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1

Climate change and the Baltic Sea action plan: Model simulations on the future of the western Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we apply the model ERGOM to simulate the consequences of Climate Change as well as the combination of Climate Change with nutrient load reductions according to the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) on the Baltic Sea ecosystem. According to the simulations, Climate Change will cause an increase of the water temperature up to 3 K and a salinity decrease of 1.5 PSU until 2100. However, the implementation of the BSAP will have much stronger effects on the ecosystem. The model suggests that the western Baltic Sea will shift from a nitrogen (N) towards a phosphorus (P) limited system. As a consequence, N-fixation will strongly decrease. The same applies to nutrient-concentrations in winter, denitrification as well as detritus and chlorophyll concentrations in summer. The availability of N in summer, the Secchi depth and the oxygen saturation will increase. Our simulations suggest that the full implementation of the BSAP will cause imbalances in the Baltic Sea over decades before a new system state will be reached. Our results indicate that the Secchi depth alone is not a suitable indicator for the state of eutrophication. Concerning the Water Framework Directive (WFD), Climate Change might alter gradients and concentrations, e.g. of salinity, and in return this might require a re-definition of the WFD typology or a spatial shift of the surface water types, e.g. in Germany. The western Baltic Sea is strongly controlled by regional nutrient loads. Climate Change has only a limited effect on loads in the western Baltic. A re-definition of reference conditions and a good status because of Climate Change seems not necessary.

Friedland, René; Neumann, Thomas; Schernewski, Gerald

2012-12-01

2

Constraint Handling in Transmission Network Expansion Planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transmission network expansion planning (TNEP) is a very important and complex problem in power system. Recently, the use of metaheuristic techniques to solve TNEP is gaining more importance due to their effectiveness in handling the inequality constraints and discrete values over the conventional gradient based methods. Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) generally perform unconstrained search and require some additional mechanism to handle constraints. In EA literature, various constraint handling techniques have been proposed. However, to solve TNEP the penalty function approach is commonly used while the other constraint handling methods are untested. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of different constraint handling methods like Superiority of Feasible Solutions (SF), Self adaptive Penalty (SP),E-Constraint (EC), Stochastic Ranking (SR) and the ensemble of constraint handling techniques (ECHT) on TNEP. The potential of different constraint handling methods and their ensemble is evaluated using an IEEE 24 bus system with and without security constraints.

Mallipeddi, R.; Verma, Ashu; Suganthan, P. N.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Bijwe, P. R.

3

WASP And Electricity Capacity Expansion Planning for Emerging Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The WIEN Automatic System Planning Package (WASP) is typical of electrical generation capacity expansion planning models in general use today. It was developed by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) hence...

J. Allentuck

1980-01-01

4

Coalition formation in transmission expansion planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of a decentralized coalition formation scheme in a specific power systems transmission expansion scenario is the purpose of this paper. The authors define first who are the agents in the expansion game and provide a decentralized coalition scheme based on bilateral Shapley values. Finally, they allocate the total costs of expansion amongst the agents, based on the coalition

Javier Contreras; Felix F. Wu

1999-01-01

5

Climate change impact on riverine nutrient load and land-based remedial measures of the Baltic sea action plan.  

PubMed

To reduce eutrophication of the Baltic Sea, all nine surrounding countries have agreed upon reduction targets in the HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP). Yet, monitoring sites and model concepts for decision support are few. To provide one more tool for analysis of water and nutrient fluxes in the Baltic Sea basin, the HYPE model has been applied to the region (called Balt-HYPE). It was used here for experimenting with land-based remedial measures and future climate projections to quantify the impacts of these on water and nutrient loads to the sea. The results suggest that there is a possibility to reach the BSAP nutrient reduction targets by 2100, and that climate change may both aggravate and help in some aspects. Uncertainties in the model results are large, mainly due to the spread of the climate model projections, but also due to the hydrological model. PMID:22926882

Arheimer, Berit; Dahné, Joel; Donnelly, Chantal

2012-09-01

6

Coalition formation in transmission expansion planning  

SciTech Connect

The study of a decentralized coalition formation scheme in a specific power systems transmission expansion scenario is the purpose of this paper. The authors define first who are the agents in the expansion game and provide a decentralized coalition scheme based on Bilateral Shapley values. Finally, they allocate the total costs of expansion amongst the agents, based on the coalition history, and they compare their method with a centralized scheme.

Contreras, J. [Univ. Pontificia Comillas, Madrid (Spain). Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica] [Univ. Pontificia Comillas, Madrid (Spain). Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica; Wu, F.F. [Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong). Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering] [Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong). Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering; [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences

1999-08-01

7

216-B-3 expansion ponds closure plan  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the activities for clean closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) of the 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds. The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds are operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and co-operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds consists of a series of three earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. The 3A, 3B, and 3C ponds are referred to as Expansion Ponds because they expanded the capability of the B Pond System. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the Bypass pipe (Project X-009). Water discharged to the Bypass pipe flows directly into the 216-B-3C Pond. The ponds were operated in a cascade mode, where the Main Pond overflowed into the 3A Pond and the 3A Pond overflowed into the 3C Pond. The 3B Pond has not received waste water since May 1985; however, when in operation, the 3B Pond received overflow from the 3A Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to the Expansion Ponds had the potential to have contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the dangerous waste portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA.

Not Available

1994-10-01

8

PLANNING MODELS FOR URBAN WATER SUPPLY EXPANSION. VOLUME 1. PLANNING FOR THE EXPANSION OF REGIONAL WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

A three-volume report was developed relative to the modelling of investment strategies for regional water supply planning. Volume 1 is the study of capacity expansion over time. Models to aid decision making for the deterministic case are presented, and a planning process under u...

9

IRP methods for Environmental Impact Statements of utility expansion plans  

SciTech Connect

Most large electric utilities and a growing number of gas utilities in the United States are using a planning method -- Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) - which incorporates demand-side management (DSM) programs whenever the marginal cost of the DSM programs are lower than the marginal cost of supply-side expansion options. Argonne National Laboratory has applied the IRP method in its socio-economic analysis of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) of power marketing for a system of electric utilities in the mountain and western regions of the United States. Applying the IRP methods provides valuable information to the participants in an EIS process involving capacity expansion of an electric or gas utility. The major challenges of applying the IRP method within an EIS are the time consuming and costly task of developing a least cost expansion path for each altemative, the detailed quantification of environmental damages associated with capacity expansion, and the explicit inclusion of societal-impacts to the region.

Cavallo, J.D.; Hemphill, R.C.; Veselka, T.D.

1992-10-01

10

IRP methods for Environmental Impact Statements of utility expansion plans  

SciTech Connect

Most large electric utilities and a growing number of gas utilities in the United States are using a planning method -- Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) - which incorporates demand-side management (DSM) programs whenever the marginal cost of the DSM programs are lower than the marginal cost of supply-side expansion options. Argonne National Laboratory has applied the IRP method in its socio-economic analysis of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) of power marketing for a system of electric utilities in the mountain and western regions of the United States. Applying the IRP methods provides valuable information to the participants in an EIS process involving capacity expansion of an electric or gas utility. The major challenges of applying the IRP method within an EIS are the time consuming and costly task of developing a least cost expansion path for each altemative, the detailed quantification of environmental damages associated with capacity expansion, and the explicit inclusion of societal-impacts to the region.

Cavallo, J.D.; Hemphill, R.C.; Veselka, T.D.

1992-01-01

11

Promotion strategy of clean technologies in distributed generation expansion planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed generation expansion planning (DGEP) has been frequently reported in the literature around the world. In this scope, renewable technologies which are considered as a kind of distributed generations are developing due to their environmental benefits. However, only a few renewable energies have proven to be competitive so far, while their economic viability is also limited to certain regions of

Ali Zangeneh; Shahram Jadid; Ashkan Rahimi-Kian

2009-01-01

12

Medicaid family planning expansions and related preventive care.  

PubMed

I examined the impact of state expansions in eligibility for Medicaid family planning services on the utilization of Papanicolaou (Pap) tests, clinical breast examinations, HIV testing, and routine doctor check-ups among women aged 21 to 44 years using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (1993-2009). Using a natural experiment approach, I found significant increases in Pap tests and clinical breast examinations among women eligible for services under the expansions but no significant change in HIV testing or routine doctor check-ups. PMID:23865669

Wherry, Laura R

2013-09-01

13

CHOPIN, a heuristic model for long term transmission expansion planning  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the long term transmission expansion planning model CHOPIN. In CHOPIN, the network expansion is formulated as the static optimization problem of minimizing the global annual cost of electricity production, which is obtained as the sum of the annualized network investment cost, the operation cost and the reliability cost. The solution method takes advantage of the natural decomposition between the investment and operation submodels. The investment submodel is solved by a new heuristic procedure that in practice has invariably yielded the optimal plan. At the operation level CHOPIN optimizes over a multiplicity of scenarios which are characterized by the demand, the hydraulicity and the availability of components. The network is represented by any one out of four options: DC load flow (DCLF), transportation model and two hybrid models. Any of these models may consider the ohmic losses. The model is very efficient computationally; this fact was verified on test examples, as well as on the actual transmission expansion planning of the Spanish system.

