexes and deposition by rain are main sources of Fe(II) (up to 0.9 nmol L-1) in light penetrated surface waters. Indication for organic Fe(II) complexation resulting in prolonged residence times in oxygenated water was observed. Surface dwelling heterocystous cyanobacteria where mainly responsible for Fe(II) consumption in comparison to other phytoplankton. The significant Fe(II) concentrations in surface waters apparently play a major role in cyanobacterial bloom development in the Baltic Sea and are a major contributor to the Fe requirements of diazotrophs. Second, Fe(II) concentrations up to 1.44 nmol L-1 were observed at water depths below the euphotic zone, but above the oxic anoxic interface. Finally, all Fe(III) is reduced to Fe(II) in anoxic deep water. However, only a fraction thereof is present as ferrous ions (up to 28 nmol L-1) and was detected by the CL-FIA method applied. Despite their high concentrations, it is unlikely that ferrous ions originating from sub-oxic waters could be a temporary source of bioavailable iron to the euphotic zone since mixed layer depths after strong wind events are not deep enough in summer time.

  3. Carbon, nitrogen and O(2) fluxes associated with the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Ploug, Helle; Adam, Birgit; Musat, Niculina; Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter; Kuypers, Marcel M M

    2011-09-01

    Photosynthesis, respiration, N(2) fixation and ammonium release were studied directly in Nodularia spumigena during a bloom in the Baltic Sea using a combination of microsensors, stable isotope tracer experiments combined with nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (nanoSIMS) and fluorometry. Cell-specific net C- and N(2)-fixation rates by N. spumigena were 81.6±6.7 and 11.4±0.9 fmol N per cell per h, respectively. During light, the net C:N fixation ratio was 8.0±0.8. During darkness, carbon fixation was not detectable, but N(2) fixation was 5.4±0.4 fmol N per cell per h. Net photosynthesis varied between 0.34 and 250 nmol O(2) h(-1) in colonies with diameters ranging between 0.13 and 5.0 mm, and it reached the theoretical upper limit set by diffusion of dissolved inorganic carbon to colonies (>1 mm). Dark respiration of the same colonies varied between 0.038 and 87 nmol O(2) h(-1), and it reached the limit set by O(2) diffusion from the surrounding water to colonies (>1 mm). N(2) fixation associated with N. spumigena colonies (>1 mm) comprised on average 18% of the total N(2) fixation in the bulk water. Net NH(4)(+) release in colonies equaled 8-33% of the estimated gross N(2) fixation during photosynthesis. NH(4)(+) concentrations within light-exposed colonies, modeled from measured net NH(4)(+) release rates, were 60-fold higher than that of the bulk. Hence, N. spumigena colonies comprise highly productive microenvironments and an attractive NH(4)(+) microenvironment to be utilized by other (micro)organisms in the Baltic Sea where dissolved inorganic nitrogen is limiting growth. PMID:21390075

  4. Carbon, nitrogen and O2 fluxes associated with the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Ploug, Helle; Adam, Birgit; Musat, Niculina; Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter; Kuypers, Marcel M M

    2011-01-01

    Photosynthesis, respiration, N2 fixation and ammonium release were studied directly in Nodularia spumigena during a bloom in the Baltic Sea using a combination of microsensors, stable isotope tracer experiments combined with nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (nanoSIMS) and fluorometry. Cell-specific net C- and N2-fixation rates by N. spumigena were 81.6±6.7 and 11.4±0.9?fmol N per cell per h, respectively. During light, the net C:N fixation ratio was 8.0±0.8. During darkness, carbon fixation was not detectable, but N2 fixation was 5.4±0.4?fmol N per cell per h. Net photosynthesis varied between 0.34 and 250?nmol O2?h?1 in colonies with diameters ranging between 0.13 and 5.0?mm, and it reached the theoretical upper limit set by diffusion of dissolved inorganic carbon to colonies (>1?mm). Dark respiration of the same colonies varied between 0.038 and 87?nmol O2?h?1, and it reached the limit set by O2 diffusion from the surrounding water to colonies (>1?mm). N2 fixation associated with N. spumigena colonies (>1?mm) comprised on average 18% of the total N2 fixation in the bulk water. Net NH4+ release in colonies equaled 8–33% of the estimated gross N2 fixation during photosynthesis. NH4+ concentrations within light-exposed colonies, modeled from measured net NH4+ release rates, were 60-fold higher than that of the bulk. Hence, N. spumigena colonies comprise highly productive microenvironments and an attractive NH4+ microenvironment to be utilized by other (micro)organisms in the Baltic Sea where dissolved inorganic nitrogen is limiting growth. PMID:21390075

  5. Fishing cod in the Baltic Sea - Gambling with the ecosystem services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björkman, Sven; Nordlöf, Anders

    2014-05-01

    The population of cod in the Baltic sea has over the last decades decreased due to overfishing. To make the students aware of this problem and also to find a solution they are introduced to a game. The purpose of the game is to let the students know how to use renewable natural resources in these aspects; 1 Fishing cod without using it up 2 That solidarity is needed if you are sharing a resource 3 That cooperation is the key to keeping a natural resource healthy. The students are fishermen in group of four and are equipped with a boat. The playing board is a map over the Baltic sea. The rules of the game include the carrying capacity of the sea, how much fish one fishing boat is allowed to pick up, how much it costs to have a boat, and possibilities to buy a bigger boat. The game has two rounds: In round one the students in the group are competing against each other, they are not allowed to talk to each other and they are supposed to get as much fish as they can. As a consequence after round one the sea will become empty. In round two the groups compete with each other and they are coworking within the group. After this round the result is different from the first round. The catches are bigger than in round one and still there are cod left in the sea, which will generate a good fishing in the future.. The discussions after the game can be about why the two rounds ended so different, general discussion about "tragedy of the commons", sustainable use of ecosystem services and discussions about resources in common.

  6. Effects of boating activities on aquatic vegetation in the Stockholm archipelago, Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, B. K.; Sandström, A.; Isæus, M.; Schreiber, H.; Karås, P.

    2004-10-01

    The aquatic vegetation in 44 similar shallow and sheltered inlets exposed to different kinds of disturbances by boating was studied in a rocky archipelago in the Baltic Sea. The results indicate that both recreational boating activities and traffic by medium sized ferryboats may cause significant changes in community composition and have significant negative effects on species richness and the development of the macrophytic vegetation at greater depth. Changes in inlet morphology by dredging and increases in resuspension and turbidity by wave-action from boats were most probably the major factors contributing to the demonstrated differences in the vegetation between inlets. In inlets used as harbours for private boats (marinas) or adjacent to ferryboat routes, vegetation cover and species richness declined significantly more with depth than in reference inlets not exposed to disturbance by boating activities. In marinas, turbidity was significantly higher than in reference inlets. Accordingly, a canonical correspondence analysis showed that the abundance of species sensitive to poor light conditions, such as Chara spp. and Ruppia spp. were negatively correlated with marinas while Myriophyllum spicatum and Ceratophyllum demersum that are common in nutrient rich turbid habitats were positively correlated with marinas. Mechanical disturbance by propellers may also have contributed to the results, disfavouring Potamogeton pectinatus compared to similar caulescent species in marinas. Chara tomentosa and Najas marina that are exposure sensitive mud thriving species were negatively correlated with inlets adjacent to ferryboat routes, while the macroalga Fucus vesiculosus that is dependent on clean substrate for successful recruitment was positively correlated with inlets adjacent to ferryboat routes. It is important to explore further the effects of boating activities in these habitat types, since the studied inlets sustain a high diversity of both plants and invertebrates and provide highly significant recruitment areas for coastal fish in the Baltic Sea.

  7. Distribution and estimated release of sediment phosphorus in the northern Baltic Sea archipelagos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puttonen, Irma; Mattila, Johanna; Jonsson, Per; Karlsson, O. Magnus; Kohonen, Tuula; Kotilainen, Aarno; Lukkari, Kaarina; Malmaeus, J. Mikael; Rydin, Emil

    2014-05-01

    Phosphorus contents in the sediments were determined in archipelago areas of the northern Baltic Sea (Svealand in Sweden and Åland, SW Finland and W Uusimaa in Finland) during 2008-2012. Spatial and vertical distribution of phosphorus was studied by analysing sediment samples from 345 stations of different seabed substrate types. A sequential extraction method was applied to evaluate the pool of the potentially mobile phosphorus, i.e., the amount of phosphorus that can be expected to be released from sediments to water with time, and possibly support primary production. In addition, vertical distribution of immobile phosphorus forms in the sediments was used as a tool to assess phosphorus burial. The uppermost 2 cm of sediments were calculated to contain 126,000 tonnes of phosphorus in the study area covering 19,200 km2 of the seafloor. Subtracting the assumed average background content (i.e. that assumed to be buried) of this total phosphorus content gave an estimation of 31,000-37,000 tonnes of potentially mobile phosphorus at the sediment surface. Redox sensitive iron-bound phosphorus accounts for two thirds of this pool. Compared with the total phosphorus input from the catchment of the entire Baltic Sea - 29,000 tonnes in 2009 - it can be concluded that the store of phosphorus that can be released with time from the sediments is large, and that internal phosphorus recycling processes thus may play a key role in phosphorus fluxes in the coastal zone. Spreading of hypoxia in the future, as recent modelling and sediment proxy results suggest, is likely to severely deteriorate the water quality, particularly in the archipelago areas where the water exchange is slow.

  8. Mesozooplankton Grazing on Picocyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea as Inferred from Molecular Diet Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Motwani, Nisha H.; Gorokhova, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Our current knowledge on the microbial component of zooplankton diet is limited, and it is generally assumed that bacteria-sized prey is not directly consumed by most mesozooplankton grazers in the marine food webs. We questioned this assumption and conducted field and laboratory studies to examine picocyanobacteria contribution to the diets of Baltic Sea zooplankton, including copepods. First, qPCR targeting ITS-1 rDNA sequence of the picocyanobacteria Synechococcus spp. was used to examine picocyanobacterial DNA occurrence in the guts of Baltic zooplankton (copepods, cladocerans and rotifers). All field-collected zooplankton were found to consume picocyanobacteria in substantial quantities. In terms of Synechococcus quantity, the individual gut content was highest in cladocerans, whereas biomass-specific gut content was highest in rotifers and copepod nauplii. Moreover, the gut content in copepods was positively related to the picocyanobacteria abundance and negatively to the total phytoplankton abundance in the water column at the time of sampling. This indicates that increased availability of picocyanobacteria resulted in the increased intake of this prey and that copepods may rely more on picoplankton when food in the preferred size range declines. Second, a feeding experiments with a laboratory reared copepod Acartia tonsa fed a mixture of the picocyanobacterium Synechococcus bacillaris and microalga Rhodomonas salina confirmed that copepods ingested Synechococcus, even when the alternative food was plentiful. Finally, palatability of the picocyanobacteria for A. tonsa was demonstrated using uptake of 13C by the copepods as a proxy for carbon uptake in feeding experiment with 13C-labeled S. bacillaris. These findings suggest that, if abundant, picoplankton may become an important component of mesozooplankton diet, which needs to be accounted for in food web models and productivity assessments. PMID:24260175

  9. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in flatfish from the southern Baltic, 1983.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, J

    1985-11-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-benzenehexachloride (BHC; HCH), p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT (espilon DDT) and polychlorinated biphenlys (PCBs) levels have been determined in muscle tissue of 37 turbots Psetta maxima, 27 plaices Pleuronectes platessa and 106 flounders Platichthys flesus netted during 1983 in a different regions in the southern part of the Baltic Sea. The mean levels found for flatfish muscle tissue related to wet weight were: 0.7, 0.88 and 1.1 microgram/kg HCB; 1.3, 2.6 and 3.0 micrograms/kg alpha-BHC; 11, 10 and 11 micrograms/kg beta-BHC; 4.4, 4.9 and 5.5 micrograms/kg gamma-BHC; delta-BHC remained undetected; 17, 18 and 20 micrograms/kg epsilon BHC; 5.1, 5.2 and 8.7 micrograms/kg p,p'-DDE; o,p'-DDD remained undetected; o,p'-DDT was detected in 10 of 106 samples of the muscle tissue of flounder at the mean level of 17 micrograms/kg; 4.6, 5.0 and 7.6 micrograms/kg p,p'-DDD; 3.1, 4.0 and 11 micrograms/kg p,p'-DDT; 13, 14 and 29 micrograms/kg epsilon DDT and 71, 66 and 94 micrograms/kg PCBs for turbot, plaice and flounder, respectively. Generally, the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in wet muscle tissue of fish followed the increased lipids content of muscles. Some local differences in pollution pattern of organochlorines have occurred. The results are compared with levels found in flatfish collected in a different regions of the Baltic Sea during 1966-1981, and reported previously by other authors. PMID:3934867

  10. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sprats from the southern Baltic, 1983.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, J

    1985-12-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-benzenehexachloride (BHC; HCH), p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT (sigma DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) levels have been determined in muscle tissue of 214 sprats (Sprattus sprattus) netted during 1983 in a different regions in the southern part of the Baltic Sea. The mean levels found for sprats muscle tissue related to wet weight were: 17 micrograms HCB/kg, 33 micrograms alpha-BHC/kg, 52 micrograms beta-BHC/kg, 33 micrograms gamma-BHC/kg, delta-BHC remained undetected, 120 micrograms sigma BHC/kg, 110 micrograms p,p'-DDE/kg, o,p'-DDD remained undetected, o,p'-DDT was detected in 2 of 214 samples at the mean level 24 micrograms/kg, 94 micrograms p,p'-DDD/kg, 115 micrograms p,p'-DDT/kg, 320 micrograms sigma DDT/kg and 800 micrograms PCB/kg. The levels of organochlorine pesticides reported are two to three times higher than those reported for wet muscles of sprats sampled in the same area two years before, whilst for PCB the levels differ slightly. When based on light-petroleum extractable lipids, the corresponding levels of organochlorine pesticides were also higher and for PCB the residue levels dropped. The results are compared with levels found in sprats collected in a different regions of the Baltic Sea during 1969-1983, and reported previously by other authors. PMID:3936304

