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1

Climate change and the Baltic Sea action plan: Model simulations on the future of the western Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we apply the model ERGOM to simulate the consequences of Climate Change as well as the combination of Climate Change with nutrient load reductions according to the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) on the Baltic Sea ecosystem. According to the simulations, Climate Change will cause an increase of the water temperature up to 3 K and a salinity decrease of 1.5 PSU until 2100. However, the implementation of the BSAP will have much stronger effects on the ecosystem. The model suggests that the western Baltic Sea will shift from a nitrogen (N) towards a phosphorus (P) limited system. As a consequence, N-fixation will strongly decrease. The same applies to nutrient-concentrations in winter, denitrification as well as detritus and chlorophyll concentrations in summer. The availability of N in summer, the Secchi depth and the oxygen saturation will increase. Our simulations suggest that the full implementation of the BSAP will cause imbalances in the Baltic Sea over decades before a new system state will be reached. Our results indicate that the Secchi depth alone is not a suitable indicator for the state of eutrophication. Concerning the Water Framework Directive (WFD), Climate Change might alter gradients and concentrations, e.g. of salinity, and in return this might require a re-definition of the WFD typology or a spatial shift of the surface water types, e.g. in Germany. The western Baltic Sea is strongly controlled by regional nutrient loads. Climate Change has only a limited effect on loads in the western Baltic. A re-definition of reference conditions and a good status because of Climate Change seems not necessary.

Friedland, René; Neumann, Thomas; Schernewski, Gerald

2012-12-01

2

Scientific support by the BONUS+ projects for the sustainability of the Baltic Sea Region: the case of the HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan.  

PubMed

The synthesis of the BONUS+ research is introduced. The HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan is examined as a case to illustrate the potentials and challenges in building the science-policy making interface on a macro regional level. The projects address environmental challenges in the Baltic Sea as defined by the Baltic Sea Action Plan, or consider the environmental governance and decision making within the Baltic Sea context in general. Eutrophication, biodiversity, hazardous substances, maritime activities, and the environment governance are addressed, as are cross cutting issues, such as the impact of climate change, maritime spatial planning and impacts of future development on ecosystem services. The projects contributed to relevant policy developments: 37 consultations carried out at EU level, 49 modifications to policy documents and action plans, 153 suggestions for the efficacy of pertinent public policies and governance, and in 570 occasions, scientists working in BONUS+ projects served as members or observers in scientific and stakeholder committees. PMID:24414800

Kononen, Kaisa; Andrusaitis, Andris; Sirola, Maija

2014-02-01

3

Akzo, CCIC set expansion plans  

SciTech Connect

Akzo Chemicals' (Chicago) polymer chemicals business unit will build a multimillion-dollar' organic peroxide catalysts plant at Pasadena, TX. Akzo says the move reflects growing demand for the materials, used as initiators in a range of polymerization reactions and for modifying polypropylene, curing unsaturated polyester resins, and crosslinking synthetic rubber. Output from the plant will include dialkyl peroxides, peroxyketals, specialty polyesters - tert-butyl, tert-amyl and trimethylpentyl products - and hydroperoxides; a significant portion of the output will be used to produce materials Akzo currently imports from Europe. Construction will begin in first-quarter 1993, with completion expected by fourth-quarter 1994. Akzo is the world's largest producer of organic peroxides but is in second place beind Elf Atochem North America (Philadelphia) in the US market. Elf expects to start construction of its grassroots 20 million lbs/year-plus organic peroxides plant at Crosby, TX, during the first quarter, also for 1994 completion (CW, June 12, 1991, p.28); that unit has been held up by permitting difficulties. In refinery fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts, overcapacity has recently pushed Katalistiks and Crosfield out of the market. Despite that, Japan's Catalysts Chemical Industries Co (CCIC) - the only producer in the Far East, apart from some Chinese output - has announced a plan to spend $40 million to expand capacity at its Wakamatsu plant. Initially, CCIC will expand capacity by 30%, to 21,000 m.t./year by March, and plans to boost it to 40,000 m.t./year by 1995. However, CCIC remains a small player in the FCC market, which is dominated by W.R. Grace, with Akzo and Engelhard vying for the number two spot.

Wood, A.

1993-01-20

4

Generation and transmission expansion planning for renewable energy integration  

SciTech Connect

In recent years the expansion planning problem has become increasingly complex. As expansion planning (sometimes called composite or integrated resource planning) is a non-linear and non-convex optimization problem, researchers have traditionally focused on approximate models of power flows to solve the problem. The problem has also been split into generation expansion planning (GEP) and transmission network expansion planning (TNEP) to improve computational tractability. Until recently these approximations have produced results that are straight-forward to combine and adapt to the more complex and complete problem. However, the power grid is evolving towards a state where the adaptations are no longer easy (e.g. large amounts of limited control, renewable generation, comparable generation and transmission construction costs) and necessitates new approaches. Recent work on deterministic Discrepancy Bounded Local Search (DBLS) has shown it to be quite effective in addressing the TNEP. In this paper, we propose a generalization of DBLS to handle simultaneous generation and transmission planning.

Bent, Russell W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berscheid, Alan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Toole, G. Loren [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-11-30

5

Planning ALL Aspects of Program Expansion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the emotional costs for day care center directors who expand their business by opening another center. Notes problems for staff, families, and directors on an emotional level that resulted from the expansion. (JPB)

Catapano, Susan

1999-01-01

6

PLANNING MODELS FOR URBAN WATER SUPPLY EXPANSION. VOLUME 1. PLANNING FOR THE EXPANSION OF REGIONAL WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

A three-volume report was developed relative to the modelling of investment strategies for regional water supply planning. Volume 1 is the study of capacity expansion over time. Models to aid decision making for the deterministic case are presented, and a planning process under u...

7

IRP methods for Environmental Impact Statements of utility expansion plans  

SciTech Connect

Most large electric utilities and a growing number of gas utilities in the United States are using a planning method -- Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) - which incorporates demand-side management (DSM) programs whenever the marginal cost of the DSM programs are lower than the marginal cost of supply-side expansion options. Argonne National Laboratory has applied the IRP method in its socio-economic analysis of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) of power marketing for a system of electric utilities in the mountain and western regions of the United States. Applying the IRP methods provides valuable information to the participants in an EIS process involving capacity expansion of an electric or gas utility. The major challenges of applying the IRP method within an EIS are the time consuming and costly task of developing a least cost expansion path for each altemative, the detailed quantification of environmental damages associated with capacity expansion, and the explicit inclusion of societal-impacts to the region.

Cavallo, J.D.; Hemphill, R.C.; Veselka, T.D.

1992-01-01

8

IRP methods for Environmental Impact Statements of utility expansion plans  

SciTech Connect

Most large electric utilities and a growing number of gas utilities in the United States are using a planning method -- Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) - which incorporates demand-side management (DSM) programs whenever the marginal cost of the DSM programs are lower than the marginal cost of supply-side expansion options. Argonne National Laboratory has applied the IRP method in its socio-economic analysis of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) of power marketing for a system of electric utilities in the mountain and western regions of the United States. Applying the IRP methods provides valuable information to the participants in an EIS process involving capacity expansion of an electric or gas utility. The major challenges of applying the IRP method within an EIS are the time consuming and costly task of developing a least cost expansion path for each altemative, the detailed quantification of environmental damages associated with capacity expansion, and the explicit inclusion of societal-impacts to the region.

Cavallo, J.D.; Hemphill, R.C.; Veselka, T.D.

1992-10-01

9

Powering the people: India's capacity expansion plans  

SciTech Connect

India has become a global business power even though hundreds of millions of its citizens still live in poverty. To sustain economic growth and lift its people out of poverty, India needs more and more reliable power. Details of government plans for achieving those goals demonstrate that pragmatism may be in shorter supply than ambition and political will. 1 ref., 12 figs., 1 tab.

Patel, S.

2009-05-15

10

Grid Expansion Planning for Carbon Emissions Reduction  

SciTech Connect

There is a need to upgrade and expand electric power transmission and generation to meet specified renewable energy targets and simultaneously minimize construction cost and carbon emissions. Some challenges are: (1) Renewable energy sources have variable production capacity; (2) Deficiency of transmission capacity at desirable renewable generation locations; (3) Need to incorporate models of operations into planning studies; and (4) Prevent undesirable operational outcomes such as negative dispatch prices or curtailment of carbon neutral generation.

Bent, Russell W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Toole, Gasper L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-18

11

TRANSMISSION EXPANSION PLANNING WITH RE-DESIGN A Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure  

E-print Network

TRANSMISSION EXPANSION PLANNING WITH RE-DESIGN A Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure Rosa: TRANSMISSION EXPANSION PLANNING: NETWORK DESIGN: GRASP. Abstract: Transmission expansion planning with re-design has been recently proposed in the literature to improve on the classical transmission expansion

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

12

Generation expansion planning in a competitive electric power industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work investigates the application of non-cooperative game theory to generation expansion planning (GEP) in a competitive electricity industry. We identify fundamental ways competition changes the nature of GEP, review different models of oligopoly behavior, and argue that assumptions of the Cournot model are compatible with GEP. Applying Cournot theory of oligopoly behavior, we formulate a GEP model that may characterize expansion in the new competitive regime, particularly in pool-dominated generation supply industries. Our formulation incorporates multiple markets and is patterned after the basic design of the California ISO/PX system. Applying the model, we conduct numerical experiments on a test system, and analyze generation investment and market participation decisions of different candidate expansion units that vary in costs and forced outage rates. Simulations are performed under different scenarios of competition. In particular, we observe higher probabilistic measures of reliability from Cournot expansion compared to the expansion plan of a monopoly with an equivalent minimum reserve margin requirement. We prove several results for a subclass of problems encompassed by our formulation. In particular, we prove that under certain conditions Cournot competition leads to greater total capacity expansion than a situation in which generators collude in a cartel. We also show that industry output after introduction of new technology is no less than monopoly output. So a monopoly may lack sufficient incentive to introduce new technologies. Finally, we discuss the association between capacity payments and the issue of pricing reliability. And we derive a formula for computing ideal capacity payment rates by extending the Value of Service Reliability technique.

Chuang, Angela Shu-Woan

13

West Elk Mine expansion and degasification plans approved  

SciTech Connect

West Elk Mine recently applied for and received approval for an expansion of its mining and methane drainage operation sin Gunnison County, Colorado. The deliberation over this planned expansion among several federal agencies and other groups received considerable local press coverage. One of the key issues focused on the fate of the additional; methane that would be emitted from the mine's degasification system. This article summarizes this process, which highlights the numerous barriers that still affect many coal mine methane (CMM) project opportunities is the United states. As the debate over climate change legislation moves forward in the US Congress and awareness of greenhouse gas emissions increases around the country, lawmakers, regulators, and non-governmental organizations will continue to focus more attention on CMM reduction opportunities,.

NONE

2008-04-01

14

Are recent changes in sediment manganese sequestration in the euxinic basins of the Baltic Sea linked to the expansion of hypoxia?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manganese (Mn) enrichments in sedimentary deposits are often used as an indicator of redox changes in the overlying waters (Calvert and Pedersen, 1993). In the Baltic Sea, layers of Mn-carbonates are believed to form after inflows of oxygenated waters into the deep anoxic basins and are, therefore, used as proxies for short term oxygenation events. In the present study we investigate Mn cycling in the Baltic Sea basin. We present pore water and sediment data of well-dated sediment cores from 8 sites capturing the full range of redox conditions. Our results show no major enrichments of Mn in the oxic and hypoxic sediments. These areas rather function as a source of dissolved Mn, with fluxes of Mn from the sediments into the bottom water. Nevertheless, compared to the existing reservoir of Mn in the anoxic water column the absolute flux of Mn from the oxic sites is small. In the deep basins, Mn is sequestered by two principal mechanisms. In the Gotland Deep, Mn-oxides form with inflows of oxygenated North Sea water and are subsequently transferred into Mn-carbonates as soon as the system turns anoxic again. In contrast, precipitation of Mn minerals in the Landsort Deep is decoupled from oxygenation events. Mn-carbonates and Mn-sulfides form due to the presence of a major source of dissolved Mn from the sediments below, and high input of organic matter from the water column, whose breakdown generates dissolved inorganic carbon and sulfide. Since approx. 1995, an intensification and expansion of hypoxia is recorded in observational data from the water column as well as in proxies (e.g. Mo content) in the sediments. This resulted in major changes in the burial of Mn. While Mn sequestration still continues in the Landsort Deep, this does not hold for the Gotland Basin. Here, Mn burial has decreased dramatically despite ongoing inflow events. We assume that the higher present-day sulfide concentration of the bottom waters leads to a faster reduction of the Mn-oxides precipitated during inflow events, and hence release of Mn2+ to the water column, inhibiting transformation to Mn-carbonates. Our results have important implications for the use of Mn carbonate enrichments as a redox proxy in marine systems. Calvert, S., Pedersen, T., 1993. Geochemistry of recent oxic and anoxic marine sediments: Implications for the geological record. Mar Geol, 113(1): 67-88.

Lenz, C.; Jilbert, T.; Conley, D. J.; Wolthers, M.; Slomp, C. P.

2013-12-01

15

Randomized discrepancy bounded local search for transmission expansion planning  

SciTech Connect

In recent years the transmission network expansion planning problem (TNEP) has become increasingly complex. As the TNEP is a non-linear and non-convex optimization problem, researchers have traditionally focused on approximate models of power flows to solve the TNEP. Existing approaches are often tightly coupled to the approximation choice. Until recently these approximations have produced results that are straight-forward to adapt to the more complex (real) problem. However, the power grid is evolving towards a state where the adaptations are no longer easy (e.g. large amounts of limited control, renewable generation) and necessitates new approaches. Recent work on deterministic Discrepancy Bounded Local Search (DBLS) has shown it to be quite effective in addressing this question. DBLS encapsulates the complexity of power flow modeling in a black box that may be queried for information about the quality of proposed expansions. In this paper, we propose a randomization strategy that builds on DBLS and dramatically increases the computational efficiency of the algorithm.

Bent, Russell W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daniel, William B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-11-23

16

Impact of unit commitment constraints on generation expansion planning with renewables  

E-print Network

Growing use of renewables pushes thermal generators against operating constraints - e.g. ramping, minimum output, and operating reserves - that are traditionally ignored in expansion planning models. We show how including ...

Palmintier, Bryan Stephen

17

Northern E-Dimension Action Plan: E-Skills Study in the Baltic Countries and Northwest Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study is the first attempt to systematically gather information about what is happen- ing in research and education in the ICT field in t he Baltic countries and Northwest Russia, so it is mostly a general investigation and fact-finding project, leading to possible future research and activities in the field. The study will estimate how well the supply of

Eugenijus Kurilovas

2003-01-01

18

Popular but Troubled, Historically Black Medical School Plans Ambitious Expansion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two years ago, the only historically black medical school west of the Mississippi faced a grim prognosis after county officials pulled the plug on its relationship with a troubled hospital. Today the medical school that has reportedly trained about a third of Los Angeles County's black and Hispanic physicians is back on its feet and planning an…

Mangan, Katherine

2009-01-01

19

Stochastic and Risk Management Models and Solution Algorithm for Natural Gas Transmission Network Expansion and LNG Terminal Location Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the increasing demands for natural gas, it is playing a more important role in the energy system, and its system expansion\\u000a planning is drawing more attentions. In this paper, we propose expansion planning models which include both natural gas transmission\\u000a network expansion and LNG (Liquified Natural Gas) terminals location planning. These models take into account the uncertainties\\u000a of

Qipeng P. Zheng; Panos M. Pardalos

2010-01-01

20

Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity -  

E-print Network

Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity - conservation genetic risks associated with compensatory releases of salmon in the Baltic Sea Havs- och vattenmyndighetens rapport 2012:18 #12;Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity - conservation genetic risks associated with compensatory releases

21

A planning model for expansion and stagnation of higher education in iran.  

PubMed

Iran universities of medical sciences have experienced a period of expansion in past decades. Now previous concerns are alleviated, and the former quantity-based policy has given a way to a more quality-seeking attitude. In this study, we developed a planning model for expansion and stagnation of higher education in Iranian universities of medical sciences based on workforce requirements of the country and capabilities of the universities. The plan provided an objectively documented base for the authorities to decide on developmental limits of universities. We devised guidelines for justifying existing programs within universities, assigning new undergraduate and postgraduate programs to universities, voluntary request of universities to cancel a program, and their request to offer new programs for the first time in the country, based on three factors: university educational status, each university-program educational status and the nation's need for each discipline. Related councils of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education legitimately approved the plan and guidelines. In this article, we introduced the methodology of developing the plan, described it and its related guidelines and discussed challenges and limitations we encountered in design and application phases. PMID:25369012

Mohammadi, Aeen; Mojtahedzadeh, Rita; Saadat, Soheil; Karimi, Abdollah; Keshavarz Valian, Hossein

2014-10-01

22

Baltic Ecosystem Adaptive Management  

E-print Network

1 Baltic Ecosystem Adaptive Management �stersjöforskning för en hållbar förvaltning av havet #12;2 Baltic Ecosystem Adaptive Management, BEAM, är ett tvärvetenskapligt forskningsprogram med målet att vårt unika innanhav beror mycket på hur vi väljer att vårda det. Baltic Ecosystem Adaptive Management

23

VI Symposium of Specialists in Electric Operational and Expansion Planning -VI SEPOPE, May 24-29,1998, Bahia, Brazil POWER SYSTEM PLANNING IN THE SOUTH AMERICA  

E-print Network

in indicative planning and how the private sector is defining power system expansion. Challenges in planning services such as energy, communications, transport, water, etc., central to the functioning of society infrastructure, occasionally with a limited contribution from the private sector. That was the case

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

24

Planning for the impacts of Hadley cell expansion on water supply in Victoria, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

South-eastern Australia has recently experienced the worst drought of the instrumental record; the so-called Millennium drought (1997-2009). This drought was primarily a cool season phenomenon, with large reductions in rainfall observed during the Austral winter (April to October). This reduction in winter rainfall, combined with an absence of wet years and very wet months led to a reduction in streamflow across the region far greater than would be anticipated based on the 12 percent reduction in mean annual rainfall alone. These conditions have proven particularly challenging for water management and planning processes. Our research has linked the extent, duration and severity of this drought to the ongoing observed expansion of the Southern Hemisphere Hadley cell of 0.5 degrees per decade. This expansion has intensified the sub-tropical ridge over southern Australia, pushing cool season mid-latitude storm tracks further south, leading to a reduction in winter rainfall over the region. Modelling has shown that the expansion of the Hadley cell can only be reproduced if anthropogenic influences (greenhouse gases, aerosols and stratospheric ozone) are included in the models, thus providing evidence that the Millennium drought was at least partly attributable to climate change. Climate model projections also indicate that the expansion of the Hadley Cell is likely to continue. This means that the traditional winter "filling season" for water supply systems in Victoria may be less reliable in the future. However, in the light of the expansion of tropical influences, the cool season rainfall deficit may be offset to some extent by increased rainfall in the warmer months of the year. Given that the Millennium drought has been shown to be at least partly attributable to climate change and the considerable uncertainties associated with projected future changes, water planning and management processes in Victoria have been modified to be more robust, adaptive and flexible. Short-term operational decisions are typically based on consideration of a range of future inflow scenarios which are informed not only by seasonal climate forecasts but also by the possibility of a return to the conditions experienced during the Millennium drought (that is, a continuing cool season rainfall deficit). In terms of longer term planning, water corporations are required to develop Water Supply-Demand Strategies with a view to balancing supply and demand over the next 50 years. In developing these strategies, water corporations have been asked to consider a range of plausible water availability futures, including climate change projections, as well as the possibility of an immediate return to the conditions experienced during the Millennium drought. These Water Supply-Demand Strategies include a range of options for reducing demand and augmenting supplies both on a short-term and long-term basis, including further investments in large scale water infrastructure. Improved understanding of the links between changes in the climate system and their impacts on water availability will allow refinement of the range of plausible future flow scenarios and thus greater confidence in the decision making process.

Post, David; Timbal, Bertrand; Chiew, Francis; Hendon, Harry; Moran, Rae

2013-04-01

25

Review of Jamaica Public Service Company, Ltd. least-cost expansion plan.  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory has been asked to review the least-cost expansion plan (LCEP) of the Jamaica Public Service Company, Ltd. (JPSCo). The material that has been initially provided to Argonne included: (1) An electronic copy of the data and results from JPSCo's running the WASP electric system expansion planning model, (2) Approximately 20 pages of a document 'JPSCo Generation Expansion Plan', marked 'DRAFT 002', date unknown, and (3) The report 'JPSCo Least Cost Generation Expansion Plans, (1999-2009)', January 1999. It was noticed that the 20 pages from the 'DRAFT 002' document were different from the January 1999 report. An explanation was provided to Argonne that the excerpt was from an earlier draft and that the review should focus on the January 1999 report. Further, the electronic copy of the WASP case did not correspond to either the January 1999 report or to the 20-page excerpt. Again, the reason for these discrepancies was that the WASP case provided to Argonne was an earlier case and not the final one that was presented in the report. Based on the review of the available material, Argonne experts have prepared and submitted to the National Investment Bank of Jamaica (NIBJ) a preliminary draft report containing the initial findings, comments, questions and observations. As many of the comments and questions raised in the preliminary review needed to be discussed with the appropriate staff of JPSCo and other Jamaican experts, a 3-day mission to Jamaica was carried out by one Argonne expert (V. Koritarov) in the period July 20-23, 1999. Besides JPSCo experts, the discussions and the review of the LCEP during the mission included several experts from NIBJ, Ministry of Energy, and the Petroleum Corporation of Jamaica. Mr. Koritarov also worked with the JPSCo technical staff to reconstruct the WASP base case that was used as a basis for the January 1999 report. The first step was to verify that the results obtained after the resimulation of this case were identical to those presented in the January 1999 report. Then, in the next step, the Argonne expert and JPSCo team reviewed this case in detail and performed certain modifications and improvements of data where necessary. These modifications and data adjustments resulted in a new base case that served as a basis for further review and for the sensitivity analyses. Several sensitivity analyses were performed together with JPSCo experts and the results were discussed with the JPSCo management and other Jamaican experts at the end of the mission. Additional sensitivity analyses, as well as the cases for high and low load forecasts, were conducted by Mr. Koritarov after returning from Jamaica. The main findings of the review and issues that have been discussed with the Jamaican team can be summarized.

Koritarov, V.; Buehring, W.; Cirillo, R.; Decision and Information Sciences

2008-02-28

26

Least cost generation expansion planning for a regional electricity board in India considering green house gas mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal power plants dominate electric power generation in India, which are the major contributor to green house gases (GHGs). Carbon dioxide is by far the most important greenhouse gas that causes global warming. This study offers valuable insight on the cost-effective efficient technologies available for GHG mitigation that need to be adopted in the power generation expansion plan. GHG emission

S. C. Srivastava; A. K. Srivastava; U. K. Rout; D. Paul; P. Gupta; R. M. Shrestha

2000-01-01

27

Optimal generation expansion planning strategy for the utility with IPPs participation and considering Green House gas mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal power plants dominate electric power generation in Taiwan, which are also the major contributor to green house gases (GHG). CO2 is the most important greenhouse gas that cause global warming and sea-level rising. This paper pierces the relationship between GHG reduction and power generation expansion planning (GEP) problem for the utility. Refined immune algorithm (RIA) is presented to determine

Tung-Sheng Zhan; Shi-Jaw Chen; Ming-Tong Tsay; Meei-Song Kang; Jong-Ian Tsai; Bo-Xiang Liao

2009-01-01

28

Reduction of Baltic Sea nutrient inputs and allocation of abatement costs within the Baltic Sea catchment.  

PubMed

The Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) requires tools to simulate effects and costs of various nutrient abatement strategies. Hierarchically connected databases and models of the entire catchment have been created to allow decision makers to view scenarios via the decision support system NEST. Increased intensity in agriculture in transient countries would result in increased nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea, particularly from Poland, the Baltic States, and Russia. Nutrient retentions are high, which means that the nutrient reduction goals of 135 000 tons N and 15 000 tons P, as formulated in the BSAP from 2007, correspond to a reduction in nutrient loadings to watersheds by 675 000 tons N and 158 000 tons P. A cost-minimization model was used to allocate nutrient reductions to measures and countries where the costs for reducing loads are low. The minimum annual cost to meet BSAP basin targets is estimated to 4.7 billion Euro. PMID:24414801

Wulff, Fredrik; Humborg, Christoph; Andersen, Hans Estrup; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte; Czajkowski, Miko?aj; Elofsson, Katarina; Fonnesbech-Wulff, Anders; Hasler, Berit; Hong, Bongghi; Jansons, Viesturs; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Smart, James C R; Smedberg, Erik; Stålnacke, Per; Swaney, Dennis P; Thodsen, Hans; Was, Adam; Zylicz, Tomasz

2014-02-01

29

Incorporation and impact of a wind energy conversion system in generation expansion planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computer model is used to simulate the operation of zero, 75 MW, and 150 MW wind energy conversion systems (WECS) in conjunction with other utility generating sources over a 30 year period. The wind turbines are modelled as multistate processes with an output proportional to wind variability. Cost analyses are reported for each year of simulated operation, and emphasis is placed on optimal generator expansion plans and capacity mix for displacement, fuel savings, and the impact of WECS on capital and operating costs. Attention is also given to the system loss of load probability (LOLP) and capacity reserve margin, along with cash flow and interest during construction; costs of alternatives to WECS (coal, nuclear, hydro, etc.) were also considered. Results include: the total present worth of the 75 MW WECS was greater than that for the 150 MW WECS; the LOLP increases with the 75 MW system and decreases for the 150 MW WECS; and the 75 MW WECS replaces 16.7 GW of energy. The program is judged to be effective in predicting negative energy demand for utilities by use of WECS.

Schenk, K. F.; Chan, S.

1981-12-01

30

Implementation plan for the environmental impact statement on the Strategic Petroleum Reserve expansion  

SciTech Connect

During 1990, Congress enacted two bills requiring the Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake planning activities associated with the expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) from 750 million barrels to one billion barrels: the Energy Policy and Conservation Act Amendments of 1990 (P.L. 101-383) and the Department of Interior and Related Agencies` Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 1991 (P.L. 101-512). DOE has determined that the development and operation of additional SPR crude oil storage facilities would be a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, and, therefore, an environmental impact statement (EIS) will be prepared by DOE to assess the environmental impacts of the proposed action and alternatives. The EIS will be prepared in accordance with Section 102(2)(c) of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), as stipulated in regulations promulgated by the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) (40 CFR Parts 1500-1508, November 1978) and DOE`s implementing guidelines (45 FR 20694, March 28, 1980). This report is a discussion of the implementation of the EIS.

Not Available

1992-03-01

31

Baltic National Bibliography  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an overview of national bibliography in the Baltic states. Its purpose is to present the main lines of development and discuss the major publications that contributed to and currently make up the national bibliographies, current and retrospective, of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. With the growth of printed material from the sixteenth century, there were early efforts by

Janice T. Pilch

2002-01-01

32

Technology choice in a least-cost expansion analysis framework: The impact of gas prices, planning horizon, and system characteristics  

SciTech Connect

The current outlook for new capacity addition by electric utilities is uncertain and tenuous. Regardless of the amount, it is inevitable that new capacity will be needed in the 1990s and beyond. The fundamental question about the addition capacity requirements centers on technology choice and the factors influencing the decision process. We examined technology choices in 10 representative power pools with a dynamic optimization expansion model, the Wien Automatic System Planning (WASP) Package. These 10 power pools were determined to be representative on the basis of a cluster analysis conducted on all 26 power pools in the United States. A least-cost expansion plan was determined for each power pool with three candidate technologies--natural gas combustion turbine (CT), natural gas combined cycle (NGCC), and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC)--three alternative gas price tracks, and two planning horizons between the years 1995 and 2020. This paper summarizes the analysis framework and presents results for Power Pool 1, the American Electric Power (AEP) service territory. 7 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Guziel, K.A.; South, D.W.

1990-01-01

33

An expansion plan for the 60 Hz power distribution system at KSC: LC-39 substations load allocation plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The increasing load density in the LC-39 area of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) can be met by either modifying the existing substation and increasing its capacity or by planning an additional new substation. Evidence that the later approach is more economical, enhances the system reliability, and would produce more satisfactory performance indices is provided. Network theory is the basis for the optimal location determination of the proposed substation. A load reallocation plan which minimizes investment cost and power losses and meets other desirable system features is drafted. The report should be useful to the system designer and can be a useful guideline for future facility planners.

Kalu, Alex

1990-01-01

34

Incremental Clustering and Expansion for Faster Optimal Planning in Dec-POMDPs  

E-print Network

This article presents the state-of-the-art in optimal solution methods for decentralized partially observable Markov decision processes (Dec-POMDPs), which are general models for collaborative multiagent planning under ...

Amato, Chris

35

Technology Options in West Africa's Electricity Generation Expansion Planning for 2003 to 2013  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The ECOWAS Secretariat has pioneered plans for regional electricity transmission line interconnections. The preliminary WAPP (West Africa Power Pool) long-term models have demonstrated that significant economic gains, from free trade, are to be made with the construction of these strategic transmission lines. Progress in the development of the WAPP is now shifting attention to also focus on the need

F. T. Sparrow; Brian H. Bowen; Tarik Aouam

36

State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) Environmental Checklist Form 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds Closure Plan. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds Closure Plan (Revision 1) consists of a Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application and a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure Plan. An explanation of the Part A submitted with this document is provided at the beginning of the Part A Section. The closure plan consists of nine chapters and five appendices. The 216-B-3 Pond System consists of a series of four earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds and the 216-B-3-3 Ditch that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. These four ponds, collectively. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the 216-B-3-3 Ditch. Water discharged to the 216-8-3-3 Ditch flows directly into the 216-B-3 Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to B Pond and the 216-B-3-3 Ditch contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the nonradioactive dangerous portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA. Mixed waste also may be considered a hazardous substance under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) when considering remediation of waste sites.

Not Available

1993-12-01

37

Riochemical and physiological effects in farmed Baltic salmon fed lipids containing xenobiotics extracted from Baltic herring  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a 2-year experimental period female baltic salmon (Salmo salar) were fed pellets impregnated with oil extracted from Baltic herring (Clupea harengus). This extract contained lipid-soluble xenobiotics present in Baltic herring, which constitute a major part of the natural diet of Baltic salmon. The fish were examined at the time of ovulation in November each year. After 2 years of

Tommy Andersson; Bengt-Erik Bengtsson; Per-Anders Bergqvist; Torleif Eriksson; Åke Larsson; Leif Norrgren

1993-01-01

38

Nitrogen surface water retention in the Baltic Sea drainage basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we estimate the surface water retention of nitrogen (N) in all the 117 drainage basins to the Baltic Sea with the use of a statistical model (MESAW) for source apportionment of riverine loads of pollutants. Our results show that the MESAW model was able to estimate the N load at the river mouth of 88 Baltic Sea rivers, for which we had observed data, with a sufficient degree of precision and accuracy. The estimated retention parameters were also statistically significant. Our results show that around 380 000 t of N are annually retained in surface waters draining to the Baltic Sea. The total annual riverine load from the 117 basins to the Baltic Sea was estimated to 570 000 t of N, giving a total surface water N retention of around 40%. In terms of absolute retention values, three major river basins account for 50% of the total retention in the 117 basins; i.e. around 104 000 t of N is retained in Neva, 55 000 t in Vistula and 32 000 t in Oder. The largest retention was found in river basins with a high percentage of lakes as indicated by a strong relationship between N retention (%) and share of lake area in the river drainage areas. For example in Göta älv, we estimated a total N retention of 72%, whereof 67% of the retention occurred in the lakes of that drainage area (Lake Vänern primarily). The obtained results will hopefully enable the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM) to refine the nutrient load targets in the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP), as well as to better identify cost-efficient measures to reduce nutrient loadings to the Baltic Sea.

Stålnacke, P.; Pengerud, A.; Vassiljev, A.; Smedberg, E.; Mörth, C.-M.; Hägg, H. E.; Humborg, C.; Andersen, H. E.

2014-09-01

39

Deoxygenation of the Baltic Sea during the last century  

PubMed Central

Deoxygenation is a global problem in coastal and open regions of the ocean, and has led to expanding areas of oxygen minimum zones and coastal hypoxia. The recent expansion of hypoxia in coastal ecosystems has been primarily attributed to global warming and enhanced nutrient input from land and atmosphere. The largest anthropogenically induced hypoxic area in the world is the Baltic Sea, where the relative importance of physical forcing versus eutrophication is still debated. We have analyzed water column oxygen and salinity profiles to reconstruct oxygen and stratification conditions over the last 115 y and compare the influence of both climate and anthropogenic forcing on hypoxia. We report a 10-fold increase of hypoxia in the Baltic Sea and show that this is primarily linked to increased inputs of nutrients from land, although increased respiration from higher temperatures during the last two decades has contributed to worsening oxygen conditions. Although shifts in climate and physical circulation are important factors modulating the extent of hypoxia, further nutrient reductions in the Baltic Sea will be necessary to reduce the ecosystems impacts of deoxygenation. PMID:24706804

Carstensen, Jacob; Andersen, Jesper H.; Gustafsson, Bo G.; Conley, Daniel J.

2014-01-01

40

The Neolithic of the eastern Baltic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This survey of the Baltic Neolithic, from Vistula to the Gulf of Finland, highlights the results of research during the last 30 years. The primary Baltic Neolithic is represented by two indigenous cultures, Narva and Nemunas. Their hunting, fishing, and gathering subsistence strategies gradually expanded to include domesticated plants and animals. The Comb-and-Pit Ornamented Pottery, Globular Amphora, Corded Ware, Bay

Rimut? Rimantien?

1992-01-01

41

Scandinavia and the Baltic Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera were combined to create this cloud-free natural-color mosaic of Scandinavia and the Baltic region. The image extends from 64oN, 0oE in the northwest to 56oN, 32oE in the southeast, and has been draped over a shaded relief Digital Terrain Elevation Model from the United States Geological Survey. It is displayed in an equidistant conic projection.

The image area includes southern Norway, Sweden and Finland, northern Denmark, Estonia, Latvia and part of western Russia. Norway's rugged western coastline is deeply indented by fjords. Elongated lakes, formed by glacial erosion and deposition, are characteristic of the entire region, and are particularly dense throughout Finland and Sweden. Numerous islands are present, and a virtually continuous chain of small, scattered islands occur between Sweden and Finland. The northern and eastern waters of the Baltic Sea are almost fresh, since the Baltic receives saltwater only from the narrow and shallow sounds between Denmark and Sweden that connect it to the North Sea. Most of the major cities within the image area are coastal, including St. Petersburg, Stockholm, Helsinki, Riga, and Oslo.

The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2003-01-01

42

Antiretroviral Therapy Program Expansion in Zamb?zia Province, Mozambique: Geospatial Mapping of Community-Based and Health Facility Data for Integrated Health Planning  

PubMed Central

Objective To generate maps reflecting the intersection of community-based Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) delivery points with facility-based HIV program demographic information collected at the district level in three districts (Ile, Maganja da Costa and Chinde) of Zambézia Province, Mozambique; in order to guide planning decisions about antiretroviral therapy (ART) program expansion. Methods Program information was harvested from two separate open source databases maintained for community-based VCT and facility-based HIV care and treatment monitoring from October 2011 to September 2012. Maps were created using ArcGIS 10.1. Travel distance by foot within a 10 km radius is generally considered a tolerable distance in Mozambique for purposes of adherence and retention planning. Results Community-based VCT activities in each of three districts were clustered within geographic proximity to clinics providing ART, within communities with easier transportation access, and/or near the homes of VCT volunteers. Community HIV testing results yielded HIV seropositivity rates in some regions that were incongruent with the Ministry of Health’s estimates for the entire district (2–13% vs. 2% in Ile, 2–54% vs. 11.5% in Maganja da Costa, and 23–43% vs. 14.4% in Chinde). All 3 districts revealed gaps in regional disbursement of community-based VCT activities as well as access to clinics offering ART. Conclusions Use of geospatial mapping in the context of program planning and monitoring allowed for characterizing the location and size of each district’s HIV population. In extremely resource limited and logistically challenging settings, maps are valuable tools for informing evidence-based decisions in planning program expansion, including ART. PMID:25329169

Moon, Troy D.; Ossemane, Ezequiel B.; Green, Ann F.; Ndatimana, Elisee; Jose, Eurico; Buehler, Charlotte P.; Wester, C. William; Vermund, Sten H.; Olupona, Omo

2014-01-01

43

Dissolved silver in the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

The increased use of silver as a biocide in nanoparticle formulations has heightened concern on possible environmental implications owing to its toxicity. There is however very little data on the concentration levels of silver in marine and freshwaters. Here, I report data on dissolved (<0.4 ?m filter) silver concentration in the surface waters of the Baltic Sea, the first such data reported for a European coastal water body. Levels of dissolved silver in the Baltic are comparable to those reported for other American estuarine waters and range from non-detectable in the open Baltic Sea Proper (<1 pM) to 9.4 pM (1 ng/L) in the Stockholm Archipelago, with a mean of 2.8 pM (0.2 ng/L). Inputs from wastewater treatment are clearly discernable and might constitute the main source of silver to the Stockholm Archipelago and possibly the Baltic Sea Proper. PMID:21075364

Ndungu, Kuria

2011-01-01

44

The Baltic?a sea of invaders  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are about 100 nonindigenous species recorded in the Baltic Sea. Invasive species have resulted in major changes in nearshore ecosystems, especially in coastal lagoons and inlets that can be identified as \\

Erkki Leppäkoski; Stephan Gollasch; Piotr Gruszka; Henn Ojaveer; Sergej Olenin; Vadim Panov

2002-01-01

45

Call for Papers First International Baltic  

E-print Network

Call for Papers First International Baltic Conference on Network Security & Forensics (NeSeFo 2012 for network forensics - Methodologies for digital forensics - Forensics of mobile devices - Forensic software tools and applications - Attack strategy analysis & modelling - Forensic-enabled architectures

Rostock, Universität

46

A multivariate Baltic Sea environmental index.  

PubMed

Since 2001/2002, the correlation between North Atlantic Oscillation index and biological variables in the North Sea and Baltic Sea fails, which might be addressed to a global climate regime shift. To understand inter-annual and inter-decadal variability in environmental variables, a new multivariate index for the Baltic Sea is developed and presented here. The multivariate Baltic Sea Environmental (BSE) index is defined as the 1st principal component score of four z-transformed time series: the Arctic Oscillation index, the salinity between 120 and 200 m in the Gotland Sea, the integrated river runoff of all rivers draining into the Baltic Sea, and the relative vorticity of geostrophic wind over the Baltic Sea area. A statistical downscaling technique has been applied to project different climate indices to the sea surface temperature in the Gotland, to the Landsort gauge, and the sea ice extent. The new BSE index shows a better performance than all other climate indices and is equivalent to the Chen index for physical properties. An application of the new index to zooplankton time series from the central Baltic Sea (Latvian EEZ) shows an excellent skill in potential predictability of environmental time series. PMID:22430308

Dippner, Joachim W; Kornilovs, Georgs; Junker, Karin

2012-11-01

47

international workshop on Reproductive Disorders in Baltic Vertebrate Wildlife  

E-print Network

The 1 st international workshop on Reproductive Disorders in Baltic Vertebrate Wildlife (BALTREP) What is the status of, and the threats to reproductive health in Baltic region wildlife? December 7- 8

48

Could Seals Prevent Cod Recovery in the Baltic Sea?  

PubMed Central

Fish populations are increasingly affected by multiple human and natural impacts including exploitation, eutrophication, habitat alteration and climate change. As a result many collapsed populations may have to recover in ecosystems whose structure and functioning differ from those in which they were formerly productive and supported sustainable fisheries. Here we investigate how a cod (Gadus morhua) population in the Baltic Sea whose biomass was reduced due to a combination of high exploitation and deteriorating environmental conditions might recover and develop in the 21st century in an ecosystem that likely will change due to both the already started recovery of a cod predator, the grey seal Halichoerus grypus, and projected climate impacts. Simulation modelling, assuming increased seal predation, fishing levels consistent with management plan targets and stable salinity, shows that the cod population could reach high levels well above the long-term average. Scenarios with similar seal and fishing levels but with 15% lower salinity suggest that the Baltic will still be able to support a cod population which can sustain a fishery, but biomass and yields will be lower. At present knowledge of cod and seal interactions, seal predation was found to have much lower impact on cod recovery, compared to the effects of exploitation and salinity. These results suggest that dual management objectives (recovery of both seal and cod populations) are realistic but success in achieving these goals will also depend on how climate change affects cod recruitment. PMID:21573062

MacKenzie, Brian R.; Eero, Margit; Ojaveer, Henn

2011-01-01

49

Expansion of discharge planning system in Japan: Comparison of results of a nationwide survey between 2001 and 2010  

PubMed Central

Background In response to the rapid aging of the population in Japan, many care systems have been created in quick succession. Establishment of discharge planning departments (DPDs) in hospitals is one of them. In this study, we compared the distribution and characteristics of DPDs and the characteristics of the hospitals that have DPDs between 2001 and 2010 in Japan. Methods We mailed a questionnaire about the characteristics of hospitals and existence and situation of DPDs to all general hospitals with 100 or more general beds in 2001 and in 2010. Results In 2001, of the 3,268 hospitals queried, 1,568 (48.0%) responded and 1,357 (41.5%) were selected for data analysis. In 2010, among 2,600 hospitals, 940 hospitals (36.1%) responded and 913 (35.1%) met the inclusion criteria. The percentage of hospitals with DPDs increased from 30% to more than 70% between the two surveys. More departments were under the direct control of the hospital director and more physicians participated in discharge planning activities in 2010 than in 2001. In 2001, private hospitals and hospitals with an affiliated institution or agency tended to have a DPD; however, the relationship between these factors and the presence of a DPD had disappeared in 2010. Larger hospitals and hospitals with more nurses per patient tended to have a DPD both in 2001 and 2010. Conclusions Since 2008, the establishment of a DPD has been directly connected to medical fees so hospital administrators might have recognized the DPD as a “necessary and paid for” department. Having a DPD was the majority’s policy in Japan, and we must recognize the importance of quality assurance through DPDs from now on, especially in small hospitals. PMID:22863296

2012-01-01

50

Status of Biodiversity in the Baltic Sea  

PubMed Central

The brackish Baltic Sea hosts species of various origins and environmental tolerances. These immigrated to the sea 10,000 to 15,000 years ago or have been introduced to the area over the relatively recent history of the system. The Baltic Sea has only one known endemic species. While information on some abiotic parameters extends back as long as five centuries and first quantitative snapshot data on biota (on exploited fish populations) originate generally from the same time, international coordination of research began in the early twentieth century. Continuous, annual Baltic Sea-wide long-term datasets on several organism groups (plankton, benthos, fish) are generally available since the mid-1950s. Based on a variety of available data sources (published papers, reports, grey literature, unpublished data), the Baltic Sea, incl. Kattegat, hosts altogether at least 6,065 species, including at least 1,700 phytoplankton, 442 phytobenthos, at least 1,199 zooplankton, at least 569 meiozoobenthos, 1,476 macrozoobenthos, at least 380 vertebrate parasites, about 200 fish, 3 seal, and 83 bird species. In general, but not in all organism groups, high sub-regional total species richness is associated with elevated salinity. Although in comparison with fully marine areas the Baltic Sea supports fewer species, several facets of the system's diversity remain underexplored to this day, such as micro-organisms, foraminiferans, meiobenthos and parasites. In the future, climate change and its interactions with multiple anthropogenic forcings are likely to have major impacts on the Baltic biodiversity. PMID:20824189

Ojaveer, Henn; Jaanus, Andres; MacKenzie, Brian R.; Martin, Georg; Olenin, Sergej; Radziejewska, Teresa; Telesh, Irena; Zettler, Michael L.; Zaiko, Anastasija

2010-01-01

51

Saving the baltic sea, the inland waters of its drainage basin, or both? spatial perspectives on reducing p-loads in eastern sweden.  

PubMed

Nutrient loads from inland sources to the Baltic Sea and adjacent inland waters need to be reduced in order to prevent eutrophication and meet requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP). We here investigate the spatial implications of using different possible criteria for reducing water-borne phosphorous (P) loads in the Northern Baltic Sea River Basin District (NBS-RBD) in Sweden. Results show that most catchments that have a high degree of internal eutrophication do not express high export of P from their outlets. Furthermore, due to lake retention, lake catchments with high P-loads per agricultural area (which is potentially of concern for the WFD) did not considerably contribute to the P-loading of the Baltic Sea. Spatially uniform water quality goals may, therefore, not be effective in NBS-RBD, emphasizing more generally the need for regional adaptation of WFD and BSAP-related goals. PMID:24799149

Andersson, Ingela; Jarsjö, Jerker; Petersson, Mona

2014-11-01

52

Changes in women's health in the Baltic republics of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia during 1970-1997.  

PubMed

The rapid political, economic and social changes occurring in the Baltic republics of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania fundamentally affect female health. Demographic trends, morbidity and mortality indicators point to a general decline in the status of women's health in the three Baltic republics since their independence from the Soviet Union. The transition period from socialist to market economy has clearly taken a toll in women's health. These have to be taken into consideration by health authorities in Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia as well as the European Union during the undergoing reforms being planned for healthcare systems in all EU countries in accession. PMID:10884549

Nadisauskiene, R J; Padaiga, Z

2000-07-01

53

Universal Expansion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a week-long activity for general to honors-level students that addresses Hubble's law and the universal expansion theory. Uses a discrepant event-type activity to lead up to the abstract principles of the universal expansion theory. (JRH)

McArdle, Heather K.

1997-01-01

54

Crisis management in the Baltic States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic and financial recession started in 2008 brought serious difficulties for every European country, although not to the same extent. The previous situation of countries plays a major role in the course of the crisis and crisis management. The three Baltic countries showed a relatively prominent economic growth after their accession to the European Union in 2004. Their performance

Júlia Mez?; Ágnes Bagi

2012-01-01

55

Changing Levels of Bilingualism across the Baltic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the cessation of Soviet hegemony the Baltic Republics have endured drastic changes in their political, economic, social and linguistic situation. The official reinstatement of the respective state languages has been a key feature in the establishment of their newly regained national independence. Consequently, large sections of the…

Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle; Ramoniene, Meilute

2004-01-01

56

A. VITAS, R. ERLICKYT BALTIC FORESTRY  

E-print Network

of the most comprehensively investigated tree species in Lithuania and Baltic countries by using dendroclima- tological techniques. This is determined by the prev- alence of pines in forests of Lithuania (about 36 have been in the focus from the first dendrochrono- logical research in Lithuania (Áèòâèíñêàñ 1974

57

Seal dynamics on the Swedish west coast: Scenarios of competition as Baltic grey seal intrude on harbour seal territory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kattegat-Skagerrak region on the Swedish west coast is home to an abundant harbour seal population (Phoca vitulina) and a small scattered grey seal population (Halichoerus grypus). In addition, grey seal from the growing population in the Baltic Sea frequently migrate into the Kattegat-Skagerrak. Harbour seals on the west coast of Sweden show relatively high population growth (approximately 9%) compared to the Baltic grey seal in ice-free habitats (approximately 6%), which, in theory, makes harbour seal the stronger competitor of the two in this region. However, incidents of disease in harbour seals that lower population growth are becoming more frequent. These epidemics are primarily caused by the Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV), and may reduce population size with up to 70%. This study models the average development under potential scenarios of competing harbour- and Baltic grey seal populations using Leslie matrices and the Lotka-Volterra model of inter-specific competition. The model is parameterised with previously published data, and resource overlap is incorporated through density dependent pup survival. Using numerical methods short- and long-term abundances are simulated under weak, moderate and strong competition and for different frequencies of PDV epidemics. Results show that the harbour seals are resilient to competition while exerting a negative effect on grey seal abundance under moderate to strong competition. Hence Baltic grey seal benefit from weaker levels of competition. Under moderate and strong competition grey seal abundance is a direct function of the PDV frequency as this reduces the competitive strength of harbour seals. Theoretically this means that higher frequencies of PDV or other pathogens epidemics could facilitate an expansion of Baltic grey seal into Kattegat-Skagerrak. Independent of interaction strength and frequency of epidemics the projected changes to abundances are slow (50-100 years), and even in exceedingly stable populations very long time-series of population size estimates are necessary to determine interaction strength. From a management perspective, a more permanent grey seal population in Kattegat-Skagerrak is likely to increase the predation pressure on overfished regional cod populations, and also lead to higher prevalence of the cod parasite Pseudoterranova decipiens, which uses grey seal as end host. From a population ecology perspective, abundant Baltic grey seal in this region would facilitate the mixing of grey seals from the North Atlantic and the Baltic Sea, with unknown implications for the genetically divergent Baltic population.

Svensson, Carl Johan

2012-07-01

58

RSPT Expansion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site provides tools to calcluate and display the Rayleigh-Schrodinger perturbation expansion series for quantum mechanical problems. Mathematica and/or Fortran programs are used to compute the expansion coefficents for the state energies. These are displayed numerically and graphically. Input parameters include the unperturbed state of interest, the scale of the perturbation, the order of the calculation, and precision of the calculation. Problems include several perturbations of the harmonic oscillator and the Hellman potential.

Sergeev, Alexey

2010-04-12

59

Ensemble modeling of the Baltic Sea ecosystem to provide scenarios for management.  