Latorre-Bayona, G. (Univ. Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga (Colombia). Dept. de Ingenieria Electrica y Electronica); Perez-Arriaga, I.J. (Univ. Pontificia Comillas, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Investigacion Tecnologica)

1994-11-01

14

Generation expansion planning including the renewable energy sources  

SciTech Connect

In the last decade, escalation in the cost of energy derived from fossil fuels has caused an increased interest in the development and utilization of renewable energy sources. This paper studies the long term competitiveness of introducing the renewable energy sources alongside the conventional generating units in a generation expansion plan by linking between a short term study and a long term planning model. In the short term study, there is a chance to study extensively the different combinations of the renewable energy sources which can operate with the conventional generating system at different objectives. These objectives are varied between two general strategies; the fuel saver strategy and the peak shaving strategy. In the long term planning, these combinations are considered as decision variables beside the conventional resources. For this purpose, a long term generation expansion planning model is used to decide which strategy can be used and the capacity as well as the time of addition. This model is based on the decision tree concept which has enough flexibility and is capable to model the uncertainties inherent in the problem.

Farghal, S.A.; Aziz, M.R.A. (Mansoura Univ. (EG))

1988-08-01

15

West Elk Mine expansion and degasification plans approved  

SciTech Connect

West Elk Mine recently applied for and received approval for an expansion of its mining and methane drainage operation sin Gunnison County, Colorado. The deliberation over this planned expansion among several federal agencies and other groups received considerable local press coverage. One of the key issues focused on the fate of the additional; methane that would be emitted from the mine's degasification system. This article summarizes this process, which highlights the numerous barriers that still affect many coal mine methane (CMM) project opportunities is the United states. As the debate over climate change legislation moves forward in the US Congress and awareness of greenhouse gas emissions increases around the country, lawmakers, regulators, and non-governmental organizations will continue to focus more attention on CMM reduction opportunities,.

NONE

2008-04-01

16

Baltic Linguistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 20 papers in this collection are: "The Dative of Subordination in Baltic and Slavic"--H. Andersen; "The Vocalic Phonemes of the Old Prussian Elbing Vocabulary"--M.L. Burwell; "The Nominative Plural and Preterit Singular of the Active Participles in Baltic"--W. Cowgill; "The State of Linguistics in Soviet Lithuania"--L. Dambriunas; "Accent in…

Magner, Thomas F., Ed.; Schmalstieg, William R., Ed.

17

Are recent changes in sediment manganese sequestration in the euxinic basins of the Baltic Sea linked to the expansion of hypoxia?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manganese (Mn) enrichments in sedimentary deposits are often used as an indicator of redox changes in the overlying waters (Calvert and Pedersen, 1993). In the Baltic Sea, layers of Mn-carbonates are believed to form after inflows of oxygenated waters into the deep anoxic basins and are, therefore, used as proxies for short term oxygenation events. In the present study we investigate Mn cycling in the Baltic Sea basin. We present pore water and sediment data of well-dated sediment cores from 8 sites capturing the full range of redox conditions. Our results show no major enrichments of Mn in the oxic and hypoxic sediments. These areas rather function as a source of dissolved Mn, with fluxes of Mn from the sediments into the bottom water. Nevertheless, compared to the existing reservoir of Mn in the anoxic water column the absolute flux of Mn from the oxic sites is small. In the deep basins, Mn is sequestered by two principal mechanisms. In the Gotland Deep, Mn-oxides form with inflows of oxygenated North Sea water and are subsequently transferred into Mn-carbonates as soon as the system turns anoxic again. In contrast, precipitation of Mn minerals in the Landsort Deep is decoupled from oxygenation events. Mn-carbonates and Mn-sulfides form due to the presence of a major source of dissolved Mn from the sediments below, and high input of organic matter from the water column, whose breakdown generates dissolved inorganic carbon and sulfide. Since approx. 1995, an intensification and expansion of hypoxia is recorded in observational data from the water column as well as in proxies (e.g. Mo content) in the sediments. This resulted in major changes in the burial of Mn. While Mn sequestration still continues in the Landsort Deep, this does not hold for the Gotland Basin. Here, Mn burial has decreased dramatically despite ongoing inflow events. We assume that the higher present-day sulfide concentration of the bottom waters leads to a faster reduction of the Mn-oxides precipitated during inflow events, and hence release of Mn2+ to the water column, inhibiting transformation to Mn-carbonates. Our results have important implications for the use of Mn carbonate enrichments as a redox proxy in marine systems. Calvert, S., Pedersen, T., 1993. Geochemistry of recent oxic and anoxic marine sediments: Implications for the geological record. Mar Geol, 113(1): 67-88.

Lenz, C.; Jilbert, T.; Conley, D. J.; Wolthers, M.; Slomp, C. P.

2013-12-01

18

75 FR 36063 - Expansion and Extension of the Patent Application Backlog Reduction Stimulus Plan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE United States Patent and Trademark Office [Docket No...PTO-P-2010-0048] Expansion and Extension of the Patent Application Backlog Reduction Stimulus Plan AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce....

2010-06-24

19

Models Used in ENEL (Italian Electricity Board) Transmission Expansion Planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The streamlining of the basic computing programs, utilized for studying the expansion of the E.H.V. transmission network, assumes a very important role as they must necessarily be concatenated to draw from the same data base source and to allow the automa...

G. Manzoni C. Martocchia

1986-01-01

20

World Bank plans major expansion in renewable funding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Bank plans to increase its funding for renewable energy projects to more than $100 million annually in coming years. Last year, 15 percent of the Bank's $23.7 billion financing went to energy projects. But of that, renewables received less than $10 million. Environmentalists and sustainable energy groups have long criticized the World Bank for its reluctance to finance

1994-01-01

21

The Baltic Sea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Baltic Sea is one of the largest internal seas in Europe. The Baltic's significance in the history of our Motherland is great. The following questions are presented in the brochure: A political map of the Baltic Sea, NATO and the Baltic Sea; the strug...

L. P. Altman

1971-01-01

22

Combined Effects of Nutrient Load Reduction and Climate Scenarios for the Baltic Sea Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Baltic Sea Action Plan was approved in 2007 by the countries surrounding the Baltic Sea to improve the ecological status of this sea. An important part of this plan is reduction of nutrient inflows from the Baltic Sea basin into the sea. Required nutrient reductions have been apportioned to the countries within the basin and these countries are now

Chantal Donnelly; Johan Strömqvist; Joel Dahné; Berit Arheimer

2010-01-01

23

Application of harmony search for transmission expansion planning considering security index and uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a competitive power market, it is important to expand or strengthen transmission system in order to provide a fair environment to all market participants. In the present paper, a new method to determine an optimal transmission expansion plan in the deregulated power system has been proposed. In the proposed scheme, uncertainties, security index and transmission costs in calculation of

A. Parizad; H. R. Baghaee; S. Dehghan; B. Kiyani

2009-01-01

24

Probabilistic reliability criterion for expansion planning of grids including wind turbine generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an alternative method, derived from a simulation model, for expansion planning for grids considering wind turbine generators in a composite power system. The proposed model includes capacity limitations and uncertainties of the generators and transmission lines. It proposes to handle the uncertainties of system elements (generators, lines, transformers and wind resources of WTG, etc.) by a Composite

Kyeonghee Cho; Taegon Oh; Jaeseok Choi; A. A. El-Keib; Mohammad Shahidehpour

2011-01-01

25

SPERTI Control Building (PER601). Expansion plan shows extension to existing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SPERT-I Control Building (PER-601). Expansion plan shows extension to existing building and new building connected by narrow hallway. Date: April 1956. PER-104-IDO-2U. INEEL index no. 760-0300-396-109115 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

26

Long-term power system expansion planning by dynamic programming and production cost simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends previously published results on the application of a dynamic programming optimization approach to the planning of systems, with special emphasis on the long-term expansion of power systems. Future uncertainties about loads, equipment costs, etc. are considered explicitly in the method described. A practical computational solution to the resulting stochastic optimization is obtained by means of the recently

J. Peschon; P. H. Henault

1970-01-01

27

Generation expansion planning: an analysis of techniques to expedite the approach to an optimal solution  

SciTech Connect

The subject of this dissertation is an analysis of techniques which can be used to expedite the approach to an optimal plan for the installation of new generating units in an electric utility system, using the WASP (Wein Automatic System Planning) program. The objectives are three-fold: to present the details and results of a sensitivity study performed using WASP; to analyze and overcome the logistical problems resulting in the excessive computation time required to complete a generation expansion study using WASP; and to compare WASP's results with those of another widely used generation expansion planning program - OGP (Optimized Generation Planning) - and to analyze how the differing modelling methodologies impact those results. The first objective was accomplished by providing a detailed description of the collection and preparation of input data for a sensitivity study and by reporting on trends noted when various economic and peak load growth data were varied. Accomplishment of the second objective led to the demonstration of three techniques for expediting WASP analyses, namely: employing a yearly optimization scheme, involving the weighting of the objective function with estimated operation and capital costs incurred during a static operation period, to arrive at an initial expansion plan; modelling generating units as a single block of capacity in order to decrease computation time with little sacrifice in precision; and using the static operation period to reduce end effects of the dynamic optimization. The third objective was accomplished through the comparison of the results of a sample planning study carried out using both WASP and OGP. Despite several areas in which modelling methodologies differed, startingly similar results were obtained.