  11. Concentrations of halogenated natural products versus PCB 153 in bivalves from the North and Baltic Seas.

    PubMed

    Hauler, Carolin; Rimkus, Gerhard; Risacher, Célia; Knölker, Hans-Joachim; Vetter, Walter

    2014-08-15

    Different halogenated natural products (HNPs) have been reported to occur in marine wildlife, particularly from regions with comparably little contamination with anthropogenic pollutants. The North Sea and the Baltic Sea have been known as a marine site heavily polluted with organohalogen compounds, and especially with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In this study we wished to determine the current abundance of HNPs in comparison with 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153), i.e. the major PCB congener in marine biota. For this purpose, forty blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) and oysters (Crassostrea gigas) from seven sites were analyzed on HNPs and PCB 153. Most of the samples contained HNPs in the form of polyhalogenated 1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrroles (PMBPs including Q1) and the mixed halogenated compound MHC-1. In addition we determined several polyhalogenated 1,1'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyrroles (PDBPs), 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-N-methylpyrrole and several novel homologs, as well as polybrominated N-methylindoles. The occurrence of these HNP groups were considerably different in the samples from different regions with varying sum concentrations up to 1930 ?g/kg lipids in blue mussels from Heligoland (North Sea) and much lower concentrations in samples from the Baltic Sea (up to 13 ?g/kg lipids). The concentrations of HNPs varied by two orders of magnitude, compared to a factor of 10 for PCB 153, suggesting that HNPs are more spatially (and perhaps temporally) variant than POPs. In the North Sea region Heligoland, HNPs were more abundant than PCB 153. PMID:24911775

  12. Bloom-Forming Cyanobacteria Support Copepod Reproduction and Development in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Hogfors, Hedvig; Motwani, Nisha H.; Hajdu, Susanna; El-Shehawy, Rehab; Holmborn, Towe; Vehmaa, Anu; Engström-Öst, Jonna; Brutemark, Andreas; Gorokhova, Elena

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that summer cyanobacterial blooms cannot be efficiently utilized by grazers due to low nutritional quality and production of toxins; however the evidence for such effects in situ is often contradictory. Using field and experimental observations on Baltic copepods and bloom-forming diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacteria, we show that cyanobacteria may in fact support zooplankton production during summer. To highlight this side of zooplankton-cyanobacteria interactions, we conducted: (1) a field survey investigating linkages between cyanobacteria, reproduction and growth indices in the copepod Acartia tonsa; (2) an experiment testing relationships between ingestion of the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena (measured by molecular diet analysis) and organismal responses (oxidative balance, reproduction and development) in the copepod A. bifilosa; and (3) an analysis of long term (1999–2009) data testing relationships between cyanobacteria and growth indices in nauplii of the copepods, Acartia spp. and Eurytemora affinis, in a coastal area of the northern Baltic proper. In the field survey, N. spumigena had positive effects on copepod egg production and egg viability, effectively increasing their viable egg production. By contrast, Aphanizomenon sp. showed a negative relationship with egg viability yet no significant effect on the viable egg production. In the experiment, ingestion of N. spumigena mixed with green algae Brachiomonas submarina had significant positive effects on copepod oxidative balance, egg viability and development of early nauplial stages, whereas egg production was negatively affected. Finally, the long term data analysis identified cyanobacteria as a significant positive predictor for the nauplial growth in Acartia spp. and E. affinis. Taken together, these results suggest that bloom forming diazotrophic cyanobacteria contribute to feeding and reproduction of zooplankton during summer and create a favorable growth environment for the copepod nauplii. PMID:25409500

  13. Histopathological, histomorphometrical, and immunohistochemical biomarkers in flounder (Platichthys flesus) from the southern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Dabrowska, Henryka; Ostaszewska, Teresa; Kamaszewski, Maciej; Antoniak, Agnieszka; Napora-Rutkowski, Lukasz; Kopko, Orest; Lang, Thomas; Fricke, Nicolai F; Lehtonen, Kari K

    2012-04-01

    Flounder (Platichthys flesus), collected in late fall of 2009 from four coastal sites in the southern Baltic Sea including the Gulf of Gda?sk (GoG), were investigated for a suite of biomarkers of contaminant effects. The biomarkers included liver histopathologies, which were diagnosed and assessed using commonly applied lesion categories, the size and density of melano-macrophage aggregates (MMAs), expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) in liver as well as the size and density of MMAs and density of Perls'-positive cells in the spleen. The prevalence of liver lesions differed among the sites. Most frequently occurring were non-specific and early toxicopathic non-neoplastic lesions. Mean MMA size was in the range of 264-519 ?m(2) and 717-2137 ?m(2) in liver and spleen, respectively, and density was in the range of 6-13 and 15-26 MMAmm(-2), respectively. Mean density of PCNA-positive hepatocytes was in the range of 300-1281 cellsmm(-2). These histomorphometrical biomarkers correlated positively with the muscle Hg, ?(7)PCB, and ?DDT residues and negatively with the indices of general liver condition. They showed significant differences between the sites, which were in line with the spatial prevalence of liver lesions and CYP1A induction. Overall, the biomarker responses were more pronounced in the GoG sites in comparison to those outside the Gulf, which confirms some earlier results and broadens the knowledge of contaminant effects in the Polish coastal zone of the Baltic Sea. PMID:22118815

  14. Remote sensing algorithm for sea surface CO2 in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parard, G.; Charantonis, A. A.; Rutgerson, A.

    2014-08-01

    Studies of coastal seas in Europe have brought forth the high variability in the CO2 system. This high variability, generated by the complex mechanisms driving the CO2 fluxes makes their accurate estimation an arduous task. This is more pronounced in the Baltic Sea, where the mechanisms driving the fluxes have not been as highly detailed as in the open oceans. In adition, the joint availability of in-situ measurements of CO2 and of sea-surface satellite data is limited in the area. In this paper, a combination of two existing methods (Self-Organizing-Maps and Multiple Linear regression) is used to estimate ocean surface pCO2 in the Baltic Sea from remotely sensed surface temperature, chlorophyll, coloured dissolved organic matter, net primary production and mixed layer depth. The outputs of this research have an horizontal resolution of 4 km, and cover the period from 1998 to 2011. The reconstructed pCO2 values over the validation data set have a correlation of 0.93 with the in-situ measurements, and a root mean square error is of 38 ?atm. The removal of any of the satellite parameters degraded this reconstruction of the CO2 flux, and we chose therefore to complete any missing data through statistical imputation. The CO2 maps produced by this method also provide a confidence level of the reconstruction at each grid point. The results obtained are encouraging given the sparsity of available data and we expect to be able to produce even more accurate reconstructions in the coming years, in view of the predicted acquisitions of new data.

  15. Bloom-forming cyanobacteria support copepod reproduction and development in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Hogfors, Hedvig; Motwani, Nisha H; Hajdu, Susanna; El-Shehawy, Rehab; Holmborn, Towe; Vehmaa, Anu; Engström-Öst, Jonna; Brutemark, Andreas; Gorokhova, Elena

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that summer cyanobacterial blooms cannot be efficiently utilized by grazers due to low nutritional quality and production of toxins; however the evidence for such effects in situ is often contradictory. Using field and experimental observations on Baltic copepods and bloom-forming diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacteria, we show that cyanobacteria may in fact support zooplankton production during summer. To highlight this side of zooplankton-cyanobacteria interactions, we conducted: (1) a field survey investigating linkages between cyanobacteria, reproduction and growth indices in the copepod Acartia tonsa; (2) an experiment testing relationships between ingestion of the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena (measured by molecular diet analysis) and organismal responses (oxidative balance, reproduction and development) in the copepod A. bifilosa; and (3) an analysis of long term (1999-2009) data testing relationships between cyanobacteria and growth indices in nauplii of the copepods, Acartia spp. and Eurytemora affinis, in a coastal area of the northern Baltic proper. In the field survey, N. spumigena had positive effects on copepod egg production and egg viability, effectively increasing their viable egg production. By contrast, Aphanizomenon sp. showed a negative relationship with egg viability yet no significant effect on the viable egg production. In the experiment, ingestion of N. spumigena mixed with green algae Brachiomonas submarina had significant positive effects on copepod oxidative balance, egg viability and development of early nauplial stages, whereas egg production was negatively affected. Finally, the long term data analysis identified cyanobacteria as a significant positive predictor for the nauplial growth in Acartia spp. and E. affinis. Taken together, these results suggest that bloom forming diazotrophic cyanobacteria contribute to feeding and reproduction of zooplankton during summer and create a favorable growth environment for the copepod nauplii. PMID:25409500

  16. Optimal Expansion of a Drinking Water Infrastructure System with Respect to Carbon Footprint, Cost Effectiveness and Water Demand

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban water infrastructure requires careful long-term expansion planning to reduce the risk from climate change during both the periods of economic boom and recession. As part of the adaptation management strategies, capacity expansion in concert with other management alternativ...

  17. Multiple piston expansion chamber engine

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, F.W.

    1987-12-29

    An internal combustion engine is described wherein combustion, expansion and exhaust functions are performed in a cylinder comprised of an auxiliary piston reciprocating in the cylinder, a sleeve valve reciprocating within the auxiliary piston, a working piston reciprocating within the sleeve valve and leading the auxiliary piston, an auxiliary chamber above the auxiliary piston and a combustion chamber above the working piston. The sleeve valve controlling communication of the auxiliary chamber with the combustion chamber to prevent communication of combusted products from the chamber above the working piston to the chamber above the auxiliary piston from when the working piston is at about TDC until a subsequent expansion stroke of the working piston is underway and at a point between 30 and 160 degrees past TDC and with the auxiliary piston being at about TDC at this same instant when the working piston is at the point and the communication then is commenced. To permit communication only during the expansion stroke continuing past the point and a following exhaust stroke of the working piston so as to utilize energy of expansion from the auxiliary piston as it expands until the working piston has passed through BDC and returns to about TDC during the exhaust stroke of the working piston.

  18. Perturbative expansions in quantum mechanics

    E-print Network

    Mauricio D. Garay

    2007-05-21

    We prove a D=1 analytic versal deformation theorem for WKB expansions. We define the spectrum of an operator in local analytic terms. We use the Morse lemma to show that the perturbation series arising in a perturbed harmonic oscillator become analytic after a formal Borel transform.

  19. Term Definition Expansion DNA Sequencing

    E-print Network

    Puglisi, Joseph

    Term Definition Expansion DNA Sequencing A laboratory technique used to determine the exact with inherited forms of breast cancer. Both genes normally act as tumor suppressors, meaning that they help are not corrected, which can lead to breast cancer. A branch of pharmacology concerned with using DNA and amino acid

  20. An automated gas expansion system

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, K.

    1993-01-01

    The Metrology Laboratory at the Rocky Flats Plant has constructed a new Vacuum Gauge Calibration System based on gas expansion. The system is used to calibrate vacuum pressure gauges between 1 mTorr and 1000 mTorr. The paper discusses an overview of the system including layout, software, testing and performance.

  1. An automated gas expansion system

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, K.

    1993-05-01

    The Metrology Laboratory at the Rocky Flats Plant has constructed a new Vacuum Gauge Calibration System based on gas expansion. The system is used to calibrate vacuum pressure gauges between 1 mTorr and 1000 mTorr. The paper discusses an overview of the system including layout, software, testing and performance.

  2. Educational Expansion and Economic Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemm, Klaus

    1987-01-01

    Summarizes the expansion of education in the West Germany up to 1980. Examines the progress of the 1980s in view of unemployment and growing difficulties on entering a profession. Among the findings are a decline in enrollment of 20-24 year olds and a growth in opportunities for the children of immigrants. (Author/GEA)

  3. Sustainable Brasilia's University Campus Expansion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marta Romero

    2008-01-01

    The present paper shows the sustainability principle s adopted in the urban design of the southern extremity expansion of the Campus of the University of Brasilia, in which will feature a Scientific and Technological Park. From the analysis of a number of environmental conditioners, the structural core of the design was a fragment of Cerrado, aiming to recover the original

  4. Multiple piston expansion chamber engine

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, F.W.

    1986-04-08

    This patent describes a multiple piston expansion chamber in an internal combustion engine wherein combustion, expansion and exhaust functions are performed in a cylinder. This cylinder consists of an auxiliary piston reciprocating in the cylinder, a sleeve valve reciprocating within the auxiliary piston, a working piston reciprocating within the sleeve valve. Leading the auxiliary piston is an auxiliary chamber above the auxiliary piston and a combustion chamber above the working piston. The sleeve valve controls communication of the auxiliary chamber with the combustion chamber to prevent communication of combusted products from the chamber above the working piston to the chamber above the auxiliary piston from when the working piston is at about TDC until a subsequent expansion stroke of the working piston is underway to a point about midway to BDC. When the auxiliary piston is at about TDC at this same instant when the working piston is at the point and the communication then is commenced. In order to permit communication only during the expansion stroke from continuing past the point and a following exhaust stroke of the working piston so as to utilize energy of expansion from the auxiliary piston as it expands until the working piston has passed through BDC and returns to about TDC during the exhaust stroke of the working piston. The controlling means comprises a circular sealing surface on an upward viewing surface of the sleeve valve adjacent to the working piston to prevent communication of the respective chambers. Also provided in the chambers is a dwell of the sleeve valve at its TDC between when the respective pistons each reach their TDC.

