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1

Expansion: A Plan for Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides selling brokers' guidelines for the successful expansion of their operations outlining a basic method of preparing an expansion plan. Topic headings are: The Pitfalls of Expansion (The Language of Business, Timely Financial Reporting, Regulatory Agencies of Government, Preoccupation with the Facade of Business, A Business Is a…

Callahan, A.P.

2

Scientific support by the BONUS+ projects for the sustainability of the Baltic Sea Region: the case of the HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan.  

PubMed

The synthesis of the BONUS+ research is introduced. The HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan is examined as a case to illustrate the potentials and challenges in building the science-policy making interface on a macro regional level. The projects address environmental challenges in the Baltic Sea as defined by the Baltic Sea Action Plan, or consider the environmental governance and decision making within the Baltic Sea context in general. Eutrophication, biodiversity, hazardous substances, maritime activities, and the environment governance are addressed, as are cross cutting issues, such as the impact of climate change, maritime spatial planning and impacts of future development on ecosystem services. The projects contributed to relevant policy developments: 37 consultations carried out at EU level, 49 modifications to policy documents and action plans, 153 suggestions for the efficacy of pertinent public policies and governance, and in 570 occasions, scientists working in BONUS+ projects served as members or observers in scientific and stakeholder committees. PMID:24414800

Kononen, Kaisa; Andrusaitis, Andris; Sirola, Maija

2014-02-01

3

Generation and transmission expansion planning for renewable energy integration  

SciTech Connect

In recent years the expansion planning problem has become increasingly complex. As expansion planning (sometimes called composite or integrated resource planning) is a non-linear and non-convex optimization problem, researchers have traditionally focused on approximate models of power flows to solve the problem. The problem has also been split into generation expansion planning (GEP) and transmission network expansion planning (TNEP) to improve computational tractability. Until recently these approximations have produced results that are straight-forward to combine and adapt to the more complex and complete problem. However, the power grid is evolving towards a state where the adaptations are no longer easy (e.g. large amounts of limited control, renewable generation, comparable generation and transmission construction costs) and necessitates new approaches. Recent work on deterministic Discrepancy Bounded Local Search (DBLS) has shown it to be quite effective in addressing the TNEP. In this paper, we propose a generalization of DBLS to handle simultaneous generation and transmission planning.

Bent, Russell W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berscheid, Alan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Toole, G. Loren [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-11-30

4

Salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea limits the reproduction and population expansion of the newly invaded comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi.  

PubMed

The recent invasion of the comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi into northern European waters is of major public and scientific concern. One of the key features making M. leidyi a successful invader is its high fecundity combined with fast growth rates. However, little is known about physiological limitations to its reproduction and consequent possible abiotic restrictions to its dispersal. To evaluate the invasion potential of M. leidyi into the brackish Baltic Sea we studied in situ egg production rates in different regions and at different salinities in the laboratory, representing the salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea. During October 2009 M. leidyi actively reproduced over large areas of the Baltic Sea. Egg production rates scaled with animal size but decreased significantly with decreasing salinity, both in the field (7-29) and in laboratory experiments (6-33). Temperature and zooplankton, i.e. food abundance, could not explain the observed differences. Reproduction rates at conditions representing the Kattegat, south western and central Baltic Sea, respectively, were 2.8 fold higher at the highest salinities (33 and 25) than at intermediate salinities (10 and 15) and 21 times higher compared from intermediate to the lowest salinity tested (6). Higher salinity areas such as the Kattegat, and to a lower extent the south western Baltic, seem to act as source regions for the M. leidyi population in the central Baltic Sea where a self-sustaining population, due to the low salinity, cannot be maintained. PMID:21887373

Jaspers, Cornelia; Møller, Lene Friis; Kiørboe, Thomas

2011-01-01

5

Stochastic generation expansion planning by means of stochastic dynamic programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most generation expansion planning tools do not model uncertainties in important variables such as energy demand and prices of energy carriers together with the dynamics of the system. A method for handling these uncertainties in generation expansion problems is described. The method is based on stochastic dynamic programming. As the uncertain variables are modeled by Markov chains they give a

Birger MO; Jan Hegge; Ivar Wangensteen

1991-01-01

6

216-B-3 expansion ponds closure plan  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the activities for clean closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) of the 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds. The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds are operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and co-operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds consists of a series of three earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. The 3A, 3B, and 3C ponds are referred to as Expansion Ponds because they expanded the capability of the B Pond System. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the Bypass pipe (Project X-009). Water discharged to the Bypass pipe flows directly into the 216-B-3C Pond. The ponds were operated in a cascade mode, where the Main Pond overflowed into the 3A Pond and the 3A Pond overflowed into the 3C Pond. The 3B Pond has not received waste water since May 1985; however, when in operation, the 3B Pond received overflow from the 3A Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to the Expansion Ponds had the potential to have contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the dangerous waste portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA.

Not Available

1994-10-01

7

Transmission network expansion planning considering unit commitment problem simultaneously  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmission Network Expansion Planning (TNEP) is an important part of power system planning in new structured power market. Its goal is to minimize the network construction and operational cost while satisfying the demand increase, considering technical and economic conditions. Since change in Unit Commitment (UC), influences transmission lines, this paper presents an Integer Coded Genetic Algorithm (ICGA) to solve both

S. Golestani; M. Tadayon; A. Mehdipour Pirbazari

2010-01-01

8

PLANNING MODELS FOR URBAN WATER SUPPLY EXPANSION. VOLUME 1. PLANNING FOR THE EXPANSION OF REGIONAL WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

A three-volume report was developed relative to the modelling of investment strategies for regional water supply planning. Volume 1 is the study of capacity expansion over time. Models to aid decision making for the deterministic case are presented, and a planning process under u...

9

IRP methods for Environmental Impact Statements of utility expansion plans  

SciTech Connect

Most large electric utilities and a growing number of gas utilities in the United States are using a planning method -- Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) - which incorporates demand-side management (DSM) programs whenever the marginal cost of the DSM programs are lower than the marginal cost of supply-side expansion options. Argonne National Laboratory has applied the IRP method in its socio-economic analysis of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) of power marketing for a system of electric utilities in the mountain and western regions of the United States. Applying the IRP methods provides valuable information to the participants in an EIS process involving capacity expansion of an electric or gas utility. The major challenges of applying the IRP method within an EIS are the time consuming and costly task of developing a least cost expansion path for each altemative, the detailed quantification of environmental damages associated with capacity expansion, and the explicit inclusion of societal-impacts to the region.

Cavallo, J.D.; Hemphill, R.C.; Veselka, T.D.

1992-10-01

10

IRP methods for Environmental Impact Statements of utility expansion plans  

SciTech Connect

Most large electric utilities and a growing number of gas utilities in the United States are using a planning method -- Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) - which incorporates demand-side management (DSM) programs whenever the marginal cost of the DSM programs are lower than the marginal cost of supply-side expansion options. Argonne National Laboratory has applied the IRP method in its socio-economic analysis of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) of power marketing for a system of electric utilities in the mountain and western regions of the United States. Applying the IRP methods provides valuable information to the participants in an EIS process involving capacity expansion of an electric or gas utility. The major challenges of applying the IRP method within an EIS are the time consuming and costly task of developing a least cost expansion path for each altemative, the detailed quantification of environmental damages associated with capacity expansion, and the explicit inclusion of societal-impacts to the region.

Cavallo, J.D.; Hemphill, R.C.; Veselka, T.D.

1992-01-01

11

Powering the people: India's capacity expansion plans  

SciTech Connect

India has become a global business power even though hundreds of millions of its citizens still live in poverty. To sustain economic growth and lift its people out of poverty, India needs more and more reliable power. Details of government plans for achieving those goals demonstrate that pragmatism may be in shorter supply than ambition and political will. 1 ref., 12 figs., 1 tab.

Patel, S.

2009-05-15

12

Grid Expansion Planning for Carbon Emissions Reduction  

SciTech Connect

There is a need to upgrade and expand electric power transmission and generation to meet specified renewable energy targets and simultaneously minimize construction cost and carbon emissions. Some challenges are: (1) Renewable energy sources have variable production capacity; (2) Deficiency of transmission capacity at desirable renewable generation locations; (3) Need to incorporate models of operations into planning studies; and (4) Prevent undesirable operational outcomes such as negative dispatch prices or curtailment of carbon neutral generation.

Bent, Russell W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Toole, Gasper L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-18

13

WASP and electricity capacity expansion planning for emerging countries  

SciTech Connect

The WIEN Automatic System Planning Package (WASP) is typical of electrical generation capacity expansion planning models in general use today. It was developed by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) hence the name WIEN. It is available without charge to member states. Assistance in its use is available from IAEA staff and in addition it is well documented. The user of WASP should be aware of its uses and limitations especially, though not exclusively, in its application to emerging countries. This paper presents an overview of capacity expansion planning and its place in the economic planning process with reference to the emerging countries; describes in a general way the use of WASP; cautions care in the interpretation of WASP results; and suggests the way in which WASP can be used to assess innovative electric generating technologies.

Allentuck, J

1980-11-01

14

Generation capacity expansion planning in deregulated electricity markets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With increasing demand of electric power in the context of deregulated electricity markets, a good strategic planning for the growth of the power system is critical for our tomorrow. There is a need to build new resources in the form of generation plants and transmission lines while considering the effects of these new resources on power system operations, market economics and the long-term dynamics of the economy. In deregulation, the exercise of generation planning has undergone a paradigm shift. The first stage of generation planning is now undertaken by the individual investors. These investors see investments in generation capacity as an increasing business opportunity because of the increasing market prices. Therefore, the main objective of such a planning exercise, carried out by individual investors, is typically that of long-term profit maximization. This thesis presents some modeling frameworks for generation capacity expansion planning applicable to independent investor firms in the context of power industry deregulation. These modeling frameworks include various technical and financing issues within the process of power system planning. The proposed modeling frameworks consider the long-term decision making process of investor firms, the discrete nature of generation capacity addition and incorporates transmission network modeling. Studies have been carried out to examine the impact of the optimal investment plans on transmission network loadings in the long-run by integrating the generation capacity expansion planning framework within a modified IEEE 30-bus transmission system network. The work assesses the importance of arriving at an optimal IRR at which the firm's profit maximization objective attains an extremum value. The mathematical model is further improved to incorporate binary variables while considering discrete unit sizes, and subsequently to include the detailed transmission network representation. The proposed models are novel in the sense that the planning horizon is split into plan sub-periods so as to minimize the overall risks associated with long-term plan models, particularly in the context of deregulation.

Sharma, Deepak

15

GIS for planning, navigation acquisition and visualization of results for the study of chemical munition dumpsites in the Baltic Sea  

E-print Network

munition dumpsites in the Baltic Sea NATALIA GONCHAROVA Atlantic Branch of P. P. Shirshov Institute,gress}@cs.uni-bonn.de Abstract: The MERCW project focuses on the study of chemical munition dumpsites in the Baltic Sea of chemical munition dumpsites in the Baltic Sea. Through site investigations and #12;2 modelling

Behnke, Sven

16

Critical evaluation of the Global DOTS Expansion Plan.  

PubMed

The development of the DOTS Expansion Plan has been a milestone in tuberculosis (TB) control at the global and national levels. Key challenges that remain are overcoming the weakness of a strategy built on case management, sustaining commitment, competing priorities, the threat of HIV, maintaining high quality of care and preventing drug resistance, building human resource capacity, improving diagnosis and fostering operations research. The ability to address these challenges will determine the success or failure of the Global Plan to Stop TB, 2006-2015. PMID:17639227

Enarson, Donald A; Billo, Nils E

2007-05-01

17

Meter Expansion Plan Existing Multi-Space Meter  

E-print Network

Meter Expansion Plan 11 35 9 7 10 20 12 11 12 46 23 15 15 60 23 Existing Multi-Space Meter Split Regulations 136 New Multi-Space Meter Visitor Only New Multi-Space Meter Split Regulations KEY 97 Updated 7/8/13 11 5 #12;HAVE.HAVE. UNION DR. 1 2 3 4 5 New Multi-space Meter After: 5 Meter Spaces Regulations

Duchowski, Andrew T.

18

West Elk Mine expansion and degasification plans approved  

SciTech Connect

West Elk Mine recently applied for and received approval for an expansion of its mining and methane drainage operation sin Gunnison County, Colorado. The deliberation over this planned expansion among several federal agencies and other groups received considerable local press coverage. One of the key issues focused on the fate of the additional; methane that would be emitted from the mine's degasification system. This article summarizes this process, which highlights the numerous barriers that still affect many coal mine methane (CMM) project opportunities is the United states. As the debate over climate change legislation moves forward in the US Congress and awareness of greenhouse gas emissions increases around the country, lawmakers, regulators, and non-governmental organizations will continue to focus more attention on CMM reduction opportunities,.

NONE

2008-04-01

19

A parallel genetic algorithm for generation expansion planning  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an application of parallel genetic algorithm to optimal long-range generation expansion planning. The problem is formulated as a combinatorial optimization problem that determines the number of newly introduced generation units of each technology during different time intervals. A new string representation method for the problem is presented. Binary and decimal coding for the string representation method are compared. The method is implemented on transputers, one of the practical multi-processors. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated on a typical generation expansion problem with four technologies, five intervals, and a various number of generation units. It is compared favorably with dynamic programming and conventional genetic algorithm, The results reveal the speed and effectiveness of the proposed method for solving this problem.

Fukuyama, Yoshikazu [Fuji Electric Corporate R and D, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)] [Fuji Electric Corporate R and D, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Chiang, H.D. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). School of Electrical Engineering] [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). School of Electrical Engineering

1996-05-01

20

Baltic Linguistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 20 papers in this collection are: "The Dative of Subordination in Baltic and Slavic"--H. Andersen; "The Vocalic Phonemes of the Old Prussian Elbing Vocabulary"--M.L. Burwell; "The Nominative Plural and Preterit Singular of the Active Participles in Baltic"--W. Cowgill; "The State of Linguistics in Soviet Lithuania"--L. Dambriunas; "Accent in…

Magner, Thomas F., Ed.; Schmalstieg, William R., Ed.

21

Transmission network expansion planning in full open market considering security constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a mathematical model and a methodology to solve the transmission network expansion planning problem with security constraints in full competitive market, assuming that all generation programming plans present in the system operation are known. The methodology let us find an optimal transmission network expansion plan that allows the power system to operate adequately in each one of

Marcos J. Rider; I. de J. Silva; R. Romero; A. V. Garcia; C. A. Murari

2005-01-01

22

Randomized discrepancy bounded local search for transmission expansion planning  

SciTech Connect

In recent years the transmission network expansion planning problem (TNEP) has become increasingly complex. As the TNEP is a non-linear and non-convex optimization problem, researchers have traditionally focused on approximate models of power flows to solve the TNEP. Existing approaches are often tightly coupled to the approximation choice. Until recently these approximations have produced results that are straight-forward to adapt to the more complex (real) problem. However, the power grid is evolving towards a state where the adaptations are no longer easy (e.g. large amounts of limited control, renewable generation) and necessitates new approaches. Recent work on deterministic Discrepancy Bounded Local Search (DBLS) has shown it to be quite effective in addressing this question. DBLS encapsulates the complexity of power flow modeling in a black box that may be queried for information about the quality of proposed expansions. In this paper, we propose a randomization strategy that builds on DBLS and dramatically increases the computational efficiency of the algorithm.

Bent, Russell W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daniel, William B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-11-23

23

Models for planning capacity expansion of convenience stores under uncertain demand and the value of information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several stochastic optimization models for planning capacity expansion for convenience store chains (or other similar businesses) are developed that incorporate uncertainty in future demand. All of these models generate schedules for capacity expansion, specifying the size, location, and timing of these expansions in order to maximize the expected profit to the company and to remain within a budget constraint on

Janet M. Wagner; Oded Berman

1995-01-01

24

75 FR 36063 - Expansion and Extension of the Patent Application Backlog Reduction Stimulus Plan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE United States Patent and Trademark Office [Docket No...PTO-P-2010-0048] Expansion and Extension of the Patent Application Backlog Reduction Stimulus Plan AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce....

2010-06-24

25

VLA EXPANSION PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN Version 1.0 September 2001  

E-print Network

VLA EXPANSION PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN Version 1.0 ­ September 2001 Table of Contents I. OVERVIEW ........................................................................................ 3 1.2.4 Budget and Schedule............................................................... 7 2.3.1 Management Personnel

Groppi, Christopher

26

Baltic Ecosystem Adaptive Management  

E-print Network

1 Baltic Ecosystem Adaptive Management Research for sustainable management of the Baltic Sea #12;2 Baltic Ecosystem Adaptive Management, BEAM, is an interdisciplinary research program on ecosystem-based management of the Baltic Sea environment. The program gathers researchers from three Faculties and ten

27

A Multiyear Security Constrained Hybrid Generation-Transmission Expansion Planning Algorithm Including Fuel Supply Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of a multiyear security constrained hybrid generation-transmission expansion planning. It is assumed that the overall generation requirements of a network are known along the planning horizon, but their allocations are unknown. Moreover the fuel cost throughout the network is not uniform. By allocating the overall generation capacity among the grid nodes, and determining the new

Mohammad Sadegh Sepasian; Hossein Seifi; Asghar Akbari Foroud; A. R. Hatami

2009-01-01

28

Popular but Troubled, Historically Black Medical School Plans Ambitious Expansion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two years ago, the only historically black medical school west of the Mississippi faced a grim prognosis after county officials pulled the plug on its relationship with a troubled hospital. Today the medical school that has reportedly trained about a third of Los Angeles County's black and Hispanic physicians is back on its feet and planning an…

Mangan, Katherine

2009-01-01

29

Stochastic and Risk Management Models and Solution Algorithm for Natural Gas Transmission Network Expansion and LNG Terminal Location Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the increasing demands for natural gas, it is playing a more important role in the energy system, and its system expansion\\u000a planning is drawing more attentions. In this paper, we propose expansion planning models which include both natural gas transmission\\u000a network expansion and LNG (Liquified Natural Gas) terminals location planning. These models take into account the uncertainties\\u000a of

Qipeng P. Zheng; Panos M. Pardalos

2010-01-01

30

Are recent changes in sediment manganese sequestration in the euxinic basins of the Baltic Sea linked to the expansion of hypoxia?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Expanding hypoxia in the Baltic Sea over the past century has led to anoxic and sulfidic (euxinic) deep basins that are only periodically ventilated by inflows of oxygenated waters from the North Sea. In this study, we investigate the consequences of the expanding hypoxia for manganese (Mn) burial in the Baltic Sea using a combination of pore water and sediment analyses of well-dated sediment cores from 8 locations. Diffusive fluxes of dissolved Mn from sediments to overlying waters at oxic and hypoxic sites are in line with an active release of Mn from these areas. However, this flux of Mn is only small when compared to the large pool of Mn already present in the hypoxic and anoxic water column. Our results highlight two modes of Mn carbonate formation in sediments of the deep basins. In the Gotland Deep area, Mn carbonates likely form from Mn oxides that are precipitated from the water column directly following North Sea inflows. In the Landsort Deep, in contrast, Mn carbonate and Mn sulfide layers form independent of inflow events, with pore water Mn produced in deeper layers of the sediment acting as a key Mn source. While formation of Mn enrichments in the Landsort Deep continues to the present, this does not hold for the Gotland Deep area. Here, increased euxinia, as evident from measured bottom water sulfide concentrations and elevated sediment molybdenum (Mo), goes hand in hand with a decline in sediment Mn and recent inflows of oxygenated water (since ca. 1995) are no longer consistently recorded as Mn carbonate layers. We postulate that the reduction of Mn oxides by hydrogen sulfide following inflows has become so rapid that Mn2+ is released to the water column before Mn carbonates can form. Our results have important implications for the use of Mn carbonate enrichments as a redox proxy in marine systems.

Lenz, C.; Jilbert, T.; Conley, D. J.; Wolthers, M.; Slomp, C. P.

2014-06-01

31

Integrating expert systems with dynamic programming in generation expansion planning  

SciTech Connect

Interactive software developed for integrating engineering experience and judgement from the planning dept. with a powerful mathematic optimisation method is described. The excessive size of the state space generated by conventional multidimensional dynamic programming is reduced to real world engineering proportions by rule based procedures for implementing Windows in state space and Controls in policy space. Project Frames describing generation options and State Frames describing future conditions of the system are established and manipulated by rules. Dynamic programming simultaneously tracks a feasible set of sub-optimal scenarios. The program is interactive and is written in PROLOG with numerically intensive portions in C.

David, A.K.; Rong-da, Z.

1989-08-01

32

Capricious Cables: Understanding the Key Concepts in Transmission Expansion Planning and Its Models  

SciTech Connect

The extra-high-voltage transmission network is the bulk transport network of the electric power system. To understand how the future power system may react to planning decisions today, wide-area transmission models are increasingly used to aid decision makers and stakeholders. The goal of this work is to illuminate these models for a broader audience that may include policy makers or relative newcomers to the field of transmission planning. This paper explains the basic transmission expansion planning model formulation. It highlights six of the major simplifications made in transmission expansion planning models and the resulting need to contextualize model results using knowledge from other models and knowledge not captured in the modeling process.

Donohoo, P.; Milligan, M.

2014-06-01

33

World Bank plans major expansion in renewable funding  

SciTech Connect

The World Bank plans to increase its funding for renewable energy projects to more than $100 million annually in coming years. Last year, 15 percent of the Bank's $23.7 billion financing went to energy projects. But of that, renewables received less than $10 million. Environmentalists and sustainable energy groups have long criticized the World Bank for its reluctance to finance renewable energy projects, and its almost exclusive funding of large-scale hydro, coal and gas plants. But in the coming months, the bank plans to unveil several major solar thermal initiatives, which will place a series of 100 megawatt to 200 MW pilot projects in selected countries. And that should just be the beginning. With renewables' costs coming down, and the expense of hooking up rural areas to national electric grids rising, the bank clearly will be more interested in alternative energy sources. Almost certainly, bank funding for renewables should exceed $100 million annually in the near future. Because its bylaws require it to fund the least cost option, it has had no choice but to fund traditional energy sources. However, with costs for biomass, solar thermal and photovoltaics all declining, in some cases these now may be the least cost option.

Kaplan, D.

1994-03-15

34

Long-term generation expansion planning employing dynamic programming and fuzzy techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research proposes a new method for long-term generation expansion planning. The method adopts a multi-aspect optimal approach which considers the capital cost of the newly added units, the maintenance and fuel costs, environmental impact, reliability, etc. To accommodate the growth of power load, the generation capacity needs to expand to meet the load demand. In order to find an

Ching-Tzong Su; Guor-Rurng Lii; Jiann-Jung Chen

2000-01-01

35

A hybrid probabilistic criterion for market-based transmission expansion planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Market-based transmission expansion planning gives information to investors on where is the most cost efficient place to invest and brings benefits to those who invest in this grid. However, both market issue and power system adequacy problems are system planers' concern. In this paper, a hybrid probabilistic criterion of expected economical loss (EEL) is proposed as an index to evaluate

M. Lu; Z. Y. Dong; T. K. Saha

2006-01-01

36

PBF Reactor Building (PER620). Roof plan after southwest corner expansion. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

PBF Reactor Building (PER-620). Roof plan after southwest corner expansion. Includes list of general notes and legend of abbreviations. INEEL index no. 761-0620-00-220-414318, Sheet 1 of 2. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

37

Value based transmission expansion planning of hydrothermal systems with multiple scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

The network loading of a hydrothermal system is highly variable due to several factors. Hydro plants are usually located in different river basins, usually far from load centers. Diversity of streamflows along these basins lead to distinct generation dispatches, sometimes inverting energy interchanges between hydro based exporting regions, and also redistributing the power supplied to load centers. Transmission expansion planning

Gerson C. Oliveira; Silvio Binato; Mario Pereira; Niko A. Iliadis

38

A constructive heuristic algorithm to short term transmission network expansion planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a method for solving the short term transmission network expansion planning (STTNEP) problem is presented. The STTNEP is a very complex mixed integer nonlinear programming problem that presents a combinatorial explosion in the search space. In this work we present a constructive heuristic algorithm to find a solution of the STTNEP of excellent quality. In each step

Marcos J. Rider; Ariovaldo V. Garcia

2004-01-01

39

Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity -  

E-print Network

Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity - conservation genetic risks associated with compensatory releases of salmon in the Baltic Sea Havs- och vattenmyndighetens rapport 2012:18 #12;Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity - conservation genetic risks associated with compensatory releases

40

Baltic Ecosystem Adaptive Management  

E-print Network

1 Baltic Ecosystem Adaptive Management �stersjöforskning för en hållbar förvaltning av havet #12;2 Baltic Ecosystem Adaptive Management, BEAM, är ett tvärvetenskapligt forskningsprogram med målet att vårt unika innanhav beror mycket på hur vi väljer att vårda det. Baltic Ecosystem Adaptive Management

41

Capacity-expansion planning under uncertainty in the electric-utility industry  

SciTech Connect

This document basically represents a comparison between theory and practice of capacity-expansion planning in the electric-utility industry. The purpose of the comparison is to provide avenues for further exploration in utility decision making. The focus of the Phase II study is upon the role of uncertainty in the decision-making process. The Phase I effort was directed at modeling the Averch-Johnson theory of the regulated utility. Part I of this report reviews the Anderson study (D. Anderson, Models for Determining Least-Cost Investments in Electricity Supply). The Anderson paper has become a standard reference for capacity-planning studies in the electric-utility industry. Part II examines uncertainty and the behavior of the firm. Part III reviews 5 models of electric-utility capacity planning under uncertainty, and Part IV is concerned with capacity-planning models in practice.

Soyster, A.L.

1980-07-25

42

HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA632. FLOOR PLAN OF EXPANSION SHOWS LOCATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA-632. FLOOR PLAN OF EXPANSION SHOWS LOCATION OF NEW CELLS, "HEAVY" CELL AT WEST END, "LIGHT" CELLS AT EAST. MOCK-UP AND STORAGE AREAS IN SOUTH HALF OF FLOOR. H.K. FERGUSON 895-MTR-ETR-632-A1, 12/1958. INL INDEX NO. 531-0632-00-279-101924, REV. 4. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

43

The Role of Demand Resources In Regional Transmission Expansion Planning and Reliable Operations  

SciTech Connect

Investigating the role of demand resources in regional transmission planning has provided mixed results. On one hand there are only a few projects where demand response has been used as an explicit alternative to transmission enhancement. On the other hand there is a fair amount of demand response in the form of energy efficiency, peak reduction, emergency load shedding, and (recently) demand providing ancillary services. All of this demand response reduces the need for transmission enhancements. Demand response capability is typically (but not always) factored into transmission planning as a reduction in the load which must be served. In that sense demand response is utilized as an alternative to transmission expansion. Much more demand response is used (involuntarily) as load shedding under extreme conditions to prevent cascading blackouts. The amount of additional transmission and generation that would be required to provide the current level of reliability if load shedding were not available is difficult to imagine and would be impractical to build. In a very real sense demand response solutions are equitably treated in every region - when proposed, demand response projects are evaluated against existing reliability and economic criteria. The regional councils, RTOs, and ISOs identify needs. Others propose transmission, generation, or responsive load based solutions. Few demand response projects get included in transmission enhancement plans because few are proposed. But this is only part of the story. Several factors are responsible for the current very low use of demand response as a transmission enhancement alternative. First, while the generation, transmission, and load business sectors each deal with essentially the same amount of electric power, generation and transmission companies are explicitly in the electric power business but electricity is not the primary business focus of most loads. This changes the institutional focus of each sector. Second, market and reliability rules have, understandably, been written around the capabilities and limitations of generators, the historic reliability resources. Responsive load limitations and capabilities are often not accommodated in markets or reliability criteria. Third, because of the institutional structure, demand response alternatives are treated as temporary solutions that can delay but not replace transmission enhancement. Financing has to be based on a three to five year project life as opposed to the twenty to fifty year life of transmission facilities. More can be done to integrate demand response options into transmission expansion planning. Given the societal benefits it may be appropriate for independent transmission planning organizations to take a more proactive role in drawing demand response alternatives into the resource mix. Existing demand response programs provide a technical basis to build from. Regulatory and market obstacles will have to be overcome if demand response alternatives are to be routinely considered in transmission expansion planning.

Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL

2006-07-01

44

A Probabilistic Transmission Expansion Planning Methodology based on Roulette Wheel Selection and Social Welfare  

E-print Network

A new probabilistic methodology for transmission expansion planning (TEP) that does not require a priori specification of new/additional transmission capacities and uses the concept of social welfare has been proposed. Two new concepts have been introduced in this paper: (i) roulette wheel methodology has been used to calculate the capacity of new transmission lines and (ii) load flow analysis has been used to calculate expected demand not served (EDNS). The overall methodology has been implemented on a modified IEEE 5-bus test system. Simulations show an important result: addition of only new transmission lines is not sufficient to minimize EDNS.

Gupta, Neeraj; Kalra, Prem Kumar

2012-01-01

45

Application of Multi-objective Memetic Algorithm with Solution Diversity to Probabilistic Distribution Network Expansion Planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a new efficient Multi-objective Memetic Algorithm (MOMA) for probabilistic distribution network expansion planning (DNEP). Recently, the deregulated and competitive power market brings about uncertainty, i.e., random output of distributed generation (DG) such as wind and photovoltaic power, load growths, etc. DG plays a key role to smooth distribution network planning. However, system planners are faced with new uncertain environment. This paper makes use of Monte-Carlo simulation to consider these uncertainties efficiently. Furthermore, a new method is proposed for multi-objective DNEP problems with MOMA that combines Multi-objective meta-heuristics with local search to obtain better solution sets. This paper proposes SPEA2 with Random Multi-start Variable neighborhood LS (RMSVLS) to consider the diversity and accuracy of solution sets. The proposed method is successfully applied to a sample system.

Yoshida, Takafumi; Mori, Hiroyuki

46

Planning for the impacts of Hadley cell expansion on water supply in Victoria, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

South-eastern Australia has recently experienced the worst drought of the instrumental record; the so-called Millennium drought (1997-2009). This drought was primarily a cool season phenomenon, with large reductions in rainfall observed during the Austral winter (April to October). This reduction in winter rainfall, combined with an absence of wet years and very wet months led to a reduction in streamflow across the region far greater than would be anticipated based on the 12 percent reduction in mean annual rainfall alone. These conditions have proven particularly challenging for water management and planning processes. Our research has linked the extent, duration and severity of this drought to the ongoing observed expansion of the Southern Hemisphere Hadley cell of 0.5 degrees per decade. This expansion has intensified the sub-tropical ridge over southern Australia, pushing cool season mid-latitude storm tracks further south, leading to a reduction in winter rainfall over the region. Modelling has shown that the expansion of the Hadley cell can only be reproduced if anthropogenic influences (greenhouse gases, aerosols and stratospheric ozone) are included in the models, thus providing evidence that the Millennium drought was at least partly attributable to climate change. Climate model projections also indicate that the expansion of the Hadley Cell is likely to continue. This means that the traditional winter "filling season" for water supply systems in Victoria may be less reliable in the future. However, in the light of the expansion of tropical influences, the cool season rainfall deficit may be offset to some extent by increased rainfall in the warmer months of the year. Given that the Millennium drought has been shown to be at least partly attributable to climate change and the considerable uncertainties associated with projected future changes, water planning and management processes in Victoria have been modified to be more robust, adaptive and flexible. Short-term operational decisions are typically based on consideration of a range of future inflow scenarios which are informed not only by seasonal climate forecasts but also by the possibility of a return to the conditions experienced during the Millennium drought (that is, a continuing cool season rainfall deficit). In terms of longer term planning, water corporations are required to develop Water Supply-Demand Strategies with a view to balancing supply and demand over the next 50 years. In developing these strategies, water corporations have been asked to consider a range of plausible water availability futures, including climate change projections, as well as the possibility of an immediate return to the conditions experienced during the Millennium drought. These Water Supply-Demand Strategies include a range of options for reducing demand and augmenting supplies both on a short-term and long-term basis, including further investments in large scale water infrastructure. Improved understanding of the links between changes in the climate system and their impacts on water availability will allow refinement of the range of plausible future flow scenarios and thus greater confidence in the decision making process.

Post, David; Timbal, Bertrand; Chiew, Francis; Hendon, Harry; Moran, Rae

2013-04-01

47

Baltic Earth - Earth System Science for the Baltic Sea Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baltic Sea region, defined as its river catchment basin, spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It encompasses most of the Scandinavian Peninsula in the west; most of Finland and parts of Russia, Belarus, and the Baltic states in the east; and Poland and small parts of Germany and Denmark in the south. The region represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. Preliminary grand challenges and topics for which Working Groups have been installed include: • Salinity dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Land-Sea biogeochemical feedbacks in the Baltic Sea region • Natural hazards and extreme events in the Baltic Sea region • Understanding sea level dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Understanding regional variability of water and energy exchange • Utility of Regional Climate Models • Assessment of Scenario Simulations for the Baltic Sea 1960-2100 • Outreach and Communication • Education The issue of anthropogenic changes and impacts on the Earth system of the Baltic Sea region is recognized as a major topic, and shall receive special attention. The intention of the "Outreach and Communication" and "Education" groups will be to initiate and design potential outreach activities and to provide an arena for scientific exchange and discussion around the Baltic Sea, to communicate findings and exchange views within the Baltic Earth research community internally and to other researchers and society, both professionals and non-professionals. A regular international Baltic Earth Summer School shall be established from 2015. There will be a strong continuity related to BALTEX in infrastructure (secretariat, conferences, publications) and the network (people and institutions).

Meier, Markus; Rutgersson, Anna; Lehmann, Andreas; Reckermann, Marcus

2014-05-01

48

Curonian Spit, Baltic Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On July 25, 2006, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), flying on NASA's Terra satellite, captured this image of the Curonian (or Courland)spit, the Curonian Lagoon (also known as the Courland Lagoon) it encloses, and part of the Baltic Sea. Just 3,800 meters (about 12,460 feet) at its widest point, the spit encloses a lagoon of some 1,620 square kilometers (625 square miles). In this image, dark blue indicates deep water, and lighter blue indicates shallow and/or sediment-laden water. Different shades of blue distinguish the deeper Baltic Sea and the shallower Curonian Lagoon. Vegetation appears in varying shades of green, paved surfaces and bare ground appear in shades of beige and gray, and sandy areas appear off-white. Obvious sandy areas appear along the length of the spit. On the Baltic Sea side, a thin off-white band of beach runs the length of the spit; on the Curonian Lagoon side, intermittent beaches carve their way into the narrow strip of land.

2006-01-01

49

Lower paleozoic of Baltic Area  

SciTech Connect

The Baltic Sea offers a new and exciting petroleum play in northwestern Europe. The Kaliningrad province in the Soviet Union, which borders the Baltic Sea to the east, contains an estimated 3.5 billion bbl of recoverable oil from lower Paleozoic sandstones. To the south, in Poland, oil and gas fields are present along a trend that projects offshore into the Baltic. Two recent Petrobaltic wells in the southern Baltic have tested hydrocarbons from lower Paleozoic sandstone. Minor production comes from Ordovician reefs on the Swedish island of Gotland in the western Baltic. The Baltic synclise, which began subsiding in the late Precambrian, is a depression in the East European platform. Strate dip gently to the south where the Baltic Synclise terminates against a structurally complex border zone. Depth to the metamorphosed Precambrian basement is up to 4,000 m. Overlying basement is 200-300 m of upper Precambrian arkosic sandstone. The Lower Cambrian consists of shallow marine quartzites. During Middle and Late Camnbrian, restricted circulation resulted in anoxic conditions and the deposition of Alum shale. The Lower Ordovician consists of quartzites and shale. The Upper Ordovician includes sandstones and algal reefs. The Silurian contains marginal carbonates and shales. For the last 25 years, exploration in northwest Europe has concentrated on well-known Permian sandstone, Jurassic sandstone, and Cretaceous chalk plays. Extrapolation of trends known and exploited in eastern Europe could open an entirely new oil province in the lower Paleozoic in the Baltic.

Haselton, T.M.; Surlyk, F.

1988-01-01

50

The Baltics: Regional energy profiles  

SciTech Connect

However, all three Baltic Republics are heavily dependent on primary energy imports. Domestic energy sources in the Baltics are limited to oil shale mines in Estonia, small oil deposits in Lithuania, peat, and some very small hydroelectric power plants. A RBMK nuclear power station, similar to Chernobyl, operates at Snieckus in Lithuania, but the reactor fuel is also imported from Russia. However, Lithuania and Estonia are net exporters of electricity despite their reliance on primary fuels imports. The major power stations in these two Republics are the Ignalina Nuclear Power Station and the two thermal power plants at Narva in Estonia which are fueled by oil shale. The only oil refinery in the Baltics is also located in Lithuania, at Mazeikiai. This refinery has the capacity to satisfy the demand for selected refined products of the entire region, including the Kaliningrad oblast, a noncontiguous part of Russia. The Mazeikiai refinery has operated at only forty to sixty percent capacity since 1990 due to halts in crude oil supplies from Russia. The Baltic Republics also import one hundred percent of their coal and natural gas supplies. Russia is the main trading partner for all the Baltic states, accounting for more than half of their trade flow. Mutual trade within the Baltics has been surprisingly low. Other Baltic states contribute less than ten percent to each Republic`s exports or imports, even less than Belarus or Ukraine. Aside from Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, only Kazakhstan contributes more than two percent to Baltics trade.

Not Available

1993-01-01

51

The Baltics: Regional energy profiles  

SciTech Connect

However, all three Baltic Republics are heavily dependent on primary energy imports. Domestic energy sources in the Baltics are limited to oil shale mines in Estonia, small oil deposits in Lithuania, peat, and some very small hydroelectric power plants. A RBMK nuclear power station, similar to Chernobyl, operates at Snieckus in Lithuania, but the reactor fuel is also imported from Russia. However, Lithuania and Estonia are net exporters of electricity despite their reliance on primary fuels imports. The major power stations in these two Republics are the Ignalina Nuclear Power Station and the two thermal power plants at Narva in Estonia which are fueled by oil shale. The only oil refinery in the Baltics is also located in Lithuania, at Mazeikiai. This refinery has the capacity to satisfy the demand for selected refined products of the entire region, including the Kaliningrad oblast, a noncontiguous part of Russia. The Mazeikiai refinery has operated at only forty to sixty percent capacity since 1990 due to halts in crude oil supplies from Russia. The Baltic Republics also import one hundred percent of their coal and natural gas supplies. Russia is the main trading partner for all the Baltic states, accounting for more than half of their trade flow. Mutual trade within the Baltics has been surprisingly low. Other Baltic states contribute less than ten percent to each Republic's exports or imports, even less than Belarus or Ukraine. Aside from Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, only Kazakhstan contributes more than two percent to Baltics trade.

Not Available

1993-01-01

52

Andrews University Master Plan for Campus Expansion and the Development Program, 1977-1985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described in detail in this partly promotional, partly informational publication are the history of campus planning, new master plan, and new capital programs of this Seventh Day Adventist institution. Numerous maps, photographs, and tables of financial and statistical data illustrate the plan. (MSE)

Smoot, Joseph G.

53

What causes the barren bottoms of the Baltic?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the largest impacts on the Baltic Sea ecosystem health is eutrophication, which causes hypoxia (< 2mg/l dissolved oxygen). It is estimated that the hypoxic zone in the Baltic Sea has increased about four times in area since 1960 due to surplus loads of waterborne and airborne nutrients (N and P) from anthropogenic sources. Hypoxia has barren vast areas of the sea-floor, reduced the macrobenthic communities and disrupted benthic food webs in the whole Baltic basin. Hypoxia alters nutrient biogeochemical cycles; it increases the internal load of phosphorus released from sediments, which causes low nitrogen/phosphorus (N/P) ratios during summer - a factor that favors cyanobacterial blooms. Hypoxia in the Baltic Sea is not unique to the modern era. Based on a compilation of Baltic geological records Zillén et al., (2008) showed that the deeper depressions of the Baltic Proper have experienced intermittent hypoxia during most of the Holocene. Hypoxia occurred basin-wide, at water depths varying between 73-240 m during three major periods; i.e. between c. 8000-4000, 2000-800 cal. yr BP and subsequent to AD 1800. These periods overlap the Holocene Thermal Maximum HTM (c. 9000-5000 cal. yr BP), the Medieval Warm Period MWP (c. AD 750-1200) and the modern historical period (AD 1800 to present). In contrast, oxic bottom conditions were common between c. 7000-6000, c. 4000-2000 and c. 800-200 cal. yr BP. The latter period coincides with the Little Ice Age (LIA) and its characteristic server winters. Although we know that hypoxia has occurred in the past and probably co-varied with external forces, such as climate change and nutrient fluxes, the relative importance of these two forcing mechanisms is unresolved, which restricts predictions about the Baltic Sea ecosystem response to future climate and anthropogenic stressors. Most previous research suggests that there may be a correlation between the oxygen conditions in the Baltic Sea and climate variability in the past, primarily driven by atmospheric changes over the North Atlantic region. However, this hypothesis has not yet been tested by model simulations and the potential climate forcing mechanism(s) behind the reconstructed long-term shifts in oxygen status in the Baltic Sea are still unclear. Hypoxia during the last two millennia can also be linked to population growth, technological development and land-use expansion phases, implying that historical trends in hypoxia may not have a natural cause, but result from anthropogenic impacts. We used a coupled physical-biogeochemical model to explore if shifts in oxygen conditions during the last two millennia in the Baltic Sea can be explained by physical forcing parameters that are known to affect bottom-water conditions in the Baltic Sea. To elucidate the driving mechanisms further, we studied the significance of changes in productivity on the size of the hypoxic area to assess the degree of human impact (eutrophication) on long time-scales. This study reveals the dominant physical forcing mechanism on hypoxia in the Baltic Sea and explains the shifts in bottom-water oxygen status during the last two millennia, especially through the MWP/LIA oscillation. We present new results on the significance of human perturbations on the marine environment and propose that cyanobacteria blooms may not be natural features of the Baltic Sea, but rather a consequence of enhanced phosphorus release that occurs together with hypoxia.

Zillén, Lovisa; Conley, Daniel J.; Gustafsson, Bo G.

2010-05-01

54

Incorporating a multi-criteria decision procedure into the combined dynamic programming/production simulation algorithm for generation expansion planning  

SciTech Connect

A multi-objective optimization approach to generation expansion planning is presented. The approach is designed by adding a new multi-criteria decision (MCD) procedure to the conventional algorithm which combines dynamic programming with production simulation method. The MCD procedure can help decision makers weight the relative importance of multiple attributes associated with the decision alternatives, and find the near-best compromise solution efficiently at each optimization step of the conventional algorithm. Practical application of proposed approach to feasibility evaluation of the fourth nuclear power plant of Tawian is also presented, demonstrating the effectiveness and limitations of the approach.

Yang, H.T.; Chen, S.L.

1989-02-01

55

An expansion plan for the 60 Hz power distribution system at KSC: LC-39 substations load allocation plan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing load density in the LC-39 area of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) can be met by either modifying the existing substation and increasing its capacity or by planning an additional new substation. Evidence that the later approach is more economical, enhances the system reliability, and would produce more satisfactory performance indices is provided. Network theory is the basis for the optimal location determination of the proposed substation. A load reallocation plan which minimizes investment cost and power losses and meets other desirable system features is drafted. The report should be useful to the system designer and can be a useful guideline for future facility planners.

Kalu, Alex

1990-09-01

56

An expansion plan for the 60 Hz power distribution system at KSC: LC-39 substations load allocation plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The increasing load density in the LC-39 area of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) can be met by either modifying the existing substation and increasing its capacity or by planning an additional new substation. Evidence that the later approach is more economical, enhances the system reliability, and would produce more satisfactory performance indices is provided. Network theory is the basis for the optimal location determination of the proposed substation. A load reallocation plan which minimizes investment cost and power losses and meets other desirable system features is drafted. The report should be useful to the system designer and can be a useful guideline for future facility planners.

Kalu, Alex

1990-01-01

57

Nitrogen surface water retention in the Baltic Sea drainage basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we estimate the surface water retention of nitrogen (N) in all the 117 drainage basins to the Baltic Sea with the use of a statistical model (MESAW) for source apportionment of riverine loads of pollutants. Our results show that the MESAW model was able to estimate the N load at the river mouth of 88 Baltic Sea rivers, for which we had observed data, with a sufficient degree of precision and accuracy. The estimated retention parameters were also statistically significant. Our results show that around 380 000 t of N are annually retained in surface waters draining to the Baltic Sea. The total annual riverine load from the 117 basins to the Baltic Sea was estimated at 570 000 t of N, giving a total surface water N retention of around 40%. In terms of absolute retention values, three major river basins account for 50% of the total retention in the 117 basins; i.e. around 104 000 t of N are retained in Neva, 55 000 t in Vistula and 32 000 t in Oder. The largest retention was found in river basins with a high percentage of lakes as indicated by a strong relationship between N retention (%) and share of lake area in the river drainage areas. For example in Göta älv, we estimated a total N retention of 72%, whereof 67% of the retention occurred in the lakes of that drainage area (Lake Vänern primarily). The obtained results will hopefully enable the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM) to refine the nutrient load targets in the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP), as well as to better identify cost-efficient measures to reduce nutrient loadings to the Baltic Sea.

Stålnacke, P.; Pengerud, A.; Vassiljev, A.; Smedberg, E.; Mörth, C.-M.; Hägg, H. E.; Humborg, C.; Andersen, H. E.

2015-02-01

58

Nitrogen surface water retention in the Baltic Sea drainage basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we estimate the surface water retention of nitrogen (N) in all the 117 drainage basins to the Baltic Sea with the use of a statistical model (MESAW) for source apportionment of riverine loads of pollutants. Our results show that the MESAW model was able to estimate the N load at the river mouth of 88 Baltic Sea rivers, for which we had observed data, with a sufficient degree of precision and accuracy. The estimated retention parameters were also statistically significant. Our results show that around 380 000 t of N are annually retained in surface waters draining to the Baltic Sea. The total annual riverine load from the 117 basins to the Baltic Sea was estimated to 570 000 t of N, giving a total surface water N retention of around 40%. In terms of absolute retention values, three major river basins account for 50% of the total retention in the 117 basins; i.e. around 104 000 t of N is retained in Neva, 55 000 t in Vistula and 32 000 t in Oder. The largest retention was found in river basins with a high percentage of lakes as indicated by a strong relationship between N retention (%) and share of lake area in the river drainage areas. For example in Göta älv, we estimated a total N retention of 72%, whereof 67% of the retention occurred in the lakes of that drainage area (Lake Vänern primarily). The obtained results will hopefully enable the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM) to refine the nutrient load targets in the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP), as well as to better identify cost-efficient measures to reduce nutrient loadings to the Baltic Sea.

Stålnacke, P.; Pengerud, A.; Vassiljev, A.; Smedberg, E.; Mörth, C.-M.; Hägg, H. E.; Humborg, C.; Andersen, H. E.

2014-09-01

59

Incremental Clustering and Expansion for Faster Optimal Planning in Dec-POMDPs  

E-print Network

This article presents the state-of-the-art in optimal solution methods for decentralized partially observable Markov decision processes (Dec-POMDPs), which are general models for collaborative multiagent planning under ...

Amato, Chris

60

Long-term power generation expansion planning with short-term demand response: Model, algorithms, implementation, and electricity policies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric sector models are powerful tools that guide policy makers and stakeholders. Long-term power generation expansion planning models are a prominent example and determine a capacity expansion for an existing power system over a long planning horizon. With the changes in the power industry away from monopolies and regulation, the focus of these models has shifted to competing electric companies maximizing their profit in a deregulated electricity market. In recent years, consumers have started to participate in demand response programs, actively influencing electricity load and price in the power system. We introduce a model that features investment and retirement decisions over a long planning horizon of more than 20 years, as well as an hourly representation of day-ahead electricity markets in which sellers of electricity face buyers. This combination makes our model both unique and challenging to solve. Decomposition algorithms, and especially Benders decomposition, can exploit the model structure. We present a novel method that can be seen as an alternative to generalized Benders decomposition and relies on dynamic linear overestimation. We prove its finite convergence and present computational results, demonstrating its superiority over traditional approaches. In certain special cases of our model, all necessary solution values in the decomposition algorithms can be directly calculated and solving mathematical programming problems becomes entirely obsolete. This leads to highly efficient algorithms that drastically outperform their programming problem-based counterparts. Furthermore, we discuss the implementation of all tailored algorithms and the challenges from a modeling software developer's standpoint, providing an insider's look into the modeling language GAMS. Finally, we apply our model to the Texas power system and design two electricity policies motivated by the U.S. Environment Protection Agency's recently proposed CO2 emissions targets for the power sector.

Lohmann, Timo

61

Profitability and risk assessment of T&D capital expansion plans  

SciTech Connect

Financial risk and profitability of T&D plans are becoming more important in the emerging competitive utility environment. The incentive structure is changing, and utilities will have to focus on profitability rather than on relying on the guaranteed rate of return. As changes begin to occur, the traditional T&D planning processes will also change, and more adaptive, less risky capital investments such as mobile and modular transformers will be used with increasing frequency. Financial risk of T&D investments can be reduced by implementing incremental investment plans instead of traditional large investments. Since load growth is uncertain, modular investments have additional value due to increased flexibility. This additional value comes from the ability to match the capacity of the system more closely to different load growth outcomes.

Bustard, J.; Clauhs, B. [Philadelphia Electric Company, PA (United States); Price, S.

1995-12-01

62

A. VITAS, R. ERLICKYT BALTIC FORESTRY  

E-print Network

A. VITAS, R. ERLICKYTÃ? BALTIC FORESTRY INFLUENCE OF DROUGHTS TO THE RADIAL GROWTH OF SCOTS PINE of the most comprehensively investigated tree species in Lithuania and Baltic countries by using dendroclima to the Radial Growth of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at Different Site Conditions. Baltic Forestry, 13 (1

63

Environmental changes in the central Baltic Sea  

E-print Network

Environmental changes in the central Baltic Sea during the past 1000 years: inferences from Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnem¨unde (IOW), Seestrasse 15, D­18119 Warnem¨unde, Germany. Dippner, S. Hille et al. Ice Age), the environmental conditions of the central Baltic Sea were distinctly

Dippner, Joachim W.

64

State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) Environmental Checklist Form 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds Closure Plan. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds Closure Plan (Revision 1) consists of a Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application and a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure Plan. An explanation of the Part A submitted with this document is provided at the beginning of the Part A Section. The closure plan consists of nine chapters and five appendices. The 216-B-3 Pond System consists of a series of four earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds and the 216-B-3-3 Ditch that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. These four ponds, collectively. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the 216-B-3-3 Ditch. Water discharged to the 216-8-3-3 Ditch flows directly into the 216-B-3 Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to B Pond and the 216-B-3-3 Ditch contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the nonradioactive dangerous portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA. Mixed waste also may be considered a hazardous substance under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) when considering remediation of waste sites.

Not Available

1993-12-01

65

A reliability approach to transmission expansion planning using fuzzy fault-tree model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a fuzzy fault-tree based reliability analysis of an optimally planned transmission system is presented. A fault-tree is constructed using system minimal cuts. Fuzzy top event probabilities are calculated using trapezoidal nature fuzziness of primary events. In part-I, system minimal cuts up to third order containing line components are determined based on the condition that the system fails

R. S. Chanda; P. K. Bhattacharjee

1998-01-01

66

Baltic Sea Environment Proceedings No. 111 Climate Change in  

E-print Network

Baltic Sea Environment Proceedings No. 111 Climate Change in the Baltic Sea Area HELCOM Thematic Assessment in 2007 Helsinki Commission Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission #12;#12;Baltic Sea Environment Proceedings No. 111 Helsinki Commission Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission Climate

Omstedt, Anders

67

Texaco scores a first in the Baltic  

SciTech Connect

Wells on the first of 2 small concrete platforms designed specifically for the fragile but harsh environment of the Baltic Sea will produce the first oil from that offshore area by late 1984. The consortium of Deutsche Texaco AG and Wintershall AG awarded contracts late last year for the platforms and drilling equipment needed to develop the Schwedeneck-See field in Kiel Bay, off the northern coast of West Germany. Severe winter weather in the area dictated the use of concrete platforms rather than conventional 6-pile steel structures. Ice forces, generated by high winds and moderate waves, demanded heavy-duty structures in spite of the shallow water. A complicating factor in the field development plan is the presence of a German Navy submarine practice area which influenced location of one of the platforms. This means that all wells will be directionally drilled, and the reach will be greater than under more favorable conditions.