PubMed

We present a multi-model ensemble study for the Baltic Sea, and investigate the combined impact of changing climate, external nutrient supply, and fisheries on the marine ecosystem. The applied regional climate system model contains state-of-the-art component models for the atmosphere, sea ice, ocean, land surface, terrestrial and marine biogeochemistry, and marine food-web. Time-dependent scenario simulations for the period 1960-2100 are performed and uncertainties of future projections are estimated. In addition, reconstructions since 1850 are carried out to evaluate the models sensitivity to external stressors on long time scales. Information from scenario simulations are used to support decision-makers and stakeholders and to raise awareness of climate change, environmental problems, and possible abatement strategies among the general public using geovisualization. It is concluded that the study results are relevant for the Baltic Sea Action Plan of the Helsinki Commission. PMID:24414803

Meier, H E Markus; Andersson, Helén C; Arheimer, Berit; Donnelly, Chantal; Eilola, Kari; Gustafsson, Bo G; Kotwicki, Lech; Neset, Tina-Simone; Niiranen, Susa; Piwowarczyk, Joanna; Savchuk, Oleg P; Schenk, Frederik; W?s?awski, Jan Marcin; Zorita, Eduardo

2014-02-01

60

RCA Satcom system expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuing rapid increase in channel demands on the RCA Americom domestic satellite communications system has resulted in a planned system expansion both in the number of satellites and in the traffic capacity per satellite. Following a modest up-rating of the next several Delta-launched spacecraft, a larger second generation satellite design will be introduced in the mid-'80's that exploits the

W. Braun; J. E. Keigler

1980-01-01

61

Is it possible to identify Baltic and Heuglin's Gulls?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In 1998 Lars Jonsson wrote a groundbreakingpaper on the identification of Baltic Gull Larus fuscus fuscus. The paper was important because it presented new identification criteria for the separation of fuscus from graellsii and intermedius Lesser Black-backed Gulls. Around the same time, Visa Rauste produced a similarly important paper dealing with the separation of Baltic Gull from Heuglin’s Gull

Chris Gibbins

62

The ethno-demographic status of the Baltic States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essay examines historic and current ethnodemographic trends in spatial and cultural contexts in the Baltic States. Fifty years of Soviet rule, with deliberate policies to dilute the relative homogeneity of the Balts through ethnocide, in-migration, and political dominance by Moscow, has left tensions between citizens of the Baltic States and illegal immigrants, mostly Russians. Estonians, and Latvians, in particular,

Ilmárs Mežs; Edmunds Bunk?e; Kaspars Rasa

1994-01-01

63

Language Politics and Practices in the Baltic States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph provides an overview of the language situation in the three Baltic countries: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. It examines the recent change in language regimes that the Baltic States have deliberately brought about since the restitution of their independence, the nature of these changes, the opposition they have engendered and the…

Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle; Ozolins, Uldis; Ramoniene, Meilute; Rannut, Mart

2008-01-01

64

Roman Law in the Baltic Private Law Act -- the Triumph of Roman Law in the Baltic Sea Provinces?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A part of the Baltic countries belonged to the Holy Roman Empire from the 13 th century. Roman Law was recepted in Europe and legal education was usually based on sources of Roman Law; the Baltic countries which belonged to the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation also recepted Roman law, both as a part of canon and secular

Hesi Siimets-Gross

2007-01-01

65

Astaxanthin dynamics in Baltic Sea mesozooplankton communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The red pigment astaxanthin is a powerful antioxidant, which occurs in eggs and body tissues of crustaceans and fish. It is produced by crustaceans from algal carotenoids. In a two-year field study we assessed natural concentrations and dynamics of astaxanthin in mesozooplankton communities in the brackish Baltic Sea area. Astaxanthin levels varied between 0.37 and 36 ng L- 1. They increased with salinity along the Baltic Sea gradient and were linked to zooplankton biomass and phytoplankton community composition. Astaxanthin concentrations showed typical seasonal patterns and varied from 0.2 to 5.1 ng ind- 1, 0.2 to 3.4 ng (?g C)- 1 and 6 to 100 ng mm- 3. These concentrations were inversely related to water temperature and strongly linked to zooplankton community composition. Communities dominated by the calanoid copepods Temora longicornis, Pseudocalanus acuspes and Eurytemora spp. generally held the highest concentrations. With increasing cladocerans:copepods biomass ratios community astaxanthin concentrations decreased and with higher relative biomass of Acartia spp. the proportion of astaxanthin diesters decreased. Diesters prevailed in the cold season and they are thought to improve the antioxidant protection of storage lipids during winter. Climate change causes higher temperature and lower salinity in the Baltic Sea proper. This modifies zooplankton community composition, but not necessarily into a community with lower concentrations of astaxanthin since T. longicornis (high concentrations) has been reported to increase with higher temperature. However, decreased astaxanthin production in the ecosystem is expected if a basin-wide increase in the cladocerans:copepods biomass ratios would occur with further climate change.

Snoeijs, Pauline; Häubner, Norbert

2014-01-01

66

Alcohol consumption in the Baltic Republics  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVES—Premature mortality associated with alcohol intake is of particular concern in several countries of the former Soviet Union. This study explored self reported alcohol consumption (beer, wine, spirits) and its determinants in the Baltic Republics.?DESIGN—Cross sectional surveys conducted in 1997.?SETTINGS—Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.?PARTICIPANTS—Representative samples of adults age 19-64 (Estonia n=2010; Latvia n=2258; Lithuania n=2139).?METHODS—Between country differences in the frequency of alcohol intake were estimated. The odds of consuming alcohol weekly according to socioeconomic characteristics (age, ethnicity, rural/urban area, education, income) were calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses, adjusting for all variables simultaneously.?MAIN RESULTS—The proportion of respondents consuming alcohol weekly varied by country (p<0.001) (men: Estonia=61% Latvia=41% Lithuania=55%; women: Estonia=26% Latvia=8% Lithuania=14%). Within each country, this proportion decreased with age in both sexes (p<0.001), and increased with income in women (p<0.01). In Estonia, the odds of drinking alcohol weekly was significantly lower in respondents of Russian than of Estonian ethnicity (odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI): men=0.51 (0.36, 0.71); women=0.57 (0.39, 0.81)). In Lithuania, the odds was higher in highly educated men than in those with a low education level (OR=1.48 (1.01, 2.17)). Daily alcohol intake was higher in Estonia than in the other countries, as was the percentage of respondents drinking heavily (equivalent to 80 g/day).?CONCLUSIONS—Approximately half the men and one in six women in the Baltic States reported consuming alcohol at least weekly. Age and income were the strongest and most consistent correlates of the likelihood of consuming alcohol weekly. Ethnic differences were observed only in Estonia.???Keywords: alcohol; Baltic states; Russia PMID:10814657

McKee, M.; Pomerleau, J.; Robertson, A.; Pudule, I.; Grinberga, D.; Kadziauskiene, K.; Abaravicius, A.; Vaask, S.

2000-01-01

67

Planning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning how to plan a science investigation is an important component of learning how to do investigative science. The plan will guide the students to find evidence to respond to their focus question or problem that needs to be solved. This chapter descr

Klentschy, Michael P.

2008-04-01

68

NATO Expansion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic formally join NATO today. The entry of these three former Warsaw Pact nations into the US-led alliance and their ongoing negotiations to join the European Union mark a dramatic shift in the political landscape and symbolize the final demise of a divided Europe. However, a number of questions and difficulties remain. Not the least of these is relations with Russia, which has consistently expressed its disapproval of NATO expanding eastward. Should the country come under the control of nationalist political parties, an expanded NATO may actually increase rather than mitigate security concerns and political tensions. Another untested factor is public opinion within the new NATO member countries. The realities of NATO membership -- increased defense spending and the prospect of military operations against fellow Europeans in Yugoslavia -- may quickly erode popular support for the alliance in Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic. The sites dicussed provide background information on NATO and it's expansion.

De Nie, Michael W.

69

Benthic marine landscapes of the Eastern Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Benthic marine landscapes are a combination of ecologically relevant hydrographical and geological datasets that characterize potential broad scale habitat distribution patterns with the overall aim to allocate conservation efforts on biodiversity and spaces instead of single species. At the best the benthic marine landscapes describe both the habitat distribution as well as the characteristics of the physical environment. This kind of spatial knowledge that informs both about geology and biology at the regional scale is very usable in ecosystem based management (ESBM) of marine areas. Here we will present the benthic marine landscapes of the Eastern Gulf of Finland at the scale of 1:500 000 and explain the analysis methods behind. The study area in the Eastern Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea, is a transboundary marine area shared by Finland and Russia. The HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan along with EU, Finnish and Russian legislation requires both countries to identify and assess the state of the marine environment in the Gulf of Finland. These appoint the need for shared knowledge on the marine environment, its state, physical characteristics and distribution of habitats among others. In order to produce ecologically relevant marine landscapes we have collected geological, hydrographical and biological data from the transboundary study area and studied their correlation. The statistical analyses have been run with Primer -software (BEST and LINKTREE). The study is a part of ENPI CBC funded Finnish-Russian co-operation project, the TOPCONS (http://www.merikotka.fi/topcons/). Project aims to develop innovative spatial tools for the regional planning of the sea areas in the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea. The objective is to create methodology and tools to map the locations of the most diverse and sensitive marine landscapes. These will help the society when striving for the sustainable consolidation of human activities and the marine nature values. The TOPCONS is implemented in close relationship to the Finnish Inventory Programme for the Underwater Marine Environment (VELMU).

Kaskela, Anu; Kotilainen, Aarno; Orlova, Marina; Ronkainen, Minna; Rousi, Heta; Ryabchuk, Daria

2014-05-01

70

PLA2G6-associated neurodegeneration (PLAN): further expansion of the clinical, radiological and mutation spectrum associated with infantile and atypical childhood-onset disease.  

PubMed

Phospholipase A2 associated neurodegeneration (PLAN) is a major phenotype of autosomal recessive Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation (NBIA). We describe the clinical phenotypes, neuroimaging features and PLA2G6 mutations in 5 children, of whom 4 presented with infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD). One other patient was diagnosed with the onset of PLAN in childhood, and our report highlights the diagnostic challenges associated with this atypical PLAN subtype. In this series, the neuroradiological relevance of classical PLAN features as well as apparent claval hypertrophy' is explored. Novel PLA2G6 mutations were identified in all patients. PLAN should be considered not only in patients presenting with a classic INAD phenotype but also in older patients presenting later in childhood with non-specific progressive neurological features including social communication difficulties, gait disturbance, dyspraxia, neuropsychiatric symptoms and extrapyramidal motor features. PMID:24745848

Illingworth, M A; Meyer, E; Chong, W K; Manzur, A Y; Carr, L J; Younis, R; Hardy, C; McDonald, F; Childs, A M; Stewart, B; Warren, D; Kneen, R; King, M D; Hayflick, S J; Kurian, M A

2014-06-01

71

PLA2G6-associated neurodegeneration (PLAN): Further expansion of the clinical, radiological and mutation spectrum associated with infantile and atypical childhood-onset disease  

PubMed Central

Phospholipase A2 associated neurodegeneration (PLAN) is a major phenotype of autosomal recessive Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation (NBIA). We describe the clinical phenotypes, neuroimaging features and PLA2G6 mutations in 5 children, of whom 4 presented with infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD). One other patient was diagnosed with the onset of PLAN in childhood, and our report highlights the diagnostic challenges associated with this atypical PLAN subtype. In this series, the neuroradiological relevance of classical PLAN features as well as apparent claval hypertrophy’ is explored. Novel PLA2G6 mutations were identified in all patients. PLAN should be considered not only in patients presenting with a classic INAD phenotype but also in older patients presenting later in childhood with non-specific progressive neurological features including social communication difficulties, gait disturbance, dyspraxia, neuropsychiatric symptoms and extrapyramidal motor features. PMID:24745848

Illingworth, M.A.; Meyer, E.; Chong, W.K.; Manzur, A.Y.; Carr, L.J.; Younis, R.; Hardy, C.; McDonald, F.; Childs, A.M.; Stewart, B.; Warren, D.; Kneen, R.; King, M.D.; Hayflick, S.J.; Kurian, M.A.

2014-01-01

72

A new phosphorus paradigm for the Baltic proper.  

PubMed

The external phosphorus (P) loading has been halved, but the P content in the water column and the area of anoxic bottoms in Baltic proper has increased during the last 30 years. This can be explained by a temporary internal source of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) that is turned on when the water above the bottom sediment becomes anoxic. A load-response model, explaining the evolution from 1980 to 2005, suggests that the average specific DIP flux from anoxic bottoms in the Baltic proper is about 2.3 g P m?² year?¹. This is commensurable with fluxes estimated in situ from anoxic bottoms in the open Baltic proper and from hydrographic data in the deep part of Bornholm Basin. Oxygenation of anoxic bottoms, natural or manmade, may quickly turn off the internal P source from anoxic bottoms. This new P-paradigm should have far-reaching implications for abatement of eutrophication in the Baltic proper. PMID:24114069

Stigebrandt, Anders; Rahm, Lars; Viktorsson, Lena; Odalen, Malin; Hall, Per O J; Liljebladh, Bengt

2014-09-01

73

Nitrogen cycle of the Baltic Sea from an isotopic perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable nitrogen isotope ratios (15N\\/14N; delta15N) were determined in sediments, suspended matter, and water at selected sites in the Baltic Sea area in order to set up a source budget and trace the fate of anthropogenic N sources. Sediments of the shallow near-coastal area of the southern and eastern Baltic Sea have an average delta15N of 7.3 +\\/- 2.10\\/00, interpreted

M. Voss; K.-C. Emeis; S. Hille; T. Neumann; J. W. Dippner

2005-01-01

74

The history of sturgeon in the Baltic Sea  

USGS Publications Warehouse

For the past 2000 years at least, A. o. oxyrinchus has been the dominant sturgeon in the Baltic Sea, indicating a much earlier origin than previously suggested. The most similar extant sturgeon populations to the extinct Baltic stock are those from the St John and St Lawrence rivers in Canada. These populations should be considered the best source of breeding material for the ongoing sturgeon restitution programmes in Poland and Germany.

Popovic, Danijela; Panagiotopoulou, Hanna; Baca, Mateusz; Stefaniak, Krzysztof; Mackiewicz, Pawel; Makowiecki, Daniel; King, Tim L.; Gruchota, Jakub; Weglenski, Piotr; Stankovic, Anna

2014-01-01

75

34 CFR 361.35 - Innovation and expansion activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Innovation and expansion activities. 361.35 Section 361.35...Vocational Rehabilitation Services Administration § 361.35 Innovation and expansion activities. (a) The State plan must...

2010-07-01

76

34 CFR 361.35 - Innovation and expansion activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Innovation and expansion activities. 361.35 Section 361.35...Vocational Rehabilitation Services Administration § 361.35 Innovation and expansion activities. (a) The State plan must...

2011-07-01

77

Plan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1937, the Plan organization was initially intended to provide food and education to the unfortunate children whose lives were disrupted by the trauma and horror of the Spanish Civil War. Almost 70 years later, Plan continues to provide much needed assistance to 45 countries around the world, primarily in the areas of education, housing, and cross-cultural learning. First-time visitors will want to begin by looking through the section titled "Issues affecting children." This area provides both background materials and general guiding principles on such topics as street children, children in disaster areas, and HIV/AIDS among young people in the developing world. The "Where we work" area of the site provides detailed material on the work of the Plan organization in each region and country that the organization serves. Finally, concerned visitors to the site may also learn about opportunities for sponsoring a child.

2002-01-01

78

Seismic LAB or LID? The Baltic Shield case  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of the asthenosphere for old Precambrian cratons, including East European Craton and its part - the Baltic Shield, is still discussed. To study the seismic lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath the Baltic Shield we used records of 9 local events with magnitudes in the range 2.7-5.9. The relatively big number of seismic stations in the Baltic Shield with a station spacing of 30-100 km permits for relatively dense recordings, and is sufficient in lithospheric scale. For modelling of the lower lithosphere and asthenosphere, the original data were corrected for topography and the Moho depth for each event and each station location, using a reference model with a 46 km thick crust. Observed P and S arrivals are significantly earlier than those predicted by the iasp91 model, which clearly indicates that lithospheric P and S velocities beneath the Baltic Shield are higher than in the global iasp91 model. For two northern events at Spitsbergen and Novaya Zemlya we observe a low velocity layer, 60-70 km thick asthenosphere, and the LAB beneath Barents Sea was found at depth of about 200 km. Sections for other events show continous first arrivals of P waves with no evidence for "shadow zone" in the whole range of registration, which could be interpreted as absence of asthenosphere beneath the central part of the Baltic Shield, or that LAB in this area occurs deeper (>200 km). The relatively thin low velocity layer found beneath southern Sweden, 15 km below the Moho, could be interpreted as small scale lithospheric inhomogeneities, rather than asthenosphere. Differentiation of the lid velocity beneath the Baltic Shield could be interpreted as regional inhomogeneity. It could also be interpreted as anisotropy of the Baltic Shield lithosphere, with fast velocity close to the east-west direction, and slow velocity close to the south-north direction.

Grad, M.; Tiira, T.; Olsson, S.; Komminaho, K.

2013-05-01

79

Seismic LAB or LID? The Baltic Shield Case  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of the asthenosphere for old Precambrian cratons, including East European Craton and its part - the Baltic Shield, is still discussed. To study the seismic lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath the Baltic Shield we used records of 9 local events with magnitudes in the range 2.7-5.9. The relatively big number of seismic stations in the Baltic Shield with a station spacing of 30-100 km permits for relatively dense recordings, and is sufficient in lithospheric scale. For modelling of the lower lithosphere and asthenosphere, the original data were corrected for topography and the Moho depth for each event and each station location, using a reference model with a 46 km thick crust. Observed P and S arrivals are significantly earlier than those predicted by the iasp91 model, which clearly indicates that lithospheric P and S velocities beneath the Baltic Shield are higher than in the global iasp91 model. For two northern events at Spitsbergen and Novaya Zemlya we observe a low velocity layer, 60-70 km thick asthenosphere, and the LAB beneath Barents Sea was found at depth of about 200 km. Sections for other events show continous first arrivals of P waves with no evidence for "shadow zone" in the whole range of registration, which could be interpreted as absence of asthenosphere beneath the central part of the Baltic Shield, or that LAB in this area occurs deeper (>200 km). The relatively thin low velocity layer found beneath southern Sweden, 15 km below the Moho, could be interpreted as small scale lithospheric inhomogeneities, rather than asthenosphere. Differentiation of the lid velocity beneath the Baltic Shield could be interpreted as regional inhomogeneity. It could also be interpreted as anisotropy of the Baltic Shield lithosphere, with fast velocity close to the east-west direction, and slow velocity close to the south-north direction.

Grad, Marek; Tiira, Timo; Olsson, Sverker; Komminaho, Kari

2013-04-01

80

XI SIMPÓSIO DE ESPECIALISTAS EM PLANEJAMENTO DA OPERAÇÃO E EXPANSÃO ELÉTRICA XI SYMPOSIUM OF SPECIALISTS IN ELECTRIC OPERATIONAL AND EXPANSION PLANNING  

Microsoft Academic Search

th to 20 th SUMMARY Planning and operation of electrical power networks involves extensive simulation-based evaluation of system behavior, in order to determine operating limits that are robust to credible contingencies. The resulting decisions have tremendous economic and reliability implications. It is well known, however, that the parameters of many dynamic models are quite uncertain. Load model parameters, in particular,

XI SEPOPE; I. A. Hiskens; B. C. Lesieutre; S. Roy

81

The Baltic Basin Case Study—towards a sustainable Baltic Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four watersheds, each characterized by a major resource use were selected for the study: The Vistula River in Poland—agriculture; the Dalälven River in Sweden—forestry; the Archipelago Sea in Sweden, Finland, Estonia—tourism; and the Lake Peipsi in Estonia/Russia—fisheries/agriculture. The main objective was to examine the reactions of particular ecosystems within the Baltic Sea drainage area, and to assess sustainability conditions on the regional level. The degree of sustainability and impact on the Baltic Sea were investigated through workshops and seminars in the areas. Overviews of environmental and socio-economic conditions were succinctly summarized in commissioned papers. Interventions by and discussions with scholars, sector experts, administrators and stakeholders of the various sites laid the foundation for conceptualizing the interaction of natural and human forces for each case. The project was able to draw quite a number of conclusions, summarized as the following lessons learnt. In the Vistula Region, nutrient emissions have levelled off but shortage of freshwater is critical. Forestry in the Dalälven watershed is largely environmental-friendly, except for fragmentation of the landscape and its negative impact on biodiversity. In the Archipelago area a former low-energy community has been replaced by a leisure time society. Different types of tourism is developing, but despite this variety, an improved integration of ecological properties with socio-economic patterns is required in order to build a sustainable, living Archipelago. The lake Peipsi basin and the surrounding area suffer both from problems of resource management and economic backwardness. Parts of the local economy has lost access to the one time large Soviet market, although the Estonian side has apparently benefited from present economic growth. To cope with the division of the lake, a regime for trans-national management is unfolding. It is based on both informal and, to an increasing extent, agreed professional contacts. Networks of engaged people were in all sites a resource for and promoter of the sustainability path. In order to succeed and to maintain the zeal, they need strong institutional support and common goals. Public programmes in the Baltic, ie. the work of the Helsinki Commission and Baltic Agenda 21, have developed instruments to enhance sustainability beneficial for the management of these watersheds. But critical tasks remain to be done in developing a shared understanding of ways to improve management of ecosystems with social factors.

Jansson, Bengt-Owe; Stålvant, Carl-Einar

2001-12-01

82

The Baltic amber ant genus Bradoponera (Hymenoptera: Fomiddae), with description of two new species and a  

E-print Network

The Baltic amber ant genus Bradoponera (Hymenoptera: Fomiddae), with description of two new species. The Baltic amber ant genus Bradoponem (Hymenoptera:Formicidae), with description of two new species. Keywords: Hymenoptera -Formicidae- ants-Bradoponera -new species - Proceratiini - Baltic amber - fossils

Villemant, Claire

83

Trends in heavy metal concentrations in the Western and Central Baltic Sea waters detected by using  

E-print Network

Trends in heavy metal concentrations in the Western and Central Baltic Sea waters detected by using metals; Baltic Sea; EOF analysis 1. Introduction The Baltic Sea is one of the largest brackish water 2003; accepted 10 October 2003 Abstract Heavy metal concentrations from annual sampling in the period

Dippner, Joachim W.

84

BALTEX - A science broker for the Baltic Sea Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BALTEX (the Baltic Sea Experiment) is an interdisciplinary research network of scientists involved in environmental research dedicated to the Baltic Sea drainage basin (including disciplines such as meteorology, hydrology, oceanography, biogeochemistry and climate research). Originally founded in 1992 as a Continental Scale Experiment in GEWEX (the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment within the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) of the World Meteorological Organization, WMO), it was intended to form a common science, communication and data platform with the overall goal to integrate efforts to gain a better understanding of the water and energy cycle in the Baltic Sea basin. BALTEX Phase II (since 2003) has extended the scope to research on regional climate change and variability, climate change impacts on biogeochemistry and water management, but also made first steps towards overarching social and political issues as cross-cutting activities in the context of the scientific objectives. An important aspect of BALTEX Phase II is a more holistic approach towards observing, understanding and modelling major environmental relevant for the entire Baltic Sea region. Parts of the BALTEX Phase II research activities thus contribute to the establishment of a high resolution integrated modelling system for Northern Europe, embedded in an Earth System Model. An outstanding product of BALTEX as a “knowledge broker” for regional political institutions is the BACC report. Following to a large extent the method of IPCC, a regional assessment report on climate change in the Baltic Sea basin was compiled, which summarizes the published scientifically legitimate knowledge on regional climate change in the Baltic Sea basin and its impacts. The assessment, known as the BACC report (BALTEX Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin; BACC author team 2008, Reckermann et al., 2008) was published in 2008 as a book. A survey among climate researchers in the area confirmed the high credibility of this report (Bray et al. 2010). A remarkable aspect of this assessment, and BALTEX outreach activities in general, is the sensible cooperation with regional bodies acting as science-policy interfaces, such as HELCOM (Helsinki Commission, Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission), and basin-wide organized regional decision makers (BSSSC, Baltic Sea States Sub-regional Co-operation), who are dependent on reliable scientific information to design and implement regional adaptation strategies against climate change impacts. A new BACC report has been initiated as a scientific update extending the scope to socio-economic impacts, and is expected to be finished in 2014.

Reckermann, M.; von Storch, H.; Langner, J.; Omstedt, A. T.

2010-12-01

85

Testing the potential for predictive modeling and mapping and extending its use as a tool for evaluating management scenarios and economic valuation in the Baltic Sea (PREHAB).  

PubMed

We evaluated performance of species distribution models for predictive mapping, and how models can be used to integrate human pressures into ecological and economic assessments. A selection of 77 biological variables (species, groups of species, and measures of biodiversity) across the Baltic Sea were modeled. Differences among methods, areas, predictor, and response variables were evaluated. Several methods successfully predicted abundance and occurrence of vegetation, invertebrates, fish, and functional aspects of biodiversity. Depth and substrate were among the most important predictors. Models incorporating water clarity were used to predict increasing cover of the brown alga bladderwrack Fucus vesiculosus and increasing reproduction area of perch Perca fluviatilis, but decreasing reproduction areas for pikeperch Sander lucioperca following successful implementation of the Baltic Sea Action Plan. Despite variability in estimated non-market benefits among countries, such changes were highly valued by citizens in the three Baltic countries investigated. We conclude that predictive models are powerful and useful tools for science-based management of the Baltic Sea. PMID:24414807

Lindegarth, Mats; Bergström, Ulf; Mattila, Johanna; Olenin, Sergej; Ollikainen, Markku; Downie, Anna-Leena; Sundblad, Göran; Bu?as, Martynas; Gullström, Martin; Snickars, Martin; von Numers, Mikael; Svensson, J Robin; Kosenius, Anna-Kaisa

2014-02-01

86

Regime shifts in North Sea and Baltic Sea: A comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ICES subdivisions in the North Sea (SD IIIa, SD IVa, and SD IVb) and the subdivisions in the Baltic Sea (SD 29, SD 27/28-2, and SD 25/26) are selected to compare the response in long term monitoring data (1970-2000) with respect to climate regime shifts. A modified AMOEBA model is applied to the data sets to identify the status and development of the North Sea and Baltic Sea system during two recent regime shifts. Biological regime shifts can be identified 1989/1990 in SD IIIa in the North Sea and in SD 25/26 in the Baltic Sea. A synchronous appearance of regime shifts could only be identified in the central and southern Baltic Sea for both regime shifts 1975/76 and 1989/90 where the AMOEBA model indicated a high similarity in ecosystem response. A clear difference was identified in the response of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Inter-annual and inter-decadal variability as well as regime shifts are driven in the Baltic Sea by direct atmospheric forcing only. In contrast, the changes in the North Sea are influenced by both the direct atmospheric forcing and the indirect forcing from the changes in North Atlantic. The fact that regime shifts as well as their synchronous appearance can be identified with the AMOEBA model might be of major interest for the management of sustainable use of ecosystem goods and services, the development of ecosystem approach to management and the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) of the European Union (EU).

Dippner, Joachim W.; Möller, Caroline; Hänninen, Jari

2012-12-01

87

Echoes from the past: a healthy Baltic Sea requires more effort.  

PubMed

Integrated sediment multiproxy studies and modeling were used to reconstruct past changes in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Results of natural changes over the past 6000 years in the Baltic Sea ecosystem suggest that forecasted climate warming might enhance environmental problems of the Baltic Sea. Integrated modeling and sediment proxy studies reveal increased sea surface temperatures and expanded seafloor anoxia (in deep basins) during earlier natural warm climate phases, such as the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Under future IPCC scenarios of global warming, there is likely no improvement of bottom water conditions in the Baltic Sea. Thus, the measures already designed to produce a healthier Baltic Sea are insufficient in the long term. The interactions between climate change and anthropogenic impacts on the Baltic Sea should be considered in management, implementation of policy strategies in the Baltic Sea environmental issues, and adaptation to future climate change. PMID:24414805

Kotilainen, Aarno T; Arppe, Laura; Dobosz, Slawomir; Jansen, Eystein; Kabel, Karoline; Karhu, Juha; Kotilainen, Mia M; Kuijpers, Antoon; Lougheed, Bryan C; Meier, H E Markus; Moros, Matthias; Neumann, Thomas; Porsche, Christian; Poulsen, Niels; Rasmussen, Peter; Ribeiro, Sofia; Risebrobakken, Bjørg; Ryabchuk, Daria; Schimanke, Semjon; Snowball, Ian; Spiridonov, Mikhail; Virtasalo, Joonas J; Weckström, Kaarina; Witkowski, Andrzej; Zhamoida, Vladimir

2014-02-01

88

Early life migration patterns of Baltic Sea pike Esox lucius.  

PubMed

This study investigated the movement patterns of Baltic Sea pike Esox lucius in Matsalu Bay, Estonia, using otolith microchemistry. Migration patterns of E. lucius were remarkably diverse, but distinct groups were evident. Of the E. lucius analysed (n = 28), 82% hatched in fresh water and 74% of them left this biotope during the first growth season. PMID:22471807

Rohtla, M; Vetemaa, M; Urtson, K; Soesoo, A

2012-04-01

89

Radar-based precipitation type analysis in the Baltic area  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method to classify precipitation events based on their spatial extent and texture has been developed and applied to 3 yr of BALTEX Radar Data Center weather radar composites over the Baltic region. The method is capable of distinguishing large-scale precipitation features typically associated with frontal systems from more small-scale features, which are usually found in convective systems. Data used

Andi Walther; Ralf Bennartz

2006-01-01

90

Bird's nest fungi (Nidulariales: Nidulariaceae) in Baltic and Dominican amber.  

PubMed

Nidula baltica sp. nov. and Cyathus dominicanus sp. nov. are described from Cenozoic Baltic and Dominican amber. These are the first fossil members of the Family Nidulariaceae and show that the basic characteristics of this group were already established some 40-50 million years ago. PMID:24607356

Poinar, George

2014-03-01

91

Prevalence of anisakin nematodes in fish from Southern Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Nematodes from the superfamily Ascaridoidea (families Anisakidae and Raphidascarididae) are worldwide distributed parasites. Their live cycles include many species of water invertebrates and teleostean fish as intermediate hosts, and fish, sea mammals or fish-eating birds being definitive hosts. Humans can be infected with some of these parasites after consumption of raw or wrongly processed fish. The parasitological investigations of fish (herring, cod and flatfish) from southern Baltic (ICES 24-26) provided in the years 80 and 90 showed their infection with larvae of several anisakid species: Anisakis simplex s. str., Contracaecum osculatum C and Hysterothylacium auctum. Sporadically Pseudoterranova decipiens and Raphidascaris acus were also found. Larvae of Anisakis simplex were noted mainly in herrings, C. osculatum primarily in cods and H. auctum in flounders. Additionally, preserved herrings (marinated, smoked) were also investigated and sporadically live larvae of A. simplex were found. The main etiological agent of human anisakidosis worldwide is A. simplex. Although the live cycle of this nematode cannot be completed in the Baltic Sea--this nematode is brought to the Baltic by infected herring migrating from the North Sea for spawning in coastal waters of the Southern Baltic--the prevalence and intensity of infection with larvae of this nematode species were the highest in fish investigated by us. The results obtained suggest the possibility of the human infection with A. simplex larvae in Poland. PMID:16457379

Szostakowska, Beata; Myjak, Przemys?aw; Wyszy?ski, Miros?aw; Pietkiewicz, Halina; Rokicki, Jerzy

2005-01-01

92

Copper effects on reproductive stages of Baltic Sea Fucus vesiculosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper is an active ingredient in many antifouling products, and pleasure boats are estimated to be the major single source of copper pollution in Swedish coastal waters. For this reason, the effects of copper were studied on egg volume, fertilization, germination and development of apical hairs of Baltic Sea Fucus vesiculosus L. Germination was the most sensitive stage and was

S. Andersson; L. Kautsky

1996-01-01

93

Unique Baltic Outcrops Reveal Millennia of Ecological Changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout Earth's history, tectonic forces, often violent and unpredictable, have been responsible for exposing geological formations to scientific scrutiny. But forces of uplift are not restricted to plate boundaries. For example, when looking at forested coastal dunes bordering placid Curonian Lagoon along the Lithuanian coast of the Baltic Sea, one hardly suspects that any powerful forces are at work. Yet

Ilya V. Buynevich; Albertas Bitinas; Aldona Damusyte; Donatas Pupienis

2010-01-01

94

The Professionalisation of Adult Educators in the Baltic States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult education and lifelong learning together form one of the priorities for development in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The important historical and social context in which the professional development of adult educators has been taking place in the Baltic States since they regained their independence in the 1990s is the changes that occurred…

Jogi, Larissa; Gross, Marin

2009-01-01

95

Land and property taxation in the Baltic States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is focused on developments of land taxation in the Baltic States during the last decade. In this period tax and budgeting reforms became an integral part of reform process in these countries. Devolution of government functions to the local level means more autonomous decision-making by sub-national governments, thereby also suggesting autonomous powers to raise revenue. The land tax

Viktor Trasberg

2003-01-01

96

Lead mobilization during tectonic reactivation of the western Baltic Shield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead isotope data from sulfide deposits of the western part of the Baltic Shield define mixing lines in the 206 Pb \\/ 204 Pb - 207 Pb \\/ 204 Pb diagram. Lead from two types of sulfide deposits have been investigated: 1. (1) Exhalative and volcanogenic deposits that are syngenetic with their host rocks 2. (2) vein deposits. The syngenetic

Rolf L. Romer; James E. Wright

1993-01-01

97

Clustering in Engineering Education in the Baltic Region  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The contemporary situation in the Baltic region, namely, the lack of working places due to the structural problems, a high unemployment rate, the migration of highly qualified people and the low rate of self-employees, demands on innovation as an engine of the economic development with a strong impact on sustainable development in the European…

Ahrens, Andreas; Zascerinska, Jelena

2011-01-01

98

Methane fluxes and their controlling processes in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baltic Sea is an ideal natural laboratory to study the methane cycle in the framework of diagenetic processes. With its brackish character and a gradient from nearly marine to almost limnic conditions, a strong permanent haline stratification leading to large vertical redox gradients in the water column, and a sedimentation history which resulted in the deposition of organic-rich young post-glacial sediments over older glacial and post-glacial strata with very low organic content, the Baltic allows to study the role of a variety of key parameters for early diagenetic processes including the methane cycle. Within the BONUS + Project “Baltic Gas”, a 3.5 week scientific expedition of RV Maria S. Merian in August 2010 was dedicated to study the methane cycle in the various basins of the Baltic Sea, with strong emphasis on the metabolic reactions of early diagenesis and the occurrence of shallow gas deposits. Various subbottom profiling systems were used to map the thickness and structure of organic-rich deposits and build the base for a detailed coring program for biogeochemical analysis, including methane, sulfur compounds, iron, and other compounds. Methane gradients in connection with the information of the areal extend of organic-rich deposits are used to estimate the diffusive flux from the sediments into the water column and the rate of methane oxidation, with changing importance of sulfate as oxidant along the salinity gradient. On selected key stations, rate measurements of methanogenic and methanotrophic reactions were executed. The methane distribution in the water column was comprehensively assessed, revealing amongst other findings a drastic increase in bottom water methane concentration between the post bloom summer situation and the situation in the winter of 2009, in connection to the occurrence of a benthic nepheloid layer. Air-sea flux measurements were executed along the ship’s track comprising all major basins of the Baltic. The talk gives an interdisciplinary overview of the first results of this research campaign.

Rehder, G. J.; Fossing, H.; Lapham, L.; Endler, R.; Spiess, V.; Bruchert, V.; Nguyen, T.; Gülzow, W.; Schneider von Deimling, J.; Conley, D. J.; Jorgensen, B.

2010-12-01

99

Spectral quantification of Southern Baltic seabed roughness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work presents the fast and efficient tool for seafloor classification, where scales and shapes of geomorphological forms were taken into account. The precise bathymetry and seafloor texture was developed with multibeam echosounder at six different areas of size up to 10 by 20 km. This areas demonstrate typical geomorphological seafloor features of bottom relief at the southern Baltic Sea coastal waters. The acoustical measurements were accompanied by geological sampling and video inspection. High resolution mosaic maps were obtained as a result of multi-survey measurements with maximal spatial resolution of 0.05m. Such accuracy of the measurements allows to observe small geomorphologic forms as ripplemarks or pebbles. The most investigated polygons have bottom relief of polygenetic origin with relicts of periglacial forms together with contemporary forms of marine origin. In the studied areas different forms of sand accumulation were found, beginning with small ripplemarks ending at big sandy waves. In the seabed erosion zones the bottom surface is rough and varied with clearly formed embankments, abrasive platforms, inselbergs and stony gravely abrasive pavements on the bottom surface. Such geomorphic diversity of the bottom surface has allowed for development of consistent geomorphological classification system based mainly on spectral properties of seafloor roughness. Each analysed area was divided into squares (200 by 200 m) with an overlap between adjacent subareas of 75% a square size. Next, subdivided areas were spectrally transformed using a two dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D FFT). The spectral parameters as maximal value of spectral density function, spectral exponent and strength, spectral moments, mean frequency, spectral width and skewness for each characteristic type of bottom surface were determined relaying on the calculated 2D spectra. Moreover, other features characterised the corrugated surface as fractal dimension, radius of autocorrelation, elevation slope, statistical and wavelet transformation parameters were estimated. The set of parameters was the input to the Principal Component Analysis and next to the unsupervised neural network algorithm which produced maps containing morphologically classified seabed areas. The obtained results revealed that acoustical technique provides very useful capabilities for the seafloor characterisation.

Szefler, K.; Tegowski, J.; Nowak, J.

2012-12-01

100

Geothermal expansion wellhead system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A geothermal expansion wellhead system is provided which adapts the wellhead and control valves to the casing in the wellbore. The system suspends and seals the casing while expanding and contracting during geothermal operations at temperatures up to 550° F. and above. The system consists of an expansion spool in which there is mounted an expansion mandrel which is secured

1985-01-01

101

Iron and manganese shuttles control the formation of authigenic phosphorus minerals in the euxinic basins of the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microanalysis of epoxy resin-embedded sediments is used to demonstrate the presence of authigenic iron (Fe) (II) phosphates and manganese (Mn)-calcium (Ca)-carbonate-phosphates in the deep euxinic basins of the Baltic Sea. These minerals constitute major burial phases of phosphorus (P) in this area, elevating the total P burial rate above that expected for a euxinic depositional environment. Particle shuttles of Fe and Mn oxides into the deep euxinic basins act as drivers for P-bearing mineral authigenesis. While Fe(II) phosphates are formed continuously in the upper sediments following the sulfidization of Fe-oxyhydroxides and release of associated P, Mn-Ca-carbonate-phosphates are formed intermittently following inflow events of oxygenated North Sea water into the deep basins. The mechanism of Fe(II) phosphate formation differs from previously reported occurrences of vivianite formation in marine sediments, by occurring within, rather than below, the sulfate-methane transition zone. The spatial distribution of both authigenic phases in Baltic sediments varies in accordance with the periodic expansion of anoxia on centennial to millennial timescales. The results highlight the potential importance of authigenic P-bearing minerals other than carbonate fluorapatite for total P burial in euxinic basins.

Jilbert, Tom; Slomp, Caroline P.

2013-04-01

102

Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis in the Baltic Sea—a supply-side invader?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis (H. Milne-Edwards, 1853) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Varunidae) invaded the Baltic Sea about 80 years ago, published information\\u000a on its present distribution and abundance in this region is lacking. We provide here information on its Baltic-wide distribution\\u000a and long-term population dynamics. The species has been found all over the coastal Baltic Sea and also in some

Henn Ojaveer; Stephan Gollasch; Andres Jaanus; Jonne Kotta; Ari O. Laine; Atis Minde; Monika Normant; Vadim E. Panov

2007-01-01

103

Evidence of chromosomal damage in common eiders (Somateria mollissima) from the Baltic Sea  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Common eiders nesting in the Baltic Sea are exposed to generally high levels of contaminants including potentially genotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorines. Blood samples were collected from eiders at eight sites in the Baltic Sea and two sites in the Beaufort Sea. DNA content variation was estimated using the flow cytometric method, and subsequently utilized as a biomarker of genetic damage. We observed no significant differences in genetic damage among populations within either the Baltic or Beaufort Seas. However, eider populations from the Baltic Sea had significantly elevated estimates of genetic damage compared to populations from the Beaufort Sea.

Matson, C.W.; Franson, J.C.; Hollmen, T.E.; Kilpi, M.; Hario, M.; Flint, P.L.; Bickham, J.W.

2004-01-01

104

Sea ice in the Baltic Sea A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the seasonal ice cover of the Baltic Sea has many similarities to its oceanic counterpart in Polar Seas and Oceans, there are many unique characteristics that mainly result from the brackish waters from which the ice is formed, resulting in low bulk salinities and porosities. In addition, due to the milder climate than Polar regions, the annual maximum ice extent is highly variable, and rain and freeze-melt cycles can occur throughout winter. Up to 35% of the sea ice mass can be composed from metamorphic snow, rather than frozen seawater, and in places snow and superimposed ice can make up to 50% of the total ice thickness. There is pronounced atmospheric deposition of inorganic nutrients and heavy metals onto the ice, and in the Bothnian Bay it is estimated that 5% of the total annual flux of nitrogen and phosphorus and 20-40% of lead and cadmium may be deposited onto the ice fields from the atmosphere. It is yet unclear whether or not the ice is simply a passive store for atmospherically deposited compounds, or if they are transformed through photochemical processes or biological accumulation before released at ice and snow melt. As in Polar sea ice, the Baltic ice can harbour rich biological assemblages, both within the ice itself, and on the peripheries of the ice at the ice/water interface. Much progress has been made in recent years to study the composition of these assemblages as well as measuring biogeochemical processes within the ice related to those in underlying waters. The high dissolved organic matter loading of Baltic waters and ice result in the ice having quite different chemical characteristics than those known from Polar Oceans. The high dissolved organic material load is also responsible in large degree to shape the optical properties of Baltic Sea ice, with high absorption of solar radiation at shorter wavelengths, a prerequisite for active photochemistry of dissolved organic matter. Land-fast ice in the Baltic also greatly alters the mixing characteristics of river waters flowing into coastal waters. River plumes extend under the ice to a much greater distance, and with greater stability than in ice-free conditions. Under-ice plumes not only alter the mixing properties of the waters, but also result in changed ice growth dynamics, and ice biological assemblages, with the underside of the ice being encased, in the extreme case, with a frozen freshwater layer. There is a pronounced gradient in ice types from more saline ice in the south to freshwater ice in the north. The former is characteristically more porous and supports more ice-associated biology than the latter. Ice conditions also vary considerably in different parts of the Baltic Sea, with ice persisting for over half a year in the northernmost part of the Baltic Sea, the Bothnian Bay. In the southern Baltic Sea, ice appears only during severe winters.

Granskog, Mats; Kaartokallio, Hermanni; Kuosa, Harri; Thomas, David N.; Vainio, Jouni

2006-10-01

105

A new proposal concerning the botanical origin of Baltic amber  

PubMed Central

Baltic amber constitutes the largest known deposit of fossil plant resin and the richest repository of fossil insects of any age. Despite a remarkable legacy of archaeological, geochemical and palaeobiological investigation, the botanical origin of this exceptional resource remains controversial. Here, we use taxonomically explicit applications of solid-state Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy, coupled with multivariate clustering and palaeobotanical observations, to propose that conifers of the family Sciadopityaceae, closely allied to the sole extant representative, Sciadopitys verticillata, were involved in the genesis of Baltic amber. The fidelity of FTIR-based chemotaxonomic inferences is upheld by modern–fossil comparisons of resins from additional conifer families and genera (Cupressaceae: Metasequoia; Pinaceae: Pinus and Pseudolarix). Our conclusions challenge hypotheses advocating members of either of the families Araucariaceae or Pinaceae as the primary amber-producing trees and correlate favourably with the progressive demise of subtropical forest biomes from northern Europe as palaeotemperatures cooled following the Eocene climate optimum. PMID:19570786

Wolfe, Alexander P.; Tappert, Ralf; Muehlenbachs, Karlis; Boudreau, Marc; McKellar, Ryan C.; Basinger, James F.; Garrett, Amber

2009-01-01

106

Climatology of thunderstorms in the Baltic countries, 1951-2000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides an overview of the thunderstorm climate of the Baltic countries during the period of 1951-2000. Our study area is in northeastern Europe and encompasses Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. Visual thunderstorm observations at 59 weather stations were used as a data source. The mean annual number of thunderstorm days was 12-29.5. The seasonal cycle of thunderstorm hours with a daily step unexpectedly showed two maxima, whereas the monthly numbers of thunderstorm days had one clear mid-latitude specific peak between June and August. The diurnal cycle of thunderstorm hours showed a peak between 1400 and 1800 local time and a minimum between 0400 and 1000 hours local time. The average annual duration of thunderstorm events was 112 min. The average number of thunderstorm events per thunderstorm day was around 1.1-1.2. Our results showed that the thunderstorm climate of the Baltic countries generally resembles that of other mid-latitude study sites.

Enno, S. E.; Briede, A.; Valiukas, D.

2013-01-01

107

Multivariate interpretation algorithm for water quality in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subject of the paper is the presentation of the potential of use of multispectral remote sensing data for the investigation of water quality of large water basins on the example of the monitoring of the Baltic Sea with MERIS data. An interpretation and inversion scheme for optical satellite data over water has been developed to be used in several national and international projects to monitor different aspects of water quality. The resulting "Principal Component Interpretation" algorithm allows an optimized estimation of water constituents: chlorophyll pigment concentrations, suspended matter concentration and yellow substance concentration as well as optical properties of the water body. From these are derived secondary parameters like water transparency. In the frame of the international ESA MARCOAST project this interpretation scheme was developed for a regular (daily) monitoring of the Baltic Sea. Results are uniformly mapped images and concentration maps of the Baltic Sea area from which are additionally derived weekly, monthly and seasonal means. The Principal Component Interpretation belongs to the class of model based multivariate interpretation schemes and is closely related to Neural Networks techniques, but bases on a completely different training procedure. It makes use of an optimal information redistribution between the spectral bands and relates them to the water constituents. This kind of estimation allows an simultaneous estimation of expected global estimation accuracy. The regular monitoring is accompanied by the survey of in-situ ground measurements, which can be used for validation.The paper will present the bio-optical model which is used for the interpretation of Baltic Sea water. The basics of the interpretation scheme basing on principal component analysis will be explained and results of the monitoring of different products will be discussed on examples of a time series in 2008, showing the development and movement of algae blooms, together with other constituents. The obtained results are critically compared with available ground measurement.

Krawczyk, Harald; Neumann, Andreas; Riha, Stefan

2009-09-01

108

Baltic Seashore as a Unique Habitat For Insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Baltic seashore is one of important sites of insect biodiversity in Lithuania. Seashore habitats, such as dunes, dry grasslands, sand heaths, are unique and unstable. Research on insect fauna was carried out in seashore habitats of the Curonian Spit and Klaip?da–Šventoji zone in 1974–2004. The whole list embraced more than 2,000 species of insects. 90% of them were common

Povilas Ivinskis; Jolanta Rimšait?

2005-01-01

109

Lead mobilization during tectonic reactivation of the western Baltic Shield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead isotope data from sulfide deposits of the western part of the Baltic Shield define mixing lines in the [sup 206]Pb\\/[sup 204]Pb-[sup 207]Pb\\/[sup 204]Pb diagram. Lead from two types of sulfide deposits have been investigated: (1) Exhalative and volcanogenic deposits that are syngenetic with their host rocks; and (2) vein deposits. The syngenetic deposits locally show a very wide range

R. L. Romer; J. E. Wright

1993-01-01

110

Phytoplankton vertical distributions and composition in Baltic Sea cyanobacterial blooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the vertical structure of the phytoplankton community in two toxic cyanobacterial blooms in the offshore Baltic Sea. In 1994, vertically separated potentially toxic, diazotrophic and mixotrophic species (belonging to Cyanophyceae, Dinophyceae and Prymnesiophyceae) dominated. In 1997, picocyanobacteria, mainly in colonies, made up 40–50% of the total phytoplankton carbon biomass in the top 20m both day and night. Colony-forming

Susanna Hajdu; Helena Höglander; Ulf Larsson

2007-01-01

111

Transmission Expansion Planning Using an AC Model ...  

E-print Network

H. D. Mittelmann is with the School of Mathematical and Statistical Sci- ences, Arizona ... Hui Zhang, Student Member, IEEE, Gerald Thomas Heydt, Life Fellow, IEEE, Vijay Vittal, Fellow,. IEEE, and ... can be solved in polynomial time by a deterministic Turing machine ...... 5 shows the effect of multi-starts on the ACTEP solu-.

Periodicals

2013-01-02

112

Planning and Research for Program Expansion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little Brothers--Friends of the Elderly is a non-profit, non-sectarian federation of agencies devoted to meeting the needs of the elderly poor, those poor not merely in worldly goods, but in love. The organization examined how it might more effectively spread its services and assure the establishment throughout the United States of programs with…

Greenblatt, Sadelle T.

113

Optimization of Reactive Power Expansion Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a penalty successive linear programming approach for optimum investment of reactive power in networks. Unlike many successive linear programming algorithms, the proposed approach is based on a successive linear programming framework that admits a convergence proof for non-linearly constrained problems of general form. The penalty successive linear programming approach produces a pattern of new reactive sources that

R. A. Jabr

2011-01-01

114

Decadal changes in the Baltic Sea wave heights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of decadal changes to the average and extreme wave properties in the Baltic Sea is performed based on the wave hindcast for the entire Baltic Sea 1970-2007 using the wave model WAM and adjusted geostrophic winds under the assumption of no ice cover. The overall wave activity in the entire basin has limited variations over the 38 years of simulations. The local wave properties reveal strong decadal-scale signal in many parts of this water body. Its amplitude is up to 15% of the long-term average value of the significant wave height. The typical time interval between episodes of high or low annual average significant wave height is 10-12 years. The analogous interval between episodes of high and low 99%-iles of wave heights is about 5 years. Changes to the wave properties in different sea areas may be completely different in different decades. The overall maximum in the simulated annual mean significant wave height has drifted from an area between Gotland and Öland in the 1970s to the northern Baltic Proper at the turn of the millennium.