Lubbers, R.H.

1982-01-01

28

Application of sensitivity analysis of load supplying capability to interactive transmission expansion planning  

SciTech Connect

This paper illustrates the application of sensitivity methods as a tool for long-term transmission expansion planning. Possible investments are ranked in accordance with their effectiveness in increasing the system load supplying capability or reducing the system load curtailment. The calculation of these indices is performed as a special case of the optimal dispatch problem, for which very efficient solution algorithms are available. A case study with the system of Southern Brazil is used to evaluate the performance of the ranking algorithms.

Pereira, M.V.F.; Pinto, L.M.V.G.

1985-02-01

29

Power Generation Expansion Planning Model Towards Low-Carbon Economy and Its Application in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change poses a huge threat to human welfare. Hence, developing a low-carbon economy has become a prevailing and inevitable trend. Decarbonization of power generation, especially converting the current power mix into a low-carbon structure, will be a critical option for CO2 emission mitigation. In this paper, an integrated power generation expansion (PGE) planning model towards low-carbon economy is proposed,

Qixin Chen; Chongqing Kang; Qing Xia; Jin Zhong

2010-01-01

30

Application of Multi-objective Memetic Algorithm with Solution Diversity to Probabilistic Distribution Network Expansion Planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a new efficient Multi-objective Memetic Algorithm (MOMA) for probabilistic distribution network expansion planning (DNEP). Recently, the deregulated and competitive power market brings about uncertainty, i.e., random output of distributed generation (DG) such as wind and photovoltaic power, load growths, etc. DG plays a key role to smooth distribution network planning. However, system planners are faced with new uncertain environment. This paper makes use of Monte-Carlo simulation to consider these uncertainties efficiently. Furthermore, a new method is proposed for multi-objective DNEP problems with MOMA that combines Multi-objective meta-heuristics with local search to obtain better solution sets. This paper proposes SPEA2 with Random Multi-start Variable neighborhood LS (RMSVLS) to consider the diversity and accuracy of solution sets. The proposed method is successfully applied to a sample system.

Yoshida, Takafumi; Mori, Hiroyuki

31

Warsaw Pact Baltic Fleet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis provides an examination of the threat posed to NATO by the Warsaw Pact Baltic Fleet and its capability to accomplish its maritime missions. The history of the Soviet Baltic Fleet is discussed in order to demostrate previous Russian actions and...

K. W. Veitch

1984-01-01

32

Planning for the impacts of Hadley cell expansion on water supply in Victoria, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

South-eastern Australia has recently experienced the worst drought of the instrumental record; the so-called Millennium drought (1997-2009). This drought was primarily a cool season phenomenon, with large reductions in rainfall observed during the Austral winter (April to October). This reduction in winter rainfall, combined with an absence of wet years and very wet months led to a reduction in streamflow across the region far greater than would be anticipated based on the 12 percent reduction in mean annual rainfall alone. These conditions have proven particularly challenging for water management and planning processes. Our research has linked the extent, duration and severity of this drought to the ongoing observed expansion of the Southern Hemisphere Hadley cell of 0.5 degrees per decade. This expansion has intensified the sub-tropical ridge over southern Australia, pushing cool season mid-latitude storm tracks further south, leading to a reduction in winter rainfall over the region. Modelling has shown that the expansion of the Hadley cell can only be reproduced if anthropogenic influences (greenhouse gases, aerosols and stratospheric ozone) are included in the models, thus providing evidence that the Millennium drought was at least partly attributable to climate change. Climate model projections also indicate that the expansion of the Hadley Cell is likely to continue. This means that the traditional winter "filling season" for water supply systems in Victoria may be less reliable in the future. However, in the light of the expansion of tropical influences, the cool season rainfall deficit may be offset to some extent by increased rainfall in the warmer months of the year. Given that the Millennium drought has been shown to be at least partly attributable to climate change and the considerable uncertainties associated with projected future changes, water planning and management processes in Victoria have been modified to be more robust, adaptive and flexible. Short-term operational decisions are typically based on consideration of a range of future inflow scenarios which are informed not only by seasonal climate forecasts but also by the possibility of a return to the conditions experienced during the Millennium drought (that is, a continuing cool season rainfall deficit). In terms of longer term planning, water corporations are required to develop Water Supply-Demand Strategies with a view to balancing supply and demand over the next 50 years. In developing these strategies, water corporations have been asked to consider a range of plausible water availability futures, including climate change projections, as well as the possibility of an immediate return to the conditions experienced during the Millennium drought. These Water Supply-Demand Strategies include a range of options for reducing demand and augmenting supplies both on a short-term and long-term basis, including further investments in large scale water infrastructure. Improved understanding of the links between changes in the climate system and their impacts on water availability will allow refinement of the range of plausible future flow scenarios and thus greater confidence in the decision making process.

Post, David; Timbal, Bertrand; Chiew, Francis; Hendon, Harry; Moran, Rae

2013-04-01

33

Review of Jamaica Public Service Company, Ltd. least-cost expansion plan.  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory has been asked to review the least-cost expansion plan (LCEP) of the Jamaica Public Service Company, Ltd. (JPSCo). The material that has been initially provided to Argonne included: (1) An electronic copy of the data and results from JPSCo's running the WASP electric system expansion planning model, (2) Approximately 20 pages of a document 'JPSCo Generation Expansion Plan', marked 'DRAFT 002', date unknown, and (3) The report 'JPSCo Least Cost Generation Expansion Plans, (1999-2009)', January 1999. It was noticed that the 20 pages from the 'DRAFT 002' document were different from the January 1999 report. An explanation was provided to Argonne that the excerpt was from an earlier draft and that the review should focus on the January 1999 report. Further, the electronic copy of the WASP case did not correspond to either the January 1999 report or to the 20-page excerpt. Again, the reason for these discrepancies was that the WASP case provided to Argonne was an earlier case and not the final one that was presented in the report. Based on the review of the available material, Argonne experts have prepared and submitted to the National Investment Bank of Jamaica (NIBJ) a preliminary draft report containing the initial findings, comments, questions and observations. As many of the comments and questions raised in the preliminary review needed to be discussed with the appropriate staff of JPSCo and other Jamaican experts, a 3-day mission to Jamaica was carried out by one Argonne expert (V. Koritarov) in the period July 20-23, 1999. Besides JPSCo experts, the discussions and the review of the LCEP during the mission included several experts from NIBJ, Ministry of Energy, and the Petroleum Corporation of Jamaica. Mr. Koritarov also worked with the JPSCo technical staff to reconstruct the WASP base case that was used as a basis for the January 1999 report. The first step was to verify that the results obtained after the resimulation of this case were identical to those presented in the January 1999 report. Then, in the next step, the Argonne expert and JPSCo team reviewed this case in detail and performed certain modifications and improvements of data where necessary. These modifications and data adjustments resulted in a new base case that served as a basis for further review and for the sensitivity analyses. Several sensitivity analyses were performed together with JPSCo experts and the results were discussed with the JPSCo management and other Jamaican experts at the end of the mission. Additional sensitivity analyses, as well as the cases for high and low load forecasts, were conducted by Mr. Koritarov after returning from Jamaica. The main findings of the review and issues that have been discussed with the Jamaican team can be summarized.

Koritarov, V.; Buehring, W.; Cirillo, R.; Decision and Information Sciences

2008-02-28

34

Is competence set expansion in the information service industry a planned behavior? The moderating effects of action control style  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technological advancement has brought dramatic changes to most industries. As a result, the pressure to compete has intensified tremendously. This is especially evident in the information service (IS) industry where the need of companies to expand their employees' competence set (CS) becomes critical. This study investigated whether CS expansion in the IS industry is a planned behavior moderated by individual

Daniel Y. Shee; Ya-Ling Wu

2008-01-01

35

Transmission expansion planning by meta-heuristic techniques: A comparison of Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm, PSO and GA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents th e application of a memtic meta-heuristic optimization technique known as Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm (SFLA) to th e problem o f transmission network expansion planning. The main objective of the proposed problem is to minimize total cost by finding th e place, number and type of ne w transmission lines required to ensure that th e

Mehdi Eghbal; Tapan Kumar Saha; Kazi Nazmul Hasan

2011-01-01

36

Implementation plan for the environmental impact statement on the Strategic Petroleum Reserve expansion  

SciTech Connect

During 1990, Congress enacted two bills requiring the Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake planning activities associated with the expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) from 750 million barrels to one billion barrels: the Energy Policy and Conservation Act Amendments of 1990 (P.L. 101-383) and the Department of Interior and Related Agencies` Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 1991 (P.L. 101-512). DOE has determined that the development and operation of additional SPR crude oil storage facilities would be a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, and, therefore, an environmental impact statement (EIS) will be prepared by DOE to assess the environmental impacts of the proposed action and alternatives. The EIS will be prepared in accordance with Section 102(2)(c) of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), as stipulated in regulations promulgated by the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) (40 CFR Parts 1500-1508, November 1978) and DOE`s implementing guidelines (45 FR 20694, March 28, 1980). This report is a discussion of the implementation of the EIS.