  5. Interannual variability of phyto-bacterioplankton biomass and production in coastal and offshore waters of the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Catherine; Fridolfsson, Emil; Bertos-Fortis, Mireia; Lindehoff, Elin; Larsson, Per; Pinhassi, Jarone; Andersson, Agneta

    2015-06-01

    The microbial part of the pelagic food web is seldom characterized in models despite its major contribution to biogeochemical cycles. In the Baltic Sea, spatial and temporal high frequency sampling over three years revealed changes in heterotrophic bacteria and phytoplankton coupling (biomass and production) related to hydrographic properties of the ecosystem. Phyto- and bacterioplankton were bottom-up driven in both coastal and offshore areas. Cold winter temperature was essential for phytoplankton to conform to the successional sequence in temperate waters. In terms of annual carbon production, the loss of the spring bloom (diatoms and dinoflagellates) after mild winters tended not to be compensated for by other taxa, not even summer cyanobacteria. These results improve our ability to project Baltic Sea ecosystem response to short- and long-term environmental changes. PMID:26022325

  6. Application of a novel modeling tool with multistressor functionality to support management of organic contaminants in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Undeman, Emma; Gustafsson, Bo G; Humborg, Christoph; McLachlan, Michael S

    2015-06-01

    Organic contaminants constitute one of many stressors that deteriorate the ecological status of the Baltic Sea. When managing environmental problems in this marine environment, it may be necessary to consider the interactions between various stressors to ensure that averting one problem does not exacerbate another. A novel modeling tool, BALTSEM-POP, is presented here that simulates interactions between climate forcing, hydrodynamic conditions, and water exchange, biogeochemical cycling, and organic contaminant transport and fate in the Baltic Sea. We discuss opportunities to use the model to support different aspects of chemicals management. We exemplify these opportunities with a case study where two emission-reduction strategies for a chemical used in personal care products (decamethylcyclopentasiloxane) are evaluated, and where the confounding influence of future climate change and eutrophication on the impact of the emission-reduction strategies are assessed. PMID:26022331

  7. Isotopic signatures of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) as bioindicator of anthropogenic nutrient input in the western Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Philipp R; Karez, Rolf; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Dierking, Jan

    2013-07-15

    Eutrophication is a global environmental problem. Better management of this threat requires more accurate assessments of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) inputs to coastal systems than can be obtained with traditional measures. Recently, primary producer N isotopic signatures have emerged as useful proxy of such inputs. Here, we demonstrated for the first time the applicability of this method using the widespread eelgrass (Zostera marina) in the highly eutrophic Baltic Sea. Spatial availability of sewage N across a bay with one major sewage outflow predicted by eelgrass ?(15)N was high near and downstream of the outflow compared to upstream, but returned to upstream levels within 4 km downstream from the outfall. General conclusions were corroborated by traditional eutrophication measures, but in contrast to these measures were fully quantitative. Eelgrass N isotope ratios therefore show high potential for coastal screens of eutrophication in the Baltic Sea, and in other areas with eelgrass meadows. PMID:23711843

  8. Delayed Linear Expansion of Two Ultra-low Expansion Dental Stones 

    E-print Network

    Oppedisano, Michael

    2013-12-20

    The purpose of this study was to measure the linear setting expansion of two ultra-low expansion dental stones used in definitive cast/ prosthesis fabrication which claim to have very low to no setting expansion. Five ...

  9. 76 FR 75870 - Approval for Subzone Expansion and Expansion of Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Subzone...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ...Zones Board [Order No. 1801] Approval for Subzone Expansion and Expansion of Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Subzone...grantee of Foreign- Trade Zone 124, has requested an expansion of the subzone and the scope of manufacturing...

  10. Habitat-mediated impact of alien mink predation on common frog densities in the outer archipelago of the Baltic Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pälvi Salo; Markus P. Ahola; Erkki Korpimäki

    2010-01-01

    Alien predators have been recognised as one possible cause for amphibian declines around the world, but little is known of\\u000a habitat-mediated predation impacts especially on adult amphibians. We studied common frog Rana temporaria under American mink Mustela vison predation in the outer archipelago of the Baltic Sea, south-western Finland. Using egg batches as an index of breeding frog\\u000a female numbers

  11. An evaluation of MODIS and SeaWiFS bio-optical algorithms in the Baltic Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miroslaw Darecki; Dariusz Stramski

    2004-01-01

    An extensive bio-optical data set from field measurements was used to evaluate the performance of standard Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) ocean color (in-water) algorithms in the Baltic Sea, which represents an example of optically complex Case 2 waters with high concentration of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). The data set includes coincident measurements

  12. Model Hindcasting of Decadal Ecosystem Dynamics of The Baltic Proper During A Stagnation Period (1979-1991)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Vichi; P. Ruardij; W. Ebenhoeh; J. W. Baretta

    2002-01-01

    The dynamical interaction between the hydrodynamics of the water column in the Baltic proper and the induced biogeochemical processes has been investigated with a one-dimensional coupled physical\\/biogeochemical model. The model is called Hi- ROPE (High-Resolution OpenSesame POM ERSEM) and it is a coupling of the widely used Princeton Ocean Model (in its 3D and 1DV versions) and an improved version

  13. Comparison between C band synthetic aperture radar and 3-D laser scanner statistics for the Baltic Sea ice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Similä; M. Mäkynen; I. Heiler

    2010-01-01

    A statistical analysis was performed for nearly simultaneously acquired C band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images and ice freeboard statistics. The data analyzed were collected during a CryoSat calibration-validation campaign in March 2005 in the Baltic Sea. The 3-D ice freeboard topography along transects with a total length about 150 km and width of 300 m was constructed from cross-track

  14. Density dependent grazing effects of the isopod Idotea baltica Pallas on Fucus vesiculosus L in the Baltic Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland Engkvist; Torleif Malm; Stefan Tobiasson

    2000-01-01

    In the Baltic Sea, abiotic factors are often supposed to explain the distribution of the key species Fucus vesiculosus. Still, in many areas, decline of F. vesiculosus has coincided with mass occurrence of the herbivorous isopod Idotea baltica. The aim of this work was to examine whether, how and at what densities I. baltica can affect the distribution of F. vesiculosus in the

  15. Trace fossils as indicators of environmental change in Holocene sediments of the Archipelago Sea, northern Baltic Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joonas J. Virtasalo; Aarno T. Kotilainen; Murray K. Gingras

    2006-01-01

    Biogenic structures in Holocene sediments from the Archipelago Sea, northern Baltic Sea, were characterized through the analysis of X-ray images of four cores collected from water depths between 32 and 66m. In the area, initial colonization of endobenthic invertebrates occurred at 7800±80calendar years BP. The trace assemblage at this level is low-diversity, small-diameter, shallowly tiered, and Palaeophycus-dominated; rare Arenicolites are

  16. Salinity dependence of recruitment success of the sea star Asterias rubens in the brackish western Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casties, Isabel; Clemmesen, Catriona; Melzner, Frank; Thomsen, Jörn

    2015-06-01

    Salinity strongly influences development and distribution of the sea star Asterias rubens. In Kiel Fjord, located in the western Baltic Sea, A. rubens is the only echinoderm species and one of the main benthic predators controlling blue mussel ( Mytilus edulis) abundance. However, Kiel Fjord with an average salinity of about 15 is located close to the eastern distribution boundary of A. rubens in the Baltic Sea. In this study, we combined field and laboratory investigations to test whether the salinity of Kiel Fjord is high enough to enable successful development of A. rubens. Sea star eggs were fertilized in vitro, and development was monitored in the laboratory at four salinities (9, 12, 15 and 18) for 10 weeks. At a salinity of 9, development ceased prior to the blastula stage. At a salinity of 12, no larvae reached metamorphosis. At higher salinities, larvae developed normally and metamorphosed into juvenile sea stars. Abundances of A. rubens larvae and settled juveniles were also observed in Kiel Fjord and correlated to salinity values measured from March until June during 6 years (2005-2010). Results revealed high A. rubens settlement rates only in 2009, the year when salinity was the highest and least variable during the period of spawning and larval development. It appears that only years with high and stable salinities permit recruitment of A. rubens in Kiel Fjord. Projected desalination of the Baltic Sea could shift the distribution of A. rubens in the western Baltic Sea north-westwards and may lead to local extinction of a keystone species of the benthic ecosystem.

  17. 226Ra excess/Ba growth rates and U-Th-Ra-Ba systematic of Baltic Mn/Fe crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebetrau, Volker; Eisenhauer, Anton; Gussone, Nikolaus; Wörner, Gerhard; Hansen, Bent T.; Leipe, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    We analyzed 238U, 234U, 232Th, 230Th, and 226Ra by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) and Ba by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) on eight Mn/Fe crusts from the Mecklenburg Bay (SW Baltic) and on one from the Bothnian Bay (N Baltic) to test the 226Ra ex/Ba ratio as potential geochronometer. 226Ra ex/Ba ratios decrease as a function of depth within the concretions in all analyzed profiles. Calculated diffusion coefficients are relatively low (˜9 · 10 -7 cm 2/yr for Ra and 5 · 10 -7 cm 2/yr for Ba) and suggest that diffusion is negligible for the Ra and Ba record. In addition, 226Ra ex/Ba ages are consistent and independent from the growth rate and growth direction within a crust. Thus, the decline in 226Ra ex/Ba ratio is most likely due to radioactive decay of 226Ra ex, although the influence of varying oxic conditions has still to be evaluated. 226Ra ex/Ba growth rates range from 0.021 to 0.0017 mm/yr and tend to be lower than those calculated and based on stratigraphic methods (1 to 0.013 mm/yr). 226Ra ex/Ba ages of concretions from shallow water environment (20 m depth, Mecklenburg Bay/SW Baltic) cover a time interval from 990 ± 140 yr to 4310 ± 310 yr BP corresponding to the stabilization of the sea level close to the present position about 5500 to 4500 yr ago. One sample from greater depth (70 m, Bothnian Bay-/N Baltic) showed a higher 226Ra ex/Ba age of 6460 ± 520 yr BP.

  18. Ethoxyresorufin- O-deethylase (EROD) activity and bile metabolites as contamination indicators in Baltic Sea perch: Determination by HPLC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna-Liisa Pikkarainen

    2006-01-01

    Exposure of Baltic Sea perch (Perca fluviatilis) to organic contaminants was investigated by means of liver enzyme activity, measured as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, and PAH metabolites excreted to bile. Female perch used in the study were caught in coastal waters of the western Gulf of Finland. Reaction conditions were optimised for determination of EROD activity in liver. A high-performance liquid

  19. Ethnic and parental effects on schooling outcomes before and during the transition: evidence from the Baltic countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mihails Hazans; Ija Trapeznikova; Olga Rastrigina

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines human capital gap between titular ethnicities and Russian-speaking minorities, which has emerged in Estonia,\\u000a Latvia, and Lithuania during the transition and remains significant after controlling for parental education. For recent cohorts,\\u000a unexplained gap is declining in Lithuania (despite absence of Russian language tertiary education) and in Estonia. Furthermore,\\u000a we investigate intergenerational mobility in the Baltic countries. Parental

  20. Chronology of multiphase emplacement of the Salmi rapakivi granite-anorthosite complex, Baltic Shield: implications for magmatic evolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuri V. Amelin; Anatoly M. Larin; Robert D. Tucker

    1997-01-01

    The U-Pb dating of 18 samples, representing the principal rock types of the 4000 km2 Salmi anorthosite-rapakivi granite complex and its satellite Uljalegi pluton, southeastern Baltic (Fennoscandian) Shield,\\u000a reveals that six temporally distinct episodes of igneous activity occurred in a timespan of 17 million years. From oldest\\u000a to youngest they are: (1) gabbronorite and monzonite at 1546.7 Ma; (2) syenogranite

  1. Broad-scale climate influences on spring-spawning herring (Clupea harengus, L.) recruitment in the Western Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Gröger, Joachim P; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Polte, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Climate forcing in complex ecosystems can have profound implications for ecosystem sustainability and may thus challenge a precautionary ecosystem management. Climatic influences documented to affect various ecological functions on a global scale, may themselves be observed on quantitative or qualitative scales including regime shifts in complex marine ecosystems. This study investigates the potential climatic impact on the reproduction success of spring-spawning herring (Clupea harengus) in the Western Baltic Sea (WBSS herring). To test for climate effects on reproduction success, the regionally determined and scientifically well-documented spawning grounds of WBSS herring represent an ideal model system. Climate effects on herring reproduction were investigated using two global indices of atmospheric variability and sea surface temperature, represented by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO), respectively, and the Baltic Sea Index (BSI) which is a regional-scale atmospheric index for the Baltic Sea. Moreover, we combined a traditional approach with modern time series analysis based on a recruitment model connecting parental population components with reproduction success. Generalized transfer functions (ARIMAX models) allowed evaluating the dynamic nature of exogenous climate processes interacting with the endogenous recruitment process. Using different model selection criteria our results reveal that in contrast to NAO and AMO, the BSI shows a significant positive but delayed signal on the annual dynamics of herring recruitment. The westward influence of the Siberian high is considered strongly suppressing the influence of the NAO in this area leading to a higher explanatory power of the BSI reflecting the atmospheric pressure regime on a North-South transect between Oslo, Norway and Szczecin, Poland. We suggest incorporating climate-induced effects into stock and risk assessments and management strategies as part of the EU ecosystem approach to support sustainable herring fisheries in the Western Baltic Sea. PMID:24586279

  2. Broad-Scale Climate Influences on Spring-Spawning Herring (Clupea harengus, L.) Recruitment in the Western Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Gröger, Joachim P.; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Polte, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Climate forcing in complex ecosystems can have profound implications for ecosystem sustainability and may thus challenge a precautionary ecosystem management. Climatic influences documented to affect various ecological functions on a global scale, may themselves be observed on quantitative or qualitative scales including regime shifts in complex marine ecosystems. This study investigates the potential climatic impact on the reproduction success of spring-spawning herring (Clupea harengus) in the Western Baltic Sea (WBSS herring). To test for climate effects on reproduction success, the regionally determined and scientifically well-documented spawning grounds of WBSS herring represent an ideal model system. Climate effects on herring reproduction were investigated using two global indices of atmospheric variability and sea surface temperature, represented by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO), respectively, and the Baltic Sea Index (BSI) which is a regional-scale atmospheric index for the Baltic Sea. Moreover, we combined a traditional approach with modern time series analysis based on a recruitment model connecting parental population components with reproduction success. Generalized transfer functions (ARIMAX models) allowed evaluating the dynamic nature of exogenous climate processes interacting with the endogenous recruitment process. Using different model selection criteria our results reveal that in contrast to NAO and AMO, the BSI shows a significant positive but delayed signal on the annual dynamics of herring recruitment. The westward influence of the Siberian high is considered strongly suppressing the influence of the NAO in this area leading to a higher explanatory power of the BSI reflecting the atmospheric pressure regime on a North-South transect between Oslo, Norway and Szczecin, Poland. We suggest incorporating climate-induced effects into stock and risk assessments and management strategies as part of the EU ecosystem approach to support sustainable herring fisheries in the Western Baltic Sea. PMID:24586279

  3. Distribution Patterns of Isomorphic Cold-Water Dinoflagellates ( Scrippsiella\\/Woloszynskia Complex) Causing ‘red tides’ in the Baltic Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andres Jaanus; Susanna Hajdu; Seppo Kaitala; Agneta Andersson; Kaire Kaljurand; Iveta Ledaine; Inga Lips; Irina Olenina

    2006-01-01

    During the latest years medium-sized (15–30 ?m), single-celled dinoflagellates have been reported to form blooms in the northern\\u000a Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Finland in winter and spring. Recent studies (Kremp et al., 2003. Proceedings of the 7th International conference of Modern and Fossil Dinoflagellates, September 21–25, Nagasaki, Japan,\\u000a 66 pp.) indicate that those blooms are caused by two isomorphic species – Scrippsiella

  4. Occurrence of perfluorinated organic acids in the North and Baltic seas. Part 1: distribution in sea water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norbert Theobald; Christina Caliebe; Wolfgang Gerwinski; Heinrich Hühnerfuss; Peter Lepom

    Purpose  Due to their high water solubilities and mobilities, persistent, polar perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) such as perfluorinated\\u000a carboxylates and sulfonates are likely to end up in the oceans. In part 1 of this study, their distribution in North and Baltic\\u000a Sea water is reported, being of special interest because these seas are surrounded by highly industrialized countries with\\u000a high population densities.