Soomere, Tarmo; Räämet, Andrus

2014-01-01

115

Mass Balance of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in the Baltic Sea  

PubMed Central

A mass balance was assembled for perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in the Baltic Sea. Inputs (from riverine discharge, atmospheric deposition, coastal wastewater discharges, and the North Sea) and outputs (to sediment burial, transformation of the chemical, and the North Sea), as well as the inventory in the Baltic Sea, were estimated from recently published monitoring data. Formation of the chemicals in the water column from precursors was not considered. River inflow and atmospheric deposition were the dominant inputs, while wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents made a minor contribution (<5%). A mass balance of the Oder River watershed was assembled to explore the sources of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the river inflow. It indicated that WWTP effluents made only a moderate contribution to riverine discharge (21% for PFOA, 6% for PFOS), while atmospheric deposition to the watershed was 1–2 orders of magnitude greater than WWTP discharges. The input to the Baltic Sea exceeded the output for all four PFAAs, suggesting that inputs were higher during 2005–2010 than during the previous 20 years despite efforts to reduce emissions of PFAAs. One possible explanation is the retention and delayed release of PFAAs from atmospheric deposition in the soils and groundwater of the watershed. PMID:23528236

2013-01-01

116

Baltic Sea nutrient reductions--what should we aim for?  

PubMed

Nutrient load reductions are needed to improve the state of the Baltic Sea, but it is still under debate how they should be implemented. In this paper, we use data from an environmental valuation study conducted in all nine Baltic Sea states to investigate public preferences of relevance to three of the involved decision-dimensions: First, the roles of nitrogen versus phosphorus reductions causing different eutrophication effects; second, the role of time - the lag between actions to reduce nutrient loads and perceived improvements; and third; the spatial dimension and the roles of actions targeting the coastal and open sea environment and different sub-basins. Our findings indicate that respondents view and value the Baltic Sea environment as a whole, and are not focussed only on their local sea area, or a particular aspect of water quality. We argue that public preferences concerning these three perspectives should be one of the factors guiding marine policy. This requires considering the entire range of eutrophication effects, in coastal and open sea areas, and including long-term and short-term measures. PMID:24981282

Ahtiainen, Heini; Artell, Janne; Elmgren, Ragnar; Hasselström, Linus; Håkansson, Cecilia

2014-12-01

117

Mitogenomics of recombinant mitochondrial genomes of Baltic Sea Mytilus mussels.  

PubMed

Recombination in the control region (CR) of Mytilus mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was originally reported based on the relatively short, sequenced fragments of mitochondrial genomes. Recombination outside the CR has been reported recently with the suggestion that such processes are common in Mytilus. We have fully sequenced a set of 11 different mitochondrial haplotypes representing the high diversity of paternally inherited mitochondrial genomes of Baltic Sea Mytilus mussels, including the haplotype close to the native Mytilus trossulus mitochondrial genome, which was thought to have been entirely eliminated from this population. Phylogenetic and comparative analysis showed that the recombination is limited to the vicinity of the CR in all sequenced genomes. Coding sequence comparison indicated that all paternally inherited genomes showed increased accumulation of nonsynonymous substitutions, including the genomes which switched their transmission route very recently. The acquisition of certain CR sequences through recombination with highly divergent paternally inherited genomes seems to precede and favor the switch, but it is not a prerequisite for this process. Interspecies hybridization in the Baltic Sea during the recent 10,000 years created conditions for both structural and evolutionary mitochondrial instability which resulted in the observed variation and dynamics of mtDNA in Baltic Sea Mytilus mussels. In conclusion, the data shows that the effects of mitochondrial recombination are limited to the CR of few phylogenetic lineages. PMID:25079914

Zbawicka, Ma?gorzata; Wenne, Roman; Burzy?ski, Artur

2014-12-01

118

Mass balance of perfluoroalkyl acids in the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

A mass balance was assembled for perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in the Baltic Sea. Inputs (from riverine discharge, atmospheric deposition, coastal wastewater discharges, and the North Sea) and outputs (to sediment burial, transformation of the chemical, and the North Sea), as well as the inventory in the Baltic Sea, were estimated from recently published monitoring data. Formation of the chemicals in the water column from precursors was not considered. River inflow and atmospheric deposition were the dominant inputs, while wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents made a minor contribution (<5%). A mass balance of the Oder River watershed was assembled to explore the sources of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the river inflow. It indicated that WWTP effluents made only a moderate contribution to riverine discharge (21% for PFOA, 6% for PFOS), while atmospheric deposition to the watershed was 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than WWTP discharges. The input to the Baltic Sea exceeded the output for all four PFAAs, suggesting that inputs were higher during 2005-2010 than during the previous 20 years despite efforts to reduce emissions of PFAAs. One possible explanation is the retention and delayed release of PFAAs from atmospheric deposition in the soils and groundwater of the watershed. PMID:23528236

Filipovic, Marko; Berger, Urs; McLachlan, Michael S

2013-05-01

119

On temporal wind variations forcing salt water inflows into the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt water inflows into the Baltic Sea are important processes for maintaining the general stratification and the ventilation of the bottom water in deep basins of the central Baltic. These events occur randomly during the winter season at intervals from one to several years. This pattern changed in the mid-seventies when only weak or no major inflows were observed. During

H. U. Lass; W. Matthäus

1996-01-01

120

Vegetation database of the Working Group on Dry Grasslands in the Nordic and Baltic Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the structure and content of the vegetation database of the Working Group on Dry Grasslands in the Nordic and Baltic Region (code EU-00-001 of the World Metadatabase on Vegetation Databases). The Working Group on Dry Grasslands in the Nordic and Baltic Region has been founded in 2005 and is now a subgroup of the European Dry Grassland

Jürgen Dengler; Solvita Rusina

2010-01-01

121

A new caddisfly of the fossil genus Archaeotinodes (Insecta: Trichoptera: Ecnomidae) from the Baltic amber  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new caddisfly species of the fossil genus Archaeotinodes, A. igneusaper sp. nov., is described from the Upper Eocene Baltic amber. The new species is close to A. pauper Ulmer, 1912 and A. lanceolata Ulmer, 1912 from the Baltic amber, differing from these in the structure of the male genitalia.

S. I. Melnitsky

2009-01-01

122

Transport interests and environmental regimes: The Baltic Sea transit of Russian oil exports  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the environmentally exposed Baltic Sea, a prolonged confrontation has set the transport interests of Russian crude oil against environmental interests, promoted by Russia's neighbours. During the 1990s all the Baltic littoral states – including Russia – collaborated well on marine environmental issues. When Russian oil exports accelerated after 1999, this environmental understanding broke down. Russian interests shifted as its

Olav F. Knudsen

2010-01-01

123

Baltics as a Business Location for Information Technology and Electronics Industries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study examines the current state of the ICT and electronics industries in the three Baltic States. In doing this, it implicitly highlights the opportunities for co-operation between Baltic and Finnish firms. The study consists of three parts: 1 a sec...

M. Nissinen

2002-01-01

124

Baltic Entrepreneurship Partners (BEPART)From Interregional and International Cooperation to Regional Impact of Entrepreneurship Promotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article illustrates the case of the international network project BEPART (Baltic Entrepreneurship Partners) with its activities in entrepreneurship promotion. It starts with some basic thoughts on the understanding of entrepreneurship. The article then turns to European and regional development issues in the Baltic Sea Region by trying to show how the project work responds to related challenges. The next

Christoph Diensberg

2006-01-01

125

Adjacent InternationalismThe Concept of Solidarity and Post-Cold War Nordic–Baltic Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nordic states have long been known for their commitment to a distinctly social-democratic set of internationalist values, and the demise of communism in the Nordic states’ adjacent region provided an excellent opportunity to seek new forms of cooperation with their Baltic neighbours informed by the tradition of Nordic internationalism. Nordic internationalism has thus recently acquired a visible Baltic dimension,

Annika Bergman

2006-01-01

126

Progress in physical oceanography of the Baltic Sea during the 2003-2014 period  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review progress in Baltic Sea physical oceanography (including sea ice and atmosphere-land interactions) and Baltic Sea modelling, focusing on research related to BALTEX Phase II and other relevant work during the 2003-2014 period. The major advances achieved in this period are:

Omstedt, A.; Elken, J.; Lehmann, A.; Leppäranta, M.; Meier, H. E. M.; Myrberg, K.; Rutgersson, A.

2014-11-01

127

Cultural and Linguistic Diversity of the Baltic States in a New Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Language questions are increasingly on the agenda in Europe. This paper addresses some problematic aspects of language teaching and learning that have come to the fore in the Baltic states after the European Union enlargement of 2004. First, the paper aims at providing relevant information about language policies in the former USSR and the independent Baltic states of today. This

2005-01-01

128

German-Soviet cooperation in the Baltic States and Poland, 1918 to 1920  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis is based on German, Soviet, American, and British primary source material, as well as memoirs and a variety of secondary sources. Through an investigation of the Polish-Lithuanian dispute, the Polish-Soviet War, the Baltic attempts to achieve independence, as well as German and Soviet military manoeuvres in the Baltic region, far reaching and active cooperation, previously largely unnoticed, has

Brian David Cameron

1991-01-01

129

Virial Expansion Bounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 1960s, the technique of using cluster expansion bounds in order to achieve bounds on the virial expansion was developed by Lebowitz and Penrose (J. Math. Phys. 5:841, 1964) and Ruelle (Statistical Mechanics: Rigorous Results. Benjamin, Elmsford, 1969). This technique is generalised to more recent cluster expansion bounds by Poghosyan and Ueltschi (J. Math. Phys. 50:053509, 2009), which are related to the work of Procacci (J. Stat. Phys. 129:171, 2007) and the tree-graph identity, detailed by Brydges (Phénomènes Critiques, Systèmes Aléatoires, Théories de Jauge. Les Houches 1984, pp. 129-183, 1986). The bounds achieved by Lebowitz and Penrose can also be sharpened by doing the actual optimisation and achieving expressions in terms of the Lambert W-function. The different bound from the cluster expansion shows some improvements for bounds on the convergence of the virial expansion in the case of positive potentials, which are allowed to have a hard core.

Tate, Stephen James

2013-10-01

130

Effective Responses for Proactive Enterprises: Business Continuity Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the development of Price Waterhouse?s business continuity plan. Points out the theory that businesses which are prepared for the worst (cites the Bishopsgate and Baltic Exchange in London, explosions) can survive the heaviest blow whereas those which are not, do not. The period of recovery will therefore be shorter and only minimal impact on business will occur.

Chris Frost

1994-01-01

131

Expansion for Universal Quantifiers  

E-print Network

Expansion is an operation on typings (i.e., pairs of typing environments and result types) defined originally in type systems for the lambda-calculus with intersection types in order to obtain principal (i.e., most informative, strongest) typings. In a type inference scenario, expansion allows postponing choices for whether and how to use non-syntax-driven typing rules (e.g., intersection introduction) until enough information has been gathered to make the right decision. Furthermore, these choices can be equivalent to inserting uses of such typing rules at deeply nested positions in a typing derivation, without needing to actually inspect or modify (or even have) the typing derivation. Expansion has in recent years become simpler due to the use of expansion variables (e.g., in System E). This paper extends expansion and expansion variables to systems with forall-quantifiers. We present System Fs, an extension of System F with expansion, and prove its main properties. This system turns type inference into a c...

Lenglet, Sergueï

2012-01-01

132

Baltic Sea Region: GIS, Maps and Statistical Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United Nations Environment Programme GRID-Arendal information center, UNEP/GRID-Arendal (described in the June 24, 1998 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) has recently released these data sets for the Baltic Sea Region. The data sets cover Arable Lands (350 K), Land and Ocean/Coastline (830 K), Land Cover (710 K), Pasture Lands (270 K), Population Density (890 K), Sub-watershed Drainage Basins (520 K), and Wetlands Distribution (10 K) and are downloadable as compressed files (.zip format). Instructions for downloading, and descriptions of parameters are provided on site.

2008-09-22

133

An ant-associated mesostigmatid mite in Baltic amber.  

PubMed

Fossil mesostigmatid mites (Acari: Parasitiformes: Mesostigmata) are extremely rare, and specimens from only nine families, including four named species, have been described so far. A new record of Myrmozercon sp. described here from Eocene (ca 44-49 Myr) Baltic amber represents the first-and so far only-fossil example of the derived, extant family Laelapidae. Significantly, modern species of this genus are habitually myrmecophilous and the fossil mite described here is preserved attached to the head of the dolichoderine ant Ctenobethylus goepperti (Mayr, 1868). It thus offers the oldest unequivocal evidence for an ecological association between mesostigmatid mites and social insects in the order Hymenoptera. PMID:25209198

Dunlop, Jason A; Kontschán, Jen?; Walter, David E; Perrichot, Vincent

2014-09-01

134

PREFACE: 5th Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Logo This Volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering presents a selection of the contributions to the 5th Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials (BaltSilica2011) held at Riga Technical University, Riga, Latvia from 23-25 May 2011. The conference was organized by Riga Technical University (Latvia) and Kaunas University of Technology (Lithuania). The series of Baltic conferences on silicate materials was started since 2004: the first conference was held in Riga, Latvia, 2004; the second conference was held in Kaunas, Lithuania 2005; the third was held again in Riga, Latvia, 2007, and the fourth was held in Kaunas, Lithuania 2009. BaltSilica 2011 was attended by around 50 participants from Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Germany, Poland, Italy, France, Ukraine and Russia. In comparison with previous silicate materials conferences, the broadening of participating countries is an indication of the interest of scientists, engineers and students to exchange research ideas, latest results, and to find new research topics for cooperation in the fields of silicate, high temperature materials, and inorganic nanomaterials. The scientific programme included 8 invited plenary lectures 23 oral presentations and 25 posters [1]. Scientific themes covered in the conference and in this special issue: Natural and Artificial Stone Materials; Traditional and New Ceramic and Glass-Like Materials; Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials. This volume consists of 23 selected proceeding papers. The Editor of this special issue is grateful to all the contributors to BaltSilica 2011. I am also very grateful to the scientific committee, the local organizing committee, the session chairs, the referees who refereed the submitted articles to this issue, and to students from the Department of Silicate, High Temperature and Inorganic Nanomaterials Technology of the Riga Technical University who ensured the smooth running of the conference. Particular thanks goes to eight plenary speakers who provided interesting findings and thoughtful overviews in the scientific themes of the conference. Special thanks go to Prof., Dr.rer.nat. Günther Heinz Frischat (Germany) who encouraged and supported the organization of these scientific meetings from the very first BaltSilica conferences. With warm regards and best wishes for the next BaltSilica conference. The Conference Chairman Gundars Mezinskis Reference [1] Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials. Book of abstracts of the 5th Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials BaltSilica 2011 : 23-25 May 2011, Riga, Latvia ed G Mezinskis, G Sedmale, J Setina, I Sperberga, L Krage, I Pavlovska, D Andersone (Riga: RTU Publishing House) p 94

Mezinskis, G.; Bragina, L.; Colombo, P.; Frischat, G. H.; Grabis, J.; Greil, P.; Deja, J.; Kaminskas, R.; Kliava, J.; Medvids, A.; Nowak, I.; Siauciunas, R.; Valancius, Z.; Zalite, I.

2011-12-01

135

Thermal Expansion "Paradox."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a paradox in the equation for thermal expansion. If the calculations for heating a rod and subsequently cooling a rod are determined, the new length of the cool rod is shorter than expected. (PR)

Fakhruddin, Hasan

1993-01-01

136

Controlled expansion alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an age hardenable controlled expansion alloy essentially devoid of chromium, the combination of short term tensile properties and elevated temperature properties, particularly notch rupture strength, are improved by the inclusion therein of silicon in an amount leass than 1%.

J. S. Smith; D. F. Jr. Smith

1984-01-01

137

Thermal-Expansion Measurement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Precise stable laser system determines coefficients of thermal expansion. Dual-beam interferometer arrangement monitors changes in sample length as function of temperature by following changes inoptical path lengths.

Davis, J. H.; Rives, C.

1985-01-01

138

Thermal Expansion Puzzles  

E-print Network

The standard formula that describes the thermal expansion of a solid creates several puzzles for discerning students. Three puzzles are reviewed, and their common resolution discussed both conceptually and quantitatively.

Rajesh R. Parwani

2005-07-15

139

Multispecies Virial Expansions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the virial expansion of mixtures of countably many different types of particles. The main tool is the Lagrange-Good inversion formula, which has other applications such as counting coloured trees or studying probability generating functions in multi-type branching processes. We prove that the virial expansion converges absolutely in a domain of small densities. In addition, we establish that the virial coefficients can be expressed in terms of two-connected graphs.

Jansen, Sabine; Tate, Stephen J.; Tsagkarogiannis, Dimitrios; Ueltschi, Daniel

2014-09-01

140

Vector sampling expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vector sampling expansion (VSE) is an extension of Papoulis' (1977) generalized sampling expansion (GSE) to the vector case. In VSE, N bandlimited signals, all with the same bandwidth B, are passed through a multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) linear time invariant system that generates M (M⩾N) output signals. The goal is to reconstruct the input signals from the samples of the output

D. Seidner; M. Feder

2000-01-01

141

Thermal expansion of stishovite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal expansion of stishovite has been determined by an X-ray camera technique in a temperature range of 18 - 600°C at an atmospheric pressure. The thermal-expansion coefficients along the crystallographic a- and c-axes at 300 K are alphaa = (6.0 +\\/- 0.6) . 10-6 K-1 and alphac = (1.4 +\\/- 0.5) . 10-6 K-1, respectively. The volume coefficient at

Ito Hisao; Kawada Kaoru; Akimoto Syun-Iti

1974-01-01

142

Hypoxia Sustains Cyanobacteria Blooms in the Baltic Sea  

PubMed Central

Nutrient over-enrichment is one of the classic triggering mechanisms for the occurrence of cyanobacteria blooms in aquatic ecosystems. In the Baltic Sea, cyanobacteria regularly occur in the late summer months and form nuisance accumulations in surface waters and their abundance has intensified significantly in the past 50 years attributed to human-induced eutrophication. However, the natural occurrence of cyanobacteria during the Holocene is debated. In this study, we present records of cyanobacteria pigments, water column redox proxies, and nitrogen isotopic signatures for the past ca. 8000 years from Baltic Sea sediment cores. Our results demonstrate that cyanobacteria abundance and nitrogen fixation are correlated with hypoxia occurring during three main intervals: (1) ca. 7000–4000 B.P. during the Littorina transgression, (2) ca. 1400–700 B.P. during the Medieval Climate Anomaly, and (3) from ca. 1950 A.D. to the present. Issues of preservation were investigated, and we show that organic matter and pigment profiles are not simply an artifact of preservation. These results suggest that cyanobacteria abundance is sustained during periods of hypoxia, most likely because of enhanced recycling of phosphorus in low oxygen conditions. PMID:24512281

2014-01-01

143

Optically black waters in the northern Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The peculiar bio-optical properties of the northernmost waters of the Baltic Sea (Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay) are illustrated by exploiting unique in situ measurements of apparent and inherent optical properties collected in 2007. Specifically, this study shows that the high values of absorption by colored dissolved organic matter (ays(412) around 1.4 m-1) resulting from the presence of humic matter brought by the numerous Swedish and Finnish rivers alimenting the basin are not correlated with high concentrations of particles as generally observed in the southern Baltic Sea. As a consequence, extremely low values (i.e., less than 0.5) of the ratio of scattering to absorption are observed in the blue spectral region. The corresponding spectra of normalized water leaving radiance are close to satisfy the “black pixel” assumption in the blue and even in the green part of the visible spectrum. Consequently, the Bothnian Sea and most of all the Bothnian Bay, appear ideal candidates for studies on atmospheric corrections and vicarious calibration of ocean color sensors in coastal waters.

Berthon, Jean-François; Zibordi, Giuseppe

2010-05-01

144

The occurrence and depth penetration of macroalgae along environmental gradients in the northern Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eutrophication is known to affect the community structure of macroalgae by e.g. decreasing the depth penetration of species and by shifting dominance from perennial to annual species. However, there is substantial lack of knowledge in the Baltic Sea regarding the distribution of many of the macroalgal species, how natural environmental factors affect their occurrence and how they respond to eutrophication. As macroalgae are used as indicators of the quality of the sea areas in the EU legislation (Water Framework Directive, Marine Strategy Framework Directive), this kind of knowledge is essential. The aim of this study was to determine which variables were related to variation in species occurrence and their lower limit of occurrence in the Finnish marine area. The study was carried out on data from five study areas along the Finnish coastline and included about 30 taxa. Our results showed that both the macroalgal communities and the occurrence (presence/absence) of most of the species differed between the study areas and that the differences were mainly related to salinity and exposure, although also eutrophication related factors played a role. Of the perennial species, eutrophied conditions seemed to favour only the occurrence of Sphacelaria arctica and Polysiphonia fucoides. Secchi depth was important in determining the lower limit of occurrence of brown and red algal species. However, Secchi depth was rarely the only factor causing variation in the lower limit of occurrence as also exposure, salinity and slope of the shore affected it. We conclude that in the northern Baltic Sea, the taxonomic composition of the macroalgal communities is not a very useful indicator of eutrophication as perennial species seem to tolerate rather eutrophied conditions, when suitable substrate is available. The lower limit of occurrence of many of the brown and red algal species is a good indicator of eutrophication but due to lack of suitable substrate in more eutrophied areas, especially in the depths where light becomes limiting, it is only applicable in the middle and outer archipelago areas. Furthermore, when planning monitoring programmes or setting thresholds for evaluating the ecological status of the sea, the natural variation in the lower limit of occurrence of macroalgae across sea areas is problematic and should carefully be taken into account.

Rinne, Henna; Salovius-Laurén, Sonja; Mattila, Johanna

2011-08-01

145

Strategic petroleum reserve expansion  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes SPR benefits and proposes a general paradigm for Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) decision-making. It presents two modeling approaches to the general decision problem, each simplifying the problem in a different way and offering a distinct perspective. The first is the Teisberg model approach, applying dynamic programming, and we present some recent numerical results on the value of SPR capacity expansion. The shortcomings of the Teisberg approach are then highlighted, motivating the application of an alternative modeling method. We use the second modeling method, called the Hogan-Leiby Risk Analysis model, to obtain some comparative results on SPR expansion benefits. 6 refs., 7 figs.

Leiby, P.N.; Lee, R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1989-01-01

146

Establishing Territorial Embeddedness within Retail Transnational Corporation (TNC) Expansion: The Contribution of Store Development Departments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood S. and Reynolds J. Establishing territorial embeddedness within retail transnational corporation (TNC) expansion: the contribution of store development departments, Regional Studies. Establishing territorial embeddedness within host regions in international retail expansion is well known to be important, although the processes underpinning its realization are less explicit. This research analyses some ‘emerging practices’ of international expansion planning by drawing on

Steve Wood; Jonathan Reynolds

2012-01-01

147

Genetic differentiation of southeast Baltic populations of sea trout inferred from single nucleotide polymorphisms.  

PubMed

Sea trout (Salmo trutta m. trutta) is a migratory form of brown trout common in the Baltic Sea. Nine populations from the southeast Baltic (Poland; Lithuania; Denmark, Bornholm; Estonia and Russia) were genotyped using iPLEX Gold technology (Sequenom) with 62 informative SNPs. A diagnostic panel of 23 SNPs was applied to estimate genetic differentiation and assess the population structure of Baltic sea trout. The highest level of pairwise FST differences was observed between the Russian (East Gulf of Finland) and Polish (Baltic main basin) populations. The lowest differences were between the two Polish and the Polish and Lithuanian populations. A genetic similarity was noted between the Estonian Riguldi River and Danish Bornholm populations, and this finding was supported by a Bayesian and factorial correspondence analysis. Diversity within populations was highest for populations from Estonia and lowest for the Lithuanian population. Genetic structure analysis indicated that individuals from the nine populations were clustered into four groups. PMID:24236931

Po?wierz-Kotus, A; Berna?, R; D?bowski, P; Kent, M P; Lien, S; Kesler, M; Titov, S; Leli?na, E; Jespersen, H; Drywa, A; Wenne, R

2014-02-01

148

Bioaccumulation of mercury in the trophic chain of flatfish from the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Mercury concentrations in three flatfish species - flounder (Platichtys flesus), plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), and Baltic turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), netted in the southern Baltic Sea were assessed and compared to concentrations of this metal in sediments, sea water, and flatfish food - bivalve Macoma balthica, isopod Saduria entomon, and sprat (Sprattus sprattus). Collected simultaneously with flatfish in 2009 and 2010. Different concentrations of mercury depending on species, tissue or organ, sex, individual length, kind of food, and region were determined. The muscle tissues of turbot had the highest concentrations of the metal. The bioaccumulation (BF) and biomagnification (BMF) factors has been counted showing that the muscle tissues of turbot have maximum affinity for mercury, and thus best reflected the metal contamination of the Baltic Sea environment. The data suggest that the common Baltic turbot (S. maximus) is an important model species, suitable and cost-effective to biomonitor environmental mercury pollution for ecological research. PMID:22704208

Polak-Juszczak, Lucyna

2012-10-01

149

A Body of Work: Building Self and Society at Stalin's White Sea-Baltic Canal.  

E-print Network

??The dissertation concerns the construction of Stalin's White Sea-Baltic Canal (Belomorsko-Baltiskii Kanal imeni Stalina), one of the most significant and infamous forced-labor projects of Soviet… (more)

Draskoczy, Julie Suzanne

2010-01-01

150

Denitrification in the water column of the central Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Removal of fixed nitrogen in the water column of the eastern Gotland Basin, central Baltic Sea, was studied during two cruises in September 2008 and August 2010. The water column was stratified with anoxic sulfidic bottom water meeting oxic nitrate containing water at the oxic-anoxic interface. Anammox was never detected whereas denitrification was found in all incubations from anoxic depths and occurred immediately below the oxic-anoxic interface. Sulfide (H2S + HS- + S2-) was in most cases the only electron donor for denitrification but, in contrast to previous findings, denitrification was in some situations driven by organic matter alone. Nitrous oxide (N2O) became an increasingly important product of denitrification with increasing sulfide concentration and was >80% of the total N gas formation at 10 ?M sulfide. The potential rates of denitrification measured in incubations at elevated NO3- or sulfide concentrations were converted to in situ rates using the measured water column concentrations of NO3- and sulfide and the actual measured relations between NO3- and sulfide concentrations and denitrification rates. In situ denitrification ranged from 0.24 to 15.9 nM N2 h-1. Assuming that these rates were valid throughout the anoxic NO3- containing zone, depth integrated in situ denitrification rates of 0.06-2.11 mmol N m-2 d-1 were estimated. The thickness of this zone was generally 3-6 m, which is probably what can be maintained through regular turbulent mixing induced by internal waves at the oxic-anoxic interface. However, layers of up to 55 m thickness with low O2 water (<10 ?M) were observed which was probably the result of larger scale mixing. In such a layer nitrification may produce NO3- and once the O2 has been depleted denitrification will follow resulting in enormous rates per unit area. Even with an active denitrification layer of 3-6 m thickness the pelagic denitrification per unit area clearly exceeded sediment denitrification rates elsewhere in the Baltic Sea. When extrapolated to the entire Baltic Proper (BP) denitrification in the water column was in the range of 132-547 kton N yr-1 and was thus at least as important as sediment denitrification which has recently been estimated to 191 kton N yr-1. With a total external N-input of 773 kton N yr-1 it is clear that denitrification plays a significant role in the N-budget of the BP.

Dalsgaard, Tage; De Brabandere, Loreto; Hall, Per O. J.

2013-04-01

151

Time trends of chlordane, DDT, and PCB concentrations in pike ( Esox lucius ) and Baltic herring ( Clupea harengus ) in the Turku archipelago, northern Baltic sea for the period 1971–1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of PCB- and DDT-compounds in Baltic wildlife have been extensively studied during the last decade. Since the use of DDT was banned in the early 70's in many countries, including those in Baltic area, the level of DDT-compounds has decreased in the Baltic environment by PAASIVIRTA and LINKO (198o)o The use of PCBcompounds is now banned in Sweden

Raija Moilanen; Heikki Pyysalo; Kim Wickström; Reino Linko

1982-01-01

152

A comparative analysis of early Medieval shipwrecks from the southern shores of the Baltic Sea  

E-print Network

for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS May 1996 Major Subject: Anthropology 1996 GEORGE INDRUSZEWSKZ ALL RIGHTS RESERVED A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF EARLY MEDIEVAL SHIPWRECKS FROM THE SOUTHERN SHORES OF THE BALTIC SEA A Thesis by GEORGE INDRUSZEWSKI... (Member) V ghn M. Bryan r ( ead of Department) Zoltan . Kosztolnyz (Member) May 1996 Major Subject: Anthropology ABSTRACT A Comparative Analysis of Early Medieval Shipwrecks from the Southern Shores of the Baltic Sea. (May 1996) George Indruszewski...

Indruszewski, George

2012-06-07

153

Geochemical records of salt-water inflows into the deep basins of the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The estuarine circulation system of the Baltic Sea promotes stable stratification and bottom water anoxia in sedimentary basins of the Baltic proper. Ingressions of saline, oxygen-rich waters from the North Sea replace the oxygen depleted deep water. Timing and extent of the ingressions vary on time-scales of years to decades, and are largely determined by wind-strength and storm frequency over

T. Neumann; C. Christiansen; S. Clasen; K.-C. Emeis; H. Kunzendorf

1997-01-01

154

Link or sink: a modelling interpretation of the open Baltic biogeochemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 1-D model system, consisting of the 1-D version of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) coupled with the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM) has been applied to a sub-basin of the Baltic Proper, the Bornholm basin. The model has been forced with 3h meteorological data for the period 1979-1990, producing a 12-year hindcast validated with datasets from the Baltic

M. Vichi; P. Ruardij; J. W. Baretta

2004-01-01

155

A Special Trinomial Expansion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author takes up the special trinomial (1 + x + x[squared])[superscript n] and shows that the coefficients of its expansion are entries of a Pascal-like triangle. He also shows how to calculate these entries recursively and explicitly. This article could be used in the classroom for enrichment. (Contains 1 table.)

Ayoub, Ayoub B.

2006-01-01

156

Expansion of the Universe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, developed by Maxine Phaisalakani at the University of Toronto Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, introduces in a slide show presentation research that led to the discovery of the expansion of the universe. The site addresses many astronomical concepts including the big bang theory, dark matter, and the Doppler Effect.

Phaisalakani, Maxine

2007-12-24

157

Static gas expansion cooler  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a cooler for television cameras and other temperature sensitive equipment. The cooler uses compressed gas ehich is accelerated to a high velocity by passing it through flow passageways having nozzle portions which expand the gas. This acceleration and expansion causes the gas to undergo a decrease in temperature thereby cooling the cooler body and adjacent temperature sensitive equipment.

Guzek, J.C.; Lujan, R.A.

1984-01-01

158

Paradoxes of Thermal Expansion  

E-print Network

It is shown that the dependence of negative thermal expansion coefficient of many substances on the temperature contradicts to an important thermodynamic relation. It is supposed that there are oscillations at the Cp(T) and alpha(T) curves at alpha>0 and they are in reverse phases.

I. A. Stepanov

2002-08-06

159

Urban Expansion Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under an Egyptian government contract, PADCO studies urban growth in the Nile Area. They were assisted by LANDSAT survey maps and measurements provided by TAC. TAC had classified the raw LANDSAT data and processed it into various categories to detail urban expansion. PADCO crews spot checked the results, and correlations were established.

1985-01-01

160

AUTO-EXPANSIVE FLOW  

EPA Science Inventory

Physics suggests that the interplay of momentum, continuity, and geometry in outward radial flow must produce density and concomitant pressure reductions. In other words, this flow is intrinsically auto-expansive. It has been proposed that this process is the key to understanding...

161

Observed And Predicted Flow Variability Over The Baltic Region: Implications Of Climate Change For Wind Energy Viability  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present analysis of historical and prognostic future flow regimes in the Baltic with the perspective of the viability of wind energy. Analysis of 850 hPa wind speeds as manifest in the NCEP\\/NCAR reanalysis fields over the Baltic region indicates annual mean wind speeds over the Baltic significantly increased over the period 1953-1999 with the majority of the increase being

S. C. Pryor; R. J. Barthelmie; J. T. Schoof

2003-01-01

162

PUMa - modelling the groundwater flow in Baltic Sedimentary Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2009-2012 at University of Latvia and Latvia University of Agriculture project "Establishment of interdisciplinary scientist group and modelling system for groundwater research" is implemented financed by the European Social Fund. The aim of the project is to develop groundwater research in Latvia by establishing interdisciplinary research group and modelling system covering groundwater flow in the Baltic Sedimentary Basin. Researchers from fields like geology, chemistry, mathematical modelling, physics and environmental engineering are involved in the project. The modelling system is used as a platform for addressing scientific problems such as: (1) large-scale groundwater flow in Baltic Sedimentary Basin and impact of human activities on it; (2) the evolution of groundwater flow since the last glaciation and subglacial groundwater recharge; (3) the effects of climate changes on shallow groundwater and interaction of hydrographical network and groundwater; (4) new programming approaches for groundwater modelling. Within the frame of the project most accessible geological information such as description of geological wells, geological maps and results of seismic profiling in Latvia as well as Estonia and Lithuania are collected and integrated into modelling system. For example data form more then 40 thousands wells are directly used to automatically generate the geological structure of the model. Additionally a groundwater sampling campaign is undertaken. Contents of CFC, stabile isotopes of O and H and radiocarbon are the most significant parameters of groundwater that are established in unprecedented scale for Latvia. The most important modelling results will be published in web as a data set. Project number: 2009/0212/1DP/1.1.1.2.0/09/APIA/VIAA/060. Project web-site: www.puma.lu.lv

Kalvane, G.; Marnica, A.; Bethers, U.

2012-04-01

163

Expansion/De-expansion Tool to Quantify the Accuracy of Prostate Contours  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Accurate delineation of the prostate gland on computed tomography (CT) remains a persistent challenge and continues to introduce geometric uncertainty into the planning and delivery of external beam radiotherapy. We, therefore, developed an expansion/de-expansion tool to quantify the contour errors and determine the location of the deviations. Methods and Materials: A planning CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging scan were prospectively acquired for 10 patients with prostate cancer. The prostate glands were contoured by 3 independent observers using the CT data sets with instructions to contour the prostate without underestimation but to minimize overestimation. The standard prostate for each patient was defined using magnetic resonance imaging and CT on multiple planes. After registration of the CT and magnetic resonance imaging data sets, the CT-defined prostates were scored for accuracy. The contours were defined as ideal if they were within a 2.5-mm expansion of the standard without underestimation, acceptable if they were within a 5.0-mm expansion and a 2.5-mm de-expansion, and unacceptable if they extended >5.0 mm or underestimated the prostate by >2.5 mm. Results: A total of 636 CT slices were individually analyzed, with the vast majority scored as ideal or acceptable. However, none of the 30 prostate contour sets had all the contours scored as ideal or acceptable. For all 3 observers, the unacceptable contours were more likely from underestimation than overestimation of the prostate. The errors were more common at the base and apex than the mid-gland. Conclusions: The expansion/de-expansion tool allows for directed feedback on the location of contour deviations, as well as the determination of over- or underestimation of the prostate. This metric might help improve the accuracy of prostate contours.

Chung, Eugene; Stenmark, Matthew H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Evans, Cheryl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Providence Cancer Center, Novi, MI (United States); Narayana, Vrinda [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Providence Cancer Center, Novi, MI (United States); McLaughlin, Patrick W., E-mail: mclaughb@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Providence Cancer Center, Novi, MI (United States)

2012-05-01

164

Expansion tube test time predictions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interaction of an interface between two gases and strong expansion is investigated and the effect on flow in an expansion tube is examined. Two mechanisms for the unsteady Pitot-pressure fluctuations found in the test section of an expansion tube are proposed. The first mechanism depends on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of the driver-test gas interface in the presence of a strong expansion. The second mechanism depends on the reflection of the strong expansion from the interface. Predictions compare favorably with experimental results. The theory is expected to be independent of the absolute values of the initial expansion tube filling pressures.

Gourlay, Christopher M.

1988-01-01

165

Range expansion of mutualists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The expansion of a species into new territory is often strongly influenced by the presence of other species. This effect is particularly striking for the case of mutualistic species that enhance each other's proliferation. Examples range from major events in evolutionary history, such as the spread and diversification of flowering plants due to their mutualism with pollen-dispersing insects, to modern examples like the surface colonisation of multi-species microbial biofilms. Here, we investigate the spread of cross-feeding strains of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on an agar surface as a model system for expanding mutualists. Depending on the degree of mutualism, the two strains form distinctive spatial patterns during their range expansion. This change in spatial patterns can be understood as a phase transition within a stepping stone model generalized to two mutualistic species.

Muller, Melanie J. I.; Korolev, Kirill S.; Murray, Andrew W.; Nelson, David R.

2012-02-01

166

EXPANSION NOW!: HAITI, \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to analyze Frederick Douglass' responses to U.S. empire formation in Santo Domingo, between 1870-1872, and in Haiti, between 1889-1891. As U.S. Minister to Haiti and as Assistant Secretary of U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant's commission to annex the Dominican Republic, Douglass fully supported the virtues of U.S. expansion and U.S. Pan-American- ism as long as it promoted

Millery Polyné

2006-01-01

167

Ideal Gas Expansion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Ideal Gas Expansion model simulates a two-dimensional ideal gas in a square box. This simulation can be used as part of the activity described in "The Statistical Interpretation of Entropy: An Activity" by Todd Timberlake, to be published in The Physics Teacher. In the model, the particles are initially all on the left (red) side of the box with otherwise random positions and random velocities (distributed according to a Maxwell distribution). Separate windows show the motion of the gas particles, a plot of the number of particles on each side versus time, and a histogram of the number of occurrences of a given number of particles on the left. The user can modify this simulation if EJS is installed locally by right-clicking within the plot and selecting "Open Ejs Model" from the pop-up menu item. EJS Ideal Gas Expansion model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_entropy_IdealGasExpansion.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. EJS is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional EJS models re available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or EJS.

Timberlake, Todd

2010-06-18

168

An algorithm based on sea level pressure fluctuations to identify major Baltic inflow events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baltic Sea is one of world largest brackish water areas with an estuarine like circulation. It is connected to the world ocean through the narrow Danish straits limiting the exchange of water masses. The deep water of the Baltic Sea is mainly renewed by so called major Baltic inflows which are an important feature to sustain the sensitive steady state of the Baltic Sea. We introduce an algorithm to identify atmospheric variability favourable for major Baltic inflows. The algorithm is based on sea level pressure fields as the only parameter. Characteristic sea level pressure pattern fluctuations include a precursory phase of 30 days and 10 days of inflow period. The algorithm identifies successfully the majority of observed major Baltic inflows between 1961--2010. In addition, the algorithm finds some occurrences which cannot be related to observed inflows. In these cases with favourable atmospheric conditions inflows were precluded by contemporaneously existing saline water masses or strong freshwater supply. No event is registered during the stagnation period 1983-1993 indicating that the lack of inflows is a consequence of missing favourable atmospheric variability. The only striking inflow which is not identified by the algorithm is the event in January 2003. We demonstrate that this is due to the special evolution of sea level pressure fields which are not comparable with any other event. Finally, the algorithm is applied to an ensemble of scenario simulations. The result indicates that the number of atmospheric events favourable for major Baltic inflows increases slightly in all scenarios. Possible explanations as for instance more frequent atmospheric blockings or changes in the NAO will be discussed.

Schimanke, Semjon; Dieterich, Christian; Markus Meier, H. E.

2014-05-01

169

Icy heritage: ecological evolution of the postglacial Baltic Sea reflected in the allozymes of a living fossil, the priapulid Halicryptus spinulosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variation of 16 allozyme loci in 397 Halicryptus spinulosus (Priapulida) revealed overall polymorphism of P=0.438 and Hardy-Weinberg expectations for heterozygosity of He=0.060 for Baltic Sea stocks, He=0.143 for the White Sea and He=0.121 for Iceland. Maximal unbiased standard distances of D=0.0693 separated Baltic and White Sea populations. Nordic and Baltic populations could be distinguished by allozymes, but Baltic subsamples

A. Schreiber; M. Eisinger; H. Rumohr; V. Storch

1996-01-01

170

Variability of Atmospheric Circulation Patterns associated with Major Baltic Inflows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the narrow and shallow Danish Straits the water exchange between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea is greatly restrained. As a consequence the salt flux into the Baltic Sea is reduced, so that during stagnation periods where no strong inflows occur the permanent halocline weakens, and even disappears in some basins. Only Major Baltic inflows (MBIs), when large volumes of highly saline and oxygenated water invade over the sills, are capable to flow as dense bottom currents into the central deeps and replace the stagnant water there, simultaneously improving living conditions to biota. MBIs are typically forced by a sequence of easterly winds lasting for about 20 days followed by strong to very strong westerly winds of similar duration. Since the mid-1970s, the frequency and intensity of major inflows have decreased, and they were completely absent between February 1983 and January 1993. As the major inflows are mainly forced by the atmosphere, the reason for this kind of change is assumed to be connected to variations in the atmospheric circulation. There have been several studies where the changes in regional atmospheric circulation have been described through local wind climatology or modes of large scale low-frequency circulation variability, defined by means of principal component analysis. Another way to describe atmospheric circulation patterns is by classifying them into different atmospheric circulation types. The latter are well suited for describing sequences of circulation patterns in appropriate temporal (in hours) and spatial (regional to local) scales. Circulation types reflect real circulation patterns, which are easy to interpret, unlike the modes of variability, that cannot be considered as typical patterns of airflow, but just as building bricks for describing variability of the atmospheric circulation. Hence, our aim was to characterize the variability of sequences of atmospheric circulation patterns at the time of MBIs, to use this knowledge for studying their recurrence in different time periods. We defined the patterns of air flow over the Danish Straits by using the Jenkinson-Collison types (JCT) of atmospheric circulation. The JCT is based on six different flow indices, that quantify the zonal and meridional airflow and its vorticity. JCT could be called also synoptic weather types, which describe the positions of cyclones and anticyclones that determine the airflow. The gridded dataset of sea level pressures from NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis have been classified for 6 hourly data subsets into 26 circulation patterns over the period 1948-2013. The sequence and variability of circulation patterns over 60 days long periods, including 30 days before the main inflow period have been analyzed. During all 11 MBI events there was dominant SW, W or NW air flow, with very similar zonal gradient at the first day of inflow for all cases. The pre-inflow period was dominated by anticyclonic vorticity, while during the inflow period and the post-period cyclonic vorticity prevailed. These conclusions are in good accordance with previous studies. However, the detailed inspection of the JCT flow indices revealed high variability.

Post, Piia; Lehmann, Andreas

2014-05-01

171

Operator product expansion algebra  

SciTech Connect

We establish conceptually important properties of the operator product expansion (OPE) in the context of perturbative, Euclidean ?{sup 4}-quantum field theory. First, we demonstrate, generalizing earlier results and techniques of hep-th/1105.3375, that the 3-point OPE, =?{sub C}C{sub A{sub 1A{sub 2A{sub 3}{sup C}}}}, usually interpreted only as an asymptotic short distance expansion, actually converges at finite, and even large, distances. We further show that the factorization identity C{sub A{sub 1A{sub 2A{sub 3}{sup B}}}}=?{sub C}C{sub A{sub 1A{sub 2}{sup C}}}C{sub CA{sub 3}{sup B}} is satisfied for suitable configurations of the spacetime arguments. Again, the infinite sum is shown to be convergent. Our proofs rely on explicit bounds on the remainders of these expansions, obtained using refined versions, mostly due to Kopper et al., of the renormalization group flow equation method. These bounds also establish that each OPE coefficient is a real analytic function in the spacetime arguments for non-coinciding points. Our results hold for arbitrary but finite loop orders. They lend support to proposals for a general axiomatic framework of quantum field theory, based on such “consistency conditions” and akin to vertex operator algebras, wherein the OPE is promoted to the defining structure of the theory.

Holland, Jan [School of Mathematics, Cardiff University, Senghennydd Rd, Cardiff CF24 4AG (United Kingdom)] [School of Mathematics, Cardiff University, Senghennydd Rd, Cardiff CF24 4AG (United Kingdom); Hollands, Stefan [School of Mathematics, Cardiff University, Senghennydd Rd, Cardiff CF24 4AG (United Kingdom) [School of Mathematics, Cardiff University, Senghennydd Rd, Cardiff CF24 4AG (United Kingdom); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Leipzig, Brüderstr. 16, Leipzig, D-04103 (Germany)

2013-07-15

172

Sensing dissolved methane in aquatic environments: an experiment in the central baltic sea using surface plasmon resonance.  

PubMed

A new sensor for in situ, real time methane (CH4) measurements in aqueous environments is based on the refractive index (RI) modulation of a sensitive film composed of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer incorporating molecules of cryptophane-A. The RI varies according to the amount of CH4 bound to the cryptophane-A in the film and is determined using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Tests of the sensor in the summer of 2012 reveal the expansive range of conditions of the Central Baltic Sea with CH4 concentrations varying from 5 nM up to a few hundred nanomolar. The sensor showed detection limits down to 3 nM, sensitivity of 6 to 7 × 10(-6) RIU/nM, and response times of 1 to 2 min. Best responses were obtained for concentrations up to 200 nM. Side effects (temperature, cross-sensitivity) are reviewed for future improvements to the sensor design. CH4 values are highest in the Landsort Deep up to 1.2 ?M at 400 m depth and lowest in the Gotland Deep with 900 nM at 220 m depth. However, variable values in the upper layers indicate higher mixing rates due to currents and wind driven forces in the Gotland Basin compared with almost constant CH4 values in the Landsort Deep. PMID:23815404

Boulart, Cédric; Prien, Ralf; Chavagnac, Valérie; Dutasta, Jean-Pierre

2013-08-01

173

Load regulating expansion fixture  

DOEpatents

A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components.

Wagner, Lawrence M. (San Jose, CA); Strum, Michael J. (San Jose, CA)

1998-01-01

174

Iron cycling microbial communities in sediments of the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biogeochemical cycling of iron is a key early diagenetic process. However, limited information exists about the diversity and metabolic pathways of microorganisms linked to iron cycling in marine sediments. The goal of this study was to determine the bacterial community diversity in sediments showing ongoing dissimilatory iron reduction using 454-pyrosequencing as a first step in characterizing microorganisms potentially involved in iron reduction. For this purpose, two 35 cm cores were sampled from ferruginous sediments in the Skagerrak (SK) and the Bothnian Bay (BB) from the North-Sea Baltic Sea and the northern Baltic Sea respectively. Pore water profiles showed Fe2+ and Mn2+ levels of ~140-150 µM throughout the core below a 6 cm thick oxidized surface layer in SK sediments and ~300 µM below a 2 cm thick surface layer in BB sediments. Dissolved sulphide levels were below detection in both sediments. No significant depletion of SO42- occurred at both sites, further supported by stable S and O isotope analyses of dissolved sulfate at SK site. Only very minor net sulfate reduction is suggested here from the trend in sulphur isotope signatures, in agreement with previously reported gross microbial sulphate rate measurements (Canfield et al., 1993;GCA). Based on these biogeochemical constraints, Fe reduction in the studied sediments is therefore dominated by microbial dissimilatory iron reduction, while cryptic Fe-S-cycling can be largely excluded. 16S rRNA gene sequences indicate Proteobacteria as the dominating microbial group in these sediments. Potential iron and manganese reducing bacteria included Geobacteraceae, Pelobacteraceae, Shewanellaceae, and Oceanospirillales. Additionally, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were present. Also, Fe-oxidizers were present and their occurrence correlated in depth with a Fe-oxide-rich layer, most likely a former buried Fe-oxidation front. Gene sequences point to the presence of Mariprofundus in SK sediments and Gallionella in the brackisch BB sediment, hence, Fe oxidizers are adapted to the prevailing salinity. Beta diversity indicates that most diversity between the two sites is due to Gaiellaceae and Ellin6529 groups in BB and Phycisphaerae and Desulfobacteraceae in SK sediments. Considering the entire community in these zones of Fe reduction, it is clearly distinct from communities commonly found in sulphate reduction zones.

Reyes, Carolina; Delwig, Olaf; Noriega-Ortega, Beatriz; Dähnke, Kirstin; Böttcher, Michael E.; Friedrich, Michael W.

2014-05-01

175

Dissipation in the Baltic proper during winter stratification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Profiles of dissipation rates and stratification between 10 and 120 m depth were measured with a loosely tethered profiler over a 9-day winter period in the Gotland Basin of the Baltic Sea. Supplementary measurements of current profiles were made with moored ADCPs. Temporal and spatial patterns of the stratification were observed by means of towed CTD. Shallow freshwater lenses in the surface mixed layer, mesoscale eddies, inertial oscillations, and inertial waves as part of the internal wave spectrum provided the marine physical environment for the small-scale turbulence. Two well-separated turbulence regimes were detected. The turbulence in the surface mixed layer was well correlated with the wind. The majority of the energy flux from the wind to the turbulent kinetic energy was dissipated within the surface mixed layer. A minor part of this flux was consumed by changes of the potential energy of the fresh water lenses. The penetration depth Hpen of the wind-driven turbulence into the weakly stratified surface mixed layer depended on the local wind speed (W10) as Hpen = cW103/2 Active erosion of the Baltic halocline by wind-driven turbulence is expected for wind speeds greater than 14 m/s. The turbulence in the strongly stratified interior of the water column was quite independent of the meteorological forcing at the sea surface. The integrated production of turbulent kinetic energy exceeded the energy loss of inertial oscillations in the surface layer suggesting additional energy sources which might have been provided by inertial wave radiation during geostrophic adjustment of coastal jets and mesoscale eddies. The averaged dissipation rate profile in the stratified part of the water column, best fitted by ? ? EN, was different from the scaling of the dissipation in the thermocline of the ocean [, 1986]. The diapycnical mixing coefficient (Kv) was best fit by Kv = a0/N according to [1987] with a0 ? 0.87 × 10-7 m2/s2. The diapycnal diffusivity estimated from the dissipation rate was lower than those estimated by the bulk method.