Not Available

1992-03-01

37

Reduction of Baltic Sea nutrient inputs and allocation of abatement costs within the Baltic Sea catchment.  

PubMed

The Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) requires tools to simulate effects and costs of various nutrient abatement strategies. Hierarchically connected databases and models of the entire catchment have been created to allow decision makers to view scenarios via the decision support system NEST. Increased intensity in agriculture in transient countries would result in increased nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea, particularly from Poland, the Baltic States, and Russia. Nutrient retentions are high, which means that the nutrient reduction goals of 135 000 tons N and 15 000 tons P, as formulated in the BSAP from 2007, correspond to a reduction in nutrient loadings to watersheds by 675 000 tons N and 158 000 tons P. A cost-minimization model was used to allocate nutrient reductions to measures and countries where the costs for reducing loads are low. The minimum annual cost to meet BSAP basin targets is estimated to 4.7 billion Euro. PMID:24414801

Wulff, Fredrik; Humborg, Christoph; Andersen, Hans Estrup; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte; Czajkowski, Miko?aj; Elofsson, Katarina; Fonnesbech-Wulff, Anders; Hasler, Berit; Hong, Bongghi; Jansons, Viesturs; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Smart, James C R; Smedberg, Erik; Stålnacke, Per; Swaney, Dennis P; Thodsen, Hans; Was, Adam; Zylicz, Tomasz

2014-02-01

38

Technology choice in a least-cost expansion analysis framework: Effects of gas price, planning period, and system characteristics  

SciTech Connect

The current outlook for new capacity additions by electric utilities is uncertain and tenuous. The fundamental question about the additional capacity requirements center on technology choice and the factors influencing the decision process. Instead of building capital-intensive power plants, utilities have begun relying on natural gas technologies, which permit rapid construction and deployment and low capital investment. Of concern to policymakers and utility planners are the following questions: (1) What is the impact of alternative gas price projections on technology choice (2) What influence does the planning horizon have on technology choice (3) How important are existing system characteristics on technology choice (4) What effect does capital cost, when combined with other technology characteristics in a capacity expansion framework, have on technology choice In this study Argonne National Laboratory examined the impact of these concerns on technology choices in 10 representative power pools with a dynamic optimization expansion model, the Wien Automatic System Planning Package (WASP). At least-cost expansion plan was determined for each power pool with three candidate technologies--natural gas combustion turbine technology (GT), natural gas combined-cycle technology (NGCC), and integrated gasification combined-cycle technology (IGCC)--three alternative fuel price tracks, and two planning periods (10-yr versus 30-yr optimization) between the years 1995 and 2025. The three fuel price tracks represented scenarios for low, medium, and high gas prices. Sensitivity analyses were conducted on IGCC capital cost and unserved energy costs. 21 refs., 79 figs., 21 tabs.

Guziel, K.A.; South, D.W.; Bhatarakamol, S.; Poch, L.A.

1990-04-01

39

Baltic Earth - Earth System Science for the Baltic Sea Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baltic Sea region, defined as its river catchment basin, spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It encompasses most of the Scandinavian Peninsula in the west; most of Finland and parts of Russia, Belarus, and the Baltic states in the east; and Poland and small parts of Germany and Denmark in the south. The region represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. Preliminary grand challenges and topics for which Working Groups have been installed include: • Salinity dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Land-Sea biogeochemical feedbacks in the Baltic Sea region • Natural hazards and extreme events in the Baltic Sea region • Understanding sea level dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Understanding regional variability of water and energy exchange • Utility of Regional Climate Models • Assessment of Scenario Simulations for the Baltic Sea 1960-2100 • Outreach and Communication • Education The issue of anthropogenic changes and impacts on the Earth system of the Baltic Sea region is recognized as a major topic, and shall receive special attention. The intention of the "Outreach and Communication" and "Education" groups will be to initiate and design potential outreach activities and to provide an arena for scientific exchange and discussion around the Baltic Sea, to communicate findings and exchange views within the Baltic Earth research community internally and to other researchers and society, both professionals and non-professionals. A regular international Baltic Earth Summer School shall be established from 2015. There will be a strong continuity related to BALTEX in infrastructure (secretariat, conferences, publications) and the network (people and institutions).

Meier, Markus; Rutgersson, Anna; Lehmann, Andreas; Reckermann, Marcus

2014-05-01

40

Oregon Improperly Claims Federal Reimbursement for Medicaid Family Planning Services Provided Under the Family Planning Expansion Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pursuant to section 1905(a)(4)(C) of the Act, States are required to furnish family planning services and supplies to individuals of childbearing age who are eligible under the State plan and desire such services and supplies. Section 1903(a)(5) of the Ac...

2012-01-01

41

A transmission owner's perspective on the future roles and responsibilities of transmission expansion planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Eastern Interconnection is dividing into Regional Transmission Organizations. These new organizations are naming themselves Independent system operators, independent transmission companies, transmission owners, stakeholders, transmission customers and etc. They take the place of the transmission operations and planning segments of integrated electrical utilities. No longer is generation planning function and transmission planning function moving hand-in-hand within a given integrated utility.

T. E. Wiedman

2002-01-01

42

Fairness and comparability-guiding principles for RTO transmission expansion planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. The Eastern Interconnection is dividing into Regional Transmission Organizations. These now organizations are naming themselves independent system operators, independent transmission companies, transmission owners, stakeholders, transmission customers and etc. They take the place of the transmission operations and planning segments of integrated electrical utilities. No longer is generation planning function and transmission planning function moving hand-in-hand within

R. F. Chu

2002-01-01

43

Technology choice in a least-cost expansion analysis framework: The impact of gas prices, planning horizon, and system characteristics  

SciTech Connect

The current outlook for new capacity addition by electric utilities is uncertain and tenuous. Regardless of the amount, it is inevitable that new capacity will be needed in the 1990s and beyond. The fundamental question about the addition capacity requirements centers on technology choice and the factors influencing the decision process. We examined technology choices in 10 representative power pools with a dynamic optimization expansion model, the Wien Automatic System Planning (WASP) Package. These 10 power pools were determined to be representative on the basis of a cluster analysis conducted on all 26 power pools in the United States. A least-cost expansion plan was determined for each power pool with three candidate technologies--natural gas combustion turbine (CT), natural gas combined cycle (NGCC), and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC)--three alternative gas price tracks, and two planning horizons between the years 1995 and 2020. This paper summarizes the analysis framework and presents results for Power Pool 1, the American Electric Power (AEP) service territory. 7 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Guziel, K.A.; South, D.W.

1990-01-01

44

The Baltic Sea Basin: Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Baltic Sea Basin serves as an example of a region where the use of natural resources and the need of environmental protection\\u000a require a comprehensive and holistic approach in terms of geosciences, environmental sciences, and socio-economics. In this\\u000a book, authors from countries around the Baltic Sea and overseas shed light on the Baltic Sea Basin with respect to (1)

Jan Harff; Svante Björck; Peer Hoth

45

Curonian Spit, Baltic Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On July 25, 2006, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), flying on NASA's Terra satellite, captured this image of the Curonian (or Courland)spit, the Curonian Lagoon (also known as the Courland Lagoon) it encloses, and part of the Baltic Sea. Just 3,800 meters (about 12,460 feet) at its widest point, the spit encloses a lagoon of some 1,620 square kilometers (625 square miles). In this image, dark blue indicates deep water, and lighter blue indicates shallow and/or sediment-laden water. Different shades of blue distinguish the deeper Baltic Sea and the shallower Curonian Lagoon. Vegetation appears in varying shades of green, paved surfaces and bare ground appear in shades of beige and gray, and sandy areas appear off-white. Obvious sandy areas appear along the length of the spit. On the Baltic Sea side, a thin off-white band of beach runs the length of the spit; on the Curonian Lagoon side, intermittent beaches carve their way into the narrow strip of land.

2006-01-01

46

The Baltics: Regional energy profiles  

SciTech Connect

However, all three Baltic Republics are heavily dependent on primary energy imports. Domestic energy sources in the Baltics are limited to oil shale mines in Estonia, small oil deposits in Lithuania, peat, and some very small hydroelectric power plants. A RBMK nuclear power station, similar to Chernobyl, operates at Snieckus in Lithuania, but the reactor fuel is also imported from Russia. However, Lithuania and Estonia are net exporters of electricity despite their reliance on primary fuels imports. The major power stations in these two Republics are the Ignalina Nuclear Power Station and the two thermal power plants at Narva in Estonia which are fueled by oil shale. The only oil refinery in the Baltics is also located in Lithuania, at Mazeikiai. This refinery has the capacity to satisfy the demand for selected refined products of the entire region, including the Kaliningrad oblast, a noncontiguous part of Russia. The Mazeikiai refinery has operated at only forty to sixty percent capacity since 1990 due to halts in crude oil supplies from Russia. The Baltic Republics also import one hundred percent of their coal and natural gas supplies. Russia is the main trading partner for all the Baltic states, accounting for more than half of their trade flow. Mutual trade within the Baltics has been surprisingly low. Other Baltic states contribute less than ten percent to each Republic`s exports or imports, even less than Belarus or Ukraine. Aside from Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, only Kazakhstan contributes more than two percent to Baltics trade.