Not Available

1983-10-01

68

Deoxygenation of the Baltic Sea during the last century  

PubMed Central

Deoxygenation is a global problem in coastal and open regions of the ocean, and has led to expanding areas of oxygen minimum zones and coastal hypoxia. The recent expansion of hypoxia in coastal ecosystems has been primarily attributed to global warming and enhanced nutrient input from land and atmosphere. The largest anthropogenically induced hypoxic area in the world is the Baltic Sea, where the relative importance of physical forcing versus eutrophication is still debated. We have analyzed water column oxygen and salinity profiles to reconstruct oxygen and stratification conditions over the last 115 y and compare the influence of both climate and anthropogenic forcing on hypoxia. We report a 10-fold increase of hypoxia in the Baltic Sea and show that this is primarily linked to increased inputs of nutrients from land, although increased respiration from higher temperatures during the last two decades has contributed to worsening oxygen conditions. Although shifts in climate and physical circulation are important factors modulating the extent of hypoxia, further nutrient reductions in the Baltic Sea will be necessary to reduce the ecosystems impacts of deoxygenation. PMID:24706804

Carstensen, Jacob; Andersen, Jesper H.; Gustafsson, Bo G.; Conley, Daniel J.

2014-01-01

69

Deoxygenation of the Baltic Sea during the last century.  

PubMed

Deoxygenation is a global problem in coastal and open regions of the ocean, and has led to expanding areas of oxygen minimum zones and coastal hypoxia. The recent expansion of hypoxia in coastal ecosystems has been primarily attributed to global warming and enhanced nutrient input from land and atmosphere. The largest anthropogenically induced hypoxic area in the world is the Baltic Sea, where the relative importance of physical forcing versus eutrophication is still debated. We have analyzed water column oxygen and salinity profiles to reconstruct oxygen and stratification conditions over the last 115 y and compare the influence of both climate and anthropogenic forcing on hypoxia. We report a 10-fold increase of hypoxia in the Baltic Sea and show that this is primarily linked to increased inputs of nutrients from land, although increased respiration from higher temperatures during the last two decades has contributed to worsening oxygen conditions. Although shifts in climate and physical circulation are important factors modulating the extent of hypoxia, further nutrient reductions in the Baltic Sea will be necessary to reduce the ecosystems impacts of deoxygenation. PMID:24706804

Carstensen, Jacob; Andersen, Jesper H; Gustafsson, Bo G; Conley, Daniel J

2014-04-15

70

Combined Effects of Nutrient Load Reduction and Climate Scenarios for the Baltic Sea Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Baltic Sea Action Plan was approved in 2007 by the countries surrounding the Baltic Sea to improve the ecological status of this sea. An important part of this plan is reduction of nutrient inflows from the Baltic Sea basin into the sea. Required nutrient reductions have been apportioned to the countries within the basin and these countries are now planning the remedial measures required to meet the plan's requirements. An important factor that remains to be considered, however, is how well the planned nutrient reductions improve nutrient inflows into the Baltic Sea in a changed future climate. A high resolution, process based hydrological and nutrient flux model was set up for the entire Baltic Sea catchment area using the HYPE (Hydrological Predictions for the Environment) model. The HYPE model introduces the ability to model detailed hydrological processes at high resolution simultaneously and homogenously across many river basins. When using a modelling tool to assess water resources and their quality for a basin entailing several political entities, it is an advantage that the methods and data used are homogenous across such political boundaries. Readily available, regional and global databases were used to set up the model inputs including topography, precipitation, temperature, land use, soil-type, and nutrients from atmospheric, agricultural, industrial and urban wastewaster sources, over the entire model domain. Daily river runoff data from the Baltex and GRDC databases was used to calibrate and validate the parameters describing runoff processes, while monthly and seasonal data from the European Environment Agency's WISE database were used to calibrate and validate the water quality parameters in the model. The model application is able to reproduce measured daily flow variations and magnitude in both large and small waterways across the model domain, and measured seasonal variation and overall magnitude of nutrient fluxes to the Baltic Sea. Total yearly volumes of discharge, total nitrogen and total phosphorus also compare well to published figures for total fluxes to the Baltic Sea (Helcom PLC-group, 2008). The validated model is used as a tool to examine the effects of different climate and remedial measure scenarios for both the land regions of the model domain, and influxes to the Baltic Sea. Generally, results show a lessened effect of the remedial scenarios tested for future climate scenarios at the end of this century.

Donnelly, Chantal; Strömqvist, Johan; Dahné, Joel; Arheimer, Berit

2010-05-01

71

Verbal Aspects in Germanic, Slavic, and Baltic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the theory of Prokosch concerning the Germanic-Slavic-Baltic tense and aspect systems. The interrelatedness and influence of languages and dialects in Slavic (Russian and Old Church Slavic), Baltic (Lithuanian), and Germanic (Old High German and Gothic) are demonstrated. Examples illustrating the use of the perfective present…

Senn, Alfred

1949-01-01

72

Education in the Soviet Baltic Republics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes 11 articles about education in the Soviet Baltic Republics. The articles include historical studies of Estonian and Latvian schools and medieval Estonian folk games. The impact of Marxist educational theories and Soviet policies on educational research, teacher education, and teaching methods in the Baltic region from 1920-50 is…

Soviet Education, 1981

1981-01-01

73

Language Policy and Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on foreign language planning, or the planned changes in foreign language instructional systems and in uses of languages in different social contexts with special reference to the Nordic and Baltic countries. Special attention is given to the relationship between language planning and evaluation. (Author/VWL)

Takala, Sauli; Sajavaara, Kari

2000-01-01

74

Scandinavia and the Baltic Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera were combined to create this cloud-free natural-color mosaic of Scandinavia and the Baltic region. The image extends from 64oN, 0oE in the northwest to 56oN, 32oE in the southeast, and has been draped over a shaded relief Digital Terrain Elevation Model from the United States Geological Survey. It is displayed in an equidistant conic projection.

The image area includes southern Norway, Sweden and Finland, northern Denmark, Estonia, Latvia and part of western Russia. Norway's rugged western coastline is deeply indented by fjords. Elongated lakes, formed by glacial erosion and deposition, are characteristic of the entire region, and are particularly dense throughout Finland and Sweden. Numerous islands are present, and a virtually continuous chain of small, scattered islands occur between Sweden and Finland. The northern and eastern waters of the Baltic Sea are almost fresh, since the Baltic receives saltwater only from the narrow and shallow sounds between Denmark and Sweden that connect it to the North Sea. Most of the major cities within the image area are coastal, including St. Petersburg, Stockholm, Helsinki, Riga, and Oslo.

The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2003-01-01

75

Dissolved organic matter in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several factors highlight the importance of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in coastal ecosystems such as the Baltic Sea: 1) DOM is the main energy source for heterotrophic bacteria in surface waters, thus contributing to the productivity and trophic state of bodies of water. 2) DOM functions as a nutrient source: in the Baltic Sea, more than one-fourth of the bioavailable nutrients can occur in the dissolved organic form in riverine inputs and in surface water during summer. Thus, DOM also supports primary production, both directly (osmotrophy) and indirectly (via remineralization). 3) Flocculation and subsequent deposition of terrestrial DOM within river estuaries may contribute to production and oxygen consumption in coastal sediments. 4) Chromophoric DOM, which is one of the major absorbers of light entering the Baltic Sea, contributes highly to water color, thus affecting the photosynthetic depth as well as recreational value of the Baltic Sea. Despite its large-scale importance to the Baltic Sea ecosystem, DOM has been of minor interest compared with inorganic nutrient loadings. Information on the concentrations and dynamics of DOM in the Baltic Sea has accumulated since the late 1990s, but it is still sporadic. This review provides a coherent view of the current understanding of DOM dynamics in the Baltic Sea.

Hoikkala, L.; Kortelainen, P.; Soinne, H.; Kuosa, H.

2015-02-01

76

Biogeochemical control of the coupled CO2-O 2 system of the Baltic Sea: a review of the results of Baltic-C.  

PubMed

Past, present, and possible future changes in the Baltic Sea acid-base and oxygen balances were studied using different numerical experiments and a catchment-sea model system in several scenarios including business as usual, medium scenario, and the Baltic Sea Action Plan. New CO2 partial pressure data provided guidance for improving the marine biogeochemical model. Continuous CO2 and nutrient measurements with high temporal resolution helped disentangle the biogeochemical processes. These data and modeling indicate that traditional understandings of the nutrient availability-organic matter production relationship do not necessarily apply to the Baltic Sea. Modeling indicates that increased nutrient loads will not inhibit future Baltic Sea acidification; instead, increased mineralization and biological production will amplify the seasonal surface pH cycle. The direction and magnitude of future pH changes are mainly controlled by atmospheric CO2 concentration. Apart from decreasing pH, we project a decreasing calcium carbonate saturation state and increasing hypoxic area. PMID:24414804

Omstedt, Anders; Humborg, Christoph; Pempkowiak, Janusz; Perttilä, Matti; Rutgersson, Anna; Schneider, Bernd; Smith, Benjamin

2014-02-01

77

A design and application of a multi-agent system and GIS for simulation of expansion in urban planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a dynamic model was presented reposing on the theory of multi-agent system and rule of allocation for urban land resource in time and space and GIS, representing the interaction of agents which impact on urban land outspreading. The model was applied to analyzing and simulating Beijing city's land expansion, and the results show that it was effective

Zhang Ke; Bian Fuling

2010-01-01

78

Dissolved silica budget for the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A budget model covering the Baltic Sea was developed for the time period 1980-2000 to estimate water and dissolved silica (DSi) fluxes as well as internal DSi sinks/sources. The Baltic Sea was resolved by eight basins, where the largest basin — the Baltic Proper — was divided laterally into north/west and southern/east parts as well as vertically to take into account the existence of the permanent halocline. The basins demonstrated rather different patterns with regard to silica cycling. The Gulfs of Finland and Riga together with the northernmost basins, Bothnian Bay and Bothnian Sea, are distinguished by substantial specific rates of silica removal accounting for 1.6-4.9 g Si m - 2 yr - 1 . Bearing in mind the large total primary production, the basins comprising the Baltic Proper with the specific removal rates 0.2 and 1.2 g Si m - 2 yr - 1 , do not appear as regions with a high silica accumulation. The Arkona and the Kattegat mainly behave as regions of rapid through-flows. These results point out the northernmost Gulf of Bothnia, the Gulfs of Riga and Finland as areas with a larger share of biogenic silica accumulation than in the Baltic Proper. It is attributed to hydrographic and hydrochemical features. An estimate of diatom export production was made for the Baltic Proper showing that the diatom contribution accounts for 19-44% of the net export production.

Papush, L.; Danielsson, Å.; Rahm, L.

2009-06-01

79

77 FR 71013 - Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the Spring Mountain Raceway Expansion Project...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FF08ENVD00-FXES11130800000-134] Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the Spring...measures to avoid, minimize, and mitigate effects of the proposed project's covered activities...as described in the applicant's low- effect habitat conservation plan (HCP)....

2012-11-28

80

Antiretroviral Therapy Program Expansion in Zambézia Province, Mozambique: Geospatial Mapping of Community-Based and Health Facility Data for Integrated Health Planning  

PubMed Central

Objective To generate maps reflecting the intersection of community-based Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) delivery points with facility-based HIV program demographic information collected at the district level in three districts (Ile, Maganja da Costa and Chinde) of Zambézia Province, Mozambique; in order to guide planning decisions about antiretroviral therapy (ART) program expansion. Methods Program information was harvested from two separate open source databases maintained for community-based VCT and facility-based HIV care and treatment monitoring from October 2011 to September 2012. Maps were created using ArcGIS 10.1. Travel distance by foot within a 10 km radius is generally considered a tolerable distance in Mozambique for purposes of adherence and retention planning. Results Community-based VCT activities in each of three districts were clustered within geographic proximity to clinics providing ART, within communities with easier transportation access, and/or near the homes of VCT volunteers. Community HIV testing results yielded HIV seropositivity rates in some regions that were incongruent with the Ministry of Health’s estimates for the entire district (2–13% vs. 2% in Ile, 2–54% vs. 11.5% in Maganja da Costa, and 23–43% vs. 14.4% in Chinde). All 3 districts revealed gaps in regional disbursement of community-based VCT activities as well as access to clinics offering ART. Conclusions Use of geospatial mapping in the context of program planning and monitoring allowed for characterizing the location and size of each district’s HIV population. In extremely resource limited and logistically challenging settings, maps are valuable tools for informing evidence-based decisions in planning program expansion, including ART. PMID:25329169

Moon, Troy D.; Ossemane, Ezequiel B.; Green, Ann F.; Ndatimana, Elisée; José, Eurico; Buehler, Charlotte P.; Wester, C. William; Vermund, Sten H.; Olupona, Omo

2014-01-01

81

international workshop on Reproductive Disorders in Baltic Vertebrate Wildlife  

E-print Network

The 1 st international workshop on Reproductive Disorders in Baltic Vertebrate Wildlife (BALTREP) What is the status of, and the threats to reproductive health in Baltic region wildlife? December 7- 8

82

Hypoxia and cyanobacterial blooms are not natural features of the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last century (1900s) industrialized forms of agriculture and human activities have caused extensive eutrophication of Baltic Sea waters. As a consequence, the Baltic Sea developed a hypoxic zone that has caused serve ecosystem disturbance. Climate forcing has also been proposed to be responsible for the reported trends in hypoxia (<2 mg/l O2) both during the last c. 100 years and during the Medieval Period. By contrast, investigations on the degree of anthropogenic forcing on the ecosystem on long time-scales (millennial) have not been thoroughly addressed. This paper critically examines evidence for anthropogenic disturbance of the marine environment beyond the last century through the analysis of the population growth, technological development and land-use changes in the drainage area. Natural environmental changes, i.e. changes in the morphology and depths of the Baltic basin and the sills, were probably the main driver for large-scale hypoxia during the early Holocene (8000-4000 cal. yr BP). We show that hypoxia during the last two millennia has followed the general expansion and contraction trends in Europe and that human perturbations have been an important driver for hypoxia during that time. Hypoxia occurring during the Medieval Period coincides with a doubling of the population (from c. 4.6 to 9.5 million), a massive reclamation of land in both established and marginal cultivated areas and significant increases in soil nutrient release. The role of climate forcing on hypoxia in the Baltic Sea has yet to be convincingly demonstrated, although it could have contributed to sustain hypoxia through enhanced salt water inflows or through changes in hydrological inputs. In addition, cyanobacteria blooms are not natural features of the Baltic Sea as previously hypothesized, but are a consequence of enhanced phosphorus release that occurs together with hypoxia.

Zillén, L.; Conley, D. J.

2010-03-01

83

Strontium-90 and cesium-137 distribution in Baltic Sea waters  

SciTech Connect

The strontium-90 and cesium-137 concentrations determined in 1983 in the Baltic Sea proper and the Gulf of Finland and in the Soviet Baltic rivers are furnished. The cesium-137 content has been found to be directly proportional to the salinity of the water. Significant influx of technogenic radioactive contaminants from the North to the Baltic Sea was noted in 1983.

Lazarev, L.N.; Gedeonov, L.I.; Ivanova, L.M.; Stepanov, A.V.

1988-09-01

84

A new proposal concerning the botanical origin of Baltic amber  

E-print Network

A new proposal concerning the botanical origin of Baltic amber Alexander P. Wolfe1,*, Ralf Tappert2 Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2, Canada Baltic amber constitutes of Baltic amber. The fidelity of FTIR-based chemotaxonomic inferences is upheld by modern­fossil comparisons

Wolfe, Alexander P.

85

Flood Vulnerability and Flood Protection North and Baltic Seas  

E-print Network

G G G G Flood Vulnerability and Flood Protection North and Baltic Seas Meteorological Forcings NorthSea/BalticSeaMeteorologicalForcingsforDCSM28April2009 1 #12;G G G G Overview GLAMEPS Harmonie G G G G NorthSea/BalticSeaMeteorologicalForcingsforDCSM28April2009 2 #12;G G G G DCSM and Hirlam History

Vries, Hans de

86

PROCEEDINGS Second Baltic-Nordic Conference on Survey Sampling  

E-print Network

PROCEEDINGS #12;2 #12;3 Second Baltic-Nordic Conference on Survey Sampling 2. ­ 7. June 2007 (Secretary), University of Helsinki Kimmo Vehkalahti, University of Helsinki Organizers Baltic-Nordic Network in the Second Baltic-Nordic Conference on Survey Sampling, taking place on 2-7 June 2007 in Kuusamo, Finland

Vehkalahti, Kimmo

87

Warm waters of summer 2002 in the deep Baltic  

E-print Network

Warm waters of summer 2002 in the deep Baltic Proper* OCEANOLOGIA, 45 (4), 2003. pp. 571­592. C conditions Baltic Sea Rainer Feistel1, G¨unther Nausch1 Volker Mohrholz1 Elbieta Lysiak-Pastuszak2 Torsten Seifert1 Wolfgang Matth¨aus1 Siegfried Kr¨uger1 Ian Sehested Hansen3 1 Baltic Sea Research Institute

Mohrholz, Volker

88

Past Occurrences of Hypoxia in the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypoxic zone in the Baltic Sea has increased in area by about four times since 1950. Widespread oxygen deficiency below the halocline has severely reduced macro benthic communities in the Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Finland over the past decades and negatively effected food chain dynamics, fish habitats and fisheries in the entire Baltic Sea. In addition, hypoxia

L. Zillen; D. J. Conley; S. Bjorck

2007-01-01

89

The independent Baltic states: Maritime law and resource management implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The achievement of independence by the Baltic states impacts nearly all aspects of the maritime law and resource management regimes appertaining to the Baltic Sea. The unique position of these states, given their maritime history and role as a bridge between East and West, warrants reconsideration. The Baltic Sea basin is among the most highly industrialized shorelines in the world,

2009-01-01

90

Could Seals Prevent Cod Recovery in the Baltic Sea?  

PubMed Central

Fish populations are increasingly affected by multiple human and natural impacts including exploitation, eutrophication, habitat alteration and climate change. As a result many collapsed populations may have to recover in ecosystems whose structure and functioning differ from those in which they were formerly productive and supported sustainable fisheries. Here we investigate how a cod (Gadus morhua) population in the Baltic Sea whose biomass was reduced due to a combination of high exploitation and deteriorating environmental conditions might recover and develop in the 21st century in an ecosystem that likely will change due to both the already started recovery of a cod predator, the grey seal Halichoerus grypus, and projected climate impacts. Simulation modelling, assuming increased seal predation, fishing levels consistent with management plan targets and stable salinity, shows that the cod population could reach high levels well above the long-term average. Scenarios with similar seal and fishing levels but with 15% lower salinity suggest that the Baltic will still be able to support a cod population which can sustain a fishery, but biomass and yields will be lower. At present knowledge of cod and seal interactions, seal predation was found to have much lower impact on cod recovery, compared to the effects of exploitation and salinity. These results suggest that dual management objectives (recovery of both seal and cod populations) are realistic but success in achieving these goals will also depend on how climate change affects cod recruitment. PMID:21573062

MacKenzie, Brian R.; Eero, Margit; Ojaveer, Henn

2011-01-01

91

Abstract--From the social perspective, transmission planning has been broadly studied developing models that minimize expansion costs, subject to  

E-print Network

Abstract-- From the social perspective, transmission planning has been broadly studied developing & H. Rudnick are with Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Correo 22, Santiago, Chile (e-mail: h.rudnick@ieee.org). J. Zolezzi is with Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Santiago, Chile

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

92

Community mental health centers and the elderly: A time for expansion of planning, research, and demonstration projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to acquaint persons working in Community Mental Health Centers with federal funding resources which support planning, research, and demonstration projects related to mental health and aging. The significance of exploration by CMHCs into the aging area is suggested by the legislative histories of CMHCs and aging programs, our expanding aging population which requires increasing

Laura Bleiweiss Wilson; Sharon Simson

1980-01-01

93

Saving the Baltic Sea, the inland waters of its drainage basin, or both? spatial perspectives on reducing P-loads in eastern Sweden.  

PubMed

Nutrient loads from inland sources to the Baltic Sea and adjacent inland waters need to be reduced in order to prevent eutrophication and meet requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP). We here investigate the spatial implications of using different possible criteria for reducing water-borne phosphorous (P) loads in the Northern Baltic Sea River Basin District (NBS-RBD) in Sweden. Results show that most catchments that have a high degree of internal eutrophication do not express high export of P from their outlets. Furthermore, due to lake retention, lake catchments with high P-loads per agricultural area (which is potentially of concern for the WFD) did not considerably contribute to the P-loading of the Baltic Sea. Spatially uniform water quality goals may, therefore, not be effective in NBS-RBD, emphasizing more generally the need for regional adaptation of WFD and BSAP-related goals. PMID:24799149

Andersson, Ingela; Jarsjö, Jerker; Petersson, Mona

2014-11-01

94

Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber.  

PubMed

The fossil record of carnivorous plants is very scarce and macrofossil evidence has been restricted to seeds of the extant aquatic genus Aldrovanda of the Droseraceae family. No case of carnivorous plant traps has so far been reported from the fossil record. Here, we present two angiosperm leaves enclosed in a piece of Eocene Baltic amber that share relevant morphological features with extant Roridulaceae, a carnivorous plant family that is today endemic to the Cape flora of South Africa. Modern Roridula species are unique among carnivorous plants as they digest prey in a complex mutualistic association in which the prey-derived nutrient uptake depends on heteropteran insects. As in extant Roridula, the fossil leaves possess two types of plant trichomes, including unicellular hairs and five size classes of multicellular stalked glands (or tentacles) with an apical pore. The apices of the narrow and perfectly tapered fossil leaves end in a single tentacle, as in both modern Roridula species. The glandular hairs of the fossils are restricted to the leaf margins and to the abaxial lamina, as in extant Roridula gorgonias. Our discovery supports current molecular age estimates for Roridulaceae and suggests a wide Eocene distribution of roridulid plants. PMID:25453067

Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Seyfullah, Leyla J; Sadowski, Friederike; Fleischmann, Andreas; Behling, Hermann; Schmidt, Alexander R

2015-01-01

95

VI Symposium of Specialists in Electric Operational and Expansion Planning -VI SEPOPE, May 24-29,1998, Bahia, Brazil POWER SYSTEM PLANNING IN THE SOUTH AMERICA  

E-print Network

services such as energy, communications, transport, water, etc., central to the functioning of society in infrastructure development and the required regulations in the energy field. It describes how the planning. The quality and quantity of such services are conditioned by the characteristics of the corresponding

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

96

Status of Biodiversity in the Baltic Sea  

PubMed Central

The brackish Baltic Sea hosts species of various origins and environmental tolerances. These immigrated to the sea 10,000 to 15,000 years ago or have been introduced to the area over the relatively recent history of the system. The Baltic Sea has only one known endemic species. While information on some abiotic parameters extends back as long as five centuries and first quantitative snapshot data on biota (on exploited fish populations) originate generally from the same time, international coordination of research began in the early twentieth century. Continuous, annual Baltic Sea-wide long-term datasets on several organism groups (plankton, benthos, fish) are generally available since the mid-1950s. Based on a variety of available data sources (published papers, reports, grey literature, unpublished data), the Baltic Sea, incl. Kattegat, hosts altogether at least 6,065 species, including at least 1,700 phytoplankton, 442 phytobenthos, at least 1,199 zooplankton, at least 569 meiozoobenthos, 1,476 macrozoobenthos, at least 380 vertebrate parasites, about 200 fish, 3 seal, and 83 bird species. In general, but not in all organism groups, high sub-regional total species richness is associated with elevated salinity. Although in comparison with fully marine areas the Baltic Sea supports fewer species, several facets of the system's diversity remain underexplored to this day, such as micro-organisms, foraminiferans, meiobenthos and parasites. In the future, climate change and its interactions with multiple anthropogenic forcings are likely to have major impacts on the Baltic biodiversity. PMID:20824189

Ojaveer, Henn; Jaanus, Andres; MacKenzie, Brian R.; Martin, Georg; Olenin, Sergej; Radziejewska, Teresa; Telesh, Irena; Zettler, Michael L.; Zaiko, Anastasija

2010-01-01

97

Quantile trends in Baltic sea level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantile regression is applied for characterizing long-term sea-level variability in the Baltic Sea from long tide gauge records. The approach allows to quantify not only variability in the mean but also in extreme heights and thus provides a more complete description of regional sea-level variability. In the Baltic, slopes in minima are similar to the classical mean-based ordinary least squares slope, but maxima exhibit larger trends, particularly at the northernmost stations, in the Gulf of Bothnia, likely associated with changes in north Atlantic atmospheric circulation and particularly regional wind patterns.

Barbosa, Susana M.

2008-11-01

98

Development of tools for integrated monitoring and assessment of hazardous substances and their biological effects in the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

The need to develop biological effects monitoring to facilitate a reliable assessment of hazardous substances has been emphasized in the Baltic Sea Action Plan of the Helsinki Commission. An integrated chemical-biological approach is vitally important for the understanding and proper assessment of anthropogenic pressures and their effects on the Baltic Sea. Such an approach is also necessary for prudent management aiming at safeguarding the sustainable use of ecosystem goods and Services. The BEAST project (Biological Effects of Anthropogenic Chemical Stress: Tools for the Assessment of Ecosystem Health) set out to address this topic within the BONUS Programme. BEAST generated a large amount of quality-assured data on several biological effects parameters (biomarkers) in various marine species in different sub-regions of the Baltic Sea. New indicators (biological response measurement methods) and management tools (integrated indices) with regard to the integrated monitoring approach were suggested. PMID:24414806

Lehtonen, Kari K; Sundelin, Brita; Lang, Thomas; Strand, Jakob

2014-02-01

99

Hypoxia and cyanobacteria blooms - are they really natural features of the late Holocene history of the Baltic Sea?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last century (1900s) industrialized forms of agriculture and human activities have caused eutrophication of Baltic Sea waters. As a consequence, the hypoxic zone in the Baltic Sea has increased, especially during the last 50 years, and has caused severe ecosystem disturbance. Climate forcing has been proposed to be responsible for the reported trends in hypoxia (< 2 mg/l O2) both during the last c. 100 years (since c. 1900 AD) and the Medieval Period. By contrast, investigations of the degree of anthropogenic forcing on the ecosystem on long time-scales (millennial and greater) have not been thoroughly addressed. This paper examines evidence for anthropogenic disturbance of the marine environment beyond the last century through the analysis of the human population growth, technological development and land-use changes in the drainage area. Natural environmental changes, i.e. changes in the morphology and depths of the Baltic basin and the sills, were probably the main driver for large-scale hypoxia during the early Holocene (8000-4000 cal yr BP). We show that hypoxia during the last two millennia has followed the general expansion and contraction trends in Europe and that human perturbation has been an important driver for hypoxia during that time. Hypoxia occurring during the Medieval Period coincides with a doubling of the population (from c. 4.6 to 9.5 million) in the Baltic Sea watershed, a massive reclamation of land in both established and marginal cultivated areas and significant increases in soil nutrient release. The role of climate forcing on hypoxia in the Baltic Sea has yet to be demonstrated convincingly, although it could have helped to sustain hypoxia through enhanced salt water inflows or through changes in hydrological inputs. In addition, cyanobacteria blooms are not natural features of the Baltic Sea as previously deduced, but are a consequence of enhanced phosphorus release from the seabed that occurs during hypoxia.

Zillén, L.; Conley, D. J.

2010-08-01

100

Patterns of smoking in the Baltic Republics  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Tobacco is a leading cause of avoidable death in the Baltic Republics but there is, as yet, relatively little information in the public domain on who is smoking and how this is changing. This information is important for those seeking to develop effective policies to tackle this issue. OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of smoking in Estonia, Latvia, and

I. Pudule; D. Grinberga; K. Kadziauskiene; A. Abaravicius; S. Vaask; A. Robertson; M. McKee

1999-01-01

101

Changing Levels of Bilingualism across the Baltic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the cessation of Soviet hegemony the Baltic Republics have endured drastic changes in their political, economic, social and linguistic situation. The official reinstatement of the respective state languages has been a key feature in the establishment of their newly regained national independence. Consequently, large sections of the…

Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle; Ramoniene, Meilute

2004-01-01

102

Seeds of Failure in Colbert's Baltic Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation of French mercantilist initiatives and policies in the seventeenth century focuses on the attempts of Colbert, the controller general of finance to Louis XIV, to stimulate French trade with the Baltic by establishing a Company of the North. (RM)

Mackey, Richard William

1984-01-01

103

Anthropogenic 129I in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report here data on the distribution of 129I in water of the Baltic Sea and Skagerrak-Kattegat basins obtained through sampling campaigns during the years 2000 and 2001. 129I in the water of the Skagerrak-Kattegat shows persistently high concentrations in both the surface and deep parts. A decreasing trend in surface water 129I concentration is observed away from the Kattegat basin and into the Baltic Sea. Inventory calculations indicate that at least 95% of the isotope supply to the Baltic Sea is from the North Sea marine water via Skagerrak-Kattegat and only minor part is from riverine inflow and the Chernobyl accident. As the discharges from the nuclear reprocessing facilities were not decreased during the last decade, it is expected that more 129I will accumulate in the Baltic Sea and related basins in the future. Consequently, systematic sampling is needed to reevaluate the concentration levels not only in the water, but also in the sediments and biota of the region.

Aldahan, A.; Possnert, G.; Alfimov, V.; Cato, I.; Kekli, A.

2007-06-01

104

Infrastructure of Baltic Region Transmission System: Analysis of Technical and Economic Factors of its Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The operational conditions of new networks dictate new requirements for the transmission planning, which would include the electricity market figures and a sizable involvement of renewable generation. This paper focuses on the transmission expansion planning techniques based on the calculations of optimal power flows and on the concept of development planning and sustainability. A description is given for the mathematical model of calculations and analysis of transmission system. The results have shown that the Baltic transmission system infrastructure can successfully be analyzed based on the proposed methodology and developed mathematical model Baltijas valstu (Latvijas, Lietuvas un Igaunijas) energosist?mas ir cieši saist?tas v?sturiski, un to darb?ba nav iesp?jama bez savstarp?jas sadarb?bas att?st?bas un darba rež?mu jaut?jumos. Ekonomisko attiec?bu ?stenošanu ener??tikas sektor? pa?trin?ja elektroener?ijas tirgus att?st?ba. Baltijas valstu ener??tikas politika ir integr?ta ES ener??tikas strat??ijas sast?vda?a, nosakot tr?s galvenos m?r?us: ener??tikas nozares konkur?tsp?ja, ilgtsp?j?ga att?st?ba un droš?ba. Visas tr?s Baltijas energosist?mas veica lielu darba apjomu iek?rtu moderniz?cij? un standartu saska?ošan?, kuras ir saska?? ar Eiropas Savien?bas pras?b?m, k? ar? par tirgus attiec?bu un tehnolo?iju standartu ieviešanu, lai nodrošin?tu energoapg?des droš?bu un elektroener?ijas pieejam?bu pat?r?t?jiem Tom?r, ?emot v?r? strauji main?gos ?r?jos apst?k?us, it ?paši ?eopolitiskos faktorus, Baltijas valstu ener??tikas politika b?tu j?izskata ar m?r?i nov?rt?t, k? šie faktori ietekm? energosist?mas ilgtsp?j?gu att?st?bu kopum?. No iepriekš min?t? izriet, ka nepieciešama jauna nacion?la ener??tikas strat??ija, kura stiprin?tu efekt?vu ekonomisko un soci?lo pamatu ilgtsp?j?gu att?st?bu Baltijas valstu nacion?l? ekonomik?. Š? darba m?r?is ir Baltijas valstu p?rvades sist?mas infrastrukt?ras anal?ze, pamatojoties uz izstr?d?to matem?tisko modeli, ?emot v?r? katras valsts intereses ener??tikas politikas jom?

Obushevs, A.; Oleinikova, I.; Mutule, A.

2014-08-01

105

Seal dynamics on the Swedish west coast: Scenarios of competition as Baltic grey seal intrude on harbour seal territory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kattegat-Skagerrak region on the Swedish west coast is home to an abundant harbour seal population (Phoca vitulina) and a small scattered grey seal population (Halichoerus grypus). In addition, grey seal from the growing population in the Baltic Sea frequently migrate into the Kattegat-Skagerrak. Harbour seals on the west coast of Sweden show relatively high population growth (approximately 9%) compared to the Baltic grey seal in ice-free habitats (approximately 6%), which, in theory, makes harbour seal the stronger competitor of the two in this region. However, incidents of disease in harbour seals that lower population growth are becoming more frequent. These epidemics are primarily caused by the Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV), and may reduce population size with up to 70%. This study models the average development under potential scenarios of competing harbour- and Baltic grey seal populations using Leslie matrices and the Lotka-Volterra model of inter-specific competition. The model is parameterised with previously published data, and resource overlap is incorporated through density dependent pup survival. Using numerical methods short- and long-term abundances are simulated under weak, moderate and strong competition and for different frequencies of PDV epidemics. Results show that the harbour seals are resilient to competition while exerting a negative effect on grey seal abundance under moderate to strong competition. Hence Baltic grey seal benefit from weaker levels of competition. Under moderate and strong competition grey seal abundance is a direct function of the PDV frequency as this reduces the competitive strength of harbour seals. Theoretically this means that higher frequencies of PDV or other pathogens epidemics could facilitate an expansion of Baltic grey seal into Kattegat-Skagerrak. Independent of interaction strength and frequency of epidemics the projected changes to abundances are slow (50-100 years), and even in exceedingly stable populations very long time-series of population size estimates are necessary to determine interaction strength. From a management perspective, a more permanent grey seal population in Kattegat-Skagerrak is likely to increase the predation pressure on overfished regional cod populations, and also lead to higher prevalence of the cod parasite Pseudoterranova decipiens, which uses grey seal as end host. From a population ecology perspective, abundant Baltic grey seal in this region would facilitate the mixing of grey seals from the North Atlantic and the Baltic Sea, with unknown implications for the genetically divergent Baltic population.

Svensson, Carl Johan

2012-07-01

106

Nutrient abatement potential and abatement costs of waste water treatment plants in the Baltic Sea region.  

PubMed

We assess the physical potential to reduce nutrient loads from waste water treatment plants in the Baltic Sea region and determine the costs of abating nutrients based on the estimated potential. We take a sample of waste water treatment plants of different size classes and generalize its properties to the whole population of waste water treatment plants. Based on a detailed investment and operational cost data on actual plants, we develop the total and marginal abatement cost functions for both nutrients. To our knowledge, our study is the first of its kind; there is no other study on this issue which would take advantage of detailed data on waste water treatment plants at this extent. We demonstrate that the reduction potential of nutrients is huge in waste water treatment plants. Increasing the abatement in waste water treatment plants can result in 70 % of the Baltic Sea Action Plan nitrogen reduction target and 80 % of the Baltic Sea Action Plan phosphorus reduction target. Another good finding is that the costs of reducing both nutrients are much lower than previously thought. The large reduction of nitrogen would cost 670 million euros and of phosphorus 150 million euros. We show that especially for phosphorus the abatement costs in agriculture would be much higher than in waste water treatment plants. PMID:23996505

Hautakangas, Sami; Ollikainen, Markku; Aarnos, Kari; Rantanen, Pirjo

2014-04-01

107

The Baltic Sea IODP Expedition 347 "Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment" - preliminary results from the cruise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CL 6.8, session GMPV 55 EuroForum: Major achievements and perspectives in scientific ocean and continental drilling" (co-organized by IODP-ICDP ) Andrén, T The Baltic Sea IODP Expedition 347 "Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment" - preliminary results from the cruise During second half of September and October was seven sites in the Baltic Basin area successfully cored during the IODP Expedition 347. From the Little Baelt, Kattegatt, Bornholm basin, Hanö Bay, Landsort Deep and the mouth of Ångermanälven sites was altogether more than 1900 meters drilled and over 1600 meters of sediment core recovered. These cores have been lithologically described and documented as well as partly analyzed during the cruise. The preliminary results from this will be presented together with some more general impressions from the cruise and the offshore work.

Andrén, Thomas

2014-05-01

108

Tidal oscillations in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term hourly data from 35 tide gauge stations, including 15 stations in the Gulf of Finland, were used to examine tidal sea level oscillations of the Baltic Sea. High-resolution spectral analysis revealed the well-defined fine structure of tidal peaks with diurnal peaks at most stations being higher than semidiurnal. At some stations (e.g., Narva, Daugava, and Wladyslawowo), high frequency radiational tidal peaks with periods multiple of the solar day (3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 cpd) were detected; the respective oscillations are supposed to be caused by seabreeze winds. Harmonic analysis of tides for individual yearly sea level series followed by vector averaging over the entire observational period was used to estimate the amplitudes and phases of 16 tidal constituents. The maximum tidal oscillations of 17-19 cm were found to be observed in the Gulf of Finland and, first of all, in Neva Bay (in the head of the gulf). Diurnal or mixed diurnal tides are predominant in almost the entire Baltic Sea. The comparison of the observed tides with those theoretically computed showed that the existing numerical models of the main tidal harmonics generally quite accurately reproduce the structure of the tides in the Baltic Sea except for some regions of the Gulf of Bothnia.

Medvedev, I. P.; Rabinovich, A. B.; Kulikov, E. A.

2013-09-01

109

BALTEX - A science broker for the Baltic Sea Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

BALTEX (the Baltic Sea Experiment) is an interdisciplinary research network of scientists involved in environmental research dedicated to the Baltic Sea drainage basin (including disciplines such as meteorology, hydrology, oceanography, biogeochemistry and climate research). Originally founded in 1992 as a Continental Scale Experiment in GEWEX (the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment within the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) of

M. Reckermann; H. von Storch; J. Langner; A. T. Omstedt

2010-01-01

110

Language Politics and Practices in the Baltic States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph provides an overview of the language situation in the three Baltic countries: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. It examines the recent change in language regimes that the Baltic States have deliberately brought about since the restitution of their independence, the nature of these changes, the opposition they have engendered and the…

Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle; Ozolins, Uldis; Ramoniene, Meilute; Rannut, Mart

2008-01-01

111

The Baltic Region in U.S. Western Civilization Textbooks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates six U.S. western civilization textbooks' treatment of the Baltic region. Reports that the books devote little or no attention to the region, emphasize larger nations, and ignore Baltic social history. Suggests that social histories may continue to neglect small countries, whereas reaction against "Eurocentrism" may result in sparse…

Mork, Gordon R.

1992-01-01

112

Characteristics of major Baltic inflows---a statistical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major Baltic inflows are always the final stages of longer inflow processes. Only major inflows can transport substantial amounts of saline and oxygenated water into the Baltic deep basins. Such events lead to radical changes in the oceanological regime, both initiating an improvement in the general living conditions in the deep water and affecting the marine environment of the surface

Wolfgang Matthäus; Herbert Franck

1992-01-01

113

Growth and size structure in a baltic Mytilus edulis population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since Mytilus edulis L. has very few predators and competitors for space, it has become a biomass dominant in the Baltic proper covering hard substrates from the water surface to more than 30 m depth. In order to investigate the factors controlling size and production in a Baltic M. edulis population, growth was studied by the analysis of annual growth

N. Kautsky

1982-01-01

114

Rationale for Restocking the Eastern Baltic Cod Stock  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Danish Institute for Fisheries Research and Bornholm's Salmon Hatchery examined the potential for restocking Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.) in the eastern Baltic Sea. This cod population has adapted to the unique brackish water conditions where successful spawning depends on regular inflows of oxygenated saltwater from the North Sea. Hydrographical conditions are therefore considered to constitute the principal

J. G. Støttrup; J. L. Overton; H. Paulsen; C. Möllmann; J. Tomkiewicz; P. B. Pedersen; P. Lauesen

2008-01-01

115

Sorption and predicted mobility of herbicides in Baltic soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Determination of pesticide sorption under local conditions is required to predict off-site transport. Recent surveys detected pesticides in surface water and groundwater of the Baltic region, but there is little information in the peer-reviewed literature regarding the fate of pesticides in Baltic s...

116

Is it possible to identify Baltic and Heuglin's Gulls?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In 1998 Lars Jonsson wrote a groundbreakingpaper on the identification of Baltic Gull Larus fuscus fuscus. The paper was important because it presented new identification criteria for the separation of fuscus from graellsii and intermedius Lesser Black-backed Gulls. Around the same time, Visa Rauste produced a similarly important paper dealing with the separation of Baltic Gull from Heuglin’s Gull

Chris Gibbins

117

The independent Baltic states: Maritime law and resource management implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The achievement of independence by the Baltic states impacts nearly all aspects of the maritime law and resource management regimes appertaining to the Baltic Sea. The unique position of these states, given their maritime history and role as a bridge between East and West, warrants reconsideration. Important issues of maritime border delimitation, treaty devolution, and the potential for reinstitution of

Jeffrey Lee Canfield

1993-01-01

118

Arsenic in sediments from the southeastern Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic occurs as a persistent constituent in many of the chemical weapons dumped into the Baltic Sea; it can be used as an indicator of leakage and dispersal of released munitions to the marine environment. Total arsenic was analysed in sediment samples taken from the Lithuanian economic zone in the Baltic Sea, which included samples from the chemical munitions dumpsite

Galina Garnaga; Eric Wyse; Sabine Azemard; Algirdas Stankevi?ius; Stephen de Mora

2006-01-01

119

Cost-Effective Nutrient Reductions to the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to eutrophication caused by heavy loads of nitrogen and phosphorus, the biological conditions of the Baltic Sea have been disturbed: large sea bottom areas without any biological life, low stocks of cods, and toxic blue green algaes. It is recognized that the nitrogen and phosphorus loads to the Baltic Sea must be reduced by 50% in order to restore

Ing-Marie Gren; Paul Jannke; Katarina Elofsson

1997-01-01

120

POPCYCLING-Baltic Software License Version 1.0 -August 2000  

E-print Network

1 POPCYCLING-Baltic Software License Version 1.0 - August 2000 The POPCYCLING-Baltic software program is provided to interested parties at no cost. The use of the POPCYCLING-Baltic software program are not permitted to use this software and are required to remove the POPCYCLING- Baltic software program from your

Wania, Frank

121

A Multivariate Baltic Sea Environmental Index Joachim W. Dippner, Georgs Kornilovs,  

E-print Network

REPORT A Multivariate Baltic Sea Environmental Index Joachim W. Dippner, Georgs Kornilovs, Karin and biological variables in the North Sea and Baltic Sea fails, which might be addressed to a global climate multivariate index for the Baltic Sea is developed and presented here. The multivariate Baltic Sea

Dippner, Joachim W.

122

Benthic assessment of marine areas of particular ecological importance within the German Baltic  

E-print Network

Baltic Sea EEZ Michael L. Zettlera and Fritz Gosselckb a Baltic Sea Research Institute, Rostock b Directive, mainly reefs and sandbanks are relevant in the case of German Baltic offshore waters. Along the German Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the Baltic Sea were thoroughly investigated in this study. More

Zettler, Michael

123

Linking denitrier communitystructure and prevalent biogeochemical parameters in the pelagial ofthe central Baltic  

E-print Network

central Baltic Proper (Baltic Sea) Michael Hannig1 , Gesche Braker2 , Joachim Dippner1 & Klaus J ¨urgens1 1 Baltic Sea Research Institute Warnem ¨unde, Rostock, Germany and 2 Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology, Marburg, Germany Correspondence: Michael Hannig, Baltic Sea Research Institute

Dippner, Joachim W.

124

CIRCULATION AT RUSSIAN-BALTIC STATES BOUNDARY: A CUT AND A Arnaud SERRY  

E-print Network

1 CIRCULATION AT RUSSIAN-BALTIC STATES BOUNDARY: A CUT AND A SEAM Arnaud SERRY CEDETE - University of Orleans (France) Abstract Disintegration of the USSR and join of Baltic States to European Union made to understand East Baltic area. Kaliningrad Oblast, the Russian exclave lying by the Baltic Sea, strengthens

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

125

Sapwood estimates of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) in eastern Baltic Kristina Sohar1  

E-print Network

109 Sapwood estimates of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) in eastern Baltic Kristina Sohar1 , A has widely been used in Europe but for the Baltic States no estimation of oak sapwood rings has been geobotanical sub-provinces: the West Baltic (southern Finland and western Estonia) and the East Baltic region

126

Benthic biodiversity indices versus salinity gradient in the southern Baltic Sea  

E-print Network

Benthic biodiversity indices versus salinity gradient in the southern Baltic Sea Michael L. Zettler *, Doris Schiedek, Bernd Bobertz Baltic Sea Research Institute, Seestr. 15, D-18119 Rostock, Germany Baltic Sea. The comparison of the three indices demonstrates that in the southern Baltic Sea

Zettler, Michael

127

Scenario analysis on protein consumption and climate change effects on riverine N export to the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

This paper evaluates possible future nitrogen loadings from 105 catchments surrounding the Baltic Sea. Multiple regressions are used to model total nitrogen (TN) flux as a function of specific runoff (Q), atmospheric nitrogen deposition, and primary emissions (PE) from humans and livestock. On average cattle contributed with 63%, humans with 20%, and pigs with 17% of the total nitrogen PE to land. Compared to the reference period (1992-1996) we then evaluated two types of scenarios for year 2070. i) An increased protein consumption scenario that led to 16% to 39% increased mean TN flux (kg per km(-2)). ii) Four climate scenarios addressing effects of changes in river discharge. These scenarios showed increased mean TN flux from the northern catchments draining into the Gulf of Bothnia (34%) and the Gulfs of Finland and Riga (14%), while the mean TN flux decreased (-27%) for catchments draining to the Baltic Proper. However, the net effect of the scenarios showed a possible increase in TN flux ranging from 3-72%. Overall an increased demand for animal protein will be instrumental for the Baltic Sea ecosystem and may be a major holdback to fulfill the environmental goals of the Baltic Sea Action Plan. PMID:20230019

Eriksson Hägg, Hanna; Humborg, Christoph; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Medina, Miguel Rodriguez; Wulff, Fredrik

2010-04-01

128

Nitrogen cycle of the Baltic Sea from an isotopic perspective Baltic Sea Research Institute-Warnemunde (IOW), Rostock, Germany  

E-print Network

Nitrogen cycle of the Baltic Sea from an isotopic perspective M. Voss Baltic Sea Research Institute.1029/2004GB002338. 1. Introduction [2] Human activities have altered the nitrogen cycle on global and regional. [1] Stable nitrogen isotope ratios (15 N/14 N; d15 N) were determined in sediments, suspended matter

Dippner, Joachim W.

129

Past occurrences of hypoxia in the Baltic Sea and the role of climate variability, environmental change and human impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hypoxic zone in the Baltic Sea has increased in area about four times since 1960 and widespread oxygen deficiency has severely reduced macro benthic communities below the halocline in the Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Finland, which in turn has affected food chain dynamics, fish habitats and fisheries in the entire Baltic Sea. The cause of increased hypoxia is believed to be enhanced eutrophication through increased anthropogenic input of nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus. However, the spatial variability of hypoxia on long time-scales is poorly known: and so are the driving mechanisms. We review the occurrence of hypoxia in modern time (last c. 50 years), modern historical time (AD 1950-1800) and during the more distant past (the last c. 10 000 years) and explore the role of climate variability, environmental change and human impact. We present a compilation of proxy records of hypoxia (laminated sediments) based on long sediment cores from the Baltic Sea. The cumulated results show that the deeper depressions of the Baltic Sea have experienced intermittent hypoxia during most of the Holocene and that regular laminations started to form c. 8500-7800 cal. yr BP ago, in association with the formation of a permanent halocline at the transition between the Early Littorina Sea and the Littorina Sea s. str. Laminated sediments were deposited during three main periods (i.e. between c. 8000-4000, 2000-800 cal. yr BP and subsequent to AD 1800) which overlap the Holocene Thermal Maximum (c. 9000-5000 cal. yr BP), the Medieval Warm Period (c. AD 750-1200) and the modern historical period (AD 1800 to present) and coincide with intervals of high surface salinity (at least during the Littorina s. str.) and high total organic carbon content. This study implies that there may be a correlation between climate variability in the past and the state of the marine environment, where milder and dryer periods with less freshwater run-off correspond to increased salinities and higher accumulation of organic carbon resulting in amplified hypoxia and enlarged distribution of laminated sediments. We suggest that hydrology changes in the drainage area on long time-scales have, as well as the inflow of saltier North Sea waters, controlled the deep oxic conditions in the Baltic Sea and that such changes have followed the general Holocene climate development in Northwest Europe. Increased hypoxia during the Medieval Warm Period also correlates with large-scale changes in land use that occurred in much of the Baltic Sea watershed during the early-medieval expansion. We suggest that hypoxia during this period in the Baltic Sea was not only caused by climate, but increased human impact was most likely an additional trigger. Large areas of the Baltic Sea have experienced intermittent hypoxic from at least AD 1900 with laminated sediments present in the Gotland Basin in the Baltic Proper since then and up to present time. This period coincides with the industrial revolution in Northwestern Europe which started around AD 1850, when population grew, cutting of drainage ditches intensified, and agricultural and forest industry expanded extensively.

Zillén, Lovisa; Conley, Daniel J.; Andrén, Thomas; Andrén, Elinor; Björck, Svante

2008-12-01

130

Astaxanthin dynamics in Baltic Sea mesozooplankton communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The red pigment astaxanthin is a powerful antioxidant, which occurs in eggs and body tissues of crustaceans and fish. It is produced by crustaceans from algal carotenoids. In a two-year field study we assessed natural concentrations and dynamics of astaxanthin in mesozooplankton communities in the brackish Baltic Sea area. Astaxanthin levels varied between 0.37 and 36 ng L- 1. They increased with salinity along the Baltic Sea gradient and were linked to zooplankton biomass and phytoplankton community composition. Astaxanthin concentrations showed typical seasonal patterns and varied from 0.2 to 5.1 ng ind- 1, 0.2 to 3.4 ng (?g C)- 1 and 6 to 100 ng mm- 3. These concentrations were inversely related to water temperature and strongly linked to zooplankton community composition. Communities dominated by the calanoid copepods Temora longicornis, Pseudocalanus acuspes and Eurytemora spp. generally held the highest concentrations. With increasing cladocerans:copepods biomass ratios community astaxanthin concentrations decreased and with higher relative biomass of Acartia spp. the proportion of astaxanthin diesters decreased. Diesters prevailed in the cold season and they are thought to improve the antioxidant protection of storage lipids during winter. Climate change causes higher temperature and lower salinity in the Baltic Sea proper. This modifies zooplankton community composition, but not necessarily into a community with lower concentrations of astaxanthin since T. longicornis (high concentrations) has been reported to increase with higher temperature. However, decreased astaxanthin production in the ecosystem is expected if a basin-wide increase in the cladocerans:copepods biomass ratios would occur with further climate change.