Lass, Hans Ulrich; Prandke, Hartmut; Liljebladh, Bengt

2003-06-01

176

Allelopathic Effects of Cyanobacterial Filtrates on Baltic Diatom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Allelopathy may be one of the factors affecting the formation of massive and harmful algal blooms in aquatic environments. Recent studies indicate that blooms of cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea has grown significantly in last decades, so it is important to determine the allelopathic interactions between the dominant species of cyanobacteria and microalgae. In this work we investigated the influence of allelopathic compounds on the growth of Skeletonema marinoi by addition of cell-free filtrate of the Baltic cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena cultures grown under different temperature (15-25°C). Additionally the effects of filtrates of both an exponential and a stationary growing culture of N. spumigena were tested on diatom. These studies indicate that high temperature affected the donor species by increasing its production of allelochemicals. The highest drop of growth of analyzed diatom were observed after the addition of cell-free filtrate obtained from N. spumigena grown at 25°C and constituted 70% of their control. N. spumigena was only allelopathic in exponential growth phase, whereas the cyanobacteria filtrate from stationary phase have any effect on S. marinoi. These findings suggest that N. spumigena may reveal allelopathic activity and that the production of allelopathic substances is influenced by the temperature and growth phase of cyanobacteria. Allelopatia mo?e by? kluczowym czynnikiem wp?ywaj?cym na tworzenie si? masowych zakwitów sinic w wielu wodnych ekosystemach. Badania pokazuj?, ?e zakwity sinic w Morzu Ba?tyckim w ostatnich dekadach znacznie si? nasili?y, dlatego tak wa?ne jest okre?lenie stopnia oddzia?ywania allelopatycznego dominuj?cych w tym akwenie gatunków fitoplanktonu. W przeprowadzonych badaniach okre?lono wp?yw zwi?zków allelopatycznych produkowanych przez ba?tyck? sinic? Nodularia spumigena hodowan? w ró?nych temperaturach (15-25°C) na wzrost okrzemki Skeletonema marinoi. Dodatkowo w niniejszej pracy porównano wp?yw przes?czu komórkowego uzyskanego z hodowli sinic b?d?cych w fazie logarytmicznego i stacjonarnego wzrostu. Badania wykaza?y, ?e temperatura modyfikuje allelopatyczne oddzia?ywania i na przyk?ad najwy?szy spadek wzrostu zaobserwowano u S. marinoi po dodaniu przes?czu uzyskanego z kultur N. spumigena hodowanych w 25°C. Wynosi? on 70% w stosunku do kontroli. Ponadto w pracy stwierdzono, ?e N. spumigena wykazywa?a oddzia?ywanie allelopatyczne na badan? okrzemk? jedynie wtedy, gdy dodawany przes?cz komórkowy pochodzi? z fazy logarytmicznego wzrostu. Wyniki uzyskane w niniejszej pracy sugeruj?, ?e ba?tyckie sinice mog? wykazywa? oddzia?ywania allelopatyczne w stosunku do okrzemek a produkcja zwi?zków allelopatycznych mo?e by? zale?na od temperatury oraz fazy wzrostu, w której znajduj? si? organizmy donorowe.

?liwi?ska, Sylwia; Lata?a, Adam

2012-01-01

177

Modelling of the groundwater flow in Baltic Artesian Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Baltic Artesian Basin (BAB) is a multi-layered complex hydrogeological system underlying about 480'000 km2 in the territory of Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland, Russia, Belarus and the Baltic Sea. The model of the geological structure contains 42 layers including aquifers and aquitards from Cambrian up to the Quaternary deposits. The finite element method was employed for the calculation of the steady state three-dimensional groundwater flow with free surface. The horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities of geological materials were assumed constant in each of the layers. The Precambrian basement forms the impermeable bottom of the model. The zero water exchange is assumed through the side boundaries of BAB. Simple hydrological model is applied on the surface. The level of the lakes, rivers and the sea is fixed as constant hydraulic head in corresponding mesh points. The infiltration is set as a flux boundary condition elsewhere. Instead of extensive coupling with hydrology model, a constant mean value of 70 mm/year was assumed as an infiltration flux for the whole BAB area and this value was adjusted during the automatic calibration process. Averaged long-term water extraction was applied at the water supply wells with large debits. In total 49 wells in Lithuania (total abstraction 45000 m3/day), 161 in Latvia (184000 m3/day) and 172 in Estonia (24000 m3/day) are considered. The model was calibrated on the statistically weighted (using both spatial and temporal weighting function) borehole water level measurements applying automatic parameter optimization method L-BFGS-B for hydraulic conductivities of each layer. The steady-stade calculations were performed for the situations corresponding to undisturbed situation (1950-ies), intensive groundwater use (1980-ies) and present state situation (after 2000). The distribution of piezometric heads and principal flows inside BAB was analyzed based on the model results. The results demonstrate that generally the flow is directed from southeast to northwest, but the more shallow aquifers show strong influence by local topography. There is an intensive transient flow in Cm aquifer system and this flow is separated from upper layers by thick aquitard O-S. About 25% of the aquifers volume is under free flowing artesian conditions. Acknowledgement The present work has been funded by the European Social Fund project "Establishment of interdisciplinary scientist group and modelling system for groundwater research" (Project No. 2009/0212/1DP/1.1.1.2.0/09/APIA/VIAA/060)

Virbulis, J.; Sennikovs, J.; Bethers, U.

2012-04-01

178

The process of self-purification of the Baltic Sea waters from artificial radionuclides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of the variations in the concentrations of 137Cs and 90Sr radionuclides in the Baltic Sea surface waters after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was performed. An instability of the 137Cs concentration values during the short-term observations was found, when these values were differed 2-to 3-fold. The concentrations of 90Sr appeared to be more stable; meanwhile, their deviations sometimes exceeded the ranges of the experimental errors. By the variations in the monthly average values of the radionuclide concentrations in the surface waters of the Baltic Sea in 1989-1995, no trend of the water self-purification was observed. The theoretical results obtained confirmed the potential of the formation and propagation of patches with increased concentrations of 137Cs in the southeastern part of the Baltic Sea. The most reliable factor that controlled the process of self-purification of the Baltic Sea water appeared to be the mean annual value of the concentration of radionuclides. Pronounced divergences were obtained between the measured and calculated mean annual concentrations of 137Cs and 90Sr radionuclides in the surface waters of the Baltic Sea in 1989-2001. These divergences are explained by the potential influence of the waters from the Gulf of Bothnia and by other additional supplies of radionuclides to the marine environment, which were not included into the mathematical models.

Styro, D.; Morkuniene, R.; Vdovinskiene, S.

2006-05-01

179

Regional differences in mRNA responses in blue mussels within the Baltic proper.  

PubMed

Mussels (Mytilus sp.) from two regions along the permanent salinity gradient within the Baltic proper were exposed to copper (35 ppb) or petrol (0.3 mL/L) for 10 days and analyzed for mRNA expressions in gill tissue. Expression of mRNAs for the heat shock proteins HSP70 and HSP90 was significantly induced by copper, but not by petrol. For the metallothioneins MT10 and MT20, regional differences in mRNA expressions could be seen. In mussels from the northern Baltic proper, MT20 expression increased 2.8 and 3.4 times, after exposure to copper and petrol, respectively. In contrast, no change could be seen in MT20 expression for mussels from the southern Baltic proper. MT10 showed a peculiar expression not previously described. For some mussels, no expression at all was detected, some showed a weak expression and for some individuals a strong expression could be seen. For the mussels from the southern Baltic proper, the number of individuals with a strong expression of MT10 increased from 1 out of 18 (control), to 7 and 8, after exposure to copper and petrol, respectively. The results clearly show that responses vary between different regions within the Baltic proper, which emphasises the importance to study interactions between contaminants, populations and regions. PMID:18502694

Lilja, Karl; Prevodnik, Andreas; Gardeström, Johanna; Elfwing, Tina; Tedengren, Michael; Bollner, Tomas

2008-08-01

180

Biodiversity gradient in the Baltic Sea: a comprehensive inventory of macrozoobenthos data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Helsinki Commission Red List project 2009-2012, taxonomic and distributional data of benthic (macro) invertebrates were compiled by the present authors in a comprehensive checklist of the Baltic Sea fauna. Based on the most recent and comprehensive data, this paper presents the diversity patterns observed among benthic invertebrates in the Baltic Sea. As expected, the total number of species per sub-region generally declined along the salinity gradient from the Danish Straits to the northern Baltic Sea. This relationship is well known from the Baltic Sea and has resulted in a general assumption of an exponentially positive relationship between species richness and salinity for marine species, and a negative relationship for freshwater species. In 1934, Remane produced a diagram to describe the hypothetical distribution of benthic invertebrate diversity along a marine-freshwater salinity gradient. Our results clearly indicated the validity of this theory for the macrozoobenthic diversity pattern within the Baltic Sea. Categorisation of sub-regions according to species composition showed both separation and grouping of some sub-regions and a strong alignment of similarity patterns of zoobenthic species composition along the salinity gradient.

Zettler, Michael L.; Karlsson, Anna; Kontula, Tytti; Gruszka, Piotr; Laine, Ari O.; Herkül, Kristjan; Schiele, Kerstin S.; Maximov, Alexey; Haldin, Jannica

2014-03-01

181

Oceanographic connectivity and environmental correlates of genetic structuring in Atlantic herring in the Baltic Sea  

PubMed Central

Marine fish often show little genetic structuring in neutral marker genes, and Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in the Baltic Sea are no exception; historically, very low levels of population differentiation (FST ? 0.002) have been found, despite a high degree of interpopulation environmental heterogeneity in salinity and temperature. Recent exome sequencing and SNP studies have however shown that many loci are under selection in this system. Here, we combined population genetic analyses of a large number of transcriptome-derived microsatellite markers with oceanographic modelling to investigate genetic differentiation and connectivity in Atlantic herring at a relatively fine scale within the Baltic Sea. We found evidence for weak but robust and significant genetic structuring (FST = 0.008) explainable by oceanographic connectivity. Genetic differentiation was also associated with site differences in temperature and salinity, with the result driven by the locus Her14 which appears to be under directional selection (FST = 0.08). The results show that Baltic herring are genetically structured within the Baltic Sea, and highlight the role of oceanography and environmental factors in explaining this structuring. The results also have implications for the management of herring fisheries, the most economically important fishery in the Baltic Sea, suggesting that the current fisheries management units may be in need of revision. PMID:23745145

Teacher, Amber GF; Andre, Carl; Jonsson, Per R; Merila, Juha

2013-01-01

182

Applying conclusions of the new economic geography for supporting elaboration of the spatial development strategies in the Baltic Sea Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial development policies are frequently elaborated without sufficient economics concern. This paper aims at testing possibilities opened by concepts of the “new economic geography” to verify assumptions of decision makers from the Baltic Sea Region (BSR) countries on the negative impacts of the still existing transport barriers on regional (i.e. Baltic) integration and cohesion. For that purpose the analysis of

Jacek Zaucha; Krzysztof Najman

2010-01-01

183

Relationships between fish stock changes in the Baltic Sea and the M74 syndrome, a reproductive disorder of Atlantic  

E-print Network

Relationships between fish stock changes in the Baltic Sea and the M74 syndrome, a reproductive. Relationships between fish stock changes in the Baltic Sea and the M74 syndrome, a reproductive disorder in the BPr, primarily sprat, induce M74. By reducing the fishing pressure on cod (Gadus morhua) and by more

184

Hydrography and mollusc faunas of the Baltic and the White Sea–North Sea seaway in the Eemian  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palynologically dated mollusc and cirriped faunas from a region extending from the North Sea through the Baltic and Karelia to the Arkhangelsk region show that the hydrography of the Baltic was very different from the Holocene. For 2–2.5 ka in the Early Eemian a seaway existed from the Barents to the North Sea through Karelia, until it was severed at

Svend Funder; Igor Demidov; Yadviga Yelovicheva

2002-01-01

185

Saturations of N2O and CH4 in the Rivers of the Northern Baltic Sea (the Bothnian Bay)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Baltic Sea is a very special marine ecosystem, consisting of fresh water brought by the rivers and rain flow and occasional inflows of salt water from the North Sea, thus being a largest brackish water body in the world. Anthropogenic activity has increased the input of nitrogen to the Baltic Sea provoking eutrophication. Also a large amount of organic

H. Silvennoinen; A. Liikanen; J. T. Huttunen; P. J. Martikainen

2003-01-01

186

1 18 May 2003 Ris International Energy Conference Analysis of a future liberalised Lithuanian/Baltic Electricity  

E-print Network

of analyses ­ Production patterns ­ Market prices on electricity ­ Future situation for power plants ­ Welfare/Baltic Electricity market Analysis of a future liberalised Lithuanian/Baltic Electricity market Risø International · Model used for the analyses · Results of analyses ­ Production patterns ­ Market prices on electricity

187

Periodicity in Sediments from the Baltic Sea and in Greenland Ice as Climate Signals for the Late Quaternary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climatic records from Greenland ice and Baltic Sea provide as well information about global climate changes as about local basin peculiarities. Late Quaternary sediments have been accumulated in the Baltic Basin with high accumulation rates, qualifying them for the study of late Pleistocene to Holocene climate and environmental history in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic realm. Physical and geochemical

J. Harff; R. Endler; S. Kotov; T. Leipe; A. Witkowski

2009-01-01

188

Modelling the Influence of Major Baltic Inflows on Near-Bottom Conditions at the Entrance of the Gulf of Finland  

PubMed Central

A coupled hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model was implemented in order to estimate the effects of Major Baltic Inflows on the near-bottom hydrophysical and biogeochemical conditions in the northern Baltic Proper and the western Gulf of Finland during the period 1991–2009. We compared results of a realistic reference run to the results of an experimental run where Major Baltic Inflows were suppressed. Further to the expected overall decrease in bottom salinity, this modelling experiment confirms that in the absence of strong saltwater inflows the deep areas of the Baltic Proper would become more anoxic, while in the shallower areas (western Gulf of Finland) near-bottom average conditions improve. Our experiment revealed that typical estuarine circulation results in the sporadic emergence of short-lasting events of near-bottom anoxia in the western Gulf of Finland due to transport of water masses from the Baltic Proper. Extrapolating our results beyond the modelled period, we speculate that the further deepening of the halocline in the Baltic Proper is likely to prevent inflows of anoxic water to the Gulf of Finland and in the longer term would lead to improvement in near-bottom conditions in the Baltic Proper. Our results reaffirm the importance of accurate representation of salinity dynamics in coupled Baltic Sea models serving as a basis for credible hindcast and future projection simulations of biogeochemical conditions. PMID:25393720

Lessin, Gennadi; Raudsepp, Urmas; Stips, Adolf

2014-01-01

189

Artificial radionuclides ??Sr and ²?¹Am in the sediments of the Baltic Sea: total and spatial inventories and some temporal trends.  

PubMed

The Baltic Sea was contaminated by radioactivity following global nuclear fallout and later by the Chernobyl accident. Despite the decrease of radioactivity caused by radioactive decay, radionuclides have a prolonged residence time in the water of the Baltic Sea due to slow water exchange and relatively rapid sedimentation. Very little is known about the amounts or spatial differences of ??Sr and ²?¹Am in the Baltic Sea sediments. In this study, 20 sediment cores taken around the Baltic Sea were investigated to estimate inventories of these radionuclides. The rough results show that the Chernobyl fallout added the amount of ??Sr in the same areas where the increase of ¹³?Cs can be detected, whereas this is not the case for ²?¹Am which is more evenly distributed in the sea bottom. In addition, local differences occur in the concentrations. These results are an important amendment to the radioactivity baseline of the Baltic Sea. PMID:23582977

Hutri, Kaisa-Leena; Mattila, Jukka; Ikäheimonen, Tarja Tuulikki; Vartti, Vesa-Pekka

2013-05-15

190

Seasonal Activity Budget of Adult Baltic Ringed Seals  

PubMed Central

Although ringed seals are important components in oceanic and fresh water ecosystems at high latitudes, little is known about how they exploit these harsh environments. Seasonal activity and diving behaviour of 19 adult Baltic ringed seals were studied by satellite telemetry. We elaborated an activity budget for ten months of the year, extending over the period from moult to the breeding season. Seals from three main regions showed explicit site fidelity and the distributions of animals tagged from different areas did not overlap, suggesting separate stocks. Both the mean duration and the mean depth of dives peaked in June and July. Seals spent 70% (females) to 85% (males) of their time diving in June and July which decreased to 50% in late autumn. Less than one percent of dives exceeded 10 min in females, while 10% of male dives lasted longer than 10 min in June to September. Less than one percent of dives lasted for more than 25 min. Both females and males were most active during day time and hauled out predominantly during the night. Activity patterns during the summer are suggested to be correlated to energy accumulation and prey availability. The information on seasonal activity budget is crucial for developing population energetic models where interactions between ringed seals and other trophic levels can be evaluated. PMID:18414676

Harkonen, Tero; Jussi, Mart; Jussi, Ivar; Verevkin, Michail; Dmitrieva, Lilia; Helle, Eero; Sagitov, Roustam; Harding, Karin C.

2008-01-01

191

Modelling PCB bioaccumulation in a Baltic food web.  

PubMed

A steady state model is developed to describe the bioaccumulation of organic contaminants by 14 species in a Baltic food web including pelagic and benthic aquatic organisms. The model is used to study the bioaccumulation of five PCB congeners of different chlorination levels. The model predictions are evaluated against monitoring data for five of the species in the food web. Predicted concentrations are on average within a factor of two of measured concentrations. The model shows that all PCB congeners were biomagnified in the food web, which is consistent with observations. Sensitivity analysis reveals that the single most sensitive parameter is log K(OW). The most sensitive environmental parameter is the annual average temperature. Although not identified amongst the most sensitive input parameters, the dissolved concentration in water is believed to be important because of the uncertainty in its determination. The most sensitive organism-specific input parameters are the fractional respiration of species from the water column and sediment pore water, which are also difficult to determine. Parameters such as feeding rate, growth rate and lipid content of organism are only important at higher trophic levels. PMID:17291648

Nfon, Erick; Cousins, Ian T

2007-07-01

192

Experimental Analysis on Flow Expansion Over Fan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present experimental evidence on the occurrence of large angles of flow expansion with no flow separation over depositional fans. The evolution of a number of self-formed experimental fans was analyzed using overhead images and detailed topographic surveys. Angles of flow expansion up to 45 degrees were found in association with a characteristic bed curvature. Although precise measurements indicate that transverse curvature appeared to slightly decrease downstream over the fans, an approximately constant value of curvature of about 0.1 (r/W = 0.1, where r is the dimensional curvature and W is the maximum width of the fan) fits well all fan sections analyzed. In addition, we found that bed curvature shows a weak proportional dependence with fan expansion angles (alpha around 20 degrees, where alpha is the local plan angle). The curvature appears sufficient to explain the common occurrence of unchannelized, simple fans with opening angles, and hence rates of bedload divergence, much larger than would be predicted from jet theory. We have also analyzed fan development. In our experiments, an instability phenomenon causes a sudden increase in channel width, in association with the formation of a scour. A common development pattern was observed: the upstream-migrating scour initiates flow expansion, inducing in turn the formation of a transient concave heart-shaped fan shape that then slowly develops into a final, steady cone-shaped deposit. Most of the deposition appears to occur during the initial expansion phase. During final steady conditions, fans were also observed to reach values of L/0.5W (L is the final fan length and W is the fan width) approximately constant and in the range 2-4.

Sittoni, L.; Paola, C.

2005-12-01

193

MPC&A training needs of the NIS/Baltics States.  

SciTech Connect

This report serves to document contract deliverables considered to be of continuing interest associated with two workshops conducted as part of an initial assessment of Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) training needs of the Newly Independent and Baltic States (NIS/Baltics). These workshops were held in Kiev, Ukraine, ca. 2003-2004, with the assistance of personnel from the George Kuzmycz Training Center (GKTC) of the Kiev Institute of Nuclear Research (KINR). Because of the dominant role Ukraine plays in the region in terms of the nuclear industry, one workshop focused exclusively on Ukrainian training needs, with participants attending from twelve Ukrainian organizations (plus U.S. DOE/NNSA representatives). The second workshop included participation by a further ten countries from the NIS/Baltics region. In addition, the training needs data developed during the workshop were supplemented by the outcomes of surveys and studies conducted by the GKTC.

Beck, David Franklin; Stoy-McLeod, Carol L.

2006-07-01

194

[The Baltic countries as the birthplace of embryology. Contingencies of a transnational region of science].  

PubMed

Modern embryology is grounded on the research of Pander (theory of germ-layers), von Baer (human egg) and Rathke (branchial arches in mammals). All these scientists lived and worked in the Baltic region. They held professorships at the universities of Koenigsberg and Dorpat and at the Imperial Academy of St. Petersburg, thus moving between the Kingdom of Prussia and the Russian Czardom. Since the Baltic countries are not commonly considered to be predestined as a birthplace of embryology, special attention is turned to the coincidences that, there of all places, made those people focus on that special field of research. Considering the peripheral position of the Baltic, the paper examines personal relations, national identities, cultural exchange, and local working conditions, including room for development as well as formidable obstacles. PMID:21563375

Riha, Ortrun; Schmuck, Thomas

2010-01-01

195

Environmental considerations in urban planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of cities around the world tells us that many environmental problems could have been avoided through better thought at the planning phases. The present paper considers the issues of overpopulation, construction expansion, urbanization, and industrial boom and expansion. Examples of developments in Kuwait are cited, focusing more on the repercussion of the industrial development. The paper will focus

2004-01-01

196

Caesium-137 distribution, inventories and accumulation history in the Baltic Sea sediments.  

PubMed

The Baltic Sea is susceptible to pollution by hazardous substances due to limited water exchange, shallowness, and the large catchment area. Radionuclides, particularly (137)Cs, are one of the most hazardous anthropogenic substances present in the Baltic environment. This study was conducted to present (137)Cs present contamination that should further be a subject of reliable monitoring when the new Nuclear Power Plant is put into operation in the northern Poland. The sea-wide, up to date distribution of (137)Cs activities and inventories in the Baltic Sea bottom sediments are presented. The (137)Cs activity concentrations were measured in 30 cm long sediment cores collected at 22 sampling stations. Sediment accumulation rates were quantified by (210)Pb geochronology to follow the history of (137)Cs accumulation. The (137)Cs inventories and fluxes were calculated. Most of the Baltic Sea sediments accumulated (137)Cs in the range from 750 to 2675 Bq m(-2). The Bothnian Bay is severely contaminated by (137)Cs with inventories up to 95,191 Bq m(-2). This region is moreover characterized by extremely large patchiness of (137)Cs inventories. The (137)Cs annual fluxes are highest at the two stations located at the Bothnian Bay (342 Bq m(-2) and 527 Bq m(-2)) due to large Chernobyl (137)Cs contamination of that region and high sediment accumulation rates. When these stations are excluded, the recent, annual mean value of (137)Cs load to the Baltic Sea deposits is 38 ± 22 Bq m(-2). The distribution of radio-caesium inventories over the Baltic Sea nowadays reflects the pattern of Chernobyl contamination. The radio-caesium deposited in surface sediments is not permanently buried, but may be resuspended and redeposited by currents, bioturbation or anthropogenic activities. PMID:24121306

Zaborska, Agata; Winogradow, Aleksandra; Pempkowiak, Janusz

2014-01-01

197

Past, present and future state of the biogeochemical Si cycle in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baltic Sea is one of many aquatic ecosystems that show long-term declines in dissolved silicate (DSi) concentrations due to anthropogenic alteration of the biogeochemical Si cycle. Reductions in DSi in aquatic ecosystems have been coupled to hydrological regulation reducing inputs, but also with eutrophication, although the relative significance of both processes remains unknown for the observed reductions in DSi concentrations. Here we combine present and historical data on water column DSi concentrations, together with estimates of present river DSi loads to the Baltic, the load prior to damming together with estimates of the long-term accumulation of BSi in sediments. In addition, a model has been used to evaluate the past, present and future state of the biogeochemical Si cycle in the Baltic Sea. The present day DSi load to the Baltic Sea is 855 ktons y - 1 . Hydrological regulation and eutrophication of inland waters can account for a reduction of 420 ktons y - 1 less riverine DSi entering the Baltic Sea today. Using published data on basin-wide accumulation rates we estimate that 1074 ktons y - 1 of biogenic silica (BSi) is accumulating in the sediments, which is 36% higher than earlier estimates from the literature (791 ktons y - 1 ). The difference is largely due to the high reported sedimentation rates in the Bothnian Sea and the Bothnian Bay. Using river DSi loads and estimated BSi accumulation, our model was not able to estimate water column DSi concentrations as burial estimates exceeded DSi inputs. The model was then used to estimate the BSi burial from measured DSi concentrations and DSi load. The model estimate for the total burial of BSi in all three basins was 620 ktons y - 1 , 74% less than estimated from sedimentation rates and sediment BSi concentrations. The model predicted 20% less BSi accumulation in the Baltic Proper and 10% less in the Bothnian Bay than estimated, but with significantly less BSi accumulation in the Bothnian Sea by a factor of 3. The model suggests there is an overestimation of basin-wide sedimentation rates in the Bothnian Bay and the Bothnian Sea. In the Baltic Proper, modelling shows that historical DSi concentrations were 2.6 times higher at the turn of the last century (ca. 1900) than at present. Although the DSi decrease has leveled out and at present there are only restricted areas of the Baltic Sea with limiting DSi concentrations, further declines in DSi concentrations will lead to widespread DSi limitation of diatoms with severe implications for the food web.

Conley, Daniel J.; Humborg, Christoph; Smedberg, Erik; Rahm, Lars; Papush, Liana; Danielsson, Åsa; Clarke, Annemarie; Pastuszak, Marianna; Aigars, Juris; Ciuffa, Daniele; Mörth, Carl-Magnus

2008-10-01

198

BEPERS-88: Sea Ice Remote Sensing With Synthetic Aperture Radar in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baltic Sea is a shallow, semi-enclosed brackish water basin located in North Europe. Sea ice occurs there every winter, with the annual cover varying from 12 to 100%. There is a strong need for operational sea ice mapping due to intensive ship traffic assisted by 20-30 powerful icebreakers. Sea ice reports and charts are provided daily by ice services in all countries in the Baltic Sea area. In Finland and in Sweden, much effort is put into ice research in support of winter navigation [e.g., Leppdranta, 1986; Thompson, 1986].

Leppäranta, M.; Thompson, T.

199

TWENTY YEARS OF HUMAN RESEARCH ETHICS COMMITTEES IN THE BALTIC STATES  

PubMed Central

Two decades have passed since the first attempts were made to establish systematic ethical review of human research in the Baltic States. Legally and institutionally much has changed. In this paper we provide an historical and structural overview of ethical review of human research and identify some problems related to the role of ethical review in establishing quality research environment in these countries. Problems connected to (a) public availability of information, (b) management of conflicts of interest, (c) REC composition and motivation of REC members, and (d) differing levels of stringency of ethical review for different types of studies, are identified. Recommendations are made to strengthen cooperation among the Baltic RECs. PMID:21134108

DRANSEIKA, VILIUS; GEFENAS, EUGENIJUS; CEKANAUSKAITE, ASTA; HUG, KRISTINA; MEZINSKA, SIGNE; PEICIUS, EIMANTAS; SILIS, VENTS; SOOSAAR, ANDRES; STROSBERG, MARTIN

2011-01-01

200

Ctenophore population recruits entirely through larval reproduction in the central Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

The comb jelly Mertensia ovum, widely distributed in Arctic regions, has recently been discovered in the northern Baltic Sea. We show that M. ovum also exists in the central Baltic but that the population consists solely of small-sized larvae (less than 1.6 mm). Despite the absence of adults, eggs were abundant. Experiments revealed that the larvae were reproductively active. Egg production and anticipated mortality rates suggest a self-sustaining population. This is the first account of a ctenophore population entirely recruiting through larval reproduction (paedogenesis). We hypothesize that early reproduction is favoured over growth to compensate for high predation pressure. PMID:22535640

Jaspers, Cornelia; Haraldsson, Matilda; Bolte, Sören; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Thygesen, Uffe H; Kiørboe, Thomas

2012-10-23

201

Ctenophore population recruits entirely through larval reproduction in the central Baltic Sea  

PubMed Central

The comb jelly Mertensia ovum, widely distributed in Arctic regions, has recently been discovered in the northern Baltic Sea. We show that M. ovum also exists in the central Baltic but that the population consists solely of small-sized larvae (less than 1.6 mm). Despite the absence of adults, eggs were abundant. Experiments revealed that the larvae were reproductively active. Egg production and anticipated mortality rates suggest a self-sustaining population. This is the first account of a ctenophore population entirely recruiting through larval reproduction (paedogenesis). We hypothesize that early reproduction is favoured over growth to compensate for high predation pressure. PMID:22535640

Jaspers, Cornelia; Haraldsson, Matilda; Bolte, Sören; Reusch, Thorsten B. H.; Thygesen, Uffe H.; Kiørboe, Thomas

2012-01-01

202

Burial Ground Expansion Hydrogeologic Characterization  

SciTech Connect

Sirrine Environmental Consultants provided technical oversight of the installation of eighteen groundwater monitoring wells and six exploratory borings around the location of the Burial Ground Expansion.

Gaughan , T.F.

1999-02-26

203

Resin reinforced expansion anchor system  

SciTech Connect

An expansion anchor assembly is described in combination with a dual compartment resin and cartridge inserted into a mine roof opening, the anchor assembly including: (a) an elongated bolt having a head at one end and threaded for a portion of its length at the other end; (b) an expansion member engaged with the threaded end of the bolt; (c) the expansion member including an expansion shell having a plurality of leaf segments; (d) a first means for engaging the expansion shell with the elongated bolt; (e) a wedge threaded on the elongated bolt for engagement with the expansion shell to urge the latter into gripping engagement with the mine roof; (f) a first resin passageway means on the outer surface of the wedge for permitting resin to gravitate therethrough; (g) the leaf segments of the expansion shell being separated to form a second resin passageway means aligned with the first resin passageway means, whereby resin may gravitate downwardly through substantially the entire length of the assembly, and (h) a second means within the first passageway and engageable with one of the leaf segments to prevent relative rotation of the wedge member with respect to the expansion shell; (i) the resin being mixed upon rotation of the bolt and expansion member and gravitating downwardly through the first and second passageway means into engagement with that portion of the mine roof defining the mine roof opening.

Clark, C.A.; Wright, R.L.

1988-08-16

204

Characteristics of the Baltic Sea Cold Intermediate Layer on the base of field data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cold Intermediate Layer (CIL) is observed in the Baltic Sea deep areas (depth more than ~60 m) from March to September/October and is easily identifiable at depths 30-60 m by its low temperature (~2-4 C). The main objectives of the work were (i) to develop a criterion of allocation of the CIL in general thermo-haline structure, (ii) to define the CIL using this criterion on the basis of real field data for 2004-2006 years and (iii) to analyze a range of its characteristics (temperature, salinity, density, thickness, location, stability at interfaces, etc.) after those winters (of different severity). Even though cold intermediate layers are often found in inland seas with strong pycno/halocline (the Black Sea, the Marmara Sea, the Mediterranean), quite different criteria of their allocation are used. For the Baltic, there isn't commonly used criterion. It has been found most convenient to use the following one: the CIL in the Baltic Sea is to be defined as a layer between maximum negative and maximum positive temperature gradient within vertical water column. With this definition, allocation of the CIL on vertical temperature/salinity/density profiles was performed using field data obtained in 2005-2006 during cruises of r/v "Professor Stockman" (P.P.Shirshov Istitute of Oceanology RAS; data courtesy Dr.V.Paka, Dr.D.Dorohov) in the Baltic Sea coastal zone and of r/v "Gauss" (Baltic Sea Research Institute at Warnemuende; data courtesy Dr.R.Feistel) in the Baltic Proper. Analysis of mean annual data, published on CD with the book "State and Evolution of the Baltic Sea 1952-2005" (data of IOW), has demonstrated that from about 80 quadrates (1' x 1') of the Baltic Sea area, in 43 quadrates water temperature within the CIL is lower than the lowest water surface temperature. This shows that the CIL contains waters advected horizontally. In order to find spatial correlations, T-S analysis was applied, demonstrating that the CIL waters might drift from south-western rather than northern areas, since water salinity increases towards Danish Straits whilst low temperature is commonly found in winter in coastal areas allover the Baltic Sea. Conclusions are: (i) the Baltic CIL contains waters, advected from shallow areas; (ii) most possibly, spring transition of a water temperature in upper layer across the temperature of the maximum density is important for the formation of the CIL. The suggested criterion of the Baltic CIL allocation is convenient for its description and useful for understanding of the mechanisms of its formation. The investigation is supported by RFBR, grants ?10-05-00540, ? 09-05-90727mob_st.

Kozlova, Olga; Chubarenko, Natalia; Chubarenko, Irina

2010-05-01

205

Egg production of turbot, Scophthalmus maximus, in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the brackish water Baltic Sea turbot spawn at ~ 6-9 psu along the coast and on offshore banks in ICES SD 24-29, with salinity influencing the reproductive success. The potential fecundity (the stock of vitellogenic oocytes in the pre-spawning ovary), egg size (diameter and dry weight of artificially fertilized 1-day-old eggs) and gonad dry weight were assessed for fish sampled in SD 25 and SD 28. Multiple regression analysis identified somatic weight, or total length in combination with Fulton's condition factor, as main predictors of fecundity and gonad dry weight with stage of maturity (oocyte packing density or leading cohort) as an additional predictor. For egg size, somatic weight was identified as main predictor while otolith weight (proxy for age) was an additional predictor. Univariate analysis using GLM revealed significantly higher fecundity and gonad dry weight for turbot from SD 28 (3378-3474 oocytes/g somatic weight) compared to those from SD 25 (2343 oocytes/g somatic weight), with no difference in egg size (1.05 ± 0.03 mm diameter and 46.8 ± 6.5 ?g dry weight; mean ± sd). The difference in egg production matched egg survival probabilities in relation to salinity conditions suggesting selection for higher fecundity as a consequence of poorer reproductive success at lower salinities. This supports the hypothesis of higher size-specific fecundity towards the limit of the distribution of a species as an adaptation to harsher environmental conditions and lower offspring survival probabilities. Within SD 28 comparisons were made between two major fishing areas targeting spawning aggregations and a marine protected area without fishing. The outcome was inconclusive and is discussed with respect to potential fishery induced effects, effects of the salinity gradient, effects of specific year-classes, and effects of maturation status of sampled fish.

Nissling, Anders; Florin, Ann-Britt; Thorsen, Anders; Bergström, Ulf

2013-11-01

206

Seabird Guano Fertilizes Baltic Sea Littoral Food Webs  

PubMed Central

Nutrient enrichment in coastal marine systems can have profound impacts on trophic networks. In the Baltic Sea, the population of Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) has increased nearly exponentially since the mid-1990s, and colonies of these seabirds can be important sources of nitrogen enrichment for nearby benthic communities due to guano runoff. In this study we used stable isotope analyses and diet mixing models to determine the extent of nitrogen enrichment from cormorant colonies, as well as to examine any possible changes in herbivore diet preferences due to enrichment. We found significantly higher levels of ?15N in samples from colony islands than control islands for producers (the dominant macroalga Fucus vesiculosus, filamentous algae, and periphyton) and herbivores, as well as a positive correlation between enrichment and nest density in colony sites. We also found that enrichment increased over the breeding season of the cormorants, with higher enrichment in late summer than early summer. While the amount of total nitrogen did not differ between colony and control sites, the amount of guano-based nitrogen in algae was >50% in most sites, indicating high nitrogen enrichment from colonies. Herbivores (the isopod Idotea balthica and the gastropod Theodoxus fluviatilis) preferred feeding upon the dominant macroalga Fucus vesiculosus rather than on filamentous algae or periphyton in both control and colony, and there was a significant increase in periphyton consumption near colony sites. Overall, guano from cormorant colonies seems to have effects on both producers and herbivores, as well as the potential to modify algae-herbivore interactions. PMID:23593452

Gagnon, Karine; Rothausler, Eva; Syrjanen, Anneli; Yli-Renko, Maria; Jormalainen, Veijo

2013-01-01

207

Seabird guano fertilizes Baltic Sea littoral food webs.  

PubMed

Nutrient enrichment in coastal marine systems can have profound impacts on trophic networks. In the Baltic Sea, the population of Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) has increased nearly exponentially since the mid-1990 s, and colonies of these seabirds can be important sources of nitrogen enrichment for nearby benthic communities due to guano runoff. In this study we used stable isotope analyses and diet mixing models to determine the extent of nitrogen enrichment from cormorant colonies, as well as to examine any possible changes in herbivore diet preferences due to enrichment. We found significantly higher levels of ?(15)N in samples from colony islands than control islands for producers (the dominant macroalga Fucus vesiculosus, filamentous algae, and periphyton) and herbivores, as well as a positive correlation between enrichment and nest density in colony sites. We also found that enrichment increased over the breeding season of the cormorants, with higher enrichment in late summer than early summer. While the amount of total nitrogen did not differ between colony and control sites, the amount of guano-based nitrogen in algae was >50% in most sites, indicating high nitrogen enrichment from colonies. Herbivores (the isopod Idotea balthica and the gastropod Theodoxus fluviatilis) preferred feeding upon the dominant macroalga Fucus vesiculosus rather than on filamentous algae or periphyton in both control and colony, and there was a significant increase in periphyton consumption near colony sites. Overall, guano from cormorant colonies seems to have effects on both producers and herbivores, as well as the potential to modify algae-herbivore interactions. PMID:23593452

Gagnon, Karine; Rothäusler, Eva; Syrjänen, Anneli; Yli-Renko, Maria; Jormalainen, Veijo

2013-01-01

208

Mapping Baltic Sea shallow water environments with airborne remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is known that the structure of benthic macrophyte and invertebrate habitats indicate the quality of coastal water. Thus, a large-scale analysis of the spatial patterns of coastal marine habitats makes it possible to adequately estimate the status of valuable coastal marine habitats, provide better evidence for environmental changes, and describe the processes behind the changes. Knowing the spatial distribution of benthic habitats is also important from the coastal management point of view. Our previous results clearly demonstrated that remote sensing methods can be used to map water depth and distribution of taxonomic groups of benthic algae (e.g., red, green, and brown algae) in the optically complex coastal waters of the Baltic Sea. We have as well shown that benthic habitat mapping should be done at high spatial resolution owing to the small-scale heterogeneity of such habitats in Estonian coastal waters. Here we tested the capability of high spatial resolution hyperspectral airborne image in its application for mapping benthic habitats. A big challenge is to define appropriate mapping classes that are also meaningful from the ecological point of view. In this study two benthic habitat classification schemes—broader level and finer level—were defined for the study area. The broader level classes were relatively well classified, but discrimination among the units of the finer classification scheme posed a considerable challenge and required a careful approach. Benthic habitat classification provided the highest accuracy in the case of the Spectral Angle Mapper classification method applied to a radiometrically corrected image. Further processing levels, such as spatial filtering and glint correction, decreased the classification accuracy.

Vahtmäe, Ele; Kutser, Tiit; Kotta, Jonne; Pärnoja, Merli; Möller, Tiia; Lennuk, Lennart

2012-11-01

209

Maxillary expansion: a meta analysis.  

PubMed

The utility of maxillary expansion has been equivocal for more than 100 years. The advent of meta-analysis and evidence-based learning has provided an opportunity to look objectively at this treatment modality. Medline was searched from 1978 to 1999 for all studies examining the stability of transverse expansion of the human maxilla using initial search terms of maxillary expansion and palatal expansion which were limited to those English language and human subjects. The more than 5000 articles were reduced to 12 based on the defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The two investigators participating in the study were blinded, the studies' authors and origins blacked out and the evaluation coded and scored. A cumulative 'Meta evaluation score' was computed for each study. Six studies remained for the final analysis. The mean expansion after adjustment according to the principles of meta analysis was 6.00 mm with a standard deviation of 1.29 mm. Of the 6-mm average, 4.89 mm was retained while wearing retainers. Five of the papers provided retention data and post-retention data, but only three studies provided both retention and post-retention data. The average age of patients in these reports was 10.8 years. The 6-mm average expansion with retention in the short-term (<1 year) yielded a 4.71-mm residual expansion. Subsequently, this expansion during the short-term post-retention period was reduced to 3.88 mm. Finally, in the long-term post-retention study period only 2.4 mm of the residual expansion was reported to have remained. This 2.4 mm of expansion remaining after more than a year or more of post-retention period was no greater than what has been documented as normal growth. There is insufficient data to conclude that any useful expansion beyond that can be expected through normal growth was retained. PMID:11553090

Schiffman, P H; Tuncay, O C

2001-05-01

210

Eemian sea-level highstand in the eastern Baltic Sea linked to long-duration White Sea connection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Revised diatom and new dinoflagellate cyst and benthic foraminiferal data from the eastern Baltic Sea have refined our understanding of Eemian (Last Interglacial; 131-119.5 ka) sea-level change on the Russian Karelia, a former seaway linking the Baltic to the White Sea. Results from Peski, eastern Baltic show the initiation of marine conditions just before 131 ka in the latest Saalian, after the opening of a connection to the North Sea. Following the onset of the Eemian marine highstand and the opening of the White Sea connection at around 130.25 ka, near-fully marine conditions persisted in the eastern Baltic area for ca 6 kyr, until ca 124 ka. For most of the Eemian, a strong thermal stratification in the eastern Baltic resulted from an Arctic and possible North Atlantic water component from the White Sea merging with warmer waters from the North Sea. From ca 124 ka, decreasing salinity indicates the end of the marine highstand and a simultaneous closure of the Baltic Sea-White Sea connection, i.e. a duration of ca 6 kyr for this seaway. The main influence of White Sea inflow appears to be restricted to the eastern Baltic area, although a large submerged area in the Russian Karelia associated with temperate Atlantic waters could have assisted in creating a more oceanic climate for Central Europe.

Miettinen, Arto; Head, Martin J.; Knudsen, Karen Luise

2014-02-01

211

Quantifying engineering parameters of expansive soils from their reflectance spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occurrence of expansive soils in construction sites has serious implications on planning, design, construction, maintenance, and overall performance especially of lightweight engineering infrastructures. Such soils are particularly susceptible to large volume changes in response to moisture content fluctuations following seasonal climatic variations. This can lead to deformation of structures built up on them. For this study, soil samples were collected

Fekerte Arega Yitagesu; Freek van der Meer; Harald van der Werff; Wolter Zigterman

2009-01-01

212

Transmission expansion in the Chilean system via cooperative game theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transmission system plays an essential role in the new deregulated scenario. Aspects such as planning are relevant in terms of market opportunities. The role of the State and the agents that participate in the market sharply influence investment decision making. A study of the expansion of the Chilean Central Interconnected System (SIC) is reported, based on cooperative game theory,

Rosa Serrano; Juan Zolezzi; H. Rudnick; J. C. Araneda

2005-01-01

213

Energy efficient perlite expansion process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermally efficient process for the expansion of perlite ore is described. The inlet port and burner of a perlite expansion chamber (Preferably a vertical expander) are enclosed such that no ambient air can enter the chamber. Air and fuel are metered to the burner with the amount of air being controlled such that the fuel\\/air premix contains at least

1982-01-01

214

Assessment of the Present and Future Offshore Wind Power Potential: A Case Study in a Target Territory of the Baltic Sea Near the Latvian Coast  

PubMed Central

Offshore wind energy development promises to be a significant domestic renewable energy source in Latvia. The reliable prediction of present and future wind resources at offshore sites is crucial for planning and selecting the location for wind farms. The overall goal of this paper is the assessment of offshore wind power potential in a target territory of the Baltic Sea near the Latvian coast as well as the identification of a trend in the future wind energy potential for the study territory. The regional climate model CLM and High Resolution Limited Area Model (Hirlam) simulations were used to obtain the wind climatology data for the study area. The results indicated that offshore wind energy is promising for expanding the national electricity generation and will continue to be a stable resource for electricity generation in the region over the 21st century. PMID:23983619

Teilans, Artis

2013-01-01

215

Expansion of World Drylands Under Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world drylands including both semi-arid and arid regions comprise of one-third of the global land surfaces, which support 14% of the world's inhabitants and a significant share of the world agriculture. Because of meager annual precipitation and large potential evaporative water loss, the ecosystems over drylands are fragile and sensitive to the global change. By analyzing the observations during 1948-2008 and 20 fully coupled climate model simulations from CMIP5 for the period 1900-2100, this study evaluated the changes of the world drylands that are defined with a modified form of the Thornthwaite's moisture index. The results based on observational data showed that the world drylands are steadily expanding during the past 60 years. The areas occupied by drylands in 1994-2008 is about 2.0×10^6km^2 (or 4%) larger than the average during the 1950s. Such an expansion is also a robust feature in the simulations of the 20 global climate models, though the rate is much smaller in the models. A stronger expanding rate is projected during the first half of this century than the simulations in the last century, followed by accelerating expansion after 2050s under the high greenhouse gas emission scenario (RCP8.5). By the end of this century, the world drylands are projected to be over 58×10^6km^2 (or 11% increase compared to the 1961-1990 climatology). The projected expansion of drylands, however, is not homogeneous over the world drylands, with major expansion of arid regions over the southwest North America, the northern fringe of Africa, southern Africa and Australia. Major expansions of semi-arid regions are projected over the north side of the Mediterranean, southern Africa, North and South America. The global warming is the main factor causing the increase of potential evapotranspiration estimated by Penman-Monteith algorithm, which in turn dominants the expansion of drylands. The widening of Hadley cell, which has impact on both temperature and precipitation, also play an important role. This study accentuates the urgent to develop proactive planning and adaptation strategies for increasing aridity in the world drylands to reduce vulnerability and increase resilience in those regions.

Feng, S.; Fu, Q.; Hu, Q. S.

2012-12-01

216

Dynamics of the Oder river plume in the Southern Baltic Sea: satellite data and numerical modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Oder river discharge into the Pomeranian Bight of the Baltic Sea was investigated in a combined study using satellite data, numerical modelling and shipborne measurements. The aim was to understand the dynamical processes forming the freshwater distribution patterns during the prevailing winds. From an analysis of typical distribution patterns of the river discharge in relation to the main wind

H. Siegel; M. Gerth; A. Mutzke

1999-01-01

217

A New Fossil Genus of Small-Headed Flies (Diptera: Acroceridae: Philopotinae) from Baltic Amber  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new genus of philopotine Acroceridae in Baltic amber is described from both sexes. Archaeterphis hennigi gen. et sp. nov. is easily diagnosed from all other acrocerid genera by the deeply emarginate hind margin of the eye, short mouthparts, reduced wing venation, modiÞed hind femora, and the large postpronotal lobes being proximate but not touching. The new genus is closely

Martin Hauser; Shaun L. Winterton

2007-01-01

218

A new fossil staphylinid genus and species from Baltic amber (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae, Gymnusini)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new extinct genus and species, Electrogymnusa baltica (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleo- charinae, Gymnusini), from Baltic amber is described. Electrogymnusa differs from all extant species of the tribe Gymnusini in body size, length and shape of labrum, length proportion of first and second antennal segments and in having prominent abdominal setae.

KARIN WOLF-SCHWENNINGER

219

A new species of the genus Crepidodera Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from Baltic amber.  

PubMed

A new flea-beetle species, Crepidodera svetlanae sp. nov. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini) is described and illustrated from the Baltic amber. The new species is compared with the fossil and recent species of the genus. A key to species of flea beetles known from fossil resin is provided. PMID:24943614

Bukejs, Andris

2014-01-01

220

234U and 238U isotopes in water and sediments of the southern Baltic.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to determine the concentration of 234U and 238U and calculate the values of the 234U/238U activity ratio in waters and sediments from the various regions of the southern Baltic Sea: Gda?sk Deep, S?upsk Narrow and Bornholm Deep. The concentration of uranium in analysed sediments from southern Baltic increase with core depth to what probably is connected with diffusion from sediments to water through interstitial water, where uranium concentration is much higher than in bottom water. The highest concentrations of uranium were observed in sediments of S?upsk Narrow (0.66-7.11 mg kg(-1) d.w.) and S?upsk Bank (0.61-6.93 mg kg(-1) d.w.), the lowest in sediments from Bornholm Deep (0.54-3.77 mg kg(-1) d.w.). The 234U/238U activity ratio results indicated that the sedimentation of terrigenic material and Vistula River transport are the general sources of uranium in the southern Baltic sediments. The value of 234U/238U activity ratio in sediments from reduction areas from southern Baltic (Gda?sk Deep and Bornholm Deep) indicated that reduction process of U(VI) to U(IV) and removing of anthropogenic uranium from seawater to sediments constitutes a small part only in Gda?sk Deep. PMID:14689997

Skwarzec, B; Bory?o, A; Strumi?ska, D

2002-01-01

221

An analysis of the salt water inflow into the Baltic in 1975 to 1976  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time series measurements from light vessel and coastal stations in the transition area of the Kattegat and the Baltic Sea are analyzed for the period August 1975 to March 1976. The data consist of daily sampled salinities from different depth levels and daily means of sea levels, surface current, and wind, respectively. The purpose of this paper is to examine

Hans Ulrich Lass; Reinhard Schwabe

1990-01-01

222

Effects of boating activities on aquatic vegetation in the Stockholm archipelago, Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aquatic vegetation in 44 similar shallow and sheltered inlets exposed to different kinds of disturbances by boating was studied in a rocky archipelago in the Baltic Sea. The results indicate that both recreational boating activities and traffic by medium sized ferryboats may cause significant changes in community composition and have significant negative effects on species richness and the development

B. K. Eriksson; A. Sandstrom; M. Isaeus; H. Schreiber; P. Karas

2004-01-01

223

Lateglacial of Lake Onega — Contribution to the history of the eastern Baltic basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

New stratigraphy data especially diatom analyses are presented from the area north of Lake Onega relevant to the discussion on possible Lateglacial connection between the Baltic Sea and White Sea. Following the deglaciation 12,000–11,000 years ago Lake Onega basin was occupied by a system of ice dammed lakes which drained to the Lake Ladoga basin. When the ice retreated from

Matti Saarnisto; Tuulikki Grönlund; Ilpo Ekman

1995-01-01

224

The Nutrition of Fish in the Curonian Lagoon and the Coastal Zone of the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the nutrition of 13 fish species inhabiting the Curonian Lagoon. The research material was obtained in the areas of Vent? Cape, Dreverna and Kiaul?s Nugara in the spring, summer and autumn of 1996, 1998 and 1999. Altogether, the intestinal tracts of 539 fishes were investigated. In the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea, the nutrition of 11 fish

Algis Bubinas; Linas Ložys

2000-01-01

225

PHOTOCHEMICAL MINERALIZATION OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC NITROGEN TO AMMONIUM IN THE BALTIC SEA  

EPA Science Inventory

Solar radiation-induced photochemistry can be considered as a new source of nutrients when photochemical reactions release bioavailable nitrogen from biologically non-reactive dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). Pretreatments of Baltic Sea waters in the dark indicated that >72% of ...