Not Available

1993-01-01

47

The Baltics: Regional energy profiles  

SciTech Connect

However, all three Baltic Republics are heavily dependent on primary energy imports. Domestic energy sources in the Baltics are limited to oil shale mines in Estonia, small oil deposits in Lithuania, peat, and some very small hydroelectric power plants. A RBMK nuclear power station, similar to Chernobyl, operates at Snieckus in Lithuania, but the reactor fuel is also imported from Russia. However, Lithuania and Estonia are net exporters of electricity despite their reliance on primary fuels imports. The major power stations in these two Republics are the Ignalina Nuclear Power Station and the two thermal power plants at Narva in Estonia which are fueled by oil shale. The only oil refinery in the Baltics is also located in Lithuania, at Mazeikiai. This refinery has the capacity to satisfy the demand for selected refined products of the entire region, including the Kaliningrad oblast, a noncontiguous part of Russia. The Mazeikiai refinery has operated at only forty to sixty percent capacity since 1990 due to halts in crude oil supplies from Russia. The Baltic Republics also import one hundred percent of their coal and natural gas supplies. Russia is the main trading partner for all the Baltic states, accounting for more than half of their trade flow. Mutual trade within the Baltics has been surprisingly low. Other Baltic states contribute less than ten percent to each Republic's exports or imports, even less than Belarus or Ukraine. Aside from Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, only Kazakhstan contributes more than two percent to Baltics trade.

Not Available

1993-01-01

48

Lower paleozoic of Baltic Area  

SciTech Connect

The Baltic Sea offers a new and exciting petroleum play in northwestern Europe. The Kaliningrad province in the Soviet Union, which borders the Baltic Sea to the east, contains an estimated 3.5 billion bbl of recoverable oil from lower Paleozoic sandstones. To the south, in Poland, oil and gas fields are present along a trend that projects offshore into the Baltic. Two recent Petrobaltic wells in the southern Baltic have tested hydrocarbons from lower Paleozoic sandstone. Minor production comes from Ordovician reefs on the Swedish island of Gotland in the western Baltic. The Baltic synclise, which began subsiding in the late Precambrian, is a depression in the East European platform. Strate dip gently to the south where the Baltic Synclise terminates against a structurally complex border zone. Depth to the metamorphosed Precambrian basement is up to 4,000 m. Overlying basement is 200-300 m of upper Precambrian arkosic sandstone. The Lower Cambrian consists of shallow marine quartzites. During Middle and Late Camnbrian, restricted circulation resulted in anoxic conditions and the deposition of Alum shale. The Lower Ordovician consists of quartzites and shale. The Upper Ordovician includes sandstones and algal reefs. The Silurian contains marginal carbonates and shales. For the last 25 years, exploration in northwest Europe has concentrated on well-known Permian sandstone, Jurassic sandstone, and Cretaceous chalk plays. Extrapolation of trends known and exploited in eastern Europe could open an entirely new oil province in the lower Paleozoic in the Baltic.

Haselton, T.M.; Surlyk, F.

1988-01-01

49

A Coordinated Production Planning Model with Capacity Expansion and Inventory Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by a problem faced by a large manufacturer of a consumer product, we explore the interaction between production planning and capacity acquisition decisions in environments with demand growth. We study a firm producing multiple items in a multiperiod environment where demand for items is known but varies over time with a long-term growth and possible short-term fluctuations. The production

Sampath Rajagopalan; Jayashankar M. Swaminathan

2001-01-01

50

Coverage expansion and the criminal justice-involved population: implications for plans and service connectivity.  

PubMed

People who have served time in US prisons and jails have high rates of undiagnosed chronic and infectious diseases, behavioral health conditions, and trauma. Because a large portion of this population are young men-a demographic previously underrepresented in Medicaid rolls-who have been uninsured, Medicaid payers and the managed care plans they contract with have little experience serving this population. To meet the Affordable Care Act's policy objectives of cost-efficient and effective care through improved and expanded access, health plans need to understand the epidemiology and care-seeking patterns of this population. Plans also need to develop outreach, communications, and engagement strategies and create service models designed to address these individuals' health care needs. Corrections departments and health plans should exchange information about the medical histories of people entering and leaving prisons and jails, promote models of peer support, and advocate for suspension rather than termination of Medicaid benefits during incarceration, so inmates can quickly regain coverage once they are released. PMID:24590949

Boutwell, Amy E; Freedman, Jonathan

2014-03-01

51

State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) Environmental Checklist Form 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds Closure Plan. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds Closure Plan (Revision 1) consists of a Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application and a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure Plan. An explanation of the Part A submitted with this document is provided at the beginning of the Part A Section. The closure plan consists of nine chapters and five appendices. The 216-B-3 Pond System consists of a series of four earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds and the 216-B-3-3 Ditch that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. These four ponds, collectively. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the 216-B-3-3 Ditch. Water discharged to the 216-8-3-3 Ditch flows directly into the 216-B-3 Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to B Pond and the 216-B-3-3 Ditch contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the nonradioactive dangerous portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA. Mixed waste also may be considered a hazardous substance under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) when considering remediation of waste sites.

Not Available

1993-12-01

52

An Efficient Method for Multi-objective Transmission Network Expansion Planning with MOMA in Consideration of Probabilistic Reliability Index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a new method for transmission network expansion planning (TNEP) with Multi-objective Memetic Algorithm (MOMA) in consideration of a probabilistic reliability index. Recently, power networks increase the degree of the uncertainties due to the new environment of power network liberations, the emergences of renewable energy, etc. As a result, the importance of improving power supply reliability with probabilistic approaches has been recognized in power system operation and planning. This paper formulates TNEP as a multi-objective optimization problem that optimizes a probabilistic reliability index as well as the construction cost to obtain a set of the Pareto solutions in Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS). This paper proposes a new method for TNEP with MOMA that combines Multi-objective meta-heuristics (MOMH) with Tabu Search (TS) to obtain better solution sets. MOMH is useful for evaluating a set of the Pareto solutions systematically while TS plays a key role to improve the solution quality. The effectiveness of the proposed method is successfully demonstrated in the IEEE 24-bus system.

Kakuta, Hiroki; Mori, Hiroyuki

53

Texaco scores a first in the Baltic  

SciTech Connect

Wells on the first of 2 small concrete platforms designed specifically for the fragile but harsh environment of the Baltic Sea will produce the first oil from that offshore area by late 1984. The consortium of Deutsche Texaco AG and Wintershall AG awarded contracts late last year for the platforms and drilling equipment needed to develop the Schwedeneck-See field in Kiel Bay, off the northern coast of West Germany. Severe winter weather in the area dictated the use of concrete platforms rather than conventional 6-pile steel structures. Ice forces, generated by high winds and moderate waves, demanded heavy-duty structures in spite of the shallow water. A complicating factor in the field development plan is the presence of a German Navy submarine practice area which influenced location of one of the platforms. This means that all wells will be directionally drilled, and the reach will be greater than under more favorable conditions.

Not Available

1983-10-01

54

Stratigraphic correlation for the IODP Expedition 347 - toward an integrated Baltic Sea Basin stratigraphy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IODP Expedition 347 - "Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment" completed in September - November 2013 (offshore phase) was the 5th and the final mission-specific platform (MSP) expedition of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program. The expedition used a geotechnical drillship, the Greatship Manisha equipped with a Geoquip Marine coring rig, to core and wireline-log several sub-basins within the Baltic Sea, aiming to produce new information on the history of the Baltic Sea and climate change during the last glacial cycle. During the IODP Expedition 347 altogether over 1900 meters were successfully drilled at 8 Sites (M0059 - M0067) in the Lille Belt, Kattegat, Ångermanälven Estuary, Landsort Deep, Hanö Basin and Bornholm Basin with core recovery of approximately 1600 m (expansion adjusted core recovery of 91.46%). In this presentation, we show the preliminary results of regional stratigraphic correlation and splice results for the Expedition. That information provides a solid base for stratigraphic and high-resolution paleoenvironmental studies. Stratigraphic correlation consisted of the following: (1) ensuring the maximum core recovery on site, (2) seismic-core (sedimentary facies) correlation and (3) generating composite depth scales and splice records to each site. To obtain a complete sedimentary record, multiple adjacent holes were cored with an offset in depth of 0.5-1.5 m between cores from different holes. The continuity of recovery was assessed by generating composite sections that align prominent features in physical property data from adjacent holes. With the information gained by Fast Track Multi-Sensor Core Logger (MSCL) data, it was possible to adjust coring plan before the new hole, to ensure that intervals missing in previous cores could be recovered from an adjacent hole. Correlation between seismic profiles and cores used a simple estimation sound velocity vs. sediment type. Acquired depth was tested by comparison with major core surfaces, downhole logs, and the MSCL data (density and magnetic susceptibility). This data integration required preliminary interpretation of sedimentary units and comparisons with physical property boundaries. To align similar features in physical (geological) properties between different holes (or even different sites), MSCL physical property measurements were correlated (using Correlator software), to create a composite depth (mcd) scale. Splice records were generated by selecting sections from adjacent holes to avoid core gaps or disturbed sediment, resulting in a continuous record. This formed the basis for onshore sediment sampling and post-cruise research.