  5. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents in extracts of Baltic white-tailed sea eagles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janna Koistinen; J. P. Giesy; J. Koivusaari; I. Nuuja; P. J. Vuorinen; J. Paasivirta

    1997-01-01

    Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-(TCDD) equivalents were measured in extracts of Baltic white-tailed sea eagle tissues. Extracts of salmon, ringed seal, and grey seal were analyzed as other predatory species of the same area. Concentrations in eagle and seal tissues were greater than those in salmon. Concentrations of TCDD equivalents (TCDD-EQs) determined by the H4IIE bioassay were compared with toxic equivalents (TEQs)

  6. PCDEs, PCBs, PCDDs AND PCDFs in black guillemots and white-tailed sea eagles from the Baltic Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Koistinen; J. Koivusaari; I. Nuuja; J. Paasivirta

    1995-01-01

    Concentrations and patterns of several chloro compounds including polychlorinated dibenzo p-dioxins (PCDD), dibenzofurans (PCDF), biphenyls (PCB) and diphenyl ethers (PCDE) were determined in black guillemots (Cepphus grylle L.) and white-tailed sea-eagles (Hallaeetus albicilla L.) from the Baltic Sea environment. Three breast muscles of eagles were analyzed and had different concentrations and patterns of the studied compounds, whereas the three guillemot

  7. Life cycle of Pseudocalanus acuspes Giesbrecht (Copepoda, Calanoida) in the Central Baltic Sea: II. Reproduction, growth and secondary production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jasmin Renz; Janna Peters; Hans-Jürgen Hirche

    2007-01-01

    The population dynamics of Pseudocalanus acuspes in the Central Baltic Sea were studied from March 2002 to May 2003 on a monthly basis. All stages were present year round\\u000a with a stage shift from nauplii to older copepodite stages over the course of the year. Biomass, estimated from prosome length,\\u000a peaked between May and September with maximum recorded values of

  8. Life cycle of Pseudocalanus acuspes Giesbrecht (Copepoda, Calanoida) in the Central Baltic Sea: I. Seasonal and spatial distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jasmin Renz; Hans-Jürgen Hirche

    2006-01-01

    The seasonal and spatial distribution of Pseudocalanus acuspes in the Bornholm Basin (Central Baltic Sea) was studied on 16 cruises between March 2002 and May 2003 from stratified (10 m)\\u000a multinet samples. The highest abundances were reached in May 2002 and April 2003 (618×103 and 869×103 ind. m?2, respectively). Ontogenetic vertical distribution was stage specific with differences of mean annual weighted mean depth

  9. Earliest Holocene occurrence of the soft-shell clam, Mya arenaria, in the Greifswalder Bodden, Southern Baltic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brigitte Behrends; Günther Hertweck; Gerd Liebezeit; Glenn Goodfriend

    2005-01-01

    Shells of Mya arenaria from the Greifswalder Bodden, southern Baltic Sea, were dated using aspartic acid racemisation. The soft shell clam occurs in the sediments of the bay to a depth of 20 cm and exceptionally to 36.5 cm. Consistent ages of 682±70 and 687±70 years before 1997 were obtained for three articulated shells recovered in life position. This places

  10. Present-day and future precipitation in the Baltic Sea region as simulated in a suite of regional climate models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik Kjellström; Kimmo Ruosteenoja

    2007-01-01

    Here we investigate simulated changes in the precipitation climate over the Baltic Sea and surrounding land areas for the\\u000a period 2071–2100 as compared to 1961–1990. We analyze precipitation in 10 regional climate models taking part in the European\\u000a PRUDENCE project. Forced by the same global driving climate model, the mean of the regional climate model simulations captures\\u000a the observed climatological

  11. Benthic foraminifera cultured over a large salinity gradient: first results and comparison with field data from the Baltic Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groeneveld, Jeroen; Filipsson, Helena L.; Austin, William E. N.; Darling, Kate; Quintana Krupinski, Nadine B.

    2015-04-01

    Some of the most significant challenges in paleoclimate research arise from the need to both understand and reduce the uncertainty associated with proxy methods for climate reconstructions. This is especially important for shelf and coastal environments where increasing numbers of high-resolution paleorecords are being generated. These challenges are further highlighted in connection with ECORD/IODP Expedition 347: Baltic Sea Paleoenvironments. This large-scale drilling operation took place in the Baltic Sea region during the autumn of 2013. At this time, there is a pressing need for proxy calibrations directly targeted at the brackish Baltic environment. Within the CONTEMPORARY project we are investigating different temperature and salinity proxy variables through a combination of field- and culture-based benthic foraminiferal samples, together with genetic characterization (genotyping) of the morphospecies. We have completed two field campaigns where we collected (living) foraminifera and water samples at several sites, ranging from fully marine to low salinity conditions. The core-top foraminifera have been analysed for trace metal/Ca, stable oxygen and carbon isotopes, and faunal composition. Living foraminifera collected from the sediment-water interface were cultured in sea water in two long-term experiments at different temperatures (5°C and 10°C) and at three different salinities (15, 25, and 35). The first experiment yielded a large number of reproduced and experimentally-grown Elphidium specimens. The second experiment resulted in growth but no reproduction. We will provide a summary of the experimentally grown material and discuss the challenges of generating new proxy calibrations for foraminiferal shell geochemistry in the Baltic Sea. Furthermore, specimens of Elphidium and Ammonia, found at two sampling sites (Anholt, Kattegat and Hanöbay) with differing salinities, were genotyped and the results indicate that the same genotype of Elphidium is found in both salinity regimes but that the Ammonia genotypes differ depending on the prevailing salinity regime. Also in the CONTEMPORARY team: Heather Austin, Clare Bird, Johan Gabrielsson, David J. McCarthy, Angela Roberts, Magali Schweizer.

  12. Innovative Stormwater Management in New Development: Planning Case Study1

    E-print Network

    Pitt, Robert E.

    A-1 Appendix Innovative Stormwater Management in New Development: Planning Case Study1 Brian W development, with housing to support the employment generated by the airport expansion. The stormwater element of this planning effort included the development of a Master Stormwater Management Plan (MSMP) for the annexed area

  13. Implications of an uncertain future for port planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Taneja; W. E. Walker; H. Ligteringen; M. Van Schuylenburg; R. Van Der Plas

    2010-01-01

    The evolving function of a port, and many logistical, technological, and economic uncertainties under which it must operate, make the planning and design of these complex socio-technical infrastructures very challenging. A Master Plan of a port is the instrument by which the port's (expansion) strategy in the marketplace is defined. Therefore, a Port Master Plan needs to be dynamic and

  14. Effects of climate change and agricultural adaptation on nutrient loading from Finnish catchments to the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Huttunen, Inese; Lehtonen, Heikki; Huttunen, Markus; Piirainen, Vanamo; Korppoo, Marie; Veijalainen, Noora; Viitasalo, Markku; Vehviläinen, Bertel

    2015-10-01

    Climate change is expected to increase annual and especially winter runoff, shorten the snow cover period and therefore increase both nutrient leaching from agricultural areas and natural background leaching in the Baltic Sea catchment. We estimated the effects of climate change and possible future scenarios of agricultural changes on the phosphorus and nitrogen loading to the Baltic Sea from Finnish catchments. In the agricultural scenarios we assumed that the prices of agricultural products are among the primary drivers in the adaptation to climate change, as they affect the level of fertilization and the production intensity and volume and, hence, the modeled changes in gross nutrient loading from agricultural land. Optimal adaptation may increase production while supporting appropriate use of fertilization, resulting in low nutrient balance in the fields. However, a less optimal adaptation may result in higher nutrient balance and increased leaching. The changes in nutrient loading to the Baltic Sea were predicted by taking into account the agricultural scenarios in a nutrient loading model for Finnish catchments (VEMALA), which simulates runoff, nutrient processes, leaching and transport on land, in rivers and in lakes. We thus integrated the effects of climate change in the agricultural sector, nutrient loading in fields, natural background loading, hydrology and nutrient transport and retention processes. PMID:26011613

  15. Time series decomposition for assessing long-term changes in the seasonality of Baltic sea-level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Susana; Donner, Reik

    2015-04-01

    The seasonal cycle accounts for about 40% of the total sea-level variability in the Baltic Sea. Previous studies suggested the existence of long-term changes in the seasonal cycle, in particular a possible increase of the annual amplitude. In order to assess long-term changes in the seasonality of Baltic sea-level, and derive robust estimates of the annual amplitudes and cycle phases, century-long tide gauge records in the Baltic Sea are decomposed by applying a multitude of complementary methods including continuous wavelet filtering, multi-resolution decomposition based on the maximal overlap discrete wavelet transform (MODWT), autoregressive-based decomposition, singular spectrum analysis (SSA) and empirical mode decomposition (EMD). The results show that all methods generally trace a similar long-term variability of the annual cycle amplitudes. Additional variables such as atmospheric pressure, surface air temperature, and precipitation are analysed using the same approach in order to investigate potential mechanisms for the identified changes in the seasonal cycle.

  16. Population modelling of Acartia spp. in a water column ecosystem model for the South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, L.; ?mijewska, I. M.; Mudrak, S.; Jakacki, J.; Lemieszek, A.

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes numerical simulations of the seasonal dynamics of Acartia spp. in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea. The studies were carried out using a structured zooplankton population model adapted to Acartia spp. The population model with state variables for eggs, nauplii, five copepodites stages and adults was coupled with a marine ecosystem model. Four state variables for the carbon cycle represent the functional units of phytoplankton, pelagic detritus, benthic detritus, and bulk zooplankton, which represent all zooplankton other than the structured population. The annual cycle simulated for 2000 under realistic weather and hydrographic conditions was studied with the coupled ecosystem-zooplankton model applied to a water column in the Gdansk Gulf (South-Eastern Baltic Sea). The vertical profiles of selected state variables were compared to the physical forcing to study differences between bulk and structured zooplankton biomass. The simulated population dynamics of Acartia spp. and zooplankton as one biomass state variable were compared with observations in the Gdansk Gulf. Simulated generation times are more affected by temperature than food conditions except during the spring phytoplankton bloom. The numerical studies are a following step in understanding how the population dynamics of a dominant species in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea interact with the environment.

  17. Methodological Challenges in Assessing the Environmental Status of a Marine Ecosystem: Case Study of the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Assessments of the environmental status of marine ecosystems are increasingly needed to inform management decisions and regulate human pressures to meet the objectives of environmental policies. This paper addresses some generic methodological challenges and related uncertainties involved in marine ecosystem assessment, using the central Baltic Sea as a case study. The objectives of good environmental status of the Baltic Sea are largely focusing on biodiversity, eutrophication and hazardous substances. In this paper, we conduct comparative evaluations of the status of these three segments, by applying different methodological approaches. Our analyses indicate that the assessment results are sensitive to a selection of indicators for ecological quality objectives that are affected by a broad spectrum of human activities and natural processes (biodiversity), less so for objectives that are influenced by a relatively narrow array of drivers (eutrophications, hazardous substances). The choice of indicator aggregation rule appeared to be of essential importance for assessment results for all three segments, whereas the hierarchical structure of indicators had only a minor influence. Trend-based assessment was shown to be a useful supplement to reference-based evaluation, being independent of the problems related to defining reference values and indicator aggregation methodologies. Results of this study will help in setting priorities for future efforts to improve environmental assessments in the Baltic Sea and elsewhere, and to ensure the transparency of the assessment procedure. PMID:21559423

  18. Distribution of mercury in different environmental compartments in the aquatic ecosystem of the coastal zone of the Southern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Saniewska, Dominika; Beldowska, Magdalena; Beldowski, Jacek; Saniewski, Micha?; Kwa?niak, Justyna; Falkowska, Lucyna

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize mercury (Hg) contamination in the coastal waters of the Southern Baltic Sea, and to investigate transformations of Hg in the initial links of the marine food chain. Concentrations of Hg in water, particulate matter, plankton and macrophytes at various stations in the coastal zone (a bay with restricted water exchange, near an industrial city, river mouths, and the open sea) were measured in 2006-2008. Hg concentrations observed in the Southern Baltic varied greatly, showing the highest average values in all environmental compartments near the river mouths. In shallow, sheltered parts of the gulf, where water exchange is restricted, Hg concentrations in the water and in macrophytes were elevated relative to those in the coastal zone of the deeper part of the bay and in the open Baltic. Distance to the river mouth, terrestrial runoff, and quantity and quality of organic matter were more important than seasonal variations in controlling Hg and HgSPM concentrations in water samples. Mercury concentrations in the surface microlayer at the air/sea interface were over 10 times higher than those in the bulk surface water. Concentrations of Hg in macrophytes in the winter were significantly higher than those in the warm seasons (spring, summer, autumn). This was probably the combined effect of higher availability of Hg in porewaters and leaf growth inhibition. PMID:21179950

  19. Production expansion continues to accelerate

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This paper reports that Saudi Arabian Oil Co. (Saudi Aramco) is continuing its accelerated Crude Oil Expansion Program initiated in 1989 that aims at achieving a 10 million bpd productive capacity by 1995. In addition to major engineering, construction and renovation work related to production expansion, Saudi Aramco drilling and workover operations have been markedly expanded. Since January 1991, rig activity has doubled. As an indication of aging of Saudi production, projects include modernizing current injection water treatment facilities, installing a new seawater injection plant on the Persian Gulf, installing dewatering facilities in a number of locations and installing a pilot gas lift project. In addition, equipment orders indicate the new discoveries south of Riyadh may also need the assistance of water injection from inception of production.