226

Preliminary program for Reproductive Disorders in Baltic Vertebrate Wildlife (BALTREP 2011)  

E-print Network

Preliminary program for Reproductive Disorders in Baltic Vertebrate Wildlife (BALTREP 2011) 7 ­ 8 in context with other stressors: effects on wildlife reproduction and sustainability Val Beasley, Key note, Invited 11.30 ­ 11.45 Why is the European Environment Agency interested in reproductive disturbances

227

Aerosol-water distribution of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the Baltic Sea region.  

PubMed

Atmospheric deposition is a major pathway of PCDD/Fs to the Baltic Sea. We studied the aerosol-water distribution for aerosols collected close to the Baltic Sea in order to investigate the availability of pollutants sorbed to aerosols deposited on water. Aerosols were analyzed for both total concentration (Soxhlet extraction) and the freely dissolved water concentration (extraction with 17-?m polyoxymethylene equilibrium passive samplers). Concentrations of PCDD/F and sum PCB-7 in aerosols were 65-1300 pg/g dw TEQ and 22-100 ng/g dw, respectively. Organic carbon (OC)-normalized aerosol-water distribution ratios (K(aer-water,OC)) were consistently lower (factor 2-60) than previously determined sediment organic carbon-water distribution ratios (K(sed,OC)). Hence PCDD/Fs and PCBs entering the Baltic Sea through aerosol deposition seem to be more available for desorption to the water phase than PCDD/Fs and PCBs sorbed to sediment. Further, we investigated whether aerosol-water distribution may be predicted from the air-aerosol partitioning constant multiplied by the Henry's Law constant. This proposed model for aerosol-water distribution underestimated measured values for PCBs by factors of 1-17 and for PCDD/Fs by more than a factor 10. These findings can be used to improve future fate modeling of PCBs and PCDD/Fs in marine environments and specifically the Baltic Sea. PMID:23214413

Sobek, Anna; Arp, Hans Peter H; Wiberg, Karin; Hedman, Jenny; Cornelissen, Gerard

2013-01-15

228

A lasting legacy for the Baltic and North Sea GLOBEC Germany program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This preface introduces four manuscripts that form a special theme section of the GLOBEC Germany program within Progress in Oceanography. The four manuscripts link changes in physical forcing to the trophodynamic structure and function of the Baltic and North Seas. The target species of GLOBEC Germany included various species of calanoid copepods and a small pelagic fish (Sprattus sprattus).

Peck, Myron A.; Dutz, Jörg; Voss, Rudi

2012-12-01

229

Future nutrient load scenarios for the Baltic Sea due to climate and lifestyle changes.  

PubMed

Dynamic model simulations of the future climate and projections of future lifestyles within the Baltic Sea Drainage Basin (BSDB) were considered in this study to estimate potential trends in future nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea. Total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads were estimated using a simple proxy based only on human population (to account for nutrient sources) and stream discharges (to account for nutrient transport). This population-discharge proxy provided a good estimate for nutrient loads across the seven sub-basins of the BSDB considered. All climate scenarios considered here produced increased nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea over the next 100 years. There was variation between the climate scenarios such that sub-basin and regional differences were seen in future nutrient runoff depending on the climate model and scenario considered. Regardless, the results of this study indicate that changes in lifestyle brought about through shifts in consumption and population potentially overshadow the climate effects on future nutrient runoff for the entire BSDB. Regionally, however, lifestyle changes appear relatively more important in the southern regions of the BSDB while climatic changes appear more important in the northern regions with regards to future increases in nutrient loads. From a whole-ecosystem management perspective of the BSDB, this implies that implementation of improved and targeted management practices can still bring about improved conditions in the Baltic Sea in the face of a warmer and wetter future climate. PMID:23765871

Hägg, Hanna Eriksson; Lyon, Steve W; Wällstedt, Teresia; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Claremar, Björn; Humborg, Christoph

2014-04-01

230

The joint Baltic Sea research and development programme Strategic reSearch agenda 2011-2017  

E-print Network

policies and collective governance · Adapting to a sustainable way of living The content of this BONUS Economically and ecologically prosperous Baltic Sea region where resources and goods are used sustainably and its coasts · Achieving sustainable and safe use of the exploited coastal and marine ecosystem goods

Johannesson, Henrik

231

Activation of the marine ecosystem model 3D CEMBS for the Baltic Sea in operational mode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a new marine ecosystem model 3D CEMBS designed for the Baltic Sea. The ecosystem model is incorporated into the 3D POPCICE ocean-ice model. The Current Baltic Sea model is based on the Community Earth System Model (CESM from the National Center for Atmospheric Research) which was adapted for the Baltic Sea as a coupled sea-ice model. It consists of the Community Ice Code (CICE model, version 4.0) and the Parallel Ocean Program (version 2.1). The ecosystem model is a biological submodel of the 3D CEMBS. It consists of eleven mass conservation equations. There are eleven partial second-order differential equations of the diffusion type with the advective term for phytoplankton, zooplankton, nutrients, dissolved oxygen, and dissolved and particulate organic matter. This model is an effective tool for solving the problem of ecosystem bioproductivity. The model is forced by 48-hour atmospheric forecasts provided by the UM model from the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling of Warsaw University (ICM). The study was financially supported by the Polish State Committee of Scientific Research (grants: No N N305 111636, N N306 353239). The partial support for this study was also provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBaltyk founded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract no. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09. Calculations were carried out at the Academy Computer Centre in Gda?sk.

Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, Lidia; Jakacki, Jaromir; Janecki, Maciej; Nowicki, Artur

2013-04-01

232

Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in smoked Atlantic mackerel and Baltic sprats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atlantic mackerel and Baltic sprats are rich sources of n?3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA). Literature data point to an influence of the properties of the raw material, storage conditions, and processing parameters of hot- and cold-smoking on the stability of these acids. The effects of industrial smoking in an automatic smokehouse in controlled, mild conditions at core

Andrzej Sto?yhwo; Ilona Ko?odziejska; Zdzis?aw E. Sikorski

2006-01-01

233

Complex lithospheric structure under the central Baltic Shield from surface wave tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional seismic tomography provides valuable information on the structure of shields, thereby gaining insight to the formation and stabilization of old continents. Fennoscandia (known as the Baltic Shield for its exposed part) is a composite shield for which the last recorded tectonic event is the intrusion of the Rapakivi granitoids around 1.6 Ga. A seismic experiment carried out as part

Marianne Bruneton; Helle A. Pedersen; Véronique Farra; Nicholas T. Arndt; Pierre Vacher; U. Achauer; A. Alinaghi; J. Ansorge; G. Bock; W. Friederich; M. Grad; A. Guterch; P. Heikkinen; S.-E. Hjelt; T. L. Hyvönen; J.-P. Ikonen; E. Kissling; K. Komminaho; A. Korja; E. Kozlovskaya; M. V. Nevsky; H. Paulssen; N. I. Pavlenkova; J. Plomerová; T. Raita; O. Y. Riznichenko; R. G. Roberts; S. Sandoval; I. A. Sanina; N. V. Sharov; Z. H. Shomali; J. Tiikkainen; E. Wielandt; K. Wilegalla; J. Yliniemi; Y. G. Yurov

2004-01-01

234

Baltic Astronomy, vol.8, XXX--XXX, 1999. WISE OBSERVATORY SYSTEM OF FAST CCD PHO  

E-print Network

Baltic Astronomy, vol.8, XXX--XXX, 1999. WISE OBSERVATORY SYSTEM OF FAST CCD PHO­ TOMETRY E with the Wise Observatory CCD camera. The method is based on successively collecting frames, each one is a mere small fraction of the entire CCD array. If necessary, the observer is able to place the object star

Ofek, Eran

235

Seasonal dynamics in pelagic fish abundance in a Baltic Sea coastal area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spring-spawning Baltic Sea herring spawn in coastal areas that also serve as nursery areas for the young fish during their first summer. In a bay known as a herring spawning and nursery area, the pelagic fish abundance was quantified using hydroacoustics every second week from late spring to autumn in 2000 and 2001. A dense system of survey transects

T. Axenrot; S. Hansson

2004-01-01

236

Food and habitat choice of the isopod Idotea baltica in the northeastern Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isopod Idotea baltica is the most important benthic herbivore in the Baltic Sea. There exists a significant correlation between the distribution of the adult isopod and the belts of bladder wrack Fucus vesiculosus. However, following the eutrophication induced blooms of the filamentous macroalga Pilayella littoralis and the disappearance of F. vesiculosus a notable increase in idoteid abundances has been observed.

Helen Orav-Kotta; Jonne Kotta

2004-01-01

237

Predicting CO 2 and SO 2 emissions in the Baltic States through reorganization of energy infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with predicting carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide emissions generated by power production sector in the Baltic States in period up to year 2020. The economies of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia are rapidly growing therefore forecast of emissions related with this occurrence becomes very important. The Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP), one of the largest in the world,

Gintaras Denafas; Denisas Sitnikovas; Arvydas Galinis; Ivars Kudrenickis; Gaidis Klavs; Rein Kuusik

2004-01-01

238

The lethal and sublethal effects of the aquatic macrophyte Myriophyllum spicatum on Baltic littoral planktivores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrophyte architecture can structure predator-prey interactions, but it is the chemicals within the plant that may actually be lethal. We conducted aquarium experiments to study the effects of common aquatic macrophytes (My- riophyllum spicatum, Myriophyllum sibiricum,and Chara tomentosa) and a predator (perch, Perca fluviatilis )o n the survival, habitat choice, swimming, and feeding activities of Baltic littoral planktivores, mysids Neomysis

Eveliina Lindén; Maiju Lehtiniemi

2005-01-01

239

Possibilities of utilizing alternative energy sources for combined heat supply systems in the Baltic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of alternative energy sources is an issue of major importance for the Baltic republics because of the limited supply of conventional energy resources. One of the ways to solve this problem could be the introduction of combined heat supply systems (CHSS). The combined heat supply systems are such systems where various energy sources in different regimes are made

P. Shipkovs; V. Grislis; V. Zebergs

1991-01-01

240

Language-in-Education across the Baltic: Policies, Practices and Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since their political reorientation that started in the late 1980s, the Baltic states have experienced profound social reforms to rebuild their democratizing societies. Education has featured as a key vehicle to this transformation process of overcoming the limitations of the Soviet past. National legislative frameworks were therefore soon…

Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle

2007-01-01

241

BALTIC FORESTRY TREE-RING CHRONOLOGY OF SCOTS PINE /.../ FOR LITHUANIA  

E-print Network

A. VITAS BALTIC FORESTRY TREE-RING CHRONOLOGY OF SCOTS PINE /.../ FOR LITHUANIA Introduction- nia (Vitas 2005), except small amount of Norway spruce (Vitas 2007) in central Lithuania and English and reaching present times in Lithuania was compiled for the first time. The aim of the study was to construct

242

Language and Education Orientations in Lithuania: A Cross-Baltic Perspective Post-EU Accession  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an up-to-date overview of language policies and practices in Lithuania, paying particular attention to the latest developments that have taken place in national educational contexts. Against the background of recent sociodemographic changes in the three Baltic republics, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, it analyzes issues…

Bulajeva, Tatjana; Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle

2008-01-01

243

Distribution and relationships between selected chemical elements in green alga Enteromorpha sp. from the southern Baltic.  

PubMed

The concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Mn) and macroelements (K, Na, Ca and Mg) were determined in green alga Enteromorpha sp. from the coastal zone of the southern Baltic including Gulf of Gda?sk and Vistula Lagoon in 2000-2003. In order to estimate the degree of accumulation of each element by the green alga, concentration and discrimination factors (CFs) with respect to seawater were calculated. The results of factor analysis (FA) and ANOVA clearly indicate geographical differences between concentrations of chemical elements. Enteromorpha sp. from Vistula Lagoon and the southern Baltic exhibited higher levels of Mn and Ni, and Na and K, respectively. Anthropogenic impact of Cu, Pb and Zn, possibly originated from municipal sewage, was identified in alga samples collected in the Gulf of Gda?sk, especially in the vicinity of Gdynia. From comparison our data with those published earlier results that Pb content in Enteromorpha sp. from the Gulf of Gda?sk decreased within 1978-2003 reflecting reducing use of leaded petrol in Baltic countries in this period. The alga Enteromorpha sp. can be used for biomonitoring surveys of metal contaminants in coastal areas of the Baltic Sea. PMID:16458400

Zbikowski, Rados?aw; Szefer, Piotr; Lata?a, Adam

2006-10-01

244

Fauna and flora in submarine early Holocene lake-marl deposits from the southwestern Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of plant and animal macrofossils have been carried out on early-Holocene lake marls from the southwestern Baltic. The records have been dated to the interval from c. 8500 to 7800 14C years BP by correlating pollen assemblages to an onshore radiocarbon dated pollen diagram. The sediments contain from 5 to 81% carbonate, and only few macroscopic remains of wetland

Ole Bennike; Wolfram Lemke; Jørn Bo Jensen

1998-01-01

245

Reconstructing the Younger Dryas ice dammed lake in the Baltic Basin: Bathymetry, area and volume  

E-print Network

Reconstructing the Younger Dryas ice dammed lake in the Baltic Basin: Bathymetry, area and volume the damming Scandinavian ice sheet margin eventually retreated north of Mount Billingen, the high point that approximately 7800 km3 of water drained during this event and that the ice dammed lake area was reduced by ca

Jakobsson, Martin

246

The influence of upwelling and entrainment on the algal bloom in the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrodynamic processes control many geochemical and ecological processes in the sea. In this paper, the influence of up- and downwelling and entrainment on the ecosystem components are studied. The ecohydrodynamic model was initially used to simulate the whole Baltic Sea to get the boundary conditions for the Gulf of Riga. Then, to study the influence of different hydrodynamic conditions on

Peeter Ennet; Harri Kuosa; Rein Tamsalu

2000-01-01

247

Mass variations of the Baltic Sea compared to superconducting gravimeter and GRACE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the gravity effect of Baltic Sea mass variations observed using different methods and time resolutions. We compare data from tide gauges, from superconductive gravimeter (SG) at Metsähovi, Finland and from the GRACE gravity satellite. The mass variation in the semi-enclosed Baltic Sea is due to both internal redistribution of the water mass and due to changes in the so-called fill level caused by water exchange with the North Sea. The monthly variation in the water mass is about 60 Gt over an area of 390000 km-2. Due to a dense network of tide gauges, the Baltic Sea is one of best monitored mass variations in this size in the world. For modeling the observed water mass, we have used both monthly PSMSL tide gauge records and hourly values from several sources. In addition, we have hydrodynamic models for comparisons. To calculate gravity effect, we have used Green's function formalism for modeled sea surface. We have previously used temporal gravity field data from GRACE satellite to show that GRACE can recover the total mass variation in the Baltic Sea on monthly scales. In addition to monthly GRACE solutions with different filters, we now also use 10-day mascon block solutions from Goddard Space Flight Center. As the GRACE solutions are already corrected for gravity changes due to oceans, we have restored the contribution due to the Baltic Sea. We have also corrected for an effect due to leakage of continental water storage using the GLDAS hydrology model. The fundamental station Metsähovi is located 10 km from the nearest bay of the Baltic Sea and 15 km from the open sea. Using a single tide gauge at the distance of 30 km from SG at Metsähovi, very clear correlation is found between gravity and sea level. Superconducting gravity data has been corrected by tides and polar motion, atmospheric mass redistribution, local groundwater and drift. Hourly mass variations of sea are clearly separable. Theoretically one-meter even-layer water cause 30 nms-2 gravity effect in SG, which resolution is better than 1 nms-2. For comparisons to GRACE, we have averaged gravity data to 10 days and monthly values. Different methods and time scales used show that gravity data from both GRACE and SG can well recover mass variations of the Baltic Sea. Acknowledgements: FMI, SMHI, DMI, BAFG, ESEAS, BOOS

Virtanen, H.; Virtanen, J.; Nordman, M.; Bilker-Koivula, M.; Mäkinen, J.

2009-04-01

248

The Impacts of Highway Expansion on Population Change: An Integrated Spatial Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of highways on transforming human society and promoting population change have been investigated in several disciplines, including geography, sociology, economics, and planning. Currently, the primary highway construction activity in the nation is highway expansion; however, this expansion has not been the focus of much of the existing…

Chi, Guangqing

2010-01-01

249

The University of Michigan, Kellogg Building Expansion & Renovation, Ann Arbor, Michigan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents design, construction, and cost data for the University of Michigan's Kellogg Building expansion and renovation project. A list of project manufacturers and suppliers is provided along with four photographs and four floor plans. (GR)

Design Cost Data, 2001

2001-01-01

250

Incorporating endogenous demand dynamics into long-term capacity expansion power system models for Developing countries  

E-print Network

This research develops a novel approach to long-term power system capacity expansion planning for developing countries by incorporating endogenous demand dynamics resulting from social processes of technology adoption. ...

Jordan, Rhonda LeNai

2013-01-01

251

GRACE Water Storage Estimates in Finland and the Effect of Baltic Sea Level Variation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compare the GRACE water storage estimates in Finland with the total water storage from a high-accuracy local hydrological model. Being a significant source of mass variations, we also discuss the leakage of the Baltic mass into estimates of continental water storage in GRACE solutions. For the total water storage, we use the model of the Watershed Simulation and Forecasting System (WSFS) of the Finnish Environment Institute. WSFS covers the whole hydrological cycle, including surface and subsurface water and snow. For GRACE water storage, we use three estimates obtained through different processing methods. First, we use the standard monthly GRACE gravity field solutions and apply appropriate filtering. To improve the spatial and temporal resolution, two regional solutions are studied. NASA has recently made available GRACE estimates of 10-days mass change in 4x4 degree blocks (mascons) over the worlds' continents covering the period April 2003 to April 2006. In addition to the mascon solutions, we will also use the regional solutions employing GRACE KBR data derived from in situ disturbance potential measurements via the energy conservation method. The monthly variation in the water mass of the semi-enclosed Baltic sea is about 60 Gt RMS. It is governed by the water exchange with the North sea through the Danish straits, and is difficult to catch in the global ocean circulation models. We study the contribution of Baltic mass variation to the GRACE estimates of water storage. On the other hand, the Baltic has both a dense network of tide gauges and several specific high-resolution hydrodynamical models, making it possibly the best-controlled mass variation of this size in the world. We discuss the possibilities of using Baltic mass to validate and compare GRACE solution methods.

Virtanen, J.; Mäkinen, J.; Bilker-Koivula, M.; Shum, C.; Lee, H.; Thomas, M.; Kangas, A.; Vehviläinen, B.; Nordman, M.

2007-12-01

252

BALTEX—an interdisciplinary research network for the Baltic Sea region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BALTEX is an environmental research network dealing with the Earth system of the entire Baltic Sea drainage basin. Important elements include the water and energy cycle, climate variability and change, water management and extreme events, and related impacts on biogeochemical cycles. BALTEX was founded in 1993 as a GEWEX continental-scale experiment and is currently in its second 10 yr phase. Phase I (1993-2002) was primarily dedicated to hydrological, meteorological and oceanographic processes in the Baltic Sea drainage basin, hence mostly dealt with the physical aspects of the system. Scientific focus was on the hydrological cycle and the exchange of energy between the atmosphere, the Baltic Sea and the surface of its catchment. The BALTEX study area was hydrologically defined as the Baltic Sea drainage basin. The second 10 yr phase of BALTEX (Phase II: 2003-12) has strengthened regional climate research, water management issues, biogeochemical cycles and overarching efforts to reach out to stakeholders and decision makers, as well as to foster communication and education. Achievements of BALTEX Phase II have been the establishment of an assessment report of regional climate change and its impacts on the Baltic Sea basin (from hydrological to biological and socio-economic), the further development of regional physical climate models and the integration of biogeochemical and ecosystem models. BALTEX features a strong infrastructure, with an international secretariat and a publication series, and organizes various workshops and conferences. This article gives an overview of the BALTEX programme, with an emphasis on Phase II, with some examples from BALTEX-related research.

Reckermann, Marcus; Langner, Joakim; Omstedt, Anders; von Storch, Hans; Keevallik, Sirje; Schneider, Bernd; Arheimer, Berit; Markus Meier, H. E.; Hünicke, Birgit

2011-10-01

253

The general circulation of the Baltic Sea in the context of climate variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed assessment of climate variability of the Baltic Sea area for the period 1958-2009 revealed that the recent changes in the warming trend since the mid-1980s are associated with changes in the large-scale atmospheric circulation over the North Atlantic. The analysis of winter sea level pressure (SLP) data highlighted considerable changes in the number and pathways of deep cyclones (<980 hPa) in parallel with the eastward shift of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) centres of action. Additionally, a seasonal shift of strong wind events from autumn to winter and early spring exists for the Baltic area. Earlier studies showed that different atmospheric climate regimes force different circulation regimes in the Baltic Sea. The analysis of the winter (DJFM) circulation patterns for the period 1970-2008 reveals changes in the general circulation of the Baltic Sea. While it is difficult to clearly link individual winter circulation patterns to one of the four dominant atmospheric climate regimes for the North Atlantic domain, the comparison of mean winter circulation patterns for 20-year periods (1970-1989 and 1990-2009) highlights that for the later 20-year period an intensified cyclonic circulation exists in the central Baltic Sea. This intensified circulation results from stronger westerly and north-westerly winds and is most likely connected to changes in the large-scale atmospheric circulation. As climate, to a large extent, controls patterns of water circulation and biophysical aspects relevant for biological production, such as the vertical distribution of temperature, salinity and oxygen, alterations in climate may severely impact the trophic structure and functioning of marine food webs.

Getzlaff, K.; Lehmann, A.

2012-04-01

254

Significance of archaeal nitrification in hypoxic waters of the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine oxygen deficient areas are sites of important microbially mediated transformations within the nitrogen cycle. In the Baltic Sea, suboxic waters (oxygen below 5 ?mol L-1) are considered to be a major nitrification zone within the water column. Recent evidence indicates that Archaea and not Bacteria are here the major ammonium oxidizers. In a Baltic Sea pelagic redoxcline, the crenarchaeotal subcluster GD2 which is related to the first cultivated ammonia-oxidizing crenarchaeote Candidatus Nitrosopumilus maritimus occurs in high abundance. However, little is known about its function and importance for the nitrogen and carbon cycles in oxygen minimum zones of the Baltic Sea. To approach this question, we sampled pelagic redoxclines in the Baltic Sea and determined the rates of nitrification and light-independent, inorganic carbon fixation via 15N and 14C isotope incubations, and quantified the abundance of putative ammonia-oxidizing Crenarchaeota by catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH). Nitrification was detectable throughout the suboxic zone with maxima of 122-131 nmol L-1 d-1 in layers with 1.8-7.1 ?mol oxygen L-1 and ammonium below 0.2 ?mol L-1. However, a nitrification potential was detected even in the upper anoxic, sulfidic zone. Crenarchaeotal abundance correlated strongly with nitrification rates and accounted for up to 24% of total prokaryotic cells. In contrast, the CO2 fixation in the suboxic zone was with 1.6-19.6 nmol L-1 d-1 rather low when compared to the subjacent anoxic, sulfidic waters. Our study indicates that ammonia oxidation in the suboxic zone of the Baltic Sea is mainly driven by Crenarchaeota. Their occurrence also in the anoxic, sulfidic water masses and the maintained nitrification potential point to special adaptations in this habitat with a potentially reduced sensitivity against hydrogen sulfide.

Berg, C.; Vandieken, V.; Thamdrup, B.; Jürgens, K.

2012-04-01

255

Diagrams for heat kernel expansions  

E-print Network

A diagramatic heat kernel expansion technique is presented. The method is especially well suited to the small-derivative expansion of the heat kernel, but it can also be used to reproduce the results obtained by the approach known as covariant perturbation theory. The new technique gives an expansion for the heat kernel at coincident points. It can also be used to obtain the derivative of the heat kernel and this is useful for evaluating the expectation values of the stress-energy tensor.

Ian G Moss; Wade Naylor

2001-01-31

256

All Order Covariant Tubular Expansion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider tubular neighborhood of an arbitrary submanifold embedded in a (pseudo-) Riemannian manifold. This can be described by Fermi normal coordinates (FNC) satisfying certain conditions as described by Florides and Synge in [15]. By generalizing the work of Muller et al. in [54] on Riemann normal coordinate expansion, we derive all order FNC expansion of vielbein in this neighborhood with closed form expressions for the curvature expansion coefficients. Our result is shown to be consistent with certain integral theorem for the metric proved in [15].

Mukhopadhyay, Partha

2014-11-01

257

REGIONAL WATER SUPPLY PLANNING AND  

E-print Network

CHAPTER 3 REGIONAL WATER SUPPLY PLANNING AND CAPACITY EXPANSION MODELS Messele Z. Ejeta California Department of Water Resources Sacramento, California Larry W. Mays Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Arizona State University Tempe, Arizona 3.1 INTRODUCTION Water supply planning on a regional scale

Mays, Larry W.

258

Paolaltica eocenica new genus and new species of flea beetle
(Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini) from Baltic amber.
 

PubMed

Paolaltica eocenica new genus and new species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini) is described and illustrated from Upper Eocene Baltic amber. The new taxon is compared with fossil and recent flea beetle genera.  PMID:25284414

Biondi, Maurizio

2014-01-01

259

Thermal expansion of irradiated polytetrafluoroethylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis The thermal expansion coefficient of gamma-irradiated Polytetrafluoroethylene (FTFE) has been measured in the temperature range 80-340 K by using a three-terminal capacitance technique. The samples are irradiated in air at room temperature with gamma rays from a Cow source at a dose rate of 0.26 Mrad\\/h. The change in crystallinity is measured by an x-ray technique. The expansion coefficient

H. N. Subrahmanyam; S. V. Subramanyam

1987-01-01

260

Composites with extremal thermal expansion coefficients  

SciTech Connect

We design three-phase composites having maximum thermal expansion, zero thermal expansion, or negative thermal expansion using a numerical topology optimization method. It is shown that composites with effective negative thermal expansion can be obtained by mixing two phases of positive thermal expansions with a void phase. We also show that there is no mechanistic relationship between negative thermal expansion and negative Poisson{close_quote}s ratio. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Sigmund, O.; Torquato, S. [Princeton Materials Institute and Department of Civil Engineering and Operations Research, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)] [Princeton Materials Institute and Department of Civil Engineering and Operations Research, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

1996-11-01

261

Large spatial variations in coastal 14C reservoir age - a case study from the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal locations are highly influenced by input from freshwater river runoff, including sources of terrestrial carbon, which can be expected to modify the 14C reservoir age, or R (t), associated with marine water. In this Baltic Sea case study, pre-bomb museum collection mollusc shells of known calendar age, from 30 locations across a strategic salinity transect of the Baltic Sea, were analysed for 14C, ?13C and ?18O. R (t) was calculated for all 30 locations. Seven locations, of which six are within close proximity of the coast, were found to have relatively higher R (t) values, indicative of hard-water effects. Whenever possible, the Macoma genus of mollusc was selected from the museum collections, in order to exclude species specific reservoir age effects as much as possible. When the Macoma samples are exclusively considered, and samples from hard-water locations excluded, a statistically significant correlation between Macoma R (t) and average salinity is found, indicating a two end-member linear mixing model between 14Cmarine and 14Crunoff. A map of Baltic Sea Macoma aragonite R (t) for the late 19th and early 20th centuries is produced. Such a map can provide an estimate for contemporary Baltic Sea Macoma R (t), although one must exercise caution when applying such estimates back in time or to 14C dates obtained from different sample material. A statistically significant correlation is found between ?18Oaragonite and Macoma R (t), suggesting that ?18Oaragonite can be used to estimate Macoma palaeo-R (t), due to the ?18Oaragonite signal being dominated by the salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea. A slightly increased correlation can be expected when ?18Oaragonite is corrected for temperature fractionation effects. The results of this Baltic Sea case study, which show that R (t) is affected by hydrographic conditions and local carbon inputs, have important consequences for other coastal and estuarine locations, where R (t) is also likely to significantly vary on spatial and temporal bases.

Lougheed, B. C.; Filipsson, H. L.; Snowball, I.

2013-05-01

262

Variability in iodine isotopes (129I and 127I) in the Baltic Sea water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the early 1960s, accelerated industrialization and exploitations of natural resources pose a threat to the semi-closed Baltic Sea environment. The present concern over the environmental conditions in the Baltic Sea has derived many governmental agencies and scientists to focus their research on defining the magnitude of the problems and providing suggestions for remedial measures. The concentrations of the radioactive iodine-129 represent one of the contamination loads in the Baltic Sea for which a proper evaluation of spatial and temporal distribution is scarce. We here present the first investigation of the spatial and temporal variability of the radioactive 129I and the stable isotope of iodine (iodine-127) as well as their chemical species. Depth-profiles of seawaters were collected from 20 sites in August 2006 and April 2007. The sites cover the low salinity surface waters that form in the Baltic Proper and the high salinity deep water from the North Sea. The 129I was measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) whereas 127I was measured by an ICP-MS . The results reveal considerable differences of 129I concentration and its species in terms of spatial and temporal variability. Concentration of 129I appears to be consistently lower in the surface compared to deep waters. Intruding plumes of North Sea water, characterized by relatively high salinity, also carry relatively high concentration of 129I. The predominant species for 129I and 127I in Skagerrak-Kattegat basin change with seasons whereas iodide is the only prevailing form in the rest of Baltic Sea. During period of April, total 129I concentration in surface waters was highest in Skagerrak and decreased at the Oresund, but reached a relatively constant value at the rest of Baltic Sea Proper. The pattern of 129I distribution in August 2006 follows more or less the horizontal pattern observed in April 2007, but shows over a triple times increase at some sites. Similar to 129I, the highest values of 127I in the surface water were found in the Kattegat basin. The depth profile of 127I is also consistent with the pattern of salinity, where the highest value being found at a depth of 50-100 m. Correlation between salinity and iodine isotopes suggests involvement of both local conditions and inflow of North Sea water in the distribution of the isotopes species. Calculated inventories for total and different species of 129I evidently expose increasing trends relative to sparse data from earlier works.

Yi, Peng; Hansen, Violeta; Aldahan, Ala; Hou, Xiaolin; Possnert, Göran

2010-05-01

263

Link or sink: a modelling interpretation of the open Baltic biogeochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 1-D model system, consisting of the 1-D version of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) coupled with the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM) has been applied to a sub-basin of the Baltic Proper, the Bornholm basin. The model has been forced with 3h meteorological data for the period 1979-1990, producing a 12-year hindcast validated with datasets from the Baltic Environmental Database for the same period. The model results demonstrate the model to hindcast the time-evolution of the physical structure very well, confirming the view of the open Baltic water column as a three layer system of surface, intermediate and bottom waters. Comparative analyses of modelled hydrochemical components with respect to the independent data have shown that the long-term system behaviour of the model is within the observed ranges. Also primary production processes, deduced from oxygen (over)saturation are hindcast correctly over the entire period and the annual net primary production is within the observed range. The largest mismatch with observations is found in simulating the biogeochemistry of the Baltic intermediate waters. Modifications in the structure of the model (addition of fast-sinking detritus and polysaccharide dynamics) have shown that the nutrient dynamics are linked to the quality and dimensions of the organic matter produced in the euphotic zone, highlighting the importance of the residence time of the organic matter within the microbial foodweb in the intermediate waters. Experiments with different scenarios of riverine nutrient loads, assessed in the limits of a 1-D setup, have shown that the external input of organic matter makes the open Baltic model more heterotrophic. The characteristics of the inputs also drive the dynamics of nitrogen in the bottom layers leading either to nitrate accumulation (when the external sources are inorganic), or to coupled nitrification-denitrification (under strong organic inputs). The model indicates the permanent stratification to be the main feature of the system as regulator of carbon and nutrient budgets. The model predicts that most of the carbon produced in the euphotic zone is also consumed in the water column and this enhances the importance of heterotrophic benthic processes as final closure of carbon and nutrient cycles in the open Baltic.

Vichi, M.; Ruardij, P.; Baretta, J. W.

264

Link or sink: a modelling interpretation of the open Baltic biogeochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 1-D model system, consisting of the 1-D version of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) coupled with the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM) has been applied to a sub-basin of the Baltic Proper, the Bornholm basin. The model has been forced with 3h meteorological data for the period 1979-1990, producing a 12-year hindcast validated with datasets from the Baltic Environmental Database for the same period. The model results demonstrate the model to hindcast the time-evolution of the physical structure very well, confirming the view of the open Baltic water column as a three layer system of surface, intermediate and bottom waters. Comparative analyses of modelled hydrochemical components with respect to the independent data have shown that the long-term system behaviour of the model is within the observed ranges. Also primary production processes, deduced from oxygen (over)saturation are hindcast correctly over the entire period and the annual net primary production is within the observed range. The largest mismatch with observations is found in simulating the biogeochemistry of the Baltic intermediate waters. Modifications in the structure of the model (addition of fast-sinking detritus and polysaccharide dynamics) have shown that the nutrient dynamics is linked to the quality and dimensions of the organic matter produced in the euphotic zone, highlighting the importance of the residence time of the organic matter within the microbial foodweb in the intermediate waters. Experiments with different scenarios of riverine nutrient loads, assessed in the limits of a 1-D setup, have shown that the external input of organic matter makes the open Baltic model more heterotrophic. The characteristics of the inputs also drive the dynamics of nitrogen in the bottom layers leading either to nitrate accumulation (when the external sources are inorganic), or to coupled nitrification-denitrification (under strong organic inputs). The model indicates the permanent stratification to be the main feature of the system as regulator of carbon and nutrient budgets. The model predicts that most of the carbon produced in the euphotic zone is also consumed in the water column and this enhances the importance of heterotrophic benthic processes as final closures of carbon and nutrient cycles in the open Baltic.

Vichi, M.; Ruardij, P.; Baretta, J. W.

2004-08-01

265

What can ARGO's tell us on the processes in Baltic Sea?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finnish Meteorological Institute has been testing ARGO floats in the Baltic Sea as a mean for collecting data from the sea areas that are not easily reachable by research vessels or remote sensing. The observational data for Baltic Sea off-shore areas is very sparse and new observational methods are needed to fill the gaps in our knowledge and collect new data for different purposes, such as, operational activities, modelling and ocean science. The ARGO floats have been used successfully in the deep oceans. However, applying the ARGO floats in Baltic Sea is not straight forward, as the conditions differ greatly: the water is brackish, some areas are heavily trafficked and the northern parts freeze during the winter. In addition, the mean depth is only 54 metres, which is only a fraction of depths where ARGO floats have commonly been used. FMI has deployed three ARGO floats in Baltic Sea for different missions. The first ARGO was deployed in 2012 with normal diving algorithm, which checks the pressure hourly. The second float was modified by Aalto University so that the algorithm checks the pressure every 15 minutes. The first float was deployed in the Bothnian Sea in May 2013 and it measured over 200 profiles during its half year mission. The float with faster pressure detection was deployed in the Bothnian Sea in May 2013, and during it's 4 month mission it measured succesfully over 120 profiles. Another, longer test is ongoing on Eastern Gotland basin, where another ARGO float was deployed at Aug 2013, and still measures at Jan 2014. This one differs from earlier experiments as it has additional oxygen and scattering meters, also the area of measurements is deeper (200+ meters). The missions so far indicate, that with proper control and monitoring, ARGO's can be operated, and can measure long series of profiles. In addition to the actual measurements, the movement of ARGO floats gives possibilities to analyse currents in deeper areas of Baltic, and help determining correlations between currents and bathymetry, for example. In this presentation we present and analyse the results from these experiments and discuss further possibilities of ARGO's in Baltic Sea.

Roiha, Petra; Siiriä, Simo-Matti; Nummelin, Aleksi; Aro, Eemeli; Purokoski, Tero

2014-05-01

266

Breaking the Link between Environmental Degradation and Oil Palm Expansion: A Method for Enabling Sustainable Oil Palm Expansion  

PubMed Central

Land degradation is a global concern. In tropical areas it primarily concerns the conversion of forest into non-forest lands and the associated losses of environmental services. Defining such degradation is not straightforward hampering effective reduction in degradation and use of already degraded lands for more productive purposes. To facilitate the processes of avoided degradation and land rehabilitation, we have developed a methodology in which we have used international environmental and social sustainability standards to determine the suitability of lands for sustainable agricultural expansion. The method was developed and tested in one of the frontiers of agricultural expansion, West Kalimantan province in Indonesia. The focus was on oil palm expansion, which is considered as a major driver for deforestation in tropical regions globally. The results suggest that substantial changes in current land-use planning are necessary for most new plantations to comply with international sustainability standards. Through visualizing options for sustainable expansion with our methodology, we demonstrate that the link between oil palm expansion and degradation can be broken. Application of the methodology with criteria and thresholds similar to ours could help the Indonesian government and the industry to achieve its pro-growth, pro-job, pro-poor and pro-environment development goals. For sustainable agricultural production, context specific guidance has to be developed in areas suitable for expansion. Our methodology can serve as a template for designing such commodity and country specific tools and deliver such guidance. PMID:24039700

Smit, Hans Harmen; Meijaard, Erik; van der Laan, Carina; Mantel, Stephan; Budiman, Arif; Verweij, Pita

2013-01-01

267

Electric utility system master plan  

SciTech Connect

This publication contains the electric utility system plan and guidelines for providing adequate electric power to the various facilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in support of the mission of the Laboratory. The topics of the publication include general information on the current systems and their operation, a planning analysis for current and future growth in energy demand, proposed improvements and expansions required to meet long range site development and the site`s five-year plan.

Erickson, O.M.

1992-10-01

268

Rock expansion caused by ultrasound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has during many years been reported that materials' elastic modulus decrease when exposed to influences like mechanical impacts, ultrasound, magnetic fields, electricity and even humidity. Non-perfect atomic structures like rocks, concrete, or damaged metals exhibit a larger effect. This softening has most often been recorded by wave resonance measurements. The motion towards equilibrium is slow - often taking hours or days, which is why the effect is called Slow Dynamics [1]. The question had been raised, if a material expansion also occurs. 'The most fundamental parameter to consider is the volume expansion predicted to occur when positive hole charge carriers become activated, causing a decrease of the electron density in the O2- sublattice of the rock-forming minerals. This decrease of electron density should affect essentially all physical parameters, including the volume.' [2]. A new type of configuration has measured expansion of a rock subjected to ultrasound. A PZT was used as a pressure sensor while the combined thickness of the rock sample and the PZT sensor was held fixed. The expansion increased the stress in both the rock and the PZT, which gave an out-put voltage from the PZT. Knowing its material properties then made it possible to calculate the rock expansion. The equivalent strain caused by the ultrasound was approximately 3 x 10-5. The temperature was monitored and accounted for during the tests and for the maximum expansion the increase was 0.7 C, which means the expansion is at least to some degree caused by heating of the material by the ultrasound. The fraction of bonds activated by ultrasound was estimated to be around 10-5. References: [1] Guyer, R.A., Johnson, P.A.: Nonlinear Mesoscopic Elasticity: The Complex Behaviour of Rocks, Soils, Concrete. Wiley-VCH 2009 [2] M.M. Freund, F.F. Freund, Manipulating the Toughness of Rocks through Electric Potentials, Final Report CIF 2011 Award NNX11AJ84A, NAS Ames 2012.

Hedberg, C.; Gray, A.

2013-12-01

269

Monitoring the expansion of built-up areas in Seberang Perai region, Penang State, Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid urbanization has caused land use transformation and encroachment of built environment into arable agriculture land. Uncontrolled expansion could bring negative impacts to society, space and the environment. Therefore, information on expansion and future spatial pattern of built-up areas would be useful for planners and decision makers in formulating policies towards managing and planning for sustainable urban development. This study demonstrates the usage of Geographic Information System in monitoring the expansion of built-up area in Seberang Perai region, Penang State, Malaysia. Built-up area has increased by approximately 20% between 1990 and 2001 and further increased by 12% between 2001 and 2007. New development is expected to continue encroach into existing open space and agriculture area since those are the only available land in this study area. The information on statistics of the expansion of built-up area and future spatial pattern of urban expansion were useful in planning and managing urban spatial growth.

Samat, N.

2014-02-01

270

The Baltic Sea: Geophysical and geochemical properties of Holocene sediment sequences as indicators of past environmental variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baltic Sea has undergone large environmental changes since the retreat of the Weischselian Ice-sheet. In the Late Glacial Period and the early Holocene these changes were most likely caused by natural environmental changes (i.e. changes in the morphology and depths of the Baltic basin and the sills). In more recent time anthropogenic impacts have become more important as a possible and likely cause for changes. During the whole Holocene period climate variability played an important role. However, the relative importance between humans and nature is largely unknown. Here we present the results of a combined geophysical and geochemical study on selected sediment sequences from the Baltic Sea within the two BONUS (Baltic Organisations Network For Funding Science) funded projects HYPER (HYPoxia mitigation for Baltic Sea Ecosystem Restoration) and Baltic GAS (GAS storage and effects of climate change and eutrophication). The over-all aim of these projects is to understand large-scale Baltic Sea ecosystem responses to environmental, climate and anthropogenic forcing. During two Baltic Sea research cruises in 2009 long sediment cores from 8 different locations were recovered. We present preliminary results from one site (LL19) located in the north central Baltic Proper at 169 m water depth. The Littorina Sea sediment record (i.e. the last c. 8000 years) is characterised by alternating periods of homogenised sediments (indicative of oxic conditions) and laminated sediments (indicative of hypoxic/anoxic conditions). Mineral magnetic properties illustrate clear changes between laminated and non-laminated sections of the core. The concentration of ferrimagnetic minerals, as revealed by initial magnetic susceptibility (?) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) is variable. The laminated sections in particular show high concentrations and to reveal the origin of the ferrimagnetic signal additional magnetic properties were measured, specifically the acquisition of rotational remanent magnetization (RRM), frequency dependency of susceptibility (?fd) and magnetic loops. These data show that magnetic assemblage of the laminated sections is dominated by a single-domain magnetic grain size. The elemental composition was measured with a high resolution Itrax XRF-scanner throughout the core. In addition, biogenic silica (BSi) and total organic carbon (TOC) were determined. Distinct changes of elemental contents between the laminated and homogenous sections in the Littorina Sea sediments were identified. A combination of the physical and geochemical properties of the sediment sequences and the construction of geochronologies will provide information about past environmental variability to identify casual relationships to climate and human impact in the Baltic Sea.

Lenz, Conny; Reinholdsson, Maja; Zillén, Lovisa; Conley, Daniel J.; Snowball, Ian

2010-05-01

271

Eutrophication, risk management and sustainability. The perceptions of different stakeholders in the northern Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

The environmental condition of the Baltic Sea is not only of concern for natural scientists. The awareness of the deteriorating state of the ecosystem has become an issue of interdisciplinary interest, and the amount of organizations with the marine environment and ecosystem health on the agenda is large. To present holistic and sustainable solutions and results of the actions taken, an active cooperation between all stakeholder groups and levels are needed. How different stakeholders in the northern Baltic Sea perceive the structures and assessments of the eutrophication were analyzed by semi-structured interviews with 17 stakeholders representing authorities, scientists, NGOs and national interest organizations. The focus was the view of the governance structures, risk assessment, management and communication. There was an overall consensus that eutrophication is a serious problem. Still variations in the opinions both within and between the stakeholder groups were seen. The scientists were most divergent from the rest. PMID:23174306

Lundberg, Cecilia

2013-01-15

272

Occurrence of norovirus and hepatitis a virus in wild mussels collected from the baltic sea.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to define the occurrence of human noroviruses of genogroup I and II (NoV GI and NoV GII) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) in the Baltic Sea mussels. The shellfish samples were taken at the sampling sites located on the Polish coast. In total, 120 shellfish were tested as pooled samples using RT-PCR and hybridisation with virus specific probes. NoV GI was detected in 22 (18.3 %), NoV GII in 28 (23.3 %), and HAV in 9 (7.5 %) of the shellfish. The nucleotide sequence analysis of the detected NoV GII strains showed a 97.3-99.3 % similarity to GII.4 virus strain. This is the first report describing the NoV and HAV occurrence in wild Baltic mussels and their possible role as bioindicators of seawater contamination with human enteric viruses. PMID:24906970

Bigoraj, Ewelina; Kwit, Ewa; Chroboci?ska, Marta; Rze?utka, Artur

2014-09-01

273

Reservoir Simulation Used to Plan Diatomite Developement in Mountainous Region  

E-print Network

's ideal development plan. The steep hillsides prevent well pad development for about 22 vertical well locations in the 110 well expansion plan. Conventional production performs poorly in the area because the combination of relatively low permeability (1...

Powell, Richard

2012-10-19

274

The early planning and development of Oklahoma City  

E-print Network

An analysis of the planning, development, and implementation of Oklahoma City's Grand Boulevard. In the early days of 1909, a plan emerged to build an expansive parks and boulevard system to encircle Oklahoma City. Such ...

Humphreys, Blair D. (Blair David)

2009-01-01

275

Ecotoxicity assessment of natural attenuation effects at a historical dumping site in the western Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the late 1950s and early 1960s of the past century, industrial waste material highly enriched in various contaminants (heavy metals, PAHs) was dumped in the inner Mecklenburg Bay, western Baltic Sea. Large-scale shifts in the spatial distribution of heavy metals in surface sediments were mapped by geochemical monitoring in the mid-1980s and 12years later in 1997. A further study

Thomas Leipe; Michael Kersten; Susanne Heise; Christa Pohl; Gesine Witt; Gladys Liehr; Michael Zettler; Franz Tauber

2005-01-01

276

Precision and accuracy of spectrophotometric pH measurements at environmental conditions in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing uptake of anthropogenic CO2 by the oceans has raised an interest in precise and accurate pH measurement in order to assess the impact on the marine CO2-system. Spectrophotometric pH measurements were refined during the last decade yielding a precision and accuracy that cannot be achieved with the conventional potentiometric method. However, until now the method was only tested in oceanic systems with a relative stable and high salinity and a small pH range. This paper describes the first application of such a pH measurement system at conditions in the Baltic Sea which is characterized by a wide salinity and pH range. The performance of the spectrophotometric system at pH values as low as 7.0 (“total” scale) and salinities between 0 and 35 was examined using TRIS-buffer solutions, certified reference materials, and tests of consistency with measurements of other parameters of the marine CO2 system. Using m-cresol purple as indicator dye and a spectrophotometric measurement system designed at Scripps Institution of Oceanography (B. Carter, A. Dickson), a precision better than ±0.001 and an accuracy between ±0.01 and ±0.02 was achieved within the observed pH and salinity ranges in the Baltic Sea. The influence of the indicator dye on the pH of the sample was determined theoretically and is presented as a pH correction term for the different alkalinity regimes in the Baltic Sea. Because of the encouraging tests, the ease of operation and the fact that the measurements refer to the internationally accepted “total” pH scale, it is recommended to use the spectrophotometric method also for pH monitoring and trend detection in the Baltic Sea.

Hammer, Karoline; Schneider, Bernd; Kuli?ski, Karol; Schulz-Bull, Detlef E.

2014-06-01

277

Towards The Operational Oceanographic Model System In Estonian Coastal Sea, Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated system of nested 2D and 3D hydrodynamic models together with real time forcing data asquisition is designed and set up in pre-operational mode in the Gulf of Finland and Gulf of Riga, the Baltic Sea. Along the Estonian coast, implicit time-stepping 3D models are used in the deep bays and 2D models in the shallow bays with ca

T. Kõuts; J. Elken; U. Raudsepp

2002-01-01

278

Enhanced accumulation of PCB congeners by Baltic Sea blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, with increased algae enrichment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to examine if natural variations in the quantity of phytoplankton-derived particulate and dissolved organic carbon influences the accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the tissues of Baltic Sea blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.). In a laboratory flow-through experiment the authors exposed M. edulis to the technical PCB mixture Aroclor{reg_sign} 1248 for 21 d at

Michael Gilek; M. Bjoerk; Dag Broman; Nils Kautsky; C. Naef

1996-01-01

279

Germination in Baltic coastal wetland meadows: similarities and differences between vegetation and seed bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundance and variety of seedlings in Baltic coastal grasslands was studied in cattle grazed and ungrazed areas in seashore\\u000a and delta on the western coast of Finland. The vegetation, seed bank and environmental conditions of the same sites were also\\u000a studied. Altogether 4609 seedlings were observed in 79 field plots (20 cm 20 cm) making an average of 1458.54

Heli M. Jutila

2003-01-01

280

A dinoflagellate cyst record of Holocene climate and hydrological changes along the southeastern Swedish Baltic coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-resolution, well-dated dinoflagellate cyst record from a lagoon of the southeastern Swedish Baltic Sea reveals climate and hydrological changes during the Holocene. Marine dinoflagellate cysts occurred initially at about 8600 cal yr BP, indicating the onset of the Littorina transgression in the southeastern Swedish lowland associated with global sea level rise, and thus the opening of the Danish straits. Both

Shi-Yong Yu; Björn E. Berglund

2007-01-01

281

A new contribution to the moss flora of Baltic and Saxon amber  

Microsoft Academic Search

So far, the largest collection of mosses from the Baltic and Saxon amber (Eocene, 37–57 million years b.p.) consisting of 55 specimens is reported. The specimens belong to extant species such as Trachycystis flagellaris (Sullivant and Lesquereux) Lindberg, Trachycystis microphylla (Dozy and Molkenboer) Lindberg, Hypnodontopsis conferta (Goeppert and Berendt) J.-P. Frahm, Atrichum cf. rhystophyllum (C. Müller) Paris, Haplocladium angustifolium (Hampe

J.-P Frahm

2004-01-01

282

Contrasting geochemical cycling of hafnium and neodymium in the central Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The central Baltic Sea is a marginal brackish basin which comprises anoxic bottom waters and is surrounded by geological source terrains with a wide variety of compositions and ages. This allows the investigation of water mass mixing using radiogenic isotope compositions of Nd and Hf as well as their geochemical cycling across varying redox conditions in the water column. In this study, we present the distribution of Nd and Hf concentrations and their isotopic compositions for 6 depth profiles and 3 surface water sites obtained during a cruise in the central Baltic Sea onboard the RV Oceania as a part of the international GEOTRACES program. The results obtained indicate that Nd isotopes effectively trace the mixing between more radiogenic saline waters from the south and unradiogenic fresh waters from the north, which helps to understand the reliability of Nd isotopes as water mass tracer in the open ocean. In surface waters, Nd shows higher concentrations and less radiogenic isotope compositions at the northern stations, which are progressively diluted and become more radiogenic to the south, consistent with the counterclockwise circulation pattern of central Baltic Sea surface waters. In contrast to the variable Nd concentrations, Hf shows much less variability. At the Gotland Deep station, the Nd concentrations of the euxinic waters are higher by a factor >10 than those of the overlying oxygen-depleted waters, whereas Hf only shows small concentration variations. This indicates faster removal of Hf from the water column than Nd. Moreover, the dissolved Hf isotope signatures document great variability but no consistent mixing trends. Our explanation is that Hf has a lower residence time than Nd, and also that the Hf isotope signatures of the sources are highly heterogeneous, which is attributed to their differing magmatic and tectonic histories as well as incongruent post-glacial weathering around the central Baltic Sea.