Kotilainen, Aarno; Hyttinen, Outi; Andrén, Thomas; Cotterill, Carol; Hale, Walter; IODP Expedition 347 Science Party, the

2014-05-01

55

Language Policy and Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on foreign language planning, or the planned changes in foreign language instructional systems and in uses of languages in different social contexts with special reference to the Nordic and Baltic countries. Special attention is given to the relationship between language planning and evaluation. (Author/VWL)

Takala, Sauli; Sajavaara, Kari

2000-01-01

56

Um modelo computacional para determinacao de alternativas de expansao de custo minimo em planejamento de sistemas de transmissao. (A computational model for determining the minimal cost expansion alternatives in transmission systems planning).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A computational model for determining an economical transmission expansion plan, based in the decomposition techniques is presented. The algorithm was used in the Brazilian South System and was able to find an optimal solution, with a low computational re...

L. M. V. Pinto M. V. F. Pereira A. Nunes

1989-01-01

57

Verbal Aspects in Germanic, Slavic, and Baltic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the theory of Prokosch concerning the Germanic-Slavic-Baltic tense and aspect systems. The interrelatedness and influence of languages and dialects in Slavic (Russian and Old Church Slavic), Baltic (Lithuanian), and Germanic (Old High German and Gothic) are demonstrated. Examples illustrating the use of the perfective present…

Senn, Alfred

1949-01-01

58

Education in the Soviet Baltic Republics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes 11 articles about education in the Soviet Baltic Republics. The articles include historical studies of Estonian and Latvian schools and medieval Estonian folk games. The impact of Marxist educational theories and Soviet policies on educational research, teacher education, and teaching methods in the Baltic region from 1920-50 is…

Soviet Education, 1981

1981-01-01

59

Phacidium snow blight in the Baltic countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distribution of a polemic in Baltic countries forest disease - snow blight and its agent Phacidium infestans Karst. (Phacidiales, Ascomycota ) are discussed on the base of the investigations carried out during several decades. Baltic countries lie in the zone of southern border of the huge natural distribution area of this fungus. Only occasional damages to the forest nurseries and

Märt Hanso

60

Hydrography of the Baltic Deep Basins II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Baltic surface water is considered to near the starving limit regarding nutrient salts. The phosphate has been suggested to be one of the limiting factors for organic life, and, especially in the Baltic, it may be the limiting factor. Therefore it is ...

S. H. Fonselius

1967-01-01

61

Wave Climate of the Southern Baltic.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The wave climate of the southern Baltic is rather mild, with a mean energy flux of 5-6kW/m. A comparison is done between wave data from two measuring sites in the southern Baltic. The comparison shows that south of Oland, at Olands sodra grund (OSS), ther...

N. Martensson L. Bergdahl

1987-01-01

62

Sustainable phosphorus loadings from effective and cost-effective phosphorus management around the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Nutrient over-enrichment of the Baltic Sea, accompanied by intensified algal blooms and decreasing water clarity, has aroused widespread concern in the surrounding countries during the last four decades. This work has used a well-tested dynamic mass-balance model to investigate which decrease in total phosphorus loading would be required to meet the environmental goal to restore the trophic state in the Baltic Sea to pre-1960s levels. Furthermore, the extent to which various abatement options may decrease the phosphorus loading in a cost-effective manner has been studied. Upgrading urban sewage treatment in the catchment could, alone or in combination with banning phosphates in detergents, be sufficient to meet the set environmental goal, at an estimated annual basin-wide cost of 0.21-0.43 billion euro. Such a plan would potentially decrease the total phosphorus loading to the Baltic Sea with 6,650-10,200 tons per year. PMID:19412551

Bryhn, Andreas C

2009-01-01

63

Extremes of temperature, oxygen and blooms in the Baltic sea in a changing climate.  

PubMed

In the future, the Baltic Sea ecosystem will be impacted both by climate change and by riverine and atmospheric nutrient inputs. Multi-model ensemble simulations comprising one IPCC scenario (A1B), two global climate models, two regional climate models, and three Baltic Sea ecosystem models were performed to elucidate the combined effect of climate change and changes in nutrient inputs. This study focuses on the occurrence of extreme events in the projected future climate. Results suggest that the number of days favoring cyanobacteria blooms could increase, anoxic events may become more frequent and last longer, and salinity may tend to decrease. Nutrient load reductions following the Baltic Sea Action Plan can reduce the deterioration of oxygen conditions. PMID:22926880

Neumann, Thomas; Eilola, Kari; Gustafsson, Bo; Müller-Karulis, Bärbel; Kuznetsov, Ivan; Meier, H E Markus; Savchuk, Oleg P

2012-09-01

64

Sustainable Phosphorus Loadings from Effective and Cost-Effective Phosphorus Management Around the Baltic Sea  

PubMed Central

Nutrient over-enrichment of the Baltic Sea, accompanied by intensified algal blooms and decreasing water clarity, has aroused widespread concern in the surrounding countries during the last four decades. This work has used a well-tested dynamic mass-balance model to investigate which decrease in total phosphorus loading would be required to meet the environmental goal to restore the trophic state in the Baltic Sea to pre-1960s levels. Furthermore, the extent to which various abatement options may decrease the phosphorus loading in a cost-effective manner has been studied. Upgrading urban sewage treatment in the catchment could, alone or in combination with banning phosphates in detergents, be sufficient to meet the set environmental goal, at an estimated annual basin-wide cost of 0.21–0.43 billion euro. Such a plan would potentially decrease the total phosphorus loading to the Baltic Sea with 6,650–10,200 tonnes per year.

Bryhn, Andreas C.

2009-01-01

65

Recovery Plan: Nineteen Florida Scrub and High Pineland Plant Species (Revision and Expansion of Recovery Plan for Eleven Florida Scrub Plant Species, Approved January 29, 1990).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This plan is intended to benefit other species native to scrub and high pineland in central Florida, some of which may qualify for Federal listing. For example, the bluestem grass Schizachyrium niveum and Ashes savory, Calamintha ashei, are restricted to ...

1996-01-01

66

Scandinavia and the Baltic Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera were combined to create this cloud-free natural-color mosaic of Scandinavia and the Baltic region. The image extends from 64oN, 0oE in the northwest to 56oN, 32oE in the southeast, and has been draped over a shaded relief Digital Terrain Elevation Model from the United States Geological Survey. It is displayed in an equidistant conic projection.

The image area includes southern Norway, Sweden and Finland, northern Denmark, Estonia, Latvia and part of western Russia. Norway's rugged western coastline is deeply indented by fjords. Elongated lakes, formed by glacial erosion and deposition, are characteristic of the entire region, and are particularly dense throughout Finland and Sweden. Numerous islands are present, and a virtually continuous chain of small, scattered islands occur between Sweden and Finland. The northern and eastern waters of the Baltic Sea are almost fresh, since the Baltic receives saltwater only from the narrow and shallow sounds between Denmark and Sweden that connect it to the North Sea. Most of the major cities within the image area are coastal, including St. Petersburg, Stockholm, Helsinki, Riga, and Oslo.

The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2003-01-01

67

Security Sector Reform: A Nordic - Baltic Agenda.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: List of Abbreviations; Sammanfattning; Executive Summary; Background; Method; The role and character of Security Sector Reform; The Nordics and the Baltic states, present and future SSR activities in the MoD sphere; Other factors promoting succe...

K. Nerethnieks R. Kaljurand

2007-01-01

68

Bathymetry of four deep Baltic basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Extensive hydrographic field campaigns were carried out by the Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemuende (IOW) in four\\u000a deep basins of the Baltic Sea during different seasons from 1996 to 1999. The spreading and transformation of dense deep water\\u000a was studied using a fixed eddy-resolving station grid within the framework of the German-Russian project MESODYN (meso scale\\u000a dynamics). The station

Jan H. Reissmann

1999-01-01

69

Status of Biodiversity in the Baltic Sea  

PubMed Central

The brackish Baltic Sea hosts species of various origins and environmental tolerances. These immigrated to the sea 10,000 to 15,000 years ago or have been introduced to the area over the relatively recent history of the system. The Baltic Sea has only one known endemic species. While information on some abiotic parameters extends back as long as five centuries and first quantitative snapshot data on biota (on exploited fish populations) originate generally from the same time, international coordination of research began in the early twentieth century. Continuous, annual Baltic Sea-wide long-term datasets on several organism groups (plankton, benthos, fish) are generally available since the mid-1950s. Based on a variety of available data sources (published papers, reports, grey literature, unpublished data), the Baltic Sea, incl. Kattegat, hosts altogether at least 6,065 species, including at least 1,700 phytoplankton, 442 phytobenthos, at least 1,199 zooplankton, at least 569 meiozoobenthos, 1,476 macrozoobenthos, at least 380 vertebrate parasites, about 200 fish, 3 seal, and 83 bird species. In general, but not in all organism groups, high sub-regional total species richness is associated with elevated salinity. Although in comparison with fully marine areas the Baltic Sea supports fewer species, several facets of the system's diversity remain underexplored to this day, such as micro-organisms, foraminiferans, meiobenthos and parasites. In the future, climate change and its interactions with multiple anthropogenic forcings are likely to have major impacts on the Baltic biodiversity.