  20. University of Sydney Grounds Conservation Plan --October 2002 Page A1 APPENDIX A: UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY OVERVIEW

    E-print Network

    Viglas, Anastasios

    University of Sydney Grounds Conservation Plan --October 2002 Page A1 APPENDIX A: UNIVERSITY OF AUSTRALIAN UNIVERSITIES by Duncan Marshall #12;University of Sydney Grounds Conservation Plan --October 2002 Conservation Plan --October 2002 Page A3 6.4 Expansion of Professional Education 6.5 Expansion to the west

  1. Virtual Expansion of Rainbow Tables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vrizlynn Thing

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a Password recovery tools are often used in digital forensic investigations to obtain the passwords that are used by suspects\\u000a to encrypt potential evidentiary data. This paper presents a new method for deterministically generating and efficiently storing\\u000a password recovery tables. The method, which involves the virtual expansion of rainbow tables, achieves improvements of 16.92%\\u000a to 28.15% in the password recovery success

  2. Math Review 1 Taylor expansion

    E-print Network

    Schofield, Jeremy

    = lim N nij N P(Ei, Gj) joint probability. Properties: 1. i.j P(Ei, Gj) = 1. 2. i P(Ei, Gj) = P(Gj). 3. j P(Ei, Gj) = P(Ei). 4. If Ei and Gj are independent, then P(Ei, Gj) = P(Ei)P(Gj). 3.2 CombinatoricsMath Review 1 Taylor expansion · Expand function f(x + a) from small a around a = 0. f(x + a) = f

  3. Accelerated Expansion: Theory and Observations

    E-print Network

    David Polarski

    2001-09-20

    The present paradigm in cosmology is the usual Big-Bang Cosmology in which two stages of accelerated expansion are incorporated: the inflationary phase in the very early universe which produces the classical inhomogeneities observed in the universe, and a second stage of acceleration at the present time as the latest Supernovae observations seem to imply. Both stages could be produced by a scalar field and observations will strongly constrain the microscopic lagrangian of any proposed model.

  4. Sub-Alfvenic plasma expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Ripin, B.H.; Huba, J.D.; McLean, E.A.; Manka, C.K.; Peyser, T.; Burris, H.R.; Grun, J. (Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington D.C. 20375-5346 (United States))

    1993-10-01

    A large ion Larmor radius plasma undergoes a particularly robust form of Rayleigh--Taylor instability when sub-Alfvenically expanding into a magnetic field. Results from an experimental study of this instability are reported and compared with theory, notably a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) treatment that includes the Hall term, a generalized kinetic lower-hybrid drift theory, and with computer simulations. Many theoretical predictions are confirmed while several features remain unexplained. New and unusual features appear in the development of this instability. In the linear stage there is an onset criterion insensitive to the magnetic field, initial density clumping (versus interchange), linear growth rate much higher than in the classic'' MHD regime, and dominant instability wavelength of order of the plasma density scale length. In the nonlinear limit free-streaming flutes, apparent splitting (bifurcation) of flutes, curling of flutes in the electron cyclotron sense, and a highly asymmetric expansion are found. Also examined is the effect on the instability of the following: an ambient background plasma (that adds collisionality and raises the expansion speed/Alfven speed ratio), magnetic-field line tying, and expansion asymmetries (that promotes plasma cross-field jetting).

  5. Nonlinear effects on composite laminate thermal expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashin, Z.; Rosen, B. W.; Pipes, R. B.

    1979-01-01

    Analyses of Graphite/Polyimide laminates shown that the thermomechanical strains cannot be separated into mechanical strain and free thermal expansion strain. Elastic properties and thermal expansion coefficients of unidirectional Graphite/Polyimide specimens were measured as a function of temperature to provide inputs for the analysis. The + or - 45 degrees symmetric Graphite/Polyimide laminates were tested to obtain free thermal expansion coefficients and thermal expansion coefficients under various uniaxial loads. The experimental results demonstrated the effects predicted by the analysis, namely dependence of thermal expansion coefficients on load, and anisotropy of thermal expansion under load. The significance of time dependence on thermal expansion was demonstrated by comparison of measured laminate free expansion coefficients with and without 15 day delay at intermediate temperature.

  6. Acoustic noise control using multiple expansion chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horoub, Mamon Mohammad

    Silencers with expansion chambers are often used to reduce noise in different applications such as HVAC, exhaust systems, and car muffler systems. This study focuses on the effectiveness of multiple expansion chambers in reducing noise. Methods for enhancing silencer designs are realized by utilizing extended tubes, changing expansion chamber cross sectional areas and changing the lengths of the expansion chambers and connecting tubes. General guidelines for design enhancement are provided through this study.

  7. Sea level rise of semi-enclosed basins: deviation of Adriatic and Baltic sea level from the mean global value.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2015-04-01

    Future sea level rise (SL), which represents today one of the major threats that are caused by climate change, will not be uniform. Regional differences are crucial for 40% of the world population, which is located in the coastal zone. To explore the mechanisms linking regional SL to climate variables is very important in order to provide reliable future projections. This study focuses on two semi-enclosed basins, the Adriatic and Baltic Sea and investigates the deviation of their SL from the mean global value. In fact, past deviations of the SL of these two basins from the global value have been observed and can be attributed to large scale factors (such as teleconnections) and regional factors, such as the inverse barometric effect, the wind stress, the thermosteric and halosteric effects. The final goal of this work is to assess to which extent the Adriatic and Baltic SL will depart from the mean global value in the next decades and at the end of 21st century. This is achieved by analyzing deviations of the mean SL of the Baltic and Adriatic Sea from the global mean SL during the 20th century and investigating which factors can explain such deviations. A multivariate linear regression model is built and used to describe the link between three large scale climate variables which are used as predictors (mean sea level pressure, surface air temperature and precipitation), and the regional SL deviation (the predictand), computed as the difference between the regional and the global SL. At monthly scale this linear regression model provides a good reconstruction of the past variability in the cold season during which it explains 60%-70% of the variance. Summer reconstruction is substantially less successful and it represents presently the main limit of the model skill. This linear regression model, forced by predictors extracted from CMIP5 multi-model simulations, is used to provide projections of SL in the Adriatic and Baltic Sea. On the basis of the projections until 2100, the Baltic Sea will rise faster than the global SL. Adriatic SL, on the contrary, shows a substantial agreement with the global trend. This study is part of the activities of RISES-AM project (FP7-EU-603396).

  8. The unconventional hydrocarbon potential in the central part of the Baltic Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazauskiene, Jurga; Zdanaviciute, Onyte

    2014-05-01

    The Baltic Basin is an intracratonic Phanerozoic sedimentary basin, situated on the Western margin of the East European Craton. The unconventional hydrocarbon potential is mostly related to the several organic-rich source rock complexes within the Early Palaeozoic section. In the south-eastern part of the Baltic Basin the Cambrian shales (Alum shales and Middle Cambrian), Ordovician black shales of the Caradocian age and Silurian Llandovery shales are considered as the major potential shale oil/gas playes. The depth of the the base of the Silurian shales varies from 2120 to 1125 m in the Lithuanian part of the basin. The thickness of the Lower Silurian shales in - varies from 110m to160 m. The organic matter of the source rocks is of similar composition - predominantly "oil-producing" sapropel (type II) and mixed "oil-gas liquids producing" type II-III. Pyrolisis yields (32 - 76(~100) kg HC/ton rock) suggests a good hydroacarbon generation potential. Total organic carbon content varies from 0.2-3 to 8-11%. Maximal values of the total organic carbon (up to 17%) have been recorded near the base of the Silurian (2-11 m Middle Llandovery interval) and its content generally decreases upwards the section. The Rock-Eval screening pyrolysis, biomarker data, reflectance of vitrinite-like macerals and conodont colour alteration index show considerable variations of the source rocks maturity through the basin. Maturity of the organic matter increases southwestwards from 0.6 up to 1.94% (Ro). Thermal maturity in this area ranges from immature in the Eastern part of Lithuania and to "oil window" in the Western Lithuania. In some places in central part of the basin (wells Ramu?iai-1, Paj?ris-1 and others) the anomalously high maturity of organic matter, indicating the lower part of the wet gas/condensate window have been recorded, most probably being related to the locally increased paleo-temperatures. Llandovery shales are clay-rich, an average values range from 28-59vol.% (mean - 47vol.%); the minerological composition is dominated by chlorite, illite and mica and illite-smectite, kaolinite is rare. Quartz content ranges from 18-34 vol.% (mean - 30 vol.%), calcite and dolomite content ranges from 0.3-38vol.% (mean - 10vol.%); pyrite content (0.3 - 3.7 vol.%). Brittleness factor - 0.3-0.7 (mean - 0.46), suggesting moderately brittle to moderately ductile geo-mechanical properties of shales. The Early Silurian - Uppermost Ordovician black graptolite shales have been defined as being prospective for the unconventional shale gas potential in the Baltic Basin. New organic geochemistry data, incorporated with well logs and core data were used to reveal the potential for shale gas in the central part of the basin. Unconventional hydrocarbon potential is mostly related to the Llandovery-Upper Ordovician shale formation. The amount of TOC is high, but vitrinite reflectance data imply the thermal maturities of shales for liquid, rather than gaseous unconventional hydrocarbons generation. Volume of generated unconventional hydrocarbons in SW Lithuania for the Late Ordovician-Early Silurian section of 110 m thick might comprise: shale oil resources in place - 3,6-18,3 bill. m3; shale gas in place - 1,03-5,13 tril. m3.

  9. hurricane plan UNO HURRICANE PLAN

    E-print Network

    Li, X. Rong

    hurricane plan #12;UNO HURRICANE PLAN TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................................................... 1 I. HURRICANE EMERGENCY TEAMS Hurricane Emergency Implementation Team (HEIT)......................................... 2 PPoosstt

  10. Efficient query expansion with auxiliary data structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bodo Billerbeck; Justin Zobel

    2006-01-01

    Query expansion is a well-known method for improving average eectiv eness in information retrieval. The most eectiv e query expansion methods rely on retriev- ing documents which are used as a source of expansion terms. Retrieving those documents is costly. We examine the bottlenecks of a conventional approach and investigate alternative methods aimed at reducing query evaluation time. We pro-

  11. Effective query expansion for federated search

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milad Shokouhi; Leif Azzopardi; Paul Thomas

    2009-01-01

    While query expansion techniques have been shown to im- prove retrieval performance in a centralized setting, they have not been well studied in a federated setting. In this paper, we consider how query expansion may be adapted to federated environments and propose several new methods: where focused expansions are used in a selective fashion to produce specific queries for each

  12. Synthesis, sintering and thermal expansion of porous low expansion ceramics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano Maschio; Alessandro Bachiorrini; Elio Lucchini; Sergio Brückner

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we report on the preparation and characterization of porous ceramic substrates in the group of NaZr2(PO4)3, CaZr4(PO4)6, SrZr4(PO4)6 and BaZr4(PO4)6 with low thermal expansion coefficients. The starting powders were obtained by a sol–gel process and attrition milling both before and after calcination. The resulting sintered bodies exhibited high porosity also after further thermal treatments at high temperature.

  13. CLIMLINK: Climate forcing factors for marine environmental change during the mid- and late Holocene - a link between the NE Atlantic and the Baltic Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polovodova Asteman, Irina; Risebrobakken, Bjørg; B?k, Ma?gorzata; Binczewska, Anna; Borówka, Ryszard; Dobosz, S?awomir; Jansen, Eystein; Kaniak, Aleksandra; Moros, Matthias; Perner, Kerstin; S?awinska, Joanna

    2015-04-01

    Climate change has a strong amplifying effect on the environment of marginal seas such as the Baltic Sea. Owing to the connection of the Baltic Sea with the Atlantic (and the resultant pathway of water exchange via the narrow Danish Straits), changes in the Baltic region are suggested to be driven by external oceanic and atmospheric forcing originating in the Atlantic, particularly in the eastern Nordic seas, the Skagerrak, and the Kattegat. CLIMLINK aims to reconstruct mid- to late Holocene ecosystem changes in these regions and identify linkages, common forcing factors and effects for the Baltic Sea on a millennial to decadal time scale. High-resolution sediment records from selected key sites in the Norwegian Trench, and central Baltic Sea are studied by using a multi-proxy approach. Micropalaeontological studies of diatoms and foraminifera are combined with geochemical proxies, such as stable isotopes, Mg/Ca, TOC, TIC, C/N, XRF and magnetic susceptibility in order to achieve a more comprehensive view on environmental changes during the last 6000 to 8000 years. The chronology of the sediment cores is secured by using multiple dating tools: Hg-pollution records, 137Cs, 210Pb, 14C and tephra layers. Herein we present the initial results of the project.