Chen, Tian-Yu; Stumpf, Roland; Frank, Martin; Be?dowski, Jacek; Staubwasser, Michael

2013-12-01

283

Direct measurements of turbulent momentum, heat and salt fluxes under landfast ice in the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of under-ice turbulence were performed using an acoustic three-dimensional current meter with an attached fast-repetition temperature-conductivity sensor at two coastal areas in the Baltic Sea during two winters. Observations covered both the ice-growth and spring-melt periods. The objective of these measurements was to obtain knowledge of under-ice turbulence and oceanic heat and salt fluxes to and from the ice

Jari Uusikivi; Jens Ehn; Mats A. Granskog

2006-01-01

284

Framing Environmental Risks in the Baltic Sea: A News Media Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific complexity and uncertainty is a key challenge for environmental risk governance and to understand how risks are\\u000a framed and communicated is of utmost importance. The Baltic Sea ecosystem is stressed and exposed to different risks like\\u000a eutrophication, overfishing, and hazardous chemicals. Based on an analysis of the Swedish newspaper Dagens Nyheter, this study discusses media representations of these risks.

Anna Maria Jönsson

2011-01-01

285

Sedimentological parameters and erosion behaviour of submarine coastal sediments in the south-western Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the erodibility of submarine coastal sediments for the purpose of modelling sediment dynamics in Mecklenburg Bay, south-western Baltic Sea. Erosion thresholds derived from experiments with a device microcosm on cores of fine sand ( n=5, mean grain size=132 µm) and mud ( n=5, medium silt size, mean=21 µm), collected at different times of the

Kai Ziervogel; Björn Bohling

2003-01-01

286

The occurrence and distribution of carabid beetles (Carabidae) on islands in the Baltic Sea: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution and occurrence of carabid beetles have been studied extensively in a number of archipelagoes in the Baltic\\u000a Sea, a ca. 377,000 km2, fairly shallow and young sea in northern Europe. This work has revealed some surprising results related to colonisation\\u000a success and maintenance of populations. Dispersal from the mainland and between islands appears to be relatively easy because\\u000a inter-island

D. Johan Kotze

2008-01-01

287

The occurrence and distribution of carabid beetles (Carabidae) on islands in the Baltic Sea: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution and occurrence of carabid beetles have been studied extensively in a number of archipelagoes in the Baltic\\u000a Sea, a ca. 377,000 km2, fairly shallow and young sea in northern Europe. This work has revealed some surprising results related to colonisation\\u000a success and maintenance of populations. Dispersal from the mainland and between islands appears to be relatively easy because\\u000a inter-island

D. Johan Kotze

288

Bioaccumulation of 51Cr, 63Ni and 14C in Baltic Sea benthos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Baltic Sea is a species-poor, semi-enclosed, brackish sea, whose sediments contain a wide range of contaminants, including sediment-associated metals and radionuclides. In this study, we have examined and compared bioaccumulation kinetics and assimilation efficiencies of sediment-associated 51Cr, 63Ni and 14C in three key benthic invertebrates (the deposit-feeding Monoporeia affinis, the facultative deposit-feeding Macoma baltica, and the omnivorous Halicryptus spinulosus).

L. Kumblad; C. Bradshaw; M. Gilek

2005-01-01

289

Assessing Recent Eutrophication in Coastal Waters of the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) using Subfossil Diatoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine eutrophication of estuaries and coastal waters is considered to be a significant problem worldwide. In the semi-enclosed\\u000a Baltic Sea, where the nutrient load has strongly increased from its natural level, this has led to marked changes in the coastal\\u000a ecosystems. A key to successful management of coastal waters is reliable scientific evidence of their past state. The palaeolimnological\\u000a record

Kaarina Weckström

2006-01-01

290

Identification of Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes Ticks in the Baltic Regions of Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence and distribution of Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was demonstrated among ixodid ticks collected in the Baltic regions of Russia, where Lyme borreliosis is endemic. A total of 3,426 Ixodes ricinus and 1,267 Ixodes persulcatus specimens were collected, and dark-field microscopy showed that 265 (11.5%) I. ricinus and 333 (26.3%) I. persulcatus ticks were positive. From

ANDREY N. ALEKSEEV; HELEN V. DUBININA; INGRID VAN DE POL; LEO M. SCHOULS

291

Air-water exchange of brominated anisoles in the northern Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Bromophenols produced by marine algae undergo O-methylation to form bromoanisoles (BAs), which are exchanged between water and air. BAs were determined in surface water of the northern Baltic Sea (Gulf of Bothnia, consisting of Bothnian Bay and Bothnian Sea) during 2011-2013 and on a transect of the entire Baltic in September 2013. The abundance decreased in the following order: 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (2,4,6-TBA)>2,4-dibromoanisole (2,4-DBA)?2,6-dibromoanisole (2,6-DBA). Concentrations of 2,4-DBA and 2,4,6-TBA in September were higher in the southern than in the northern Baltic and correlated well with the higher salinity in the south. This suggests south-to-north advection and dilution with fresh riverine water enroute, and/or lower production in the north. The abundance in air over the northern Baltic also decreased in the following order: 2,4,6-TBA>2,4-DBA. However, 2,6-DBA was estimated as a lower limit due to breakthrough from polyurethane foam traps used for sampling. Water/air fugacity ratios ranged from 3.4 to 7.6 for 2,4-DBA and from 18 to 94 for 2,4,6-TBA, indicating net volatilization. Flux estimates using the two-film model suggested that volatilization removes 980-1360 kg of total BAs from Bothnian Bay (38000 km2) between May and September. The release of bromine from outgassing of BAs could be up to 4-6% of bromine fluxes from previously reported volatilization of bromomethanes and bromochloromethanes. PMID:24811233

Bidleman, Terry F; Agosta, Kathleen; Andersson, Agneta; Haglund, Peter; Nygren, Olle; Ripszam, Matyas; Tysklind, Mats

2014-06-01

292

Geodetic observation of sea-level change and crustal deformation in the Baltic Sea region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on tide gauge observations spanning almost 200 years, homogeneous time series of the mean relative sea level were derived for nine sites at the southern coast of the Baltic Sea. Our regionally concentrated data were complemented by long-term relative sea-level records retrieved from the data base of the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL). From these records relative sea-level change rates were derived at 51 tide gauge stations for the period between 1908 and 2007. A minimum observation time of 60 years is required for the determination of reliable sea-level rates. At present, no anthropogenic acceleration in sea-level rise is detected in the tide gauge observations in the southern Baltic. The spatial variation of the relative sea-level rates reflects the fingerprint of GIA-induced crustal uplift. Time series of extreme sea levels were also inferred from the tide gauge records. They were complemented by water level information from historic storm surge marks preserved along the German Baltic coast. Based on this combined dataset the incidence and spatial variation of extreme sea levels induced by storm surges were analysed yielding important information for hazard assessments. Permanent GPS observations were used to determine recent crustal deformation rates for 44 stations in the Baltic Sea region. The GPS derived height change rates were applied to reduce the relative sea-level changes observed by tide gauges yielding an estimate for the eustatic sea-level change. For 13 tide gauge-GPS colocation sites a mean eustatic sea-level trend of 1.3 mm/a was derived for the last 100 years.

Richter, A.; Groh, A.; Dietrich, R.

293

Decadal-Scale Changes of Dinoflagellates and Diatoms in the Anomalous Baltic Sea Spring Bloom  

PubMed Central

The algal spring bloom in the Baltic Sea represents an anomaly from the winter-spring bloom patterns worldwide in terms of frequent and recurring dominance of dinoflagellates over diatoms. Analysis of approximately 3500 spring bloom samples from the Baltic Sea monitoring programs revealed (i) that within the major basins the proportion of dinoflagellates varied from 0.1 (Kattegat) to >0.8 (central Baltic Proper), and (ii) substantial shifts (e.g. from 0.2 to 0.6 in the Gulf of Finland) in the dinoflagellate proportion over four decades. During a recent decade (1995–2004) the proportion of dinoflagellates increased relative to diatoms mostly in the northernmost basins (Gulf of Bothnia, from 0.1 to 0.4) and in the Gulf of Finland, (0.4 to 0.6) which are typically ice-covered areas. We hypothesize that in coastal areas a specific sequence of seasonal events, involving wintertime mixing and resuspension of benthic cysts, followed by proliferation in stratified thin layers under melting ice, favors successful seeding and accumulation of dense dinoflagellate populations over diatoms. This head-start of dinoflagellates by the onset of the spring bloom is decisive for successful competition with the faster growing diatoms. Massive cyst formation and spreading of cyst beds fuel the expanding and ever larger dinoflagellate blooms in the relatively shallow coastal waters. Shifts in the dominant spring bloom algal groups can have significant effects on major elemental fluxes and functioning of the Baltic Sea ecosystem, but also in the vast shelves and estuaries at high latitudes, where ice-associated cold-water dinoflagellates successfully compete with diatoms. PMID:21747911

Klais, Riina; Tamminen, Timo; Kremp, Anke; Spilling, Kristian; Olli, Kalle

2011-01-01

294

Climate Change and the Need for Integrated Coastal Risk Management in the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Climate Change and its consequences will significantly impact sandy coasts and coastal lowlands in the Baltic Sea region.\\u000a The risks of flooding and coastal erosion will probably rise due to higher storm surge water levels. Further, it must be accounted\\u000a for that long-term coastal retreat will increase if sea level rise accelerates. Traditionally, adaptation strategies focus\\u000a on technical measures like

Jacobus Hofstede

295

The effect of surface films on the air–sea gas exchange in the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas exchange experiments were performed with water from a coastal station in the southwestern Baltic Sea in order to investigate the effect of organic films on the gas transfer velocity. Samples were taken on a weekly basis during January to July in 2007 and 2008. Using a 1.5l glass vessel, the evasion of oxygen from the sample into an O2-free

R. Schmidt; B. Schneider

2011-01-01

296

Delta expansion at low temperatures  

E-print Network

In the low temperature phase of the square Ising model, we describe the inverse temperature beta as the function of a squared mass M and study the critical behavior of beta(M) via the large M expansion. Using the delta-expansion by which the large mass expansion is transformed into a series exhibiting expected scaling behavior, we perform the estimation of the critical inverse temperature beta_{c} with the help of linear differential equation to be satisfied by ansatz of beta(M) near the critical point M=0. To improve the estimation, the leading correction exponent nu is independently estimated from beta^{(2)}/beta^{(1)} and is used in the estimation of beta_{c}, giving rise to remarkable accuracy improvement.

Yamada, Hirofumi

2014-01-01

297

Energy efficient perlite expansion process  

SciTech Connect

A thermally efficient process for the expansion of perlite ore is described. The inlet port and burner of a perlite expansion chamber (Preferably a vertical expander) are enclosed such that no ambient air can enter the chamber. Air and fuel are metered to the burner with the amount of air being controlled such that the fuel/air premix contains at least enough air to start and maintain minimum combustion, but not enough to provide stoichiometric combustion. At a point immediately above the burner, additional air is metered into an insulated enclosure surrounding the expansion chamber where it is preheated by the heat passing through the chamber walls. This preheated additional air is then circulated back to the burner where it provides the remainder of the air needed for combustion, normally full combustion. Flow of the burner fuel/air premix and the preheated additional air is controlled so as to maintain a long luminous flame throughout a substantial portion of the expansion chamber and also to form a moving laminar layer of air on the inner surface of the expansion chamber. Preferably the burner is a delayed mixing gas burner which materially aids in the generation of the long luminous flame. The long luminous flame and the laminar layer of air at the chamber wall eliminate hot spots in the expansion chamber, result in relatively low and uniform temperature gradients across the chamber, significantly reduce the amount of fuel consumed per unit of perlite expanded, increase the yield of expanded perlite and prevent the formation of a layer of perlite sinter on the walls of the chamber.

Jenkins, K.L.

1982-08-31

298

Expansion-based passive ranging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a new technique of passive ranging which is based on utilizing the image-plane expansion experienced by every object as its distance from the sensor decreases. This technique belongs in the feature/object-based family. The motion and shape of a small window, assumed to be fully contained inside the boundaries of some object, is approximated by an affine transformation. The parameters of the transformation matrix are derived by initially comparing successive images, and progressively increasing the image time separation so as to achieve much larger triangulation baseline than currently possible. Depth is directly derived from the expansion part of the transformation. To a first approximation, image-plane expansion is independent of image-plane location with respect to the focus of expansion (FOE) and of platform maneuvers. Thus, an expansion-based method has the potential of providing a reliable range in the difficult image area around the FOE. In areas far from the FOE the shift parameters of the affine transformation can provide more accurate depth information than the expansion alone, and can thus be used similarly to the way they have been used in conjunction with the Inertial Navigation Unit (INU) and Kalman filtering. However, the performance of a shift-based algorithm, when the shifts are derived from the affine transformation, would be much improved compared to current algorithms because the shifts--as well as the other parameters--can be obtained between widely separated images. Thus, the main advantage of this new approach is that, allowing the tracked window to expand and rotate, in addition to moving laterally, enables one to correlate images over a very long time span which, in turn, translates into a large spatial baseline resulting in a proportionately higher depth accuracy.

Barniv, Yair

1993-01-01

299

Expansion-based passive ranging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new technique of passive ranging which is based on utilizing the image-plane expansion experienced by every object as its distance from the sensor decreases is described. This technique belongs in the feature/object-based family. The motion and shape of a small window, assumed to be fully contained inside the boundaries of some object, is approximated by an affine transformation. The parameters of the transformation matrix are derived by initially comparing successive images, and progressively increasing the image time separation so as to achieve much larger triangulation baseline than currently possible. Depth is directly derived from the expansion part of the transformation. To a first approximation, image-plane expansion is independent of image-plane location with respect to the focus of expansion (FOE) and of platform maneuvers. Thus, an expansion-based method has the potential of providing a reliable range in the difficult image area around the FOE. In areas far from the FOE the shift parameters of the affine transformation can provide more accurate depth information than the expansion alone, and can thus be used similarly to the way they were used in conjunction with the Inertial Navigation Unit (INU) and Kalman filtering. However, the performance of a shift-based algorithm, when the shifts are derived from the affine transformation, would be much improved compared to current algorithms because the shifts - as well as the other parameters - can be obtained between widely separated images. Thus, the main advantage of this new approach is that, allowing the tracked window to expand and rotate, in addition to moving laterally, enables one to correlate images over a very long time span which, in turn, translates into a large spatial baseline - resulting in a proportionately higher depth accuracy.

Barniv, Yair

1993-01-01

300

Occurrence of Plasmids in the Aromatic Degrading Bacterioplankton of the Baltic Sea  

PubMed Central

Plasmids are mobile genetic elements that provide their hosts with many beneficial traits including in some cases the ability to degrade different aromatic compounds. To fulfill the knowledge gap regarding catabolic plasmids of the Baltic Sea water, a total of 209 biodegrading bacterial strains were isolated and screened for the presence of these mobile genetic elements. We found that both large and small plasmids are common in the cultivable Baltic Sea bacterioplankton and are particularly prevalent among bacterial genera Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter. Out of 61 plasmid-containing strains (29% of all isolates), 34 strains were found to carry large plasmids, which could be associated with the biodegradative capabilities of the host bacterial strains. Focusing on the diversity of IncP-9 plasmids, self-transmissible m-toluate (TOL) and salicylate (SAL) plasmids were detected. Sequencing the repA gene of IncP-9 carrying isolates revealed a high diversity within IncP-9 plasmid family, as well as extended the assumed bacterial host species range of the IncP-9 representatives. This study is the first insight into the genetic pool of the IncP-9 catabolic plasmids in the Baltic Sea bacterioplankton. PMID:24710296

Jutkina, Jekaterina; Heinaru, Eeva; Vedler, Eve; Juhanson, Jaanis; Heinaru, Ain

2011-01-01

301

Hydrolysis of Baltic amber during thermal ageing - An infrared spectroscopic approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To enable conservation of amber in museums, understanding of chemical changes is crucial. While oxidation has been investigated particularly well for this natural polymer, further degradation phenomena in relation to humidity and pollutants are poorly studied or still unknown. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was explored with regard to Baltic amber. A systematic spectroscopic survey of a wide range of thermally aged model amber samples, exposed to different microclimatic conditions, showed significant changes in their spectra. Samples aged in a humid and acidic environment or exposed to a humid and alkaline atmosphere generally exhibited a higher absorbance intensity of carbonyl groups at frequencies assigned to acids than unaged samples, samples aged in drier conditions and samples immersed in an alkaline solution. Baltic amber comprises succinate ester, which may be hydrolysed into communol and succinic acid. The survey thus provided evidence about the progress of hydrolytic reactions during degradation of Baltic amber. Infrared spectroscopy was shown to have significant potential for providing qualitative and quantitative chemical information on hydrolysis of amber, which will be of interest for the development of preventive conservation techniques for museum collections of amber objects.

Pastorelli, Gianluca; Shashoua, Yvonne; Richter, Jane

2013-04-01

302

The trophic state of the Baltic Sea a century ago: a model simulation study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply a 3-D circulation model with a biogeochemical module (ERGOM) for the simulation of trophic conditions in the Baltic Sea a century ago. One aim is to provide reference or background data for nitrogen, phosphorus and chlorophyll, which is required for the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). We assume that the situation a century ago serves this purpose well. Model input for this long-term simulation study are the regionally differentiated riverine and atmospheric nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea, which were compiled and calculated for a situation 100 years ago on the basis of various literature sources. For the mixed surface layer of the open Baltic Sea, we suggest maximum winter concentrations for dissolved phosphorus (dissolved inorganic nitrogen) of 0.23-0.35 (2.7-3.7) mmol/m 3. Maximum chlorophyll-a concentrations are between 1.8 and 2.4 mg/m 3. The concentrations of all parameters for different coastal waters vary in a wide range, depending on exposure to nutrient sources. Our nutrient concentrations for the situation a century ago are close to early measured data (1950-1960) and suggest that this data is suitable as reference data, as well.

Schernewski, G.; Neumann, T.

2005-01-01

303

Modeling riverine nutrient transport to the Baltic Sea: a large-scale approach.  

PubMed

We developed for the first time a catchment model simulating simultaneously the nutrient land-sea fluxes from all 105 major watersheds within the Baltic Sea drainage area. A consistent modeling approach to all these major watersheds, i.e., a consistent handling of water fluxes (hydrological simulations) and loading functions (emission data), will facilitate a comparison of riverine nutrient transport between Baltic Sea subbasins that differ substantially. Hot spots of riverine emissions, such as from the rivers Vistula, Oder, and Daugava or from the Danish coast, can be easily demonstrated and the comparison between these hot spots, and the relatively unperturbed rivers in the northern catchments show decisionmakers where remedial actions are most effective to improve the environmental state of the Baltic Sea, and, secondly, what percentage reduction of riverine nutrient loads is possible. The relative difference between measured and simulated fluxes during the validation period was generally small. The cumulative deviation (i.e., relative bias) [Sigma(Simulated - Measured)/Sigma Measured x 100 (%)] from monitored water and nutrient fluxes amounted to +8.2% for runoff, to -2.4% for dissolved inorganic nitrogen, to +5.1% for total nitrogen, to +13% for dissolved inorganic phosphorus and to +19% for total phosphorus. Moreover, the model suggests that point sources for total phosphorus compiled by existing pollution load compilations are underestimated because of inconsistencies in calculating effluent loads from municipalities. PMID:17520924

Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Humborg, Christoph; Eriksson, Hanna; Danielsson, Asa; Medina, Miguel Rodriguez; Löfgren, Stefan; Swaney, Dennis P; Rahm, Lars

2007-04-01

304

Basic intrusives and hydrocarbonic potential of the South-East Baltic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Paleozoic rocks of Kaliningrad oblast and the adjacent areas of the SE Baltic Sea have recently became exploration targets. The small size and number of prospective structures, as well as the small size of the oil reserves in the onshore areas, have resulted in a decline in production and a decrease in exploration activity. At the same time, previous studies conducted by the Institute of Oceanology of the Russian Academy of Sciences and other institutions show that the SE Baltic Sea contains numerous yet-to-be-explored structures, which could be attractive exploration targets. Recent studies indicate that the region was intensely intruded by numerous diabase sills, which cut across Paleozoic reservoir rocks. This fact may have both positive and negative implications for the petroleum potential of the basin and should be taken into account in outlining the possible future directions for resource exploration. This study presents data on the distribution, sizes, ages, composition, and volumes of the mafic intrusions and discusses their thermal effects on the petroleum potential of the SE Baltic Basin.

Kharin, G. S.; Eroshenko, D. V.

2014-03-01

305

Bearing-Mounting Concept Accommodates Thermal Expansion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pins or splines allow radial expansion without slippage. Design concept for mounting rotary bearing accommodates differential thermal expansion between bearing and any structure(s) to which bearing connected. Prevents buildup of thermal stresses by allowing thermal expansion to occur freely but accommodating expansion in such way not to introduce looseness. Pin-in-slot configuration also maintains concentricity.

Nespodzany, Robert; Davis, Toren S.

1995-01-01

306

75 FR 30387 - Improving Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice of Agenda and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice of Agenda and Procedures for...system expansion planning models and software. The technical conference will be held...Technical Conference on Planning Models and Software Federal Energy Regulatory...

2010-06-01

307

Cosmological expansion and local physics  

SciTech Connect

The interplay between cosmological expansion and local attraction in a gravitationally bound system is revisited in various regimes. First, weakly gravitating Newtonian systems are considered, followed by various exact solutions describing a relativistic central object embedded in a Friedmann universe. It is shown that the 'all or nothing' behavior recently discovered (i.e., weakly coupled systems are comoving while strongly coupled ones resist the cosmic expansion) is limited to the de Sitter background. New exact solutions are presented which describe black holes perfectly comoving with a generic Friedmann universe. The possibility of violating cosmic censorship for a black hole approaching the big rip is also discussed.

Faraoni, Valerio; Jacques, Audrey [Physics Department, Bishop's University, 2600 College Street, Sherbrooke, Quebec, J1M 0C8 (Canada)

2007-09-15

308

Pavement roughness on expansive clays  

E-print Network

PAVEMENT ROUGHI'JESS ON EXPANSIVE CLAYS A Thesis by Manuel Oli van Velasco Submitted to the Graduate College Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1980 Major Subject...: Civil Engineerina PAVEMENT ROUGHNESS ON EXPANSIVE CLAYS A Thesis by Manuel Olivan Velasco Approved as to style and content by: R t L. L ton ? Chairm Wayne A. nlap - Member Luis F. Costa - Member ames F. Slowey - Member Donald McDonald - Head...

Velasco, Manuel O

2012-06-07

309

Prediction of near-bottom water salinity in the Baltic Sea using Ordinary Least Squares and Geographically Weighted Regression models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A map of spatial salinity distribution in the bottom water layers of the Baltic Sea is presented in this paper. The map has been constructed based on the data obtained from the ICES Dataset on Ocean Hydrography. The typical salinity values and the depth of halocline location in the major basins of the Baltic Sea are also presented. While the spatial salinity distribution is commonly derived by interpolation from the available data set, the linear regression model has been applied in this work. The analyzed data cover the period between 1913 and 2011, with a spatial resolution of ca. 10 km. In order to prepare the salinity map for the bottom water layers in the Baltic, the relationships between the salinity, depth and the distance from the Danish Straits have been determined by using Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR). Next, the salinity map was created by using the maps of regression coefficients, the digital elevation model (DEM) of the Baltic Sea, and the map of Euclidean distance from the Danish Straits. Subsequently the salinity values in the water layer above and below the halocline that are typical for the specific Baltic basins as well as the depth of location of the halocline were calculated based on the data extracted from the map by random point sampling. The calculated salinity values for the upper layer were similar to the values reported in the current publications on the subject of the Baltic Sea. On the other hand, the obtained salinity values for the layer below the halocline were slightly lower than those found in the literature, which is attributable to different methodology used. The obtained results demonstrate that GWR is a reliable tool for estimating the natural variation of salinity in the Baltic Sea. At the same time, we conclude that the Ordinary Least Squares regression should not be used to analyze similar data.

?ukawska-Matuszewska, Katarzyna; Urba?ski, Jacek Andrzej

2014-08-01

310

Nitrate source identification using its isotopic ratios in combination with a Bayesian isotope mixing model in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrate (NO3-) is the major nutrient responsible for coastal eutrophication worldwide and its production is related to intensive food production and fossil-fuel combustion. In the Baltic Sea NO3-inputs have increased four-fold over the last decades and now remain constantly high. NO3- source identification is therefore an important consideration in environmental management strategies. In this study focusing on the Baltic Sea, we used a method to estimate the proportional contributions of NO3- from atmospheric deposition, N2 fixation, and runoff from pristine soils as well as from agricultural land. Our approach combines data on the dual isotopes of NO3- (?15N-NO3- and ?18O-NO3-) in winter surface waters with a Bayesian isotope mixing model (Stable Isotope Analysis in R, SIAR). Based on data gathered from 46 sampling locations over the entire Baltic Sea, the majority of the NO3- in the southern Baltic was shown to derive from runoff from agricultural land (30-70%), whereas in the northern Baltic, i.e., the Gulf of Bothnia, NO3- originates from nitrification in pristine soils (47-100%). Atmospheric deposition accounts for only a small percentage of NO3- levels in the Baltic Sea, except for contributions from northern rivers, where the levels of atmospheric NO3- are higher. An additional important source in the central Baltic Sea is N2 fixation by diazotrophs, which contributes 31-62% of the overall NO3- pool at this site. The results obtained with this method are in good agreement with source estimates based upon ?15N values in sediments and a three-dimensional ecosystem model, ERGOM. We suggest that this approach can be easily modified to determine NO3- sources in other marginal seas or larger near-coastal areas where NO3- is abundant in winter surface waters when fractionation processes are minor.

Korth, F.; Deutsch, B.; Frey, C.; Moros, C.; Voss, M.

2014-04-01

311

Nitrate source identification in the Baltic Sea using its isotopic ratios in combination with a Bayesian isotope mixing model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrate (NO3-) is the major nutrient responsible for coastal eutrophication worldwide and its production is related to intensive food production and fossil-fuel combustion. In the Baltic Sea NO3- inputs have increased 4-fold over recent decades and now remain constantly high. NO3- source identification is therefore an important consideration in environmental management strategies. In this study focusing on the Baltic Sea, we used a method to estimate the proportional contributions of NO3- from atmospheric deposition, N2 fixation, and runoff from pristine soils as well as from agricultural land. Our approach combines data on the dual isotopes of NO3- (?15N-NO3- and ?18O-NO3-) in winter surface waters with a Bayesian isotope mixing model (Stable Isotope Analysis in R, SIAR). Based on data gathered from 47 sampling locations over the entire Baltic Sea, the majority of the NO3- in the southern Baltic was shown to derive from runoff from agricultural land (33-100%), whereas in the northern Baltic, i.e. the Gulf of Bothnia, NO3- originates from nitrification in pristine soils (34-100%). Atmospheric deposition accounts for only a small percentage of NO3- levels in the Baltic Sea, except for contributions from northern rivers, where the levels of atmospheric NO3- are higher. An additional important source in the central Baltic Sea is N2 fixation by diazotrophs, which contributes 49-65% of the overall NO3- pool at this site. The results obtained with this method are in good agreement with source estimates based upon ?15N values in sediments and a three-dimensional ecosystem model, ERGOM. We suggest that this approach can be easily modified to determine NO3- sources in other marginal seas or larger near-coastal areas where NO3- is abundant in winter surface waters when fractionation processes are minor.

Korth, F.; Deutsch, B.; Frey, C.; Moros, C.; Voss, M.

2014-09-01

312

Multistage stochastic programming model for electric power capacity expansion problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with power system expansion planning under uncertainty. In our approach, integer programming and stochastic\\u000a programming provide a basic framework. We develop a multistage stochastic programming model in which some of the variables\\u000a are restricted to integer values. By utilizing the special property of the problem, called block separable recourse, the problem\\u000a is transformed into a two-stage

Takayuki Shiina; John R. Birge

2003-01-01

313

Large spatial variations in coastal 14C reservoir age - a case study from the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal locations are highly influenced by input from freshwater river runoff, including sources of terrestrial carbon, which can be expected to modify the 14C reservoir age, or R(t), associated with marine water. In this Baltic Sea case study, pre-bomb museum collection mollusc shells of known calendar age, from 30 locations across a strategic salinity transect of the Baltic Sea, were analysed for 14C, ?13C and ?18O. R(t) was calculated for all 30 locations. Seven locations, of which six are within close proximity of the coast, were found to have relatively higher R(t) values, indicative of hard-water effects. ?13Caragonite values were found to be indicative of hard-water influence only for certain locations, suggesting the possibility of different sources of old carbon in different locations. Whenever possible, the Macoma genus of mollusc was selected from the museum collections, in order to exclude species specific reservoir age effects as much as possible. When the Macoma samples are exclusively considered, and samples from hard-water locations excluded, a statistically significant correlation between Macoma R(t) and average salinity is found, indicating a two end-member linear mixing model between 14Cmarine and 14Crunoff. A map of Baltic Sea Macoma aragonite R(t) for the late 19th and early 20th centuries is produced. Such a map can provide an estimate for contemporary Baltic Sea Macoma R(t), although one must exercise caution when applying such estimates back in time or to 14C dates obtained from different sample material. A statistically significant correlation is also found between ?18Oaragonite and Macoma R(t), suggesting that ?18Oaragonite can be used to estimate Macoma palaeo-R(t). The results of this Baltic Sea case study, which show that R(t) is affected by hydrographic conditions and local carbon inputs, have important consequences for other coastal and estuarine locations, where R(t) is also likely to significantly vary on spatial and temporal bases.

Lougheed, B. C.; Filipsson, H. L.; Snowball, I.

2013-02-01

314

National Science Board Approves VLA Expansion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Science Board, the governing body for the National Science Foundation (NSF), has approved an expansion project for the Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in New Mexico. The board recommended an NSF award of approximately 58.3 million for the project over the next decade. The action came at the Board's meeting in Washington on Nov. 15. The Very Large Array The Very Large Array "This approval means that the VLA, already the most scientifically productive ground-based telescope in all of astronomy, will remain at the cutting edge of astrophysical research through the coming decades," said Paul Vanden Bout, director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). The expansion project will replace aging equipment left over from the VLA's construction during the 1970s with modern technology, improving the VLA's scientific capabilities more than tenfold. Using the existing 27 dish antennas, each weighing 230 tons, the Expanded VLA will have greatly improved ability to image distant celestial objects and to decipher the physical nature of those objects. In addition to the 58.3 million NSF allocation, the governments of Canada and Mexico plan to provide funding for the VLA expansion. The VLA Expansion Project was formally proposed to the NSF, which owns the VLA, last year. Also last year, the project received a strong endorsement from the Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee of the National Research Council, the working arm of the National Academies of Sciences and Engineering. That committee had been given the task of setting nationwide priorities for astronomy spending over the next decade. The Survey Committee report listed the Expanded VLA as an important contributor to new understanding in three high-priority research areas for the next decade: studies of star and planet formation; research into black holes; and unraveling details about the "dawn of the modern universe." Dedicated in 1980, the VLA is the most powerful, flexible and widely- used radio telescope in the world. It brought dramatically-improved observational capabilities to the scientific community two decades ago, and has contributed significantly to nearly every branch of astronomy. More than 2,200 scientists have used the VLA for more than 10,000 separate observing projects. Astronomers seek more than twice as much VLA observing time than can be provided. Since the VLA's dedication, many technical improvements have made it much more capable than its original design contemplated. However, some of the technologies incorporated into the VLA during its construction, while highly advanced for their time, now limit its capabilities. The VLA Expansion Project will replace those older technologies with modern technology, allowing the VLA to realize its full potential as a tool for scientific research. "Keeping the VLA at the forefront of technology is an important priority, and we are fortunate that Sen. Pete Domenici (R-NM) has recognized this for many years. We appreciate his longtime support for this valuable scientific facility," Vanden Bout said. "Senator Domenici is one of the VLA's strongest advocates, and as a leader in the U.S. Senate, has continually supported the VLA and its expansion in Congress and the Federal Government," Vanden Bout added. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

2001-11-01

315

PLANNING ASSUMPTION Planning Assumption  

E-print Network

PLANNING ASSUMPTION Planning Assumption Mike Gilpin and Carl Zetie June 19, 2000 Ver: 2 RPA-062000. Planning Assumption 2000 Forecast for the EJB Application Server Market June 19, 2000 Mike Gilpin and Carl.64 billion in 2000 and to continue to grow rapidly, reaching $9 billion by 2003. One consequence

Narasimhan, Priya

316

Management Plan Management Plan  

E-print Network

Management Plan Management Plan "Management and restoration programs for native salmonids have communities" J. Lichatowich et al. 1998. A Conceptual Foundation for the Management of Native Salmonids in the Deschutes River. The Management Plan consists of five elements described in the Council's program: 1

317

Histone deacetylase complexes promote trinucleotide repeat expansions.  

PubMed

Expansions of DNA trinucleotide repeats cause at least 17 inherited neurodegenerative diseases, such as Huntington's disease. Expansions can occur at frequencies approaching 100% in affected families and in transgenic mice, suggesting that specific cellular proteins actively promote (favor) expansions. The inference is that expansions arise due to the presence of these promoting proteins, not their absence, and that interfering with these proteins can suppress expansions. The goal of this study was to identify novel factors that promote expansions. We discovered that specific histone deacetylase complexes (HDACs) promote CTG•CAG repeat expansions in budding yeast and human cells. Mutation or inhibition of yeast Rpd3L or Hda1 suppressed up to 90% of expansions. In cultured human astrocytes, expansions were suppressed by 75% upon inhibition or knockdown of HDAC3, whereas siRNA against the histone acetyltransferases CBP/p300 stimulated expansions. Genetic and molecular analysis both indicated that HDACs act at a distance from the triplet repeat to promote expansions. Expansion assays with nuclease mutants indicated that Sae2 is one of the relevant factors regulated by Rpd3L and Hda1. The causal relationship between HDACs and expansions indicates that HDACs can promote mutagenesis at some DNA sequences. This relationship further implies that HDAC3 inhibitors being tested for relief of expansion-associated gene silencing may also suppress somatic expansions that contribute to disease progression. PMID:22363205

Debacker, Kim; Frizzell, Aisling; Gleeson, Olive; Kirkham-McCarthy, Lucy; Mertz, Tony; Lahue, Robert S

2012-02-01

318

An automated gas expansion system  

SciTech Connect

The Metrology Laboratory at the Rocky Flats Plant has constructed a new Vacuum Gauge Calibration System based on gas expansion. The system is used to calibrate vacuum pressure gauges between 1 mTorr and 1000 mTorr. The paper discusses an overview of the system including layout, software, testing and performance.

Abercrombie, K.

1993-05-01

319

An automated gas expansion system  

SciTech Connect

The Metrology Laboratory at the Rocky Flats Plant has constructed a new Vacuum Gauge Calibration System based on gas expansion. The system is used to calibrate vacuum pressure gauges between 1 mTorr and 1000 mTorr. The paper discusses an overview of the system including layout, software, testing and performance.

Abercrombie, K.

1993-01-01

320

Thermal Expansion at High Pressures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of the coefficient of thermal expansion, at pressures up to several megabars, are needed for various geophysical calculations. As experimental determinations are scanty and limited to a few tens of kilobars, we must depend on largely untested deductions from solid-state theory and equations of state. The recent treatment by Anderson [1967], a discussion by Gilvarry [1957], and questions from

Francis Birch

1968-01-01

321

Spectroscopy to characterize expansive soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expansive soils are major geotechnical hazards that pose several problems on engineering structures causing billions of dollars of damage in many parts of the world especially at places where there are significant climatic differences between dry and wet periods (Gourley et al., 1993; Nelson and Miller, 1992). Such soils expand or swell when moistened and shrink & crack when dried

F. A. Yitagesu; F. D. van der Meer; H. van der Werff; W. Zigterman

2007-01-01

322

Perturbative expansions in quantum mechanics  

E-print Network

We prove a D=1 analytic versal deformation theorem for WKB expansions. We define the spectrum of an operator in local analytic terms. We use the Morse lemma to show that the perturbation series arising in a perturbed harmonic oscillator become analytic after a formal Borel transform.

Mauricio D. Garay

2005-02-08

323

Clamshell Thermal-Expansion Bellows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved bellows serves as thermal-expansion joint in vacuum-jacketed cyrogenic piping system. Made of Hastelloy C-22 and fabricated in field by welding two clam-shell-like half bellows. No protective paint or maintenance needed. Design modified to fit most thin-wall bellows.

Fesmire, J.; Moore, W. I.; Dipasquale, S. D.

1993-01-01

324

Seismic reprocessing of 2D marine seismic reflection data from the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large quantities of seismic reflection data acquired in the Baltic Sea before 1990 exist. Several decades later, it is common that these datasets are considered to be obsolete. However re-processing these data using modern technology can provide significant uplift in the quality of the final product. As highlighted by this study, opportunities to extract additional subsurface information from these historical data at a relatively low cost are significant. In this study, several historical 2D seismic reflection lines from different vintages acquired between 1970 and 1990 in the Baltic Sea have been re-processed from raw shot gathers using current techniques and computer hardware. A significant uplift has been achieved in pre-stack gathers and the final stacked images when compared to the original processing. As a result a more confident interpretation of the shallow crustal sedimentary sequence is obtained, which differs notably from the interpretation of the original data. The potential benefits of seismic data re-processing are wide ranging. However, in this case the reprocessed lines form a small part of a large publicly available historical dataset of 2D seismic reflection data acquired in the Baltic Sea. Reprocessing this dataset could therefore provide valuable information which would be of interest for a number of research areas. These could include the evaluation of the CO2 storage potential in Scandinavia and the Baltic states, improving the understanding of Baltic Sea geology and evaluating remaining hydrocarbon potential. The data presented consists of lines from 3 different 2D marine surveys acquired using a single towed streamer. The offset range across all 3 acquisitions is 65m to 1397m, both airgun and water gun sources were used. Receiver spacing across the 3 surveys varied from 6.25 to 50m. The study profiles are located in the Southern Baltic Sea, with two intersecting profiles lying approximately 50km south of Öland and one profile lying 10km to the south east of Gotland. A revised processing flow for these Baltic Sea data has been developed and implemented. This provides general improvements to the processing flow as well as specifically targeting two significant data issues which exist in the original stacked sections. The first is the presence of high angle linear noise which is identified as diffracted multiple energy. This noise is thought to be generated as a result of undulating structure at the top of a layer with a sharp impedance increase located in the shallow subsurface. In this study this noise is successfully attenuated by filtering out negative dips by means of an FK mute applied to shot and receiver gathers. The second issue is multiple energy. In this case, the same sharp impedance increase located in the near subsurface acts together with the seabed to generate significant multiple noise. Deconvolution applied in the Tau P domain is found to be the most effective method for attenuating multiples in this dataset. This study therefore highlights the uplift in final stacked image and tangible differences in interpretation which can be achieved when re-processing historical seismic data with modern day technology.

Sopher, D.; Juhlin, C.

2012-04-01

325

Baltic Salmon, Salmo salar, from Swedish River Lule Älv Is More Resistant to Furunculosis Compared to Rainbow  

E-print Network

Background: Furunculosis, caused by Aeromonas salmonicida, continues to be a major health problem for the growing salmonid aquaculture. Despite effective vaccination programs regular outbreaks occur at the fish farms calling for repeated antibiotic treatment. We hypothesized that a difference in natural susceptibility to this disease might exist between Baltic salmon and the widely used rainbow trout. Study Design: A cohabitation challenge model was applied to investigate the relative susceptibility to infection with A. salmonicida in rainbow trout and Baltic salmon. The course of infection was monitored daily over a 30-day period post challenge and the results were summarized in mortality curves. Results: A. salmonicida was recovered from mortalities during the entire test period. At day 30 the survival was 6.2 % and 34.0 % for rainbow trout and Baltic salmon, respectively. Significant differences in susceptibility to A. salmonicida were demonstrated between the two salmonids and hazard ratio estimation between rainbow trout and Baltic salmon showed a 3.36 higher risk of dying from the infection in the former. Conclusion: The finding that Baltic salmon carries a high level of natural resistance to furunculosis might raise new possibilities for salmonid aquaculture in terms of minimizing disease outbreaks and the use of antibiotics.

Lars Holten-andersen; Inger Dalsgaard; Kurt Buchmann

2012-01-01

326

Baltic Salmon, Salmo salar, from Swedish River Lule ?lv Is More Resistant to Furunculosis Compared to Rainbow Trout  

PubMed Central

Background Furunculosis, caused by Aeromonas salmonicida, continues to be a major health problem for the growing salmonid aquaculture. Despite effective vaccination programs regular outbreaks occur at the fish farms calling for repeated antibiotic treatment. We hypothesized that a difference in natural susceptibility to this disease might exist between Baltic salmon and the widely used rainbow trout. Study Design A cohabitation challenge model was applied to investigate the relative susceptibility to infection with A. salmonicida in rainbow trout and Baltic salmon. The course of infection was monitored daily over a 30-day period post challenge and the results were summarized in mortality curves. Results A. salmonicida was recovered from mortalities during the entire test period. At day 30 the survival was 6.2% and 34.0% for rainbow trout and Baltic salmon, respectively. Significant differences in susceptibility to A. salmonicida were demonstrated between the two salmonids and hazard ratio estimation between rainbow trout and Baltic salmon showed a 3.36 higher risk of dying from the infection in the former. Conclusion The finding that Baltic salmon carries a high level of natural resistance to furunculosis might raise new possibilities for salmonid aquaculture in terms of minimizing disease outbreaks and the use of antibiotics. PMID:22276121

Holten-Andersen, Lars; Dalsgaard, Inger; Buchmann, Kurt

2012-01-01

327

Sediment trace metals as a recorder of bottom water redox conditions in the Baltic Sea over the Holocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increased inputs of nutrients from waste water and fertilizer have driven enhanced algal growth in the surface waters of the Baltic Sea over the past century. The sinking of this organic matter to the seafloor and subsequent decay has led to an oxygen demand in the bottom water that outpaces oxygen supply. Water column records indicate that this has resulted in a major redox shift in bottom water conditions from oxic to sulfidic (euxinic) in the late 1970's and early 1980's. Here, we show that this redox shift is recorded in sediment trace metal records throughout the Baltic Proper. We demonstrate that while rhenium (Re) tracks suboxia, molybdenum (Mo) is an accurate indicator of euxinia in the Baltic Sea. We subsequently use sediment Mo data for two long cores to assess changes in redox conditions over the Holocene. At one site, our results confirm earlier work showing three distinct periods of bottom water euxinia, namely during modern and medieval times and the early Holocene. The second site, in contrast, was euxinic throughout most of the Holocene. We suggest that the variable trends in redox observed at the first site are representative for most of the Baltic Proper and long-term bottom water euxinia in the Baltic Sea is limited to several small restricted basins.

Slomp, C. P.; Jilbert, T.; van Riel, K. P. G. L.; Mort, H. P.; Conley, D. J.; Gustafsson, B. G.

2012-04-01

328

FINREG : a financialregulatory model for utility capacity expansion plan evaluation  

E-print Network

A corporate financial/regulatory model, called FINREG, is presented to simulate a utility's accounting practices, financial policy and constraints, and ratemaking environment. For each year of simulation FINREG will yield ...

Klosowicz, Peter C.

1981-01-01

329

Power system expansion planning and pricing in a deregulated environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given as follows. The FERC in its RTO Order 2000 reaffirms the requirement that an RTO must (1) encourage market-motivated operating and investment actions for preventing and relieving congestion; (2) accommodate efforts by state regulatory commissions to create multi-state agreements to review and approve new transmission facilities, coordinated with programs of existing Regional Transmission Groups (RTGs) where

A. Papalexopoulos

2002-01-01

330

Master's theses projects: Adaptations to a warming Baltic Sea We look for candidates interested in aquatic ecology to work on projects concerning biological responses  

E-print Network

Master's theses projects: Adaptations to a warming Baltic Sea We look for candidates interested in aquatic ecology to work on projects concerning biological responses to climate change with focus on Baltic projects, if they so wish. All three projects may include field work. Background: Detecting and forecasting

Uppsala Universitet

331

The New Zealand mud snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray, 1843) is colonising the artificial lakes of Kaliningrad City, Russia (Baltic Sea Coast)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2008, the New Zealand mud snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum was detected in artificial freshwater lakes of Kalinigrad City (Russia), developed in sand and gravel extraction sites. P. antipodarum records along the Baltic coast were previously located in open sea and estuary sites and this is first species' record, in this type of man-made freshwater habitat, for the Baltic Region.

Dmitry Filippenko; Thaddeus K. Graczyk; Mikhail O. Son

2008-01-01

332

Low-income residents in three States view medicaid as equal to or better than private coverage, support expansion.  

PubMed

Expansion of Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act to millions of low-income adults has been controversial, yet little is known about what these Americans themselves think about Medicaid. We conducted a telephone survey in late 2013 of nearly 3,000 low-income adults in three Southern states-Arkansas, Kentucky, and Texas-that have adopted different approaches to the options for expansion. Nearly 80 percent of our sample in all three states favored Medicaid expansion, and approximately two-thirds of uninsured respondents said that they planned to apply for either Medicaid or subsidized private coverage in 2014. Yet awareness of their state's actual expansion plans was low. Most viewed having Medicaid as better than being uninsured and at least as good as private insurance in overall quality and affordability. While the debate over Medicaid expansion continues, support for expansion is strong among low-income adults, and the perceived quality of Medicaid coverage is high. PMID:25298540

Epstein, Arnold M; Sommers, Benjamin D; Kuznetsov, Yelena; Blendon, Robert J

2014-11-01

333

A probabilistic storm surge risk model for the German North Sea and Baltic Sea coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The German North Sea coast is highly exposed to storm surges. Due to its concave bay-like shape mainly orientated to the North-West, cyclones from Western, North-Western and Northern directions together with astronomical tide cause storm surges accumulating the water in the German bight. Due to the existence of widespread low-lying areas (below 5m above mean sea level) behind the defenses, large areas including large economic values are exposed to coastal flooding including cities like Hamburg or Bremen. The occurrence of extreme storm surges in the past like e.g. in 1962 taking about 300 lives and causing widespread flooding and 1976 raised the awareness and led to a redesign of the coastal defenses which provide a good level of protection for today's conditions. Never the less the risk of flooding exists. Moreover an amplification of storm surge risk can be expected under the influence of climate change. The Baltic Sea coast is also exposed to storm surges, which are caused by other meteorological patterns. The influence of the astronomical tide is quite low instead high water levels are induced by strong winds only. Since the exceptional extreme event in 1872 storm surge hazard has been more or less forgotten. Although such an event is very unlikely to happen, it is not impossible. Storm surge risk is currently (almost) non-insurable in Germany. The potential risk is difficult to quantify as there are almost no historical losses available. Also premiums are difficult to assess. Therefore a new storm surge risk model is being developed to provide a basis for a probabilistic quantification of potential losses from coastal inundation. The model is funded by the GDV (German Insurance Association) and is planned to be used within the German insurance sector. Results might be used for a discussion of insurance cover for storm surge. The model consists of a probabilistic event driven hazard and a vulnerability module, furthermore an exposure interface and a financial module to account for specific (re-) insurance conditions. This contribution will mainly concentrate on the hazard module. The hazard is covered by an event simulation engine enabling Monte Carlo simulations. The event generation is done on-the-fly. A classification of historical storm surges is used based on observed sea water levels at gauging stations and extended literature research. To characterize the origin of storm events and storm surges caused by those, also meteorological parameters like wind speed and wind direction are being used. If high water levels along the coast are mainly caused by strong wind from particular directions as observed at the North Sea, there is a clear empirical relationship between wind and surge (where surge is defined as the wind-driven component of the sea water level) which can be described by the ATWS (Average Transformed Wind speed). The parameters forming the load at the coastal defense elements are water level and wave parameters like significant wave height, wave period and wave direction. To assess the wave characteristics at the coast the numerical model SWAN (Simulating Waves Near Shore) from TU Delft has been used. To account for different probabilities of failure and inundation the coast is split into segments with similar defense characteristics like type of defense, height, width, orientation and others. The chosen approach covers the most relevant failure mechanisms for coastal dikes induced by wave overtopping and overflow. Dune failure is also considered in the model. Inundation of the hinterland after defense failure is modeled using a simple dynamical 2d-approach resulting in distributed water depths and flood outlines for each segment. Losses can be estimated depending on the input exposure data either coordinate based for single buildings or aggregated on postal code level using a set of depths-damage functions.

Grabbert, Jan-Henrik; Reiner, Andreas; Deepen, Jan; Rodda, Harvey; Mai, Stephan; Pfeifer, Dietmar

2010-05-01

334

The governance of the mitigation of the Baltic Sea eutrophication: exploring the challenges of the formal governing system.  