Snoeijs, Pauline; Häubner, Norbert

2014-01-01

131

Alcohol consumption in the Baltic Republics  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVES—Premature mortality associated with alcohol intake is of particular concern in several countries of the former Soviet Union. This study explored self reported alcohol consumption (beer, wine, spirits) and its determinants in the Baltic Republics.?DESIGN—Cross sectional surveys conducted in 1997.?SETTINGS—Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.?PARTICIPANTS—Representative samples of adults age 19-64 (Estonia n=2010; Latvia n=2258; Lithuania n=2139).?METHODS—Between country differences in the frequency of alcohol intake were estimated. The odds of consuming alcohol weekly according to socioeconomic characteristics (age, ethnicity, rural/urban area, education, income) were calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses, adjusting for all variables simultaneously.?MAIN RESULTS—The proportion of respondents consuming alcohol weekly varied by country (p<0.001) (men: Estonia=61% Latvia=41% Lithuania=55%; women: Estonia=26% Latvia=8% Lithuania=14%). Within each country, this proportion decreased with age in both sexes (p<0.001), and increased with income in women (p<0.01). In Estonia, the odds of drinking alcohol weekly was significantly lower in respondents of Russian than of Estonian ethnicity (odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI): men=0.51 (0.36, 0.71); women=0.57 (0.39, 0.81)). In Lithuania, the odds was higher in highly educated men than in those with a low education level (OR=1.48 (1.01, 2.17)). Daily alcohol intake was higher in Estonia than in the other countries, as was the percentage of respondents drinking heavily (equivalent to 80 g/day).?CONCLUSIONS—Approximately half the men and one in six women in the Baltic States reported consuming alcohol at least weekly. Age and income were the strongest and most consistent correlates of the likelihood of consuming alcohol weekly. Ethnic differences were observed only in Estonia.???Keywords: alcohol; Baltic states; Russia PMID:10814657

McKee, M.; Pomerleau, J.; Robertson, A.; Pudule, I.; Grinberga, D.; Kadziauskiene, K.; Abaravicius, A.; Vaask, S.

2000-01-01

132

Planning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning how to plan a science investigation is an important component of learning how to do investigative science. The plan will guide the students to find evidence to respond to their focus question or problem that needs to be solved. This chapter descr

Michael P. Klentschy

2008-04-01

133

Hydrogeological model of the Baltic Artesian Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baltic Artesian Basin (BAB) is a complex multi-layered hydrogeological system in the south-eastern Baltic covering about 480,000 km2. The aim of this study is to develop a closed hydrogeological mathematical model for the BAB. Heterogeneous geological data from different sources were used to build the geometry of the model, i.e. geological maps and stratigraphic information from around 20,000 boreholes. The finite element method was used for the calculation of the steady-state three-dimensional (3D) flow of unconfined groundwater. The 24-layer model was divided into about 1,000,000 finite elements. A simple recharge model was applied to describe the rate of infiltration, and the discharge was set at the water-supply wells. Variable hydraulic conductivities were used for the upper (Quaternary) deposits, while constant hydraulic conductivity values were assumed for the deeper layers. The model was calibrated on the statistically weighted borehole water-level measurements, applying L-BFGS-B (automatic parameter optimization method) for the hydraulic conductivities of each layer. The principal flows inside the BAB and the integral flow parameters were analyzed. The modeling results suggest that deeper aquifers are characterized by strong southeast-northwest groundwater flow, which is altered by the local topography in the upper, active water-exchange aquifers.

Virbulis, Janis; Bethers, Uldis; Saks, Tomas; Sennikovs, Juris; Timuhins, Andrejs

2013-06-01

134

Pole tide in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pole tide, which is driven by the Chandler Wobble, has a period of about 14 months and typical amplitudes in the World Ocean of ˜0.5 cm. However, in the Baltic Sea the pole tide is anomalously high. To examine this effect we used long-term hourly sea level records from 23 tide gauges and monthly records from 64 stations. The lengths of the series were up to 123 years for hourly records and 211 years for monthly records. High-resolution spectra revealed a cluster of neighboring peaks with periods from 410 to 440 days. The results of spectral analysis were applied to estimate the integral amplitudes of pole tides from all available tide gauges along the coast of the Baltic Sea. The height of the pole tide was found to gradually increase from the entrance (Danish Straits, 1.5-2 cm) to the northeast end of the sea. The largest amplitudes—up to 4.5-7 cm—were observed in the heads of the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia. Significant temporal fluctuations in amplitudes and periods of the pole tide were observed during the 19th and 20th centuries.

Medvedev, I. P.; Rabinovich, A. B.; Kulikov, E. A.

2014-03-01

135

Total marine fisheries extractions by country in the Baltic Sea: 1950-present, Rossing, Booth and Zeller 7 FISHERIES CATCHES FROM THE BALTIC SEA LARGE MARINE ECOSYSTEM  

E-print Network

Total marine fisheries extractions by country in the Baltic Sea: 1950-present, Rossing, Booth and Zeller 7 FISHERIES CATCHES FROM THE BALTIC SEA LARGE MARINE ECOSYSTEM: 1950-20071 Dirk Zeller, Shawn from the Baltic Sea Large Marine Ecosystem, from 1950-2007, taken by Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany

Pauly, Daniel

136

Horizontal Variation of Bacterioplankton in the Baltic Sea  

PubMed Central

Variations in the thymidine incorporation rate, bacterial abundance, and mean cell volumes in the surface water (0.5 m) of the Baltic Sea in spring and summer were compared in studies with different spatial scales (570 nautical miles [nmi] [ca. 1056 km], 220 nmi [ca. 407 km], 24 nmi [ca. 44 km], 12 nmi [ca. 22 km], and 200 m). The objective of the comparison was to investigate whether a single sample taken at one sampling point is representative enough for researchers to make generalizations about a larger water area. Bacterioplankton variation was connected more to seasonal characteristics than to the spatial scale of sampling. Variation was greater and more random in spring than in summer. The state variables (bacterial abundance and mean cell volume) varied less than the rate variable (thymidine incorporation). The results suggest that the sampling design for bacterioplankton studies in northern temperate seas should be planned primarily according to the season and that more stress should be put on rate variable measurements than on those of state variables. PMID:16348580

Heinänen, Anne; Kuparinen, Jorma

1991-01-01

137

Seabed geomorphic features in a glaciated shelf of the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to a continuous increase in human activities occurring throughout marine and coastal areas worldwide (e.g., marine traffic and construction), the lack of in-depth information on vast marine areas is problematic. However, the spatial informatics field has enabled the development of new applications based on pre-existing spatial data. This paper discusses the physical structure and complexity of the continental shelf seafloor, using geospatial modelling and GIS analysis to gain insight into the physical environment of the Baltic Sea seafloor as a basis for ecosystem management. We demonstrate the mapping of coherent features over a broad region and identify geomorphic features of the seabed by analysing and modelling bathymetric, seabed substrate, and photic depth datasets. The analysis was performed at the kilometre scale using a grid size of 200 m. In total, 18 unique seabed geomorphic features were identified from the entire Baltic Sea (including the Skagerrak). The features are similar to geomorphic seafloor structures typically occurring on glaciated continental shelves. The Baltic Sea is primarily characterized by various plains and basins, and on average, one-third of the seafloor can be regarded as a sediment accumulation area. Other seabed geomorphic features are mainly present in certain local sub regions. The archipelagos as well as the coastal areas of southern Sweden and the Bothnian Bay have a heterogeneous seafloor environment. These areas are characterized by sea valleys and holes, sea troughs, and bedrock elevations, partly due to a crystalline basement and glacial erosion. In addition, the shallow coastal areas suffer from intense wave exposure and have erosional features that differ from those in open sea areas. Effective transnational marine spatial planning requires extensive knowledge of the environmental characteristics of the region in question. Background data for marine spatial planning can be obtained through an analysis of seabed geomorphic features, which provides consistent information on the physical marine environment over a broad area.

Kaskela, A. M.; Kotilainen, A. T.; Al-Hamdani, Z.; Leth, J. O.; Reker, J.

2012-03-01

138

Tradeoffs between environmental goals and urban development: the case of nitrogen load from the Stockholm County to the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Urban dwellers depend on the generation of ecosystem services for their welfare. The city of Stockholm is growing, and a 25% increase in population is projected by 2030. The effects of urban development were estimated through the quantification of nitrogen (N) leakage to the Baltic Sea under two urban development scenarios. We found that total net N load will increase by 6% or 8%, depending on which growth scenario is applied, and population increase by itself will contribute at least 15% of the point source N leakage. Technical improvements in sewage treatment could, according to our results, decrease total N load to the Baltic Sea by 4%. Based on our results, we conclude that proactive measures such as spatial urban planning can provide a constructive tool for sustainable urban development on regional as well as national and international scales, depending on geographical context as well as the ecosystem services' scale of operation. PMID:18240680

Jansson, Asa; Colding, Johan

2007-12-01

139

Purification and characterisation of ferritin from the Baltic blue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baltic blue mussels Mytilus trossulus were collected from the Gulf of Gda?sk (southern Baltic Sea) in order to isolate ferritin from its soft tissues, as well as to purify and characterise this protein. Proteins were isolated from the inner organs of M. trossulus (hepatopancreas, gills and soft tissue residue) by thermal denaturation (70?C) and acidification (pH 4.5) of the homogenates,

Joanna Potrykus; Alicja Kosakowska

140

First record of the family Ithonidae (Neuroptera) from Baltic amber.  

PubMed

Elektrithone expectata gen. et sp. nov. (Neuroptera: Ithonidae) is described from Eocene Baltic amber and represents the first record of this family from Baltic amber. The forewing venation of the new genus is characterized by a small number of crossveins as found in some 'polystoechotid'-like genera, and by the absence of the distal nygma and the strong reduction of the anal area which are characteristic of 'rapismatid'-like ithonids. PMID:24870683

Makarkin, Vladimir N; Wedmann, Sonja; Weiterschan, Thomas

2014-01-01

141

On the thermohaline variability of the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coupled ice–ocean model is utilized to investigate the transports of heat, salt and water in the Baltic Sea for the years 1986, 1988, 1993 and 1994. The oceanic component of the coupled system is a three-dimensional baroclinic model of the Baltic Sea including the Belt Sea and the Skagerrak\\/Kattegat area. The model has a horizontal resolution of ?5 km

Andreas Lehmann; Hans-Harald Hinrichsen

2000-01-01

142

Rossby radii and phase speeds in the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of a data set recorded during seasonal cruises of the R.V.s A. v. Humboldt and Prof. A. Penck of the Academy of Sciences, G.D.R., in the Baltic Sea during 1977 1987, mean Brunt---Väisäläfrequency profiles were derived in order to compute vertical eigenvalues and internal, or baroclinic, Rossby radii for different seasons in various parts of the Baltic

Wolfgang Fennel; Torsten Seifert; Bernd Kayser

1991-01-01

143

Plan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1937, the Plan organization was initially intended to provide food and education to the unfortunate children whose lives were disrupted by the trauma and horror of the Spanish Civil War. Almost 70 years later, Plan continues to provide much needed assistance to 45 countries around the world, primarily in the areas of education, housing, and cross-cultural learning. First-time visitors will want to begin by looking through the section titled "Issues affecting children." This area provides both background materials and general guiding principles on such topics as street children, children in disaster areas, and HIV/AIDS among young people in the developing world. The "Where we work" area of the site provides detailed material on the work of the Plan organization in each region and country that the organization serves. Finally, concerned visitors to the site may also learn about opportunities for sponsoring a child.

2002-01-01

144

PLA2G6-associated neurodegeneration (PLAN): Further expansion of the clinical, radiological and mutation spectrum associated with infantile and atypical childhood-onset disease  

PubMed Central

Phospholipase A2 associated neurodegeneration (PLAN) is a major phenotype of autosomal recessive Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation (NBIA). We describe the clinical phenotypes, neuroimaging features and PLA2G6 mutations in 5 children, of whom 4 presented with infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD). One other patient was diagnosed with the onset of PLAN in childhood, and our report highlights the diagnostic challenges associated with this atypical PLAN subtype. In this series, the neuroradiological relevance of classical PLAN features as well as apparent claval hypertrophy’ is explored. Novel PLA2G6 mutations were identified in all patients. PLAN should be considered not only in patients presenting with a classic INAD phenotype but also in older patients presenting later in childhood with non-specific progressive neurological features including social communication difficulties, gait disturbance, dyspraxia, neuropsychiatric symptoms and extrapyramidal motor features. PMID:24745848

Illingworth, M.A.; Meyer, E.; Chong, W.K.; Manzur, A.Y.; Carr, L.J.; Younis, R.; Hardy, C.; McDonald, F.; Childs, A.M.; Stewart, B.; Warren, D.; Kneen, R.; King, M.D.; Hayflick, S.J.; Kurian, M.A.

2014-01-01

145

The Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication Vol. 1 ON COUNTERFACTUAL METAPHORS AND  

E-print Network

The Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication ­ Vol. 1 ON COUNTERFACTUAL as will be reviewed in Section 3. #12;Paradox: Logical, Cognitive and Communicative Aspects The Baltic International

Lee, Mark

146

Parallel speciation or long-distance dispersal? Lessons from seaweeds (Fucus) in the Baltic Sea  

E-print Network

Parallel speciation or long-distance dispersal? Lessons from seaweeds (Fucus) in the Baltic Sea R macroalgae, Fucus radi- cans (L. Bergstrom & L. Kautsky) and F. vesiculosus (Linnaeus), in the Baltic Sea. We

147

Seismic LAB or LID? The Baltic Shield Case  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of the asthenosphere for old Precambrian cratons, including East European Craton and its part - the Baltic Shield, is still discussed. To study the seismic lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath the Baltic Shield we used records of 9 local events with magnitudes in the range 2.7-5.9. The relatively big number of seismic stations in the Baltic Shield with a station spacing of 30-100 km permits for relatively dense recordings, and is sufficient in lithospheric scale. For modelling of the lower lithosphere and asthenosphere, the original data were corrected for topography and the Moho depth for each event and each station location, using a reference model with a 46 km thick crust. Observed P and S arrivals are significantly earlier than those predicted by the iasp91 model, which clearly indicates that lithospheric P and S velocities beneath the Baltic Shield are higher than in the global iasp91 model. For two northern events at Spitsbergen and Novaya Zemlya we observe a low velocity layer, 60-70 km thick asthenosphere, and the LAB beneath Barents Sea was found at depth of about 200 km. Sections for other events show continous first arrivals of P waves with no evidence for "shadow zone" in the whole range of registration, which could be interpreted as absence of asthenosphere beneath the central part of the Baltic Shield, or that LAB in this area occurs deeper (>200 km). The relatively thin low velocity layer found beneath southern Sweden, 15 km below the Moho, could be interpreted as small scale lithospheric inhomogeneities, rather than asthenosphere. Differentiation of the lid velocity beneath the Baltic Shield could be interpreted as regional inhomogeneity. It could also be interpreted as anisotropy of the Baltic Shield lithosphere, with fast velocity close to the east-west direction, and slow velocity close to the south-north direction.

Grad, Marek; Tiira, Timo; Olsson, Sverker; Komminaho, Kari

2013-04-01

148

Seismic LAB or LID? The Baltic Shield case  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of the asthenosphere for old Precambrian cratons, including East European Craton and its part - the Baltic Shield, is still discussed. To study the seismic lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath the Baltic Shield we used records of 9 local events with magnitudes in the range 2.7-5.9. The relatively big number of seismic stations in the Baltic Shield with a station spacing of 30-100 km permits for relatively dense recordings, and is sufficient in lithospheric scale. For modelling of the lower lithosphere and asthenosphere, the original data were corrected for topography and the Moho depth for each event and each station location, using a reference model with a 46 km thick crust. Observed P and S arrivals are significantly earlier than those predicted by the iasp91 model, which clearly indicates that lithospheric P and S velocities beneath the Baltic Shield are higher than in the global iasp91 model. For two northern events at Spitsbergen and Novaya Zemlya we observe a low velocity layer, 60-70 km thick asthenosphere, and the LAB beneath Barents Sea was found at depth of about 200 km. Sections for other events show continous first arrivals of P waves with no evidence for "shadow zone" in the whole range of registration, which could be interpreted as absence of asthenosphere beneath the central part of the Baltic Shield, or that LAB in this area occurs deeper (>200 km). The relatively thin low velocity layer found beneath southern Sweden, 15 km below the Moho, could be interpreted as small scale lithospheric inhomogeneities, rather than asthenosphere. Differentiation of the lid velocity beneath the Baltic Shield could be interpreted as regional inhomogeneity. It could also be interpreted as anisotropy of the Baltic Shield lithosphere, with fast velocity close to the east-west direction, and slow velocity close to the south-north direction.

Grad, M.; Tiira, T.; Olsson, S.; Komminaho, K.

2013-05-01

149

34 CFR 361.35 - Innovation and expansion activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Innovation and expansion activities. 361.35 Section 361.35...Vocational Rehabilitation Services Administration § 361.35 Innovation and expansion activities. (a) The State plan must...

2010-07-01

150

34 CFR 361.35 - Innovation and expansion activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Innovation and expansion activities. 361.35 Section 361.35...Vocational Rehabilitation Services Administration § 361.35 Innovation and expansion activities. (a) The State plan must...

2011-07-01

151

Ecotoxicity assessment of natural attenuation effects at a historical dumping site in the western Baltic Sea  

E-print Network

Baltic Sea Thomas Leipe a,*, Michael Kersten b , Susanne Heise c , Christa Pohl a , Gesine Witt a , Gladys Liehr a , Michael Zettler a , Franz Tauber a a Institute of Baltic Sea Research, Seestrasse 15, D in the inner Mecklenburg Bay, western Baltic Sea. Large-scale shifts in the spatial distribution of heavy

Zettler, Michael

152

J. Phycol. 35, 254269 (1999) REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS OF FUCUS VESICULOSUS (PHAEOPHYCEAE) IN THE BALTIC SEA1  

E-print Network

) IN THE BALTIC SEA1 Ester A. Serra~o2 Department of Plant Biology and Pathology, University of Maine, 5722° University, S-90187 Umea°, Sweden Marine organisms colonizing brackish habitats such as the Baltic Sea must vesiculosus L. were studied in several brackish habitats, particularly in the north- ern Baltic Sea

Diekmann, Onno

153

Characterization of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the Baltic Sea by excitation emission  

E-print Network

Characterization of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the Baltic Sea by excitation organic matter (CDOM) is the major light absorber in the Baltic Sea. In this study, excitation emission in 2002 and 2003 in the Baltic Sea in both Pomeranian Bay and the Gulf of Gdansk. Absorption by CDOM

Durako, Michael J.

154

Centennial changes in water clarity of the Baltic Sea and the N. Dupont 1  

E-print Network

Centennial changes in water clarity of the Baltic Sea and the North Seaq N. Dupont 1 , D.L. Aksnes: Received 14 March 2013 Accepted 6 August 2013 Available online 19 August 2013 Keywords: Baltic Sea North 000 observations, which are available from ICES, from the Baltic Sea and the North Sea in the 20th

Aksnes, Dag L.

155

Direct observations of a medium-intensity inflow into the Baltic Sea  

E-print Network

Direct observations of a medium-intensity inflow into the Baltic Sea Jü rgen Sellschoppa , Lars a ship cruise into the Arkona Sea (Western Baltic) happened to start just prior to a mediumsize inflow-salinity Baltic surface water and a small amount of higher salinity water at the bottom. After a few days

Mohrholz, Volker

156

Insect Systematics & Evolution (Group 2) A new genus of Limnichidae (Coleoptera) from Baltic amber  

E-print Network

© Insect Systematics & Evolution (Group 2) A new genus of Limnichidae (Coleoptera) from Baltic of Limnichidae (Coleoptera) from Baltic amber. Insect Syst. Evol. 35: 329-334. Copenhagen, November 2004. ISSN 1399-560X Palaeoersachus bicarinatus gen. et sp. n. is described from Eocene Baltic amber. The species

Ribera, Ignacio

157

On the causes of major Baltic inflows —an analysis of long time series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditions for life in the deep water of the Baltic Sea are strongly influenced by inflows of highly saline and oxygenated water from the North Sea. These events – termed major Baltic inflows (MBI) – have episodic character, and are the only mechanisms by which the central Baltic deep water is renewed. Although the cycle of water renewal is well

Holger Schinke; Wolfgang Matthäus

1998-01-01

158

Evaluation and Tuning of Model Trajectories and Spreading Rates in the Baltic Sea Using  

E-print Network

Chapter 8 Evaluation and Tuning of Model Trajectories and Spreading Rates in the Baltic Sea Using experiments with surface drifters in the Baltic Sea in 2010­ 2011 are presented and discussed. In a first deployed in the Baltic Sea. In a second experiment, shallow drifters extending to a depth of 1.5 m were

Döös, Kristofer

159

The Baltic amber ant genus Bradoponera (Hymenoptera: Fomiddae), with description of two new species and a  

E-print Network

The Baltic amber ant genus Bradoponera (Hymenoptera: Fomiddae), with description of two new species. The Baltic amber ant genus Bradoponem (Hymenoptera:Formicidae), with description of two new species and a reassessment of the Pro- eeratiini genera. -Two new species of Bradoponera are described from Baltic amber. 3

Villemant, Claire

160

Reconstructing the Younger Dryas ice dammed lake in the Baltic Basin: Bathymetry, area and volume  

E-print Network

Reconstructing the Younger Dryas ice dammed lake in the Baltic Basin: Bathymetry, area and volume 3D-reconstruction of the Baltic Ice Lake's (BIL) configuration during the termination of the Younger Terrain Model (DTM), Scandinavian ice sheet limits, Baltic Sea Holocene bottom sediment thickness

Jakobsson, Martin

161

An appraisal of measures to cope with climate change in the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to describe some trends on climate change in the Baltic Sea region, along with current and future expected actions to cope with climate change in the region. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The elements that influence climate change in the Baltic Region countries are analysed and co-operation efforts among the Baltic countries as well as their individual policy

Jelena Barbir; Walter Leal Filho; Jovanka Spiric

2009-01-01

162

NATO Expansion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic formally join NATO today. The entry of these three former Warsaw Pact nations into the US-led alliance and their ongoing negotiations to join the European Union mark a dramatic shift in the political landscape and symbolize the final demise of a divided Europe. However, a number of questions and difficulties remain. Not the least of these is relations with Russia, which has consistently expressed its disapproval of NATO expanding eastward. Should the country come under the control of nationalist political parties, an expanded NATO may actually increase rather than mitigate security concerns and political tensions. Another untested factor is public opinion within the new NATO member countries. The realities of NATO membership -- increased defense spending and the prospect of military operations against fellow Europeans in Yugoslavia -- may quickly erode popular support for the alliance in Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic. The sites dicussed provide background information on NATO and it's expansion.

de Nie, Michael Willem.

163

Marshak Lectureship Talk: Women in Physics in the Baltic States Region: Problems and Solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this contribution the gender equality problem in physics will be discussed on the basis of the results obtained implementing the project ``Baltic States Network: Women in Sciences and High Technology'' (BASNET) initiated by Lithuanian women physicists and financed by European Commission. The main goal of BASNET project was creation of the regional Strategy how to deal with women in sciences problem in the Baltic States. It has some stages and the contribution follows them. The first one was in depth sociological study aiming to find out disincentives and barriers women scientists face in their career and work at science and higher education institutions. Analysis of results revealed wide range of problems concerned with science organization, management and financing common for both counterparts. However it also proved the existence of women discrimination in sciences. As main factors influencing women under-representation in Physics was found: the stereotypes existing in the society where physics is assigned to the masculine area of activity; failings of the science management system, where highest positions are distributed not using the institutionalized objective criteria but by voting, where the correctness of majority solutions is anticipated implicitly. In physics where male scientists are the majority (they also usually compose executive boards, committees etc.) results of such a procedures often are unfavorable for women. The same reasons also influence women ``visibility'' in physicist's community and as the consequence possibility to receive needed recourses for their research as well as appropriate presentation of results obtained. The study revealed also the conservatism of scientific community- reluctance to face existing in the scientific society problems and to start solving them. On the basis of the results obtained as well practice of other countries the common strategy of solving women in physics (sciences) in the Baltic States region was formulated. As changing the stereotypes is long lasting process it was decided firstly to concentrate strategy implementation plans on changes in science management policy tackling the problem from the top and allowing receive the most quick results. For this we created the regional Baltic States Network among the corresponding international women working groups, professional organizations (Scientific societies) and corresponding departments of the governmental institutions. BASNET also became a full member of European Platform of Women Scientists (EPWS)-prestige women organization signally influencing the European Community science policy.

Satkovskiene, Dalia

2008-03-01

164

Climate change effects on river flow to the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

River flow to the Baltic Sea originates under a range of different climate regimes in a drainage basin covering some 1,600,000 km2. Changes to the climate in the Baltic Basin will not only affect the total amount of freshwater flowing into the sea, but also the distribution of the origin of these flows. Using hydrological modeling, the effects of future climate change on river runoff to the Baltic Sea have been analyzed. Four different climate change scenarios from the Swedish Regional Climate Modelling Programme (SWECLIM) were used. The resulting change to total mean annual river flow to the Baltic Sea ranges from -2% to +15% of present-day flow according to the different climate scenarios. The magnitude of changes within different subregions of the basin varies considerably, with the most severe mean annual changes ranging from -30% to +40%. However, common to all of the scenarios evaluated is a general trend of reduced river flow from the south of the Baltic Basin together with increased river flow from the north. PMID:15264602

Graham, L Phil

2004-06-01

165

The regional geology and hydrocarbon potential of the Baltic Sea  

SciTech Connect

The Baltic Sea is roughly equivalent in size to the North Sea. Like the North Sea, is has an excellent oil prone source rock present over most of the area. In the entire Baltic Sea about 40 wells have been drilled. During the 1980s, exploration was carried out in the Soviet, Polish, and East German sectors of the Baltic Sea by Petrobaltic. Twenty-eight wells were drilled, 14 of which tested hydrocarbons. Two wells have been drilled in Danish waters and 11 in Swedish waters - all dry holes. Most of the Baltic Sea is included in the Baltic syneclise. In the deepest part of the basin a full Paleozoic and Mesozoic section is present. Major structural features are associated with reactivation of old basement faults. Most hydrocarbon discoveries are associated with structural arches. Exploration targets are Cambrian sandstones and Ordovician and Silurian reefs. The major discoveries are the B3 field in Poland and the D6 field offshore Lithuania and Kaliningrad, both of which have in-place reserves of around 100 million bbl. The Teisseyre-Tornquist line to the southwest represents the plate boundary between the East European platform and Europe. Repeated strike slip movements along this zone result in a complex pattern of extensional and compressional features in the Danish and German sectors. Primary exploration targets include Permian carbonates and sandstones as well as older zones. Gas has been tested in the German sector onshore.

Haselton, T.M. (Haselton 3D ApS, Klampenborg (Denmark)); Brangulis, A.P.; Margulis, L.S. (Soyuzmorinzhgeologiya, Riga, Lativa (USSR)); Kanev, S. (Vniimorgeo, Inst. of Submarine Geology and Geophysics, Riga, Lativa (USSR))

1991-08-01

166

The Potential of Current-and Wind-Driven Transport for Environmental Management of the Baltic Sea  

E-print Network

The Potential of Current- and Wind-Driven Transport for Environmental Management of the Baltic Sea environmentally optimized fairways for the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Proper, and south-western Baltic Sea. Keywords Pollution management Á Oil pollution Á Fairway design Á Lagrangian transport Á Ocean modeling Á Baltic Sea Á

Döös, Kristofer

167

Riverine discharge into a coastal bay: A stable isotope study in the Gulf of Gdansk, Baltic Sea  

E-print Network

Riverine discharge into a coastal bay: A stable isotope study in the Gulf of Gdan´sk, Baltic Sea M. Vossa,*, I. Liskowa , M. Pastuszakb , D. Ru¨ha , U. Schultec , J.W. Dippnera a Baltic Sea Research and less the open Baltic Sea. D 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Baltic Sea; River plume

Dippner, Joachim W.

168

Testing the potential for predictive modeling and mapping and extending its use as a tool for evaluating management scenarios and economic valuation in the Baltic Sea (PREHAB).  

PubMed

We evaluated performance of species distribution models for predictive mapping, and how models can be used to integrate human pressures into ecological and economic assessments. A selection of 77 biological variables (species, groups of species, and measures of biodiversity) across the Baltic Sea were modeled. Differences among methods, areas, predictor, and response variables were evaluated. Several methods successfully predicted abundance and occurrence of vegetation, invertebrates, fish, and functional aspects of biodiversity. Depth and substrate were among the most important predictors. Models incorporating water clarity were used to predict increasing cover of the brown alga bladderwrack Fucus vesiculosus and increasing reproduction area of perch Perca fluviatilis, but decreasing reproduction areas for pikeperch Sander lucioperca following successful implementation of the Baltic Sea Action Plan. Despite variability in estimated non-market benefits among countries, such changes were highly valued by citizens in the three Baltic countries investigated. We conclude that predictive models are powerful and useful tools for science-based management of the Baltic Sea. PMID:24414807

Lindegarth, Mats; Bergström, Ulf; Mattila, Johanna; Olenin, Sergej; Ollikainen, Markku; Downie, Anna-Leena; Sundblad, Göran; Bu?as, Martynas; Gullström, Martin; Snickars, Martin; von Numers, Mikael; Svensson, J Robin; Kosenius, Anna-Kaisa

2014-02-01

169

Paleozoic oil and gas complexes of the Baltic syneclise  

SciTech Connect

Principal directions for exploration of new commercial accumulations of oil and gas in the main Paleozoic prospective complexes in the Baltic syneclise, including its sea portion, have been based on an analysis of the lithologic-facies composition, structural features, attitude of the rocks, and the distribution of the reservoir horizons and possible different types of traps. The promise of the deep parts of the southeastern Baltic Sea region, where a large number of local uplifts have been identified, and traps of nonanticlinal and combined types have been recorded, is emphasized where the principal focus for the generation of oil hydrocarbons inthe Baltic syneclise is located. As compared with the land area, it is suggested that there is an increase in the supply stock and the capacity parameters of the traps and an improvement in the conditions of preservation of petroleum accumulations here.

Geodekyan, A.A.; Dubovskoy, I.T.; Kleshchev, K.A.; Mazur, V.B.; Ostrovskiy, M.I.; Sakalavskas, K.A.

1981-10-01

170

Oils and hydrocarbon source rocks of the Baltic syneclise  

SciTech Connect

Prolific source rock horizons of varying thickness, having considerable areal extent, occur over the Baltic syneclise. These source sediments are rich and have excellent petroleum generation potential. Their state of thermal maturity varies form immature in the northeastern part of the syneclise to peak generation maturity in the southwestern part of the region-the main kitchen area. These maturity variations are manifest in petroleum composition in the region. Hence, mature oils occur in the Polish and Kaliningrad areas, immature oils in small accumulations in Latvian and central Lithuanian onshore areas, and intermediate oils in areas between these extremes. The oil accumulations probably result from pooling of petroleum generated from a number of different source rocks at varying levels of thermal maturity. Hence, no single source for petroleum occurrences in the Baltic syneclise may be identified. The paper describes the baltic syneclise, source rocks, thermal maturity and oils and extracts.

Kanev, S.; Margulis, L. (Inst. of Marine Geology Geophysics, Rega (Latvia)); Bojesen-Koefoed, J.A. (Geological Survey of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Weil, W.A.; Merta, H. (Polish Oil Gas Co., Warsaw (Poland)); Zdanaviciute, O. (Inst. of Geology, Vilnius (Lithuania))

1994-07-11

171

History and scenarios of future development of Baltic Sea eutrophication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutrient loads from watersheds, atmospheric deposition, and cyanobacterial nitrogen fixation have led to eutrophication in the Baltic Sea. Here we give the historical evolution of this, detail some of the specific eutrophication features of the Baltic Sea, and examine future scenarios from climate related changes in the Baltic Sea region. We distinguish northern and southern regions of the Baltic Sea. The northern watersheds have sub-polar climate, are covered by boreal forest and wetlands, are sparsely populated, and the rivers drain into the Gulf of Bothnia. The southern watersheds have a marine influenced temperate climate, are more densely populated and are industrially highly developed. The southern areas are drained by several large rivers, including the representative Oder River. We compare these regions to better understand the present, and future changes in Baltic Sea eutrophication. Comparing the future projections for the two regions, we suggest that in addition to changes in nutrient inputs, increased temperature and precipitation are likely to become important forcings. Rising temperature may increase release of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from soils and may alter the vegetation cover which may in turn lead to changed nutrient and organic matter input to the Baltic Sea. For the southern Oder River catchment a model study of nutrient input is evaluated, MONERIS (Modelling Nutrient Emissions in River Systems). The strong correlation between precipitation, flow and nutrient discharge indicates a likely increase in nutrient concentrations from diffuse sources in future. The nutrients from the Oder River are modified in a lagoon, where removal processes change the stoichiometry, but have only minor effects on the productivity. We suggest that the lagoon and other nearshore areas fulfil important ecological services, especially the removal of large quantities of riverine nitrogen but at the same time are threatened systems due to increasing coastal hypoxia.

Voss, Maren; Dippner, Joachim W.; Humborg, Christoph; Hürdler, Jens; Korth, Frederike; Neumann, T.; Schernewski, Gerald; Venohr, Markus

2011-05-01

172

Echoes from the past: a healthy Baltic Sea requires more effort.  

PubMed

Integrated sediment multiproxy studies and modeling were used to reconstruct past changes in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Results of natural changes over the past 6000 years in the Baltic Sea ecosystem suggest that forecasted climate warming might enhance environmental problems of the Baltic Sea. Integrated modeling and sediment proxy studies reveal increased sea surface temperatures and expanded seafloor anoxia (in deep basins) during earlier natural warm climate phases, such as the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Under future IPCC scenarios of global warming, there is likely no improvement of bottom water conditions in the Baltic Sea. Thus, the measures already designed to produce a healthier Baltic Sea are insufficient in the long term. The interactions between climate change and anthropogenic impacts on the Baltic Sea should be considered in management, implementation of policy strategies in the Baltic Sea environmental issues, and adaptation to future climate change. PMID:24414805

Kotilainen, Aarno T; Arppe, Laura; Dobosz, Slawomir; Jansen, Eystein; Kabel, Karoline; Karhu, Juha; Kotilainen, Mia M; Kuijpers, Antoon; Lougheed, Bryan C; Meier, H E Markus; Moros, Matthias; Neumann, Thomas; Porsche, Christian; Poulsen, Niels; Rasmussen, Peter; Ribeiro, Sofia; Risebrobakken, Bjørg; Ryabchuk, Daria; Schimanke, Semjon; Snowball, Ian; Spiridonov, Mikhail; Virtasalo, Joonas J; Weckström, Kaarina; Witkowski, Andrzej; Zhamoida, Vladimir

2014-02-01

173

Evaluation of the Planning Target Volume in the Treatment of Head and Neck Cancer With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy: What Is the Appropriate Expansion Margin in the Setting of Daily Image Guidance?  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare patterns of disease failure among patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in conjunction with daily image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) for head and neck cancer, according to the margins used to expand the clinical target volume (CTV) to create a planning target volume (PTV). Methods and Materials: Two-hundred and twenty-five patients were treated with IMRT for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Daily IGRT scans were acquired using either kilovoltage or megavoltage volumetric imaging prior to each delivered fraction. The first 95 patients were treated with IMRT with 5-mm CTV-to-PTV margins. The subsequent 130 patients were treated using 3-mm PTV expansion margins. Results: Two-year estimates of overall survival, local-regional control, and distant metastasis-free survival were 76%, 78%, and 81%, respectively. There were no differences with respect to any of these endpoints among patients treated with 5-mm and 3-mm PTV expansion margins (p > 0.05, all). The 2-year local-regional control rate for patients treated with IMRT with 5-mm and 3-mm PTV margins was 78% and 78%, respectively (p = 0.96). Spatial evaluation revealed no differences in the incidences of marginal failures among those treated with 5-mm and 3-mm PTV margins. Conclusions: The use of 3-mm PTV expansion margins appears adequate and did not increase local-regional failures among patients treated with IMRT for head and neck cancer. These data demonstrate the safety of PTV reduction of less than 5 mm and support current protocols recommending this approach in the setting of daily IGRT.

Chen, Allen M., E-mail: allen.chen@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California (United States); Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California (United States); Donald, Paul J.; Perks, Julian; Purdy, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California (United States)

2011-11-15

174

Ecological risk perception in the societies in transition: Case study of Baltic States  

SciTech Connect

The state of the environment and human health in countries that arise after the collapse of the USSR in influenced by different factors. The heritage of the previous regime can be characterized with a high environmental pollution level. However the transition from centrally planned to a free market economy is accompanied not only with changes in the political and social system, but also with changes in attitudes and in environmental values. All these processes have been analyzed on example of Baltic states analyzing the changes in ecological risk perception in societies of different economical and political structure. The ecological risk perception at first is associated with education level, especially regarding environmental education. However another important aspect is the perception of ecological risk at level of state policy. Just now this aspect can be regarded as the most important factor in ecological risk perception. Surprisingly low is the role of scientifical expertise in the ecological risk identification.

Klavins, M.; Cimdins, P.; Rodinov, V. [Univ. of Latvia, Riga (Latvia)

1994-12-31

175

Eastward expansion  

SciTech Connect

Since 1988, the eastern portion of the Gulf of Mexico has been off-limits to oil and gas leasing due to a plethora of political and environmental concerns. But a string of discoveries in sister provinces to the west has kept interest high in the area. Oil and gas companies hope to see the long leasing dry spell come to an end next year, when the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) has planned OCS Sale 181. It likely will be the only acreage in the eastern Gulf open to leasing in the foreseeable future. The sale, tentatively scheduled for Dec. 5, 2001, will offer up 1,033 blocks covering 5.9 million acres in water depths ranging from 108 ft (33m) to almost 11,000 ft (3,355m). The area's prospectivity combined with the sale's last chance atmosphere has sparked a great deal of interest in the region. Very little well data is available, but several 2D and 3D seismic surveys have been shot, and several geologists have made it their business to learn as much as possible about subsurface features. The paper describes a conference of trends, seismic surveys, and potential pitfalls.

Duey, R.

2000-04-01

176

Early life migration patterns of Baltic Sea pike Esox lucius.  

PubMed

This study investigated the movement patterns of Baltic Sea pike Esox lucius in Matsalu Bay, Estonia, using otolith microchemistry. Migration patterns of E. lucius were remarkably diverse, but distinct groups were evident. Of the E. lucius analysed (n = 28), 82% hatched in fresh water and 74% of them left this biotope during the first growth season. PMID:22471807

Rohtla, M; Vetemaa, M; Urtson, K; Soesoo, A

2012-04-01

177

Open water detection from Baltic sea ice SAR imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The algorithm for separating Baltic Sea Ice and open water from our operational SAR data are presented. The algorithm is based on segment wise autocorrelation with some simple additional rules to improve the classification. The algorithm results are compared to the open water and sea ice separation available in daily digitized ice charts and the algorithm performance is also compared

Juha Karvonen; M. Simila; M. Makynen

2004-01-01

178

Status of Baltic grey seals: Population assessment and extinction risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) population in the Baltic Sea is recovering after a century of bounty hunting and 3 decades of low fertility rates caused by environmental pollution. A con- servative estimate of the population size in 2003 was 19,400 animals, and available data suggest an annual rate of increase of 7.5% since 1990. The growing population has led

Karin C. Harding; Tero Härkönen; Björn Helander; Olle Karlsson

2007-01-01

179

Energy economy of salmon aquaculture in the Baltic sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resource utilization in Atlantic salmon aquaculture in the Baltic Sea was investigated by means of an energy analysis. A comparison was made between cage farming and sea ranching enterprises each with yearly yields of 40 t of Atlantic salmon. A variety of sea ranching options were evaluated, including (a) conventional ranching, (b) ranching employing a delayed release to the sea

Carl Folke

1988-01-01

180

Breaker zone aerosol dynamics in the southern Baltic Sea  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of lidar based investigations of aerosol concentrations and their size distributions over the breaker zones. The measurements were carried out under various weather conditions over breaker zones of the Gulf of Gdansk (1992) and from a station on the open Baltic Sea (International Experiment BAEX in 1993).

Zielinski, T. [Univ. of Gdansk, Gdynia (Poland). Dept. of Oceanography; Zielinski, A. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Sopot (Poland). Inst. of Oceanology

1994-12-31

181

The Professionalisation of Adult Educators in the Baltic States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult education and lifelong learning together form one of the priorities for development in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The important historical and social context in which the professional development of adult educators has been taking place in the Baltic States since they regained their independence in the 1990s is the changes that occurred…

Jogi, Larissa; Gross, Marin

2009-01-01

182

Organic compounds in the water column of the eastern Baltic  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the transport, distribution, concentration, chemistry, environmental consequences, and chemical control strategies of organic wastes--including waste hydrocarbons, industrial effluents and oil spills--in the Baltic Sea and in the regions along its shorelines. Data on seasonal and compositional variations in organic waste content are provided.

Nemirovskaya, I.A.; Nesterova, M.P.; Pustel'nikov, O.S.

1987-11-01

183

Trends in the amplitude of Baltic Sea level annual cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Baltic Sea tide gauge data and climatic data sets are statistically analysed to investigate the centennial trends in the amplitude of the annual cycle of Baltic sea level. In almost all gauge stations analysed, an increase of the amplitude (winter-spring sea level) is detected. These trends are not large compared to the decadal variations of the annual cycle, but they are statistically significant. The magnitude of the trends is almost spatially uniform, with exception of the Skagerrak area. Since interannual and decadal variability of sea level displays a clear spatial pattern, the mechanism responsible for the trends in the annual cycle seem to be not regional, but affect the Baltic Sea basin as a whole. Several hypotheses are proposed to explain these centennial trends on the winter-minus-spring sea level: wind (through the SLP field), the barometric effect, temperature and precipitation. By elimination of three of the working hypothesis, seasonal Baltic precipitation remains a plausible candidate. For the other three, either the sign or magnitude of the trend makes them unlikely the sole explanation.

Hünicke, Birgit; Zorita, Eduardo

2008-01-01

184

Hot and Cold Ethnicities in the Baltic States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article discusses the temperatures of the main ethnic groups in the Baltic states: Estonians, Latvians, Lithuanians, and their three Russian-speaking communities, and the Latgalian and Polish minority groups in Latvia and Lithuania, respectively. The study uses a triangulated methodology that includes a survey questionnaire for quantitative…

Ehala, Martin; Zabrodskaja, Anastassia

2014-01-01

185

The phytoplankton spring bloom in the Baltic Sea in 1985, 1986: multitude of spatio-temporal scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatio-temporal development of the phytoplankton spring bloom in the Baltic Sea for two consecutive years is analysed. Quasi-continuous, on-track measurements of particle concentration, fluorescence, temperature and salinity with a resolution of the spatial scales from ?400 m to basin-wide were supplemented with quantitative samples of the phytoplankton abundance, pigments, and vertical CTD/fluorescence profiles. The improved spatial and temporal resolution allowed us to distinguish variability on different time and space scales. Year-to-year differences were found that include not only the timing of the bloom but also the size distribution of the plankton (composition of the phytoplankton assemblage). Contrary to conventional understanding, the bloom does not start due to the establishment of the vertical thermal stratification as the vertical density profile is controlled by the salinity stratification. The well-known massive diatom bloom is preceded by an initial growth of unidentified small-sized (1-4 ?m) phytoplankton. As the bloom usually starts when the surface temperature is still below the temperature of maximum density (about 2.4°C for the salinity in the central Baltic), warming of the surface layer during that period has in fact a destabilizing effect on the stratification. The expansion of the bloom does not appear as a smooth, wave-like propulsion in the northeastern direction but rather as centripetal movements in the form of eddies and filaments from the more stratified coastal areas towards the center; hence, in the northern Baltic proper the progression is roughly in the southerly direction. The central eastern Gotland Basin with the least likelihood of vertical stratification in the photic layer is the last where the bloom commences. There the bloom starts in a mosaic of filaments and eddies that provide the vertical stability. The filaments with reduced salinity and increased temperature probably originate from the coastal areas and represent transformed coastal water.

Kahru, M.; Nömmann, S.

1990-04-01

186

Past Occurrences of Hypoxia in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hypoxic zone in the Baltic Sea has increased in area by about four times since 1950. Widespread oxygen deficiency below the halocline has severely reduced macro benthic communities in the Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Finland over the past decades and negatively effected food chain dynamics, fish habitats and fisheries in the entire Baltic Sea. In addition, hypoxia alters nutrient biogeochemical cycles. The cause of the increased hypoxia is believed to be enhanced eutrophication through increased anthropogenic input of nutrients, such as phosphorous and nitrogen. Conditions prior to the 1950s are considered as the benchmark and some authors suggest that the earlier Baltic Sea was an oligothrophic, clear-water body with oxygenated deep waters. By contrast, studies of short sediment cores reveal that hypoxia has been present in some of the deepest basins for at least the last 100-200 years. In addition, long sediment cores suggest that hypoxia in the Baltic Sea has occurred intermittently in deep basins over the last c. 8500 years. Thus, the occurrence of present day hypoxia in the deeper basins need not necessarily be attributed to human activity but rather to natural oceanographic, geologic and climate conditions. We present a compilation of previous publications that reported the occurrence of laminated sediments (i.e. a palaeo-proxy for hypoxia) in the Baltic Sea. This review shows that the deeper parts of the Baltic Sea have experienced either intermittent or more regular hypoxia during most of the Holocene and that more continuous laminations started to form c. 7800-8500 cal. yr BP ago, in association with the establishment of a permanent halocline during the transition from the Ancylus Lake to the Littorina Sea. Laminated sediments were more common during the early and late Holocene and coincided with intervals of high organic productivity (high TOC content) and high salinity during the Holocene Thermal Maximum and the Medieval Climate Optimum. This study implies that there may be a correlation between past climate variability and the state of the marine environment, where milder periods correspond to increased primary production and higher salinities resulting in amplified hypoxia and enlarged distribution of benthic mortality and laminated sediments.

Zillen, L.; Conley, D. J.; Bjorck, S.

2007-12-01

187

Methane fluxes and their controlling processes in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baltic Sea is an ideal natural laboratory to study the methane cycle in the framework of diagenetic processes. With its brackish character and a gradient from nearly marine to almost limnic conditions, a strong permanent haline stratification leading to large vertical redox gradients in the water column, and a sedimentation history which resulted in the deposition of organic-rich young post-glacial sediments over older glacial and post-glacial strata with very low organic content, the Baltic allows to study the role of a variety of key parameters for early diagenetic processes including the methane cycle. Within the BONUS + Project “Baltic Gas”, a 3.5 week scientific expedition of RV Maria S. Merian in August 2010 was dedicated to study the methane cycle in the various basins of the Baltic Sea, with strong emphasis on the metabolic reactions of early diagenesis and the occurrence of shallow gas deposits. Various subbottom profiling systems were used to map the thickness and structure of organic-rich deposits and build the base for a detailed coring program for biogeochemical analysis, including methane, sulfur compounds, iron, and other compounds. Methane gradients in connection with the information of the areal extend of organic-rich deposits are used to estimate the diffusive flux from the sediments into the water column and the rate of methane oxidation, with changing importance of sulfate as oxidant along the salinity gradient. On selected key stations, rate measurements of methanogenic and methanotrophic reactions were executed. The methane distribution in the water column was comprehensively assessed, revealing amongst other findings a drastic increase in bottom water methane concentration between the post bloom summer situation and the situation in the winter of 2009, in connection to the occurrence of a benthic nepheloid layer. Air-sea flux measurements were executed along the ship’s track comprising all major basins of the Baltic. The talk gives an interdisciplinary overview of the first results of this research campaign.

Rehder, G. J.; Fossing, H.; Lapham, L.; Endler, R.; Spiess, V.; Bruchert, V.; Nguyen, T.; Gülzow, W.; Schneider von Deimling, J.; Conley, D. J.; Jorgensen, B.

2010-12-01

188

Effects of salinity on spermatozoa motility, percentage of fertilized eggs and egg development of Baltic cod ( Gadus morhua ), and implications for cod stock fluctuations in the Baltic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in cod stock strength in the Baltic Sea is considered to be dependent on abiotic conditions such as salinity and water oxygen content in the spawning areas (the Baltic deep basins). Spawning cod were caught off northern Gotland, Sweden, from April to June in 1989 and 1990. Our investigation revealed a reduction in spermatozoan motility and a subsequent reduction

L. Westin; A. Nissling

1991-01-01

189

Russian Port-Projects in the Baltic Sea: A Brief Analysis of Russian Ports and Projected Ports in the Baltic Sea Fringe  

Microsoft Academic Search

With its present borders, Russia faces severe limitations in port capacity in relation to the demand of the domestic industry and raw material producers. The Baltic states possess, on the other hand, a port capacity that vastly exceeds local demand and continues to attract large volumes of Russian transit cargo. In this paper, existing Russian ports on the Baltic Sea

Alf Brodin

2001-01-01

190

Spectral quantification of Southern Baltic seabed roughness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work presents the fast and efficient tool for seafloor classification, where scales and shapes of geomorphological forms were taken into account. The precise bathymetry and seafloor texture was developed with multibeam echosounder at six different areas of size up to 10 by 20 km. This areas demonstrate typical geomorphological seafloor features of bottom relief at the southern Baltic Sea coastal waters. The acoustical measurements were accompanied by geological sampling and video inspection. High resolution mosaic maps were obtained as a result of multi-survey measurements with maximal spatial resolution of 0.05m. Such accuracy of the measurements allows to observe small geomorphologic forms as ripplemarks or pebbles. The most investigated polygons have bottom relief of polygenetic origin with relicts of periglacial forms together with contemporary forms of marine origin. In the studied areas different forms of sand accumulation were found, beginning with small ripplemarks ending at big sandy waves. In the seabed erosion zones the bottom surface is rough and varied with clearly formed embankments, abrasive platforms, inselbergs and stony gravely abrasive pavements on the bottom surface. Such geomorphic diversity of the bottom surface has allowed for development of consistent geomorphological classification system based mainly on spectral properties of seafloor roughness. Each analysed area was divided into squares (200 by 200 m) with an overlap between adjacent subareas of 75% a square size. Next, subdivided areas were spectrally transformed using a two dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D FFT). The spectral parameters as maximal value of spectral density function, spectral exponent and strength, spectral moments, mean frequency, spectral width and skewness for each characteristic type of bottom surface were determined relaying on the calculated 2D spectra. Moreover, other features characterised the corrugated surface as fractal dimension, radius of autocorrelation, elevation slope, statistical and wavelet transformation parameters were estimated. The set of parameters was the input to the Principal Component Analysis and next to the unsupervised neural network algorithm which produced maps containing morphologically classified seabed areas. The obtained results revealed that acoustical technique provides very useful capabilities for the seafloor characterisation.

Szefler, K.; Tegowski, J.; Nowak, J.

2012-12-01

191

International Partnership for Continuing Education and Training Expansion in the Baltic States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Latvia is striving to rebuild its socioeconomic system by strengthening continuing education and training in cooperation with British partners. The partnership has resulted in formation of international networks, comprehensive adult-education needs analysis, increased awareness of lifelong learning, modest European Community funding, and joint…

Buligina, Ilze; Chivers, Geoff

1999-01-01

192

Population structure of flounder (Platichthys flesus) in the Baltic Sea: differences among demersal and pelagic spawners.  