  14. Formation of the Archean crust of the ancient Vodlozero domain (Baltic shield)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arestova, N. A.; Chekulaev, V. P.; Lobach-Zhuchenko, S. B.; Kucherovskii, G. A.

    2015-03-01

    The available geological, petrological, and isotopic data on Archean rocks of the Baltic shield are used to analyze the formation of the crust of the ancient Vodlozero domain. This made it possible to reveal the succession of endogenic processes in different parts of the domain and correlate them between each other. Several stages of magmatic processes reflecting changes in magma-generation environments are definable in the crust formation. The earliest stages of magmatism (3.24 and 3.13-3.15 Ga) are mostly represented by rocks of the tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite association. The next stage of endogenic activity (3020-2900 Ma) was marked by the formation of volcanics of the komatiite-basalt and andesite-dacite associations constituting greenstone belts in marginal parts of the Vodlozero domain and basic dikes accompanied by layered pyroxenite-norite-diorite intrusion in its central part. These basic bodies crossing earlier tonalities were formed in extension settings related to the formation of the mantle plume, which is confirmed by the rock composition. This stage culminated in the formation of trondhjemites at margins of greenstone structure. The next stage of endogenic activity commenced at 2890-2840 Ma by the emplacement of high-magnesian gabbro and diorite dikes in the western margin of the domain, where they cross rocks of the tonalitetrondhjemite association. This stage was marked by the formation of intermediate-acid subvolcanic bodies and dikes as well as basite intrusions including the layered and differentiated Semch intrusion, the largest one in the Vodlozero domain. The stage culminated at approximately 2850 Ma in the emplacement of tonalities of the limited distribution being represented by the Shilos massif in the north of the domain and Shal'skii massif on the eastern shore of Lake Onega. The important stage in the geological history of the Vodlozero domain is the formation of the intracratonic Matkalakhta greenstone belt at approximately 2.8 Ga, which includes arenite quartzite and graywackes and polymictic conglomerates developed in the Lake Oster area in addition to volcanics. These rocks indicate a stable tectonic regime, which resulted in deep erosion of the crust. The emplacement of sanukitoids (2.73-2.74 Ga) as well as subsequent two-feldspar granites (2.68-2.70 Ga) and basite dikes (2.61-2.65 Ga) may be considered as resulting from the plume influence on the relatively stabilized sialic crust of the Baltic shield.

  15. Res-E Support Policies in the Baltic States: Electricity Price Aspect (Part II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobinaite, V.; Priedite, I.

    2015-04-01

    Increasing volumes of electricity derived from renewable energy sources (RES-E) affect the electricity market prices and the prices for final electricity consumers in the Baltic States. The results of a multivariate regression analysis show that in 2013 the RES-E contributed to decreasing the electricity market prices in the Baltic States. However, the final electricity consumers pay for the promotion of RES-E through the approved RES-E component which has a tendency to increase. It is estimated that in 2013 the net benefits from the wind electricity promotion were achieved in Lithuania and Latvia while the net cost - in Estonia. This suggests that the economic efficiency of the wind electricity support scheme based on the application of feed-in tariffs was higher than that based on the feed-in premium. Rakst? analiz?ta elektroener?ijas ražošanas no atjaunojamiem energoresursiem (AER-E) palielin?šanas ietekme uz elektroener?ijas tirgus cenu un gala cenu elektroener?ijas lietot?jiem Baltijas valst?s. Daudzfaktoru regresijas anal?zes rezult?ti atkl?ja, ka AER-E 2013. gad? var?tu samazin?t elektroener?ijas tirgus cenas Baltijas valst?s. Tom?r j??em v?r?, ka elektroener?ijas lietot?ja gala cen? ir iek?auta AER-E atbalsta komponente, kurai ir rakstur?gi palielin?ties. Apr??in?ts, ka no v?ja elektroener?ijas ražošanas Latvij? un Lietuv? tika ieg?ta t?r? pe??a, bet Igaunij? tikai nosedza pašizmaksu. Tas liecina, ka v?ja elektroener?ijas atbalsta sh?mai, kas balst?ta uz oblig?t? iepirkuma atbalsta principu, ir augst?ka ekonomisk? efektivit?te, nek? atbalsta sh?mai, kas balst?ta uz piemaksu par no AER saražoto elektroener?iju oblig?t? iepirkuma ietvaros.

  16. Transfer-function modelling between environmental variation and mesozooplankton in the Baltic Sea [review article

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuorinen, I.; Hänninen, J.; Kornilovs, G.

    2003-12-01

    Time series of freshwater runoff, seawater salinity, temperature and oxygen were used in transfer functions (TF) to model changes of mesozooplankton taxa in the Baltic Sea from the 1960’s to the 1990’s. The models were then compared with long term zooplankton monitoring data from the same period. The TF models for all taxa over the whole Baltic proper and at different depth layers showed statistically significant estimates in t-tests. TF models were further compared using parsimony as a criterion. We present models showing 1) r2 > 0.4, 2) the smallest residual standard error with the combination of exploratory variables, 3) the lowest number of parameters and 4) the highest proportional decrease in error term when the TF model residual standard error was compared with those of the univariate ARIMA model of the same response variable. Most often (7 taxa out of a total of 8), zooplankton taxa were dependent on freshwater runoff and/or seawater salinity. Cladocerans and estuarine copepods were more conveniently modelled through the inclusion of seawater temperature and oxygen data as independent variables. Our modelling, however, explains neither the overall increase in zooplankton abundance nor a simultaneous decrease found in the neritic copepod, Temora longicornis. Therefore, biotic controlling agents (e.g. nutrients, primary production and planktivore diets) are suggested as independent variables for further TF modelling. TF modelling enabled us to put the controlling factors in a time frame. It was then possible, despite the inherent multiple correlation among parameters studied to deduce a chain-of-events from the environmental controls and biotic feedback mechanisms to changes in zooplankton species. We suggest that the documented long-term changes in zooplankton could have been driven by climatic regulation only. The control by climate could be mediated to zooplankton through marine chemical and physical factors, as well as biotic factors if all of these were responding to the same external control, such as changes in the freshwater runoff. Increased runoff would explain both the increasing eutrophication, causing the overall increase of zooplankton, and the changes in selective predation, contributing to decline of Temora.

  17. Use of regional climate models data for groundwater recharge modelling in Baltic artesian basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timuhins, A.; Klints, I.; Sennikovs, J.; Virbulis, J.

    2012-04-01

    Baltic artesian basin (BAB) covers about 480000 square kilometres. BAB includes territory of Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, parts of Poland, Russia, Belarus and Baltic Sea. The closed hydrogeological mathematical model for the BAB is developed in University of Latvia and reference calculations made in steady state mode. No-flow boundary condition is applied on the bottom and side boundaries of BAB. Hydraulic head is fixed on the seabed and largest lakes, and along the main river lines. Main water supply wells also are presented in the model as a pointwise water extraction. Precipitation is the main source of the groundwater recharge in the BAB region. Infiltration parameterization is responsible for this water source in BAB model. During the early stage of calibration of BAB hydrogeological model an automatic calibration for the hydraulic conductivities of permeable layers and single infiltration rate was attempted. Performing BAB model calibration it was noted that the differences of calculated and observed hydraulic heads (used for calculating the calibration penalty function) can be reduced by introducing a spatially distributed infiltration model. The aim of the present study is improving of the infiltration model, as well as preserving a short computation time (several minutes) for the piezometric head. Direct solution of improvement of the infiltration would be a usage of the advanced hydrological models. However, an accurate hydrological model requires a lot of computational power. It should couple meteorological and hydrological parameters and requires additional calibration. The regional climate model (KNMI-RACMO2 25 km resolution) results from ENSEMBLES project are used for the spatially distributed infiltration field calculation. The infiltration field is constructed as weighted difference of 30 year averaged precipitation and evaporation fields. The weight value is calibrated and a considerable decrease of the value of penalty function of the groundwater model is obtained (in comparison with penalty function value of the BAB model with constant infiltration). Impact of near and far future climate changes on the groundwater is estimated using the climate projections provided by RCM. Acknowledgements. This research was supported by the European Social Fund project "Establishment of interdisciplinary scientist group and modelling system for groundwater research" (Project Nr. 2009/0212/1DP/1.1.1.2.0/09/APIA/VIAA/060). Regional climate model data was provided through the ENSEMBLES data archive, funded by the EU FP6 Integrated Project ENSEMBLES (Contract number 505539).

  18. Impact of the climate change to shallow groundwater in Baltic artesian basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauva, D.; Bethers, P.; Timuhins, A.; Sennikovs, J.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of our work was to find the long term pattern of annual shallow ground water changes in region of Latvia, ground water level modelling for the contemporary climate and future climate scenarios and the model generalization to the Baltic artesian basin (BAB) region. Latvia is located in the middle part of BAB. It occupies about 65'000 square kilometers. BAB territory (480'000 square kilometres) also includes Lithuania, Estonia as well as parts of Poland, Russia, Belarus and the Baltic Sea. Territory of BAB is more than seven times bigger than Latvia. Precipitation and spring snow melt are the main sources of the ground water recharge in BAB territory. The long term pattern of annual shallow ground water changes was extracted from the data of 25 monitoring wells in the territory of Latvia. The main Latvian groundwater level fluctuation regime can be described as a function with two maximums (in spring and late autumn) and two minimums (in winter and late summer). The mathematical model METUL (developed by Latvian University of Agriculture) was chosen for the ground water modelling. It was calibrated on the observations in 25 gauging wells around Latvia. After the calibration we made calculations using data provided by an ensemble of regional climate models, yielding a continuous groundwater table time-series from 1961 to 2100, which were analysed and split into 3 time windows for further analysis: contemporary climate (1961-1990), near future (2021-2050) and far future (2071-2100). The daily average temperature, precipitation and humidity time series were used as METUL forcing parameters. The statistical downscaling method (Sennikovs and Bethers, 2009) was applied for the bias correction of RCM calculated and measured variables. The qualitative differences in future and contemporary annual groundwater regime are expected. The future Latvian annual groundwater cycle according to the RCM climate projection changes to curve with one peak and one drought point. Acknowledgements. This research was supported by the European Social Fund project "Establishment of interdisciplinary scientist group and modelling system for groundwater research" (Project Nr. 2009/0212/1DP/1.1.1.2.0/09/APIA/VIAA/060). Regional climate model data was provided through the ENSEMBLES data archive, funded by the EU FP6 Integrated Project ENSEMBLES (Contract number 505539). Reference: Sennikovs, J., Bethers, U. 2009. Statistical downscaling method of regional climate model results for hydrological modelling. In: Proceedings of 18th World IMACS / MODSIM Congress.

  19. Strontium, dissolved and particulate loads in fresh and brackish waters: The Baltic Sea and Mississippi Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Per S.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Ingri, Johan; Stordal, Mary C.

    1994-06-01

    A study was conducted of the isotopic composition and concentration of Sr and of major elements in dissolved and suspended loads of fresh and brackish waters. The purpose was to establish the contributions of different parent rocks and minerals to Sr during weathering and transport and to identify the role of Fe sbnd Mn oxyhydroxides in the redistribution of Sr in the water column during the sedimentary cycle. Studies were conducted on a profile across an oxic-anoxic boundary in the Baltic and on rivers covering behavior over an annual cycle. In general, the 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios differ between particulate and dissolved loads, with more radiogenic Sr in the particulate loads. These differences are attributed to differential weathering of minerals, where high Rb/Sr minerals dominate the particulate load and low Rb/Sr the dissolved load. There is broad correlation of 87Sr/ 86Sr with K/Al in the suspended load. The differences in 87Sr/ 86Sr between suspended and dissolved load are highly variable and are related to the Fe or Mn concentration on the particulates. In samples with high Fe/Al, the difference becomes small. A good correlation was found between Sr/Al and Fe/Al or Mn/Al in the particulates both in brackish and fresh waters. Sr is removed from solution both in rivers and in the Baltic Sea whenever there is formation of Fe sbnd Mn oxyhydroxide particulates. This precipitation greatly diminishes the difference in isotopic composition of the dissolved and suspended loads. As the particles containing Fe sbnd Mn oxyhydroxides settle, they dissolve in anoxic zones and release Sr. This provides a mechanism for Sr redistribution in the water column. Sr is thus only quasi-conservative in environments where Fe sbnd Mn oxyhydroxides form or dissolve. From consideration of the isotopic differences in Sr between dissolved and suspended loads, it follows that the net Sr input depends upon weathering characteristics of the contributing mineral phases. Changes in weathering mechanisms due to climate change may cause Sr isotopic shifts in the marine environment.

  20. Vertical variation of apparent and palaeoclimatically corrected heat flow densities in the central baltic shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukkonen, Ilmo T.

    1987-10-01

    The vertical variation of heat-flow density in the Central Baltic Shield was studied in 17 drill holes (389-1060 m deep). Apparent heat-flow densities calculated in 100 m depth sections, with typical determination errors smaller than 2 mW/m 2, showed a variation of up to 15 mW/m 2 in single holes. A palaeoclimatic correction for surface temperature variations during the last million years was calculated as a function of depth for each hole with a homogeneous half-space conduction model. If the bedrock temperatures are controlled only by conduction of heat, and the temperature history is accurately known, the palaeoclimatically corrected heat-flow densities should have the same (steady-state) value at all depths throughout a drill hole. In practice, the quality of the correction is indicated by decrease or increase in the standard errors of the drill-hole means of heat-flow density. When the corrections were applied to the measured data, the standard errors decreased in only eight drill holes, and the vertical variation in palaeoclimatically corrected values ranged from a few mW/m 2 to 10 mW/m 2. In some of the holes, this variation can be attributed to heat-flow refraction at inclined conductivity interfaces, resulting in local heat-flow anomalies. However, the most important cause of the variation seems to be groundwater flow in bedrock, i.e., heat transfer disturbing the conductive regime. This notion is supported by heat-flow density-depth plots and temperature-depth plots and the decrease in observed heat-flow variation below 500 m depth, which is the typical depth of rapidly changing fresh groundwater, below which more saline (and stagnant) groudwaters are usually encountered. The present results indicate the following: 1) Groundwater flow can be fairly common in the upper parts of bedrock in the Baltic Shield, and purely conductive circumstances do not necessarily prevail everywhere; 2) palaeoclimatically corrected heat-flow values must be used with great precaution, especially when signs of groundwater flow are present in the data; 3) the palaeoclimatic correction can be applied to study groundwater flow in bedrock indirectly and to test whether a conductive regime prevails or not.