PubMed

This article focuses on the governing system of the mitigation of eutrophication in the Baltic Sea. Policies and measures of the Baltic Sea coastal countries, the macro--regional (HELCOM) level, and the level of the European Union are described and governance challenges explicated. We found that the main challenges at different governance levels include: differences between coastal countries in terms of environmental conditions including environmental awareness, overlaps of policies between different levels, the lack of adequate spatial and temporal specification of policies, and the lack of policy integration. To help to meet these challenges, we suggest closer involvement of stakeholders and the public, the improvement of the interplay of institutions, and the introduction of a "primus motor" for the governance of the mitigation of eutrophication in the Baltic Sea. PMID:24414809

Tynkkynen, Nina; Schönach, Paula; Pihlajamäki, Mia; Nechiporuk, Dmitry

2014-02-01

335

Shell form, growth, and production of Astarte borealis (Schumacher, 1817) (Astartidae, Bivalvia) in the southeastern Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationships between the linear dimensions and body weight and the ratio between the masses, growth, and production were studied for the bivalve Astarte borealis inhabiting the southeastern Baltic Sea. The maximal shell length was 21.09 mm, while the maximum age was 8+. The linear growth was described by the Bertalanffy equation L ? = (1 - e -0.0894(?-(-0.7354))). The annual production was 7.60 kJ/m2 at a P s/ B coefficient of 0.41. It was found that the A. borealis inhabiting the southeastern Baltic Sea was characterized by a lower linear growth rate compared to the mollusks of other parts of the geographical range due to the low salinity of the Baltic Sea.

Gusev, A. A.; Rudinskaya, L. V.

2014-07-01

336

Consistent Riccati Expansion and Solvability  

E-print Network

A consistent Riccati expansion (CRE) is proposed for solving nonlinear systems with the help of a Riccati equation. A system is defined to be CRE solvable if it has a CRE. Various integrable systems are CRE solvable. Furthermore, it is also revealed that many CRE solvable systems, including the Korteweg de-Vries, Kadomtsev-Patviashvili, nonlinear Schr\\"dinger and sine-Gordon equations, possess a common determining equation which describes interactions between a soliton and a cnoidal wave.

S. Y. Lou

2013-08-27

337

Expansion of solidifying saturated fats  

Microsoft Academic Search

From literature it appears that simple saturated triglycerides and commercial fats contract to a considerable extent when\\u000a they undergo transformation from liquid to solid state and from an instable to a more stable crystalline form. In spite of\\u000a these facts, the simple saturated even triglycerides and some fully hydrogenated fats exhibit violent solidification expansion\\u000a by voluntary cooling. Solidification experiments carried

A. Hvolby

1974-01-01

338

Indian Policy and Westward Expansion  

E-print Network

, Indian wars, the Pacific railroad project, the extension of the frontier, schemes for the civilization of the Indians, etc., are topics in Western history which are more or less unrelated in the form in which they have usually been treated. Indian.... CONTENTS INTRODUCTION Position of the Indian Country—Time during which problem developed—Factors determining Indian policy: Settlement of the Pacific Coast, Transcontinental lines of communication and transportation, Westward expansion in the Trans...

Malin, James Claude

1921-11-01

339

Optimal Expansion of a Drinking Water Infrastructure System with Respect to Carbon Footprint, Cost Effectiveness and Water Demand  

EPA Science Inventory

Urban water infrastructure requires careful long-term expansion planning to reduce the risk from climate change during both the periods of economic boom and recession. As part of the adaptation management strategies, capacity expansion in concert with other management alternativ...

340

Hybrid origin of Baltic salmon-specific parasite Gyrodactylus salaris: a model for speciation by host switch for hemiclonal organisms.  

PubMed

Host switching explains the high species number of ectoparasitic, viviparous, mainly parthenogenetic but potentially hermaphroditic flatworms of the genus Gyrodactylus. The starlike mitochondrial phylogeny of Gyrodactylus salaris suggested parallel divergence of several clades on grayling (also named as Gyrodactylus thymalli) and an embedded sister clade on Baltic salmon. The hypothesis that the parasite switched from grayling to salmon during the glacial diaspora was tested using a 493-bp nuclear DNA marker ADNAM1. The parasites on salmon in lakes Onega and Ladoga were heterozygous for divergent ADNAM1 alleles WS1 and BS1, found as nearly fixed in grayling parasites in the White Sea and Baltic Sea basins, respectively. In the Baltic salmon-specific mtDNA clade, the WS/BS heterozygosity was maintained in 23 out of the 24 local clones. The permanently heterozygous clade was endemic in the Baltic Sea basin, and it had accumulated variation in mtDNA (31 variable sites on 1600 bp) and in the alleles of the nuclear locus (two point mutations and three nucleotide conversions along 493 bp). Mendelian shuffling of the nuclear alleles between the local clones indicated rare sex within the clade, but the WS/BS heterozygosity was lost in only one salmon hatchery clone, which was heterozygous WS1/WS3. The Baltic salmon-specific G. salaris lineage was monophyletic, descending from a single historical hybridization and consequential host switch, frozen by permanent heterozygosity. A possible time for the hybridization of grayling parasite strains from the White Sea and Baltic Sea basins was during the Eemian interglacial 132 000 years bp. Strains having a separate divergent mtDNA observed on farmed rainbow trout, and on salmon in Russian lake Kuito were suggested to be clones derived from secondary and tertiary recombination events. PMID:17971088

Kuusela, Jussi; Zietara, Marek S; Lumme, J

2007-12-01

341

Plankton of the Baltic estuarine ecosystems with emphasis on Neva Estuary: a review of present knowledge and research perspectives.  

PubMed

Different levels of eutrophication and pollution in the Baltic coastal waters in general, and in estuaries particularly define variations in the buffering capacity of ecosystems of these important filter zones between rivers and the adjacent Baltic Proper. Phyto- and zooplankton in the estuaries form important components of the pelagic food webs that participate in producing and structuring the matter, energy, and information fluxes in the ecosystems. Due to salinity gradients, estuaries provide a large variety of aquatic habitats for native populations of marine, brackish and fresh water plankton species. Non-indigenous planktonic species that expand their bio-geographical range and invade the Baltic coastal ecosystems also find favourable environments, establish permanent populations there, and impact aboriginal ecosystems. The dynamics of abundance, species diversity, population structure, productivity of planktonic communities, and peculiarities of trophic interactions in different Baltic estuaries are influenced by a number of common environmental factors. Being measured on the unified basis and monitored, changes (or stability) of structural and functional parameters of plankton communities can serve as indicators of alterations to the ecosystems. Comparative analyses and quantitative estimates of long-term changes in phyto- and zooplankton can contribute to evaluation of functional response of Baltic coastal ecosystems to anthropogenic stress. Both theoretical (modeling) and empirical studies of interactions within plankton communities aimed at the assessment of the role of planktonic organisms in water quality regulation, and applicability of these data for the evaluation of the status of ecosystems and their management can be considered as major goals for the future investigations in Baltic estuaries. PMID:15245985

Telesh, Irena V

2004-08-01

342

Lacustrine sediments at Kriegers Flak, southwestern Baltic Sea, and its implications for the MIS 3 glaciation history in southwest Scandinavia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The glaciation history of southwestern Scandinavia during Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3 60-25 ka BP) is not fully understood, especially not the timing and maximum ice extent of glacial advances through the Baltic depression. In this study, sediment cores from Kriegers Flak in the southern Baltic Sea have been analyzed and subdivided into four lithostratigraphic units. Above the Cretaceous limestone is a lower diamict succession, which is followed by the Kriegers Flak beds, a c. 10 m thick clay sequence with occasional organic deposits, including peat. On top follows an upper diamict succession interlayered with sorted sediments and overlain by an upward coarsening sequence with molluscs. The Kriegers Flak beds contain thin beds of organic deposits, gyttja and peat, in the middle part of the sequence, and radiocarbon ages of 34-35 14C kyr BP (c. 39-41 cal kyr BP) from such organic horizons indicate that the Kriegers Flak beds were deposited during the middle part of MIS 3. The shift from clay to peat and back to clay suggest that this part of the Baltic was a lacustrine basin with markedly fluctuating water levels. Such a basin would not exist if the Baltic basin was connected to the Kattegat through an open Esrum/Alnarp valley as has previously been suggested. Here an alternative model is presented: the Esrum/Alnarp valley was initially closed during the middle part of MIS 3 causing a damming of the Baltic basin and only later opened by glacial erosion, probably by the Klintholm advance that streamed through the Baltic. The new findings from Kriegers Flak strengthen the concept of a very dynamic Scandinavian Ice Sheet during the last glaciation, with repeated advances during MIS 3.

Anjar, J.; Larsen, N. K.; Björck, S.; Adrielsson, L.

2009-04-01

343

Capacity expansion in contemporary telecommunication networks  

E-print Network

We study three capacity expansion problems in contemporary long distance telecommunication networks. The first two problems, motivated by a major long distance provider, address capacity expansion in national hybrid long ...

Sivaraman, Raghavendran

2007-01-01

344

Transmission Expansion in Argentina 5: The Regional Electricity Forum of Buenos Aires Province  

E-print Network

that adhered to the federal scheme 3 used for expansions and developments at 132 kV or lower, including low voltage grids, isolated generation in small towns, rural electrification and small hydroelectric power plants. Some 3893 km of 132 kV transmission... , technical staff within ESEBA had planned the transmission network, placing high value on security and quality of supply and lower value on economy, and assuming that the provincial Treasury would pay for any transmission or distribution expansion...

Littlechild, Stephen C; Ponzano, Eduardo A

345

Vapor-liquid turbine expansion engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last years vapor-liquid turbine expansion engines have been developed and manufactured at the Geliimash Joint Stock Company, which work on the boiling up of a stream of a cryogenic fluid in the flow-through section of the turbine expansion engine. It is characteristic for a vapor-liquid turbine expansion engine (VLT) that the line of the expansion process intersects the

I. A. Davydenkov; A. B. Davydov; G. A. Perestoronin

1995-01-01

346

Droplet size dependence upon volume expansion rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular dynamics of a Lennard-Jones liquid undergoing a homogeneous adiabatic expansion provides a direct numerical simulation of the atomization process. Results from a symmetric-triaxial expansion appear to be consistent with the mean droplet size found in the Knuth and Henne free-jet experiments. New simulations with axisymmetric expansions, similar to flow through an orifice, show only small departures from the symmetric expansion results.

Ashurst, Wm. T.; Holian, Brad Lee

1999-08-01

347

Droplet size dependence upon volume expansion rate  

SciTech Connect

Molecular dynamics of a Lennard-Jones liquid undergoing a homogeneous adiabatic expansion provides a direct numerical simulation of the atomization process. Results from a symmetric-triaxial expansion appear to be consistent with the mean droplet size found in the Knuth and Henne free-jet experiments. New simulations with axisymmetric expansions, similar to flow through an orifice, show only small departures from the symmetric expansion results. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Ashurst, W.T. [Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94551-0969 (United States)] [Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94551-0969 (United States); Holian, B.L. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

1999-08-01

348

Does the zooplankton prey availability limit the larval habitats of pike in the Baltic Sea?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate whether the availability of suitable zooplankton prey limits the distribution of the coastal larval areas of pike ( Esox lucius) in two archipelago areas of the northern Baltic Sea and (2) compare the availability of zooplankton prey in spring between different types of coastal littoral habitat. According to the results, reed belt habitats formed by Phragmites australis constitute hot spots for zooplankton prey in the coastal ecosystem. During the spring, reed-covered shores of the inner archipelago maintained more than 10 times higher densities of copepods and cladocerans, the preferred prey for larval pike, compared to the other studied shores. Temperature conditions were also most favourable in the reed belt habitat. Thus, the reed belts of the inner and middle archipelago were shown to form the best habitat for larval pike in the coastal area of the northern Baltic Sea, and this was also the only habitat where pike larvae were found. Our results suggest that the poor survival and recruitment of pike in the outer archipelago, however, cannot exclusively be explained by sub-optimal feeding conditions of the larvae. There are also other important factors, presumably connected to the exposure to the open sea, that affect the distribution of the pike larvae. Our results, however, highlight the importance of sheltered coastal reed belt shores as reproduction habitat for spring-spawning fish in the northern Baltic Sea. Further, this study disproves the assumption that the seaweed bladder wrack ( Fucus vesiculosus) forms a reproduction habitat for pike in the coastal area.

Kallasvuo, Meri; Salonen, Maiju; Lappalainen, Antti

2010-01-01

349

Organochlorine concentrations in diseased vs. healthy gull chicks from the northern Baltic.  

PubMed

The population decline of the nominate lesser black-backed gull Larus fuscus fuscus in the Gulf of Finland (northern Baltic) is caused by an exceedingly high chick mortality due to diseases. The chick diseases include degeneration in various internal organs (primarily liver), inflammations (mainly intestinal), and sepsis, the final cause of death. The hypothesis of starvation causing intestinal inflammations (leading to sepsis) was tested by attempting to reproduce lesions in apparently healthy herring gull L. argentatus chicks in captivity. The herring gull chicks were provided a similar low food-intake frequency as observed for the diseased chicks in the wild. However, empty alimentary tract per se did not induce the intestinal inflammations and therefore, inflammations seem to be innate or caused by other environmental factors in the diseased lesser black-backed chicks. They had very high concentrations of PCB in their liver; but the concentrations were not significantly higher than those of the healthy herring gull chicks, indicating a common exposure area for both species (i.e. the Baltic Sea). When compared to NOEL and LOEL values for TEQs in bird eggs our TEQ levels clearly exceed most or all of the values associated with effects. Compared with published data on fish-eating waterbirds, the DDE concentrations in the diseased lesser black-backed chicks were well above the levels previously correlated with decreased reproduction, while the residues in apparently healthy herring gulls were below those levels. The DDE/PCB ratio in lesser black-backs was significantly elevated, indicating an increased exposure to DDTs as compared with most other Baltic and circumpolar seabirds. The possible exposure areas of DDT in relation to differential migration habits of the two gull species are discussed. PMID:14638302

Hario, Martti; Hirvi, Juha-Pekka; Hollmén, Tuula; Rudbäck, Eeva

2004-01-01

350

Seasonal variations of hydroxylated and methoxylated brominated diphenyl ethers in blue mussels from the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) found at high levels in the Baltic biota are mainly natural products, but can also be formed through metabolism or abiotic oxidation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The formation of OH-PBDEs is of concern since there is growing evidence of phenolic toxicity. This study investigates seasonal variations in levels of OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs, focusing on an exposed species, the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), sampled in the Baltic Sea in May, June, August and October of 2008. Both the OH-PBDE and MeO-PBDE levels in the mussels showed seasonal variations from May to October, the highest concentration of each congener appearing in June. The seasonal variation was more marked for OH-PBDEs than in MeO-PBDEs, but all congeners showed the same trends, except 6-MeO-BDE47 and 2'-MeO-BDE68, which did not significantly decline in concentrations after June. Biotic or abiotic debromination is suggested as a possible reason for the rapid decrease in methoxylated penta- and hexa-BDE concentrations observed in blue mussels from June to August, while the tetraBDE concentrations were stable. In addition, 1,3,7/1,3,8-tribrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins showed the same seasonal variation. The seasonal variations indicates natural formation and are unlikely to be due to transformation of anthropogenic precursors. The levels of PBDEs were fairly constant over time and considerably lower than those of the OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs. The timing of the peaks in concentrations suggests that filamentous macro-algae may be important sources of these compounds found in the blue mussels from this Baltic Sea location. PMID:21288551

Löfstrand, Karin; Liu, Xitao; Lindqvist, Dennis; Jensen, Sören; Asplund, Lillemor

2011-07-01

351

Site-specific cancer risk in the Baltic cohort of Chernobyl cleanup workers, 1986-2007  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess site-specific cancer risk in the Baltic cohort of Chernobyl cleanup workers 1986–2007. Methods The Baltic cohort includes 17,040 men from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania who participated in the environmental cleanup after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in 1986–1991, and who were followed for cancer incidence until the end of 2007. Cancer cases diagnosed in the cohort and in the male population of each country were identified from the respective national cancer registers. The proportional incidence ratio (PIR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to estimate the site-specific cancer risk in the cohort. For comparison and as it was possible, the site-specific standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated for the Estonian sub-cohort, which was not feasible for the other countries. Results Overall, 756 cancer cases were reported during 1986–2007. A higher proportion of thyroid cancers in relation to the male population was found (PIR=2.76; 95%CI 1.63–4.36), especially among those who started their mission shortly after the accident, in April–May 1986 (PIR=6.38; 95% CI 2.34–13.89). Also, an excess of oesophageal cancers was noted (PIR=1.52; 95% CI 1.06–2.11). No increased PIRs for leukaemia or radiation-related cancer sites combined were observed. PIRs and SIRs for the Estonian sub-cohort demonstrated the same site-specific cancer risk pattern. Conclusion Consistent evidence of an increase in radiation-related cancers in the Baltic cohort was not observed with the possible exception of thyroid cancer, where conclusions are hampered by known medical examination including thyroid screening among cleanup workers. PMID:23683549

Rahu, Kaja; Hakulinen, Timo; Smailyte, Giedre; Stengrevics, Aivars; Auvinen, Anssi; Inskip, Peter D.; Boice, John D.; Rahu, Mati

2013-01-01

352

Active nitrogen-fixing heterotrophic bacteria at and below the chemocline of the central Baltic Sea  

PubMed Central

The Baltic Sea receives large nitrogen inputs by diazotrophic (N2-fixing) heterocystous cyanobacteria but the significance of heterotrophic N2 fixation has not been studied. Here, the diversity, abundance and transcription of the nifH fragment of the nitrogenase enzyme in two basins of the Baltic Sea proper was examined. N2 fixation was measured at the surface (5?m) and in anoxic water (200?m). Vertical sampling profiles of >10 and <10??m size fractions were collected in 2007, 2008 and 2011 at the Gotland Deep and in 2011 in the Bornholm Basin. Both of these stations are characterized by permanently anoxic bottom water. The 454-pyrosequencing nifH analysis revealed a diverse assemblage of nifH genes related to alpha-, beta- and gammaproteobacteria (nifH cluster I) and anaerobic bacteria (nifH cluster III) at and below the chemocline. Abundances of genes and transcripts of seven diazotrophic phylotypes were investigated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealing abundances of heterotrophic nifH phylotypes of up to 2.1 × 107 nifH copies?l?1. Abundant nifH transcripts (up to 3.2 × 104 transcripts?l?1) within nifH cluster III and co-occurring N2 fixation (0.44±0.26?nmol?l?1?day?1) in deep water suggests that heterotrophic diazotrophs are fixing N2 in anoxic ammonium-rich waters. Our results reveal that N2 fixation in the Baltic Sea is not limited to illuminated N-deplete surface waters and suggest that N2 fixation could also be of importance in other suboxic regions of the world's oceans. PMID:23446833

Farnelid, Hanna; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Andersson, Anders F; Bertilsson, Stefan; Jost, Gunter; Labrenz, Matthias; Jurgens, Klaus; Riemann, Lasse

2013-01-01

353

Evaluation of the operational SAR based Baltic sea ice concentration products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea ice concentration is an important ice parameter both for weather and climate modeling and sea ice navigation. We have developed an fully automated algorithm for sea ice concentration retrieval using dual-polarized ScanSAR wide mode RADARSAT-2 data. RADARSAT-2 is a C-band SAR instrument enabling dual-polarized acquisition in ScanSAR mode. The swath width for the RADARSAT-2 ScanSAR mode is about 500 km, making it very suitable for operational sea ice monitoring. The polarization combination used in our concentration estimation is HH/HV. The SAR data is first preprocessed, the preprocessing consists of geo-rectification to Mercator projection, incidence angle correction fro both the polarization channels. and SAR mosaicking. After preprocessing a segmentation is performed for the SAR mosaics, and some single-channel and dual-channel features are computed for each SAR segment. Finally the SAR concentration is estimated based on these segment-wise features. The algorithm is similar as introduced in Karvonen 2014. The ice concentration is computed daily using a daily RADARSAT-2 SAR mosaic as its input, and it thus gives the concentration estimated at each Baltic Sea location based on the most recent SAR data at the location. The algorithm has been run in an operational test mode since January 2014. We present evaluation of the SAR-based concentration estimates for the Baltic ice season 2014 by comparing the SAR results with gridded the Finnish Ice Service ice charts and ice concentration estimates from a radiometer algorithm (AMSR-2 Bootstrap algorithm results). References: J. Karvonen, Baltic Sea Ice Concentration Estimation Based on C-Band Dual-Polarized SAR Data, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, in press, DOI: 10.1109/TGRS.2013.2290331, 2014.

Karvonen, Juha

354

Mercury in particulate matter over Polish zone of the southern Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Important Hg transformations can occur at the air-water interface where polluted terrestrial air masses meet humid, halogen-rich marine air masses over the southern Baltic Sea. These chemical and physical processes include gas-to-particle conversion that led to an increase of Hg associated with coarse particles, which due to higher dry deposition rates, enhanced local scale deposition and limited the transport of this toxic trace metal. Daily (24 h) sampling of size-segregated atmospheric particles revealed the sea to be a sink for Hg during winter months and as a source of Hg during summer months. Poland is one of the major Hg emitters among the Baltic States according to International HELCOM Reports. Thus, important measurements in this region were conducted over a one-year period from December 18, 2007 to December 15, 2008. The range in concentrations of Hg in particulate matter (2-142 pg m -3) at the Polish site are comparable to other measurements at sites along the coastal areas of the Baltic Sea. Annual Hg(p) represents 1% of the total atmospheric Hg (Hg TOT) under unpolluted or background ambient conditions. A major source of atmospheric Hg in this area is the combustion of fossil fuels, especially coal burning used for home heating. This was clearly seen in the statistically higher mean concentration of 24 pg m -3 observed during the heating season compared to the 15 pg m -3 measured during the non-heating season. Construction activities e.g., cement manufacturing, gravel extraction, and waste incineration during the warm season strongly influenced Hg concentrations and led to an increase in Hg(p) on working days compared to weekend days.

Beldowska, M.; Saniewska, D.; Falkowska, L.; Lewandowska, A.

2012-01-01

355

Thermal Expansion and Diffusion Coefficients of Carbon  

E-print Network

Thermal Expansion and Diffusion Coefficients of Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Composites Chenyu Wei* NASA for polymer-nanotube interface are used to investigate the thermal expansion and diffusion characteristics to increase the glass transition temperature Tg, and thermal expansion and diffusion coefficients

Wei, Chenyu

356

Miniature cryogenic expansion turbines - A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lord Rayleigh (1898) has first suggested the use of a turbine instead of a piston expander for the liquification of air. The development of expansion turbines is discussed, taking into account the first successful commercial application for cryogenic expansion turbines in Germany, Kapitza's turbine, work on much smaller turbines conducted in England, the development of a helium expansion turbine at

H. Sixsmith

1984-01-01

357

Sulfidization of lacustrine glacial clay upon Holocene marine transgression (Arkona Basin, Baltic Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Towards the end of the last deglaciation more than 13,500 years ago the southern Baltic Sea was a freshwater lake, the Baltic Ice Lake, for several thousand years during which iron-rich, organic-poor clay was deposited. The modern brackish-marine stage started about 8600 years ago with the deposition of organic-rich mud, which is today characterized by high rates of sulfate reduction and high concentrations of free sulfide. We studied the iron-sulfur diagenesis in gravity cores from the Arkona Basin, SW Baltic Sea, to track the progressing sulfidization front in the buried Ice Lake sediment. The geochemical zonation was unusual as the sulfate concentration dropped steeply by two thirds below which it increased again due to a deep sulfate reservoir. The reservoir had been established during the early Holocene marine period as sulfate and other seawater ions diffused down into the lake sediment for several thousand years. Sulfur isotope analyses confirmed its origin as seawater sulfate, while its oxygen isotope composition indicated a microbially catalyzed equilibration with ambient interstitial water, decoupled from net sulfate reduction. Today, hydrogen sulfide diffuses from the marine mud down into the lake sediment where a black band with high magnetic susceptibility and high iron monosulfide, greigite and elemental sulfur content shows progressing sulfidization of the large pool of solid-phase reactive iron. Dissolved iron from the deep Ice Lake sediment diffuses up to the sulfide front and provides a small supplement to the solid Fe(III) pool as a sulfide sink. Pyrite formation at the sulfidization front may involve surface-bound zero-valent sulfur while, above the front, polysulfides are in equilibrium with the system hydrogen sulfide - polysulfide - rhombic sulfur and may not be important for further pyrite formation. The Holocene iron-sulfur diagenesis observed in the Arkona Basin represents an important transitional state for post-glacial transgressions with organic-rich marine sediment overlying lacustrine clay, such as in other areas of the Baltic Sea or in the Black Sea.

Holmkvist, Lars; Kamyshny, Alexey; Brüchert, Volker; Ferdelman, Timothy G.; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

2014-10-01

358

The influence of dissolved organic matter on the acid-base system of the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To assess the influence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the acid-base system of the Baltic Sea, 19 stations along the salinity gradient from Mecklenburg Bight to the Bothnian Bay were sampled in November 2011 for total alkalinity (AT), total inorganic carbon concentration (CT), partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), and pH. Based on these data, an organic alkalinity contribution (Aorg) was determined, defined as the difference between measured AT and the inorganic alkalinity calculated from CT and pH and/or CT and pCO2. Aorg was in the range of 22-58 ?mol kg- 1, corresponding to 1.5-3.5% of AT. The method to determine Aorg was validated in an experiment performed on DOM-enriched river water samples collected from the mouths of the Vistula and Oder Rivers in May 2012. The Aorg increase determined in that experiment correlated directly with the increased DOC concentration caused by enrichment of the > 1 kDa DOM fraction. To examine the effect of Aorg on calculations of the marine CO2 system, the pCO2 and pH values measured in Baltic Sea water were compared with calculated values that were based on the measured alkalinity and another variable of the CO2 system, but ignored the existence of Aorg. Large differences between measured and calculated pCO2 and pH were obtained when the computations were based on AT and CT. The calculated pCO2 was 27-56% lower than the measured value whereas the calculated pH was overestimated by more than 0.4 pH units. Since biogeochemical models are based on the transport and transformations of AT and CT, the acid-base properties of DOM should be included in calculations of the CO2 system in DOM-rich basins like the Baltic Sea. In view of our limited knowledge about the composition and acid/base properties of DOM, this is best achieved using a bulk dissociation constant, KDOM, that represents all weakly acidic functional groups present in DOM. Our preliminary results indicated that the bulk KDOM in the Baltic Sea is 2.94 · 10- 8 mol kg- 1. Although this KDOM has no thermodynamic meaning, it can be a useful tool in numerical studies as it allows an approximation of Aorg in seawater.

Kuli?ski, Karol; Schneider, Bernd; Hammer, Karoline; Machulik, Ulrike; Schulz-Bull, Detlef

2014-04-01

359

Validating an Ensemble based Forecasting System of the North and Baltic Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quality of the forecast provided by the German Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH) for the North and Baltic Seas had been previously improved by assimilating satellite sea surface temperature (SST). We investigate possible further improvements using in situ observational temperature and salinity data: Marnet time series and CTD and Scan Fish measurements. To assimilate the data, the SEIK filter is implemented. The Principle of Maximum Entropy is used as an additional criterion of plausibility of the assumptions made on error statistics and of the system performance on its own.

Losa, Svetlana; Danilov, Sergey; Nerger, Lars; Schröter, Jens; Maßmann, Silvia; Janssen, Frank

2013-04-01

360

Electric utility capacity expansion and energy production models for energy policy analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report describes electric utility capacity expansion and energy production models developed for energy policy analysis. The models use the same principles (life cycle cost minimization, least operating cost dispatching, and incorporation of outages and reserve margin) as comprehensive utility capacity planning tools, but are faster and simpler. The models were not designed for detailed utility capacity planning, but they can be used to accurately project trends on a regional level. Because they use the same principles as comprehensive utility capacity expansion planning tools, the models are more realistic than utility modules used in present policy analysis tools. They can be used to help forecast the effects energy policy options will have on future utility power generation capacity expansion trends and to help formulate a sound national energy strategy. The models make renewable energy source competition realistic by giving proper value to intermittent renewable and energy storage technologies, and by competing renewables against each other as well as against conventional technologies.

Aronson, E.; Edenburn, M.

1997-08-01

361

Convergence Properties of Moments Expansions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently Witte et al. [cond-mat/9907314] have given a complete examination of the Ising chain in a transverse field at zero temperature from the perspective of a moment formalism. Convergence of three variations of the Connected Moments Expansion (CMX) are investigated: CMX-LT, CMX-HW and the CMX-SD. In this work we also investigate the convergence properties of these methods as applied to the anisotropic two-dimensional Heisenberg model for the honeycomb, square, simple cubic and body-centered cubic lattices.

Massano, William J.; Mancini, Jay D.; Fessatidis, Vassilios; Celi, Christina; Bowen, Samuel P.

2001-03-01

362

Space nuclear system expansion joints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The engineering, design, and fabrication status of the expansion joint unit (EJU) to be employed in the NaK primary coolant piping loop of the 5-kwe Reactor thermoelectric system are described. Four EJU's are needed in the NaK primary coolant piping loop. The four EJU's which will be identical, utilize bellows as the flexing member, are hermetically sealed, and provide double containment. The bellows are of a nested-formed design, and are to be constructed of 1-ply thickness of 0.010-in. Inconel 718. The EJU's provide a minimum piping load margin of safety of +0.22.

Whitaker, W. D.; Shimazki, T. T.

1973-01-01

363

Gravitational entropy of cosmic expansion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply a recent proposal to define ``gravitational entropy'' to the expansion of cosmic voids within the framework of non-perturbative General Relativity. By considering CDM void configurations compatible with basic observational constraints, we show that this entropy grows from post-inflationary conditions towards a final asymptotic value in a late time fully non-linear regime described by the Lemaître- Tolman-Bondi (LTB) dust models. A qualitatively analogous behavior occurs if we assume a positive cosmological constant consistent with a ?-CDM background model. However, the ? term introduces a significant suppression of entropy growth with the terminal equilibrium value reached at a much faster rate.

Sussman , R. A.

2014-09-01

364

Planning Report, 2007-2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is prepared in accordance to state law requiring the Nevada System of Higher Education (NSHE) to prepare a biennial report for submission to the Nevada State Legislature that outlines a plan for new programs and expansions of existing programs of instruction, public service and research. This report highlights the strategic objectives…

Nevada System of Higher Education, 2011

2011-01-01

365

Quantifying the heterogeneity of hypoxic and anoxic areas in the Baltic Sea by a simplified coupled hydrodynamic-oxygen consumption model approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baltic Sea deep waters suffer from extended areas of hypoxia and anoxia. Their intra- and inter-annual variability is mainly determined by saline inflows which transport oxygenated water to deeper layers. During the last decades, oxygen conditions in the Baltic Sea have generally worsened and thus, the extent of hypoxic as well as anoxic bottom water has increased considerably. Climate change may further increase hypoxia due to changes in the atmospheric forcing conditions resulting in less deep water renewal Baltic inflows, decreased oxygen solubility and increased respiration rates. Feedback from climate change can amplify effects from eutrophication. A decline in oxygen conditions has generally a negative impact on marine life in the Baltic Sea. Thus, a detailed description of the evolution of oxygenated, hypoxic and anoxic areas is particularly required when studying oxygen-related processes such as habitat utilization of spawning fish, survival rates of their eggs as well as settlement probability of juveniles. One of today's major challenges is still the modeling of deep water dissolved oxygen, especially for the Baltic Sea with its seasonal and quasi-permanent extended areas of oxygen deficiency. The detailed spatial and temporal evolution of the oxygen concentrations in the entire Baltic Sea have been simulated for the period 1970-2010 by utilizing a hydrodynamic Baltic Sea model coupled to a simple pelagic and benthic oxygen consumption model. Model results are in very good agreement with CTD/O2-profiles taken in different areas of the Baltic Sea. The model proved to be a useful tool to describe the detailed evolution of oxygenated, hypoxic and anoxic areas in the entire Baltic Sea. Model results are further applied to determine frequencies of the occurrence of areas of oxygen deficiency and cod reproduction volumes.

Lehmann, Andreas; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Getzlaff, Klaus; Myrberg, Kai

2014-06-01

366

Brookhaven National Laboratory Master Planning Update  

E-print Network

· Focus on redevelopment of central areas rather than site expansion #12;· Attractive, reliable, cost Roof Leaks Deteriorated Mechanical & Electrical Systems Labs Needing Renovations Average age of active. The implementation plan will be a living document that is used as a continual planning tool. Modernization of our

Homes, Christopher C.

367

The Identity Crisis of Educational Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational planning is presently confronted by an identity crisis. As long as it was believed that educational expansion was a principal ingredient for securing economic growth, democratic political processes, and greater equality of economics and social participation, the tenets and practice of educational planning were rarely questioned.…

Levin, Henry M.

368

High thermal expansion, sealing glass  

DOEpatents

A glass composition for hermetically sealing to high thermal expansion materials such as aluminum alloys, stainless steels, copper, and copper/beryllium alloys, which includes between about 10 and about 25 mole percent Na.sub.2 O, between about 10 and about 25 mole percent K.sub.2 O, between about 5 and about 15 mole percent Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, between about 35 and about 50 mole percent P.sub.2 O.sub.5 and between about 5 and about 15 mole percent of one of PbO, BaO, and mixtures thereof. The composition, which may also include between 0 and about 5 mole percent Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and between 0 and about 10 mole percent B.sub.2 O.sub.3, has a thermal expansion coefficient in a range of between about 160 and 210.times.10-7/.degree.C. and a dissolution rate in a range of between about 2.times.10.sup.- 7 and 2.times.10.sup.-9 g/cm.sup.2 -min. This composition is suitable to hermetically seal to metallic electrical components which will be subjected to humid environments over an extended period of time.

Brow, Richard K. (Albuquerque, NM); Kovacic, Larry (Albuquerque, NM)

1993-01-01

369

Gyrification from constrained cortical expansion.  

PubMed

The exterior of the mammalian brain--the cerebral cortex--has a conserved layered structure whose thickness varies little across species. However, selection pressures over evolutionary time scales have led to cortices that have a large surface area to volume ratio in some organisms, with the result that the brain is strongly convoluted into sulci and gyri. Here we show that the gyrification can arise as a nonlinear consequence of a simple mechanical instability driven by tangential expansion of the gray matter constrained by the white matter. A physical mimic of the process using a layered swelling gel captures the essence of the mechanism, and numerical simulations of the brain treated as a soft solid lead to the formation of cusped sulci and smooth gyri similar to those in the brain. The resulting gyrification patterns are a function of relative cortical expansion and relative thickness (compared with brain size), and are consistent with observations of a wide range of brains, ranging from smooth to highly convoluted. Furthermore, this dependence on two simple geometric parameters that characterize the brain also allows us to qualitatively explain how variations in these parameters lead to anatomical anomalies in such situations as polymicrogyria, pachygyria, and lissencephalia. PMID:25136099

Tallinen, Tuomas; Chung, Jun Young; Biggins, John S; Mahadevan, L

2014-09-01

370

Fluid Interpretation of Cardassian Expansion  

E-print Network

A fluid interpretation of Cardassian expansion is developed. Here, the Friedmann equation takes the form $H^2 = g(\\rho_M)$ where $\\rho_M$ contains only matter and radiation (no vacuum). The function $g(\\rhom)$ returns to the usual $8\\pi\\rhom/(3 m_{pl}^2)$ during the early history of the universe, but takes a different form that drives an accelerated expansion after a redshift $z \\sim 1$. One possible interpretation of this function (and of the right hand side of Einstein's equations) is that it describes a fluid with total energy density $\\rho_{tot} = {3 m_{pl}^2 \\over 8 \\pi} g(\\rhom) = \\rhom + \\rho_K$ containing not only matter density (mass times number density) but also interaction terms $\\rho_K$. These interaction terms give rise to an effective negative pressure which drives cosmological acceleration. These interactions may be due to interacting dark matter, e.g. with a fifth force between particles $F \\sim r^{\\alpha -1}$. Such interactions may be intrinsically four dimensional or may result from higher dimensional physics. A fully relativistic fluid model is developed here, with conservation of energy, momentum, and particle number. A modified Poisson's equation is derived. A study of fluctuations in the early universe is presented, although a fully relativistic treatment of the perturbations including gauge choice is as yet incomplete.

Paolo Gondolo; Katherine Freese

2002-09-26

371

High thermal expansion, sealing glass  

DOEpatents

A glass composition is described for hermetically sealing to high thermal expansion materials such as aluminum alloys, stainless steels, copper, and copper/beryllium alloys, which includes between about 10 and about 25 mole percent Na[sub 2]O, between about 10 and about 25 mole percent K[sub 2]O, between about 5 and about 15 mole percent Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], between about 35 and about 50 mole percent P[sub 2]O[sub 5] and between about 5 and about 15 mole percent of one of PbO, BaO, and mixtures thereof. The composition, which may also include between 0 and about 5 mole percent Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] and between 0 and about 10 mole percent B[sub 2]O[sub 3], has a thermal expansion coefficient in a range of between about 160 and 210[times]10[sup [minus]7]/C and a dissolution rate in a range of between about 2[times]10[sup [minus]7] and 2[times]10[sup [minus]9]g/cm[sup 2]-min. This composition is suitable to hermetically seal to metallic electrical components which will be subjected to humid environments over an extended period of time.

Brow, R.K.; Kovacic, L.

1993-11-16

372

Picocyanobacteria containing a novel pigment gene cluster dominate the brackish water Baltic Sea  

PubMed Central

Photoautotrophic picocyanobacteria harvest light via phycobilisomes (PBS) consisting of the pigments phycocyanin (PC) and phycoerythrin (PE), encoded by genes in conserved gene clusters. The presence and arrangement of these gene clusters give picocyanobacteria characteristic light absorption properties and allow the colonization of specific ecological niches. To date, a full understanding of the evolution and distribution of the PBS gene cluster in picocyanobacteria has been hampered by the scarcity of genome sequences from fresh- and brackish water-adapted strains. To remediate this, we analysed genomes assembled from metagenomic samples collected along a natural salinity gradient, and over the course of a growth season, in the Baltic Sea. We found that while PBS gene clusters in picocyanobacteria sampled in marine habitats were highly similar to known references, brackish-adapted genotypes harboured a novel type not seen in previously sequenced genomes. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the novel gene cluster belonged to a clade of uncultivated picocyanobacteria that dominate the brackish Baltic Sea throughout the summer season, but are uncommon in other examined aquatic ecosystems. Further, our data suggest that the PE genes were lost in the ancestor of PC-containing coastal picocyanobacteria and that multiple horizontal gene transfer events have re-introduced PE genes into brackish-adapted strains, including the novel clade discovered here. PMID:24621524

Larsson, John; Celepli, Narin; Ininbergs, Karolina; Dupont, Christopher L; Yooseph, Shibu; Bergman, Bigitta; Ekman, Martin

2014-01-01

373

Isolation and characterization of phage-host systems from the Baltic Sea ice.  

PubMed

In search for sea ice bacteria and their phages from the Baltic Sea ice, two ice samples were collected from land-fast ice in a south-west Finland coastal site in February and March 2011. Bacteria were isolated from the melted sea ice samples and phages were screened from the same samples for 43 purified isolates. Plaque-producing phages were found for 15 bacterial isolates at 3 °C. Ten phage isolates were successfully plaque purified and eight of them were chosen for particle purification to analyze their morphology and structural proteins. Phage 1/32 infecting an isolate affiliated to phylum Bacteroidetes (Flavobacterium sp.) is a siphovirus and six phages infecting isolates affiliated to ?-Proteobacteria (Shewanella sp.) hosts were myoviruses. Cross titrations between the hosts showed that all studied phages are host specific. Phage solutions, host growth and phage infection were tested in different temperatures revealing phage temperature tolerance up to 45 °C, whereas phage infection was in most of the cases retarded above 15 °C. This study is the first to report isolation and cultivation of ice bacteria and cold-active phages from the Baltic Sea ice. PMID:24297705

Luhtanen, Anne-Mari; Eronen-Rasimus, Eeva; Kaartokallio, Hermanni; Rintala, Janne-Markus; Autio, Riitta; Roine, Elina

2014-01-01

374

Cultivation and isolation of N2-fixing bacteria from suboxic waters in the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Nitrogenase genes (nifH) from heterotrophic dinitrogen (N2)-fixing bacteria appear ubiquitous in marine bacterioplankton, but the significance of these bacteria for N cycling is unknown. Quantitative data on the N2-fixation potential of marine and estuarine heterotrophs are scarce, and the shortage of cultivated specimens currently precludes ecophysiological characterization of these bacteria. Through the cultivation of diazotrophs from suboxic (1.79 ?mol O2 L(-1)) Baltic Sea water in an artificial seawater medium devoid of combined N, we report the cultivability of a considerable fraction of the diazotrophic community in the Gotland Deep. Two nifH clades were present both in situ and in enrichment cultures showing gene abundances of up to 4.6 × 10(5) and 5.8 × 10(5) nifH gene copies L(-1) within two vertical profiles in the Baltic Sea. The distributions of the two clades suggested a relationship with the O2 concentrations in the water column as abundances increased in the suboxic and anoxic waters. It was possible to cultivate and isolate representatives from one of these prevalent clades, and preliminary analysis of their ecophysiology demonstrated growth optima at 0.5-15 ?mol O2 L(-1) and 186-194 ?mol O2 L(-1) in the absence of combined N. PMID:24579891

Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Farnelid, Hanna; Jürgens, Klaus; Riemann, Lasse

2014-05-01

375

Active bacterial community structure along vertical redox gradients in Baltic Sea sediment  

SciTech Connect

Community structures of active bacterial populations were investigated along a vertical redox profile in coastal Baltic Sea sediments by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and clone library analysis. According to correspondence analysis of T-RFLP results and sequencing of cloned 16S rRNA genes, the microbial community structures at three redox depths (179 mV, -64 mV and -337 mV) differed significantly. The bacterial communities in the community DNA differed from those in bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled DNA, indicating that the growing members of the community that incorporated BrdU were not necessarily the most dominant members. The structures of the actively growing bacterial communities were most strongly correlated to organic carbon followed by total nitrogen and redox potentials. Bacterial identification by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from clones of BrdU-labeled DNA and DNA from reverse transcription PCR (rt-PCR) showed that bacterial taxa involved in nitrogen and sulfur cycling were metabolically active along the redox profiles. Several sequences had low similarities to previously detected sequences indicating that novel lineages of bacteria are present in Baltic Sea sediments. Also, a high number of different 16S rRNA gene sequences representing different phyla were detected at all sampling depths.

Jansson, Janet; Edlund, Anna; Hardeman, Fredrik; Jansson, Janet K.; Sjoling, Sara

2008-05-15

376

Effect of Redox Conditions on Bacterial Community Structure in Baltic Sea Sediments with Contrasting Phosphorus Fluxes  

PubMed Central

Phosphorus release from sediments can exacerbate the effect of eutrophication in coastal marine ecosystems. The flux of phosphorus from marine sediments to the overlying water is highly dependent on the redox conditions at the sediment-water interface. Bacteria are key players in the biological processes that release or retain phosphorus in marine sediments. To gain more insight in the role of bacteria in phosphorus release from sediments, we assessed the effect of redox conditions on the structure of bacterial communities. To do so, we incubated surface sediments from four sampling sites in the Baltic Sea under oxic and anoxic conditions and analyzed the fingerprints of the bacterial community structures in these incubations and the original sediments. This paper describes the effects of redox conditions, sampling station, and sample type (DNA, RNA, or whole-cell sample) on bacterial community structure in sediments. Redox conditions explained only 5% of the variance in community structure, and bacterial communities from contrasting redox conditions showed considerable overlap. We conclude that benthic bacterial communities cannot be classified as being typical for oxic or anoxic conditions based on community structure fingerprints. Our results suggest that the overall structure of the benthic bacterial community has only a limited impact on benthic phosphate fluxes in the Baltic Sea. PMID:24667801

Steenbergh, Anne K.; Bodelier, Paul L. E.; Slomp, Caroline P.; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J.

2014-01-01

377

Variability of the gaseous elemental mercury sea-air flux of the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

The importance of the sea as a sink for atmospheric mercury has been established quantitatively through models based on wet and dry deposition data, but little is known about the release of mercury from sea areas. The concentration of elemental mercury (Hg0) in sea surface water and in the marine atmosphere of the Baltic Sea was measured at high spatial resolution in February, April, July, and November 2006. Wind-speed records and the gas-exchange transfer velocity were then used to calculate Hg0 sea-air fluxes on the basis of Hg0 sea-air concentration differences. Our results show that the spatial resolution of the surface water Hg0 data can be significantly improved by continuous measurements of Hg0 in air equilibrated with water instead of quantitative extraction of Hg0 from seawater samples. A spatial and highly seasonal variability of the Hg0 sea-air flux was thus determined. In winter, the flux was low and changed in direction. In summer, a strong emission flux of up to 150 ng m(-2) day(-1) in the central Baltic Sea was recorded. The total emission of Hg0 from the studied area (235000 km2) was 4300 +/- 1600 kg in 2006 and exceeded deposition estimates. PMID:18186331

Kuss, Joachim; Schneider, Bernd

2007-12-01

378

Studying luminescent characteristics of the specific surfactants in various regions of the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sea surface layer is the interface between the atmosphere and marine environment, where there are a variety of physical, biological and chemical processes that contribute to accumulation and exchange of surface-active-agents (surfactants). At the same time the dynamic properties of the water surface (surface wave spectrum) and fluxes (especially in gas exchange and production of marine aerosol) and even the apparent and real optical properties of seawater are affected by the surfactants gathered on the sea surface. Moreover, the presence of the surface film may restrict the supply of light energy into the depths of the sea. The study was conducted in different regions of the Baltic Sea which also assessed the impact of external environment (estuaries, vicinity of the ports and shipping routs) on the marine environment. The primary scientific objectives were: - to investigate the variability of luminescent properties of surfactants and organic matter contained in the surface film and layer of the sea from the results of spectrophotometric studies. - to find any special surfactants (characterized by luminescent properties) occurring in certain regions of the Baltic. The practical aim was to answer the question whether and to what extent changes in luminescence properties of organic matter contained in the film and the layer depend on the biological activity of the basin and how they affect the water leaving radiance remotely measured over the surface of the sea.

Drozdowska, V.; Darecki, M.; Gutowska, D.; Makuch, P.; Kowalczyk, J.; Strza?kowska, A.; Petelski, T.; Piskozub, J.

2012-04-01

379

Climate variability drives anchovies and sardines into the North and Baltic Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) and sardine (Sardina pilchardus) are southern, warm water species that prefer temperatures warmer than those found in boreal waters. After about 40 years of absence, they were again observed in the 1990s in increasing quantities in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Whereas global warming probably played a role in these northward migrations, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and the contraction of the subpolar gyre were important influences. Sardine re-invaded the North Sea around 1990, probably mainly as a response to warmer temperatures associated with the strengthening of the NAO in the late 1980s. However, increasing numbers of anchovy eggs, larvae, juveniles and adults have been recorded only since the mid-1990s, when, particularly, summer temperatures started to increase. This is probably a result of the complex dynamics of ocean-atmosphere coupling involving changes in North Atlantic current structures, such as the contraction of the subpolar gyre, and dynamics of AMO. Apparently, climate variability drives anchovies and sardines into the North and Baltic Seas. Here, we elucidate the climatic background of the return of anchovies and sardines to the northern European shelf seas and the changes in the North Sea fish community in the mid-1990s in response to climate variability.

Alheit, Jürgen; Pohlmann, Thomas; Casini, Michele; Greve, Wulf; Hinrichs, Rosemarie; Mathis, Moritz; O'Driscoll, Kieran; Vorberg, Ralf; Wagner, Carola

2012-04-01

380

Faunistic review of the cuckoo wasps of Fennoscandia, Denmark and the Baltic countries (Hymenoptera: Chrysididae).  

PubMed

A critical and annotated review of published records of the Chrysididae of the Nordic and Baltic countries and the Russian part of Fennoscandia is presented with some taxonomic and faunistic notes. A total of 73 species are listed from the region. Additionally, 17 species are deleted. Three species are recorded for the first time from Denmark, six species from Estonia, one from Finland, eleven from Latvia, four from Norway, one from Sweden and 15 from Russian Fennoscandia. Elampus foveatus and Chrysis pulcherrima are reported for the first time from the Nordic and Baltic countries. Lectotypes are designated for Hedychrum cupreum Dahlbom, 1845, Chrysis zetterstedti Dahlbom, 1845, Chrysis succincta var. chrysoprasina Trautmann, 1927, Chrysis succincta var. virideocincta Trautmann, 1927 and Chrysis succincta var. nordstromi Trautmann, 1927. Information and images of the holotypes of Hedychrum metallicum Dahlbom, 1854, Chrysis succincta var. westerlundi Trautmann, 1927 are given. Chrysis integra Dahlbom, 1829 is found to be a new synonym of Hedychridium ardens (Coquebert, 1801) and Chrysis scintillans Valkeila, 1971 a new synonym of Chrysis solida Haupt, 1957. Chrysis terminata Dahlbom, 1854 is reported for the first time as the valid name for C. ignita Form A sensu Linsenmaier, 1959.  PMID:25283536

Paukkunen, Juho; Rosa, Paolo; Soon, Villu; Johansson, Niklas; Odegaard, Frode

2014-01-01

381

Biomarkers in the stratified water column of the Landsort Deep (Baltic Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water column of the Landsort Deep, central Baltic Sea, is stratified into an oxic, suboxic and anoxic zone. This stratification controls the distributions of individual microbial communities and biogeochemical processes. In summer 2011, particulate organic matter was filtered from these zones using an in~situ pump. Lipid biomarkers were extracted from the filters to establish water column profiles of individual hydrocarbons, alcohols, phospholipid fatty acids, and bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs). As a reference, a cyanobacterial bloom sampled in summer 2012 in the central Baltic Sea Gotland Deep was analyzed for BHPs. The biomarker data from the surface layer of the oxic zone showed major inputs from different cyanobacteria and eukaryotes such as dinoflagellates and ciliates, while the underlying cold winter water layer was characterized by a low diversity and abundance of organisms, with copepods as a major group. The suboxic zone supported bacterivorous ciliates, type I aerobic methanotrophic bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria, and, most likely, methanogenic archaea. In the anoxic zone, sulfate reducers and archaea were the dominating microorganisms as indicated by the presence of distinctive branched fatty acids, archaeol and PMI derivatives, respectively. Our study of in situ biomarkers in the Landsort Deep thus provided an integrated insight into the distribution of relevant players and the related biogeochemical processes in stratified water columns of marginal seas.