Ojaveer, Henn; Jaanus, Andres; MacKenzie, Brian R.; Martin, Georg; Olenin, Sergej; Radziejewska, Teresa; Telesh, Irena; Zettler, Michael L.; Zaiko, Anastasija

2010-01-01

70

Baltic 21: Creating an Agenda 21 for the Baltic Sea Region. Main Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Table of Contents: Introduction and Summary; From Rio to Visby; Introducing a Regional Agenda 21; Sustainability in the Baltic Sea Region: The Need for a Vision and Conceptual Guidance; Where Are We Now. Sustainability in the Baltic Sea Region; Towards Su...

A. Rosemarin

1996-01-01

71

Strontium-90 and cesium-137 distribution in Baltic Sea waters  

SciTech Connect

The strontium-90 and cesium-137 concentrations determined in 1983 in the Baltic Sea proper and the Gulf of Finland and in the Soviet Baltic rivers are furnished. The cesium-137 content has been found to be directly proportional to the salinity of the water. Significant influx of technogenic radioactive contaminants from the North to the Baltic Sea was noted in 1983.

Lazarev, L.N.; Gedeonov, L.I.; Ivanova, L.M.; Stepanov, A.V.

1988-09-01

72

Hypoxia in future climates: A model ensemble study for the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using an ensemble of coupled physical-biogeochemical models driven with regionalized data from global climate simulations we are able to quantify the influence of changing climate upon oxygen conditions in one of the numerous coastal seas (the Baltic Sea) that suffers worldwide from eutrophication and from expanding hypoxic zones. Applying various nutrient load scenarios we show that under the impact of warming climate hypoxic and anoxic areas will very likely increase or at best only slightly decrease (in case of optimistic nutrient load reductions) compared to present conditions, regardless of the used global model and climate scenario. The projected decreased oxygen concentrations are caused by (1) enlarged nutrient loads due to increased runoff, (2) reduced oxygen flux from the atmosphere to the ocean due to increased temperature, and (3) intensified internal nutrient cycling. In future climate a similar expansion of hypoxia as projected for the Baltic Sea can be expected also for other coastal oceans worldwide.

Meier, H. E. M.; Andersson, H. C.; Eilola, K.; Gustafsson, B. G.; Kuznetsov, I.; Müller-Karulis, B.; Neumann, T.; Savchuk, O. P.

2011-12-01

73

Quality, Impact and Success of ERP Systems: A Study Involving Some Firms in the Nordic-Baltic Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems are among the largest information technology (IT) investments made by firms. Such systems are diffusing rapidly in the Nordic-Baltic region of Europe. While studies discuss the diffusion of ERP in the region, few studies discuss their success in adopting firms. In this study, we explored the issue of ERP success by sampling the views of

Princely Ifinedo; Nazmun Nahar

74

Could Seals Prevent Cod Recovery in the Baltic Sea?  

PubMed Central

Fish populations are increasingly affected by multiple human and natural impacts including exploitation, eutrophication, habitat alteration and climate change. As a result many collapsed populations may have to recover in ecosystems whose structure and functioning differ from those in which they were formerly productive and supported sustainable fisheries. Here we investigate how a cod (Gadus morhua) population in the Baltic Sea whose biomass was reduced due to a combination of high exploitation and deteriorating environmental conditions might recover and develop in the 21st century in an ecosystem that likely will change due to both the already started recovery of a cod predator, the grey seal Halichoerus grypus, and projected climate impacts. Simulation modelling, assuming increased seal predation, fishing levels consistent with management plan targets and stable salinity, shows that the cod population could reach high levels well above the long-term average. Scenarios with similar seal and fishing levels but with 15% lower salinity suggest that the Baltic will still be able to support a cod population which can sustain a fishery, but biomass and yields will be lower. At present knowledge of cod and seal interactions, seal predation was found to have much lower impact on cod recovery, compared to the effects of exploitation and salinity. These results suggest that dual management objectives (recovery of both seal and cod populations) are realistic but success in achieving these goals will also depend on how climate change affects cod recruitment.

MacKenzie, Brian R.; Eero, Margit; Ojaveer, Henn

2011-01-01

75

Practical applicability and preliminary results of the Baltic Environmental Satellite Remote Sensing System (SatBaltic)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SatBaltic (Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment) project is being realized in Poland by the SatBaltic Scientific Consortium, specifically appointed for this purpose, which associates four scientific institutions: the Institute of Oceanology PAN in Sopot - coordinator, the University of Gda?sk (Institute of Oceanography), the Pomeranian Academy in S?upsk (Institute of Physics) and the University of Szczecin (Institute of Marine Sciences). We present the first the results of the first year and a half of SatBaltic's implementation. The final result of the project is to be the creation and setting in motion of the SatBaltic Operational System (SBOS), the aim of which is to monitor effectively and comprehensively the state of the Baltic Sea environment using remote sensing techniques. Various aspects of the practical applicability of SBOS to the monitoring of the Baltic ecosystem are discussed. We present some examples of the maps of the various characteristics of the Baltic obtained using the current version of SBOS, including algorithms and models that are still in an unfinished state. At the current stage of research, these algorithms apply mainly to the characteristics of the solar energy influx and the distribution of this energy among the various processes taking place in the atmosphere-sea system, and also to the radiation balance of the sea surface, the irradiance conditions for photosynthesis and the condition of plant communities in the water, sea surface temperature distributions and some other marine phenomena correlated with this temperature. Also given are results of preliminary inspections of the accuracy of the magnitudes shown on the maps.

Wozniak, B.; Ostrowska, M.; Bradtke, K.; Darecki, M.; Dera, J.; Dudzinska-Nowak, J.; Dzierzbicka, L.; Ficek, D.; Furmanczyk, K.; Kowalewski, M.; Krezel, A.; Majchrowski, R.; Paszkuta, M.; Ston-Egiert, J.; Stramska, M.; Zapadka, T.

2012-04-01

76

The Baltic haline conveyor belt or the overturning circulation and mixing in the Baltic.  

PubMed

A study of the water-mass circulation of the Baltic has been undertaken by making use of a three dimensional Baltic Sea model simulation. The saline water from the North Atlantic is traced through the Danish Sounds into the Baltic where it upwells and mixes with the fresh water inflow from the rivers forming a Baltic haline conveyor belt. The mixing of the saline water from the Great Belt and Oresund with the fresh water is investigated making use of overturning stream functions and Lagrangian trajectories. The overturning stream function was calculated as a function of four different vertical coordinates (depth, salinity, temperature and density) in order to understand the path of the water and where it upwells and mixes. Evidence of a fictive depth overturning cell similar to the Deacon Cell in the Southern Ocean was found in the Baltic proper corresponding to the gyre circulation around Gotland, which vanishes when the overturning stream function is projected on density layers. A Lagrangian trajectory study was performed to obtain a better view of the circulation and mixing of the saline and fresh waters. The residence time of the water masses in the Baltic is calculated to be 26-29 years and the Lagrangian dispersion reaches basin saturation after 5 years. PMID:15264606

Döös, Kristofer; Meier, H E Markus; Döscher, Ralf

2004-06-01

77

Planning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning how to plan a science investigation is an important component of learning how to do investigative science. The plan will guide the students to find evidence to respond to their focus question or problem that needs to be solved. This chapter descr

Klentschy, Michael P.

2008-04-01

78

Seeds of Failure in Colbert's Baltic Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation of French mercantilist initiatives and policies in the seventeenth century focuses on the attempts of Colbert, the controller general of finance to Louis XIV, to stimulate French trade with the Baltic by establishing a Company of the North. (RM)

Mackey, Richard William

1984-01-01

79

Baltic Republics: Priorities for Western Integration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis explores the growing realization that the Baltic republics are not the same, and should not be treated as a single regional bloc. At the same time, merely realizing the existence of different priorities for integration with the West is not eno...

Z. C. McMechan

2001-01-01

80

Changing Levels of Bilingualism across the Baltic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the cessation of Soviet hegemony the Baltic Republics have endured drastic changes in their political, economic, social and linguistic situation. The official reinstatement of the respective state languages has been a key feature in the establishment of their newly regained national independence. Consequently, large sections of the…

Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle; Ramoniene, Meilute

2004-01-01

81

Patterns of smoking in the Baltic Republics  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Tobacco is a leading cause of avoidable death in the Baltic Republics but there is, as yet, relatively little information in the public domain on who is smoking and how this is changing. This information is important for those seeking to develop effective policies to tackle this issue. OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of smoking in Estonia, Latvia, and

I. Pudule; D. Grinberga; K. Kadziauskiene; A. Abaravicius; S. Vaask; A. Robertson; M. McKee

1999-01-01

82

Dissent and Nationalism in the Soviet Baltic.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper examines the evolution of Baltic dissent and nationalism in the 1970s and early 1980s, focusing on their determinants, significance, and potential for generating political instability in this important region of the Soviet Union. This is the re...