  1. A comprehensive validation toolbox for regional ocean models - Outline, implementation and application to the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandt, Simon; Laagemaa, Priidik; Janssen, Frank

    2014-05-01

    The systematic and objective comparison between output from a numerical ocean model and a set of observations, called validation in the context of this presentation, is a beneficial activity at several stages, starting from early steps in model development and ending at the quality control of model based products delivered to customers. Even though the importance of this kind of validation work is widely acknowledged it is often not among the most popular tasks in ocean modelling. In order to ease the validation work a comprehensive toolbox has been developed in the framework of the MyOcean-2 project. The objective of this toolbox is to carry out validation integrating different data sources, e.g. time-series at stations, vertical profiles, surface fields or along track satellite data, with one single program call. The validation toolbox, implemented in MATLAB, features all parts of the validation process - ranging from read-in procedures of datasets to the graphical and numerical output of statistical metrics of the comparison. The basic idea is to have only one well-defined validation schedule for all applications, in which all parts of the validation process are executed. Each part, e.g. read-in procedures, forms a module in which all available functions of this particular part are collected. The interface between the functions, the module and the validation schedule is highly standardized. Functions of a module are set up for certain validation tasks, new functions can be implemented into the appropriate module without affecting the functionality of the toolbox. The functions are assigned for each validation task in user specific settings, which are externally stored in so-called namelists and gather all information of the used datasets as well as paths and metadata. In the framework of the MyOcean-2 project the toolbox is frequently used to validate the forecast products of the Baltic Sea Marine Forecasting Centre. Hereby the performance of any new product version is compared with the previous version. Although, the toolbox is mainly tested for the Baltic Sea yet, it can easily be adapted to different datasets and parameters, regardless of the geographic region. In this presentation the usability of the toolbox is demonstrated along with several results of the validation process.

  2. Regional variations in diffuse nitrogen losses from agriculture in the Nordic and Baltic regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vagstad, N.; Stålnacke, P.; Andersen, H.-E.; Deelstra, J.; Jansons, V.; Kyllmar, K.; Loigu, E.; Rekolainen, S.; Tumas, R.

    This paper describes nitrogen losses from, and the characteristics of, 35 selected catchments (12 to 2000 ha) in the Nordic and Baltic countries. Average annual losses of N in 1994-1997 ranged from 5 to 75 kg ha-1, generally highest and characterised by significant within-country and interannual variations, in Norway and the lowest losses were observed in the Baltic countries. An important finding of the study is that the average nutrient losses varied greatly among the studied catchments. The main explanations for this variability were water runoff, fertiliser use (especially the amount of manure), soil type and erosion (including stream bank erosion). However, there were several exceptions, and it was difficult to find general relationships between the individual factors. For example, there was poor correlation between nitrogen losses and surpluses. Therefore, the results suggest that the observed variability in N losses cannot have been due solely to differences in farm management practices, although the studied catchments do include a wide range of nutrient application levels, animal densities and other relevant elements. There is considerable spatial variation in the physical properties (soil, climate, hydrology, and topography) and the agricultural management of the basins, and the interaction between and relative effects of these factors has an important impact on erosion and nutrient losses. In particular, hydrological processes may have a marked effect on N losses measured in the catchment stream water. The results indicate that significant differences in hydrological pathways (e.g. the relationship between fast- and slow-flow processes) lead to major regional differences in N inputs to surface waters and therefore also in the response to changes in field management practices. Agricultural practices such as crop rotation systems, nutrient inputs and soil conservation measures obviously play a significant role in the site-specific effects, although they cannot explain the large regional differences observed in this study. The interactions between agricultural practices and basic catchment characteristics, including hydrological processes, determine the final losses of nitrogen to surface waters, hence it is necessary to understand these interactions to manage diffuse losses of agricultural nutrients efficiently.

  3. The Proterozoic Ladoga rift (SE Baltic shield): Linking mantle dynamics to supercontinent cycle and regional tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemieva, Irina; Shulgin, Alexey

    2015-04-01

    Mesoproterozoic mafic magmatism at the southern part of the Baltic Shield (the Lake Ladoga region) is conventionally ascribed to epicratonic rifting. The region hosts a series of mafic dykes and sills of Mesoproterozoic ages, including a ca. 1.53-1.46 Ga sheet-like gabbro-dolerite sills and the Salmi plateau-basalts from the Lake Ladoga region. Based on chiefly geochemical data, the region is conventionally interpreted as an intracratonic Ladoga rift (graben). We question the validity of this geodynamic interpretation by analyzing regional geophysical data (crustal structure, heat flow, Bouguer gravity anomalies, magnetic anomalies, and mantle Vs velocities). Our analysis of characteristics of continental rifts demonstrates that: 1. the topography of the region lacks a linear horst-graben structure typical of modern rifts, however this feature might have been lost by surface erosion; 2. the crust has neither shallow Moho, nor magmatic high-velocity underplated material, and thus is not typical of continental rifts; 3. weakly negative Bouguer gravity anomalies, especially by comparison with adjacent "background" anomalies suggest the presence of high-density material at shallow, near-Moho depths; however, the shape of the anomaly is rounded rather than linear, and may not attest to the paleorifting event; 4. seismic velocities in the upper mantle show a possible weak low-Pn anomaly near Lake Ladoga, and strong positive (+5+7%) Vs anomaly at 75-125 km depth to the NE of the lake, but not in the region of Mesoproterozoic mafic magmatism; 5. no thermal anomaly or lithosphere thickness anomaly is currently present in the lithosphere of the region, which instead is marked by extremely low heat flow; however, given the age of magmatism any thermal anomaly may have long ceased and thus its absence does not disprove rifting origin of magmatism; 6. the absence of linear magnetic anomalies which are preserved in other paleorifts provides strong evidence that this region has not been affected by rifting. We conclude that a mechanism other than rifting is responsible for Mesoproterozoic mafic magmatism at the southern part of the Baltic Shield and propose that magma intrusion associated with deformation along the margins of Nuna (Columbia) supercontinent, and its transformation to eclogite facies, locally speeded by fluids, produced a highly heterogeneous density structure of the lithosphere.

  4. Impact of river basin management on coastal water quality and ecosystem services: A southern Baltic estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schernewski, Gerald; Hürdler, Jens; Neumann, Thomas; Stybel, Nardine; Venohr, Markus

    2010-05-01

    Eutrophication management is still a major challenge in the Baltic Sea region. Estuaries or coastal waters linked to large rivers cannot be managed independently. Nutrient loads into these coastal ecosystems depend on processes, utilisation, structure and management in the river basin. In practise this means that we need a large scale approach and integrated models and tools to analyse, assess and evaluate the effects of nutrient loads on coastal water quality as well as the efficiency of river basin management measures on surface waters and especially lagoons and estuaries. The Odra river basin, the Szczecin Lagoon and its coastal waters cover an area of about 150,000 km² and are an eutrophication hot-spot in the Baltic region. To be able to carry out large scale, spatially integrative analyses, we linked the river basin nutrient flux model MONERIS to the coastal 3D-hydrodynamic and ecosystem model ERGOM. Objectives were a) to analyse the eutrophication history in the river basin and the resulting functional changes in the coastal waters between early 1960's and today and b) to analyse the effects of an optimal nitrogen and phosphorus management scenario in the Oder/Odra river basin on coastal water quality. The models show that an optimal river basin management with reduced nutrient loads (e.g. N-load reduction of 35 %) would have positive effects on coastal water quality and algae biomass. The availability of nutrients, N/P ratios and processes like denitrification and nitrogen-fixation would show spatial and temporal changes. It would have positive consequences for ecosystems functions, like the nutrient retention capacity, as well. However, this optimal scenario is by far not sufficient to ensure a good coastal water quality according to the European Water Framework Directive. A "good" water quality in the river will not be sufficient to ensure a "good" water quality in the coastal waters. Further, nitrogen load reductions bear the risk of increased potentially toxic, blue-green algae blooms. The presentation will summarize recent results (Behrendt et al. 2009, Schernewski et al. 2009, Schernewski et al. in press, Schernewski et al. submitted) and give an overview how Climate Change and socio-economic transformation processes in the river basin will effect coastal water quality during the next decades. The opportunities and threats of a changing lagoon ecosystem for tourism and fisheries, the major economic activities, will be shown.

  5. Towards The Operational Oceanographic Model System In Estonian Coastal Sea, Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kõuts, T.; Elken, J.; Raudsepp, U.

    An integrated system of nested 2D and 3D hydrodynamic models together with real time forcing data asquisition is designed and set up in pre-operational mode in the Gulf of Finland and Gulf of Riga, the Baltic Sea. Along the Estonian coast, implicit time-stepping 3D models are used in the deep bays and 2D models in the shallow bays with ca 200 m horizontal grid step. Specific model setups have been verified by in situ current measurements. Optimum configuration of initial parameters has been found for certain critical locations, usually ports, oil terminals, etc. Operational system in- tegrates also section of historical database of most important hydrologic parameters in the region, allowing use of certain statistical analysis and proper setup of initial conditions for oceanographic models. There is large variety of applications for such model system, ranging from environmental impact assessment at local coastal sea pol- lution problems to forecast of offshore blue algal blooms. Most probable risk factor in the coastal sea engineering is oil pollution, therefore current operational model sys- tem has direct custom oriented output the oil spill forecast for critical locations. Oil spill module of the operational system consist the automatic weather and hydromet- ric station (distributed in real time to internet) and prognostic model of sea surface currents. System is run using last 48 hour wind data and wind forecast and estimates probable oil deposition areas on the shoreline under certain weather conditions. Cal- culated evolution of oil pollution has been compared with some real accidents in the past and there was found good agreement between model and measurements. Graphi- cal user interface of oil spill model is currently installed at location of port authorities (eg. Muuga port), so in case of accidents it could be used in real time supporting the rescue operations. In 2000 current pre-operational oceanographic model system has been sucessfully used to evaluate environmental impacts of three different deep-port construction options in Saaremaa, NW the Baltic Sea. Intensive campaign of field measurements, consisting the high-resolution surveys of thermohaline properties of water masses (CTD) and timeseries as well horisontal structure of currents were in good agreement with model calculations. Model system well simulated the transport of pollution by surface currents originating from potential port locations at NW coast of the Saaremaa. It allowed to choose the optimum location for port and give also some hindcasts for port construction and exploitation.

  6. GIS for planning, navigation acquisition and visualization of results for the study of chemical munition dumpsites in the Baltic Sea

    E-print Network

    Behnke, Sven

    and population of the coastal zones. The MERCW (Modelling of Ecological Risks Related to Sea-Dumped Chemical of disciplines need to be integrated. The most suitable solution to store, visualize and analyse the data, which advances in various fields of scientific visualization, aiming to integrate the data gathered during more

  7. BASIC: Baltic Sea cyanobacteria. An investigation of the structure and dynamics of water blooms of cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea—responses to a changing environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stal, Lucas J.; Albertano, Patrizia; Bergman, Birgitta; Bröckel, Klaus von; Gallon, John R.; Hayes, Paul K.; Sivonen, Kaarina; Walsby, Anthony E.

    2003-11-01

    The blooms of cyanobacteria that develop each summer in the Baltic Sea are composed of two functional groups, namely the small-sized picocyanobacteria ( Synechococcus sp.) and the larger, colony-forming, filamentous N 2-fixing cyanobacteria. The former encompassed both red (phycoerythrin-rich) and blue-green (phycocyanin-rich) species. The majority of the picocyanobacteria measured less than 1 ?m and this size fraction comprised as much as 80% of the total cyanobacterial biomass and contributed as much as 50% of the total primary production of a cyanobacterial bloom. The picocyanobacteria are incapable of fixing N 2, do not possess gas vesicles and are not toxic. However, a small filamentous Pseudanabaena sp. that could potentially fix N 2 was isolated from the picocyanobacteria fraction. The larger cyanobacteria may form surface scums because they possess gas vesicles that make them buoyant. Although their biomass was less than the picocyanobacteria, they therefore form the more conspicuous and nuisance-forming part of the bloom. The larger cyanobacteria were composed mainly of three different species: Nodularia spumigena, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Anabaena sp. These all belong to the heterocystous, N 2-fixing cyanobacteria. N. spumigena and A. flos-aquae were the dominant species; only N. spumigena was toxic. Although individual Nodularia filaments showed a range of different phenotypes, they all belong to one species as judged from 16S rDNA sequencing. Through determination of the genotypes of many individual Nodularia filaments, it was shown that this population was not clonal and that horizontal exchange of genetic information occurs. N. spumigena and A. flos-aquae were different with respect to their photosynthetic and N 2-fixing potentials. Depending on prevailing environmental conditions, these differences would promote the proliferation of one species over the other and hence would determine overall the toxicity of a bloom. Daily integrals of photon irradiance rather than temperature determined the onset of bloom formation. During a bloom, the diazotrophic cyanobacteria fixed N 2 at a rate that was 10-20% in excess of their own demand for N. Picocyanobacteria assimilated most of this excess N as shown by 15N incorporation. During bloom conditions, the diazotrophic cyanobacteria met about 50% of the N demand of the total cyanobacterial community. The picocyanobacteria were predominantly N-limited while the diazotrophic cyanobacteria were probably iron limited. These findings allow us to understand the formation of toxic cyanobacterial blooms and also to develop tools to predict bloom formation.

  8. Validity of the field line resonance expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, P. J.; Goertz, C. K.

    1992-01-01

    The field line resonance expansion is studied with a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model applicable to earth's magnetotail. Using a Frobenius series solution, this expansion is found to be inconsistent. The inconsistency is seen by evaluating the terms in the model equations that the expansion neglects as small. Their effect is to provide a solution more singular than that determined by the expansion procedure. A tentative alternative expansion procedure, retaining these neglected terms approximately, yields a nonsingular solution, suggesting that resonant mode conversion rather than field line resonance is the appropriate phenomenon.