PubMed

We found significant population structure and isolation by distance among samples of flounder (Platichthys flesus) in the Baltic, Kattegat and Skagerrak seas using microsatellite genetic markers. This pattern was almost entirely due to a difference between flounder that have demersal spawning in the northern Baltic, as compared to pelagic spawners in the southern Baltic and on the west coast of Sweden. Among demersal spawners we found neither genetic differentiation nor any isolation by distance among sampling sites. We speculate that demersal flounder are descendants of a population that colonized the Baltic previous to pelagic spawners. The demersal flounder may thus have had longer time to adapt to the low salinity in the Baltic, and accordingly display egg characteristics that make it possible to reproduce at the low salinity levels in the northern Baltic. Among pelagic spawners significant isolation by distance was detected. Pelagic spawners have previously been shown to display clinal variation in egg size, which allows them to float also at the moderate salinity levels up to the region north of the island Bornholm. Management units for harvesting should ideally be based on true biological populations, and for the commercially important flounder up to 15 different management stocks in the Baltic have been suggested. We could not find a population genetic foundation for such a high number of management units, and our data suggest three management units: the northern Baltic (demersal populations), southern Baltic with the Oresund straits and the most northwestern sampling sites (Skagerrak, Kattegat and North Sea). PMID:18461089

Florin, A-B; Höglund, J

2008-07-01

193

Evidence of chromosomal damage in common eiders (Somateria mollissima) from the Baltic Sea  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Common eiders nesting in the Baltic Sea are exposed to generally high levels of contaminants including potentially genotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorines. Blood samples were collected from eiders at eight sites in the Baltic Sea and two sites in the Beaufort Sea. DNA content variation was estimated using the flow cytometric method, and subsequently utilized as a biomarker of genetic damage. We observed no significant differences in genetic damage among populations within either the Baltic or Beaufort Seas. However, eider populations from the Baltic Sea had significantly elevated estimates of genetic damage compared to populations from the Beaufort Sea.

Matson, C.W.; Franson, J.C.; Hollmen, T.E.; Kilpi, M.; Hario, M.; Flint, P.L.; Bickham, J.W.

2004-01-01

194

The Baltic Sea IODP project "Paleoenvironmental evolution of the Baltic Sea Basin through the last glacial cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baltic Sea IODP project "Paleoenvironmental evolution of the Baltic Sea Basin through the last glacial cycle" Despite an almost 100 year long history of geological research in the Baltic Sea, no scientific deep drilling has been carried out until now; the Baltic Sea IODP project drillings will take place in 2013. We aim at retrieving sediments, in different settings of the Baltic Sea Basin (BSB), from the last interglacial-glacial cycle. This will be accomplished by drilling in six sub-basins, one in the gateway of the BSB (Anholt), where we focus on sediments from MIS 6-5 as well as MIS 2-1. A sub-basin in the southwesternmost part of the BSB (Little Belt) possibly holds a unique MIS 5 record. Two sub-basins in the south (Bornholm Basin and Hanö Bay) may hold long complete records from MIS 4-2, and the deepest (450 m) sub-basin in the central Baltic (Landsort Deep) promises to contain a thick and continuous record of the last ca 14000 years, and perhaps also older deposits. Finally, the sub-basin in the very north (Ångermanälven River eustary) contains a unique varved (annually deposited) sediment record of the last >10000 years. All in all these six areas will contain a set of sediment sequences of the last ca 140000 years, with paleoenvironmental information on a semi-continental scale; the Baltic Sea drains an area four times as large as the basin itself. The location of the BSB in the heartland of a recurrently waning and waxing ice sheet, the Scandinavian Ice Sheet (SIS), has resulted in a complex development: repeated glaciations of different magnitude, sensitive responses to sea level and gateway threshold changes, large shifts in sedimentation patterns and with usually high sedimentation rates. Its geographic position also makes it a unique link between Eurasian and NW European terrestrial records. Therefore the sediments of this largest European intra-continental basin form a rare archive of climate evolution over the last glacial cycle. The high sedimentation rates provide an excellent opportunity to reconstruct climatic variability of global importance at unique resolution from a marine-brackish setting, and comparable sequences cannot be retrieved anywhere in the surrounding onshore regions. Furthermore, and very crucial, the large variability (salinity, climate, sedimentation pattern and oxygenation) that the BSB has undergone during the last glacial cycle makes it optimal for new research on the deep biosphere, its evolution, biogeochemical processes and e.g. also on how the post-glacial diffusive penetration of conservative seawater ions may alter the chemical composition and microbial physiology in the sub-seafloor biosphere. The scientific communities of the nine countries around the Baltic Sea have by tradition had the Baltic Sea and its many intriguing scientific problems as a focal point for research. Now comes the real challenge!

Andrén, T.; Bitinas, A.; Björck, S.; Emelyanov, E.; Harff, J.; Houmark-Nielsen, M.; Jakobsson, M.; Jensen, J. B.; Jørgensen, B. B.; Kotilainen, A.; Knudsen, K. L.; Lambeck, K.; Moros, M.; Spiess, V.; U?cinowicz, S.; Veski, S.; Zelchs, V.

2012-04-01

195

Operation Analysis in Generation Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a generation planning tool that evaluates operation performance of proposed generation expansion plans. It extends previous work started in this area by using an expected capacity load difference to provide a probabilistic assessment of spinning reserve. This calculation provides a more complete analysis of operation performance of expansion plans that now includes both spinning reserve and minimum

R. A. Smith; R. D. Shultz

1983-01-01

196

Application of a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model to the Himmerfjärden, Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Himmerfjärden is a coastal fjord-like bay situated in the north-western part of the Baltic Sea. The fjord has a mean depth of 17 m and a maximum depth of 52 m. The water is brackish (6 psu) with small salinity fluctuation (±2 psu). A sewage treatment plant, which serves about 300 000 people, discharges into the inner part of Himmerfjärden. This area is the subject of a long-term monitoring program. We are planning to develop a publicly available modelling system for this area, which will perform short-term forecast predictions of pertinent parameters (e.g., water-levels, currents, salinity, temperature) and disseminate them to users. A key component of the system is a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The open source Delft3D Flow system (http://www.deltaressystems.com/hydro) has been applied to model the Himmerfjärden area. Two different curvilinear grids were used to approximate the modelling domain (25 km × 50 km × 60 m). One grid has low horizontal resolution (cell size varies from 250 to 450 m) to perform long-term numerical experiments (modelling period of several months), while another grid has higher resolution (cell size varies from 120 to 250 m) to model short-term situations. In vertical direction both z-level (50 layers) and sigma coordinate (20 layers) were used. Modelling results obtained with different horizontal resolution and vertical discretisation will be presented. This model will be a part of the operational system which provides automated integration of data streams from several information sources: meteorological forecast based on the HIRLAM model from the Finnish Meteorological Institute (https://en.ilmatieteenlaitos.fi/open-data), oceanographic forecast based on the HIROMB-BOOS Model developed within the Baltic community and provided by the MyOcean Project (http://www.myocean.eu), riverine discharge from the HYPE model provided by the Swedish Meteorological Hydrological Institute (http://vattenwebb.smhi.se/modelarea/).

Sokolov, Alexander

2014-05-01

197

Investigating the Structural Evolution of the Western Baltic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The western Baltic Sea, located along the northern margin of the Central European Basin System (CEBS), is a world-class site for investigating the dynamics and stratigraphic evolution of a continental basin with marine geophysical data acquisition techniques. The universities of Aarhus and Hamburg have joined forces to investigate the post-Permian-to-recent structural evolution of the western Baltic, with special emphasis on neotectonic re-activation along major structural lineaments. Deep crustal structures of the CEBS are well established from previous studies. However, no systematic and localized research has yet been carried out to investigate the neotectonic activity in this region. In fact, the limited seismic resolution of previously available data prevented detailed research on Mesozoic and Cenozoic evolution or neotectonics.

Hübscher, C.; Lykke-Anderson, H.; Hansen, M. Bak; Reicherter, K.

2004-03-01

198

A new proposal concerning the botanical origin of Baltic amber  

PubMed Central

Baltic amber constitutes the largest known deposit of fossil plant resin and the richest repository of fossil insects of any age. Despite a remarkable legacy of archaeological, geochemical and palaeobiological investigation, the botanical origin of this exceptional resource remains controversial. Here, we use taxonomically explicit applications of solid-state Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy, coupled with multivariate clustering and palaeobotanical observations, to propose that conifers of the family Sciadopityaceae, closely allied to the sole extant representative, Sciadopitys verticillata, were involved in the genesis of Baltic amber. The fidelity of FTIR-based chemotaxonomic inferences is upheld by modern–fossil comparisons of resins from additional conifer families and genera (Cupressaceae: Metasequoia; Pinaceae: Pinus and Pseudolarix). Our conclusions challenge hypotheses advocating members of either of the families Araucariaceae or Pinaceae as the primary amber-producing trees and correlate favourably with the progressive demise of subtropical forest biomes from northern Europe as palaeotemperatures cooled following the Eocene climate optimum. PMID:19570786

Wolfe, Alexander P.; Tappert, Ralf; Muehlenbachs, Karlis; Boudreau, Marc; McKellar, Ryan C.; Basinger, James F.; Garrett, Amber

2009-01-01

199

Evaluation of Baltic Sea transport properties using particle tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle tracking model (PTM) is an effective tool for quantifying transport properties of large water bodies such as the Baltic Sea. We have applied PTM to our fully calibrated and validated Baltic Sea 3D hydrodynamic model for a 10-years period (2000-9). One hundred particles were released at a constant rate during an initial 10-days period from all the Baltic Sea sub-basins, the major rivers, and the open boundary in the Arkona Basin. In each basin, the particles were released at two different depths corresponding to the deep water and middle water layers. The objectives of the PTM simulations were to analyse the intra-exchange processes between the Baltic Sea basins and to estimate the arrival times and the paths of particles released from the rivers. The novel contribution of this study is determining the paths and arrival times of deeper water masses rather than the surface masses. Advective and diffusive transport processes in the Bornholm and Arkona basins are both driven by the interacting flows of the northern basins of the Baltic Sea and the North Sea. Particles released from Arkona basin flows northwards along the Stople Channel. The Gotland basins are the major contributors to the exchange process in the Baltic Sea. We find high values of the advection ratio, indicative of a forced advective transport process. The Bay of Gdansk is probably the most vulnerable region in the Baltic Sea. This is despite the fact that the main exchanging basins are the Bornholm Sea and the Easter Gotland Basin. The main reason is the intensive supply of the particles from the northern basins that normally take about 3000 days to reach the Bay of Gdansk. The process maintains a high level of particle concentration (90%) along its coastlines even after the 10-years period. Comparing the particle paths in the Western and Eastern Gotland basins two interesting features were found. Particles travelled in all four directions in the former basin and the middle layer particles reached the surface flow in the eastern most part of the Gulf of Finland. This implies mixing of deeper waters of the Western Gotland Basin with the sub-surface waters of the Gulf of Finland. We believe strong density current and upwelling processes drive the process. Surprisingly, the two rivers Narva and Venta have the highest spreading in comparison to other rivers. This is despite the relatively low flow discharge values that rules out a correlation between high moment flows and the extent of spreading. We found the flow discharge to be correlated with the advection lengths. The lack of any correlation for the other rivers, signifies different hydrodynamic characteristics among the basins. The results of our PTM study may be used for a general environmental assessment in terms of sensitivity of the various coastlines and rick to the release of contaminants in the Baltic Sea.

Dargahi, Bijan; Cvetkovic, Vladimir

2014-05-01

200

Climatology of thunderstorms in the Baltic countries, 1951-2000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides an overview of the thunderstorm climate of the Baltic countries during the period of 1951-2000. Our study area is in northeastern Europe and encompasses Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. Visual thunderstorm observations at 59 weather stations were used as a data source. The mean annual number of thunderstorm days was 12-29.5. The seasonal cycle of thunderstorm hours with a daily step unexpectedly showed two maxima, whereas the monthly numbers of thunderstorm days had one clear mid-latitude specific peak between June and August. The diurnal cycle of thunderstorm hours showed a peak between 1400 and 1800 local time and a minimum between 0400 and 1000 hours local time. The average annual duration of thunderstorm events was 112 min. The average number of thunderstorm events per thunderstorm day was around 1.1-1.2. Our results showed that the thunderstorm climate of the Baltic countries generally resembles that of other mid-latitude study sites.

Enno, S. E.; Briede, A.; Valiukas, D.

2013-01-01

201

Statistical characteristics of aerosol in Baltic Sea region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article presents the results of the aerosol measurements carried out on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea during 1986-1993. Aerosol size distributions in the diameter range of 0.01-10 mum have been measured with the electric aerosol spectrometer (EAS). A short description of EAS is given. The majority of number distributions obtained by measurements were of monomodal shape. Modal

Ü. Kikas; A. Mirme; E. Tamm; T. Raunemaa

1996-01-01

202

New energy markets in the Baltics and Eastern Europe  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the new energy markets development in Central and Eastern European countries. All attention in the article is paid to the Baltic States as economies of these countries were tighter integrated into the former Soviet Union economy, and this region is facing more severe problems in the transitional period. The main conclusion of the article is that a regional co-operation is the only way to lessen the burden of problems in creating independent and secure energy supply system.

Jankauskas, V.

1995-12-31

203

Dissolved phosphorus in the Baltic Sea — Occurrence and relevance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial variability of dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) concentrations throughout the whole Baltic Sea was investigated during two cruises in summer 2008 and in late winter/early spring 2009. In addition, bioavailable phosphorus was detected in the central Baltic and in the Gulfs of Bothnia and Finland during the summer cruise. Highest summer DOP concentrations of 0.32 ± 0.05 ?M have been estimated in the Baltic Proper, followed by the Gulf of Finland to be having a mean concentration of 0.25 ± 0.01 ?M. DOP decreased down to 0.12 ?M in the Bothnian Bay. Similar low concentrations were found in the Skagerrak. The same spatial DOP pattern but at a lower concentration level like in summer 2008 was estimated in the central and northern regions during the cruise in late winter/early spring 2009. The bioavailable and refractory DOP fractions (B-DOP and R-DOP, respectively) were determined in time course experiments excluding C- and N-limitation. In all basins, the R-DOP constituted a higher proportion of DOP compared to B-DOP. A gradient has been observed from the northernmost station of the Bothnian Bay to the southern Gotland Basin. In the Bothnian Bay, B-DOP exhibited the lowest amounts of only 0.01 ?M comprising 8% of DOP, highest concentrations occurred in the Gotland Basin constituting a proportion of 25-29%. In the Gulf of Finland, B-DOP comprised a proportion up to 46% of DOP at lower concentrations compared to the Gotland Basin. Thus the Bothnian Bay was depleted in total bioavailable phosphorus (DIP + B-DOP) opposite to the southern Baltic Proper where the sum of B-DOP + DIP was 40 times higher.

Nausch, Monika; Nausch, Günther

2011-07-01

204

One hundred years of hydrographic measurements in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first measurements of salinity of the deep water in the open Baltic Sea were made in the last decades of the 1800s. At a Scandinavian science meeting in Copenhagen in 1892, Professor Otto Pettersson from Sweden suggested that regular measurements of hydrographic parameters should be carried out at some important deep stations in the Baltic Sea. His suggestion was adopted and since that time we have rather complete hydrographical data from the Bornholm Deep, the Gotland Deep, and the Landsort Deep and from some stations in the Gulf of Bothnia. The measurements were interrupted in the Baltic Proper during the two World Wars. At the beginning only salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen were measured and one or two expeditions were carried out annually, mostly in summer. In the 1920s also alkalinity and pH were occasionally measured and total carbonate was calculated. A few nutrient measurements were also carried out. After World War II we find results from four or more expeditions every year and intercalibration of methods was arranged. Results of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen measurements from the Bornholm Deep, the Gotland Deep, the Landsort Deep and salinity measurements from three stations in the Gulf of Bothnia, covering the whole 20th century are presented and discussed. The salinity distribution and the variations between oxygen and hydrogen sulphide periods in the deep water of the Gotland Deep and the Landsort Deep are demonstrated. Series of phosphate and nitrate distribution in the Gotland Deep are shown from the 1950s to the present and the effects of the stagnant conditions are briefly discussed. Two large inflows of highly saline water, the first during the First World War and the second in 1951, are demonstrated. The 20th century minimum salinity of the bottom water in the Baltic Proper in 1992 is discussed.

Fonselius, Stig; Valderrama, Jorge

2003-06-01

205

Eye function of Mysidacea (Crustacea) in the northern Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eye spectral sensitivity, [S(?)], was measured in seven northern Baltic mysid species using an electroretinogram technique. Their S(?) curves were compared with the spectral distribution of underwater light at their normal habitats. In the littoral species Neomysis integer, Praunus flexuosus and Praunus inermis, the S(?) maxima, [S(?)max], were in the wavelength-bands of 525–535, 505–515 and 520–530 nm respectively. The neoimmigrant

Magnus Lindström

2000-01-01

206

A new species of Ctenoplectrella in Baltic amber (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)  

E-print Network

, with shallow punctures separated by 1–4 times a puncture width. 320 M. S. ENGEL Acta zool. hung. 54, 2008 A NEW SPECIES OF CTENOPLECTRELLA IN BALTIC AMBER (HYMENOPTERA: MEGACHILIDAE) 321 Acta zool. hung. 54, 2008 Fig. 1. Photomicrograph of entire amber piece... received April 1, 2008, accepted July 17, 2008, published November 21, 2008 324 M. S. ENGEL Acta zool. hung. 54, 2008 ...

Engel, Michael S.

2008-01-01

207

Mitogenomics of recombinant mitochondrial genomes of Baltic Sea Mytilus mussels.  

PubMed

Recombination in the control region (CR) of Mytilus mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was originally reported based on the relatively short, sequenced fragments of mitochondrial genomes. Recombination outside the CR has been reported recently with the suggestion that such processes are common in Mytilus. We have fully sequenced a set of 11 different mitochondrial haplotypes representing the high diversity of paternally inherited mitochondrial genomes of Baltic Sea Mytilus mussels, including the haplotype close to the native Mytilus trossulus mitochondrial genome, which was thought to have been entirely eliminated from this population. Phylogenetic and comparative analysis showed that the recombination is limited to the vicinity of the CR in all sequenced genomes. Coding sequence comparison indicated that all paternally inherited genomes showed increased accumulation of nonsynonymous substitutions, including the genomes which switched their transmission route very recently. The acquisition of certain CR sequences through recombination with highly divergent paternally inherited genomes seems to precede and favor the switch, but it is not a prerequisite for this process. Interspecies hybridization in the Baltic Sea during the recent 10,000 years created conditions for both structural and evolutionary mitochondrial instability which resulted in the observed variation and dynamics of mtDNA in Baltic Sea Mytilus mussels. In conclusion, the data shows that the effects of mitochondrial recombination are limited to the CR of few phylogenetic lineages. PMID:25079914

Zbawicka, Ma?gorzata; Wenne, Roman; Burzy?ski, Artur

2014-12-01

208

Mass Balance of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in the Baltic Sea  

PubMed Central

A mass balance was assembled for perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in the Baltic Sea. Inputs (from riverine discharge, atmospheric deposition, coastal wastewater discharges, and the North Sea) and outputs (to sediment burial, transformation of the chemical, and the North Sea), as well as the inventory in the Baltic Sea, were estimated from recently published monitoring data. Formation of the chemicals in the water column from precursors was not considered. River inflow and atmospheric deposition were the dominant inputs, while wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents made a minor contribution (<5%). A mass balance of the Oder River watershed was assembled to explore the sources of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the river inflow. It indicated that WWTP effluents made only a moderate contribution to riverine discharge (21% for PFOA, 6% for PFOS), while atmospheric deposition to the watershed was 1–2 orders of magnitude greater than WWTP discharges. The input to the Baltic Sea exceeded the output for all four PFAAs, suggesting that inputs were higher during 2005–2010 than during the previous 20 years despite efforts to reduce emissions of PFAAs. One possible explanation is the retention and delayed release of PFAAs from atmospheric deposition in the soils and groundwater of the watershed. PMID:23528236

2013-01-01

209

Standing waves in the Gulf of Finland and their relationship to the basin-wide Baltic seiches  

E-print Network

Standing waves in the Gulf of Finland and their relationship to the basin-wide Baltic seiches Bror was used to study different harmonic oscillations in the Baltic Sea. The model was initialized using indications of basin-wide seiches in the Baltic could be found from our simulations. These results were

Nycander, Jonas

210

RUSSIAN ENTOMOLOGICAL JOURNAL, 2002Russian Entomol. J. 11(3): ABSTRACT. Syntypes of the Baltic amber ants  

E-print Network

© RUSSIAN ENTOMOLOGICAL JOURNAL, 2002Russian Entomol. J. 11(3): ABSTRACT. Syntypes of the Baltic described ants from the Baltic amber [Mayr, 1868]. Among 44 described species, he referred Lasius. and Ponera coarctata (Latr.). W. M. Wheeler [1915] in his monographic revision of the Baltic amber ants has

Villemant, Claire

211

An evaluation of MODIS and SeaWiFS bio-optical algorithms in the Baltic Sea  

E-print Network

An evaluation of MODIS and SeaWiFS bio-optical algorithms in the Baltic Sea Miroslaw Dareckia) and Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) ocean color (in-water) algorithms in the Baltic Sea these standard algorithms inadequate for pigment determinations in the Baltic. Although new parameterization

Stramski, Dariusz

212

The Internationalisation of Baltic Library and Information Science Education with Emphasis on the Cooperation with Nordic Partners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the development of library and information science education (LIS) in the Baltic and Nordic countries and gives a brief overview of the historical and present connections of these countries. The similarities and differences between the Baltic countries as well as the Nordic and Baltic higher education systems are described.…

Virkus, Sirje; Harbo, Ole

2002-01-01

213

Performance comparison of two biotic indices measuring the ecological status of water bodies in the Southern Baltic  

E-print Network

in the Southern Baltic and Gulf of Lions Dirk Fleischer a,*, Antoine Gre´mare b , Ce´line Labrune b , Heye Rumohr Flanders Marine Institute ­ VLIZ, Wandelaarkaai 7, 8400 Oostende, Belgium e Baltic Sea Research Institute with regard to sampling effort was assessed based on two data sets collected in Southern Baltic and one from

Zettler, Michael

214

Past occurrences of hypoxia in the Baltic Sea and the role of climate variability, environmental change and human impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypoxic zone in the Baltic Sea has increased in area about four times since 1960 and widespread oxygen deficiency has severely reduced macro benthic communities below the halocline in the Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Finland, which in turn has affected food chain dynamics, fish habitats and fisheries in the entire Baltic Sea. The cause of increased hypoxia

Lovisa Zillén; Daniel J. Conley; Thomas Andrén; Elinor Andrén; Svante Björck

2008-01-01

215

The radiological exposure of man from radioactivity in the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radiological assessment has been carried out considering discharges of radioactivity to the Baltic Sea marine environment since 1950. The sources of radioactivity that have been evaluated are atmospheric nuclear-weapons fallout, fallout from the Chernobyl accident in 1986, discharges of radionuclides from Sellafield and La Hague transported into the Baltic Sea, and discharges of radionuclides from nuclear installations located in

S. P. Nielsen; P. Bengtson; R. Bojanowsky; P. Hagel; J Herrmann; E. Ilus; E. Jakobson; S. Motiejunas; Y. Panteleev; A. Skujina; M Suplinska

1999-01-01

216

Quantitative studies on gonad cycle, fecundity, reproductive output and recruitment in a baltic Mytilus edulis population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since Mytilus edulis L. is a biomass dominant in the Baltic much interest is focused on the ecology of the species. In this paper an attempt is made to quantitatively cover the reproductive cycle of a Baltic M. edulis population in order to provide data for energy flow models and to discuss aspects of recruitment in this species. Histological preparations

N. Kautsky

1982-01-01

217

Upwardly Mobile Languages: The Politics of Language in the Baltic States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines language policy in the Baltic states since they regained their independence from the Soviet Union. The article argues that each Baltic state has substantially realized its language policy aims and that the favorable response to language requirements at the group and individual level signals the extraordinary reversal of a colonial…

Ozolins, Uldis

1994-01-01

218

Managing nutrient fluxes and pollution in the Baltic: an interdisciplinary simulation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This interdisciplinary paper reports the results of a study into the costs and benefits of eutrophication reduction in the Baltic Sea. A large multidisciplinary team of natural and social scientists estimated nutrient loadings and pathways within the entire Baltic drainage basin, together with the costs of a range of abatement options and strategies. The abatement cost results were compared with

R. Kerry Turner; Stavros Georgiou; Ing-Marie Gren; Fredric Wulff; Scott Barrett; Tore Söderqvist; Ian J. Bateman; Carl Folke; Sindre Langaas; Tomasz ?ylicz; Karl-Göran Mäler; Agnieszka Markowska

1999-01-01

219

The gulf of Bothnia: The northernmost part of the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Baltic Sea, one of the largest brackish water areas in the world, can be characterized as a young, cold sea containing an impoverished ecosystem due to salinity stress. The present Baltic Sea was formed as late as 2000 to 2500 years ago when the Danish sounds became more narrow and shallow. The inflow of freshwater from the surrounding land

T. Sörlin

1982-01-01

220

High resolution model studies of transport of sedimentary material in the south-western Baltic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents high resolution model simulations of transport, deposition and resuspension of sedimentary material in the south-western Baltic, based on an upgrade of the sediment transport model described in the work of Kuhrts et al. [Kuhrts, C., Fennel, W., Seifert, T., 2004. Model studies of transport of sedimentary material in the Western Baltic. Journal of Marine Systems 52, 167.].

Torsten Seifert; Wolfgang Fennel; Christiane Kuhrts

2009-01-01

221

Invited Feature History and scenarios of future development of Baltic Sea eutrophication  

E-print Network

Invited Feature History and scenarios of future development of Baltic Sea eutrophication Maren Voss: eutrophication climatic changes land use models catchment area Baltic Sea a b s t r a c t Nutrient loads from watersheds, atmospheric deposition, and cyanobacterial nitrogen fixation have led to eutrophication

Dippner, Joachim W.

222

BaltDendro (Baltic Dendrochronology) a plat-form for regional cooperation among students, scien-  

E-print Network

BaltDendro (Baltic Dendrochronology) a plat- form for regional cooperation among students, scien-ring researchers to access this information more easily. Dendrochronology has old traditions in the Baltic States, going back a half a century. The Laboratory of Dendrochronology established in Kaunas in 1968 was one

223

Progress in physical oceanography of the Baltic Sea during the 2003-2014 period  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review progress in Baltic Sea physical oceanography (including sea ice and atmosphere-land interactions) and Baltic Sea modelling, focusing on research related to BALTEX Phase II and other relevant work during the 2003-2014 period. The major advances achieved in this period are:

Omstedt, A.; Elken, J.; Lehmann, A.; Leppäranta, M.; Meier, H. E. M.; Myrberg, K.; Rutgersson, A.

2014-11-01

224

Towards uncertainty estimation for operational forecast products - a multi-model-ensemble approach for the North Sea and the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several independent operational ocean models provide forecasts of the ocean state (e.g. sea level, temperature, salinity and ice cover) in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea on a daily basis. These forecasts are the primary source of information for a variety of information and emergency response systems used e.g. to issue sea level warnings or carry out oil drift forecast. The forecasts are of course highly valuable as such, but often suffer from a lack of information on their uncertainty. With the aim of augmenting the existing operational ocean forecasts in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea by a measure of uncertainty a multi-model-ensemble (MME) system for sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface salinity (SSS) and water transports has been set up in the framework of the MyOcean-2 project. Members of MyOcean-2, the NOOS² and HIROMB/BOOS³ communities provide 48h-forecasts serving as inputs. Different variables are processed separately due to their different physical characteristics. Based on the so far collected daily MME products of SST and SSS, a statistical method, Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis is applied to assess their spatial and temporal variability. For sea surface currents, progressive vector diagrams at specific points are consulted to estimate the performance of the circulation models especially in hydrodynamic important areas, e.g. inflow/outflow of the Baltic Sea, Norwegian trench and English Channel. For further versions of the MME system, it is planned to extend the MME to other variables like e.g. sea level, ocean currents or ice cover based on the needs of the model providers and their customers. It is also planned to include in-situ data to augment the uncertainty information and for validation purposes. Additionally, weighting methods will be implemented into the MME system to develop more complex uncertainty measures. The methodology used to create the MME will be outlined and different ensemble products will be presented. In addition, some preliminary results based on the statistical analysis of the uncertainty measures provide first estimates of the regional and temporal performance of the ocean models for each parameter. ²Northwest European Shelf Operational Oceanography System ³High-resolution Operational Model of the Baltic / Baltic Operational Oceanographic System

Golbeck, Inga; Li, Xin; Janssen, Frank

2014-05-01

225

Transmission Expansion Planning with Re-design  

E-print Network

‡CEPEL, Electric Energy Research Center, Eletrobrás Group. ... transmission network to operate correctly for a given set of generation values, computed apriori ... model with re-design when considering (N ? 1) security constraints, some ...

2010-05-17

226

Magnetic enhancement of Baltic Sea sapropels by greigite magnetofossils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are known to biosynthesise single-domain magnetite (Fe3O4) for geomagnetic navigation and their relict magnetosomes (called magnetofossils) can control the magnetic properties of lake and marine sediments. Magnetotactic bacteria also produce greigite (Fe3S4) magnetosomes but, compared to those made of magnetite, relatively little is known about the sedimentary environments where they are produced and the magnetic properties of the preserved particles. We studied the magnetic properties of sediment cores from two basins (the North Central Baltic Proper and eastern Gotland Basin) that currently experience hypoxia and we discovered the magnetic enhancement of older laminated sapropels, which are a signal of past occurrences of anoxia and hypoxia in the Baltic Sea. Magnetic concentrates extracted from the laminated sapropels were characterised by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and we identified only single-domain greigite (Fe3S4) particles with a mean size of 55×75 nm, which we interpret as magnetofossils due to diagnostic chains of individual particles separated by an intact dividing membrane. The degree of magnetic enhancement in the laminated sapropels has a positive relationship with loss-on-ignition data, which indicates a link between the production of greigite magnetosomes, organic matter supply and preservation and redox conditions. The coercive force of collections of non-interacting greigite magnetofossils is ?13 mT, which is considerably lower than the magnetite counterparts (?30 mT) and strictly non-bacterial and larger greigite single-domain grains (?60 mT). The values of the interparametric ratios of SIRM/?, ?ARM/SIRM and ?ARM/? that we obtain for our greigite magnetofossils overlap with those previously considered to be diagnostic of magnetosomal magnetite. The presence of bacterial greigite, which is easily detected by magnetic measurements, forms a proxy for hypoxia and anoxia, thus aiding the palaeoenvironmental interpretation of how oxygen conditions in the Baltic Sea have changed over time.

Reinholdsson, M.; Snowball, I.; Zillén, L.; Lenz, C.; Conley, D. J.

2013-03-01

227

Lead mobilization during tectonic reactivation of the western Baltic Shield  

SciTech Connect

Lead isotope data from sulfide deposits of the western part of the Baltic Shield define mixing lines in the [sup 206]Pb/[sup 204]Pb-[sup 207]Pb/[sup 204]Pb diagram. Lead from two types of sulfide deposits have been investigated: (1) Exhalative and volcanogenic deposits that are syngenetic with their host rocks; and (2) vein deposits. The syngenetic deposits locally show a very wide range of lead isotopic compositions that reflect a variable addition of highly radiogenic lead, while the vein deposits, although they have radiogenic lead isotopic compositions, exhibit only limited isotopic variations. In different provinces of the shield, both types of deposits fall on the same lead mixing array. The slope of the lead mixing lines varies as a function of the age of basement rocks and the age of the tectonic event which produced the lead mobilization and therefore relates the source rock age with the age of lead mobilization. Calculated mixing ages fall into several short time periods that correspond either to orogenic events or to major phases of continental rifting. The orogenic events are the ca 360--430 Ma Caledonian, ca 900--1100 Ma Sveconorwegian, and the ca 1800--1900 Ma Svecofennian orogenic cycles. The rifting events correspond to the formation of the ca 280 Ma Oslo rift and the Ordovician (ca 450 Ma) graben system in the area of the present Gulf of Bothnia. Each mixing age indicates that lead was mobilized, probably as a consequence of mild thermal disturbances, and that the crust was permeable to lead migration. The data show that the geographic distribution of sulfide deposits with highly radiogenic lead isotopic compositions coincides with old graben systems, orogenic belts, and orogenic forelands on the Baltic Shield. The ages of vein deposits and their geographic distribution demonstrate multiple tectonic reactivation of the interior of the Baltic Shield in response to orogenic events at its margin. 68 refs., 6 refs., 4 tabs.

Romer, R.L. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States) Luleaa Univ. (Sweden)); Wright, J.E. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States))

1993-06-01

228

PREFACE: 5th Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Logo This Volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering presents a selection of the contributions to the 5th Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials (BaltSilica2011) held at Riga Technical University, Riga, Latvia from 23-25 May 2011. The conference was organized by Riga Technical University (Latvia) and Kaunas University of Technology (Lithuania). The series of Baltic conferences on silicate materials was started since 2004: the first conference was held in Riga, Latvia, 2004; the second conference was held in Kaunas, Lithuania 2005; the third was held again in Riga, Latvia, 2007, and the fourth was held in Kaunas, Lithuania 2009. BaltSilica 2011 was attended by around 50 participants from Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Germany, Poland, Italy, France, Ukraine and Russia. In comparison with previous silicate materials conferences, the broadening of participating countries is an indication of the interest of scientists, engineers and students to exchange research ideas, latest results, and to find new research topics for cooperation in the fields of silicate, high temperature materials, and inorganic nanomaterials. The scientific programme included 8 invited plenary lectures 23 oral presentations and 25 posters [1]. Scientific themes covered in the conference and in this special issue: Natural and Artificial Stone Materials; Traditional and New Ceramic and Glass-Like Materials; Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials. This volume consists of 23 selected proceeding papers. The Editor of this special issue is grateful to all the contributors to BaltSilica 2011. I am also very grateful to the scientific committee, the local organizing committee, the session chairs, the referees who refereed the submitted articles to this issue, and to students from the Department of Silicate, High Temperature and Inorganic Nanomaterials Technology of the Riga Technical University who ensured the smooth running of the conference. Particular thanks goes to eight plenary speakers who provided interesting findings and thoughtful overviews in the scientific themes of the conference. Special thanks go to Prof., Dr.rer.nat. Günther Heinz Frischat (Germany) who encouraged and supported the organization of these scientific meetings from the very first BaltSilica conferences. With warm regards and best wishes for the next BaltSilica conference. The Conference Chairman Gundars Mezinskis Reference [1] Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials. Book of abstracts of the 5th Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials BaltSilica 2011 : 23-25 May 2011, Riga, Latvia ed G Mezinskis, G Sedmale, J Setina, I Sperberga, L Krage, I Pavlovska, D Andersone (Riga: RTU Publishing House) p 94

Mezinskis, G.; Bragina, L.; Colombo, P.; Frischat, G. H.; Grabis, J.; Greil, P.; Deja, J.; Kaminskas, R.; Kliava, J.; Medvids, A.; Nowak, I.; Siauciunas, R.; Valancius, Z.; Zalite, I.

2011-12-01

229

An ant-associated mesostigmatid mite in Baltic amber.  

PubMed

Fossil mesostigmatid mites (Acari: Parasitiformes: Mesostigmata) are extremely rare, and specimens from only nine families, including four named species, have been described so far. A new record of Myrmozercon sp. described here from Eocene (ca 44-49 Myr) Baltic amber represents the first-and so far only-fossil example of the derived, extant family Laelapidae. Significantly, modern species of this genus are habitually myrmecophilous and the fossil mite described here is preserved attached to the head of the dolichoderine ant Ctenobethylus goepperti (Mayr, 1868). It thus offers the oldest unequivocal evidence for an ecological association between mesostigmatid mites and social insects in the order Hymenoptera. PMID:25209198

Dunlop, Jason A; Kontschán, Jen?; Walter, David E; Perrichot, Vincent

2014-09-01

230

Baltic Sea Region: GIS, Maps and Statistical Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United Nations Environment Programme GRID-Arendal information center, UNEP/GRID-Arendal (described in the June 24, 1998 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) has recently released these data sets for the Baltic Sea Region. The data sets cover Arable Lands (350 K), Land and Ocean/Coastline (830 K), Land Cover (710 K), Pasture Lands (270 K), Population Density (890 K), Sub-watershed Drainage Basins (520 K), and Wetlands Distribution (10 K) and are downloadable as compressed files (.zip format). Instructions for downloading, and descriptions of parameters are provided on site.

231

Sedimentary record of environmental pollution in the Western Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chronological development of environmental pollution in the Western Baltic Sea for the past hundred years was investigated in dated sediment cores. An artificial radionuclide (137Cs), nutrients, heavy metals, chlorinated hydrocarbons (PCB, DDT, Lindane) and plasticizers (phthalate esters) show characteristic distribution patterns within the various cores. They can be related to the production and use of specific chemicals and goods, to emissions associated with the increased combustion of coal parallel to industrialization and —in the case of 137Cs — to emissions associated with atomic weapons tests in the high atmosphere. Characteristic trends in the general development of pollution may be superimposed by specific emissions from local sources.

Müller, German; Dominik, J.; Reuther, R.; Malisch, R.; Schulte, E.; Acker, L.; Irion, G.

1980-12-01

232

Mapping the Cosmological Expansion  

E-print Network

The ability to map the cosmological expansion has developed enormously, spurred by the turning point one decade ago of the discovery of cosmic acceleration. The standard model of cosmology has shifted from a matter dominated, standard gravity, decelerating expansion to the present search for the origin of acceleration in the cosmic expansion. We present a wide ranging review of the tools, challenges, and physical interpretations. The tools include direct measures of cosmic scales through Type Ia supernova luminosity distances, and angular distance scales of baryon acoustic oscillation and cosmic microwave background density perturbations, as well as indirect probes such as the effect of cosmic expansion on the growth of matter density fluctuations. Accurate mapping of the expansion requires understanding of systematic uncertainties in both the measurements and the theoretical framework, but the result will give important clues to the nature of the physics behind accelerating expansion and to the fate of the universe.

Eric V. Linder

2008-03-07

233

2005b. Nitrogen cycle of the Baltic Sea from an isotopic perspective. Global Biogeochemical Cycles  

E-print Network

[1] Stable nitrogen isotope ratios ( 15 N / 14 N; d 15 N) were determined in sediments, suspended matter, and water at selected sites in the Baltic Sea area in order to set up a source budget and trace the fate of anthropogenic N sources. Sediments of the shallow near-coastal area of the southern and eastern Baltic Sea have an average d 15 Nof 7.3 ± 2.1%, interpreted as a characteristic trace of residual anthropogenic nitrogen delivered by rivers and diffuse runoff. In contrast, d 15 N values in sediments deposited in the basins of the central Baltic Sea are depleted (average d 15 N of 3.5 ± 0.6%), indicating a significant contribution by diazotrophic cyanobacteria. Statistical analysis of long-term nutrient data (1969–2001) indicates no increase in nitrate concentrations in the central Baltic Proper, where only phosphate concentrations have increased. The physical circulation pattern and the enthalpy, as derived from a circulation model, show a closed circulation cell in the Baltic Proper with limited transport of riverine material into the basins and elevated temperatures in the Baltic Proper. Together, the isotope and nutrient data suggest that eutrophication by riverine nitrogen is pronounced in the coastal rim of the Baltic Sea, and that coastal sediments appear to be very efficient in removing riverborne nitrogen by denitrification. A nitrogen isotope mass balance model suggests that N loss by sediment denitrification and N input by N fixation can be as high as 855 ktons N yr 1.

234

Microsatellite variation in ringed seals (Phoca hispida): genetic structure and history of the Baltic Sea population.  

PubMed

Genetic variability and population structure of Baltic ringed seals and an Arctic reference population were assessed using eight microsatellite loci. Ringed seals colonized the Baltic Sea basin soon after deglaciation 11 500 years ago and are supposed to have remained largely isolated from the main Arctic stock since then, approximately 1000 generations. In the 1900s the Baltic population declined rapidly, and is now confined to three distinct breeding areas, with N < 6000 seals altogether. Microsatellite heterozygosity in ringed seals was higher than that in the closely related, boreal harbour seal and grey seal, for which the markers were initially developed. This is plausibly attributed to an overall greater population (species) size of ringed seals during the Quaternary. Allele frequency differentiation between the Baltic and Arctic ringed seals, conventionally treated as different subspecies, was weak. Assuming complete isolation, the divergence (FST=0.023) would imply a notably high postglacial effective population size, approximately 20 000 for the Baltic population. The isolation assumption however, seems unrealistic in the light of the data: a coalescent-based simulation approach to the likelihood of alternative demographic histories clearly favoured a scenario with recurrent gene flow to the Baltic, over one of complete isolation (drift only). Within the Baltic Sea, no differentiation was found between the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia breeding areas; the recent population decline and split have not yet affected the inbreeding levels of the disjunct breeding stocks. PMID:11554977

Palo, J U; Mäkinen, H S; Helle, E; Stenman, O; Väinölä, R

2001-05-01

235

Renal lesions in Baltic grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) and ringed seals (Phoca hispida botnica).  

PubMed

A severe reduction in the populations of grey and ringed seals in the Baltic occurred during the 1960s and 1970s. Adult animals showed (and still show) a series of lesions inter alia in the female reproductive organs, intestines, integument, kidneys, adrenals, and skulls (the Baltic seal disease complex). The morphology and prevalence of light microscopic changes in the kidneys of 76 grey seals and 29 ringed seals collected in the Baltic proper and the Gulf of Bothnia during 1977-1996 are presented in this report. Specific changes in the glomeruli were diffuse thickening of the capillary walls and the presence of large, rounded, hyaline bodies in the capillary or capsular walls. Specific changes in the distal convoluted tubules and the collecting ducts included focal replacement of the normal epithelium by multilayered cell proliferations. The prevalence and extent of the changes were age-related and thus correlated with the time of exposure to environmental toxicants. The lesions were more conspicuous in Baltic grey seals than in Baltic ringed seals. Similar findings were recorded in 5 grey seals from Swedish zoological gardens. These animals had been fed Baltic fish for most of their lives. Electron microscopy was performed on 5 of the Baltic grey seals and on one of the grey seals from zoological gardens. Electron microscopy results mainly based on findings in one of the Baltic grey seals, included mesangial inter-position in the glomerular capillary walls and the characteristics of intercalated cells in cell proliferations in the distal parts of the nephrons. Eleven grey seals from the Scottish coast and 23 ringed seals from Svalbard served as reference material. None of the reference seals showed the specific lesions described above. The authors propose that organochlorine pollution of the Baltic environment is a factor in the cause of these kidney changes. PMID:11795214

Bergman, A; Bergstrand, A; Bignert, A

2001-11-01

236

Structural evolution and petroleum productivity of the Baltic basin  

SciTech Connect

The Baltic basin is an oval depression located in the western part of the Russian craton; it occupies the eastern Baltic Sea and adjacent onshore areas. The basin contains more than 5,000 m of sedimentary rocks ranging from latest Proterozoic to Tertiary in age. These rocks consist of four tectonostratigraphic sequences deposited during major tectonic episodes of basin evolution. Principal unconformities separate the sequences. The basin is underlain by a rift probably filled with Upper Proterozoic rocks. Vendian and Lower Cambrian rocks (Baikalian sequence) form two northeast-trending depressions. The principal stage of the basin development was during deposition of a thick Middle Cambrian-Lower Devonian (Caledonian) sequence. This stage was terminated by the most intense deformations in the basin history. The Middle Devonian-Carboniferous (Hercynian) and Permian-Tertiary (Kimmerian-Alpine) tectonic and depositional cycles only slightly modified the basin geometry and left intact the main structural framework of underlying rocks. The petroleum productivity of the basin is related to the Caledonian tectonostratigraphic sequence that contains both source rocks and reservoirs. However, maturation of source rocks, migration of oil, and formation of fields took place mostly during deposition of the Hercynian sequence.

Ulmishek, G.F. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States))

1991-08-01

237

The history of cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Long-term information on possible changes in cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea, formed mainly by Nodularia spumigena and Aphanizomenon sp., was sought in published records in historical (years 1887-1938) and modern (years 1974-1998) phytoplankton data sets. Old and new sampling methods and fixatives were tested to improve the comparison of data that had been collected and analyzed in different ways. A hundred years ago, plankton was mainly of interest as a source of fish food; eutrophication problems were only locally reported from the coast, mainly in southern haffs and the receiving waters of larger cities. There were few recordings of open-sea blooms before World War II. Abundances of Nodularia spumigena and Aphanizomenon sp. were low in the old material, and 137 summer samples from 1887-1938 showed no peak abundance. High abundances are common in the new material, and the range of the numbers of both taxa has increased markedly relative to the old material. Since the 1960s, cyanobacterial blooms have been common in the open sea in both the Baltic proper and the Gulf of Finland, indicating high availability of nutrients. PMID:11697246

Finni, T; Kononen, K; Olsonen, R; Wallström, K

2001-08-01

238

Denitrification in the river estuaries of the northern Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Estuaries have been suggested to have an important role in reducing the nitrogen load transported to the sea. We measured denitrification rates in six estuaries of the northern Baltic Sea. Four of them were river mouths in the Bothnian Bay (northern Gulf of Bothnia), and two were estuary bays, one in the Archipelago Sea (southern Gulf of Bothnia) and the other in the Gulf of Finland. Denitrification rates in the four river mouths varied between 330 and 905 micromol N m(-2) d(-1). The estuary bays at the Archipelago Sea and the Gulf of Bothnia had denitrification rates from 90 micromol N m(-2) d(-1) to 910 micromol N m(-2) d(-1) and from 230 micromol N m(-2) d(-1) to 320 micromol N m(-2) d(-1), respectively. Denitrification removed 3.6-9.0% of the total nitrogen loading in the river mouths and in the estuary bay in the Gulf of Finland, where the residence times were short. In the estuary bay with a long residence time, in the Archipelago Sea, up to 4.5% of nitrate loading and 19% of nitrogen loading were removed before entering the sea. According to our results, the sediments of the fast-flowing rivers and the estuary areas with short residence times have a limited capacity to reduce the nitrogen load to the Baltic Sea. PMID:17520925

Silvennoinen, Hanna; Hietanen, Susanna; Liikanen, Anu; Stange, C Florian; Russow, Rolf; Kuparinen, Jorma; Martikainen, Pertti J

2007-04-01

239

Anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus diet in the North and Baltic Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diet of anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicolus) in the North and Baltic Seas was studied using stomach analysis from four sampling events in different areas. Zooplanktivory was confirmed; the most frequent prey items (in over 40% of stomachs) were copepods, malacostracan larvae and fish larvae. In the Baltic Sea, Paracalanus spp. and Pseudocalanus spp. were important in relative terms; in the German Bight, Temora spp. dominated the stomach contents. Relative abundances of prey items varied with area more than absolute abundance or presence absence of items. Moreover, the level of resolution of prey categories influenced which prey categories were considered to be most important in driving variability in stomach content. Anchovy diet is broad across the seasons, years and areas sampled, suggesting that it is not a specialist feeder in the North Sea. The similarity of diet between anchovy and other clupeids, as well as anchovy consumption of larval fish, makes the new increased anchovy population a potential intraguild predator of commercial species like herring.

Raab, K.; Nagelkerke, L. A. J.; Boerée, C.; Rijnsdorp, A. D.; Temming, A.; Dickey-Collas, M.

2011-01-01

240

Optically black waters in the northern Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The peculiar bio-optical properties of the northernmost waters of the Baltic Sea (Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay) are illustrated by exploiting unique in situ measurements of apparent and inherent optical properties collected in 2007. Specifically, this study shows that the high values of absorption by colored dissolved organic matter (ays(412) around 1.4 m-1) resulting from the presence of humic matter brought by the numerous Swedish and Finnish rivers alimenting the basin are not correlated with high concentrations of particles as generally observed in the southern Baltic Sea. As a consequence, extremely low values (i.e., less than 0.5) of the ratio of scattering to absorption are observed in the blue spectral region. The corresponding spectra of normalized water leaving radiance are close to satisfy the “black pixel” assumption in the blue and even in the green part of the visible spectrum. Consequently, the Bothnian Sea and most of all the Bothnian Bay, appear ideal candidates for studies on atmospheric corrections and vicarious calibration of ocean color sensors in coastal waters.

Berthon, Jean-François; Zibordi, Giuseppe

2010-05-01

241

Hypoxia Sustains Cyanobacteria Blooms in the Baltic Sea  

PubMed Central

Nutrient over-enrichment is one of the classic triggering mechanisms for the occurrence of cyanobacteria blooms in aquatic ecosystems. In the Baltic Sea, cyanobacteria regularly occur in the late summer months and form nuisance accumulations in surface waters and their abundance has intensified significantly in the past 50 years attributed to human-induced eutrophication. However, the natural occurrence of cyanobacteria during the Holocene is debated. In this study, we present records of cyanobacteria pigments, water column redox proxies, and nitrogen isotopic signatures for the past ca. 8000 years from Baltic Sea sediment cores. Our results demonstrate that cyanobacteria abundance and nitrogen fixation are correlated with hypoxia occurring during three main intervals: (1) ca. 7000–4000 B.P. during the Littorina transgression, (2) ca. 1400–700 B.P. during the Medieval Climate Anomaly, and (3) from ca. 1950 A.D. to the present. Issues of preservation were investigated, and we show that organic matter and pigment profiles are not simply an artifact of preservation. These results suggest that cyanobacteria abundance is sustained during periods of hypoxia, most likely because of enhanced recycling of phosphorus in low oxygen conditions. PMID:24512281

2014-01-01

242

Radioactive pollution of the waters of the baltic sea during 1986  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented from an investigation of radioactive pollution of the waters of the Baltic Sea during 1986. Inhomogeneities in the pollution of this area of water, due to varying density of atmospheric radioactive fallout, are detected. It is found that among the radionuclides entering the surface of the Baltic Sea in 1986 as a result of atmospheric transport, the main one in terms of radiation dose is cesium-137. Comparisons are made of the level of cesium-137 content in the waters of the Baltic Sea in 1986 and in preceding years. It is noted that even in the most polluted regions of the sea the cesium-137 content was 500 times less than the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) in the USSR for drinking water. The first results of the determination of plutonium-239 and 240 in the Baltic Sea are presented.

Lazarev, L.N.; Kuznetsov, Yu.V.; Gedeonov, L.I.; Gavrilov, V.M.; Gritchenko, Z.G.; Ivanova, L.M.; Orlova, T.E.; Tishkova, N.A.

1989-01-01

243

A fossil species of the primitive mymarid genus Borneomymar (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) in Eocene Baltic amber  

E-print Network

A new fossil species of fairyfly (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Mymaridae) is described and figured from a well-preserved female in middle Eocene (Lutetian) Baltic amber as Borneomymar pankowskiorum Engel, McKellar, & Huber, new species. This species...

Engel, Michael S.; McKellar, Ryan C.; Huber, John T.

2013-12-06

244

Intrusion of radioactive industrially polluted water from North Sea into central Baltic Sea  

SciTech Connect

The problem of penetration of radioactive industrially polluted water into the central Baltic Sea was studied. The content of Cs-134 as determined in water near the bottom of deep water trenches along the path traveled by North Sea water entering the Baltic. Samples were taken at 5 locations, with Cs-134 concentrated from samples of several thousands of liters. It was found that radioactive pollution caused by the entry of water from the North Sea extends through the system of deep water depressions into the Baltic as far as the Gotland trench. The greatest degree of contamination is found in the Arkona depression adjacent to the straits. The concentration of Cs-134 in the Gdansk trench is one-half as great and in the Gotland trench one-third as great as in the Arkona depression. Radioactive contamination in the Baltic is attributed to discharge of radioactive wastes by plants at Windscale.

Vakulovskiy, S.M.; Nikitin, A.I.

1985-02-01

245

A new species of the bee genus Ctenoplectrella in middle Eocene Baltic amber (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae)  

E-print Network

A new species of the extinct bee genus Ctenoplectrella Cockerell (Megachilinae: Ctenoplectrellini) is described and figured from two females preserved in middle Eocene (Lutetian) Baltic amber. Ctenoplectrella phaeton sp. n. is distinguished from its...