Berndmeyer, C.; Thiel, V.; Schmale, O.; Wasmund, N.; Blumenberg, M.

2014-06-01

382

Ecology of mysid shrimps in the Bornholm Basin (central Baltic Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mysid shrimps are an important trophic link in the food web of the Baltic Sea. In 2002 and 2003 we investigated species composition, distribution, life cycle and prey in the Bornholm Basin (central Baltic). Three species and one genus were identified: Mysis mixta, Neomysis integer, Mesopodopsis slabberi and Praunus sp . The dominant M. mixta and N. integer occurred in the whole study area but were more abundant in the peripheral, more shallow regions. Size frequency distribution indicated one generation for M. mixta and probably two for N. integer. Main prey of all size classes in both species was the cladoceran Bosmina coregoni maritima during summer and autumn. In spring and winter also copepods of the species Temora longicornis and Pseudocalanus acuspes were important prey items. Detritus and phytoplankton cells were of minor importance and many individuals had empty guts. Mysid shrimps in the deep basin might be advected from more shallow areas, as the abundance of all species was much lower than in coastal regions. The deep Bornholm Basin does not seem to be a favourable habitat, probably due to the inaccessibility of the oxygen deficient bottom layer. Under current hydrographic conditions mysids are probably not important predators of zooplankton and thus not competitors of planktivorous fish in the Bornholm Basin.

Barz, Kristina; Hirche, Hans-Jürgen

2009-12-01

383

Solar Assisted Ground Source Heat Pump Performance in Nearly Zero Energy Building in Baltic Countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In near zero energy buildings (NZEB) built in Baltic countries, heat production systems meet the challenge of large share domestic hot water demand and high required heating capacity. Due to passive solar design, cooling demand in residential buildings also needs an assessment and solution. Heat pump systems are a widespread solution to reduce energy use. A combination of heat pump and solar thermal collectors helps to meet standard requirements and increases the share of renewable energy use in total energy balance of country. The presented paper describes a simulation study of solar assisted heat pump systems carried out in TRNSYS. The purpose of this simulation was to investigate how the performance of a solar assisted heat pump combination varies in near zero energy building. Results of three systems were compared to autonomous (independent) systems simulated performance. Different solar assisted heat pump design solutions with serial and parallel solar thermal collector connections to the heat pump loop were modelled and a passive cooling possibility was assessed. Simulations were performed for three Baltic countries: Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia.

Januševi?ius, Karolis; Streckien?, Giedr?

2013-12-01

384

Picocyanobacteria containing a novel pigment gene cluster dominate the brackish water Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Photoautotrophic picocyanobacteria harvest light via phycobilisomes (PBS) consisting of the pigments phycocyanin (PC) and phycoerythrin (PE), encoded by genes in conserved gene clusters. The presence and arrangement of these gene clusters give picocyanobacteria characteristic light absorption properties and allow the colonization of specific ecological niches. To date, a full understanding of the evolution and distribution of the PBS gene cluster in picocyanobacteria has been hampered by the scarcity of genome sequences from fresh- and brackish water-adapted strains. To remediate this, we analysed genomes assembled from metagenomic samples collected along a natural salinity gradient, and over the course of a growth season, in the Baltic Sea. We found that while PBS gene clusters in picocyanobacteria sampled in marine habitats were highly similar to known references, brackish-adapted genotypes harboured a novel type not seen in previously sequenced genomes. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the novel gene cluster belonged to a clade of uncultivated picocyanobacteria that dominate the brackish Baltic Sea throughout the summer season, but are uncommon in other examined aquatic ecosystems. Further, our data suggest that the PE genes were lost in the ancestor of PC-containing coastal picocyanobacteria and that multiple horizontal gene transfer events have re-introduced PE genes into brackish-adapted strains, including the novel clade discovered here. PMID:24621524

Larsson, John; Celepli, Narin; Ininbergs, Karolina; Dupont, Christopher L; Yooseph, Shibu; Bergman, Bigitta; Ekman, Martin

2014-09-01

385

Simulated wave-driven sediment transport along the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alongshore variations in sediment transport along the eastern Baltic Sea coast from the Sambian (Samland) Peninsula up to Pärnu Bay in the Gulf of Riga are analysed using long-term (1970-2007) simulations of the nearshore wave climate and the Coastal Engineering Research Centre (CERC) wave energy flux model applied to about 5.5 km long beach sectors. The local rate of bulk transport is the largest along a short section of the Sambian Peninsula and along the north-western part of the Latvian coast. The net transport has an overall counter-clockwise nature but contains a number of local temporary reversals. The alongshore sediment flux has several divergence and convergence points. One of the divergence points at the Akmenrags Cape divides the sedimentary system of the eastern coast of the Baltic Proper into two almost completely separated compartments in the simulated wave climate. Cyclic relocation of a highly persistent convergence point over the entire Curonian Spit suggests that this landform is in almost perfect dynamical equilibrium in the simulated approximation of the contemporary wave climate.

Soomere, Tarmo; Viška, Maija

2014-01-01

386

Champacyclin, a New Cyclic Octapeptide from Streptomyces Strain C42 Isolated from the Baltic Sea  

PubMed Central

New isolates of Streptomyces champavatii were isolated from marine sediments of the Gotland Deep (Baltic Sea), from the Urania Basin (Eastern Mediterranean), and from the Kiel Bight (Baltic Sea). The isolates produced several oligopeptidic secondary metabolites, including the new octapeptide champacyclin (1a) present in all three strains. Herein, we report on the isolation, structure elucidation and determination of the absolute stereochemistry of this isoleucine/leucine (Ile/Leu = Xle) rich cyclic octapeptide champacyclin (1a). As 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy could not fully resolve the structure of (1a), additional information on sequence and configuration of stereocenters were obtained by a combination of multi stage mass spectrometry (MSn) studies, amino acid analysis, partial hydrolysis and subsequent enantiomer analytics with gas chromatography positive chmical ionization/electron impact mass spectrometry (GC-PCI/EI-MS) supported by comparison to reference dipeptides. Proof of the head-to-tail cyclization of (1a) was accomplished by solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) compared to an alternatively side chain cyclized derivative (2). Champacyclin (1a) is likely synthesized by a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS), because of its high content of (d)-amino acids. The compound (1a) showed antimicrobial activity against the phytopathogen Erwinia amylovora causing the fire blight disease of certain plants. PMID:24317473

Pesic, Alexander; Baumann, Heike I.; Kleinschmidt, Katrin; Ensle, Paul; Wiese, Jutta; Sussmuth, Roderich D.; Imhoff, Johannes F.

2013-01-01

387

Great Historical Events That Were Significantly Affected by the Weather: Part 10, Crop Failure in Britain in 1799 and 1800 and the British Decision to Send a Naval Force to the Baltic Early in 1801.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1799 and 1800, crop failures struck the British Isles. The crop failure of 1799 was due to the combined effects of the cold winter of 1798-99 and the cool and rainy growing season of the year. The summer was characterized by the prevalence of low-pressure systems resembling cyclonic weather patterns of the winter.The crop failure of 1800 was mainly due to a drought early in summer. In July there was either no rain at all (especially in the south) or the amounts were negligible. The general synoptic situation indicated an extension of the Azores High to Britain and beyond to central Europe. In the London area the pressure in duly was never below 1020 mb.The wheat harvests of 1799 and 1800 were about one-half and three-quarters of the average, respectively. The deficiencies could not be made up by imports, for, at least in 1799, the weather conditions were also unfavorable to grain production in the countries of northern Europe that were "traditional" exporters of grain to Britain. We estimate that in the "bread-consumption year", October 1799 to September 1800, harvest and imports accounted for but 60% of the required quantity of wheat, the principal ingredient of bread in England and Wales at the time. In consequence of the bread scarcity, there were sharp rises in the price of bread and in bread riots. Some of the slogans of the rioters made mention of the French Revolution.In parallel with the increasing scarcity of bread, diplomatic relations between Britain and Russia worsened from 1799 on. Its significance on the bread crisis, as well as a crisis of naval supplies, was that the Baltic ports through which the grain of the northern countries (East Prussia, Poland, and Russia) was channeled for Britain stood under the tsar's direct or indirect control. The strained relations between Britain and Russia peaked in November 1800. On 18 November, Tsar Paul I imposed an embargo on British ships and their crews. This embargo meant that the bread scarcity was to become even graver, even more threatening, in 1801. On 28 November (apparently), the British cabinet decided to launch a naval war against Russia in the Baltic as soon as ice conditions permitted. In Dudley Pope's (1972) on words, "at this stage the climate governed Britian' naval strategy and planning for the Baltic". When the decision of late November was taken, it was directed against Russia alone. Its primary purpose was to break the embargo. Subsequent complications involving the other northern powers (mainly Denmark and Sweden), led to an extension of the plan of a naval war to include all the northern powers.

Neumann, J.; Kington, J.

1992-02-01

388

Evidence of trends in near-surface wind speeds over the Baltic S.C. Pryor1,2  

E-print Network

-west of the Baltic basin where they are in excess of 0.25 m s-1 per decade for the annual mean. The majority, westerly cyclonic and north-westerly cyclonic circulation types (defined by the Grosswetterlagen catalogue that the first decades of the twenty-first century will be very similar to the 1990s with respect to the flow

389

Happy birthday Willi Hennig!-Hyptia hennigi sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae), a fossil ensign wasp from Eocene Baltic amber.  

PubMed

The ensign wasp genus Hyptia Illiger was previously known from 52 extant New World species and one fossil species from Lower Miocene to Upper Oligocene Mexican amber. Hyptia hennigi sp. nov., from Eocene Baltic amber, is the oldest known species and the first member of the genus from the Old World. PMID:25277582

Jennings, John T; Krogmann, Lars; Priya, Priya

2013-01-01

390

Skipping the Baltic: the emergence of a dichotomy of alternative spring migration strategies in Russian barnacle geese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Since the early 1990s, an increasing proportion of barnacle geese, Branta leucopsis , bound for breeding sites in the Russian Arctic delay their departure from the wintering quarters in the Wadden Sea by 4 weeks. These late-migrating geese skip spring stopover sites in the Baltic traditionally used by the entire population. 2. Individual geese from an arctic colony

Götz Eichhorn; Rudolf H. Drent; Julia Stahl; Aivar Leito; Thomas Alerstam

2009-01-01

391

Annual changes in the proportions of wild and hatchery Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) caught in the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA-level information from an eight-loci microsatellite baseline database of 32 Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) stocks was used with a Bayesian estimation method to assess the stock and stock group proportions of Finnish salmon catches in the Baltic Sea area. The proportions of seven stock groups, important to fisheries management, were assessed in catch samples taken between 2000 and 2005. In

Marja-Liisa Koljonen

2006-01-01

392

Human Trafficking for Sexual Exploitation in the UK: Case Study of Eastern Europe and the Baltic States' Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this paper is on the trafficking of women from Eastern Europe and the Baltic states to the United Kingdom, for the purpose of sexual exploitation. It would look at what human trafficking is and how it differs from human smuggling by examining the five different stages of trafficking. There would be an examination of the legislation that

Kwan Choi

2010-01-01

393

The seaweed flora of a young semi-enclosed sea: The Baltic. Salinity as a possible agent of flora divergence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The salinity tolerances of Baltic and Atlantic populations of Fucus vesiculosus and Chorda filum have been measured using net photosynthesis as an index of tissue damage. Atlantic Fucus proved to have a broader salinity tolerance than Atlantic Chorda, a result which is consistent with others published on the tolerances of intertidal and sublittoral marine species. The optimum salinity for all Atlantic plants was 11 or 34‰, but that of all Baltic plants was 6‰. Baltic Fucus and Chorda were different in breadth of tolerance, in spite of the fact that they inhabit the same sublittoral habitat. This difference is interpreted in relation to their respective life-forms, Fucus being perennial and Chorda annual. Fucus is therefore present as a macrothallus at all times of year, including the critical low-salinity period of the spring ice-melt. Chorda evades damage by existing as a resistent microthallus at this time. It is concluded that the distinctive character of Baltic marine algae deserves nomenclatural recognition at some level below that of the species. The rank of subspecies would appear the most appropriate of those listed in the Code, but none of those available is able adequately to express the patterns of variation now being reported.

Russell, G.

1988-06-01

394

Influence of substratum surface tension on biofouling of artificial substrata in Kiel Bay (Western Baltic): In situ studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of substratum surface tension on the colonization process (fouling) on artificial substrata was investigated in Kiel Bay (Western Baltic). The density of organisms from the major groups (bacteria, microalgae, protozoa, macroorganisms) was monitored on test panels after several exposure intervals in two experimental series. The results showed that substrata with a surface free energy of 24 mN\\/m were

Klaus Becker; Martin Wahl

1991-01-01

395

Deep-water dynamics and boundary mixing in a nontidal stratified basin: A modeling study of the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

results from a tracer release experiment have shown that, similar to many lakes and ocean basins, deep-water mixing in the Baltic Sea is largely determined by mixing processes occurring in the energetic near-bottom region. Due to the complexity and small vertical extent of this region, however, previous modeling studies of the Baltic Sea have so far not been able to provide a numerically and physically sound representation of boundary mixing. Here we discuss first results from a nested high-resolution simulation of the central Baltic Sea that aims at a realistic description of the turbulent bottom boundary layer with the help of new numerical techniques (adaptive coordinates) and state-of-the-art turbulence modeling. Using a comprehensive data set from the Baltic Sea Tracer Release Experiment, we show that the model is able to reproduce the key dynamical processes (near-inertial waves, topographic waves, and a rim current) with excellent accuracy. Boundary mixing triggered by these processes was found to result in simulated basin-scale mixing rates in close agreement with observations, including a seasonal variability that has been emphasized in previous studies. These results may be relevant also for the description of mixing in large lakes and other stratified basins.

Holtermann, Peter L.; Burchard, Hans; Gräwe, Ulf; Klingbeil, Knut; Umlauf, Lars

2014-02-01

396

Size distribution of colloidal trace metals and organic carbon during a coastal bloom in the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physico-chemical speciation of organic carbon and selected metals was measured during a coastal bloom in Ekhagen Bay, Baltic Sea, using ultrafiltration.One important objective with the study was to see if any depletion of trace metals could be measured in the directly bioavailable fraction (During the bloom in May, LMW Al, Co, Cu, Mn and Ni concentrations decreased although the

Johan Ingri; Susanna Nordling; Jenny Larsson; Jenny Rönnegård; Nina Nilsson; Ilia Rodushkin; Ralf Dahlqvist; Per Andersson; Örjan Gustafsson

2004-01-01

397

A Metagenomics Transect into the Deepest Point of the Baltic Sea Reveals Clear Stratification of Microbial Functional Capacities  

PubMed Central

The Baltic Sea is characterized by hyposaline surface waters, hypoxic and anoxic deep waters and sediments. These conditions, which in turn lead to a steep oxygen gradient, are particularly evident at Landsort Deep in the Baltic Proper. Given these substantial differences in environmental parameters at Landsort Deep, we performed a metagenomic census spanning surface to sediment to establish whether the microbial communities at this site are as stratified as the physical environment. We report strong stratification across a depth transect for both functional capacity and taxonomic affiliation, with functional capacity corresponding most closely to key environmental parameters of oxygen, salinity and temperature. We report similarities in functional capacity between the hypoxic community and hadal zone communities, underscoring the substantial degree of eutrophication in the Baltic Proper. Reconstruction of the nitrogen cycle at Landsort deep shows potential for syntrophy between archaeal ammonium oxidizers and bacterial denitrification at anoxic depths, while anaerobic ammonium oxidation genes are absent, despite substantial ammonium levels below the chemocline. Our census also reveals enrichment in genetic prerequisites for a copiotrophic lifestyle and resistance mechanisms reflecting adaptation to prevalent eutrophic conditions and the accumulation of environmental pollutants resulting from ongoing anthropogenic pressures in the Baltic Sea. PMID:24086414

Poole, Anthony M.; Sjoberg, Britt-Marie; Sjoling, Sara

2013-01-01

398

Organohalogen concentrations and feeding status in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) of the Baltic Sea during the spawning run.  

PubMed

Changes in the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Baltic salmon muscle were studied during the spawning migration from the southern Baltic Sea to rivers flowing into the northern Gulf of Bothnia and during the spawning period. The aim was to obtain information to facilitate the arrangement of salmon fisheries such that the human dioxin intake is taken into account. The EC maximum allowable total toxic equivalent concentration (WHO-TEQPCDD/F+PCB) was exceeded in the muscle of the majority of the migrating salmon, except in the Baltic Proper. The fresh-weight-based concentrations of all toxicant groups in salmon tended to be the lowest in the Baltic Proper and the Northern Quark, and all toxicant concentrations, except PCDDs and PCDFs, were significantly higher in the spawning salmon than in the salmon caught during the spawning run. The fat content of the salmon muscle decreased by 60% during the spawning run, and the lipid-based total toxicant concentrations were consequently 4.2-6.2 times higher during the spawning period than during the spawning migration. However, the toxicants were concentrated just before spawning, and thus there is no essential difference related to whether the salmon are caught in the sea or the recreational river fishery. PMID:24056447

Vuorinen, Pekka J; Kiviranta, Hannu; Koistinen, Jaana; Pöyhönen, Outi; Ikonen, Erkki; Keinänen, Marja

2014-01-15

399

Annual rhythms of swimming behaviour and seawater adaptation in young baltic salmon, Salmo salar , associated with smolting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexually immature and sexually mature precocious male Baltic salmon,Salmo salar, parr from Umeälven (Ume river) were tested for rheotactic behaviour and adaptation to seawater before, during, and after the time period for smolt migration. Size of fish at the beginning of the experiment in January was on average 13.5 cm. Rheotactic behaviour was tested in annular stream tanks with photocells

Hans Lundqvist; Lars-Ove Eriksson

1985-01-01

400

Concentrations of organotin compounds in various fish species in the Finnish lake waters and Finnish coast of the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organotin compounds (OTCs) leaching from the antifouling paints used in boats and ships have contaminated many water areas worldwide. The purpose of this study was to obtain a general view of the organotin contamination in fish in Finnish lake areas and Finnish coast of the Baltic Sea using perch as the main indicator species. Perch sampling covered areas presumed as

Panu Rantakokko; Anja Hallikainen; Riikka Airaksinen; Pekka J. Vuorinen; Antti Lappalainen; Jaakko Mannio; Terttu Vartiainen

2010-01-01

401

Bad matching between hatching and acidification: a pitfall for the burbot, Lota lota, off the river Kyrönjoki, Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The episodic acid runoff from the catchment areas of rivers with sulphide-bearing fine-grained sediments caused recruitment failures of burbot (Lotalota) in the Gulf of Bothnia. In the episodically acid river Kyrönjoki, emptying into the Gulf of Bothnia, the Baltic Sea, the burbot spawn in winter and the eggs were calculated on average to hatch on 10 May. This date coincided

Richard Hudd; Jakob Kjellman

2002-01-01

402

Differences in swimbladder volume between Baltic and Norwegian spring-spawning herring: Consequences for mean target strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish swimbladders, where present, contribute most to the scattering of sound by fish, as measured by the target strength (TS). The volumes of the swimbladders of two different European stocks of Atlantic herring were compared to consider the effect on estimates of TS. Swimbladder volumes of Baltic and Norwegian spring-spawning herring (Clupea harengus) were measured, together with individual herring fat

Sascha M. M. Fässler; Natalia Gorska; Egil Ona; Paul G. Fernandes

2008-01-01

403

Investigation of LANDSAT imagery on correlations between ore deposits and major shield structures in Finland. [Baltic Shield  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. On the central Baltic Shield, the concept of drainage patterns can be extended to smaller scales in which case many cultural features become involved to the spatial patterns influenced by bedrock structure. Features resulting from agriculture activity and timbering often exaggerate the influence of the bedrock on the image texture.

Tuominen, H. V. (principal investigator); Kuosmanen, V.

1975-01-01

404

Responses to the Decollectivisation Question in post- Soviet states: a comparison of Ukraine, Moldova and the Baltic States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-Soviet Ukraine, Moldova and the Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania) have faced a set of dilemmas regarding reforming the relationship between the state and agriculture. The most prominent issue has been that of agrarian structures and the question of the decollectivisation of land. Debates on the decollectivisation question saw three positions develop: preservation of existing collective structures, privatisation through

Matthew Gorton; John White

405

Evaluation of Taxes and Revenues from the Energy Sector in the Baltics, Russia, and Other Former Soviet Union Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the level and structure of fiscal revenues from the Baltics, Russia, and other former Soviet Union countries' (BRO) energy sector and suggests reforms in energy tax policy. Revenues from the oil and gas sectors are about half the level that might be expected from international comparisons. Low oil revenues result from infrastructure constraints on oil exports, weak

Dale F. Gray

1998-01-01

406

Observations of low-frequency current fluctuations in deep water of the Eastern Gotland Basin\\/Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the deep Eastern Gotland Basin of the Baltic Sea, multiday fluctuations could be analyzed based on hourly sampled current and temperature measurements from August 31, 1999, to October 23, 2002. Data were continuously recorded in layers beneath the perennial pycnocline over a stagnation period of the hydrographic regime which lasted more than 3 years. At a water depth of

E. Hagen; R. Feistel

2004-01-01

407

Levels of PCDD\\/F and dioxin-like PCB in Baltic fish of different age and gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in Baltic Sea fish like herring (Clupea harengus membras), sprat (Sprattus sprattus balticus), perch (Perca fluviatilis), pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) and flounder (Platichthys flesus trachurus) collected from four areas of the Estonian coastal waters are reported. All samples are studied for their relationship between the length (cm) and wet

M. Pandelova; B. Henkelmann; O. Roots; M. Simm; L. Järv; E. Benfenati; K.-W. Schramm

2008-01-01

408

Metasedimentary Rocks of the Lapland–Kolvitsa Granulite Belt of the Baltic Shield: Primary Mineral Composition and Petrogeochemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The normative mineral composition is reported on source rocks of metasediments from the granulite belt of the Baltic Shield. The primary composition, CIA index, and position of data points of studied rocks in discriminant diagrams indicate that a significant part of the studied rocks formed from immature sediments (graywackes and subgraywackes). The material supplied to sedimentation paleobasins was obtained from

V. T. Safronov

2004-01-01

409

Baltic Astronomy, vol. 14, XXX{XXX, 2005. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES OF HELIUM-RICH SUBDWARF B STARS  

E-print Network

Baltic Astronomy, vol. 14, XXX{XXX, 2005. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES OF HELIUM-RICH SUBDWARF B STARS A 2005 August 17 Abstract. Helium-rich subdwarf B (He-sdB) stars represent a small fraction of the population of hot subdwarfs. We report recent results of our spectral analysis of He-sdB stars. Physical

Jeffery, Simon

410

Does removal of an alien predator from small islands in the Baltic Sea induce a trophic cascade?  

E-print Network

Does removal of an alien predator from small islands in the Baltic Sea induce a trophic cascade known as a trophic cascade. Because alien predators can have a disproportionate impact, compared communities than native predators. We studied the indirect effects of the removal of an alien predator

Oksanen, Lauri

411

Population dynamics of a dominant species (Pseudocalanus, Acartia and Temora) in the Gulf of Gdansk (southern Baltic Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copepods are the most important secondary producers of the world ocean. They represent an important link between phytoplankton, microzooplankton and higher trophic levels such as fish. With regard to their role in marine food webs, it is important to know how environmental variations affect their population. The population dynamics of a dominant species (Pseudocalanus, Acartia and Temora) in the southern Baltic Sea have been investigated within the grant which is supported by the Polish State Committee of Scientific Research. We intend to study the impact of climate changes on the development of the investigated copepods in the southern Baltic Sea through the impact of food concentration, temperature and salinity within the next few decades. Therefore, the goal within grant-Poland is developing the marine ecosystem model for Baltic Sea 3D CEMBSv2 (a coupled biological-hydrodynamic model) with a new 3D copepod model. 3D CEMBSv2 is a fully coupled model adopted for the Baltic Sea. The model is based on CESM1.0 (Community Earth System Model), in our configuration it consists of two active components (ocean and ice) driven by central coupler (CPL7). Ocean (POP version 2.1) and ice models (CICE model, version 4.0) are forced by atmospheric and land data models. Atmospheric data sets are provided by ICM-UM model from University of Warsaw. Additionally land model provides runoff of the Baltic Sea (currently 78 rivers). Ecosystem model is based on an intermediate complexity marine ecosystem model for the global domain and consists of 11 main components: zooplankton, small phytoplankton, diatoms, cyanobacteria, two detrital classes, dissolved oxygen and the nutrients nitrate, ammonium, phosphate and silicate. The copepod model consists of ten state variables with masses and numbers for each of five model stage, grouping stages to: the non feeding stages and eggs are represented by the stage - eggs-N2, following are the naupliar stages - N3-N6, then two copepodite stages - C1 - C3 and C4 - C5 and finally the adult stage - C6. The Baltic zooplankton is composed of microzooplankton, mezozooplankton and macroplankton with characteristic ichtyoplankton forms. The structure of mezozooplankton in the Gdansk Gulf mainly consisted of four taxa: copepoda, cladocera, rotatoria and meroplankton. The most important species in the Gdansk Gulf are copepoda: Acartia spp. (i.e. A. bifilosa, A. longiremis and A. tonsa), Temora longicornis, Pseudocalanus minutus elongatus and Centropages hamatus and cladocera: Bosmina coregoni maritime and Podon polyphemoides. Copepoda dominate numerically, while in the warm season Cladocera are subdominants. The study describes numerical simulations of the seasonal dynamics of Acartia spp., Temora longicornis and Pseudocalanus minutus elongatus in the southern Baltic Sea using a three-dimensional version of the coupled ecosystem-copepod model. In the case of the Baltic Sea, food concentration and temperature are the main factors controlling copepod development, and salinity is a masking factor. The surface water salinity of the southern Baltic is constant at 7-8 PSU. It is included in the present study. The simulated population dynamics were compared with observations at the Gulf of Gdansk. This work is supported by the Polish State Committee of Scientific Research [grant number: NN306 353239 and No. N N305 111636]. The partial support for this study was also provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBaltyk founded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract no. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09. Calculations were done at the Academic Computer Center in Gdansk.

Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, L.; Janecki, M.; Lemieszek, A.; Jakacki, J.; Nowicki, A.

2012-04-01

412

Energy and the environment in the Baltic Sea region: A study of cooperative action from the Estonian perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to their geographic proximity and shared natural resources, cooperation on energy-related and environmental issues is particularly important for the nine countries surrounding the Baltic Sea. Currently, two projects are underway that have placed the level of cooperation within the region under the microscope: the environmental management work undertaken by the Helsinki Commission for the Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area (HELCOM) and the Nord Stream pipeline project, which, when completed, will provide the direct transportation of natural gas from Russia to Germany via the Baltic seafloor. Although both have been declared inclusive and decidedly Baltic ventures by some regional actors, reception of the cooperative efforts amongst the littoral Baltic countries has been markedly different. This study addresses these varying reactions by examining Estonia's participation in and subsequent perspectives on the HELCOM and Nord Stream projects. A theoretical framework grounded in the discipline of international relations is utilized to analyze Estonia's role in the projects and its position as a small state in a regional context. The primary areas of focus are how historical experiences and current levels of cooperation in the two endeavors have shaped Estonia's responses and, ultimately, its 'realist' perception of global politics. The study concludes that Estonia appears to have more substantive participation in HELCOM than in the Nord Stream project because of the tendency of states to securitize and, thus, prioritize the energy policy area over the environmental. Estonian foreign policy behavior, however, perpetuates the state-centric and power-centered policy processes that dominate the international political system.

Brauer, Alex P.

413

Cellular solid structures with unbounded thermal expansion Roderic Lakes  

E-print Network

1 Cellular solid structures with unbounded thermal expansion Roderic Lakes Journal of Materials coefficients of thermal expansion larger than that of either constituent. Thermal expansion of materials to explore the range of thermal expansion coefficient attainable in materials with microstructure

Lakes, Roderic

414

Expansion of Supernova 1993J  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five years of VLBI observations of the nearby supernova SN1993J in the galaxy M81 have resulted in 20 consecutive images that show in unprecedented detail the dynamical evolution of an exploded star. The images display the complex behavior of the shockfront as it interacts with, and is decelerated by, the circumstellar medium. We will infer density profiles and quantify through modelling, imaging, and astrometric measurements the high isotropy of the expansion velocity. We then estimate the dynamical distance to the host galaxy. Spectral index maps of the supernova give first insights into the acceleration process of the electrons responsible for the supernova's radio synchrotron emission. We will show the video ``SUPERNOVA: DEATH OF A STAR,'' which contains the VLBI images along with an animated explanatory introduction, suitable for a scientific audience as well as for schools and the general public.

Bartel, N.; Bietenholz, M. F.; Rupen, M. P.; Beasley, A. J.; Graham, D. A.; Altunin, V. I.; Venturi, T.; Umana, G.; Conway, J. E.; Cannon, W. H.

1999-05-01

415

Adiabatic expansions near eigenvalue crossings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum mechanical adiabatic approximations describe the small ? behavior of solutions of the Schrödinger equation i? ??/?t=H(t)? for - T? t? T. It is well known that if H( t) is analytic in t, self-adjoint for real t, and has an isolated eigenvalue E( t) of multiplicity one for - T? t? T, then these is a solution that is asymptotic to e - limit?01E(r) dr/c(?(t)+?? 1(t)+? 2? 2(t)+…) The leading term, ?( t), is a unit vector in the spectral subspace for h( t) that corresponds to E( t). In this paper we investigate eigenvalue crossings. We assume H( t) has two analytic eigenvalues EA( t) and EB( t) that are isolated from the rest of the spectrum of H( t). We further assume that EA( t) and EB( t) are isolated from one another and are of multiplicity one, except at t=0, where they are equal. We prove that in this situation, the Schrödinger equation has solutions with asymptotic expansions of the form e - limit?01E j(r) dr/?(? j(t)+v 1(?)? j1(t,?)+v 2(?)? j2(t,?)+…) (j=A,B) The ? jk(t, ?) are uniformly bounded for - T? t? T, and ?j( t) is a unit vector in the spectral subspace corresponding to Ej( t). The expansion orders, ?k( ?), have the form ? n(k)/(p+1)(log(?))m(k), where p is the order of the zero of EA( t)- EB( t), and n( k) and m( k) are certain non-negative integers.

Hagedorn, George A.

1989-12-01

416

Status of spent fuel storage expansion at Prairie Island  

SciTech Connect

The Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant contains two 560 MWe, two-loop Westinghouse designed PWRs. These two units have been in commercial operation since 1973 and 1974. The current spent fuel storage capacity will be exhausted in the 1994-1995 time frame. In 1987 Prairie Island performed a demonstration of rod consolidation technology in the spent fuel pool. The demonstration included waste classification and empty cage volume reduction. The results of this demonstration and Prairie Islands future plans for spent fuel storage expansion are discussed.

Kapitz, J.; McCarten, L.

1989-04-01

417

A Study on Evaluation Method of Equipment Expansion in Power System under Competitive Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The supply reliability of the power system strongly depends on the system planning and operation. Under the competitive environment, system planning and operation become more complicated and difficult due to the new uncertainties that have not been considered so far. Which may also results in the enlargement of difficulties in forecast in the planning stage, and causes the deterioration of supply reliability. In the competitive environment, the transmission network must be planned and operated with the economical rationality and fairness. However, it is difficult to realize the system planning and operation considering the economical rationality and fairness because of the uncertainties. Then, the high flexibility and robustness against the uncertainties are required for the system planning and operation. This paper evaluates the performance of system expansion planning from two points of views: the probabilistic supply reliability and transmission margin in power system. As indices, the Expected Energy Not Supplied (EENS) and Available Transmission Capability (ATC) are used in this study.

Nakajima, Takuya; Oyama, Tsutomu

418

A New Expansion of the Master Equation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new expansion of the master equation is derived from the statistical-mechanical standpoint. The expansion parameter is a slowness parameter which controls the rate of change with time of macroscopic state variables, and the lowest-order terms lead to the generalized Fokker-Planck equation of the Green-Zwanzig type. In this expansion a fluctuation-dissipation relation between generalized diffusion coefficients and dissipative drift coefficients

Hazime Mori; Hirokazu Fujisaka; Hideto Shigematsu

1974-01-01

419

Multiplicative Expansion of Microvascular Network: Intussusceptive Angiogenesis  

Cancer.gov

Meetings & Events Home Agenda Speaker Biosketches Abstracts Logistics Contact Abstracts Multiplicative Expansion of Microvascular Network: Intussusceptive Angiogenesis Steven J. Mentzer, MD  [ View bio ] (Harvard Medical School, Boston,

420

Quantifying the importance of sediment resuspension for the North Sea and Baltic Sea ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Including sedimentary processes such as resuspension in marine coupled bio-physical models is crucial to realistically simulate the dynamics of biologically important chemical variables (e.g oxygen and the macro-nutrients nitrate, phosphate and silicate). These comprise diffusive release of dissolved nutrients and resuspension of particulate organic material, which occurs when a critical bottom shear stress (?crit) acting on the sediment particles is exceeded. In global and regional modelling approaches sediment-water exchange is often parametrized by sedimentation and constant release rates and dynamic resuspension resolving the tidal cycle is often neglected in coupled physical-biological ecosystem models. During resuspension, sediment particles get transported back into the water column. Thereby, both the turbidity of the water and nutrient availability by releasing dissolved nutrients from the pore-water are changed. Since both light and nutrients are limiting factors in primary production, it is near by hand to suspect resuspension to play an important role in the growth of phytoplankton. Here, we assess the role of resuspension and its dynamic consideration for the modelled productivity and CO2 air-sea exchange in the North Sea and Baltic Sea using the coupled 3D physical-biological model ECOSMO. ECOSMO is a coupled hydrodynamic-sea ice-NPZD-carbonate-system model and is implemented for the North Sea and Baltic Sea. Its ecosystem module includes interactions between three functional groups of phytoplankton, two of zooplankton, detritus, oxygen, three nutrient cycles (nitrogen, phosphorus, silicate) and sediment pools. In the North Sea, wind forcing and strong tides lead to a frequent exceedance of the critical bottom shear stress and therefore, resuspension events take place regularly, especially in the shallow coastal areas where the tidal range is largest. Here, the model results indicate a clear increase in estimated primary production when dynamical resuspension is considered. In contrast, resuspension only plays a minor role in large parts of the Baltic Sea which is generally characterized by weak tides and deep basins where the sediment is decoupled from surface wind stress. The results of the sensitivity analysis in ECOSMO are presented which quantify and illustrate the impact of resuspension on primary production and state variables of the carbonate system.

Nissen, Cara; Schrum, Corinna; Daewel, Ute; Fennel, Katja; Castaño Primo, Rocío

2014-05-01

421

Environmental Sensitivity Index: Estonian shoreline geology classification (Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At International Maritime Organization's (IMO) Marine Environment Protection Committee's 53rd session in July 2005, the Baltic Sea was designated as a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA). At the same time the oil transportation is growing significantly in the Baltic Sea area and especially in the Gulf of Finland exceeding 250 million tons a year by 2015. Despite of improving navigation measures there is a growing risk for incidental oil spills and associated oil pollution. Oil spill accident history and simulations show that once the oil spill at sea has occurred, it is almost impossible to prevent it from reaching ashore. Advice on sensitive shoreline likely to be impacted by the oil washing ashore is of critical importance in order to support decisions whether or not a response is necessary or what kind and extent of response is appropriate. Furthermore, choices made in cleanup strategies and the decisionmaking process in the aftermath of a spill are significantly affecting the cleanup costs. This paper introduces the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) shoreline geology classification adapted and modified according to the environmental conditions of the Estonian coast of the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) and ranked according to substrate type and grain size related natural persistence of oil and ease of cleanup. Relative exposure to wave (hydrodynamic energy level) and the shoreline slope are characterized and taken into account. The length of the shoreline is over 700 km. The most common shore types are till shores (40%) and sandy shores (25%). Long stretches of cliff shores (11% in total) and gravel-pebble shores (10%) on the close neighborhood of the cliffs are the most characteristic features of the Estonian coast of the Gulf of Finland. Silty shores and artificial shores make up to 7% and 6% respectively of the total shoreline length here. Over 2/3 of the shores here are with very high ESI values. Till shores are often covered by coarse gravel, pebble, cobble and boulders (finer grained sediments are washed away) making this type of the shores very difficult to clean up and at the same time creating ideal conditions for numerous biological species. Gravel-pebble shore is probably the most difficult shore type to recover from the potential oil pollution while the cliff shores are the most difficult to access from the land. Issue is exemplified by the series of the oil spill scenario simulation results showing the practical use of the adapted ESI shoreline geology classification.

Aps, Robert; Kopti, Madli; Tõnisson, Hannes; Orviku, Kaarel; Suursaar, Ülo

2013-04-01

422

Characterization of OMI tropospheric NO2 over the Baltic Sea region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite-based data are very important for air quality applications in the Baltic Sea area, because they provide information on air pollution over sea and there where ground-based network and aircraft measurements are not available. Both the emissions from urban sites over land and ships over sea, contribute to the tropospheric NO2 levels. The tropospheric NO2 monitoring at high latitudes using satellite data is challenging because of the reduced light hours in winter and the snow-covered surface, which make the retrieval complex, and because of the reduced signal due to low Sun. This work presents a detailed characterization of the tropospheric NO2 columns focused on part of the Baltic Sea region using the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) tropospheric NO2 standard product. Previous works have focused on larger seas and lower latitudes. The results showed that, despite the regional area of interest, it is possible to distinguish the signal from the main coastal cities and from the ships by averaging the data over a seasonal time range. The summertime NO2 emission and lifetime values (E = (1.0 ± 0.1) × 1028 molec. and ? = (3.0 ± 0.5) h, respectively) in Helsinki were estimated from the decay of the signal with distance from the city center. The method developed for megacities was successfully applied to a smaller scale source, in both size and intensity (i.e., the city of Helsinki), which is located at high latitudes (∼60° N). The same methodology could be applied to similar scale cities elsewhere, as far as they are relatively isolated from other sources. The transport by the wind plays an important role in the Baltic Sea area. The NO2 spatial distribution is mainly determined by the contribution of strong westerly winds, which dominate the wind patterns during summer. The comparison between the emissions from model calculations and OMI NO2 tropospheric columns confirmed the applicability of satellite data for ship emission monitoring. In particular, both the emission data and the OMI observations showed similar year-to-year variability, with a drop in year 2009, corresponding to the effect of the economical crisis.

Ialongo, I.; Hakkarainen, J.; Hyttinen, N.; Jalkanen, J.-P.; Johansson, L.; Boersma, F.; Krotkov, N.; Tamminen, J.

2014-01-01

423

Microbial decomposition of terrigenic organic matter discharged into the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The permafrost soils in arctic regions contain a large amount of the worldwide organic carbon and global warming is expected to increase drainage of dissolved organic matter (DOM) into the adjacent oceans. It is yet unclear how this terrigenic organic matter will influence the global carbon cycle and the feedback effects to the climate. We used the Baltic Sea as a model system to investigate the role of abiotic factors on the degradation of terrigenic dissolved organic matter (tDOM) upon discharge into a brackish system as well as the response of the microbial community. Water from the Kalix River in Northern Sweden, which drains also permafrost soils, was used as the tDOM source in incubation experiments with Baltic Sea water. Different qualities of tDOM were compared by applying concentration procedures: tDOM was added to fresh Baltic Sea water as untreated Kalix River water or concentrated by commonly use DOC concentration procedures (lyophilization, ultrafiltration, solid phase extraction). We investigated the TDOC degradation by parallel measurements of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) consumption, DOM composition (using a 15 Tesla Fourier Transformation Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer (FT-ICR-MS)), microbial activities and microbial community structure. FT-ICR-MS measurements showed qualitative differences in the DOM compositions for the different treatments and a drastic change in DOM composition between the third and fourth week of the incubation experiment. Despite the qualitative differences in DOM composition, the results obtained so far revealed that the added tDOC had, independent of the previous enrichment procedure, only little influence on bacterial activities, bacterial community structure and DOC decomposition dynamics. This indicates that the major portion of the added tDOC is of refractory nature. Instead, bacterial predation by heterotrophic protists had a strong impact on both bacterial community structure and DOC decomposition dynamics. This implies that for future decomposition studies both abiotic and biotic factors have to be considered for a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms in tDOC decomposition.

Manecki, M.; Herlemann, D.; Pollehne, F.; Labrenz, M.; Zimmermann, R.; Dittmar, T.; Schulz-Bull, D.; Jürgens, K.

2012-04-01

424

Spatial and temporal habitat partitioning by zooplankton in the Bornholm Basin (central Baltic Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deep basins in the Baltic Sea such as the Bornholm Basin (BB) are subject to seasonal changes in the strength of physico-chemical stratification. These depth-related changes in key abiotic factors are strong drivers of habitat partitioning by the autochthonous zooplankton community. Species-specific ecophysiological preferences often result in both seasonal and inter-annual changes in vertical abundance that, when combined with depth-specific water currents, also lead to horizontal differences in spatial distribution. The present study documented the seasonal and depth-specific changes in the abundance and species composition of zooplankton in the BB based upon broad-scale survey data: 832 vertically-resolved (10 m) multinet samples collected at nine stations between March 2002 and May 2003. Changes in the zooplankton community were significantly correlated with changes in ambient hydrography. Each of five taxa (Bosmina coregoni maritima, Acartia spp., Pseudocalanus spp., Temora longicornis, Synchaeta spp.) contributed >10% to the zooplankton community composition. The appearance of cladocerans was mainly correlated with the phenology of thermocline development in the spring. The cladoceran B. coregoni maritima was a dominant member of this community during the warmest periods, preferring the surface waters above the thermocline. Copepods exhibited distinct, ontogenetic and seasonal changes in their distribution. The rotifers (Synchaeta sp.) were the most abundant zooplankton in May. Based on a multivariate approach and the evaluation of vertical distribution patterns, five major habitat utilisation modes were identified that were based, to a large extent, on the dynamics of thermal and haline stratification of the Baltic Sea. Our statistical analysis of one of the most thorough datasets collected on Baltic zooplankton in recent decades reveals some of the factors that make this stratified system highly dynamic with respect to the spatial overlap between predators and prey. As fish and gelatinous plankton often feed in distinct layers and/or exhibit feeding migrations, the inhomogeneous distribution of potential prey can result in a spatial mismatch. Based on the five modes identified at the community level for zooplankton, we discuss how climate-driven hydrographic variability may influence the strength of trophic coupling within the Bornholm Basin.

Schulz, Jan; Peck, Myron A.; Barz, Kristina; Schmidt, Jörn Oliver; Hansen, Frank C.; Peters, Janna; Renz, Jasmin; Dickmann, Miriam; Mohrholz, Volker; Dutz, Jörg; Hirche, Hans-Jürgen

2012-12-01

425

Detrital Zircon Geochronology: New Evidence for an Old Model for Accretion of the Southwest Baltic Shield.  

PubMed

Disruption of the original crustal architecture as a result of tectonic events often complicates studies of the crustal evolution of Precambrian cratons. Ion-probe U-Pb dating of detrital zircons is one way to circumvent this problem. It yields a "fingerprint" of the source of the metasedimentary host that can be used to tie the host to a counterpart elsewhere. In this study, ion-probe U-Pb dating of detrital zircons from segments of the late Mesoproterozoic Southwest Scandinavian Domain (SSD) of the Baltic Shield provides new evidence for an old model of crustal evolution and tectonic development. Zircon ages for both the pebble and matrix fraction of the Seljord conglomerate, Telemark sector, Norway, show a 1.9-1.7-Ga frequency maximum, as was previously recognized for metasediments from the adjacent Bamble sector. However, the Telemark metasediments lack evidence for significant input of 1.4-1.6-Ga-old crustal material, characteristic of some of the Bamble metasediments. A maximum depositional age of ca. 1450 Ma is inferred for the Seljord conglomerate and a quartzite from the Bamble sector. Definite evidence for significant amounts of pre-1.6-Ga crust in the SSD is absent. Instead, provenance from the early Mesoproterozoic Svecofennian Domain for the 1.9-1.7-Ga crust is proposed, supported by the omnipresence of small amounts of Archean zircons and the distribution of Nd model ages of these and other SSD metasediments. It is proposed that the SSD originally formed a single, continuous belt, fringing the Baltic Shield, with the northernmost segments transported to their current position west of the Oslo rift along north-south-trending shear zones, i.e., at odds with the commonly held view of progressive westward growth of the Baltic Shield. The detrital zircon ages from the Faurefjell quartzite, Rogaland-Vest Agder sector, cluster around 1.65 Ga and reveal a maximum depositional age of 1244+/-40 Ma. Its deviating depositional setting indicates that the Rogaland sector evolved in a different setting, shielded from the crust of Svecofennian age. Instead, its ages allow for a source terrain within the Mesoproterozoic crust of South Norway. PMID:10504136

de Haas GJ; Andersen; Vestin

1999-09-01

426

Multistage and multiobjective formulations of globally optimal upgradable expansions for electric power distribution systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric power distribution systems are the last high voltage link in the chain of production, transport, and delivery of the electric energy, the fundamental goals of which are to supply the users' demand safely, reliably, and economically. The number circuit miles traversed by distribution feeders in the form of visible overhead or imbedded underground lines, far exceed those of all other bulk transport circuitry in the transmission system. Development and expansion of the distribution systems, similar to other systems, is directly proportional to the growth in demand and requires careful planning. While growth of electric demand has recently slowed through efforts in the area of energy management, the need for a continued expansion seems inevitable for the near future. Distribution system and expansions are also independent of current issues facing both the suppliers and the consumers of electrical energy. For example, deregulation, as an attempt to promote competition by giving more choices to the consumers, while it will impact the suppliers' planning strategies, it cannot limit the demand growth or the system expansion in the global sense. Curiously, despite presence of technological advancements and a 40-year history of contributions in the area, many of the major utilities still relay on experience and resort to rudimentary techniques when planning expansions. A comprehensive literature review of the contributions and careful analyses of the proposed algorithms for distribution expansion, confirmed that the problem is a complex, multistage and multiobjective problem for which a practical solution remains to be developed. In this research, based on the 15-year experience of a utility engineer, the practical expansion problem has been clearly defined and the existing deficiencies in the previous work identified and analyzed. The expansion problem has been formulated as a multistage planning problem in line with a natural course of development and industry practices. Single criterion optimization algorithms using mathematical programming for globally optimal solutions have been developed for three objectives of cost, reliability, and the social/environmental impacts. Additional algorithms for inclusions of upgrade and optimal load assignment possibilities have been developed. Algorithms have been developed to handle the expansion as a multiobjective decision process. Typical data from both major investor owned and major municipal utilities operating in California USA, have been utilized to implement and test the algorithms on practical test cases. Results of the case studies and associated analyses indicate that the developed algorithms also perform efficiently in solving the multistage and multiobjective expansion problem.

Vaziri Yazdi Pin, Mohammad

427

Brackish-water submergence of the common periwinkle, Littorina littorea, and its digenean parasites in the Baltic Sea and in the Kattegat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

North Sea and Baltic Sea populations of Littorina littorea differ with respect to their vertical distribution. In the North Sea L. littorea is strictly intertidal while in the Baltic Sea maximum population densities occur in the sublittoral. Levels of infestation with larval digenetic trematodes diminish qualitatively (number of species recorded) and quantitatively (number of hosts infested) with decreasing salinity. Both the host and two parasite species — Cryptocotyle lingua and Microphallus pygmaeus — display ‘brackish-water submergence’ under conditions of reduced surface salinity.

Lauckner, G.

1984-03-01

428

Parasite communities of the Salzhaff (Northwest Mecklenburg, Baltic Sea) II. Guild communities, with special regard to snails, benthic crustaceans, and small-sized fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metazoan parasites of guilds of benthic snails and crustaceans and of four fish families – Gobiidae, Gasterosteidae, Syngnathidae,\\u000a and Zoarcidae – were investigated off the brackish Salzhaff area (Southwest Baltic) in the semienclosed Salzhaff and the near\\u000a Rerik Riff in the free Baltic. Comparisons revealed greater similarities in parasite populations and communities within the\\u000a fish guilds than between them. According

C. Dieter Zander; Lothar W. Reimer; Kristina Barz; Gerolf Dietel; Uwe Strohbach

2000-01-01

429

Polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls, naphthalenes and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the edible fish caught from the Baltic Sea and lakes in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 156 fish composite samples were collected from five areas of the Baltic Sea and from three lakes and analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD\\/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The European Union's maximum permissible level for PCDD\\/Fs, 4pg WHO-TEQ\\/g fresh weight (fw), was exceeded in salmon, river lamprey and Baltic

Pirjo Isosaari; Anja Hallikainen; Hannu Kiviranta; Pekka J. Vuorinen; Raimo Parmanne; Jaana Koistinen; Terttu Vartiainen

2006-01-01

430

A note to the simulation of the annual and inter-annual variability of the water budget over the Baltic Sea drainage basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary   The annual and inter-annual variability of the water budget over the Baltic Sea area has been studied using the global climate\\u000a model ECHAM4\\/T106 and the regional climate model REMO for three experiments covering a time period of 10 years each. To address\\u000a the capability of REMO to simulate realistically the water budget over the Baltic Sea re-analyses data (so-called

D. Jacob

2001-01-01

431

Heavy-quark expansion for D and B mesons in nuclear matter  

E-print Network

The planned experiments at FAIR enable the study of medium modifications of $D$ and $B$ mesons in (dense) nuclear matter. Evaluating QCD sum rules as a theoretical prerequisite for such investigations encounters heavy-light four-quark condensates. We utilize an extended heavy-quark expansion to cope with the condensation of heavy quarks.

Buchheim, Thomas; Kampfer, Burkhard

2014-01-01