  9. Gravitational entropy of cosmic expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussman , R. A.

    2014-09-01

    We apply a recent proposal to define ``gravitational entropy'' to the expansion of cosmic voids within the framework of non-perturbative General Relativity. By considering CDM void configurations compatible with basic observational constraints, we show that this entropy grows from post-inflationary conditions towards a final asymptotic value in a late time fully non-linear regime described by the Lemaître- Tolman-Bondi (LTB) dust models. A qualitatively analogous behavior occurs if we assume a positive cosmological constant consistent with a ?-CDM background model. However, the ? term introduces a significant suppression of entropy growth with the terminal equilibrium value reached at a much faster rate.

  10. Space nuclear system expansion joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, W. D.; Shimazki, T. T.

    1973-01-01

    The engineering, design, and fabrication status of the expansion joint unit (EJU) to be employed in the NaK primary coolant piping loop of the 5-kwe Reactor thermoelectric system are described. Four EJU's are needed in the NaK primary coolant piping loop. The four EJU's which will be identical, utilize bellows as the flexing member, are hermetically sealed, and provide double containment. The bellows are of a nested-formed design, and are to be constructed of 1-ply thickness of 0.010-in. Inconel 718. The EJU's provide a minimum piping load margin of safety of +0.22.

  11. Modelled long-term development of hypoxic area and nutrient pools in the Baltic Proper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, Erik

    2012-06-01

    The development of nutrient pools and sediment areas covered by hypoxic water in the Baltic Proper was modelled for the 1900-2009 period. Reconstructed physical forcing and estimated past nutrient loads were used when direct observations were unavailable. The modelled pool of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) more than doubled in size over the last century — partly a direct effect of an increased external phosphorus load, and partly an indirect effect of less effective phosphorus retention in sediments associated with deteriorating oxygen conditions. As opposed to the DIP pool, the modelled pool of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) decreased over the last ~ 50 years due to more effective denitrification associated with spreading hypoxia. The results of a hindcast scenario with low external nutrient loads indicate that long-term climate change had no significant effects on hypoxic conditions or nutrient pools during the study period. The deteriorating oxygen conditions since the 1950s were mainly related to increased external nutrient loads in combination with internal nutrient feedback processes. Furthermore, simultaneously reducing both nitrogen and phosphorus loads would have a larger positive effect on the oxygen conditions than would phosphorus reduction alone. Reducing only nitrogen loads would eventually be compensated for by nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria.

  12. Nitrogen isotope dynamics and fractionation during sedimentary denitrification in Boknis Eck, Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dähnke, K.; Thamdrup, B.

    2013-01-01

    The global marine nitrogen cycle is constrained by nitrogen fixation as a source of reactive nitrogen, and denitrification or anammox on the sink side. These processes with their respective isotope effects set the marine nitrate 15N-isotope value (?15N) to a relatively constant average of 5‰. This value can be used to better assess the magnitude of these sources and sink terms, but the underlying assumption is that sedimentary denitrification and anammox, processes responsible for approximately one third of global nitrogen removal, have little to no isotope effect on nitrate in the water column. We investigated the isotope fractionation in sediment incubations, measuring net denitrification and nitrogen and oxygen stable isotope fractionation in surface sediments from the coastal Baltic Sea (Boknis Eck, Northern Germany), a site with seasonal hypoxia and dynamic nitrogen turnover. We found tremendously high denitrification rates, and regardless of current paradigms assuming little fractionation during sediment denitrification, we measured fractionation factors of 18.9‰ for nitrogen and 15.8‰ for oxygen in nitrate. While the input of nitrate to the water column remains speculative, these results challenge the current view of fractionation during sedimentary denitrification and imply that nitrogen budget calculations may need to consider this variability, as both preferential uptake of light nitrate and release of the remaining heavy fraction can significantly alter water column nitrate isotope vales at the sediment-water interface.

  13. Nitrogen isotope dynamics and fractionation during sedimentary denitrification in Boknis Eck, Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dähnke, K.; Thamdrup, B.

    2013-05-01

    The global marine nitrogen cycle is constrained by nitrogen fixation as a source of reactive nitrogen, and denitrification or anammox on the sink side. These processes with their respective isotope effects set the marine nitrate 15N-isotope value (?15N) to a relatively constant average of 5‰. This value can be used to better assess the magnitude of these sources and sink terms, but the underlying assumption is that sedimentary denitrification and anammox, processes responsible for approximately one-third of global nitrogen removal, have little to no isotope effect on nitrate in the water column. We investigated the isotope fractionation in sediment incubations, measuring net denitrification and nitrogen and oxygen stable isotope fractionation in surface sediments from the coastal Baltic Sea (Boknis Eck, northern Germany), a site with seasonal hypoxia and dynamic nitrogen turnover. Sediment denitrification was fast, and regardless of current paradigms assuming little fractionation during sediment denitrification, we measured fractionation factors of 18.9‰ for nitrogen and 15.8‰ for oxygen in nitrate. While the input of nitrate to the water column remains speculative, these results challenge the current view of fractionation during sedimentary denitrification and imply that nitrogen budget calculations may need to consider this variability, as both preferential uptake of light nitrate and release of the remaining heavy fraction can significantly alter water column nitrate isotope values at the sediment-water interface.

  14. Chemical and Biological Composition of Suspended Particles and Aggregates in the Baltic Sea in Summer (1999)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, A.; Meyerhöfer, M.; von Bröckel, K.

    2002-11-01

    Suspended particles and particle aggregates, which formed from concentrated field samples on the roller table, were characterized biologically and chemically along a transect through the Baltic Sea in summer 1999. Phytoplankton composition in field samples was dominated by cyanobacteria, including the filamentous diazotrophic cyanobacteria Aphanizomenon ' baltica ', Nodularia spumigena and Anabaena spp. These species formed aggregates together with diatoms, mainly Skeletonema costatum and Chaetoceros spp. and with dinoflagellates, mainly with Dinophysis norvegica . Compared to the Redfield ratio, concentration ratios of particulate organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, [POC]:[PON]:[POP], indicated an enrichment of carbon, especially in aggregates. However, regression analysis indicated a higher production rate of PON relative to POP and POC and significant background concentrations of POC. In field samples the concentration of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) varied around 200 ?g Xanthan Equiv. l -1 and comprised a volume fraction of 2-7 ppm and an abundance of about 10 5 TEP ml -1. TEP were enriched in aggregates as inferred from volume ratios of TEP to conventional particles. It is suggested, that TEP contribute substantially to the background concentration of POC, while the high production rate of PON is attributed to nitrogen fixation of diazotrophic cyanobacteria.

  15. Responses of Phyto- and Zooplankton Communities to Prymnesium polylepis (Prymnesiales) Bloom in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Gorokhova, Elena; Hajdu, Susanna; Larsson, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    A large bloom of Prymnesium polylepis occurred in the Baltic Sea during the winter 2007 – spring 2008. Based on numerous reports of strong allelopathic effects on phytoplankton exerted by P. polylepis and its toxicity to grazers, we hypothesized that during this period negative correlations will be observed between P. polylepis and (1) main phytoplankton groups contributing to the spring bloom (i.e., diatoms and dinoflagellates), and (2) zooplankton growth and abundance. To test these hypotheses, we analyzed inter-annual variability in phytoplankton and zooplankton dynamics as well as growth indices (RNA?DNA ratio) in dominant zooplankton in relation to the Prymnesium abundance and biomass. Contrary to the hypothesized relationships, no measurable negative responses to P. polylepis were observed for either the total phytoplankton stocks or the zooplankton community. The only negative response, possibly associated with P. polylepis occurrence, was significantly lower abundance of dinoflagellates both during and after the bloom in 2008. Moreover, contrary to the expected negative effects, there were significantly higher total phytoplankton abundance as well as significantly higher winter abundance and winter-spring RNA?DNA ratio in dominant zooplankton species in 2008, indicating that P. polylepis bloom coincided with favourable feeding conditions for zooplankton. Thus, primary consumers, and consequently also zooplanktivores (e.g., larval fish and mysids), may benefit from haptophyte blooms, particularly in winter, when phytoplankton is scarce. PMID:25393031

  16. Methane in the Baltic and North Seas and a reassessment of the marine emissions of methane

    SciTech Connect

    Bange, H.W.; Bartell, U.H.; Rapsomanikis, S. [Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz (Germany)] [and others] [Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz (Germany); and others

    1994-12-01

    During three measurement campaigns on the Baltic and North Seas, atmospheric and dissolved methane was determined with an automated gas chromatographic system. Area-weighted mean saturation values in the sea surface waters were 113{+-}5% and 395{+-}82% and 126{+-}8%. On the bases of our data and a compilation of literature data the global oceanic emissions of methane were reassessed by introducing a concept of regional gas transfer coefficients. Our estimates computed with two different air-sea exchange models lie in the range of 11-18 Tg CH{sub 4} yr{sup -1}. Despite the fact that shelf areas and estuaries only represent a small part of the world`s ocean they contribute about 75% to the global oceanic emissions. We applied a simple, coupled, three-layer model to evaluate the time dependent variation of the oceanic flux to the atmosphere. The model calculations indicate that even with increasing tropospheric methane concentration, the ocean will remain a source of atmospheric methane. 72 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Submarine groundwater discharge to the Baltic coastal zone: Impacts on the meiofaunal community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotwicki, L.; Grzelak, K.; Czub, M.; Dellwig, O.; Gentz, T.; Szymczycha, B.; Böttcher, M. E.

    2014-01-01

    The discharge of groundwater into the sea affects surrounding environments by changing the salinity, temperature and nutrient regimes. This work reports the spatial effects of a submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) on the abundance and structure of the meiofaunal community in the shallow area of Puck Bay (Baltic Sea). Several field expeditions in the years 2009 and 2010 found that low-saline groundwater escapes into the bay from permeable, sandy, near-shore sediments. The SGD literature has grown rapidly during the current decade; however, the effects of this type of disturbance on the shallow sandy bottom fauna have thus far been little studied. We provide evidence that the discharge of groundwater has a clear effect on meiofaunal assemblages in the research area. This effect was reflected in a significant decline of certain meiofaunal taxa, mainly nematodes and harpacticoids, as well as in altered patterns of temporal distribution and small-scale (vertical) zonation of meiofaunal assemblages. Overlooking submarine groundwater discharge processes may lead to serious misinterpretations of ecological data. It is clear that groundwater discharge phenomena should be considered in future scientific studies.

  18. Phylogeny of culturable estuarine bacteria catabolizing riverine organic matter in the northern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Kisand, Veljo; Cuadros, Rocio; Wikner, Johan

    2002-01-01

    The objective of our study was to isolate and determine the phylogenetic affiliation of culturable estuarine bacteria capable of catabolizing riverine dissolved organic matter (RDOM) under laboratory conditions. Additions of RDOM consistently promoted the growth of estuarine bacteria in carbon-limited dilution cultures, with seasonal variation in growth rates and yields. At least 42 different taxa were culturable on solid agar media and, according to quantitative DNA-DNA hybridizations, constituted 32 to 89% of the total bacterial number in the enriched treatments. Five species in the Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides group and one in the gamma-proteobacteria phylogenetic group (Marinomonas sp.) were numerically dominant during the stationary phase of the RDOM-enriched dilution cultures but not in the control cultures. Four of the isolates in Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides group were putatively affiliated with the genus FLAVOBACTERIUM: All dominating isolates were determined to be new species based on comparison to the current databases. The same group of species dominated independently of the season investigated, suggesting a low diversity of bacteria catabolizing RDOM in the estuary. It also suggested a broad tolerance of the dominating species to seasonal variation in hydrography, chemistry, and competition with other species. Taken together, our results suggest that a limited group of bacteria, mainly in the Flavobacterium genus, played an important role in introducing new energy and carbon to the marine system in the northern Baltic Sea. PMID:11772648

  19. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in herring from the southern Baltic, 1981.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, J

    1984-07-01

    A total of 295 samples of muscle tissue from herring netted in 1981 in the southern part of the Baltic Sea were analysed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and analogues (DDE and DDD), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and isomers of benzenehexachloride (alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-BHC). The mean values obtained for herring muscle tissue relating to wet weight were: 8.6 micrograms HCB/kg, 12 micrograms alpha-BHC/kg, 20 micrograms gamma-BHC/kg, 41 micrograms p,p'-DDE/kg, 49 micrograms p,p'-DDD/kg, 30 micrograms p,p'-DDT/kg, 120 micrograms sigma DDT/kg and 550 micrograms PCB/kg; beta-BHC was detectable in trace amounts and delta-BHC was not detected. Herring caught in the area under the direct influence of the Vistula River contained higher levels of sigma DDT in their muscles than those in the other regions investigated. Significant positive recti linear correlations were found between the residue concentration of HCB, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and sigma DDT in muscles and the body length of herring, and between the lipid content and the body length. PMID:6435328

  20. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in cod from the southern Baltic, 1981.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, J

    1985-10-01

    98 samples of muscle tissue of cod ranging form 51 to 60 cm in total length and netted in 1981 in the southern part of the Baltic Sea were analysed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolites (DDE and DDD), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and isomers of benzenehexachloride (alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-BHC). Mean values obtained related to wet weight for cod muscle tissue were: 0.77 micrograms kg/HCB, 0.71 micrograms kg/alpha-BHC, 3.8 micrograms kg/gamma-BHC, 5.2 micrograms kg/p,p'-DDe, 2.6 micrograms kg/p,p'-DDD, 2.6 micrograms kg/p,p'-DDT, 10 micrograms kg/sigma DDT and 180 micrograms kg/PCB; beta-BHC was detectable in trace amounts and delta-BHC was undetected. Generally residue levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs found in the muscles were low, and substantial decrease of sigma DDT and less of PCB levels in recent years when compared with data noted in 1969-1970 and 1972-1974 is noticeable. PMID:3934866