Gonzalez, Victor H.; Engel, Michael S.

2011-06-22

246

Universities and Adult Education in Central and East European and Baltic Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of adult education in the Baltic States and Central and Eastern Europe in terms of noncredit education (university extension), professional continuing education, part-time degree study, distance education, adult educator training, and research. (SK)

Kulich, Jindra

1996-01-01

247

The Cost of Improving Gas Supply Security in the Baltic States  

E-print Network

The Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania) are three amongst the smallest gas markets in Europe. They import all the gas they consume from Russia, with whom they have difficult political relationships. A disruption of their supply from Russia...

Noel, Pierre; Findlater, Sachi; Chyong, Chi Kong

2012-01-23

248

A new species of Diochus from Baltic amber (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Diochini)  

E-print Network

The first fossil of the staphylinine tribe Diochini Casey is described and figured from an inclusion in mid-Eocene (Lutetian) Baltic amber. Diochus electrus sp. n. is distinguished from its congeners and the diversity of rove beetles (Staphylinidae...

Chatzimanolis, Stylianos; Engel, Michael S.

2011-10-19

249

Genetic differentiation of southeast Baltic populations of sea trout inferred from single nucleotide polymorphisms.  

PubMed

Sea trout (Salmo trutta m. trutta) is a migratory form of brown trout common in the Baltic Sea. Nine populations from the southeast Baltic (Poland; Lithuania; Denmark, Bornholm; Estonia and Russia) were genotyped using iPLEX Gold technology (Sequenom) with 62 informative SNPs. A diagnostic panel of 23 SNPs was applied to estimate genetic differentiation and assess the population structure of Baltic sea trout. The highest level of pairwise FST differences was observed between the Russian (East Gulf of Finland) and Polish (Baltic main basin) populations. The lowest differences were between the two Polish and the Polish and Lithuanian populations. A genetic similarity was noted between the Estonian Riguldi River and Danish Bornholm populations, and this finding was supported by a Bayesian and factorial correspondence analysis. Diversity within populations was highest for populations from Estonia and lowest for the Lithuanian population. Genetic structure analysis indicated that individuals from the nine populations were clustered into four groups. PMID:24236931

Po?wierz-Kotus, A; Berna?, R; D?bowski, P; Kent, M P; Lien, S; Kesler, M; Titov, S; Leli?na, E; Jespersen, H; Drywa, A; Wenne, R

2014-02-01

250

Frequencies and pathways of deep cyclones forcing major inflows to the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The salt budget of the Baltic Sea is determined by a balance between saline inflow from the Kattegat and brackish water outflow from the Baltic through the Danish Straits. River runoff and precipitation cause dilution while evaporation acts in the opposite direction. Ice formation and melting act as evaporation and precipitation, respectively, but have no influence on an annual timescale. Generally, during dry periods the mean salinity of the Baltic Sea increases while during wet periods a decrease will happen. These long-term changes are overlaid by the atmospheric-driven water exchange between North Sea and Baltic Sea. The salinity and the stratification in the deep basins are linked to the occurrence of Major Baltic Inflows (MBIs) of higher saline water of North Sea origin, which occur sporadically and transport higher saline and oxygenated water to deeper layers. These major inflows are often followed by stagnation periods with no strong saline inflows, during which the permanent halocline weakens, even disappears in some basins, and extended areas of oxygen deficiency develop in those regions where the salinity stratification remains. Since the mid-1970s, the frequency and intensity of major inflows have decreased. They were completely absent between February 1983 and January 1993. However, in spite of the decreasing frequency of MBIs, there was no obvious decrease in the frequency of larger Baltic Sea volume changes. Generally, strong inflows to the Baltic Sea are driven by strong to very strong westerly winds. For most effective inflows the frequency and pathways of deep cyclones are important. Furthermore, Atlantic cyclone frequencies and associated storm tracks are highly correlated with the NAO. Based on NCEP/NCAR and ERA Interim SLP reanalysis data for the period 1950-2013, deep cyclones variability over the northern North Atlantic, North Sea and Baltic Sea region has been analyzed, and cyclones frequencies and characteristic pathways have been related to large Baltic Sea volume changes. The work is a contribution to the recently launched Earth system research network for the Baltic region ''Baltic Earth''.

Lehmann, Andreas; Myrberg, Kai; Höflich, Katharina; Getzlaff, Klaus

2014-05-01

251

Time trends of chlordane, DDT, and PCB concentrations in pike ( Esox lucius ) and Baltic herring ( Clupea harengus ) in the Turku archipelago, northern Baltic sea for the period 1971–1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of PCB- and DDT-compounds in Baltic wildlife have been extensively studied during the last decade. Since the use of DDT was banned in the early 70's in many countries, including those in Baltic area, the level of DDT-compounds has decreased in the Baltic environment by PAASIVIRTA and LINKO (198o)o The use of PCBcompounds is now banned in Sweden

Raija Moilanen; Heikki Pyysalo; Kim Wickström; Reino Linko

1982-01-01

252

Denitrification in the water column of the central Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Removal of fixed nitrogen in the water column of the eastern Gotland Basin, central Baltic Sea, was studied during two cruises in September 2008 and August 2010. The water column was stratified with anoxic sulfidic bottom water meeting oxic nitrate containing water at the oxic-anoxic interface. Anammox was never detected whereas denitrification was found in all incubations from anoxic depths and occurred immediately below the oxic-anoxic interface. Sulfide (H2S + HS- + S2-) was in most cases the only electron donor for denitrification but, in contrast to previous findings, denitrification was in some situations driven by organic matter alone. Nitrous oxide (N2O) became an increasingly important product of denitrification with increasing sulfide concentration and was >80% of the total N gas formation at 10 ?M sulfide. The potential rates of denitrification measured in incubations at elevated NO3- or sulfide concentrations were converted to in situ rates using the measured water column concentrations of NO3- and sulfide and the actual measured relations between NO3- and sulfide concentrations and denitrification rates. In situ denitrification ranged from 0.24 to 15.9 nM N2 h-1. Assuming that these rates were valid throughout the anoxic NO3- containing zone, depth integrated in situ denitrification rates of 0.06-2.11 mmol N m-2 d-1 were estimated. The thickness of this zone was generally 3-6 m, which is probably what can be maintained through regular turbulent mixing induced by internal waves at the oxic-anoxic interface. However, layers of up to 55 m thickness with low O2 water (<10 ?M) were observed which was probably the result of larger scale mixing. In such a layer nitrification may produce NO3- and once the O2 has been depleted denitrification will follow resulting in enormous rates per unit area. Even with an active denitrification layer of 3-6 m thickness the pelagic denitrification per unit area clearly exceeded sediment denitrification rates elsewhere in the Baltic Sea. When extrapolated to the entire Baltic Proper (BP) denitrification in the water column was in the range of 132-547 kton N yr-1 and was thus at least as important as sediment denitrification which has recently been estimated to 191 kton N yr-1. With a total external N-input of 773 kton N yr-1 it is clear that denitrification plays a significant role in the N-budget of the BP.

Dalsgaard, Tage; De Brabandere, Loreto; Hall, Per O. J.

2013-04-01

253

Stable isotope signals of eutrophication in Baltic Sea sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing ?15N and ?13C values in coastal Baltic marine sediments are evaluated as indicator of changes in the trophic status of the ecosystem. The influence of eutrophication on the ?15N values was found to be so dominant that it even overprints the usually observed mixing gradient from terrestrial (low isotope values) to the marine environment (high isotope values). A distinct gradient in stable nitrogen isotope values from eutrophic coastal areas to open more oligotrophic waters in the central Baltic Sea and Gulf of Bothnia was found. Our data show high ?15N values in surface sediments: 13‰ in the Oder Lagoon and the Pomeranian Bight, over 9‰ in the Gulf of Riga (Daugava River), 7‰ in the inner Gulf of Finland (Neva River), 6.5‰ in the Curonian Lagoon (Nemunas River), and 5.7‰ in the Gdansk Deep (Vistula River). In the Baltic Sea Proper, significantly lower ?15N values of 3-5‰ are found. A decrease in ?15N values with depth/age of the sediment was indicated in some cores that were analyzed down to 15-40 cm depth in 1-cm steps. There is a great overall difference between pre-industrial ?15N values in coastal sediments and recent ones of 2.3-10‰. As explanations for this increase are suggested, elevated nutrient ?15N values of waste water in combination with fractionation processes like nutrient uptake by phytoplankton and denitrification and nitrification processes in rivers discharging into the coastal water. Delta 13C values in sediment surfaces off the river estuaries primarily indicate differences between the inorganic carbon signatures of the rivers. However, since the ?13C values also decrease downcore, we contribute this change to increased primary production caused by the enhanced nutrient load. Since both stable isotope values in sediments ( ?13C and ?15N) correlate downcore, this strongly suggests that the anthropogenic nutrient loads in the rivers might be the reason for the changes of stable isotope values.

Voss, Maren; Larsen, Birger; Leivuori, Mirja; Vallius, Henry

2000-07-01

254

Late Vendian Early Palæozoic tectonic evolution of the Baltic Basin: regional tectonic implications from subsidence analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subsidence analysis was performed on 43 boreholes penetrating the Upper Vendian-Lower Palaeozoic sedimentary succession of the Baltic Basin. The results were related to lithofacial and structural data to elucidate subsidence mechanisms and the regional tectonic setting of basin development. Tectonic subsidence patterns are consistent throughout the basin for the time period studied. An extensional tectonic subsidence event, possibly of two phases, is indicated from the Late Vendian to the beginning of the Middle Cambrian. This event is seen in the southwestern part of the Baltic Basin (Peri-Tornquist zone) until the earliest Cambrian after which it is also observed in the SW-NE-trending Baltic Depression part of the basin. Basin development during this time is interpreted as recording the latest stages of break-up of the Precambrian super-continent Rodinia and ultimately the formation of the Tornquist Sea. The late Middle Cambrian to Middle Ordovician tectonic subsidence pattern of the Baltic Basin is characteristic of post-rift thermal subsidence of the newly formed passive continental margin of Baltica, developed along its southwestern edge. A gradual increase in subsidence rate is observed from the (Middle?) Late Ordovician and throughout the Silurian (particularly for Ludlow and Pridoli times) creating subsidence curves with convex shapes typical of foreland basin development. The rate of Late Silurian tectonic subsidence increases significantly towards the southwest margin of the Baltic basin, adjacent to the present location of the North German-Polish Caledonides. The Baltic Basin therefore appears to have developed primarily as a flexural foreland basin during Silurian oblique collision of Baltica and Eastern Avalonia. A foreland setting is supported by the influx of distal turbidites into the basin from southwest sources in the Late Silurian. Compressional deformation structures of Early Devonian (Lochkovian) age are seen in seismic sections in the central part of the Baltic Basin (Lithuania). These, together with a change in subsidence pattern, mark the end of the Caledonian stage of basin development of the Baltic Basin.

Poprawa, P.; Šliaupa, S.; Stephenson, R.; Lazauskien?, J.

1999-12-01

255

Non-native Species and Rates of Spread: Lessons from the Brackish Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Baltic Sea, a semi-enclosed brackish water region, has been inoculated by non-indigenous species for centuries. Today,\\u000a much of its biological diversity is of foreign origin (i.e. xenodiversity), intentionally or unintentionally moved by humans\\u000a over ecological and geographical barriers. As many as 98 introduced species have been recorded in the Baltic Sea and Kattegat.\\u000a The role and abundance of much

Erkki Leppäkoski; Sergej Olenin

2000-01-01

256

A three-dimensional baroclinic eddy-resolving model of the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional eddy-resolving baroclinic model of the Baltic Sea is presented. The model comprises the whole Baltic Sea including the Gulf of Bothnia, the Gulf of Finland, Gulf of Riga as well as the Belt Sea, Kattegat and Skagerrak. With a horizontal resolution of 5km and a discretization of 21 levels in the vertical, the general circulation and mesoscale dynamics

Andreas Lehmann

1995-01-01

257

Tritium volume activity in the Baltic Sea in 1987-1989  

SciTech Connect

Tritium volume activities measured in the Baltic Sea are summarized in this paper. Activity levels were determined by the liquid scintillation method with a LS-1000 counter. The field investigations showed that the tritium volume activity in the Baltic Sea can change substantially in absolute magnitude. Therefore, average volume activity is used as an indicator of natural content. Correlations between calculated (averaged) tritium activity levels and the Chernobyl accident are very briefly discussed. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Styro, D.B.; Korotkov, V.P. [St. Petersburg Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

1994-11-01

258

Heavy?metal pollution in surficial sediments from the Southern Baltic sea off Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gulf of Gda?sk is one of the pollution “hot spots”; of the Baltic Sea. In order to investigate heavy?metal pollution there, 31 bulk (<2 mm), surficial sediments from the Gulf of Gda?sk and the southern Baltic Sea were analyzed for 20 elements. Cobalt, Ni, Cs, Rb, Fe, Mg, Li, and K covary with Al and display an enrichment factor

P. Szefer; K. Szefer; G. P. Glasby; J. Pempkowiak; R. Kaliszan

1996-01-01

259

An acoustic view into Holocene palaeoseismicity offshore southwestern Finland, Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Baltic Sea basin consists of Palaeoproterozoic crystalline bedrock, which is to the greatest extent covered by younger Proterozoic and Phanerozoic sedimentary bedrock. The basin contains several ancient deep-seated tectonic lineaments and fracture zones that divide the seabed into blocks. High-resolution, low frequency, echo-sounding was used to study the Holocene submarine sedimentary structures and palaeoseismic activity in the northern Baltic

Kaisa-Leena Hutri; Aarno Kotilainen

2007-01-01

260

Evidence for active microbial nitrogen transformations in sea ice (Gulf of Bothnia, Baltic Sea) in midwinter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient concentrations, chlorophyll-a, bacterial biomass and relative activity of denitrifying organisms were investigated from ice-core, brine and underlying\\u000a water samples in February 1998 in the Gulf of Bothnia, Baltic Sea. Examined sea ice was typical for the Baltic Sea; ice bulk\\u000a salinity varied from 0.1 to 1.6 psu, and in underlying water salinity was from 4.2 to 4.7 psu. In

Hermanni Kaartokallio

2001-01-01

261

Diversity of Aphanizomenonflos-aquae (Cyanobacterium) Populations along a Baltic Sea Salinity Gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colony-forming cyanobacteria of the genus Aphanizomenon form massive blooms in the brackish water of the Baltic Sea during the warmest summer months. There have been recent suggestions claiming that the Baltic Sea Aphanizomenon species may be different from Aphanizomenon flos-aquae found in lakes. In this study, we examined variability in the morphology and 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences

Maria J. Laamanen; Laura Forsstrom; Kaarina Sivonen

2002-01-01

262

Seasonality of coastal phytoplankton in the Baltic Sea: Influence of salinity and eutrophication  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study long-term (1984–2001) phytoplankton and physico-chemical monitoring data representing different salinity regimes of the Baltic Sea were compiled from HELCOM, national and regional databases. The aim was to define seasonal succession patterns of phytoplankton in seven different areas of the Baltic sea, characterised by different salinity, climate, and trophic conditions and to delineate a set of phytoplankton community

Z. R. Gasi?nait?; A. C. Cardoso; A.-S. Heiskanen; P. Henriksen; P. Kauppila; I. Olenina; R. Pilkaityte; I. Purina; A. Razinkovas; S. Sagert; H. Schubert; N. Wasmund

2005-01-01

263

Environmental Gradients Explain Species Richness and Community Composition of Coastal Breeding Birds in the Baltic Sea  

PubMed Central

Scientifically-based systematic conservation planning for reserve design requires knowledge of species richness patterns and how these are related to environmental gradients. In this study, we explore a large inventory of coastal breeding birds, in total 48 species, sampled in 4646 1 km2 squares which covered a large archipelago in the Baltic Sea on the east coast of Sweden. We analysed how species richness (? diversity) and community composition (? diversity) of two groups of coastal breeding birds (specialists, i.e. obligate coastal breeders; generalists, i.e. facultative coastal breeders) were affected by distance to open sea, land area, shoreline length and archipelago width. The total number of species per square increased with increasing shoreline length, but increasing land area counteracted this effect in specialists. The number of specialist bird species per square increased with decreasing distance to open sea, while the opposite was true for the generalists. Differences in community composition between squares were associated with differences in land area and distance to open sea, both when considering all species pooled and each group separately. Fourteen species were nationally red-listed, and showed similar relationships to the environmental gradients as did all species, specialists and generalists. We suggest that availability of suitable breeding habitats, and probably also proximity to feeding areas, explain much of the observed spatial distributions of coastal birds in this study. Our findings have important implications for systematic conservation planning of coastal breeding birds. In particular, we provide information on where coastal breeding birds occur and which environments they seem to prefer. Small land areas with long shorelines are highly valuable both in general and for red-listed species. Thus, such areas should be prioritized for protection against human disturbance and used by management in reserve selection. PMID:25714432

Nord, Maria; Forslund, Pär

2015-01-01

264

Environmental gradients explain species richness and community composition of coastal breeding birds in the baltic sea.  

PubMed

Scientifically-based systematic conservation planning for reserve design requires knowledge of species richness patterns and how these are related to environmental gradients. In this study, we explore a large inventory of coastal breeding birds, in total 48 species, sampled in 4646 1 km2 squares which covered a large archipelago in the Baltic Sea on the east coast of Sweden. We analysed how species richness (? diversity) and community composition (? diversity) of two groups of coastal breeding birds (specialists, i.e. obligate coastal breeders; generalists, i.e. facultative coastal breeders) were affected by distance to open sea, land area, shoreline length and archipelago width. The total number of species per square increased with increasing shoreline length, but increasing land area counteracted this effect in specialists. The number of specialist bird species per square increased with decreasing distance to open sea, while the opposite was true for the generalists. Differences in community composition between squares were associated with differences in land area and distance to open sea, both when considering all species pooled and each group separately. Fourteen species were nationally red-listed, and showed similar relationships to the environmental gradients as did all species, specialists and generalists. We suggest that availability of suitable breeding habitats, and probably also proximity to feeding areas, explain much of the observed spatial distributions of coastal birds in this study. Our findings have important implications for systematic conservation planning of coastal breeding birds. In particular, we provide information on where coastal breeding birds occur and which environments they seem to prefer. Small land areas with long shorelines are highly valuable both in general and for red-listed species. Thus, such areas should be prioritized for protection against human disturbance and used by management in reserve selection. PMID:25714432

Nord, Maria; Forslund, Pär

2015-01-01

265

Distribution, long-term development and mass balance calculation of total alkalinity in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 20th century, extensively hydrographic investigations had been performed in the Baltic Sea. One of the parameters that have been determined during these historic investigations of the Baltic Sea is the total alkalinity ( AT). In this study, this large data set is used together with a specifically developed box model to estimate the in- and outflows of salinity and AT within the different sub-basins. The Baltic Sea receives large amounts of freshwater through river runoff, and AT can be used as a chemical signature of the runoff as its concentration depends on the mineralogy of the drainage basin. Rivers entering the southern part of the Baltic Sea are draining areas rich in limestone, therefore having higher AT than rivers entering the northern part of the Baltic Sea where granite dominates the bedrock. The mean AT in rivers entering a specific region of the Baltic Sea is achieved by the intercept of the regression line when salinity is plotted versus AT for the corresponding data. In this study, the focus is on the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia where the longest time series data are available. There is a common trend with an increase in AT in rivers entering the Gulf of Finland and a decrease in AT in rivers entering the Gulf of Bothnia.

Hjalmarsson, Sofia; Wesslander, Karin; Anderson, Leif G.; Omstedt, Anders; Perttilä, Matti; Mintrop, Ludger

2008-03-01

266

[Accumulation of polycyclic arenes in Baltic Sea algae].  

PubMed

The paper presents data on the level of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and some other polycyclic arenes in alga and phanerogam specimens from different gulfs of the Baltic Sea. Algae were shown to absorb BP from sea water. The mean concentration of BP in sea water was under 0.004 microgram/1, while in algae it ranged 0.1-21.2 micrograms/kg dry weight. Algae accumulate BP to a higher degree than phanerogams. The highest concentrations of BP were found in algae Enteromorpha while the lowest ones in Furcellaria. In annual green algae, BP level was higher in autumn, i. e. at the end of vegetation period, than in spring. Brown algae Fucus vesiculosus is recommended for monitoring polycyclic arene pollution in the area from Vormsi Island to Käsmu and green algae Cladophora or Enteromorpha in the eastern part of the Finnish Gulf. PMID:4060672

Veldre, I A; Itra, A R; Paal'me, L P; Kukk, Kh A

1985-01-01

267

Bacterial methanogenesis in holocene sediments in the Baltic Sea  

SciTech Connect

Soviet biologists have found evidence of viable methanogenic microorganisms in mud samples collected in 1978 from the Baltic Sea by the research ship Academician Kurchatov. Experiments with radioactive carbon and direct measurements of the samples' methane concentrations led to several conclusions: (1) the process of bacterial methanogenesis occurs mainly via carbon dioxide reduction, (2) the methanogenic intensity depends on the depth of the deposited sediment and its distance from land; shallow-water sediments found in gulfs produced more methane than deepwater ones taken from low spots, (3) organic-matter consumption during bacterial methane reduction makes up 0.14-7.9 mg of carbon/kg of wet mud per year; this is over 20 times less than during bacterial sulfate reduction, (4) The bulk of the methane generated migrates from the muds into the water and (5) marine sediments are undersaturated with methane, suggesting that the methane migrates via filtration of pore waters, not by diffusion.

Lein, A.Y.; Namsaraev, B.B.; Trotsyuk, V.Y.; Ivanov, M.V.

1981-01-01

268

Allelopathic activity of the Baltic cyanobacteria against microalgae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this work was to investigate the influence of Baltic cyanobacteria Anabaena variabilis and Nodularia spumigena cells and cell-free filtrates on the growth of green algae Chlorella vulgaris. We have demonstrated that Anabaena variabilis and Nodularia spumigena caused allelopathic effects against microalgae. The cyanobacterial and microalgal cultures were provided on liquid medium, in 22 °C at continuous light. Cell-free filtrates were obtained by centrifugation and filtering aliquots of cyanobacterial cultures (including cultures in exponential and stationary phase of growth). Growth response of free cells (batch culture technique) and immobilized cultures (in alginate beads) of the unicellular green algae to cyanobacteria allelochemicals were tested and compared. In this experiment Anabaena variabilis supressed the growth of microalgae compared to control samples. Nodularia spumigena stimulated the growth of Chlorella vulgaris in most cases, however both positive and negative effects were observed.

?ak, Adam; Musiewicz, Krzysztof; Kosakowska, Alicja

2012-10-01

269

Underwater laser imaging experiments in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Underwater laser imaging is a useful tool for high resolution mapping and identification of threats in coastal and also turbid waters of harbors and ports. In the recent past, the French-German Research Institute of Saint-Louis (ISL) and the German Naval Research Department (WTD71-FWG) have performed different measurements in the Baltic Sea in the field of submarine laser imaging with the aim to evaluate the performance of laser gated viewing (LGV) and underwater laser scanning (ULS). Different scenarios were tested with respect to varying environmental conditions. Working near a harbor or on the open sea under sunny and calm or windy and rainy weather conditions, the measured turbidity, i.e. the attenuation coefficient of the water column, ranges from 0.4 m-1 to 3 m-1. The experiments and imaging results are discussed with respect to 2D and 3D image processing under the given environmental conditions.

Laurenzis, Martin; Christnacher, Frank; Scholz, Thomas; Metzger, Nicolas; Schertzer, Stefane; Bacher, Emmanuel

2014-10-01

270

Multispecies Virial Expansions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the virial expansion of mixtures of countably many different types of particles. The main tool is the Lagrange-Good inversion formula, which has other applications such as counting coloured trees or studying probability generating functions in multi-type branching processes. We prove that the virial expansion converges absolutely in a domain of small densities. In addition, we establish that the virial coefficients can be expressed in terms of two-connected graphs.

Jansen, Sabine; Tate, Stephen J.; Tsagkarogiannis, Dimitrios; Ueltschi, Daniel

2014-09-01

271

Crustal structure of the northern Baltic Sea palaeorift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrated analysis of the gravity data measured in the northern Baltic Sea in 1997 and the near-vertical BABEL data shot in 1989 provides important constraints for the Subjotnian (1600-1500) rift-related evolution of the Svecofennian orogenic crust. The Subjotnian is characterised by voluminous bimodal rapakivi granite magmatism that is manifested as large granite batholiths associated with ovoid crustal thickness minima and large Bouguer gravity minima (-20 to -40 mgal). In the seismic sections, the batholiths are transparent whereas the lower crust beneath is highly reflective and bears signs of intra- and underplating. The Bouguer anomaly map together with the seismic results imply that the crust of the Southern Gulf of Bothnia is mostly composed of Subjotnian intrusions with a large rheologically stronger, mafic Svecofennian block in the middle. The largest batholiths Åland, Bothnian and Rödön are mostly covered by water, but even the minor plutons at Strömsbro, Reposaari and Siipyy are interpreted to be small satellites to larger marine batholiths. A 3-4 km deep Jotnian sandstone basin, the Strömmingsbodan basin, was developed on top of the Bothnian rapakivi granite. We suggest that it was initiated by cauldron subsidence. In the Postjotnian, the granites and sandstones were intruded by diabase sills, the contacts of which are imaged by high-amplitude reflections. The rapakivi granites are separated by a large transparent and dense body in the lower to middle crust. It is interpreted as an older Svecofennian mafic intrusion. The northern Baltic Sea has many characteristic features of paleorifts: topographic low (now under water), thin crust with large crustal thickness gradients and the products of voluminous bimodal magmatism. The Gulf of Bothnia aborted rift is a part of a honeycomb-like wide rift area that extends from Lake Ladoga to the Caledonides (800 km×800 km). It has seeds of many localised narrow rifts (100 km×100 km) not connected at the lower crustal level.

Korja, A.; Heikkinen, P.; Aaro, S.

2001-02-01

272

PUMa - modelling the groundwater flow in Baltic Sedimentary Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2009-2012 at University of Latvia and Latvia University of Agriculture project "Establishment of interdisciplinary scientist group and modelling system for groundwater research" is implemented financed by the European Social Fund. The aim of the project is to develop groundwater research in Latvia by establishing interdisciplinary research group and modelling system covering groundwater flow in the Baltic Sedimentary Basin. Researchers from fields like geology, chemistry, mathematical modelling, physics and environmental engineering are involved in the project. The modelling system is used as a platform for addressing scientific problems such as: (1) large-scale groundwater flow in Baltic Sedimentary Basin and impact of human activities on it; (2) the evolution of groundwater flow since the last glaciation and subglacial groundwater recharge; (3) the effects of climate changes on shallow groundwater and interaction of hydrographical network and groundwater; (4) new programming approaches for groundwater modelling. Within the frame of the project most accessible geological information such as description of geological wells, geological maps and results of seismic profiling in Latvia as well as Estonia and Lithuania are collected and integrated into modelling system. For example data form more then 40 thousands wells are directly used to automatically generate the geological structure of the model. Additionally a groundwater sampling campaign is undertaken. Contents of CFC, stabile isotopes of O and H and radiocarbon are the most significant parameters of groundwater that are established in unprecedented scale for Latvia. The most important modelling results will be published in web as a data set. Project number: 2009/0212/1DP/1.1.1.2.0/09/APIA/VIAA/060. Project web-site: www.puma.lu.lv

Kalvane, G.; Marnica, A.; Bethers, U.

2012-04-01

273

Establishing Territorial Embeddedness within Retail Transnational Corporation (TNC) Expansion: The Contribution of Store Development Departments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood S. and Reynolds J. Establishing territorial embeddedness within retail transnational corporation (TNC) expansion: the contribution of store development departments, Regional Studies. Establishing territorial embeddedness within host regions in international retail expansion is well known to be important, although the processes underpinning its realization are less explicit. This research analyses some ‘emerging practices’ of international expansion planning by drawing on

Steve Wood; Jonathan Reynolds

2012-01-01

274

Accelerating the loop expansion  

SciTech Connect

This thesis introduces a new non-perturbative technique into quantum field theory. To illustrate the method, I analyze the much-studied phi/sup 4/ theory in two dimensions. As a prelude, I first show that the Hartree approximation is easy to obtain from the calculation of the one-loop effective potential by a simple modification of the propagator that does not affect the perturbative renormalization procedure. A further modification then susggests itself, which has the same nice property, and which automatically yields a convex effective potential. I then show that both of these modifications extend naturally to higher orders in the derivative expansion of the effective action and to higher orders in the loop-expansion. The net effect is to re-sum the perturbation series for the effective action as a systematic ''accelerated'' non-perturbative expansion. Each term in the accelerated expansion corresponds to an infinite number of terms in the original series. Each term can be computed explicitly, albeit numerically. Many numerical graphs of the various approximations to the first two terms in the derivative expansion are given. I discuss the reliability of the results and the problem of spontaneous symmetry-breaking, as well as some potential applications to more interesting field theories. 40 refs.

Ingermanson, R.

1986-07-29

275

The great human expansion.  

PubMed

Genetic and paleoanthropological evidence is in accord that today's human population is the result of a great demic (demographic and geographic) expansion that began approximately 45,000 to 60,000 y ago in Africa and rapidly resulted in human occupation of almost all of the Earth's habitable regions. Genomic data from contemporary humans suggest that this expansion was accompanied by a continuous loss of genetic diversity, a result of what is called the "serial founder effect." In addition to genomic data, the serial founder effect model is now supported by the genetics of human parasites, morphology, and linguistics. This particular population history gave rise to the two defining features of genetic variation in humans: genomes from the substructured populations of Africa retain an exceptional number of unique variants, and there is a dramatic reduction in genetic diversity within populations living outside of Africa. These two patterns are relevant for medical genetic studies mapping genotypes to phenotypes and for inferring the power of natural selection in human history. It should be appreciated that the initial expansion and subsequent serial founder effect were determined by demographic and sociocultural factors associated with hunter-gatherer populations. How do we reconcile this major demic expansion with the population stability that followed for thousands years until the inventions of agriculture? We review advances in understanding the genetic diversity within Africa and the great human expansion out of Africa and offer hypotheses that can help to establish a more synthetic view of modern human evolution. PMID:23077256

Henn, Brenna M; Cavalli-Sforza, L L; Feldman, Marcus W

2012-10-30

276

BALTIMOS—a coupled modelling system for the Baltic Sea and its drainage basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major tasks of the Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX) are to simulate the water and energy cycles of the Baltic Sea catchment and to identify important processes, which are relevant to the climate in the Baltic region. A fully coupled regional climate model system for the Baltic Sea region, called BALTIMOS, was developed in the framework of the German climate research program DEKLIM by linking existing model components for the atmosphere, for the ocean including sea ice, and for hydrology. With this system, it is possible to model the complete water and energy cycles for the Baltic Sea catchment for today's climate, as well as for the future with climate scenarios. The emphasis in this paper is given to the description of the modelling system and on the comparison of the results of the fully coupled BALTIMOS system against the results of the uncoupled atmospheric component REMO for today's climate. Both simulations are driven at the atmospheric lateral boundaries with ECMWF analysis data from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) for 5 years each. In the uncoupled run, the sea surface temperature (SST) and ice surface temperature (IST) analysed by ECMWF are prescribed, while in the coupled run, SST and IST are provided by the ocean/sea ice model BSIOM. Several analysed parameters are very similar for the land part of the Baltic Sea catchment, while there are differences especially for surface and near-surface temperatures for the fraction of the Baltic Sea itself that indicate further research efforts. As no corrections for the modelled air-sea fluxes are applied for the coupled model system, it is a good result that no drift of the coupled model system is visible in the 5-year integration. The present paper gives an overview about the development of the coupled model system and shows results from first integrations of the system.

Lorenz, Philip; Jacob, Daniela

2014-11-01

277

US foreign policy and the Baltic states. Master`s thesis  

SciTech Connect

This thesis examines U. S. foreign policy toward the Baltic states from 1918 to 1991 to determine if the U.S. has been realistic in its dealings with small nations. An analysis of U.S. policy indicates that the United States acts hypocritically by accepting compromises on the very moral principals to which it claims to be the protectorate of when domestic political costs are high. The sacrifice of national values degrades the credibility of the moral high ground necessary for U.S. policy. This study reviews the events that occurred during the three major periods in U.S.-Baltic relations: The initial period of Baltic independence following World War I; the Soviet annexation of the Baltics during World War II: and finally the beginning of the second period of Baltic independence during the breakup of the Soviet Union. In all three cases U.S. policy was unclear and contradictory. The Baltic case provides a good example of the tendency for U.S. policy to be paradoxical and ineffective. This study concludes that despite the U.S. policy of nonrecognition of the Soviet annexation of the Baltic states during the Cold War, the United States failed to adhere to its principals when given the opportunity. In the process, it also neglected problems within its borders that required attention perhaps more urgently than those outside. The tendency for U.S. policy to ignore the issues that actually threaten its security internally and placing a higher priority on external matters that do not have a real impact on its standing could likely lead to its inadvertent downfall.

Shuey, K.A.

1996-03-01

278

Palaeohydrology, fires and vegetation succession in the southern Baltic during the last 7500 years reconstructed from a raised bog based on multi-proxy data  

E-print Network

Palaeohydrology, fires and vegetation succession in the southern Baltic during the last 7500 years Palaeohydrology Holocene Baltic Poland We present the first 7500 yr long multi-proxy record from a raised bog located at the southern Baltic coast, Poland. Testate amoebae, plant macrofossils, pollen and microscopic

Bern, Universität

279

Master's theses projects: Adaptations to a warming Baltic Sea We look for candidates interested in aquatic ecology to work on projects concerning biological responses  

E-print Network

Master's theses projects: Adaptations to a warming Baltic Sea We look for candidates interested in aquatic ecology to work on projects concerning biological responses to climate change with focus on Baltic of this project is to investigate the potential for zooplankton populations in shallow bays in the Baltic Sea

Uppsala Universitet

280

Thiamine deficiency: A viable hypothesis for paralytic syndrome in Baltic birds. Commentary on Sonne et al., 2012. A review of the  

E-print Network

Thiamine deficiency: A viable hypothesis for paralytic syndrome in Baltic birds. Commentary for the paralytic syndrome observed in the Baltic Sea. Science of the Total Environment 416:32­39. In a recent to constitute a serious problem to e.g. the Baltic ecosystems." While we agree that holistic approaches

Kraft, Clifford E.

281

Effects of fine-scale environmental heterogeneity on local genetic structure in Macoma balthica1 from the Gulf of Gdask (southern Baltic Sea)2  

E-print Network

from the Gulf of Gdañsk (southern Baltic Sea)2 3 V. Becquet 1,3 , R. Lasota 2,4 , E. Pante 1,5 , A., 1980, Mitton, 1997, Powers & Schulte,43 1998, Schmidt & Rand, 2001, Riginos et al., 2002).44 The Baltic). In addition, the Baltic Sea suffers from chronic52 anthropogenic pollution. Southern waters are impacted

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

282

BULLETIN OF THE UNIThD STATES FISH COMMISSION. 267 Y4.-ORBANI[C BfATTEB 1N THE BALTIC.  

E-print Network

BULLETIN OF THE UNIThD STATES FISH COMMISSION. 267 Y4.-ORBANI[C BfATTEB 1N THE BALTIC. ]By Prof. V of the Baltic, exc111sivoof the harbors anrl bays, lmsbeen in progress since August, 18S4,at the request wvaters of the Cattegat and those of the Easteru Baltic, rendering the oven distribution liable

283

Ann. soc. entomol. Fr. (n.s.), 2010, 46 (12) : 189-192 Fossil carabids from Baltic amber -II -A new subgenus of  

E-print Network

Ann. soc. entomol. Fr. (n.s.), 2010, 46 (1­2) : 189-192 189 ARTICLE Fossil carabids from Baltic (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Trechinae) preserved in a piece of Baltic amber (Eocene) is described. A comparison: Coleoptera, Carabidae, new subgenus, Bembidion, Baltic amber. Vicente M. Ortuño(1) & Antonio Arillo(2) (1

Arillo, Antonio Gabriel

284

The Russian-Baltic states boundary: a limit between peripheries or a link between European Union and the post-soviet states  

E-print Network

1 The Russian-Baltic states boundary: a limit between peripheries or a link between European Union the collapse of the USSR and the enlargement of the European Union to the Baltic the border between them became Russia, and Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania). The purpose is to analyze the role

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

285

Microsatellite markers for the Baltic clam, Macoma balthica (Linn, 1758), a key species concerned by changing southern limit, in exploited littoral ecosystems  

E-print Network

1 Microsatellite markers for the Baltic clam, Macoma balthica (Linné, 1758), a key species limit of the Baltic clam Macoma balthica strongly shifted northward. To understand the consequences on the function and structure of coastal ecosystems remain mostly unknown (Walther et al. 2002). The Baltic clam

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

286

The influence of increasing water turbidity on the sea surface temperature in the Baltic Sea: A model sensitivity study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study is to investigate the influence of enhanced absorption of sunlight at the sea surface due to increasing water turbidity and its effect on the sea surface temperatures (SST) in the Baltic Sea. The major question behind our investigations is, whether this effect needs to be included in Baltic Sea circulation models or can be

Ulrike Löptien; H. E. Markus Meier

2011-01-01

287

Bioaccumulation and Temporal Trends of Trace Elements in Flounder from the Southern Baltic Sea for the 1996–2003 Period  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study determined the concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and arsenic (As) in flounder from the southern Baltic for the 1996–2003 period. Analysis of more than 200 samples was used to determine the following: (1) concentrations of Hg and As in muscle tissue of flounder from different regions of the southern Baltic; (2)

Lucyna Polak-Juszczak

2010-01-01

288

Modelling the Influence of Major Baltic Inflows on Near-Bottom Conditions at the Entrance of the Gulf of Finland  

PubMed Central

A coupled hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model was implemented in order to estimate the effects of Major Baltic Inflows on the near-bottom hydrophysical and biogeochemical conditions in the northern Baltic Proper and the western Gulf of Finland during the period 1991–2009. We compared results of a realistic reference run to the results of an experimental run where Major Baltic Inflows were suppressed. Further to the expected overall decrease in bottom salinity, this modelling experiment confirms that in the absence of strong saltwater inflows the deep areas of the Baltic Proper would become more anoxic, while in the shallower areas (western Gulf of Finland) near-bottom average conditions improve. Our experiment revealed that typical estuarine circulation results in the sporadic emergence of short-lasting events of near-bottom anoxia in the western Gulf of Finland due to transport of water masses from the Baltic Proper. Extrapolating our results beyond the modelled period, we speculate that the further deepening of the halocline in the Baltic Proper is likely to prevent inflows of anoxic water to the Gulf of Finland and in the longer term would lead to improvement in near-bottom conditions in the Baltic Proper. Our results reaffirm the importance of accurate representation of salinity dynamics in coupled Baltic Sea models serving as a basis for credible hindcast and future projection simulations of biogeochemical conditions. PMID:25393720

Lessin, Gennadi; Raudsepp, Urmas; Stips, Adolf

2014-01-01

289

Biomagnification of PBDEs and PCBs in food webs from the Baltic Sea and the northern Atlantic Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomagnification of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) in food webs from the Baltic Sea and the northern Atlantic Sea was investigated. For this, we used PCB and PBDE concentration data, together with data on fish body weight and ?15N of fish and zooplankton as a measure of trophic position. In the Baltic Sea material, consisting of zooplankton, sprat,

Sven Burreau; Yngve Zebühr; Dag Broman; Rasha Ishaq

2006-01-01

290

Relationships between fish stock changes in the Baltic Sea and the M74 syndrome, a reproductive disorder of Atlantic  

E-print Network

Relationships between fish stock changes in the Baltic Sea and the M74 syndrome, a reproductive. Relationships between fish stock changes in the Baltic Sea and the M74 syndrome, a reproductive disorder in the BPr, primarily sprat, induce M74. By reducing the fishing pressure on cod (Gadus morhua) and by more

291

1 18 May 2003 Ris International Energy Conference Analysis of a future liberalised Lithuanian/Baltic Electricity  

E-print Network

/Baltic Electricity market Analysis of a future liberalised Lithuanian/Baltic Electricity market Risø International · Model used for the analyses · Results of analyses ­ Production patterns ­ Market prices on electricity of analyses ­ Production patterns ­ Market prices on electricity ­ Future situation for power plants ­ Welfare

292

Iron cycling microbial communities in sediments of the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biogeochemical cycling of iron is a key early diagenetic process. However, limited information exists about the diversity and metabolic pathways of microorganisms linked to iron cycling in marine sediments. The goal of this study was to determine the bacterial community diversity in sediments showing ongoing dissimilatory iron reduction using 454-pyrosequencing as a first step in characterizing microorganisms potentially involved in iron reduction. For this purpose, two 35 cm cores were sampled from ferruginous sediments in the Skagerrak (SK) and the Bothnian Bay (BB) from the North-Sea Baltic Sea and the northern Baltic Sea respectively. Pore water profiles showed Fe2+ and Mn2+ levels of ~140-150 µM throughout the core below a 6 cm thick oxidized surface layer in SK sediments and ~300 µM below a 2 cm thick surface layer in BB sediments. Dissolved sulphide levels were below detection in both sediments. No significant depletion of SO42- occurred at both sites, further supported by stable S and O isotope analyses of dissolved sulfate at SK site. Only very minor net sulfate reduction is suggested here from the trend in sulphur isotope signatures, in agreement with previously reported gross microbial sulphate rate measurements (Canfield et al., 1993;GCA). Based on these biogeochemical constraints, Fe reduction in the studied sediments is therefore dominated by microbial dissimilatory iron reduction, while cryptic Fe-S-cycling can be largely excluded. 16S rRNA gene sequences indicate Proteobacteria as the dominating microbial group in these sediments. Potential iron and manganese reducing bacteria included Geobacteraceae, Pelobacteraceae, Shewanellaceae, and Oceanospirillales. Additionally, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were present. Also, Fe-oxidizers were present and their occurrence correlated in depth with a Fe-oxide-rich layer, most likely a former buried Fe-oxidation front. Gene sequences point to the presence of Mariprofundus in SK sediments and Gallionella in the brackisch BB sediment, hence, Fe oxidizers are adapted to the prevailing salinity. Beta diversity indicates that most diversity between the two sites is due to Gaiellaceae and Ellin6529 groups in BB and Phycisphaerae and Desulfobacteraceae in SK sediments. Considering the entire community in these zones of Fe reduction, it is clearly distinct from communities commonly found in sulphate reduction zones.

Reyes, Carolina; Delwig, Olaf; Noriega-Ortega, Beatriz; Dähnke, Kirstin; Böttcher, Michael E.; Friedrich, Michael W.

2014-05-01

293

Neotectonics and modelling of the Western Baltic Sea - Preliminary Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Post-Triassic to Recent tectonic structural evolution of the western Baltic Sea is investigated with special emphasis on Palaeozoic tectonic lineaments and associated grabens, faults and folds. The area is part of the intracontinental North German Basin System, which has experiences a complex subsidence and inversion history and salt diapirism during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. The main tectonic elements in this area are NW SE trending lineaments, the Caledonian Deformation Front, the Elbe Lineament, the Elbe Fault Zone and the Trans European Fault Zone as well as NE-SW trending structures like the Glückstadt Trough. Salt diapirism occurs mostly along the NE-SW trending fault system. The evolution of the post-glaciation drainage system seems to be affected by the NW-SE Lineaments. Several marine reconnaissance surveys (MCS, gravity, magnetic) have been carried out in the western Baltic Sea (Bay of Kiel and the area between the islands of Rügen and Falster). Additionally, along an East-West trending transect a high-resolution data set was recorded with a sub-bottom profiler system (Parasound) between the cities of Warnemünde and Kiel. The MCS data reveal several tectonic lineaments which implicate recent tectonic activity. Major target of the project is to decipher the causative process for the post-glacial rejuvenation of possibly inherited structural elements. Is it driven by plate tectonics or salt tectonics? The main objective of the dynamic modelling is to realize a quantitative understanding of the interplay of active tectonics, surface and subsurface processes, and the evolution of the landscape and sea bottom morphology. The compilation of available seismic, magnetic and heat-flow data should lead to high-resolution maps, which are complemented by DEM, satellite lineations and geomorphologic data and hence optimize modelling conditions. On the basis of the data set and the modeling we want to highlight the influence/importance of inherited faults and fault systems. Therefore we have chosen two model areas of different scale, and also of different data input. The controlling potential of these processes on seismic and other geo-hazards of continental intraplate settings within the North German Basin will be evaluated.

Kaiser, A.; Hübscher, C.; Reicherter, K.; Dehghani, A.; Gajewski, D.; Lyke-Anderson, H.

2003-04-01

294

Modelling of the groundwater flow in Baltic Artesian Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Baltic Artesian Basin (BAB) is a multi-layered complex hydrogeological system underlying about 480'000 km2 in the territory of Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland, Russia, Belarus and the Baltic Sea. The model of the geological structure contains 42 layers including aquifers and aquitards from Cambrian up to the Quaternary deposits. The finite element method was employed for the calculation of the steady state three-dimensional groundwater flow with free surface. The horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities of geological materials were assumed constant in each of the layers. The Precambrian basement forms the impermeable bottom of the model. The zero water exchange is assumed through the side boundaries of BAB. Simple hydrological model is applied on the surface. The level of the lakes, rivers and the sea is fixed as constant hydraulic head in corresponding mesh points. The infiltration is set as a flux boundary condition elsewhere. Instead of extensive coupling with hydrology model, a constant mean value of 70 mm/year was assumed as an infiltration flux for the whole BAB area and this value was adjusted during the automatic calibration process. Averaged long-term water extraction was applied at the water supply wells with large debits. In total 49 wells in Lithuania (total abstraction 45000 m3/day), 161 in Latvia (184000 m3/day) and 172 in Estonia (24000 m3/day) are considered. The model was calibrated on the statistically weighted (using both spatial and temporal weighting function) borehole water level measurements applying automatic parameter optimization method L-BFGS-B for hydraulic conductivities of each layer. The steady-stade calculations were performed for the situations corresponding to undisturbed situation (1950-ies), intensive groundwater use (1980-ies) and present state situation (after 2000). The distribution of piezometric heads and principal flows inside BAB was analyzed based on the model results. The results demonstrate that generally the flow is directed from southeast to northwest, but the more shallow aquifers show strong influence by local topography. There is an intensive transient flow in Cm aquifer system and this flow is separated from upper layers by thick aquitard O-S. About 25% of the aquifers volume is under free flowing artesian conditions. Acknowledgement The present work has been funded by the European Social Fund project "Establishment of interdisciplinary scientist group and modelling system for groundwater research" (Project No. 2009/0212/1DP/1.1.1.2.0/09/APIA/VIAA/060)

Virbulis, J.; Sennikovs, J.; Bethers, U.

2012-04-01

295

Regional flow in the Baltic Shield during Holocene coastal regression  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The occurrence of saline waters in the Baltic Shield in Sweden is consistent with ongoing but incomplete Holocene flushing and depends on the geometry and connectivity of conductive structures at both regional and local scales, and on the surface topography. Numerical simulation of regional variable-density fluid flow during Holocene land-rise and coastal regression shows that the existence of any old saline water, whether derived from submarine recharge in regions below Sweden's highest postglacial coastline or geochemical processes in the crystalline rock, is an indication either of slow fluid movements through the bedrock over long times, or of long travel distances through fracture systems before arriving at measurement points. During the land-rise period, regional flow is not affected by the variable density of fluids in the upper few kilometers of the shield, and the topography of the water table is the only driving force. The spatial distribution of meteoric flushing water and pre-Holocene waters may be complex, with the possibility of relatively fresh water in fracture zones below salty units even at depths of a few kilometers. The domination of the topographic driving force implies that deep saline water is not necessarily stagnant, and significant flow may be expected to occur in well-connected horizons even at depth. Local topography variation and fracture zone location combine to create a complex flow field in which local topographic driving forces extend to considerable depth in some areas, whereas regional topographic forces predominate in others. Thus, a pattern may be difficult to discern in measurements of the regional salinity distribution, although it is clear that the coastal region is the major zone of discharge for deeper pre-Holocene fluids. During the land-rise period, the regional flow field equilibrates with changing climatic conditions and coastal positions, while the distribution of flushing water and older water lags and will perpetually change between successive glaciations. These characteristics have direct implications for the safety of nuclear water repositories located at depth in Baltic Shield rocks.

Voss, Clifford I.; Andersson, Johan

1993-01-01

296

Oceanographic connectivity and environmental correlates of genetic structuring in Atlantic herring in the Baltic Sea  

PubMed Central

Marine fish often show little genetic structuring in neutral marker genes, and Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in the Baltic Sea are no exception; historically, very low levels of population differentiation (FST ? 0.002) have been found, despite a high degree of interpopulation environmental heterogeneity in salinity and temperature. Recent exome sequencing and SNP studies have however shown that many loci are under selection in this system. Here, we combined population genetic analyses of a large number of transcriptome-derived microsatellite markers with oceanographic modelling to investigate genetic differentiation and connectivity in Atlantic herring at a relatively fine scale within the Baltic Sea. We found evidence for weak but robust and significant genetic structuring (FST = 0.008) explainable by oceanographic connectivity. Genetic differentiation was also associated with site differences in temperature and salinity, with the result driven by the locus Her14 which appears to be under directional selection (FST = 0.08). The results show that Baltic herring are genetically structured within the Baltic Sea, and highlight the role of oceanography and environmental factors in explaining this structuring. The results also have implications for the management of herring fisheries, the most economically important fishery in the Baltic Sea, suggesting that the current fisheries management units may be in need of revision. PMID:23745145

Teacher, Amber GF; André, Carl; Jonsson, Per R; Merilä, Juha

2013-01-01

297

Role of the barotropic water exchange in the formation of the Baltic Sea level spectrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectrum of low-frequency sea level variations was analyzed on the basis of long-term (15-124 years) time series of sea-level data from three tide gauge stations in the Baltic Sea and two stations in the North Sea. The principal periodicities revealed in the spectrum are seasonal as well as the tidal oscillations including the pole tide with a period of about 14 months. The response function of the Baltic Sea level to variations in the North Sea level is calculated using a cross spectral analysis. It is shown that the barotropic water exchange through the Danish Straits is a basic factor in the formation of the low-frequency sea level spectrum in the Baltic Sea. The limited throughput of these straits plays the role of a natural low-pass filter for the sea level variations: high frequency sea level variations from the North Sea are effectively damped, while the low frequency signal can pass through into the Baltic Sea almost undisturbed. The simple model of the barotropic water exchange used in the study enables us to estimate the parameters of this filter. It is shown that the cutoff frequency is about 0.014 cpd (a period of 74 days): the energy of the sea level oscillations at this frequency is reduced by one half after their penetration into the Baltic Sea.

Kulikov, E. A.; Medvedev, I. P.; Koltermann, K. P.

2015-02-01

298

Chemical physiological and morphological studies of feral baltic salmon (Salmo salar) suffering from abnormal fry mortality  

SciTech Connect

In 1974, abnormally high mortality was recorded among yolk-sac fry of Baltic salmon (Salmo salar) originating from feral females manually stripped and fertilized with milt from feral males. The cause of this mortality, designated M74, is unknown. The hypothesis is that xenobiotic compounds responsible for reproduction failure in higher vertebrates in the Baltic Sea also interfere with reproduction in Baltic salmon. The significance of M74 should not be underestimated, because the syndrome has caused up to 75% yearly mortality of developing Baltic salmon yolk-sac larvae in a fish hatchery dedicated to production of smolt during the last two decades. The author cannot exclude the possibility that only a relatively low number of naturally spawned eggs develop normally because of M74. No individual pollutant has been shown to be responsible for the development of M74 syndrome. However, a higher total body burden of organochlorine substances may be responsible for the M74 syndrome. The presence of induced hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes in both yolk-sac fry suffering from M74 and adult feral females producing offspring affected by M74 supports this hypothesis. In addition, the P450 enzyme activity in offspring from feral fish is higher than the activity in yolk-sac fry from hatchery-raised fish, suggesting that feral Baltic salmon are influenced by organic xenobiotics.

Norrgren, L. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Pathology Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)); Andersson, T. (Univ. of Goteborg, (Sweden). Dept. of Zoophysiology); Bergqvist, P.A. (Univ. of Umea, (Sweden). Inst. of Environmental Chemistry); Bjoerklund, I. (Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Solna (Sweden))

1993-11-01

299

Levels and Congener Profiles of PBDEs in Edible Baltic, Freshwater, and Farmed Fish in Finland.  

PubMed

Fish is the major source of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) for Finnish consumers. To estimate the PBDE contamination in fish that Finns regularly consume as food, a large-scale sampling was undertaken in 2009-2010. Altogether 207 samples of 17 edible fish species were collected from commercially and recreationally important fishing areas in the Baltic Sea, freshwater lakes, and farming facilities. The analysis of 15 PBDE congeners was performed in an accredited testing laboratory with high-resolution gas chromatography mass spectrometry. In all of the samples, the ?15PBDE varied between 0.029 and 73 ng/g fw. The most abundant congeners were BDE-47 (average proportion 42%), -99 (8.4%), -100 (11%), -154 (5.6%), and -209 (27%). High levels of BDE-209 were observed in the Baltic Sea, off the coast of Pori, in Baltic herring, perch, pike, and pike-perch. Overall, the PBDE levels in Baltic and freshwater fish were low. The levels in farmed whitefish were slightly higher than in wild whitefish. The reasons for the high BDE-209 levels in Baltic herring in Pori and the elevated levels of PBDEs in farmed whitefish should be investigated more thoroughly. PMID:25699573

Airaksinen, Riikka; Hallikainen, Anja; Rantakokko, Panu; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Vuorinen, Pekka J; Mannio, Jaakko; Kiviranta, Hannu

2015-03-17

300

The process of self-purification of the Baltic Sea waters from artificial radionuclides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of the variations in the concentrations of 137Cs and 90Sr radionuclides in the Baltic Sea surface waters after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was performed. An instability of the 137Cs concentration values during the short-term observations was found, when these values were differed 2-to 3-fold. The concentrations of 90Sr appeared to be more stable; meanwhile, their deviations sometimes exceeded the ranges of the experimental errors. By the variations in the monthly average values of the radionuclide concentrations in the surface waters of the Baltic Sea in 1989-1995, no trend of the water self-purification was observed. The theoretical results obtained confirmed the potential of the formation and propagation of patches with increased concentrations of 137Cs in the southeastern part of the Baltic Sea. The most reliable factor that controlled the process of self-purification of the Baltic Sea water appeared to be the mean annual value of the concentration of radionuclides. Pronounced divergences were obtained between the measured and calculated mean annual concentrations of 137Cs and 90Sr radionuclides in the surface waters of the Baltic Sea in 1989-2001. These divergences are explained by the potential influence of the waters from the Gulf of Bothnia and by other additional supplies of radionuclides to the marine environment, which were not included into the mathematical models.

Styro, D.; Morkuniene, R.; Vdovinskiene, S.

2006-05-01

301

Benthic competition and population dynamics of Monoporeia affinis and Marenzelleria sp. in the northern Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last two decades major changes of the benthic fauna have occurred in the northern Baltic Sea, the Gulf of Bothnia. The native amphipod, Monoporeia affinis, has shown a large-scale abundance decrease, while polychaetes, Marenzelleria spp. have invaded the system. Marenzelleria co-exist with the native fauna in the southern Baltic Sea, but in the north the pelagic production might be too low to allow co-existence. Thus, M. affinis might have been out-competed by Marenzelleria in the Gulf of Bothnia. This hypothesis was tested in a competition experiment with a high and a low fresh phytoplankton food supply. When exposed to high food supply both species showed stable or increased biomass over the four week test period. In low food supply, however, M. affinis was found to have a competitive advantage. The experimental data were also related to Baltic Sea monitoring data on primary production, sedimentation and invertebrate abundances. Data from the northern Baltic Sea show that the dominance in the benthic community by M. affinis was replaced by Marenzelleria around 2001. The amphipod decrease might be explained by a marked decrease in primary production during this period. Combining monitoring and experimental data suggests that the invasion of Marenzelleria did not cause the decrease of M. affinis in the northern Baltic Sea; it rather took advantage of the density gap that had occurred. A shift may thus have been established in the Bothnian Sea benthic community.

Eriksson Wiklund, A.-K.; Andersson, A.

2014-05-01

302

Biodiversity gradient in the Baltic Sea: a comprehensive inventory of macrozoobenthos data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Helsinki Commission Red List project 2009-2012, taxonomic and distributional data of benthic (macro) invertebrates were compiled by the present authors in a comprehensive checklist of the Baltic Sea fauna. Based on the most recent and comprehensive data, this paper presents the diversity patterns observed among benthic invertebrates in the Baltic Sea. As expected, the total number of species per sub-region generally declined along the salinity gradient from the Danish Straits to the northern Baltic Sea. This relationship is well known from the Baltic Sea and has resulted in a general assumption of an exponentially positive relationship between species richness and salinity for marine species, and a negative relationship for freshwater species. In 1934, Remane produced a diagram to describe the hypothetical distribution of benthic invertebrate diversity along a marine-freshwater salinity gradient. Our results clearly indicated the validity of this theory for the macrozoobenthic diversity pattern within the Baltic Sea. Categorisation of sub-regions according to species composition showed both separation and grouping of some sub-regions and a strong alignment of similarity patterns of zoobenthic species composition along the salinity gradient.

Zettler, Michael L.; Karlsson, Anna; Kontula, Tytti; Gruszka, Piotr; Laine, Ari O.; Herkül, Kristjan; Schiele, Kerstin S.; Maximov, Alexey; Haldin, Jannica

2014-03-01

303

Tracing inputs of terrestrial high molecular weight dissolved organic matter within the Baltic Sea ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To test the hypothesis whether high molecular weight dissolved organic matter (HMW-DOM) in a high latitude marginal sea is dominated by terrestrial derived matter, 10 stations were sampled along the salinity gradient of the central and northern Baltic Sea and were analyzed for concentrations of dissolved organic carbon as well as ?13C values of HMW-DOM. Different end-member-mixing models were applied to quantify the influence of terrestrial DOM and to test for conservative versus non-conservative behavior of the terrestrial DOM in the different Baltic Sea basins. The share of terrestrial DOM to the total HMW-DOM was calculated for each station, ranging from 43 to 83%. This shows the high influence of terrestrial DOM inputs for the Baltic Sea ecosystem. The data also suggest that terrestrial DOM reaching the open Baltic Sea is not subject to substantial removal anymore. However compared to riverine DOM concentrations, our results indicate that substantial amounts of HMW-DOM (> 50%) seem to be removed near the coastline during estuarine mixing. A budget approach yielded residence times for terrestrial DOM of 2.8, 3.0, and 4.5 yr for the Bothnian Bay, the Bothnian Sea and the Baltic Proper.

Deutsch, B.; Alling, V.; Humborg, C.; Korth, F.; Mörth, C. M.

2012-11-01

304

Tracing inputs of terrestrial high molecular weight dissolved organic matter within the Baltic Sea Ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To test the hypothesis whether dissolved organic matter (DOM) in a high latitude marginal sea is dominated by terrestrial derived matter 10 stations were sampled along the salinity gradient of the central and northern Baltic Sea and were analyzed for concentrations of dissolved organic carbon as well as ?13C values of high molecular weight DOM. Different end-member-mixing models were applied to quantify the influence of terrestrial DOM and to test for conservative versus non-conservative behavior of the terrestrial dissolved organic matter in the different Baltic Sea basins. The share of terrestrial DOM to the total DOM was calculated for each station, ranging from 43 to 83%. This shows the high influence of terrestrial DOM inputs for the Baltic Sea ecosystem. The data also suggest that terrestrial DOM that reaches the open Baltic Sea is not subject to substantial removal anymore. However compared to riverine DOM concentrations our results indicate that substantial amounts of DOM (>50%) seems to be removed near the coastline during estuarine mixing. A budget approach yielded residence times for terrestrial DOM of 2.3, 2.7, and 4.1 yr for the Bothnian Bay, the Bothnian Sea and the Baltic Proper.

Deutsch, B.; Alling, V.; Humborg, C.; Korth, F.; Mörth, C. M.

2012-04-01

305

Expansion/De-expansion Tool to Quantify the Accuracy of Prostate Contours  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Accurate delineation of the prostate gland on computed tomography (CT) remains a persistent challenge and continues to introduce geometric uncertainty into the planning and delivery of external beam radiotherapy. We, therefore, developed an expansion/de-expansion tool to quantify the contour errors and determine the location of the deviations. Methods and Materials: A planning CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging scan were prospectively acquired for 10 patients with prostate cancer. The prostate glands were contoured by 3 independent observers using the CT data sets with instructions to contour the prostate without underestimation but to minimize overestimation. The standard prostate for each patient was defined using magnetic resonance imaging and CT on multiple planes. After registration of the CT and magnetic resonance imaging data sets, the CT-defined prostates were scored for accuracy. The contours were defined as ideal if they were within a 2.5-mm expansion of the standard without underestimation, acceptable if they were within a 5.0-mm expansion and a 2.5-mm de-expansion, and unacceptable if they extended >5.0 mm or underestimated the prostate by >2.5 mm. Results: A total of 636 CT slices were individually analyzed, with the vast majority scored as ideal or acceptable. However, none of the 30 prostate contour sets had all the contours scored as ideal or acceptable. For all 3 observers, the unacceptable contours were more likely from underestimation than overestimation of the prostate. The errors were more common at the base and apex than the mid-gland. Conclusions: The expansion/de-expansion tool allows for directed feedback on the location of contour deviations, as well as the determination of over- or underestimation of the prostate. This metric might help improve the accuracy of prostate contours.

Chung, Eugene; Stenmark, Matthew H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Evans, Cheryl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Providence Cancer Center, Novi, MI (United States); Narayana, Vrinda [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Providence Cancer Center, Novi, MI (United States); McLaughlin, Patrick W., E-mail: mclaughb@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Providence Cancer Center, Novi, MI (United States)

2012-05-01

306

Expansion of the Universe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, developed by Maxine Phaisalakani at the University of Toronto Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, introduces in a slide show presentation research that led to the discovery of the expansion of the universe. The site addresses many astronomical concepts including the big bang theory, dark matter, and the Doppler Effect.

Phaisalakani, Maxine

307

AUTO-EXPANSIVE FLOW  

EPA Science Inventory

Physics suggests that the interplay of momentum, continuity, and geometry in outward radial flow must produce density and concomitant pressure reductions. In other words, this flow is intrinsically auto-expansive. It has been proposed that this process is the key to understanding...

308

Penn State Engineering Search for 6 Faculty Positions Dean's Frontier Faculty As part of a plan for substantial expansion of the faculty in both core and emerging fields, the Penn  

E-print Network

and imaging; nanomanufacturing; additive manufacturing; new materials for sustainability and enhanced Advanced Manufacturing for Medical and Mechanical Sciences: bioprinting; biomedical sensing, devices will be determined during the hiring process. Additional information about these positions and the College's plan

Maranas, Costas

309

The great human expansion  

PubMed Central

Genetic and paleoanthropological evidence is in accord that today’s human population is the result of a great demic (demographic and geographic) expansion that began approximately 45,000 to 60,000 y ago in Africa and rapidly resulted in human occupation of almost all of the Earth’s habitable regions. Genomic data from contemporary humans suggest that this expansion was accompanied by a continuous loss of genetic diversity, a result of what is called the “serial founder effect.” In addition to genomic data, the serial founder effect model is now supported by the genetics of human parasites, morphology, and linguistics. This particular population history gave rise to the two defining features of genetic variation in humans: genomes from the substructured populations of Africa retain an exceptional number of unique variants, and there is a dramatic reduction in genetic diversity within populations living outside of Africa. These two patterns are relevant for medical genetic studies mapping genotypes to phenotypes and for inferring the power of natural selection in human history. It should be appreciated that the initial expansion and subsequent serial founder effect were determined by demographic and sociocultural factors associated with hunter-gatherer populations. How do we reconcile this major demic expansion with the population stability that followed for thousands years until the inventions of agriculture? We review advances in understanding the genetic diversity within Africa and the great human expansion out of Africa and offer hypotheses that can help to establish a more synthetic view of modern human evolution. PMID:23077256

Henn, Brenna M.; Cavalli-Sforza, L. L.; Feldman, Marcus W.

2012-01-01

310

Dynamics of hydrophobic organic contaminants in the Baltic proper pelagial  

SciTech Connect

Hydrophobic organic contaminants occur in different forms in natural water. Apart from being truly dissolved in water they partition into dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particles of different sizes including pelagic bacteria, phytoplankton and zooplankton. The distribution between the different forms is dependent on carbon turnover rates in and transport between the different compartments and on the physical and chemical properties of the compound in focus. The water phase, the DOC-phase and two particle size fractions, 0.2--2pm and 2--20 pm representing the base of the pelagic food web, were analyzed for their content of PCBs and PAHs during summer and winter conditions in the open sea in the Baltic proper. New methods for separating truly dissolved from DOC-bound compounds have been developed using a high capacity perfusion adsorbent and large scale gas sparging. The small particle size fraction was sampled using high volume tangential flow filtration. The possibility to separate between these four different compartments has given a more detailed picture of the short term dynamics of hydrophobic organic compounds in the important base of the pelagial food web.

Axelman, J.; Broman, D.; Naef, C.; Pettersen, H. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

1995-12-31

311

The identity of Romanian amber (rumanite) with Baltic amber (succinite).  

SciTech Connect

Romanian amber (rumanite) has been considered to be a separate species of fossil resin for more than a century. While earlier investigators held it to be very similar to succinite (Baltic amber), modern scholars have assigned it a distinctly different botanical origin. We have found that almost all of the constituents of the ether-soluble fractions of 13 specimens of authentic rumanite identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry have previously been reported in the soluble fraction of succinite, including succinic acid and its monoterpene esters. Additionally and significantly, the soluble fraction of rumanite contains a number defunctionalized compounds that do not preexist in succinite, but that are produced by pyrolysis of whole succinite or of its insoluble polymeric fraction. Simultaneous methylation pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of the polymeric fraction of seven of the rumanite specimens yielded further copious amounts of dimethyl succinate, a number of diterpene resin acid methyl esters, and additional defunctionalized compounds known to be pyrolysis products of succinite. The evidence shows conclusively that the botanical origin of rumanite is not distinct from that of succinite. Rather, rumanite is a succinite that has suffered partial thermal degradation in the course of the folding of the Oligocene Kliwa sandstone formation in which it is most commonly found.

Stout, E. C.; Beck, C. W.; Anderson, K. B.; Chemistry; Vassar Coll.

2000-11-01

312

Ensemble forecasting of harmful algal blooms in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Operational marine environmental modelling has been considered notoriously difficult; consequently there are very few operational models of the marine environment. Operational modelling of harmful algal blooms (HABs) requires the modelling of individual species and is therefore harder still. The separation of algal species in models requires detailed knowledge of their behaviour (survival strategy through the life cycle), and physiological ecology. We present quantitative results of an ensemble approach to HAB forecasting in the Baltic, and discuss the applicability of the forecasting method to bioheochemical modelling. Ensembles were produced by running a biogeochemical model several times and forcing it on every run with different set of seasonal weather parameters from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts' (ECMWF) mathematically perturbed ensemble prediction forecasts. The ensembles were then analyzed by statistical methods and the median, quartiles, minimum and maximum values were calculated for estimating the probable amounts of algae. To evaluate the forecast method final results were compared against available and valid in-situ HAB data in a case study. It turns out that quantitative HAB forecasts are possible. Further verification will require expanded observational networks.

Roiha, Petra; Westerlund, Antti; Nummelin, Aleksi; Stipa, Tapani

2010-11-01

313

Upwelling events may cause cyanobacteria blooms in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cyanobacteria blooms in the Baltic Sea appear after upwelling events, which transport phosphate-rich intermediate water to the surface. The growth potential of diazotrophic cyanobacteria in upwelled water was studied in a mesocosm (tank) experiment in summer 2007. An Anabaena bloom was only induced in the tanks filled with upwelled surface water but not in those filled with surface water from outside the upwelling cell and with intermediate water. The low initial cyanobacteria biomass in the intermediate water could not grow to bloom concentrations within three weeks. It is concluded that mixing of upwelled water with surrounding surface water forms a precondition for a cyanobacteria bloom. An additional mesocosm experiment conducted in 2009 revealed that mixing of intermediate water with surface water had the same stimulating effect on nitrogen fixation and cyanobacteria growth as artificial phosphate input. Phosphate input stimulates the growth of Nodularia and Anabaena more than that of Aphanizomenon. We suggest that the upwelled phosphate-rich intermediate water has to be mixed with the surface water containing physiologically “young” cyanobacteria biomass of at least 20 mg/m3 as an inoculum in order to initiate a cyanobacteria bloom.

Wasmund, Norbert; Nausch, Günther; Voss, Maren

2012-02-01

314

Enrichment of omnivorous cercozoan nanoflagellates from coastal Baltic Sea waters.  

PubMed

Free-living nano-sized flagellates are important bacterivores in aquatic habitats. However, some slightly larger forms can also be omnivorous, i.e., forage upon both bacterial and eukaryotic resources. This hitherto largely ignored feeding mode may have pronounced implications for the interpretation of experiments about protistan bacterivory. We followed the response of an uncultured group of omnivorous cercozoan nanoflagellates from the Novel Clade 2 (Cerc_BAL02) to experimental food web manipulation in samples from the Gulf of Gda?sk (Southern Baltic Sea). Seawater was either prefiltered through 5 µm filters to exclude larger predators of nanoflagellates (F-treatment), or prefiltered and subsequently 1?10 diluted with sterile seawater (F+D-treatment) to stimulate the growth of both, flagellates and bacteria. Initially, Cerc_BAL02 were rapidly enriched under both conditions. They foraged on both, eukaryotic prey and bacteria, and were highly competitive at low concentrations of food. However, these omnivores were later only successful in the F+D treatment, where they eventually represented almost one fifth of all aplastidic nanoflagellates. By contrast, their numbers stagnated in the F-treatment, possibly due to top-down control by a concomitant bloom of other, unidentified flagellates. In analogy with observations about the enrichment of opportunistically growing bacteria in comparable experimental setups we suggest that the low numbers of omnivorous Cerc_Bal02 flagellates in waters of the Gulf of Gda?sk might also be related to their vulnerability to grazing pressure. PMID:21966360

Piwosz, Kasia; Pernthaler, Jakob

2011-01-01

315

Enrichment of Omnivorous Cercozoan Nanoflagellates from Coastal Baltic Sea Waters  

PubMed Central

Free-living nano-sized flagellates are important bacterivores in aquatic habitats. However, some slightly larger forms can also be omnivorous, i.e., forage upon both bacterial and eukaryotic resources. This hitherto largely ignored feeding mode may have pronounced implications for the interpretation of experiments about protistan bacterivory. We followed the response of an uncultured group of omnivorous cercozoan nanoflagellates from the Novel Clade 2 (Cerc_BAL02) to experimental food web manipulation in samples from the Gulf of Gda?sk (Southern Baltic Sea). Seawater was either prefiltered through 5 µm filters to exclude larger predators of nanoflagellates (F-treatment), or prefiltered and subsequently 1?10 diluted with sterile seawater (F+D-treatment) to stimulate the growth of both, flagellates and bacteria. Initially, Cerc_BAL02 were rapidly enriched under both conditions. They foraged on both, eukaryotic prey and bacteria, and were highly competitive at low concentrations of food. However, these omnivores were later only successful in the F+D treatment, where they eventually represented almost one fifth of all aplastidic nanoflagellates. By contrast, their numbers stagnated in the F-treatment, possibly due to top-down control by a concomitant bloom of other, unidentified flagellates. In analogy with observations about the enrichment of opportunistically growing bacteria in comparable experimental setups we suggest that the low numbers of omnivorous Cerc_Bal02 flagellates in waters of the Gulf of Gda?sk might also be related to their vulnerability to grazing pressure. PMID:21966360

Piwosz, Kasia; Pernthaler, Jakob

2011-01-01

316

Seasonal Activity Budget of Adult Baltic Ringed Seals  

PubMed Central

Although ringed seals are important components in oceanic and fresh water ecosystems at high latitudes, little is known about how they exploit these harsh environments. Seasonal activity and diving behaviour of 19 adult Baltic ringed seals were studied by satellite telemetry. We elaborated an activity budget for ten months of the year, extending over the period from moult to the breeding season. Seals from three main regions showed explicit site fidelity and the distributions of animals tagged from different areas did not overlap, suggesting separate stocks. Both the mean duration and the mean depth of dives peaked in June and July. Seals spent 70% (females) to 85% (males) of their time diving in June and July which decreased to 50% in late autumn. Less than one percent of dives exceeded 10 min in females, while 10% of male dives lasted longer than 10 min in June to September. Less than one percent of dives lasted for more than 25 min. Both females and males were most active during day time and hauled out predominantly during the night. Activity patterns during the summer are suggested to be correlated to energy accumulation and prey availability. The information on seasonal activity budget is crucial for developing population energetic models where interactions between ringed seals and other trophic levels can be evaluated. PMID:18414676

Harkonen, Tero; Jüssi, Mart; Jüssi, Ivar; Verevkin, Michail; Dmitrieva, Lilia; Helle, Eero; Sagitov, Roustam; Harding, Karin C.

2008-01-01

317

Inactivated phosphorus by added aluminum in Baltic Sea sediment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decreased phosphorus (P) retention in aquatic sediments during hypoxic periods results in increased P recycling to the water column. To revert to less productive conditions in the enclosed bays of the Baltic Sea archipelago, increased sediment P burial capacity is needed. Aluminum (Al) addition is considered to be a cost-effective lake restoration method, as it improves sediment P burial capacity. However, little is known about its ability to permanently bind P in brackish systems. In summer 2000, Al sulfate granules were added to a hypoxic bottom area in the Östhammar bay, Sweden. Sediment core samples from the area were collected 10 years later. A peak in Al and P was detected at 20 cm sediment depth, reflecting the added Al and P trapped to it. Only part of the added Al was recovered, but the recovered Al (8 g Al/m2) trapped P at a ratio of 5:1 (molar). Chemical fractionation showed that P extracted as 'Al-P' constituted 55% of the trapped P, indicating that Al added also trapped P extracted as other P forms.

Rydin, Emil

2014-12-01

318

MPC&A training needs of the NIS/Baltics States.  

SciTech Connect

This report serves to document contract deliverables considered to be of continuing interest associated with two workshops conducted as part of an initial assessment of Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) training needs of the Newly Independent and Baltic States (NIS/Baltics). These workshops were held in Kiev, Ukraine, ca. 2003-2004, with the assistance of personnel from the George Kuzmycz Training Center (GKTC) of the Kiev Institute of Nuclear Research (KINR). Because of the dominant role Ukraine plays in the region in terms of the nuclear industry, one workshop focused exclusively on Ukrainian training needs, with participants attending from twelve Ukrainian organizations (plus U.S. DOE/NNSA representatives). The second workshop included participation by a further ten countries from the NIS/Baltics region. In addition, the training needs data developed during the workshop were supplemented by the outcomes of surveys and studies conducted by the GKTC.

Beck, David Franklin; Stoy-McLeod, Carol L.

2006-07-01

319

Factors influencing variability of mercury input to the southern Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

The southern Baltic countries have been identified as significant sources of Hg into the sea. Are anthropogenic activities the sole source? How do meteorological parameters influence the deposition? Studies on input of Hg to the Baltic were conducted in 2008-2012 in the Polish coastal stations. The riverine load was found to depend directly or indirectly on the amount of precipitation and catchment type. Input of atmospheric Hg increased along with the number of precipitation episodes from remote maritime air masses, as well as with the number of days when continental air masses from regional (when domestic heating prevailed) and remote sources moved over the Baltic, during the heating season. During the non-heating season metal input was found to be proportional to episodes of rain from continental regional air masses and to the number of days under influence of continental and maritime air masses from regional sources. PMID:25066454

Be?dowska, Magdalena; Saniewska, Dominika; Falkowska, Lucyna

2014-09-15

320

[On differentiation of cod (Gadus morhua L.) groups in Baltic Sea].  

PubMed

Using the AGP*, PGI-1*, PGI-2*, LDH*, IDH*, and PGM* allozyme markers, the differentiation of cod groups during the spawning period in Baltic Sea was evaluated. It was shown that cod samples from the eastern and western parts of Baltic Sea (being statistically significantly different from the cod samples from the Norwegian Sea, Barents Sea, and the Skagerrak Strait) demonstrated a high degree of identity (I = 0.99-1.0), which could be associated with the observed from the beginning of the present millennium increased migration of cod from eastern Baltic regions to the waters of Bornholm basin, and the distribution of the part of migrants from Bornholm basin to Arkona basin. PMID:25486775

Stroganov, A N; Bleil, M; Oeberst, R; Winkler, H; Semenova, A V

2013-09-01

321

[On differentiation of cod (Gadus morhua L.) groups in Baltic Sea].  

PubMed

Using the AGP*, PGI-1*, PGI-2*, LDH*, IDH*, and PGM* allozyme markers, the differentiation of cod groups during the spawning period in Baltic Sea was evaluated. It was shown that cod samples from the eastern and western parts of Baltic Sea (being statistically significantly different from the cod samples from the Norwegian Sea, Barents Sea, and the Skagerrak Strait) demonstrated a high degree of identity (I = 0.99-1.0), which could be associated with the observed from the beginning of the present millennium increased migration of cod from eastern Baltic regions to the waters of Bornholm basin, and the distribution of the part of migrants from Bornholm basin to Arkona basin. PMID:25508906

2013-09-01

322

Expansion tube test time predictions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interaction of an interface between two gases and strong expansion is investigated and the effect on flow in an expansion tube is examined. Two mechanisms for the unsteady Pitot-pressure fluctuations found in the test section of an expansion tube are proposed. The first mechanism depends on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of the driver-test gas interface in the presence of a strong expansion. The second mechanism depends on the reflection of the strong expansion from the interface. Predictions compare favorably with experimental results. The theory is expected to be independent of the absolute values of the initial expansion tube filling pressures.

Gourlay, Christopher M.

1988-01-01

323

Transplant experiments uncover Baltic Sea basin-specific responses in bacterioplankton community composition and metabolic activities  

PubMed Central

Anthropogenically induced changes in precipitation are projected to generate increased river runoff to semi-enclosed seas, increasing loads of terrestrial dissolved organic matter and decreasing salinity. To determine how bacterial community structure and functioning adjust to such changes, we designed microcosm transplant experiments with Baltic Proper (salinity 7.2) and Bothnian Sea (salinity 3.6) water. Baltic Proper bacteria generally reached higher abundances than Bothnian Sea bacteria in both Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea water, indicating higher adaptability. Moreover, Baltic Proper bacteria growing in Bothnian Sea water consistently showed highest bacterial production and beta-glucosidase activity. These metabolic responses were accompanied by basin-specific changes in bacterial community structure. For example, Baltic Proper Pseudomonas and Limnobacter populations increased markedly in relative abundance in Bothnian Sea water, indicating a replacement effect. In contrast, Roseobacter and Rheinheimera populations were stable or increased in abundance when challenged by either of the waters, indicating an adjustment effect. Transplants to Bothnian Sea water triggered the initial emergence of particular Burkholderiaceae populations, and transplants to Baltic Proper water triggered Alteromonadaceae populations. Notably, in the subsequent re-transplant experiment, a priming effect resulted in further increases to dominance of these populations. Correlated changes in community composition and metabolic activity were observed only in the transplant experiment and only at relatively high phylogenetic resolution. This suggested an importance of successional progression for interpreting relationships between bacterial community composition and functioning. We infer that priming effects on bacterial community structure by natural episodic events or climate change induced forcing could translate into long-term changes in bacterial ecosystem process rates.

Lindh, Markus V.; Figueroa, Daniela; Sjöstedt, Johanna; Baltar, Federico; Lundin, Daniel; Andersson, Agneta; Legrand, Catherine; Pinhassi, Jarone

2015-01-01

324

Caesium-137 distribution, inventories and accumulation history in the Baltic Sea sediments.  

PubMed

The Baltic Sea is susceptible to pollution by hazardous substances due to limited water exchange, shallowness, and the large catchment area. Radionuclides, particularly (137)Cs, are one of the most hazardous anthropogenic substances present in the Baltic environment. This study was conducted to present (137)Cs present contamination that should further be a subject of reliable monitoring when the new Nuclear Power Plant is put into operation in the northern Poland. The sea-wide, up to date distribution of (137)Cs activities and inventories in the Baltic Sea bottom sediments are presented. The (137)Cs activity concentrations were measured in 30 cm long sediment cores collected at 22 sampling stations. Sediment accumulation rates were quantified by (210)Pb geochronology to follow the history of (137)Cs accumulation. The (137)Cs inventories and fluxes were calculated. Most of the Baltic Sea sediments accumulated (137)Cs in the range from 750 to 2675 Bq m(-2). The Bothnian Bay is severely contaminated by (137)Cs with inventories up to 95,191 Bq m(-2). This region is moreover characterized by extremely large patchiness of (137)Cs inventories. The (137)Cs annual fluxes are highest at the two stations located at the Bothnian Bay (342 Bq m(-2) and 527 Bq m(-2)) due to large Chernobyl (137)Cs contamination of that region and high sediment accumulation rates. When these stations are excluded, the recent, annual mean value of (137)Cs load to the Baltic Sea deposits is 38 ± 22 Bq m(-2). The distribution of radio-caesium inventories over the Baltic Sea nowadays reflects the pattern of Chernobyl contamination. The radio-caesium deposited in surface sediments is not permanently buried, but may be resuspended and redeposited by currents, bioturbation or anthropogenic activities. PMID:24121306

Zaborska, Agata; Winogradow, Aleksandra; Pempkowiak, Janusz

2014-01-01

325

Dioxin concentrations in sediments of the Baltic Sea--a survey of existing data.  

PubMed

Recent survey results for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs, dioxins) in Baltic Sea sediments from Finland, Sweden and Denmark were merged with previously published Baltic Sea data. Regional distribution of concentration levels, differences in congener patterns, and temporal changes in sediment profiles were examined. One of the main objectives was to study if any major point sources for different PCDD/F congeners could be identified on a regional scale, based on sediment records. The survey confirmed the impact of chlorophenol production derived highly chlorinated PCDF-congeners on the total toxicity in sediments in the Gulf of Finland near the Kymijoki river estuary. Signatures of other point sources or combined point sources pertinent to specific industry branches or particular production processes (such as pulp bleaching, vinyl chloride production, thermal processes) may be discerned. However, the findings did not support any of the known point sources significantly influencing those congeners that are most abundant in Baltic herring and salmon. Instead, regional distributions in the Baltic Sea indicate that atmospheric deposition may act as a major source for those congeners and especially for 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF. There were clear indications of declines in levels in sediment in some areas, but generally the levels of highly chlorinated PCDD/Fs on the northern coast of the Gulf of Finland were still high when compared with other areas of the Baltic Sea. Major areas with data gaps cover the south-eastern and eastern coastal regions of the Baltic Proper and the southern Gulf of Finland. PMID:17223167

Verta, Matti; Salo, Simo; Korhonen, Markku; Assmuth, Timo; Kiviranta, Hannu; Koistinen, Jaana; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Isosaari, Pirjo; Bergqvist, Per-Anders; Tysklind, Mats; Cato, Ingemar; Vikelsøe, Jørgen; Larsen, Martin M

2007-04-01

326

On the dynamics of oxygen, phosphorus and cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea; A model study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxygen and phosphorus dynamics and cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea are discussed using results from the Swedish Coastal and Ocean Biogeochemical model (SCOBI) coupled to the Rossby Centre Ocean model (RCO). The high-resolution circulation model is used to simulate the time period from 1902 to 1998 using reconstructed physical forcing and climatological nutrient loads of the late 20th century. The analysis of the results covers the last 30 years of the simulation period. The results emphasize the importance of internal phosphorus and oxygen dynamics, the variability of physical conditions and the natural long-term variability of phosphorus supplies from land on the phosphorus content in the Baltic Sea. These mechanisms play an important role on the variability of available surface layer phosphorus in late winter in the Baltic Sea. The content of cyanobacteria increases with the availability of phosphorus in the surface layers of the Baltic proper and the probability for large cyanobacteria blooms in the model is rapidly increased at higher concentrations of excess dissolved inorganic phosphorus in late winter. The natural increase of phosphorus supplies from land due to increased river runoff since the early 1970s may to a large degree explain the increased phosphorus content in the Baltic proper. Another significant fraction of the increase is explained by the release of phosphorus from increased anoxic areas during the period. These results refer to the long-term variability of the phosphorus cycle. In accordance to earlier publications is the short-term (i.e. interannual) variability of the phosphorus content in the Baltic proper mainly explained by oxygen dependent sediment fluxes.

Eilola, Kari; Meier, H. E. Markus; Almroth, Elin

2009-01-01

327

Changes in Extremes of Relative Sea-level: the Baltic Sea case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long records of relative sea-level heights from coastal tide gauge stations provide valuable information on regional variability. The analysis of such records is usually focused on the estimation of linear slopes by ordinary least squares regression. However, sea-level variability can include not only changes in the mean but also changes in the shape and spread of the sea-level values distribution over time. These variations can be more important than changes in mean sea-level - in particular, changes in extreme high waters can impact considerably coastal locations and populations. In this study, this issue is addressed by analyzing the variability of extreme sea-levels in the Baltic Sea through quantile regression. This method allows to derive slopes, along with corresponding uncertainties, for different quantiles of the sea-level distribution. A total of 70 tide gauges along the Baltic sea coastlines are considered. The results show that in the eastern part of the Baltic Sea, including the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, the rate of change of relative sea-level is significantly higher at the 0.9 quantile (corresponding to the largest 10% of sorted sea-level values) than at the mean. The Baltic Sea is a shallow, semi-enclosed sea. Relative sea-level heights are directly influenced by land uplift, which varies considerably along the Baltic Sea coastlines and by the exchange of water through the Danish Straits, mainly determined by meteorological conditions (particularly winds and atmospheric pressure). The distinct rate of change of high-waters in the upper Baltic Sea seems to be associated with corresponding changes in atmospheric conditions, particularly westerly winds.

Silva, M.; Barbosa, S. M.

2007-12-01

328

Modeling the variations of salinity and temperature in the large Gulfs of the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modeling of salinity and temperature in Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf of Finland, and Gulf of Riga is investigated by using a coupled sea ice-ocean Baltic Sea model. 18 years, from late 1980 to the end of 1998, have been investigated. The forcing data extracted taken from a gridded meteorological data base, sea level data from the Kattegat, and river runoff data to the different subbasins of the Baltic Sea from a hydrological data base. To improve the gridded meteorological data base a statistical model for the reduction of geostrophic winds to surface winds was developed. In the analysis it was shown that the calculated long-term salinity and temperature structures were stable and in good agreement with observations. This was made possible by using three different strait-flow models connecting the subbasins of the Baltic Sea. The seasonal and interannual variations of temperature and salinity were also well simulated by the model, implying that the coupling between the atmosphere and the Baltic Sea as well as the diapycnal mixing are reasonably well understood. The water cycle and the surface heat balance were calculated using the 18-year simulation. In the water-balance calculations it was shown that the volume flows from the large gulfs of the Baltic Sea were mainly due to baroclinic transports and that net precipitation added freshwater during the studied period, particularly to the large gulfs. From the heat-balance calculation it is concluded that the Baltic Sea is almost in local balance with the atmosphere. The Bothnian Bay, Gulf of Finland and Gulf of Riga loose heat, whereas the Bothnian Sea gains heat, calculated as long-term means.

Omstedt, A.; Axell, L. B.

2003-03-01

329

Comparison of nematode communities in Baltic and North Sea sublittoral, permeable sands Diversity and environmental control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of free-living nematode communities was investigated seasonally at two sandy locations representing typical shallow sublittoral, permeable environments of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. At the Baltic study site the chlorophyll and organic carbon concentrations in the sediment were, on average, four times lower than at the North Sea. Highest nematode densities (1674-4100 ind. 10 cm -2) and a higher number of free-living nematode genera (66) were recorded in the North Sea (Baltic: 206-1227 ind. 10 cm -2, 30 genera). Despite lower salinity and lower food availability the less dense and less diverse Baltic nematode community was similar in generic composition to the North Sea community. At the North Sea site, all trophic groups according to Wieser's classification were present with omnivores/predators, dominated by Viscosia, prevailing and followed by epistrate-feeders. In the food-limited Baltic community, non-selective deposit feeders (mainly Ascolaimus, Axonolaimus and Daptonema) and omnivores/predators dominated by Enoplolaimus were the most abundant trophic groups while selective deposit feeders were absent or their contribution was negligible. An analysis of the vertical generic distribution revealed highest diversity of the Baltic community in deeper sediment layers, below the sediment surface affected by ripple migration and near the interface of oxic and anoxic conditions. The diversity pattern in the North Sea sediment was more variable but generally showed high diversity in the upper centimetre of the sediment. These observations suggest that food supply and sediment oxygenation are the most important factors influencing the vertical pattern of nematode generic diversity in sublittoral, permeable sands.

Urban-Malinga, Barbara; Hedtkamp, Stefanie I. C.; van Beusekom, Justus E. E.; Wiktor, Józef; W?s?awski, Jan Marcin

2006-10-01

330

Anaerobic transformation of polybrominated biphenyls with the goal of identifying unknown hexabromobiphenyls in Baltic cod liver.  

PubMed

Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) have been introduced as flame retardants in 1970. Despite decreasing application rates since the mid-1970s, PBB residues are still reported in the environment. Furthermore, environmental PBB residues often do not match the PBB pattern in technical products. To get insights into the structures of environmentally-relevant PBBs, the congener patterns of technical hexabromobiphenyl (THBB), octabromobiphenyl (TOBB), synthesized PBB 209 were compared to PBB residues in a cod liver sample from the Baltic Sea. The most relevant PBB congeners in Baltic cod liver were not present in the technical products and therefore most likely metabolites. For this reason, TOBB and HPLC-fractions obtained from this technical product were incubated with super-reduced cyanocobalamine. Reductive debromination was found to be the predominant transformation process. Bromine substituents in ortho-positions proved to be more recalcitrant, and several of the unknown PBBs were tri- and tetra-ortho substituted congeners. Furthermore, the key-PBBs determined in Baltic cod liver were formed during this process. The most important hexabromobiphenyl in Baltic cod liver was identified as PBB 155 by parallel synthesis. PBB 155 which was not detected in the technical PBB product analyzed was suggested as an indicator PBB congener suited to decide whether PBB residues originate from the previous use of THBB (low relative abundance of PBB 155) or TOBB/TDBB (high relative abundance of PBB 155). The latter scenario was found to be valid for the Baltic cod liver sample. Thus, PBBs in the Baltic Sea appeared to originate from partially-weathered residues of PBB 209. PMID:17920655

von der Recke, Roland; Vetter, Walter

2008-03-01

331

Ultraprecise thermal expansion measurements of seven low expansion materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We summarize a large number of ultraprecise thermal expansion measurements made on seven different low expansivity materials. Expansion coefficients in the -150-300 C temperature range are shown for Owens-Illinois Cer-Vit C-101, Corning ULE 7971 (titanium silicate) and fused silica 7940, Heraeus-Schott Zerodur low-expansion material and Homosil fused silica, Universal Cyclops Invar LR-35, and Simonds Saw and Steel Super Invar.

Berthold, J. W., III; Jacobs, S. F.

1976-01-01

332

Range expansion of mutualists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The expansion of a species into new territory is often strongly influenced by the presence of other species. This effect is particularly striking for the case of mutualistic species that enhance each other's proliferation. Examples range from major events in evolutionary history, such as the spread and diversification of flowering plants due to their mutualism with pollen-dispersing insects, to modern examples like the surface colonisation of multi-species microbial biofilms. Here, we investigate the spread of cross-feeding strains of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on an agar surface as a model system for expanding mutualists. Depending on the degree of mutualism, the two strains form distinctive spatial patterns during their range expansion. This change in spatial patterns can be understood as a phase transition within a stepping stone model generalized to two mutualistic species.

Muller, Melanie J. I.; Korolev, Kirill S.; Murray, Andrew W.; Nelson, David R.

2012-02-01

333

Ctenophore population recruits entirely through larval reproduction in the central Baltic Sea  

PubMed Central

The comb jelly Mertensia ovum, widely distributed in Arctic regions, has recently been discovered in the northern Baltic Sea. We show that M. ovum also exists in the central Baltic but that the population consists solely of small-sized larvae (less than 1.6 mm). Despite the absence of adults, eggs were abundant. Experiments revealed that the larvae were reproductively active. Egg production and anticipated mortality rates suggest a self-sustaining population. This is the first account of a ctenophore population entirely recruiting through larval reproduction (paedogenesis). We hypothesize that early reproduction is favoured over growth to compensate for high predation pressure. PMID:22535640

Jaspers, Cornelia; Haraldsson, Matilda; Bolte, Sören; Reusch, Thorsten B. H.; Thygesen, Uffe H.; Kiørboe, Thomas

2012-01-01

334

Ctenophore population recruits entirely through larval reproduction in the central Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

The comb jelly Mertensia ovum, widely distributed in Arctic regions, has recently been discovered in the northern Baltic Sea. We show that M. ovum also exists in the central Baltic but that the population consists solely of small-sized larvae (less than 1.6 mm). Despite the absence of adults, eggs were abundant. Experiments revealed that the larvae were reproductively active. Egg production and anticipated mortality rates suggest a self-sustaining population. This is the first account of a ctenophore population entirely recruiting through larval reproduction (paedogenesis). We hypothesize that early reproduction is favoured over growth to compensate for high predation pressure. PMID:22535640

Jaspers, Cornelia; Haraldsson, Matilda; Bolte, Sören; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Thygesen, Uffe H; Kiørboe, Thomas

2012-10-23

335

EXPANSION NOW!: HAITI, \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to analyze Frederick Douglass' responses to U.S. empire formation in Santo Domingo, between 1870-1872, and in Haiti, between 1889-1891. As U.S. Minister to Haiti and as Assistant Secretary of U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant's commission to annex the Dominican Republic, Douglass fully supported the virtues of U.S. expansion and U.S. Pan-American- ism as long as it promoted

Millery Polyné

2006-01-01

336

Constraints on Cardassian Expansion  

E-print Network

High redshift supernovae and Cosmic Microwave Background data are used to constrain the Cardassian expansion model (Freese & Lewis 2002), a cosmology in which a modification to the Friedmann equation gives rise to a flat, matter-dominated Universe which is currently undergoing a phase of accelerated expansion. In particular, the precision of the positions of the Doppler peaks in the CMB angular power spectrum provided by WMAP tightly constrains the cosmology. The available parameter space is further constrained by various high redshift supernova datasets taken from Tonry et al. (2003), a sample of 230 supernovae collated from the literature, in which fits to the distance and extinction have been recomputed where possible and a consistent zero-point has been applied. In addition, the Cardassian model can also be loosely constrained by inferred upper limits on the epoch at which the Cardassian term in the modified Friedmann equation begins to dominate the expansion (z_eq). Using these methods, a Cardassian cosmology is constrained at the 2 sigma level to 0.191, as opposed to the supernova data which supports a high-Omega_m, low-n cosmology.

W. J. Frith

2003-11-10

337

Characteristics of the Baltic Sea Cold Intermediate Layer on the base of field data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cold Intermediate Layer (CIL) is observed in the Baltic Sea deep areas (depth more than ~60 m) from March to September/October and is easily identifiable at depths 30-60 m by its low temperature (~2-4 C). The main objectives of the work were (i) to develop a criterion of allocation of the CIL in general thermo-haline structure, (ii) to define the CIL using this criterion on the basis of real field data for 2004-2006 years and (iii) to analyze a range of its characteristics (temperature, salinity, density, thickness, location, stability at interfaces, etc.) after those winters (of different severity). Even though cold intermediate layers are often found in inland seas with strong pycno/halocline (the Black Sea, the Marmara Sea, the Mediterranean), quite different criteria of their allocation are used. For the Baltic, there isn't commonly used criterion. It has been found most convenient to use the following one: the CIL in the Baltic Sea is to be defined as a layer between maximum negative and maximum positive temperature gradient within vertical water column. With this definition, allocation of the CIL on vertical temperature/salinity/density profiles was performed using field data obtained in 2005-2006 during cruises of r/v "Professor Stockman" (P.P.Shirshov Istitute of Oceanology RAS; data courtesy Dr.V.Paka, Dr.D.Dorohov) in the Baltic Sea coastal zone and of r/v "Gauss" (Baltic Sea Research Institute at Warnemuende; data courtesy Dr.R.Feistel) in the Baltic Proper. Analysis of mean annual data, published on CD with the book "State and Evolution of the Baltic Sea 1952-2005" (data of IOW), has demonstrated that from about 80 quadrates (1' x 1') of the Baltic Sea area, in 43 quadrates water temperature within the CIL is lower than the lowest water surface temperature. This shows that the CIL contains waters advected horizontally. In order to find spatial correlations, T-S analysis was applied, demonstrating that the CIL waters might drift from south-western rather than northern areas, since water salinity increases towards Danish Straits whilst low temperature is commonly found in winter in coastal areas allover the Baltic Sea. Conclusions are: (i) the Baltic CIL contains waters, advected from shallow areas; (ii) most possibly, spring transition of a water temperature in upper layer across the temperature of the maximum density is important for the formation of the CIL. The suggested criterion of the Baltic CIL allocation is convenient for its description and useful for understanding of the mechanisms of its formation. The investigation is supported by RFBR, grants ?10-05-00540, ? 09-05-90727mob_st.

Kozlova, Olga; Chubarenko, Natalia; Chubarenko, Irina

2010-05-01

338

Series Expansions Department of Physics  

E-print Network

. Series Expansions Joan Adler Department of Physics Technion­IIT, 32000, Haifa, Israel. 1 #12's critical behavior is known exactly. The method of interest in this column is the series expansion method state. In the series expansion method, the system is intrinsically infinite, and the solution would

Adler, Joan

339

Calibration of the hydrogeological model of the Baltic Artesian Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Let us consider the calibration issue for the Baltic Artesian Basin (BAB) which is a complex hydrogeological system in the southeastern Baltic with surface area close to 0.5 million square kilometers. The model of the geological structure contains 42 layers including aquifers and aquitards. The age of sediments varies from Cambrian up to the Quaternary deposits. The finite element method model was developed for the calculation of the steady state three-dimensional groundwater flow with free surface. No-flow boundary conditions were applied on the rock bottom and the side boundaries of BAB, while simple hydrological model is applied on the surface. The level of the lakes, rivers and the sea is fixed as constant hydraulic head. Constant mean value of 70 mm/year was assumed as an infiltration flux elsewhere and adjusted during the automatic calibration process. Averaged long-term water extraction was applied at the water supply wells. The calibration of the hydrogeological model is one of the most important steps during the model development. The knowledge about the parameters of the modeled system is often insufficient, especially for the large regional models, and a lack of geometric and hydraulic conductivity data is typical. The quasi-Newton optimization method L-BFGS-B is used for the calibration of the BAB model. Model is calibrated on the available water level measurements in monitoring wells and level measurements in boreholes during their installation. As the available data is not uniformly distributed over the covered area, weight coefficient is assigned to each borehole in order not to overestimate the clusters of boreholes. The year 2000 is chosen as the reference year for the present time scenario and the data from surrounding years are also taken into account but with smaller weighting coefficients. The objective function to be minimized by the calibration process is the weighted sum of squared differences between observed and modeled piezometric heads. The parameters of the calibration are the horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities of the hydrogeological layers, which are assumed uniform throughout the whole individual layer. The initial values of conductivities are taken from the available field pumping test measurements or based on the lithology of individual hydrogeological layers. The allowed variation range (multiplicative coefficient applied to respective initial parameter value) of conductivities for all layers and of infiltration rate is from 0.01 to 100 times. The minimization of objective function converges in several hundreds of iterations and the mean squared difference in one layer is 7 m. The ratio between the horizontal and vertical conductivity is kept fixed in each optimization run and the effect of different ratios on objective function is shown. The influence of initial values of hydraulic conductivities on the objective function is analyzed. The calibration results are validated using different data sets for calibration and validation. Acknowledgement The present work has been funded by the European Social Fund project "Establishment of interdisciplinary scientist group and modelling system for groundwater research" (Project Nr. 2009/0212/1DP/1.1.1.2.0/09/APIA/VIAA/060)

Virbulis, J.; Klints, I.; Timuhins, A.; Sennikovs, J.; Bethers, U.

2012-04-01

340

Seabird Guano Fertilizes Baltic Sea Littoral Food Webs  

PubMed Central

Nutrient enrichment in coastal marine systems can have profound impacts on trophic networks. In the Baltic Sea, the population of Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) has increased nearly exponentially since the mid-1990s, and colonies of these seabirds can be important sources of nitrogen enrichment for nearby benthic communities due to guano runoff. In this study we used stable isotope analyses and diet mixing models to determine the extent of nitrogen enrichment from cormorant colonies, as well as to examine any possible changes in herbivore diet preferences due to enrichment. We found significantly higher levels of ?15N in samples from colony islands than control islands for producers (the dominant macroalga Fucus vesiculosus, filamentous algae, and periphyton) and herbivores, as well as a positive correlation between enrichment and nest density in colony sites. We also found that enrichment increased over the breeding season of the cormorants, with higher enrichment in late summer than early summer. While the amount of total nitrogen did not differ between colony and control sites, the amount of guano-based nitrogen in algae was >50% in most sites, indicating high nitrogen enrichment from colonies. Herbivores (the isopod Idotea balthica and the gastropod Theodoxus fluviatilis) preferred feeding upon the dominant macroalga Fucus vesiculosus rather than on filamentous algae or periphyton in both control and colony, and there was a significant increase in periphyton consumption near colony sites. Overall, guano from cormorant colonies seems to have effects on both producers and herbivores, as well as the potential to modify algae-herbivore interactions. PMID:23593452

Gagnon, Karine; Rothäusler, Eva; Syrjänen, Anneli; Yli-Renko, Maria; Jormalainen, Veijo

2013-01-01

341

Mapping Baltic Sea shallow water environments with airborne remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is known that the structure of benthic macrophyte and invertebrate habitats indicate the quality of coastal water. Thus, a large-scale analysis of the spatial patterns of coastal marine habitats makes it possible to adequately estimate the status of valuable coastal marine habitats, provide better evidence for environmental changes, and describe the processes behind the changes. Knowing the spatial distribution of benthic habitats is also important from the coastal management point of view. Our previous results clearly demonstrated that remote sensing methods can be used to map water depth and distribution of taxonomic groups of benthic algae (e.g., red, green, and brown algae) in the optically complex coastal waters of the Baltic Sea. We have as well shown that benthic habitat mapping should be done at high spatial resolution owing to the small-scale heterogeneity of such habitats in Estonian coastal waters. Here we tested the capability of high spatial resolution hyperspectral airborne image in its application for mapping benthic habitats. A big challenge is to define appropriate mapping classes that are also meaningful from the ecological point of view. In this study two benthic habitat classification schemes—broader level and finer level—were defined for the study area. The broader level classes were relatively well classified, but discrimination among the units of the finer classification scheme posed a considerable challenge and required a careful approach. Benthic habitat classification provided the highest accuracy in the case of the Spectral Angle Mapper classification method applied to a radiometrically corrected image. Further processing levels, such as spatial filtering and glint correction, decreased the classification accuracy.

Vahtmäe, Ele; Kutser, Tiit; Kotta, Jonne; Pärnoja, Merli; Möller, Tiia; Lennuk, Lennart

2012-11-01

342

Assessment of the Present and Future Offshore Wind Power Potential: A Case Study in a Target Territory of the Baltic Sea Near the Latvian Coast  

PubMed Central

Offshore wind energy development promises to be a significant domestic renewable energy source in Latvia. The reliable prediction of present and future wind resources at offshore sites is crucial for planning and selecting the location for wind farms. The overall goal of this paper is the assessment of offshore wind power potential in a target territory of the Baltic Sea near the Latvian coast as well as the identification of a trend in the future wind energy potential for the study territory. The regional climate model CLM and High Resolution Limited Area Model (Hirlam) simulations were used to obtain the wind climatology data for the study area. The results indicated that offshore wind energy is promising for expanding the national electricity generation and will continue to be a stable resource for electricity generation in the region over the 21st century. PMID:23983619

Teilans, Artis

2013-01-01

343

BASIC: Baltic Sea cyanobacteria. An investigation of the structure and dynamics of water blooms of cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea—responses to a changing environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blooms of cyanobacteria that develop each summer in the Baltic Sea are composed of two functional groups, namely the small-sized picocyanobacteria (Synechococcus sp.) and the larger, colony-forming, filamentous N2-fixing cyanobacteria. The former encompassed both red (phycoerythrin-rich) and blue-green (phycocyanin-rich) species. The majority of the picocyanobacteria measured less than 1?m and this size fraction comprised as much as 80% of

Lucas J. Stal; Patrizia Albertano; Birgitta Bergman; Klaus von Bröckel; John R. Gallon; Paul K. Hayes; Kaarina Sivonen; Anthony E. Walsby

2003-01-01

344

Operator product expansion algebra  

SciTech Connect

We establish conceptually important properties of the operator product expansion (OPE) in the context of perturbative, Euclidean ?{sup 4}-quantum field theory. First, we demonstrate, generalizing earlier results and techniques of hep-th/1105.3375, that the 3-point OPE, =?{sub C}C{sub A{sub 1A{sub 2A{sub 3}{sup C}}}}, usually interpreted only as an asymptotic short distance expansion, actually converges at finite, and even large, distances. We further show that the factorization identity C{sub A{sub 1A{sub 2A{sub 3}{sup B}}}}=?{sub C}C{sub A{sub 1A{sub 2}{sup C}}}C{sub CA{sub 3}{sup B}} is satisfied for suitable configurations of the spacetime arguments. Again, the infinite sum is shown to be convergent. Our proofs rely on explicit bounds on the remainders of these expansions, obtained using refined versions, mostly due to Kopper et al., of the renormalization group flow equation method. These bounds also establish that each OPE coefficient is a real analytic function in the spacetime arguments for non-coinciding points. Our results hold for arbitrary but finite loop orders. They lend support to proposals for a general axiomatic framework of quantum field theory, based on such “consistency conditions” and akin to vertex operator algebras, wherein the OPE is promoted to the defining structure of the theory.

Holland, Jan [School of Mathematics, Cardiff University, Senghennydd Rd, Cardiff CF24 4AG (United Kingdom)] [School of Mathematics, Cardiff University, Senghennydd Rd, Cardiff CF24 4AG (United Kingdom); Hollands, Stefan [School of Mathematics, Cardiff University, Senghennydd Rd, Cardiff CF24 4AG (United Kingdom) [School of Mathematics, Cardiff University, Senghennydd Rd, Cardiff CF24 4AG (United Kingdom); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Leipzig, Brüderstr. 16, Leipzig, D-04103 (Germany)

2013-07-15

345

Simulated distributions of Baltic Sea-ice in warming climate and consequences for the winter habitat of the Baltic ringed seal.  

PubMed

Sea-ice in the Baltic Sea in present and future climates is investigated. The Rossby Centre Regional Atmosphere-Ocean model was used to perform a set of 30-year-long time slice experiments. For each of the two driving global models HadAM3H and ECHAM4/OPYC3, one control run (1961-1990) and two scenario runs (2071-2100) based upon the SRES A2 and B2 emission scenarios were conducted. The future sea-ice volume in the Baltic Sea is reduced by 83% on average. The Bothnian Sea, large areas of the Gulf of Finland and Gulf of Riga, and the outer parts of the southwestern archipelago of Finland will become ice-free in the mean. The presented scenarios are used to study the impact of climate change on the Baltic ringed seal (Phoca hispida botnica). Climate change seems to be a major threat to all southern populations. The only fairly good winter sea-ice habitat is found to be confined to the Bay of Bothnia. PMID:15264604

Meier, H E Markus; Döscher, Ralf; Halkka, Antti

2004-06-01

346

Load regulating expansion fixture  

DOEpatents

A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components.

Wagner, Lawrence M. (San Jose, CA); Strum, Michael J. (San Jose, CA)

1998-01-01

347

Load regulating expansion fixture  

DOEpatents

A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig.

Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

1998-12-15

348

Vacuum driven accelerated expansion  

E-print Network

It has been shown that an improved estimation of quantum vacuum energy can yield not only acceptable but also experimentally sensible results. The very idea consists in a straightforward extraction of gravitationally interacting part of the full quantum vacuum energy by means of gauge transformations. The implementation of the idea has been performed in the formalism of effective action, in the language of Schwinger's proper time and the Seeley-DeWitt heat kernel expansion, in the background of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker geometry.

Bogus?aw Broda; Piotr Bronowski; Marcin Ostrowski; Micha? Szanecki

2008-12-29

349

Optical properties of north-eastern Baltic Sea in spring and summer 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater irradiation profiles in the north-eastern Baltic Sea near the Estonian northern and north- western coast, near Helsinki, and in the central part of Gulf of Finland were measured in spring and summer 2007. The vertical profiles of downwelling and scalar irradiance in the PAR region were measured in situ using a frame completed with two planar and a spherical

Victor Alari; Ants Erm; Germo Väli; Inga Lips; Urmas Lips

2008-01-01

350

Baltic Astronomy, vol. 8, 535{574, 1999. GALAXY SURFACE PHOTOMETRY  

E-print Network

Baltic Astronomy, vol. 8, 535{574, 1999. GALAXY SURFACE PHOTOMETRY Bo Milvang-Jensen 1;2 and Inger@gemini.edu Received March 3, 2000 Abstract. We describe galaxy surface photometry based on #12;tting ellipses. As examples of applications of surface photometry we discuss the determination of the relative disk

351

COMPONENTS OF REMOTE SENSING REFLECTANCE OF NORTHERN BALTIC NATURAL WATER BASINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses two components of remote sensing reflectance connected to the solar light reflected from the sea surface and the light diffusely reflected by the water mass. Results of this analysis are applied to the experimental spectral signatures of light reflected from the surface of various Estonian and Finnish lakes and coastal areas of Baltic Sea. The role of

Helgi Arst; Vladimir I. Haltrin

2002-01-01

352

Elemental and organic carbon in aerosols over urbanized coastal region (southern Baltic Sea, Gdynia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on PM 10, total particulate matter (TSP), elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) concentrations were carried out in the Polish coastal zone of the Baltic Sea, in urbanized Gdynia. The interaction between the land, the air and the sea was clearly observed. The highest concentrations of PM 10, TSP and both carbon fractions were noted in the air

Anita Lewandowska; Lucyna Falkowska; Dominika Murawiec; Dorota Pryputniewicz; Dorota Burska; Magdalena Be?dowska

2010-01-01

353

Preliminary program for Reproductive Disorders in Baltic Vertebrate Wildlife (BALTREP 2011)  

E-print Network

Lundstedt- Enkel and Jonas Malmsten 09.00 ­ 9.30 Anomalies of the reproductive system in the St. LawrencePreliminary program for Reproductive Disorders in Baltic Vertebrate Wildlife (BALTREP 2011) 7 ­ 8 in context with other stressors: effects on wildlife reproduction and sustainability Val Beasley, Key note

354

Negative direct effects of nutrient enrichment on the establishment of Fucus vesiculosus in the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The direct effect of nutrient enrichment on the early life stages of Fucus vesiculosus in the brackish Baltic Sea was followed in laboratory experiments. The effects of nitrate and phosphate on the rate of attachment, on germination and on the development of the primary rhizoid were assessed. The rate of attachment was slow compared with similar studies in a marine

Lena Bergström; Rita Berger; Lena Kautsky

2003-01-01

355

Genetic population structure of sympatric and allopatric populations of Baltic ciscoes (Coregonus albula complex, Teleostei, Coregonidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Teleost fishes of the Coregonidae are good model systems for studying postglacial evolution, adaptive radiation and ecological speciation. Of particular interest is whether the repeated occurrence of sympatric species pairs results from in-situ divergence from a single lineage or from multiple invasions of one or more different lineages. Here, we analysed the genetic structure of Baltic ciscoes (Coregonus albula

Thomas Mehner; Kirsten Pohlmann; Che Elkin; Michael T Monaghan; Barbara Nitz; Jörg Freyhof

2010-01-01

356

Language-in-Education across the Baltic: Policies, Practices and Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since their political reorientation that started in the late 1980s, the Baltic states have experienced profound social reforms to rebuild their democratizing societies. Education has featured as a key vehicle to this transformation process of overcoming the limitations of the Soviet past. National legislative frameworks were therefore soon…

Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle

2007-01-01

357

Intercultural Education in the Curriculum: Some Comparative Aspects from the Baltic and Nordic Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the 1990s, the educational systems of the Baltic countries, newly independent of the Soviet Union, underwent rapid and far-reaching change. National educational traditions were re-established and the countries achieved an internationally recognized quality of education. In the second half of the past decade, however, it came to be…

Asser, Hiie; Trasberg, Karmen; Vassilchenko, Larissa

2004-01-01

358

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and sediment of the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1992 and 1994, the distribution of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated in seawater and surface sediments of the Baltic Sea. The analysis of PAHs in seawater is very difficult due to the low concentration. High separation capability is required. A method for analysing very low concentrations of PAHs is presented. The method is based on the high-performance

G. Witt

1995-01-01

359

Industrialization affects heavy metal and carbon isotope concentrations in recent Baltic Sea sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent sediment cores of the western Baltic Sea were analyzed for heavy metal and carbon isotope contents. The sedimentation rate was determined from radiocarbon dates to be 1.4 mm\\/yr. The `recent age' of the sediment was about 850 yr. Within the upper 20 cm of sediment, certain heavy metals became increasingly enriched towards the surface; Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu

Helmut Erlenkeuser; Erwin Suess; Horst Willkomm

1974-01-01

360

Toxicity and isolation of the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena from the southern Baltic Sea in 1986  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three water bloom samples were collected in August 1986 from the southern Baltic Sea. Acute toxicity of the samples was determined by mouse bioassay and the toxins were further studied by HPLC. The bloom samples contained equal amounts of cyanobacteria Nodularia spumigena and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and were hepatotoxic. Two hepatotoxic Nodularia spumigena strains were isolated from the samples. The isolates

K. Sivonen; K. Kononen; A.-L. Esala; S. I. Niemelä

1989-01-01

361

Nutrient limitation and grazing control of the Baltic plankton community during annual succession  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient limitation and grazing control of the planktonic community were studied in the northern Baltic Sea off the SW coast of Finland during the phytoplankton growth season of 1985. In situ experiments based on a 23 factorial design were performed in mesocosm enclosures on 10 occasions. The manipulations used included phosphorus (PO,? ) and nitrogen (NH,+ ) additions and the

K. KIVI; S. KAITALA; H. KUOSA; J. KUPARINEN; E. LESKINEN; R. LIGNELL; B. MARCUSSEN; T. TAMMINEN

1993-01-01

362

Research Materials in Baltic Studies: A Survey of Availability and Need.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a survey designed to find out the status of research materials in the field of Baltic studies. Deals primarily with such reference tools as bibliographies, catalogs, indexes, encyclopedias, dictionaries, and such sources as critical editions, collections of documents, media information, statistical information, and others. (Executive…

Nollendorfs, Valters; Zeps, Betty S.

1980-01-01

363

Influence of atmospheric circulation on the maximum ice extent in the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work analyzes long-term changes in the annual maximum ice extent in the Baltic Sea and Skagerrak between 1720 and 1997. It focuses on the sensitivity of the ice extent to changes in air temperature and on the relationships between the ice extent and large-scale atmospheric circulation. A significant regime shift in 1877 explains the decreasing trend in the ice

Anders Omstedt; Deliang Chen

2001-01-01

364

BALTIC FORESTRY TREE-RING CHRONOLOGY OF SCOTS PINE /.../ FOR LITHUANIA  

E-print Network

A. VITAS BALTIC FORESTRY TREE-RING CHRONOLOGY OF SCOTS PINE /.../ FOR LITHUANIA Introduction, Pukienë 2002) is constructed by using tree-ring series from single objects-buildings. Therefore the long-term centennial Scots pine Tree-Ring Chronology of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) for Lithuania

365

Aerosol-water distribution of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the Baltic Sea region.  

PubMed

Atmospheric deposition is a major pathway of PCDD/Fs to the Baltic Sea. We studied the aerosol-water distribution for aerosols collected close to the Baltic Sea in order to investigate the availability of pollutants sorbed to aerosols deposited on water. Aerosols were analyzed for both total concentration (Soxhlet extraction) and the freely dissolved water concentration (extraction with 17-?m polyoxymethylene equilibrium passive samplers). Concentrations of PCDD/F and sum PCB-7 in aerosols were 65-1300 pg/g dw TEQ and 22-100 ng/g dw, respectively. Organic carbon (OC)-normalized aerosol-water distribution ratios (K(aer-water,OC)) were consistently lower (factor 2-60) than previously determined sediment organic carbon-water distribution ratios (K(sed,OC)). Hence PCDD/Fs and PCBs entering the Baltic Sea through aerosol deposition seem to be more available for desorption to the water phase than PCDD/Fs and PCBs sorbed to sediment. Further, we investigated whether aerosol-water distribution may be predicted from the air-aerosol partitioning constant multiplied by the Henry's Law constant. This proposed model for aerosol-water distribution underestimated measured values for PCBs by factors of 1-17 and for PCDD/Fs by more than a factor 10. These findings can be used to improve future fate modeling of PCBs and PCDD/Fs in marine environments and specifically the Baltic Sea. PMID:23214413

Sobek, Anna; Arp, Hans Peter H; Wiberg, Karin; Hedman, Jenny; Cornelissen, Gerard

2013-01-15

366

Rapid speciation in a newly opened postglacial marine environment, the Baltic Sea  

PubMed Central

Background Theory predicts that speciation can be quite rapid. Previous examples comprise a wide range of organisms such as sockeye salmon, polyploid hybrid plants, fruit flies and cichlid fishes. However, few studies have shown natural examples of rapid evolution giving rise to new species in marine environments. Results Using microsatellite markers, we show the evolution of a new species of brown macroalga (Fucus radicans) in the Baltic Sea in the last 400 years, well after the formation of this brackish water body ~8–10 thousand years ago. Sympatric individuals of F. radicans and F. vesiculosus (bladder wrack) show significant reproductive isolation. Fucus radicans, which is endemic to the Baltic, is most closely related to Baltic Sea F. vesiculosus among north Atlantic populations, supporting the hypothesis of a recent divergence. Fucus radicans exhibits considerable clonal reproduction, probably induced by the extreme conditions of the Baltic. This reproductive mode is likely to have facilitated the rapid foundation of the new taxon. Conclusion This study represents an unparalleled example of rapid speciation in a species-poor open marine ecosystem and highlights the importance of increasing our understanding on the role of these habitats in species formation. This observation also challenges presumptions that rapid speciation takes place only in hybrid plants or in relatively confined geographical places such as postglacial or crater lakes, oceanic islands or rivers. PMID:19335884

Pereyra, Ricardo T; Bergström, Lena; Kautsky, Lena; Johannesson, Kerstin

2009-01-01

367

Genetic population structure of perch Perca fluviatilis along the Swedish coast of the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

In this study, the genetic variation of perch Perca fluviatilis from 18 different sites along the Swedish coast of the Baltic Sea was assessed. There was a relative strong support for isolation by distance and the results suggest an overall departure from panmixia. The level of genetic divergence was moderate (global F(ST) = 0·04) and indications of differences in the population genetic structure between the two major basins (central Baltic Sea and Gulf of Bothnia) in the Baltic Sea were found. There was a higher level of differentiation in the central Baltic Sea compared to the Gulf of Bothnia, and the results suggest that stretches of deep water might act as barriers to gene flow in the species. On the basis of the estimation of genetic patch size, the results corroborate previous mark--recapture studies and suggest that this is a species suitable for local management. In all, the findings of this study emphasize the importance of considering regional differences even when strong isolation by distance characterize the genetic population structure of species. PMID:21722115

Olsson, J; Mo, K; Florin, A-B; Aho, T; Ryman, N

2011-07-01

368

The joint Baltic Sea research and development programme Strategic reSearch agenda 2011-2017  

E-print Network

. The main aim of BONUS is to generate and disseminate knowledge and provide necessary know-how in order and where the long-term management of the region is based on sound knowledge derived from multi to resolve successfully major challenges facing the Baltic Sea region in the coming decade and beyond

Johannesson, Henrik

369

SwingStations: a web-based client tool for the Baltic environmental database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the operation of a web-based computer program designed as a client program for the Baltic Environmental Database. This database contains a large collection of oceanographic data for the Baltic Sea from all Baltic countries, covering observations from 1900 to the present. A database server manages this database allowing user access via the Internet. To investigate the database, a web-based program (SwingStations) was developed. This program works as a client in client/server interaction with the database. It allows data to be selected using graphical user-friendly queries and to analyze the data in numerical and graphical forms. It is also possible to construct vertical profiles of statistics and time series (time-depth graph) of oceanographic parameters for a selected area of the Baltic Sea. SwingStations applet is written in Java™ using Java Foundation Classes Application Programming Interface. This interface is included in the Sun's Java™ Plug-in Virtual Machine that provides complete Java Compatible™ support for all the popular web browsers on major hardware platforms.

Sokolov, Alexander; Wulff, Fredrik

1999-08-01

370

Direct Evidence for Production of Microcystins by Anabaena Strains from the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anabaena is a filamentous, N2-fixing, and morphologically diverse genus of cyanobacteria found in fresh- water and brackish water environments worldwide. It contributes to the formation of toxic blooms in fresh- water bodies through the production of a range of hepatotoxins or neurotoxins. In the Baltic Sea, Anabaena spp. form late summer blooms, together with Nodularia spumigena and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. It

Katrianna Halinen; Jouni Jokela; David P. Fewer; Matti Wahlsten; Kaarina Sivonen

2007-01-01

371

The Baltic Republics and Language Ideological Debates Surrounding European Union Accession  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the impact of European Union accession negotiations on language ideological debates regarding minority (language) and citizenship rights in the Baltic Republics. It explores issues pertaining to the transferability of standards developed for established democracies in the West to the situation of democratising countries in…

Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle

2005-01-01

372

Language Policy and the Internationalization of Higher Education in the Baltic Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the framework of the internationalization and globalization of higher education and competition for international students, the paper examines how language policy in higher education shapes the provision of study programs in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. It concludes that study programs in the Baltic states mostly follow the convention of a…

Kaša, Rita; Mhamed, Ali Ait Si

2013-01-01

373

Language and Education Orientations in Lithuania: A Cross-Baltic Perspective Post-EU Accession  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an up-to-date overview of language policies and practices in Lithuania, paying particular attention to the latest developments that have taken place in national educational contexts. Against the background of recent sociodemographic changes in the three Baltic republics, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, it analyzes issues…

Bulajeva, Tatjana; Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle

2008-01-01

374

Assessment of undiscovered conventional and continuous oil and gas resources of the Baltic Depression Province, 2014  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 282 million barrels of conventional oil, 576 billion cubic feet of conventional gas, 1.3 billion barrels of continuous oil, and 4.6 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the Baltic Depression Province.

Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers, Heidi M.

2015-01-01

375

The submarine groundwater discharge as a carbon source to the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD) is an important, yet poorly recognized pathway of material transport to the marine environment. This work reports on the results of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in the groundwater seeping to the Bay of Puck. The loads of carbon via SGD were quantified for the Baltic Sea sub-basins and the entire Baltic Sea. The annual averages of DIC and DOC concentrations in the groundwater were equal to 64.5 ± 10.0 mg C L-1 and 5.8 ± 0.9 mg C L-1. The DIC and DOC fluxes via SGD to the Baltic Sea were estimated at 283.6 ± 66.7 kt yr-1 and 25.5 ± 4.2 kt yr-1. The SGD derived carbon load to the Baltic Sea is an important component of carbon budget, which turns the status of the sea into firmly heterotrophic. The carbon load to the World Ocean, which was calculated basing on few reports on groundwater discharges and the measured carbon concentrations, amounts to- (142-155) × 103 kt yr-1 (DIC), and (13-14) × 103 kt yr-1 (DOC). The carbon flux via SGD amounts to some 25% of the riverine carbon load, and should be included into the World Ocean carbon budget.

Szymczycha, B.; Maciejewska, A.; Szczepanska, A.; Pempkowiak, J.

2013-02-01

376

Trends in heavy metal concentrations in the Western and Central Baltic Sea waters detected by using  

E-print Network

Trends in heavy metal concentrations in the Western and Central Baltic Sea waters detected by using 2003; accepted 10 October 2003 Abstract Heavy metal concentrations from annual sampling in the period and the accumulation of, inter alia, heavy metals. At irregular intervals, major inflows provide large volumes

Dippner, Joachim W.

377

PHOTOCHEMICAL MINERALIZATION OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC NITROGEN TO AMMONIUM IN THE BALTIC SEA  

EPA Science Inventory

Solar radiation-induced photochemistry can be considered as a new source of nutrients when photochemical reactions release bioavailable nitrogen from biologically non-reactive dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). Pretreatments of Baltic Sea waters in the dark indicated that >72% of ...

378

Temporal trends of PCDD/Fs in Baltic Sea sediment cores covering the 20th century.  

PubMed

The pollution trend of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the Baltic Sea region was studied based on depth profiles of PCDD/Fs in sediment cores collected from six offshore areas, eight coastal sites impacted by industrial/urban emissions, and one coastal reference site. A general trend was observed for the offshore and coastal reference sites with substantial increase in PCDD/F concentrations in the mid-late 1970s and peak levels during 1985-2002. The overall peak year for PCDD/Fs in Baltic Sea offshore areas was estimated (using spline-fit modeling) to 1994 ± 5 years, and a half-life in sediments was estimated at 29 ± 11 years. For the industrial/urban impacted coastal sites, the temporal trend was more variable with peak years occurring 1-2 decades earlier compared to offshore areas. The substantial reductions from peak levels (38 ± 11% and 81 ± 12% in offshore and coastal areas, respectively) reflect domestic and international actions taken for reduction of the release of PCDD/Fs to the environment. The modeled overall half-life and reductions of PCDD/Fs in offshore Baltic Sea sediment correspond well to both PCDD/F trends in European lakes without any known direct PCDD/F sources (half-lives 30 and 32 years), and previously modeled reduction in atmospheric deposition of PCDD/Fs to the Baltic Sea since 1990. These observations support previous findings of a common diffuse source, such as long-range air transport of atmospheric emissions, as the prime source of PCDD/Fs to the Baltic Sea region. The half-life of PCDD/Fs in Baltic Sea offshore sediments was estimated to be approximately 2 and 4-6 times longer than in semirural and urban European air, respectively. This study highlights the need for further international actions to reduce the levels of PCDD/Fs in Baltic Sea air specifically and in European air in general. PMID:24351230

Assefa, Anteneh T; Sobek, Anna; Sundqvist, Kristina L; Cato, Ingemar; Jonsson, Per; Tysklind, Mats; Wiberg, Karin

2014-01-21

379

Atlas of Urban Expansion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How have cities grown over time? Answers to this important question are provided in visual form via the Lincoln Land Institute's Atlas of Urban Expansion. This resource "provides the geographic and quantitative dimensions of urban expansion and its key attributes in cities the world over." Visitors to the site should start their own exploration by looking at "Making Room for a Planet of Cities," a policy report that examines how the world has become heavily urbanized over the past few decades. Much of the material within the Atlas can be found in the five sections presented on the left toolbar of this site. They include Section 2: A Representative Sample of 30 Cities, 1800-2000 and Section 3: Urban and National Data. The most incredible section here is Section 5: Google Earth Data for the Universe of 3646 Cities. It is a remarkable look at the accuracy of various maps portraying the world's primary cities in a variety of settings. Overall, this site is an invaluable resource for planners, demographers, policy folks, and anyone interested in the urban condition.

380

Identifying source regions for the atmospheric input of PCDD/Fs to the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PCDD/F contamination of the Baltic Sea has resulted in the European Union imposing restrictions on the marketing of several fish species. Atmospheric deposition is the major source of PCDD/Fs to the Baltic Sea, and hence there is a need to identify the source regions of the PCDD/Fs in ambient air over the Baltic Sea. A novel monitoring strategy was employed to address this question. During the winter of 2006-2007 air samples were collected in Aspvreten (southern Sweden) and Pallas (northern Finland). Short sampling times (24 h) were employed and only samples with stable air mass back trajectories were selected for analysis of the 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/F congeners. The range in the PCDD/F concentrations from 40 samples collected at Aspvreten was a factor of almost 50 (range 0.6-29 fg TEQ/m 3). When the samples were grouped according to air mass origin into seven compass sectors, the variability was much lower (typically less than a factor of 3). This indicates that air mass origin was the primary source of the variability. The contribution of each sector to the PCDD/F contamination over the Baltic Sea during the winter half year of 2006/2007 was calculated from the average PCDD/F concentration for each sector and the frequency with which the air over the Baltic Sea came from that sector. Air masses originating from the south-southwest, south-southeast and east segments contributed 65% of the PCDDs and 75% of the PCDFs. Strong correlations were obtained between the concentrations of most of the PCDD/F congeners and the concentration of soot. These correlations can be used to predict the PCDD/F concentrations during the winter half year from inexpensive soot measurements.

Sellström, Ulla; Egebäck, Anna-Lena; McLachlan, Michael S.

381

Significance of archaeal nitrification in hypoxic waters of the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine oxygen deficient areas are sites of important microbially mediated transformations within the nitrogen cycle. In the Baltic Sea, suboxic waters (oxygen below 5 ?mol L-1) are considered to be a major nitrification zone within the water column. Recent evidence indicates that Archaea and not Bacteria are here the major ammonium oxidizers. In a Baltic Sea pelagic redoxcline, the crenarchaeotal subcluster GD2 which is related to the first cultivated ammonia-oxidizing crenarchaeote Candidatus Nitrosopumilus maritimus occurs in high abundance. However, little is known about its function and importance for the nitrogen and carbon cycles in oxygen minimum zones of the Baltic Sea. To approach this question, we sampled pelagic redoxclines in the Baltic Sea and determined the rates of nitrification and light-independent, inorganic carbon fixation via 15N and 14C isotope incubations, and quantified the abundance of putative ammonia-oxidizing Crenarchaeota by catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH). Nitrification was detectable throughout the suboxic zone with maxima of 122-131 nmol L-1 d-1 in layers with 1.8-7.1 ?mol oxygen L-1 and ammonium below 0.2 ?mol L-1. However, a nitrification potential was detected even in the upper anoxic, sulfidic zone. Crenarchaeotal abundance correlated strongly with nitrification rates and accounted for up to 24% of total prokaryotic cells. In contrast, the CO2 fixation in the suboxic zone was with 1.6-19.6 nmol L-1 d-1 rather low when compared to the subjacent anoxic, sulfidic waters. Our study indicates that ammonia oxidation in the suboxic zone of the Baltic Sea is mainly driven by Crenarchaeota. Their occurrence also in the anoxic, sulfidic water masses and the maintained nitrification potential point to special adaptations in this habitat with a potentially reduced sensitivity against hydrogen sulfide.

Berg, C.; Vandieken, V.; Thamdrup, B.; Jürgens, K.

2012-04-01

382

Improvement of Baltic proper water quality using large-scale ecological engineering.  

PubMed

Eutrophication of the Baltic proper has led to impaired water quality, demonstrated by, e.g., extensive blooming of cyanobacteria during the premium summer holiday season and severe oxygen deficit in the deepwater. Sustainable improvements in water quality by the reduction of phosphorus (P) supplies will take several decades before giving full effects because of large P storages both in soils in the watershed and in the water column and bottom sediments of the Baltic proper. In this article it is shown that drastically improved water quality may be obtained within a few years using large-scale ecological engineering methods. Natural variations in the Baltic proper during the last decades have demonstrated how rapid improvements may be achieved. The present article describes the basic dynamics of P, organic matter, and oxygen in the Baltic proper. It also briefly discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different classes of methods of ecological engineering aimed at restoring the Baltic proper from eutrophication effects. Preliminary computations show that the P content might be halved within a few years if about 100 kg O2 s(-1) are supplied to the upper deepwater. This would require 100 pump stations, each transporting about 100 m3 s(-1) of oxygen-rich so-called winter water from about 50 to 125 m depth where the water is released as a buoyant jet. Each pump station needs a power supply of 0.6 MW. Offshore wind power technology seems mature enough to provide the power needed by the pump stations. The cost to install 100 wind-powered pump stations, each with 0.6 MW power, at about 125-m depth is about 200 million Euros. PMID:17520945

Stigebrandt, Anders; Gustafsson, Bo G

2007-04-01

383

BALTEX—an interdisciplinary research network for the Baltic Sea region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BALTEX is an environmental research network dealing with the Earth system of the entire Baltic Sea drainage basin. Important elements include the water and energy cycle, climate variability and change, water management and extreme events, and related impacts on biogeochemical cycles. BALTEX was founded in 1993 as a GEWEX continental-scale experiment and is currently in its second 10 yr phase. Phase I (1993-2002) was primarily dedicated to hydrological, meteorological and oceanographic processes in the Baltic Sea drainage basin, hence mostly dealt with the physical aspects of the system. Scientific focus was on the hydrological cycle and the exchange of energy between the atmosphere, the Baltic Sea and the surface of its catchment. The BALTEX study area was hydrologically defined as the Baltic Sea drainage basin. The second 10 yr phase of BALTEX (Phase II: 2003-12) has strengthened regional climate research, water management issues, biogeochemical cycles and overarching efforts to reach out to stakeholders and decision makers, as well as to foster communication and education. Achievements of BALTEX Phase II have been the establishment of an assessment report of regional climate change and its impacts on the Baltic Sea basin (from hydrological to biological and socio-economic), the further development of regional physical climate models and the integration of biogeochemical and ecosystem models. BALTEX features a strong infrastructure, with an international secretariat and a publication series, and organizes various workshops and conferences. This article gives an overview of the BALTEX programme, with an emphasis on Phase II, with some examples from BALTEX-related research.

Reckermann, Marcus; Langner, Joakim; Omstedt, Anders; von Storch, Hans; Keevallik, Sirje; Schneider, Bernd; Arheimer, Berit; Markus Meier, H. E.; Hünicke, Birgit

2011-10-01

384

Long-term variability of extreme waves in the Caspian, Black, Azov and Baltic Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to study extreme storm waves in the Caspian, Black, Azov and Baltic Sea we used the spectral wave model SWAN. Significant wave height, swell and sea height, direction of propagation, their length and period were calculated with the NCEP/NCAR (1,9°x1,9°, 4-daily) reanalysis wind forcing from 1948 to 2010 in the Caspian, Black and Baltic Seas and with the NCEP/CFSR (0,3°x0,3°, 1 hour) for the period from 1979 to 2010 in the Azov Sea. The calculations were performed on supercomputers of Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU). The spatial resolution of the numerical grid was of order 5 km for the Caspian, Baltic and Black Seas, 2 km for the Azov Sea. These model wave hindcasts were used to calculate interannual and seasonal variability of the storm frequency, location and duration. The Initial Distribution Method and Annual Maxima Series Methods were used to study probable waves of a century reoccurrence. The long-term variability of extreme waves revealed different trends in the investigated seas. The Caspian and Azov seas decreased the storm activity, while in the Baltic Sea the number of storm cases increased and the Black Sea showed no significant trend. The of more than 12 m were observed in two centers in the middle part of the Caspian Sea and in the center of the Baltic Sea. In the Black Sea the extreme waves of the same probability of more than 14 m were found in the region to the south of the Crimean peninsula. In the Azov Sea the highest waves of a century reoccurrence do not exceed 5 m. The work was done in Natural Risk Assessment Laboratory, MSU under contract G.34.31.0007.

Arkhipkin, Victor; Dobroliubov, Sergey

2013-04-01

385

Detection of nodularin in flounders and cod from the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

The brackish water cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena regularly forms waterblooms in the Baltic Sea. Many N. spumigena strains can produce nodularin, a hepatotoxic penta-peptide, which has caused several animal poisonings in the Baltic Sea area. To improve our understanding of nodularin bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms this study measured nodularin in flounder and cod caught from the Baltic Sea. Flounders were collected from the western Gulf of Finland in July 1996, September 1997, and September 1998, and from the Gulf of Bothnia in August 1997 and September 1998. Flounders were also collected from the coastal areas of Sweden in the Baltic Proper during September 1998. Cod were caught from the southern Baltic Sea in August 1998. Livers and muscles of the 1997 fish were isolated, extracted, and analysed for nodularin using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) inhibition assay. Approximately 30-70 ng of nodularin/g dry weight (maximum value 140 ng/g) were found in the liver tissue samples by ELISA and PP1 inhibition. These concentrations were below the detection limit of HPLC. PP1 assay showed inhibition also in muscle samples, but this may due to other compounds present in the muscle extracts rather than NODLN or due to matrix interference. The recovery of nodularin from liver tissue with ELISA and PP1 assays was about 30%. Nodularin concentrations in samples are not corrected for recovery. Although the concentrations of nodularin found in this study are low further studies of nodularin are needed to assess possible bioaccumulation in brackish water food webs. PMID:11339711

Sipiä, V; Kankaanpää, H; Lahti, K; Carmichael, W W; Meriluoto, J

2001-01-01

386

Study in 1790 Baltic men: FSHR Asn680Ser polymorphism affects total testes volume  

PubMed Central

Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) contains two common linked polymorphisms, Thr307Ala (rs6165) and Asn680Ser (rs6166), shown to modulate ovarian function in women. The effect on male fertility and reproductive parameters has been inconclusive. We studied FSHR Asn680Ser polymorphism in a large study group (n = 1790) from the Baltic countries. The population-based Baltic male cohort (Estonians, Latvians, Lithuanians; n = 1052) and Estonian oligo-/azoospermic (sperm concentration <20 × 106/mL) idiopathic infertile patients (n = 738) were genotyped for the FSHR Asn680Ser using PCR-RFLP. Genetic associations were tested using linear regression under additive model and results were combined in meta-analysis. No statistical difference was detected in allelic distribution of the FSHR Asn680Ser between the Baltic cohort and Estonian male infertility group. A consistent significant association was detected between the FSHR Ser680 allele and lower total testes volume in both, the Baltic cohort (p = 0.010, effect = ?1.16 mL) and Estonian idiopathic infertility group (p = 0.007, effect = ?1.77 mL). In meta-analysis, the statistical significance was enhanced (p = 0.000066, effect = ?1.40 mL). Meta-analysis supported further associations with moderate effect between the FSHR Ser680 variant and higher serum FSH (p = 0.072), lower Inhibin B (p = 0.037) and total testosterone (p = 0.034). No statistically significant associations were identified with serum LH and estradiol, and sperm parameters. In conclusion, the study in 1790 Baltic men shows statistically highly significant association of the FSHR Asn680Ser with total testes volume and supportive association with serum reproductive hormone levels indicative to the functional effect of the alternative FSHR variants on male reproductive physiology. PMID:23413141

Grigorova, M; Punab, M; Poolamets, O; Sõber, S; Vihljajev, V; Žilaitien?, B; Erenpreiss, J; Matulevi?ius, V; Tsarev, I; Laan, M

2013-01-01

387

Study in 1790 Baltic men: FSHR Asn680Ser polymorphism affects total testes volume.  

PubMed

Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) contains two common linked polymorphisms, Thr307Ala (rs6165) and Asn680Ser (rs6166), shown to modulate ovarian function in women. The effect on male fertility and reproductive parameters has been inconclusive. We studied FSHR Asn680Ser polymorphism in a large study group (n = 1790) from the Baltic countries. The population-based Baltic male cohort (Estonians, Latvians, Lithuanians; n = 1052) and Estonian oligo-/azoospermic (sperm concentration <20 × 10(6) /mL) idiopathic infertile patients (n = 738) were genotyped for the FSHR Asn680Ser using PCR-RFLP. Genetic associations were tested using linear regression under additive model and results were combined in meta-analysis. No statistical difference was detected in allelic distribution of the FSHR Asn680Ser between the Baltic cohort and Estonian male infertility group. A consistent significant association was detected between the FSHR Ser680 allele and lower total testes volume in both, the Baltic cohort (p = 0.010, effect = -1.16 mL) and Estonian idiopathic infertility group (p = 0.007, effect = -1.77 mL). In meta-analysis, the statistical significance was enhanced (p = 0.000066, effect = -1.40 mL). Meta-analysis supported further associations with moderate effect between the FSHR Ser680 variant and higher serum FSH (p = 0.072), lower Inhibin B (p = 0.037) and total testosterone (p = 0.034). No statistically significant associations were identified with serum LH and estradiol, and sperm parameters. In conclusion, the study in 1790 Baltic men shows statistically highly significant association of the FSHR Asn680Ser with total testes volume and supportive association with serum reproductive hormone levels indicative to the functional effect of the alternative FSHR variants on male reproductive physiology. PMID:23413141

Grigorova, M; Punab, M; Poolamets, O; Sõber, S; Vihljajev, V; Žilaitien?, B; Erenpreiss, J; Matulevi?ius, V; Tsarev, I; Laan, M

2013-03-01

388

Construction Management: Planning Ahead.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains that preconstruction planning is essential when undertaking the challenges of a school building renovation or expansion, focusing on developing a detailed estimate, creating an effective construction strategy, conducting reviews and value-engineering workshops, and realizing savings through effective risk analysis and contingency…

Arsht, Steven

2003-01-01

389

New Town-Gown Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through rapid expansion, some city universities have run out of land. This forces a new approach to campus master planning involving collaboration with the city owning adjacent land. This approach is more politically charged, requires different planning skills, and usually requires consultants. San Jose State University (California) is an example.…

Freeman, Allan Charles; And Others

1992-01-01

390

REGIONAL WATER SUPPLY PLANNING AND  

E-print Network

CHAPTER 3 REGIONAL WATER SUPPLY PLANNING AND CAPACITY EXPANSION MODELS Messele Z. Ejeta California Department of Water Resources Sacramento, California Larry W. Mays Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Arizona State University Tempe, Arizona 3.1 INTRODUCTION Water supply planning on a regional scale

Mays, Larry W.

391

Magma mingling in the panozero sanukitoid intrusion, baltic shield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2.7 Ga Panozero pluton is a composite intrusion comprising magmas of sanukitoid affinity, intrusive into the ca. 2.75 Ga Segozero greenstone belt in western Karelia in the Baltic Shield. The intrusion is predominantly a monzonite, is elliptical in form (9 x 6 km) and is undeformed. Along the eastern margin of the intrusion a wide variety of cogenetic magmas have been mapped ranging in composition from biotite-hornblendites, through monzo-gabbro and monzonite to quartz-monzonite. The contact relationships between the different phases of the intrusion are complex and imply magma mingling and incomplete mixing between magma types. The monzogabbros show a gradational relationship with the monzodiorites, but occur as inclusions within, and contain inclusions of, the monzonite implying two coexisting melts. Similar relationships exist between the monzonite and quartz monzonite and in places there is a gneissose banding of the darker phase within the lighter phase. The quartz-syenite is intrusive into all earlier phases, although the latest phase is hornblendite. This is present as net veining in gabbro and as irregular veins, dykes and as irregularly shaped xenoliths in monzonite, quartz monzonite and syenite. The irregular form and deformed state of the hornblendite inclusions within the earlier magmas implies that the hornblendite was emplaced whilst the host magma was hot. Also developed along the eastern margin of the intrusion are breccia pipes. These are found in the monzodiorites, monzonites and in quartz monzonites. They contain elliptical fragments up to 20 cm long of hornblendite, tremolitite, epidotised amphibolite and in the monzodiorite euhedral feldspars with felsic reaction rims. The matrix of the breccias is often very similar to the composition of their host rock. Many of the fragments are thought to be derived from the adjacent greenstone belt. However, metabasaltic rocks are not recorded from this part of the greenstone belt and so may be derived from a deeper structural level. There is also a close relationship between the hornblendite phase of the intrusion and the intrusion breccias, for hornblendite is present as inclusions in the breccias, but in one case is intruded along the margins of a breccia dyke. The presence of multiple co-genetic, immiscible magmas and of intrusion breccias in the Panozero sanukitoid intrusion suggests: (a) multiple magmas at upper crustal level linked through magmatic differentiation at depth, (b) that the current level of exposure represents a high structural level in the intrusion (i.e. near the roof), (c) the importance of water at a late stage of magmatic evolution.

Rollinson, H.

2003-04-01

392

On the proper choice of wind stress drag coefficient for ROMS model in the numerical simulation of the Baltic variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Baltic Sea circulation is largely dominated by the wind forcing. Changes in the wind regimes may influence strong variability in surface currents and, thus, accurate representation of the wind forcing is critically important for the accurate simulation of the Baltic Sea circulation. We used ROMS for simulation of the dynamics of Baltic Sea and analysed the sensitivity of the results to the formulation of surface wind stress for which different formulations of the drag coefficients were tested. Surface wind speed has been taken from CFSR reanalysis. The main focus of the study is on the representation of statistical characteristics of the sea level variability. The reliability of simulations with different wind stress formulations has been tested against the data from 40 tide gauge stations in the Baltic Sea.

Medvedev, Igor; Kulikov, Evgueni

2014-05-01

393

The thiamine deficiency syndrome M74, a reproductive disorder of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) feeding in the Baltic Sea,  

E-print Network

) and the Bothnian Sea, the two feeding grounds of salmon originating from the northern Gulf of Bothnia rivers flowing into the Gulf of Bothnia (GoB) migrate to the southern Baltic Proper (BPr) to feed, but a small

394

Content of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in a number of regions of the Baltic Sea in 1982  

SciTech Connect

The authors present the data gathered from the samples of water and bed deposits taken at various sites in the Baltic Sea, the Gulf of Riga, and the Gulf of Finland. By means of the radiochemical method using ferrocyanide-carbonate concentration, they determine strotium-90 and cesium-137 content. The authors conclude by noting an increase in the cesium-137 content in the deep waters of the Baltic Sea and in bed deposits, and by cautioning that this development commands close attention.

Lazarev, L.N.; Flegontov, V.M.; Gedenov, L.I.; Ivanova, L.M.; Orlova, T.B.; Stepanov, A.V.

1985-07-01

395

Inter-annual variability of vertical distribution of temperature and salinity in the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) in summer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gulf of Finland is a 400-km long and 80-120-km wide elongated sub-basin of the Baltic Sea. It has no sill at the entrance area separating the Gulf from the open Baltic Sea and its maximum cross-section depth decreases from > 100 m at the entrance to < 30 m in the eastern part. The salinity distribution in the surface

T. Liblik; U. Lips

2009-01-01

396

Tissue expansion: Concepts, techniques and unfavourable results  

PubMed Central

The phenomenon of tissue expansion is observed in nature all the time. The same properties of the human skin to stretch and expand and yield extra skin if placed under continuous stress over a prolonged period of time has been utilised for reconstructive purposes with the help of a silicon balloon inserted under the skin and progressively filled with saline. The technique of tissue expansion is now more than three decades old and has been a value addition to our armamentarium in reconstructive surgery in all parts of the body. However, it still requires careful patient selection, meticulous planning and faultless execution to successfully carry out the process, which usually lasts for more than 8-12 weeks and involves two sittings of surgery. Any compromise in this process can lead to unfavourable results and complications, some minor, which allow continuance of the process to attain the expected goal and others major, which force abandonment of the process without reaching the expected goal. This article seeks to highlight the intricacies of the concept of tissue expansion, the technique related to flawless execution of the process and likely complications with emphasis on their management. We also present our results from a personal series of 138 patients operated over a period of 18 years between 1994 and 2012. PMID:24501470

Wagh, Milind S.; Dixit, Varun

2013-01-01

397

Burial Ground Expansion Hydrogeologic Characterization  

SciTech Connect

Sirrine Environmental Consultants provided technical oversight of the installation of eighteen groundwater monitoring wells and six exploratory borings around the location of the Burial Ground Expansion.

Gaughan , T.F.

1999-02-26

398

Stable Isotope Evidence for Late Medieval (14th–15th C) Origins of the Eastern Baltic Cod (Gadus morhua) Fishery  

PubMed Central

Although recent historical ecology studies have extended quantitative knowledge of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) exploitation back as far as the 16th century, the historical origin of the modern fishery remains obscure. Widespread archaeological evidence for cod consumption around the eastern Baltic littoral emerges around the 13th century, three centuries before systematic documentation, but it is not clear whether this represents (1) development of a substantial eastern Baltic cod fishery, or (2) large-scale importation of preserved cod from elsewhere. To distinguish between these hypotheses we use stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis to determine likely catch regions of 74 cod vertebrae and cleithra from 19 Baltic archaeological sites dated from the 8th to the 16th centuries. ?13C and ?15N signatures for six possible catch regions were established using a larger sample of archaeological cod cranial bones (n?=?249). The data strongly support the second hypothesis, revealing widespread importation of cod during the 13th to 14th centuries, most of it probably from Arctic Norway. By the 15th century, however, eastern Baltic cod dominate within our sample, indicating the development of a substantial late medieval fishery. Potential human impact on cod stocks in the eastern Baltic must thus be taken into account for at least the last 600 years. PMID:22110675

Orton, David C.; Makowiecki, Daniel; de Roo, Tessa; Johnstone, Cluny; Harland, Jennifer; Jonsson, Leif; Heinrich, Dirk; Enghoff, Inge Bødker; Lõugas, Lembi; Van Neer, Wim; Ervynck, Anton; Hufthammer, Anne Karin; Amundsen, Colin; Jones, Andrew K. G.; Locker, Alison; Hamilton-Dyer, Sheila; Pope, Peter; MacKenzie, Brian R.; Richards, Michael; O'Connell, Tamsin C.; Barrett, James H.

2011-01-01

399

Iodide and iodate (129I and 127I) in surface water of the Baltic Sea, Kattegat and Skagerrak.  

PubMed

Despite the common incorporation of iodine in the biological cycle and occurrence of huge contamination of the radioactive isotope (129)I in the Baltic Proper, Skagerrak and Kattegat, there is no data on chemical speciation of iodine in these waters. We here present first time data on iodine isotopes (129)I and (127)I species as iodide and iodate in surface seawater samples collected from 16 locations in August 2006 and 19 locations in April 2007 in the Baltic Proper, Skagerrak and Kattegat. After extensive separation methods, the isotopes concentrations were determined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) technique for the (129)I and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) for (127)I. High concentrations of both isotopes species were found in the Skagerrak-Kattegat basins, whereas the values in the Baltic Proper are low for both species. The ratios of (129)I(-)/(129)IO(3)(-) and (127)I(-)/(127)IO(3)(-) significantly increase from south to central Baltic Sea, and iodide (both isotopes) appears as the predominant inorganic iodine species along the Baltic Sea. The results show insignificant change in (129)I and (127)I speciation and suggest that reduction of iodate and oxidation of iodide in Skagerrak and Kattegat may be a slow process. Additionally, the positive correlation between salinity and iodide and iodate (both isotopes) may reflect effective control of Skagerrak water mass on iodine distribution in surface water of the Baltic Sea. PMID:22033356

Hansen, Violeta; Yi, Peng; Hou, Xiaolin; Aldahan, Ala; Roos, Per; Possnert, Göran

2011-12-15

400

Incorporating endogenous demand dynamics into long-term capacity expansion power system models for Developing countries  

E-print Network

This research develops a novel approach to long-term power system capacity expansion planning for developing countries by incorporating endogenous demand dynamics resulting from social processes of technology adoption. ...

Jordan, Rhonda LeNai

2013-01-01

401

The University of Michigan, Kellogg Building Expansion & Renovation, Ann Arbor, Michigan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents design, construction, and cost data for the University of Michigan's Kellogg Building expansion and renovation project. A list of project manufacturers and suppliers is provided along with four photographs and four floor plans. (GR)

Design Cost Data, 2001

2001-01-01

402

The petroleum system of the lower Palaeozoic strata in the central part of the Baltic basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baltic Basin is an intra-cratonic sedimentary basin with conspicuous Early Palaeozoic sections. In terms of hydrocarbon prospectively, the it has been perceived as a classical oil basin with several tens of relatively small oil and gas fields occur there over a wide stratigraphic interval, ranging from the crystalline basement through the entire Lower Palaeozoic succession. Until now conventional oil has been predominantly produced in the basin, i.e. only few conventional gas accumulations have been found in the Polish Baltic Sea offshore. Petroleum potential within the basin also is associated with Silurian reefogenic and carbonate build-ups. New organic geochemistry data as well revealed the potential for shale gas/oil in the basin. The analysis of the composition of the organic matter and crude oils from Kaliningrad region (Russia) and Lithuanian revealed genesis and the general trends of the migration of hydrocarbons in the Baltic Basin. The organic matter of the source rocks is of similar composition and represents typical marine type II, showing considerable variations of the maturity thought the basin: ranging from immature in the eastern Lithuania and Kaliningrad region of Russia to oil window to the south-west. In some places the anomalously high maturity of organic matter, indicating the lower part of the wet gas/condensate window have been recorded, most probably being related to the locally increased paleo-temperatures. Oils of the Baltic Basin have low densities (< 31,1 API; 790.5-870.0 kg/m3), and low asphaltene (<2.2%) and sulphur (<0.44%) contents. The saturated hydrocarbon content varies from 35.3 to 77.8%, and the ratio of saturate to aromatic hydrocarbons ranges in 2.1-5.2, indicating long-distance hydrocarbons migration or high thermal maturities. Oils of the Baltic Basin are not biodegraded, despite their early emplacement (e.g. by the Lower Palaeozoic age) and the relatively low present reservoir temperatures. Results of biomarker and stable carbon isotope analyses allow three genetic oil groups to be distinguished in the Kaliningrad region. These oils appear to be confined to tectonically distinct areas suggesting that the hydrocarbons were derived from different kitchens. The hydrocarbon generation in the Baltic Basin started by the end of Silurian, while the basic phase is thought to occur in Devonian and Permian. Different source rocks contributed to the hydrocarbon expulsion. Slow deposition and tectonically stable regime ensured slow formation of the oil and gase-condensate fields with replenishing oil portions incoming with time: e.g. Cambrian oil traps could accumulate also Ordovician and Silurian oils.

Lazauskiene, Jurga; Zdanaviciute, Onyte

2013-04-01

403

Floating along buoyancy levels: Dispersal and survival of western Baltic fish eggs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertical distribution is an important feature of pelagic fish eggs and yolk sac larvae impacting their survival and dispersal, especially in heterogeneous and highly variable estuarine environments like the Baltic Sea. Egg densities determining the vertical distribution pattern were experimentally ascertained for cod (Gadus morhua), plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) and flounder (Platichthys flesus) from the western Baltic Sea. Plaice eggs floated at lower mean (±standard deviation) density range (1.0136 ± 0.0007 g cm-3) compared to cod (1.0146 ± 0.0009 g cm-3) and flounder eggs (1.0160 ± 0.0015 g cm-3), which floated on the highest density level. In flounder egg diameter was significantly related to egg density and in cod a weak correlation could be found between egg dry weight and density. All other relationships between female size, egg size, egg dry weight and egg density were not significant for any of the species. Available egg density data for Baltic Sea cod, plaice and flounder are summarized considering ICES subdivisions and stock management units. A hydrodynamic drift modeling approach was applied releasing drifters in the Belt Sea continuously from December to May, covering the species’ spawning seasons. The model implemented experimentally derived egg density ranges and included ontogenetic egg density modifications for cod eggs, increasing egg density from a late egg development stage to first hatch. A drifter was removed from the model, i.e. considered dead, when its initially prescribed density value exceeded the density range available at the temporally resolved geographical positions along the drift trajectories. Highest survival occurred during releases in April and May but no cohorts survived if they were drifted east into the central Arkona Basin or the central Baltic Sea, irrespective of whether a major Baltic Inflow (1992/1993) or a stagnation-year (1987/1988) was simulated. The dispersal characteristics of the surviving yolk sac larvae of all three species reflected retention within the Belt Sea or northwards transport through the Great Belt into the Kattegat and partly into the Skagerrak. There was no successful transport to more eastern Baltic areas past a hypothetical line from the island of Moen (Denmark) to Kap Arkona on Rügen Island (Germany).

Petereit, C.; Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Franke, A.; Köster, F. W.

2014-03-01

404

Variability in iodine isotopes (129I and 127I) in the Baltic Sea water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the early 1960s, accelerated industrialization and exploitations of natural resources pose a threat to the semi-closed Baltic Sea environment. The present concern over the environmental conditions in the Baltic Sea has derived many governmental agencies and scientists to focus their research on defining the magnitude of the problems and providing suggestions for remedial measures. The concentrations of the radioactive iodine-129 represent one of the contamination loads in the Baltic Sea for which a proper evaluation of spatial and temporal distribution is scarce. We here present the first investigation of the spatial and temporal variability of the radioactive 129I and the stable isotope of iodine (iodine-127) as well as their chemical species. Depth-profiles of seawaters were collected from 20 sites in August 2006 and April 2007. The sites cover the low salinity surface waters that form in the Baltic Proper and the high salinity deep water from the North Sea. The 129I was measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) whereas 127I was measured by an ICP-MS . The results reveal considerable differences of 129I concentration and its species in terms of spatial and temporal variability. Concentration of 129I appears to be consistently lower in the surface compared to deep waters. Intruding plumes of North Sea water, characterized by relatively high salinity, also carry relatively high concentration of 129I. The predominant species for 129I and 127I in Skagerrak-Kattegat basin change with seasons whereas iodide is the only prevailing form in the rest of Baltic Sea. During period of April, total 129I concentration in surface waters was highest in Skagerrak and decreased at the Oresund, but reached a relatively constant value at the rest of Baltic Sea Proper. The pattern of 129I distribution in August 2006 follows more or less the horizontal pattern observed in April 2007, but shows over a triple times increase at some sites. Similar to 129I, the highest values of 127I in the surface water were found in the Kattegat basin. The depth profile of 127I is also consistent with the pattern of salinity, where the highest value being found at a depth of 50-100 m. Correlation between salinity and iodine isotopes suggests involvement of both local conditions and inflow of North Sea water in the distribution of the isotopes species. Calculated inventories for total and different species of 129I evidently expose increasing trends relative to sparse data from earlier works.

Yi, Peng; Hansen, Violeta; Aldahan, Ala; Hou, Xiaolin; Possnert, Göran

2010-05-01

405

Ventilation of bottom water in the North Sea-Baltic Sea transition zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transition zone between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea is a highly dynamic region where a general estuarine circulation forms a regional scale frontal system from northern Kattegat to the Arkona Sea. This system is characterized by an upper low saline out?owing Baltic water mass from the in?owing saline Skagerrak bottom water to the Kattegat and Belt Sea area. Large and rapid ?uctuations of the frontal system are caused by barotropic transports, forced by changing sea level difference between northern Kattegat and the western Baltic Sea, and this results in high variability of the hydrographic conditions and also in frequent in- and out?ow events to the Baltic. The dynamics in the region are here analyzed by a regional model of the transition zone, covering the area from the northern Kattegat to the Arkona Sea. The model is validated against water level, temperature and salinity measurements from the region, and the transports through the Danish straits are related to previous estimates and empirical relations. A sensitivity study quantify the role of bathymetry, the tidally induced mixing and the in?owing Skagerrak bottom water for ventilating the bottom water with Skagerrak water or surface water. Furthermore, the dynamics in the region is analyzed with tracers representing the age of the water. The distribution of age tracers with different boundary conditions are analyzed, and the role of advection and mixing for ventilating the bottom water is quanti?ed in terms of the water age. It is shown that the Great Belt area is a very dynamical area where bottom water is ventilated with surface water. The interannual variation of the ventilation of bottom water in the period 2001-2003 is analyzed by various age tracers and related to observed oxygen conditions, and it is shown that the extreme hypoxic event in the autumn 2002 in the southern Kattegat, the Great Belt and in the western Baltic Sea coincide with an unusual low vertical ventilation rate in the Great Belt area, but normal advection rates of bottom water from the northern Kattegat. This indicates that during this particular event, and probably in general, ventilation of bottom water in the Great Belt has signi?cant in?uence on oxygen conditions in the southern part of the region and for ventilation of bottom waters in the western Baltic Sea. In contrast, the central Kattegat is primarily ventilated by advection of bottom water from the Skagerrak. An age tracer representing the ventilation rate of bottom water with either Skagerrak water or surface water is shown to be inversely correlated to the observed oxygen distribution in the region.

Bendtsen, Jørgen; Gustafsson, Karin E.; Söderkvist, Johan; Hansen, Jørgen L. S.

2009-01-01

406

What can ARGO's tell us on the processes in Baltic Sea?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finnish Meteorological Institute has been testing ARGO floats in the Baltic Sea as a mean for collecting data from the sea areas that are not easily reachable by research vessels or remote sensing. The observational data for Baltic Sea off-shore areas is very sparse and new observational methods are needed to fill the gaps in our knowledge and collect new data for different purposes, such as, operational activities, modelling and ocean science. The ARGO floats have been used successfully in the deep oceans. However, applying the ARGO floats in Baltic Sea is not straight forward, as the conditions differ greatly: the water is brackish, some areas are heavily trafficked and the northern parts freeze during the winter. In addition, the mean depth is only 54 metres, which is only a fraction of depths where ARGO floats have commonly been used. FMI has deployed three ARGO floats in Baltic Sea for different missions. The first ARGO was deployed in 2012 with normal diving algorithm, which checks the pressure hourly. The second float was modified by Aalto University so that the algorithm checks the pressure every 15 minutes. The first float was deployed in the Bothnian Sea in May 2013 and it measured over 200 profiles during its half year mission. The float with faster pressure detection was deployed in the Bothnian Sea in May 2013, and during it's 4 month mission it measured succesfully over 120 profiles. Another, longer test is ongoing on Eastern Gotland basin, where another ARGO float was deployed at Aug 2013, and still measures at Jan 2014. This one differs from earlier experiments as it has additional oxygen and scattering meters, also the area of measurements is deeper (200+ meters). The missions so far indicate, that with proper control and monitoring, ARGO's can be operated, and can measure long series of profiles. In addition to the actual measurements, the movement of ARGO floats gives possibilities to analyse currents in deeper areas of Baltic, and help determining correlations between currents and bathymetry, for example. In this presentation we present and analyse the results from these experiments and discuss further possibilities of ARGO's in Baltic Sea.

Roiha, Petra; Siiriä, Simo-Matti; Nummelin, Aleksi; Aro, Eemeli; Purokoski, Tero

2014-05-01

407

Large spatial variations in coastal 14C reservoir age - a case study from the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal locations are highly influenced by input from freshwater river runoff, including sources of terrestrial carbon, which can be expected to modify the 14C reservoir age, or R (t), associated with marine water. In this Baltic Sea case study, pre-bomb museum collection mollusc shells of known calendar age, from 30 locations across a strategic salinity transect of the Baltic Sea, were analysed for 14C, ?13C and ?18O. R (t) was calculated for all 30 locations. Seven locations, of which six are within close proximity of the coast, were found to have relatively higher R (t) values, indicative of hard-water effects. Whenever possible, the Macoma genus of mollusc was selected from the museum collections, in order to exclude species specific reservoir age effects as much as possible. When the Macoma samples are exclusively considered, and samples from hard-water locations excluded, a statistically significant correlation between Macoma R (t) and average salinity is found, indicating a two end-member linear mixing model between 14Cmarine and 14Crunoff. A map of Baltic Sea Macoma aragonite R (t) for the late 19th and early 20th centuries is produced. Such a map can provide an estimate for contemporary Baltic Sea Macoma R (t), although one must exercise caution when applying such estimates back in time or to 14C dates obtained from different sample material. A statistically significant correlation is found between ?18Oaragonite and Macoma R (t), suggesting that ?18Oaragonite can be used to estimate Macoma palaeo-R (t), due to the ?18Oaragonite signal being dominated by the salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea. A slightly increased correlation can be expected when ?18Oaragonite is corrected for temperature fractionation effects. The results of this Baltic Sea case study, which show that R (t) is affected by hydrographic conditions and local carbon inputs, have important consequences for other coastal and estuarine locations, where R (t) is also likely to significantly vary on spatial and temporal bases.

Lougheed, B. C.; Filipsson, H. L.; Snowball, I.

2013-05-01

408

Electric utility system master plan  

SciTech Connect

This publication contains the electric utility system plan and guidelines for providing adequate electric power to the various facilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in support of the mission of the Laboratory. The topics of the publication include general information on the current systems and their operation, a planning analysis for current and future growth in energy demand, proposed improvements and expansions required to meet long range site development and the site`s five-year plan.

Erickson, O.M.

1992-10-01

409

The family planning service.  

PubMed

In 1978, 1,521,400 women in Great Britain obtained contraceptives through the National Health Service (NHS) family planning clinics, in 1980 the number was 1,468,000; likewise in 1978 2,118,313 women obtained them through general practitioners who offer a contraceptive service and in 1980 the number was also down, to 2,033,810. There has been little expansion in the provision of family planning clinics or the organization of extra sessions, contrasting with the expansion program of the Family Planning Association (FPA) when they largely had the responsibility of providing services, before 1974. Clinic sessions should be available for people of all ages but young people might respond better to separate, less formal arrangements. For children under age 16 the professional should persuade the child to involve the parents as soon as possible. Health visitors must be well trained in family planning to provide advice and support to patients. With the recent restructuring of Health Authorities, family planning services must not be cut in order to save money. The FPA must ask the government to reissue the May 1974 family planning service Memorandum of Guidance, and must write to those responsible for the supervision of family planning services in this regard. PMID:6550171

Arger, K

1983-01-01

410

AIAA 20030185 Aerodynamically Controlled Expansion  

E-print Network

An aerodynamically controlled expansion propulsion nozzle that improves hover thrust performance by 2.5 percent in the divergent section, thereby relieving over-expansion losses during hover. This study specifies design system, which must be efficient for high-speed flight and during hover. At the same time, the STOVL

Texas at Arlington, University of

411

Cool Hot Rod (Thermal Expansion)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phenomenon is thermal expansion of copper. This demonstration allows an observer to see the effect of heating (and cooling) a copper tube. When heated, the copper tube lengthens and thickens. When cooled, the tube shrinks. The lengthening of the rod rotates a toothpick with an attached flag to make the expansion visible and measurable.

412

Multiple piston expansion chamber engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a multiple piston expansion chamber in an internal combustion engine wherein combustion, expansion and exhaust functions are performed in a cylinder. This cylinder consists of an auxiliary piston reciprocating in the cylinder, a sleeve valve reciprocating within the auxiliary piston, a working piston reciprocating within the sleeve valve. Leading the auxiliary piston is an auxiliary chamber above

1986-01-01

413

The early planning and development of Oklahoma City  

E-print Network

An analysis of the planning, development, and implementation of Oklahoma City's Grand Boulevard. In the early days of 1909, a plan emerged to build an expansive parks and boulevard system to encircle Oklahoma City. Such ...

Humphreys, Blair D. (Blair David)

2009-01-01

414

Reservoir Simulation Used to Plan Diatomite Developement in Mountainous Region  

E-print Network

's ideal development plan. The steep hillsides prevent well pad development for about 22 vertical well locations in the 110 well expansion plan. Conventional production performs poorly in the area because the combination of relatively low permeability (1...

Powell, Richard

2012-10-19

415

The Baltic Sea: Geophysical and geochemical properties of Holocene sediment sequences as indicators of past environmental variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baltic Sea has undergone large environmental changes since the retreat of the Weischselian Ice-sheet. In the Late Glacial Period and the early Holocene these changes were most likely caused by natural environmental changes (i.e. changes in the morphology and depths of the Baltic basin and the sills). In more recent time anthropogenic impacts have become more important as a possible and likely cause for changes. During the whole Holocene period climate variability played an important role. However, the relative importance between humans and nature is largely unknown. Here we present the results of a combined geophysical and geochemical study on selected sediment sequences from the Baltic Sea within the two BONUS (Baltic Organisations Network For Funding Science) funded projects HYPER (HYPoxia mitigation for Baltic Sea Ecosystem Restoration) and Baltic GAS (GAS storage and effects of climate change and eutrophication). The over-all aim of these projects is to understand large-scale Baltic Sea ecosystem responses to environmental, climate and anthropogenic forcing. During two Baltic Sea research cruises in 2009 long sediment cores from 8 different locations were recovered. We present preliminary results from one site (LL19) located in the north central Baltic Proper at 169 m water depth. The Littorina Sea sediment record (i.e. the last c. 8000 years) is characterised by alternating periods of homogenised sediments (indicative of oxic conditions) and laminated sediments (indicative of hypoxic/anoxic conditions). Mineral magnetic properties illustrate clear changes between laminated and non-laminated sections of the core. The concentration of ferrimagnetic minerals, as revealed by initial magnetic susceptibility (?) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) is variable. The laminated sections in particular show high concentrations and to reveal the origin of the ferrimagnetic signal additional magnetic properties were measured, specifically the acquisition of rotational remanent magnetization (RRM), frequency dependency of susceptibility (?fd) and magnetic loops. These data show that magnetic assemblage of the laminated sections is dominated by a single-domain magnetic grain size. The elemental composition was measured with a high resolution Itrax XRF-scanner throughout the core. In addition, biogenic silica (BSi) and total organic carbon (TOC) were determined. Distinct changes of elemental contents between the laminated and homogenous sections in the Littorina Sea sediments were identified. A combination of the physical and geochemical properties of the sediment sequences and the construction of geochronologies will provide information about past environmental variability to identify casual relationships to climate and human impact in the Baltic Sea.

Lenz, Conny; Reinholdsson, Maja; Zillén, Lovisa; Conley, Daniel J.; Snowball, Ian

2010-05-01

416

Hematoma Expansion is Common after Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Children  

PubMed Central

Importance Hematoma expansion is the only modifiable predictor of outcome in adult intracerebral hemorrhage; however, the frequency and clinical significance of hematoma expansion after childhood intracerebral hemorrhage are unknown. Objective To assess the frequency and extent of hematoma expansion in children with non-traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Three tertiary care pediatric hospitals. Participants Children (?37 weeks gestation-18 years) with non-traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage were enrolled in a three-center prospective observational study from 2007–2012 focused on predictors of outcome. For this planned sub-study of hematoma expansion, neonates ?28 days and participants with isolated intraventricular hemorrhage were excluded. Children with two head CTs within 48 hours were evaluated for hematoma expansion and were compared to children with only one head CT. Consent for the primary cohort was obtained from 73 of 87 eligible subjects (84%); 41 of 73 children enrolled in the primary cohort met all inclusion/exclusion criteria for this sub-study in whom 22 had two head CTs obtained within 48 hours that could be evaluated for hematoma expansion. Within our sub-study cohort, 21/41 (51%) were male, 25/41 (61%) were white, 16/25 (39%) were black, and median age was 7.7 years (interquartile range 2.0–13.4 years). Main Outcome Measure Primary outcome was prevalence of hematoma expansion. Results Of 73 children, 41 (56%) met inclusion criteria, and 22 (30%) had 2 head CTs to evaluate expansion. Among these 22 children, median time from symptom onset to first CT was two hours (interquartile range 1.3–6.5 hours). Median baseline hemorrhage volume was 19.5mL, 1.6% of brain volume. Hematoma expansion occurred in (7/22) 32%. Median expansion was 4mL (interquartile range 1–11mL). Three children had significant (>33%) expansion; two required urgent hematoma evacuation. Expansion was not associated with poorer outcome. Compared to children with only one head CT within 48 hours, children with two head CTs had larger baseline hemorrhage volumes (p=.05) and were more likely to receive treatment for elevated intracranial pressure (p<.001). Conclusions and Relevance Hematoma expansion occurs in children with intracerebral hemorrhage and may require urgent treatment. Repeat CT should be considered in children with either large hemorrhage or increased intracranial pressure. PMID:24296993

Beslow, Lauren A.; Ichord, Rebecca N.; Gindville, Melissa C.; Kleinman, Jonathan T.; Bastian, Rachel A.; Smith, Sabrina E.; Licht, Daniel J.; Hillis, Argye E.; Jordan, Lori C.

2013-01-01

417

New Data on Ordovician Eocrinoids and Paracrinoids of the Baltic Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eocrinoids are widespread in the Ordovician beds of the Baltic Region, often dominating in benthic communities of the Middle Ordovician. They are represented by 12 genera. New records allow the improvement of their morphology, stratigraphic and geographical distribution. Rhipidocystis was one of the first to appear in the Baltic basin (Upper Billingen of the eastern Baltic Basin); it reached its acme in the Volkhov and became scarce rare in subsequent strata, although survived up to the Uhaku. In the Azeri or Lasnamyagi, it gave rise to the close related genus Neorhipidocystis, which rarely occurs in the Lasnamyagi, Uhaku and Kukruze Regional Stages. New data on the arrangement of pores, morphology variability in the brachiols strongly suggest that Rhipidocystis is close to Volkhovian Paracryptocrinites and Cryptocrinites, which evolved from the last genus in the Azeri. Bockia, which occurs in the Azeri, Lasnamyagi, Uhaku and Kukruze, is closely related to Cryptocrinites and differs from it in the considerably larger size, greater number of plates, extended apertural part, and branching brachiolas. These five genera belong to the same lineage of closely related Ordovician eocrinoids, which is named the cryptocrinid-rhipidocystid lineage. In North America, a similar eocrinoid lineage developed in parallel. The two lineages probably evolved from a common ancestor, which inhabited eastern Gondwana in the Early Ordovician. Plates of Rhopalocystidae are abundant in the Volkhovian Regional stage; they show distinctive sutural pores, which are characteristic of the other branch of Ordovician eocrinoids, widespread in the northern marginal area of Gondwana. The thecal fragments, which are scarce in the Baltic Region, allow the reconstruction of only the distal part; however, it is evident that the Baltic genus differs sharply in shape from Gondwanian rhopalocystids. A unique eocrinoid specimen, with a spherical theca composed of many plates and a column similar in morphology to glyptocystitid rhombiferans, which has been found in the Baltic Basin, represents the third branch of Ordovician eocrinoids. The reconstruction of Bolboporites, which is based on unique specimens with articulated proximal segments of brachiols, shows with confidence that it belongs to eocrinoids. The Volkhov Regional Stage has yielded two endemic eocrinoid genera, which show certain similarity to crinoids. One of them, Gadovocrinus, has a small massive calyx without a column and facet for attachment of arms of different sizes. This is probably an unknown aberrant form of pelmatozoan echinoderm. The second genus, Simankovocrinus, is reconstructed based on isolated plates. The structure of its facets for the arms and the position of the gonopore below the lateral anus suggest that it probably belongs to eocrinoids, despite the extraordinary morphology and similarity to crinoids. In Uhaku of northern Estonia, plates of Acolocrinus were recorded. This genus is usually assigned to crinoids. However it may belong to eocrinoids that became similar to crinoids as a result of convergent development. These eleven genera mostly occurred in the Middle Ordovician and completely disappeared by the end of the Kukruze, when the climate approached tropical conditions. Later deposits have yielded only one eocrinoid genus, which occur in the bioherm beds of the Keila Regional Stage near Vasalemma (northern Estonia). It has a flat theca of many plates, with an apertural part resembling that of Mandalocystis. New material of Baltic paracrinoids enables a detailed reconstruction of the morphology of two previously known endemic genera, Achradocystites (Keila -Oandu) and Heckerites (Keila). Thus, new data on Baltic eocrinoids show that they were widespread in the Middle Ordovician. The most diverse cryptocrinid-rhipidocystid branch developed in parallel with the North American branch of similar genera. Rhopalocystidae indicate biogeographical link with the seas of northern Gondwana. The genus Acolocrinus indicates that, in the Uhaku, a link with Laurentia appeared. This is supp

Rozhnov, S.

2009-04-01

418

Occurrence of norovirus and hepatitis A virus in wild mussels collected from the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to define the occurrence of human noroviruses of genogroup I and II (NoV GI and NoV GII) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) in the Baltic Sea mussels. The shellfish samples were taken at the sampling sites located on the Polish coast. In total, 120 shellfish were tested as pooled samples using RT-PCR and hybridisation with virus specific probes. NoV GI was detected in 22 (18.3%), NoV GII in 28 (23.3%), and HAV in 9 (7.5%) of the shellfish. The nucleotide sequence analysis of the detected NoV GII strains showed a 97.3-99.3% similarity to GII.4 virus strain. This is the first report describing the NoV and HAV occurrence in wild Baltic mussels and their possible role as bioindicators of seawater contamination with human enteric viruses. PMID:24906970

Bigoraj, Ewelina; Kwit, Ewa; Chroboci?ska, Marta; Rze?utka, Artur

2014-09-01

419

Genetic diversity in Monoporeia affinis at polluted and reference sites of the Baltic Bothnian Bay.  

PubMed

The amphipod Monoporeia affinis plays an important role in the Baltic Sea ecosystem as prey and as detritivore. The species is monitored for contaminant effects, but almost nothing is known about its genetics in this region. A pilot screening for genetic variation at the mitochondrial COI gene was performed in 113 individuals collected at six sites in the northern Baltic. Three coastal sites were polluted by pulp mill effluents, PAHs, and trace metals, and two coastal reference sites were without obvious connection to pollution sources. An off-coastal reference site was also included. Contaminated sites showed lower levels of genetic diversity than the coastal reference ones although the difference was not statistically significant. Divergence patterns measured as ?ST showed no significant differentiation within reference and polluted groups, but there was significant genetic divergence between them. The off-coastal sample differed significantly from all coastal sites and also showed lower genetic variation. PMID:25701944

Guban, Peter; Wennerström, Lovisa; Elfwing, Tina; Sundelin, Brita; Laikre, Linda

2015-04-15

420

The potential of current- and wind-driven transport for environmental management of the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

The ever increasing impact of the marine industry and transport on vulnerable sea areas puts the marine environment under exceptional pressure and calls for inspired methods for mitigating the impact of the related risks. We describe a method for preventive reduction of remote environmental risks caused by the shipping and maritime industry that are transported by surface currents and wind impact to the coasts. This method is based on characterizing systematically the damaging potential of the offshore areas in terms of potential transport to vulnerable regions of an oil spill or other pollution that has occurred in a particular area. The resulting maps of probabilities of pollution to be transported to the nearshore and the time it takes for the pollution to reach the nearshore are used to design environmentally optimized fairways for the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Proper, and south-western Baltic Sea. PMID:24414808

Soomere, Tarmo; Döös, Kristofer; Lehmann, Andreas; Meier, H E Markus; Murawski, Jens; Myrberg, Kai; Stanev, Emil

2014-02-01

421

Infusorians as a component of the planktonic community in the Baltic Sea  

SciTech Connect

The authors' investigations of infusorians as a component of the planktonic community in the Baltic Sea coincided with the heterotrophic stage of seasonal succession, and as a result the infusorians were numerous. In the deep troughs of the Sea at a depth of more than 150 m, the water is saturated with hydrogen sulfide. A community of infusorians relating to the saprobionts and capable of living with the minimal amount of oxygen was discovered for the first time--in the upper boundary of the hydrogen sulfide zone. In its level of infusorian abundance, the Baltic Sea must be considered a eutrophic body of water where infusorians serve as one of the leading agents in its self-purification.

Mamaeva, N.V.

1985-09-01

422

Perfluoroalkyl acids in various edible Baltic, freshwater, and farmed fish in Finland.  

PubMed

In this study, the concentration of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in various edible Finnish Baltic Sea, freshwater, and farmed fish species were analysed. PFAAs were present in all the Baltic and freshwater species, but were not observed in any farmed fish. The most abundant compound in each species was perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), comprising 41-100% of the total concentration. The total PFAA concentration varied considerably from 0.31 to 46ngg(-1) fresh weight. A notable variation in the PFAA concentrations implies that a single fish species alone is not suitable for monitoring PFAA contamination in a certain area. Our results confirm that wild domestic fish is one of the PFAA source in the Finnish diet. PMID:25262944

Koponen, Jani; Airaksinen, Riikka; Hallikainen, Anja; Vuorinen, Pekka J; Mannio, Jaakko; Kiviranta, Hannu

2015-06-01

423

75 FR 30387 - Improving Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice of Agenda and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice of Agenda and Procedures for...system expansion planning models and software. The technical conference will be held...Technical Conference on Planning Models and Software Federal Energy Regulatory...

2010-06-01

424

Twentieth-century trends in the thermal growing season in the Greater Baltic Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenological data have shown an increase of ca. 10 days in European growing season length in the latter part of the twentieth\\u000a century. In general, these changes have been associated with global warming. Here we present a study of thermal growing season\\u000a (GS) trends in the Greater Baltic Area, northern Europe. Yearly dates for the start, end and length of the

Hans W. Linderholm; Alexander Walther; Deliang Chen

2008-01-01

425

Climate Change Cannot Explain the Upsurge of Tick-Borne Encephalitis in the Baltics  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPathogens transmitted by ticks cause human disease on a greater scale than any other vector-borne infections in Europe, and have increased dramatically over the past 2–3 decades. Reliable records of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) since 1970 show an especially sharp upsurge in cases in Eastern Europe coincident with the end of Soviet rule, including the three Baltic countries, Estonia, Latvia and

Dana Sumilo; Loreta Asokliene; Antra Bormane; Veera Vasilenko; Irina Golovljova; Sarah E. Randolph; Colin Sutherland

2007-01-01

426

Bioaccumulation of 51Cr, 63Ni and 14C in Baltic Sea benthos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Baltic Sea is a species-poor, semi-enclosed, brackish sea, whose sediments contain a wide range of contaminants, including sediment-associated metals and radionuclides. In this study, we have examined and compared bioaccumulation kinetics and assimilation efficiencies of sediment-associated 51Cr, 63Ni and 14C in three key benthic invertebrates (the deposit-feeding Monoporeia affinis, the facultative deposit-feeding Macoma baltica, and the omnivorous Halicryptus spinulosus).

L. Kumblad; C. Bradshaw; M. Gilek

2005-01-01

427

Modelling of Superimposed Ice Formation and SubSurface Melting in the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superimposed ice formation and sub-surface melting were modelled using a one-dimensional thermodynamic sea ice model with the Baltic Air-Sea-Ice Study (BASIS) field data. During a thermal equilibrium stage in winter 1997\\/98, ice showed little mass change at the ice-water interface. The observations indicated snow-to-ice transformation at the snow-ice interface. Numerical modelling suggested that the re-freezing of the surface melt water

Bin Cheng; Jouko Launianen; Timo Vihma

428

The Future of Baltic Sea Populations: Local Extinction or Evolutionary Rescue?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental change challenges local and global survival of populations and species. In a species-poor environment like the\\u000a Baltic Sea this is particularly critical as major ecosystem functions may be upheld by single species. A complex interplay\\u000a between demographic and genetic characteristics of species and populations determines risks of local extinction, chances of\\u000a re-establishment of lost populations, and tolerance to environmental

Kerstin Johannesson; Katarzyna Smolarz; Mats Grahn; Carl André

2011-01-01

429

Parasite communities of the Schlei Fjord (Baltic coast of northern Germany)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parasite faunas of snails, mussels, crustaceans and small-sized fishes were investigated over a period of six months in\\u000a the Schlei fjord, on the Baltic coast of Schleswig-Holstein. Two sites differing in salinities were compared: Missunde with\\u000a 5–9 ‰ and Olpenitz with 12–20 ‰. Prevalences, number of host-parasite combinations, numbers of core and secondary species\\u000a were generally higher in Olpenitz

V. Kesting; S. Gollasch; C. D. Zander

1996-01-01

430

A new species of the bee genus Ctenoplectrella in middle Eocene Baltic amber (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new species of the extinct bee genus Ctenoplectrella Cockerell (Megachilinae: Ctenoplectrellini) is described and figured from two females preserved in middle Eocene (Lutetian) Baltic amber. Ctenoplectrella phaeton sp. n. is distinguished from its congeners on the basis of its body proportions, integumental sculpturing, wing venation, and pubescence, and is one of the more distinctive members of the genus. A revised key to the species of Ctenoplectrella is provided. PMID:21852938

Gonzalez, Victor H.; Engel, Michael S.

2011-01-01

431

A new contribution to the moss flora of Baltic and Saxon amber  

Microsoft Academic Search

So far, the largest collection of mosses from the Baltic and Saxon amber (Eocene, 37–57 million years b.p.) consisting of 55 specimens is reported. The specimens belong to extant species such as Trachycystis flagellaris (Sullivant and Lesquereux) Lindberg, Trachycystis microphylla (Dozy and Molkenboer) Lindberg, Hypnodontopsis conferta (Goeppert and Berendt) J.-P. Frahm, Atrichum cf. rhystophyllum (C. Müller) Paris, Haplocladium angustifolium (Hampe

J.-P Frahm

2004-01-01

432

Baltic Sea ice SAR segmentation and classification using modified pulse-coupled neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for segmentation and classification of Baltic Sea ice synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, based on pulse-coupled neural networks (PCNNs), is presented. Also, automated training, which is based on decomposing the total pixel value distribution into a mixture of class distributions, is presented and discussed. The algorithms have been trained and tested using logarithmic scale Radarsat-1 ScanSAR Wide mode

Juha A. Karvonen

2004-01-01

433

Baltic Sea nitrogen fixation estimated from the summer increase in upper mixed layer total nitrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

We estimated nitrogen fixation from the increase in total nitrogen (N 2 gas excluded) in the upper 20 m during the summer biomass increase of heterocystous filamentous cyanobacteria at the off-shore Landsort Deep station (BY31, 5 yr) and at 10 more stations in all major basins of the Baltic Sea proper. Estimated fixation rates were 2.3-5.9 mmol N m 22

Ulf Larsson; Susanna Hajdu; Jakob Walve; Ragnar Elmgren

2001-01-01

434

Age dependence of the concentrations of harmful substances in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus)  

SciTech Connect

The age dependence of Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Hg, CH/sub 3/-Hg, DDT, DDD, DDE, HCH, HCB and the PCBs have been studied in Baltic herring of 1 to 6 years of age. Lead, cadmium, mercury and the organochlorine concentrations increase significantly with age. In the case of the DDTs and the PCBs, the variations can be attributed almost totally to the combined effect of age and variations in the lipid percentage.

Perttila, M. (Inst. of Marine Research, Helsinki, Finland); Tervo, V.; Parmanne, R.

1982-01-01

435

Methane in the Baltic and North Seas and a reassessment of the marine emissions of methane  

Microsoft Academic Search

During three measurement campaigns on the Baltic and North Seas, atmospheric and dissolved methane was determined with an automated gas chromatographic system. Area-weighted mean saturation values in the sea surface waters were 113{+-}5% and 395{+-}82% and 126{+-}8%. On the bases of our data and a compilation of literature data the global oceanic emissions of methane were reassessed by introducing a

H. W. Bange; U. H. Bartell; S. Rapsomanikis; M. O. Andreae

1994-01-01

436

Towards a 3D-ecosystem model of the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes briefly the preliminary results of a coupled chemical–biological and circulation model of the Baltic Sea. The chemical–biological model involves nine state variables to simulate the nitrogen cycle. A 1-year simulation shows how the model could be used to estimate budgets and nitrogen transports. The importance of shallow coastal areas for the removal of riverborne nitrogen is demonstrated

Thomas Neumann

2000-01-01

437

Sublethal effects of Alizarin Complexone marking on Baltic cod ( Gadus morhua) eggs and larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard, single-exposure Alizarin Complexone- (ALC) marking was conducted on early life stages of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua L.) to examine acute and chronic effects. Embryos and yolk sac larvae were marked using different concentrations of ALC (0, 50, 100 and 200mgl-1). Experiments included control groups for treatment and handling effects. In agreement with previous studies, long-lasting, distinct otolith marks were

Stefan Meyer; Sune R. Sørensen; Myron A. Peck; Josianne G. Støttrup

438

Decadal-scale changes of dinoflagellates and diatoms in the anomalous baltic sea spring bloom.  

PubMed

The algal spring bloom in the Baltic Sea represents an anomaly from the winter-spring bloom patterns worldwide in terms of frequent and recurring dominance of dinoflagellates over diatoms. Analysis of approximately 3500 spring bloom samples from the Baltic Sea monitoring programs revealed (i) that within the major basins the proportion of dinoflagellates varied from 0.1 (Kattegat) to >0.8 (central Baltic Proper), and (ii) substantial shifts (e.g. from 0.2 to 0.6 in the Gulf of Finland) in the dinoflagellate proportion over four decades. During a recent decade (1995-2004) the proportion of dinoflagellates increased relative to diatoms mostly in the northernmost basins (Gulf of Bothnia, from 0.1 to 0.4) and in the Gulf of Finland, (0.4 to 0.6) which are typically ice-covered areas. We hypothesize that in coastal areas a specific sequence of seasonal events, involving wintertime mixing and resuspension of benthic cysts, followed by proliferation in stratified thin layers under melting ice, favors successful seeding and accumulation of dense dinoflagellate populations over diatoms. This head-start of dinoflagellates by the onset of the spring bloom is decisive for successful competition with the faster growing diatoms. Massive cyst formation and spreading of cyst beds fuel the expanding and ever larger dinoflagellate blooms in the relatively shallow coastal waters. Shifts in the dominant spring bloom algal groups can have significant effects on major elemental fluxes and functioning of the Baltic Sea ecosystem, but also in the vast shelves and estuaries at high latitudes, where ice-associated cold-water dinoflagellates successfully compete with diatoms. PMID:21747911

Klais, Riina; Tamminen, Timo; Kremp, Anke; Spilling, Kristian; Olli, Kalle

2011-01-01

439

Spatial variation of biogeochemical properties of landfast sea ice in the Gulf of Bothnia, Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horizontal variation of landfast sea-ice properties was studied in the Gulf of Bothnia, Baltic Sea, during March 2004. In order to estimate their variability among and within different spatial levels, 72 ice cores were sampled on five spatial scales (with spacings of 10 cm, 2.5 m, 25 m, 250 m and 2.5 km) using a hierarchical sampling design. Entire cores

M. Steffens; M. A. Granskog; H. Kaartokallio; H. Kuosa; K. Luodekari; S. Papadimitriou; D. N. Thomas

2006-01-01

440

INTEGRATED SEISMIC STUDIES OF THE BALTIC SHIELD USING DATA IN THE GULF OF BOTHNIA REGION  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the autumn of 1989 a co-operative experiment involving 12 research\\u000a institutions in northwestern Europe collected 2268 km of deep seismic\\u000a reflection profiles in the Gulf of Bothnia and the Baltic Sea. The 121\\u000a litre airgun array used for this profiling was also recorded by 62\\u000a multicomponent land stations to provide coincident refraction surveys,\\u000a fan-spreads, and 3-D seismic coverage of

RW HOBBS; SL KLEMPERER; DH MATTHEWS; DB SNYDER; R LONG; T MATTHEWS; D GRAHAM; DJ BLUNDELL; R SCOTTROBINSON; CE LUND; H PALM; LB PEDERSEN; RG ROBERTS; SA ELMING; P HEIKKINEN; H KORHONEN; U LUOSTO; SE HJELT; K KOMMINAHO; J YLINIEMI; R MEISSNER; P SADOWIAK; S THOMAS; T WEVER; T DICKMANN; ER FLUEH; N BALLING; E NORMARK; A BERTHELSEN; H THYBO; T DAHLJENSEN

1993-01-01

441

Decadal-Scale Changes of Dinoflagellates and Diatoms in the Anomalous Baltic Sea Spring Bloom  

PubMed Central

The algal spring bloom in the Baltic Sea represents an anomaly from the winter-spring bloom patterns worldwide in terms of frequent and recurring dominance of dinoflagellates over diatoms. Analysis of approximately 3500 spring bloom samples from the Baltic Sea monitoring programs revealed (i) that within the major basins the proportion of dinoflagellates varied from 0.1 (Kattegat) to >0.8 (central Baltic Proper), and (ii) substantial shifts (e.g. from 0.2 to 0.6 in the Gulf of Finland) in the dinoflagellate proportion over four decades. During a recent decade (1995–2004) the proportion of dinoflagellates increased relative to diatoms mostly in the northernmost basins (Gulf of Bothnia, from 0.1 to 0.4) and in the Gulf of Finland, (0.4 to 0.6) which are typically ice-covered areas. We hypothesize that in coastal areas a specific sequence of seasonal events, involving wintertime mixing and resuspension of benthic cysts, followed by proliferation in stratified thin layers under melting ice, favors successful seeding and accumulation of dense dinoflagellate populations over diatoms. This head-start of dinoflagellates by the onset of the spring bloom is decisive for successful competition with the faster growing diatoms. Massive cyst formation and spreading of cyst beds fuel the expanding and ever larger dinoflagellate blooms in the relatively shallow coastal waters. Shifts in the dominant spring bloom algal groups can have significant effects on major elemental fluxes and functioning of the Baltic Sea ecosystem, but also in the vast shelves and estuaries at high latitudes, where ice-associated cold-water dinoflagellates successfully compete with diatoms. PMID:21747911

Klais, Riina; Tamminen, Timo; Kremp, Anke; Spilling, Kristian; Olli, Kalle

2011-01-01

442

Air-water exchange of brominated anisoles in the northern Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Bromophenols produced by marine algae undergo O-methylation to form bromoanisoles (BAs), which are exchanged between water and air. BAs were determined in surface water of the northern Baltic Sea (Gulf of Bothnia, consisting of Bothnian Bay and Bothnian Sea) during 2011-2013 and on a transect of the entire Baltic in September 2013. The abundance decreased in the following order: 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (2,4,6-TBA)>2,4-dibromoanisole (2,4-DBA)?2,6-dibromoanisole (2,6-DBA). Concentrations of 2,4-DBA and 2,4,6-TBA in September were higher in the southern than in the northern Baltic and correlated well with the higher salinity in the south. This suggests south-to-north advection and dilution with fresh riverine water enroute, and/or lower production in the north. The abundance in air over the northern Baltic also decreased in the following order: 2,4,6-TBA>2,4-DBA. However, 2,6-DBA was estimated as a lower limit due to breakthrough from polyurethane foam traps used for sampling. Water/air fugacity ratios ranged from 3.4 to 7.6 for 2,4-DBA and from 18 to 94 for 2,4,6-TBA, indicating net volatilization. Flux estimates using the two-film model suggested that volatilization removes 980-1360 kg of total BAs from Bothnian Bay (38000 km2) between May and September. The release of bromine from outgassing of BAs could be up to 4-6% of bromine fluxes from previously reported volatilization of bromomethanes and bromochloromethanes. PMID:24811233

Bidleman, Terry F; Agosta, Kathleen; Andersson, Agneta; Haglund, Peter; Nygren, Olle; Ripszam, Matyas; Tysklind, Mats

2014-06-01

443

Detailed seismic imaging of a chemical munition dumpsite in the Bornholm Basin, south-western Baltic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very high resolution seismic investigations were carried out over a munition dumpsite in the Bornholm Basin, south-western\\u000a Baltic Sea. After WW2 over 32,000 tons of chemical weapons were dumped in this area. The aim of the investigations was to\\u000a image the internal structure of the dumpsite and to identify possible natural hazards with regard to the dumped war material.\\u000a Two geophysical

Tine Missiaen; Lieselot Noppe

2010-01-01

444

X-ray tomographic analysis of sediment macrostructure in Eckernförde Bay, western Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray computed tomography analysis of sediment cores from Eckernförde Bay (western Baltic Sea) indicates that the primary macrostructures and sources of physical property variability are feeding pockets and laminae. Burrowing produces easily discernible macrostructures, yet has a nominal effect overall on sediment property variability. Grain-size distribution is a dominant parameter determining the sediment macrostructure—physical property relationship: the largest variation in

T. H. Orsi; A. L. Anderson; A. P. Lyons

1996-01-01

445

Direct evidence for production of microcystins by Anabaena strains from the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Anabaena is a filamentous, N(2)-fixing, and morphologically diverse genus of cyanobacteria found in freshwater and brackish water environments worldwide. It contributes to the formation of toxic blooms in freshwater bodies through the production of a range of hepatotoxins or neurotoxins. In the Baltic Sea, Anabaena spp. form late summer blooms, together with Nodularia spumigena and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. It has been long suspected that Baltic Sea Anabaena may produce microcystins. The presence of microcystins has been reported for the coastal regions of the Baltic proper, and a recent report also indicated the presence of the toxin in the open Gulf of Finland. However, at present there is no direct evidence linking Baltic Sea Anabaena spp. to microcystin production. Here we report on the isolation of microcystin-producing strains of the genus Anabaena in the open Gulf of Finland. The dominant microcystin variants produced by these strains included the highly toxic MCYST-LR as well as [d-Asp(3)]MCYST-LR, [d-Asp(3)]MCYST-HtyR, MCYST-HtyR, [d-Asp(3),Dha(7)]MCYST-HtyR, and [Dha(7)]MCYST-HtyR variants. Toxic strains were isolated from the coastal Gulf of Finland as well as from the easternmost open-sea sampling station, where there were lower salinities than at other stations. This result suggests that lower salinity may favor microcystin-producing Anabaena strains. Furthermore, we sequenced 16S rRNA genes and found evidence for pronounced genetic heterogeneity of the microcystin-producing Anabaena strains. Future studies should take into account the potential presence of microcystin-producing Anabaena sp. in the Gulf of Finland. PMID:17766456

Halinen, Katrianna; Jokela, Jouni; Fewer, David P; Wahlsten, Matti; Sivonen, Kaarina

2007-10-01

446

Numerical modelling of the energy and water cycle of the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary   This paper will introduce the Baltex research programme and summarize associated numerical modelling work which has been\\u000a undertaken during the last five years. The research has broadly managed to clarify the main mechanisms determining the water\\u000a and energy cycle in the Baltic region, such as the strong dependence upon the large scale atmospheric circulation. It has\\u000a further been shown

L. Bengtsson

2001-01-01

447

A Digital 3D-Reconstruction of the Younger Dryas Baltic Ice Lake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A digital 3D-reconstruction of the final stage of the ice dammed Baltic Ice Lake (BIL), dated to the very end of the Younger Dryas cold period (ca. 11 600 cal. yr BP) has been compiled using a combined bathymetric-topographic Digital Terrain Model (DTM), Scandinavian ice sheet limits, Baltic Sea Holocene bottom sediment thickness information, and a paleoshoreline database maintained at the Lund University. The combined bathymetric-topographic Digital Terrain Model (DTM) model used to reconstruct the ice dammed lake was compiled specifically for this study from publicly available data sets. The final DTM is in the form of a digital grid on Lamberts Equal Area projection with a resolution of 500 x 500 m, which permits a much more detailed reconstruction of the BIL than previously made. The lake was constructed through a series of experiments where mathematical algorithms were applied to fit the paleolake's surface through the shoreline database. The accumulated Holocene bottom sediments in the Baltic Sea were subsequently subtracted from the present bathymetry in our reconstruction. This allows us to estimate the Baltic Ice Lake's paleobathymetry, area, volume, and hypsometry, which will comprise key input data to lake/climate modeling exercises following this study. The Scandinavian ice sheet margin eventually retreated north of Mount Billingen, which was the high point in terrain of Southern central Sweden bordering to lower terrain further to the North. As a consequence, the BIL was catastrophically drained through this area, resulting in a 25 m drop of the lake level. With our digital BIL model we estimate that approximately 7, 800 km3 of water drained during this event and that the ice dammed lake area was reduced with ca 18 percent. The digital BIL reconstruction is analyzed using 3D-visualization techniques that provide new detailed information on the paleogeography in the area, both before and after the lake drainage, with implications for interpretations of geological records concerning the post-glacial environmental development of southern Scandinavia.

Jakobsson, M.; Alm, G.; Bjorck, S.; Lindeberg, G.; Svensson, N.

2005-12-01

448

Occurrence of the hepatotoxic cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena in the Baltic Sea and structure of the toxin.  

PubMed Central

Water blooms formed by potentially toxic species of cyanobacteria are a common phenomenon in the Baltic Sea in late summer. Twenty-five cyanobacterial bloom samples were collected from open and coastal waters of the Baltic Sea during 1985 to 1987, and their toxicity was determined by mouse bioassay. All of 5 bloom samples from the southern Baltic Sea, 6 of 6 from the open northern Baltic Sea (Gulf of Finland), and 7 of 14 Finnish coastal samples were found to contain hepatotoxic cyanobacteria. Nodularia spumigena and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae occurred together in high amounts in blooms from the open-sea areas. In addition, coastal samples contained the species Anabaena lemmermannii, Microcystis aeruginosa, and Oscillatoria agardhii. Eighteen hepatotoxic N. spumigena cultures were isolated from water bloom and open-sea water samples. High-pressure liquid chromatographic analysis of both hepatotoxic bloom samples and Nodularia strains showed a single toxic fraction. The toxin concentrations of the blooms were less than or equal to 2.4 mg/g of freeze-dried material, and those of laboratory-grown cultures were 2.5 to 8.0 mg/g of freeze-dried cells. A single toxin was isolated from three N. spumigena-containing bloom samples and three N. spumigena laboratory isolates. Amino acid analysis and low- and high-resolution fast-atom bombardment mass spectroscopy indicated that the toxin from all of the sources was a cyclic pentapeptide (molecular weight, 824) containing glutamic acid, beta-methylaspartic acid, arginine, N-methyldehydrobutyrine, and 3-amino-9-methoxy-2,6,8-trimethyl-10-phenyl-4,6-decadienoic acid.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2506812

Sivonen, K; Kononen, K; Carmichael, W W; Dahlem, A M; Rinehart, K L; Kiviranta, J; Niemela, S I

1989-01-01

449

Turbulence structure of the marine stable boundary layer over the Baltic Sea  

SciTech Connect

For more than half of the year the land surfaces surrounding the Baltic Sea is warmer than the sea surface, and the marine boundary layer over the Baltic is stable. Observations, at various sites in the Baltic Sea area during the last decade. also indicate frequent occurrence of low-level jets at the top of the stable boundary layer. In many cases the marine jet can be considered as an analogy in space to the evolution of the nocturnal jet with time. The frictional decoupling occurs when warm air over the land is flowing out over the sea. Data from two areas together with model simulations are used in this study to characterize turbulence structure in the marine boundary layer. The measurements include profiles of wind and temperature on towers situated at two isolated islands, together with turbulence recordings and aircraft measurements. Also wave height and water surface temperature have been measured. The model simulations are performed with a second-order closure model.

Smedman, A.S.; Hoegstroem, U. [Univ. of Uppsala (Sweden)

1994-12-31

450

Ice formation and growth shape bacterial community structure in Baltic Sea drift ice.  

PubMed

Drift ice, open water and under-ice water bacterial communities covering several developmental stages from open water to thick ice were studied in the northern Baltic Sea. The bacterial communities were assessed with 16S rRNA gene terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism and cloning, together with bacterial abundance and production measurements. In the early stages, open water and pancake ice were dominated by Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria, which are common bacterial groups in Baltic Sea wintertime surface waters. The pancake ice bacterial communities were similar to the open-water communities, suggesting that the parent water determines the sea-ice bacterial community in the early stages of sea-ice formation. In consolidated young and thick ice, the bacterial communities were significantly different from water bacterial communities as well as from each other, indicating community development in Baltic Sea drift ice along with ice-type changes. The thick ice was dominated by typical sea-ice genera from classes Flavobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, similar to those in polar sea-ice bacterial communities. Since the thick ice bacterial community was remarkably different from that of the parent seawater, results indicate that thick ice bacterial communities were recruited from the rarer members of the seawater bacterial community. PMID:25764550

Eronen-Rasimus, Eeva; Lyra, Christina; Rintala, Janne-Markus; Jürgens, Klaus; Ikonen, Vilma; Kaartokallio, Hermanni

2015-02-01

451

The hydrodynamic part of the 3D CEMBS model for the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a hydrodynamic part of the coupled ice-ocean model 3D CEMBS designed for the Baltic Sea. It is based on the Community Earth System Model (CESM from the National Center for Atmospheric Research). It was adopted for the Baltic Sea as a coupled sea-ice model. It consists of the Community Ice Code (CICE model, version 4.0) and the Parallel Ocean Program (version 2.1). The models are linked through the coupler (CPL7) based on the Model Coupling Toolkit library. The ocean model has 21 vertical levels and horizontal grid of 600x640 cells. Horizontal resolution is approximately 2km. It is forced by atmospheric fields from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts and in operational mode from 48-hour atmospheric forecasts provided by the UM model from the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling of Warsaw University (ICM). The study was financially supported by the Polish State Committee of Scientific Research (grants: No N N305 111636, N N306 353239). The partial support for this study was also provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBaltyk founded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract no. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09. Calculations were carried out at the Academy Computer Centre in Gdansk.

Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, Lidia; Jakacki, Jaromir; Janecki, Maciej; Nowicki, Artur

2013-04-01

452

Iodine isotopes (129I and 127I) in the Baltic Proper, Kattegat, and Skagerrak basins.  

PubMed

Radioactive anthropogenic pollution has raised concerns about the present and future environmental status of the semienclosed Baltic Sea. We here study the distribution and inventory of the anthropogenic radioactive (129)I in water depth profiles collected from 16 sites in August 2006 and 19 sites in April 2007 in the Baltic Proper and related Kattegat and Skagerrak basins. The results reveal considerable differences of (129)I concentration in terms of spatial and temporal variability and expose relatively high concentrations in the deep waters. Variability in the concentration of (127)I, stable natural isotope of iodine, seems to follow changes in the seawater salinity, but in oxygen-poor bottom waters sediment diagenetic release may contribute to the concentration of both isotopes in the water body. Inventory estimates show that (129)I in August 2006 (24.2 ± 15.4 kg) is higher than that in April 2007 (14.4 ± 8.3 kg) within the southern and central Baltic Proper whereas almost a constant load occurs in the Kattegat Basin. Calculated model inventory shows correspondence to empirical data and provides a guideline for future environmental assessment on the impact of (129)I load in the studied region. PMID:21190361

Yi, P; Aldahan, A; Hansen, V; Possnert, G; Hou, X L

2011-02-01

453

Oxidative stress during Baltic salmon feeding migration may be associated with yolk-sac fry mortality.  

PubMed

The wild populations of salmon in the Baltic Sea suffer from yolk-sac fry mortality (M74). M74 mainly occurs in populations spawning in rivers flowing to the Gulfs of Bothnia and Finland. On the basis of studies with fry, M74 may be caused by oxidative stresses. Because the eggs of M74-offspring-producing females have lower thiamine and astaxanthin levels and more oxidized fatty acids than eggs of females producing healthy offspring, oxidative stresses that adult salmon experience during their feeding migration may be decisive for the development of M74. In this study we have measured