A. R. Alexiev

1983-01-01

83

Deregulated environment transmission expansion planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Transmission System Operator (TSO) is responsible for the power system operation. It has to provide the transmission network maintenance and development, having as a goal the safety, reliable and economical operation of the power system. Additionally, it has to fulfil the environment constraints and, most important, to support the development of the interconnections. Considering the nowadays deregulated environment, the

Constantin Barbulescu; Stefan Kilyeni; Gabriela Prostean; Petru Dan Cristian; Florin Solomonesc; Dan Ungureanu

2011-01-01

84

Modeling the combined impact of changing climate and changing nutrient loads on the Baltic Sea environment in an ensemble of transient simulations for 1961-2099  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combined future impacts of climate change and industrial and agricultural practices in the Baltic Sea catchment on the Baltic Sea ecosystem were assessed. For this purpose 16 transient simulations for 1961-2099 using a coupled physical-biogeochemical model of the Baltic Sea were performed. Four climate scenarios were combined with four nutrient load scenarios ranging from a pessimistic business-as-usual to a more optimistic case following the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP). Annual and seasonal mean changes of climate parameters and ecological quality indicators describing the environmental status of the Baltic Sea like bottom oxygen, nutrient and phytoplankton concentrations and Secchi depths were studied. Assuming present-day nutrient concentrations in the rivers, nutrient loads from land increase during the twenty first century in all investigated scenario simulations due to increased volume flows caused by increased net precipitation in the Baltic catchment area. In addition, remineralization rates increase due to increased water temperatures causing enhanced nutrient flows from the sediments. Cause-and-effect studies suggest that both processes may play an important role for the biogeochemistry of eutrophicated seas in future climate partly counteracting nutrient load reduction efforts like the BSAP.

Meier, H. E. M.; Hordoir, R.; Andersson, H. C.; Dieterich, C.; Eilola, K.; Gustafsson, B. G.; Höglund, A.; Schimanke, S.

2012-11-01

85

Seal dynamics on the Swedish west coast: Scenarios of competition as Baltic grey seal intrude on harbour seal territory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kattegat-Skagerrak region on the Swedish west coast is home to an abundant harbour seal population (Phoca vitulina) and a small scattered grey seal population (Halichoerus grypus). In addition, grey seal from the growing population in the Baltic Sea frequently migrate into the Kattegat-Skagerrak. Harbour seals on the west coast of Sweden show relatively high population growth (approximately 9%) compared to the Baltic grey seal in ice-free habitats (approximately 6%), which, in theory, makes harbour seal the stronger competitor of the two in this region. However, incidents of disease in harbour seals that lower population growth are becoming more frequent. These epidemics are primarily caused by the Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV), and may reduce population size with up to 70%. This study models the average development under potential scenarios of competing harbour- and Baltic grey seal populations using Leslie matrices and the Lotka-Volterra model of inter-specific competition. The model is parameterised with previously published data, and resource overlap is incorporated through density dependent pup survival. Using numerical methods short- and long-term abundances are simulated under weak, moderate and strong competition and for different frequencies of PDV epidemics. Results show that the harbour seals are resilient to competition while exerting a negative effect on grey seal abundance under moderate to strong competition. Hence Baltic grey seal benefit from weaker levels of competition. Under moderate and strong competition grey seal abundance is a direct function of the PDV frequency as this reduces the competitive strength of harbour seals. Theoretically this means that higher frequencies of PDV or other pathogens epidemics could facilitate an expansion of Baltic grey seal into Kattegat-Skagerrak. Independent of interaction strength and frequency of epidemics the projected changes to abundances are slow (50-100 years), and even in exceedingly stable populations very long time-series of population size estimates are necessary to determine interaction strength. From a management perspective, a more permanent grey seal population in Kattegat-Skagerrak is likely to increase the predation pressure on overfished regional cod populations, and also lead to higher prevalence of the cod parasite Pseudoterranova decipiens, which uses grey seal as end host. From a population ecology perspective, abundant Baltic grey seal in this region would facilitate the mixing of grey seals from the North Atlantic and the Baltic Sea, with unknown implications for the genetically divergent Baltic population.

Svensson, Carl Johan

2012-07-01

86

Ensemble modeling of the Baltic Sea ecosystem to provide scenarios for management.  

PubMed

We present a multi-model ensemble study for the Baltic Sea, and investigate the combined impact of changing climate, external nutrient supply, and fisheries on the marine ecosystem. The applied regional climate system model contains state-of-the-art component models for the atmosphere, sea ice, ocean, land surface, terrestrial and marine biogeochemistry, and marine food-web. Time-dependent scenario simulations for the period 1960-2100 are performed and uncertainties of future projections are estimated. In addition, reconstructions since 1850 are carried out to evaluate the models sensitivity to external stressors on long time scales. Information from scenario simulations are used to support decision-makers and stakeholders and to raise awareness of climate change, environmental problems, and possible abatement strategies among the general public using geovisualization. It is concluded that the study results are relevant for the Baltic Sea Action Plan of the Helsinki Commission. PMID:24414803

Meier, H E Markus; Andersson, Helén C; Arheimer, Berit; Donnelly, Chantal; Eilola, Kari; Gustafsson, Bo G; Kotwicki, Lech; Neset, Tina-Simone; Niiranen, Susa; Piwowarczyk, Joanna; Savchuk, Oleg P; Schenk, Frederik; W?s?awski, Jan Marcin; Zorita, Eduardo

2014-02-01

87

Late Quaternary Climate Variations Reflected in Baltic Sea Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Late Pleistocene to Holocene climate change of the Atlantic and the northern European realm is reflected by the facies of\\u000a sediments in the Baltic Sea. The sedimentary sequence have been subdivided into zones reflecting the main postglacial stages\\u000a of the Baltic Sea basin development according to sediment echosounder profiling and investigating sediment cores from the\\u000a central Baltic. The changes in

Jan Harff; Rudolf Endler; Emel Emelyanov; Sergey Kotov; Thomas Leipe; Matthias Moros; Ricardo Olea; Michal Tomczak; Andrzej Witkowski

88

Plan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1937, the Plan organization was initially intended to provide food and education to the unfortunate children whose lives were disrupted by the trauma and horror of the Spanish Civil War. Almost 70 years later, Plan continues to provide much needed assistance to 45 countries around the world, primarily in the areas of education, housing, and cross-cultural learning. First-time visitors will want to begin by looking through the section titled "Issues affecting children." This area provides both background materials and general guiding principles on such topics as street children, children in disaster areas, and HIV/AIDS among young people in the developing world. The "Where we work" area of the site provides detailed material on the work of the Plan organization in each region and country that the organization serves. Finally, concerned visitors to the site may also learn about opportunities for sponsoring a child.

2002-01-01

89

Strontium in rivers of the Baltic Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rivers in the Baltic Basin drain a mixture of bedrocks ranging from Mesozoic-Paleozoic sediments in the south to Proterozoic-Archean intrusives in the north. The rivers in the sedimentary basin in the south have high concentrations of Sr, in the interval 100–500 µg l-1 while the87Sr\\/86Sr ratio is close to that of seawater, i.e. 0.71. The northern rivers in the

Runo Löfvendahl; Göran Åberg; P. Joseph Hamilton

1990-01-01

90

Scientific publications released in the Baltic States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article focuses on evolution of scientific publications released in the Baltic States (Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia)\\u000a and refers to international databases that contain scientific papers produced over the last 20 years of independence. The\\u000a countries share the same history of restoration of independence after 40 years of occupation. The article shall specifically\\u000a focus on the period of post EU accession in

Edmundas Kazimieras Zavadskas; Raimundas Kirvaitis; Eleonora Dagien?

2011-01-01

91

Aerosol and bacterial emissions from Baltic Seawater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors influencing the production of primary marine aerosol are of great importance to better understand the marine aerosols' impact on our climate. Bubble-bursting from whitecaps is considered the most effective mechanism for sea spray production, and a way of sea–air transfer for some bacterial species.Two coastal sites in the Baltic Sea were used to investigate aerosol and bacterial emissions from

Kim A. H. Hultin; Radovan Krejci; Jarone Pinhassi; Laura Gomez-Consarnau; E. Monica Mårtensson; Åke Hagström; E. Douglas Nilsson

2010-01-01

92

Baltic Sea Level project with GPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to study the Baltic Sea Level change and to unify national height systems a two week GPS campaign was performed in the region in Autumn 1990. Parties from Denmark, Finland, Germany, Poland and Sweden carried out GPS measurements at 26 tide gauges along the Baltic sea and 8 VLBI and SLR fiducial stations with baseline lengths ranging from 230 km to 1600 km. The observations were processed in the network mode with the Bernese version 3.3 software using orbit improvement techniques. To get rid of the scale error introduced by the ionospheric refraction from single-frequency data, the local models of the ionosphere were estimated using L4 observations. The tropospheric zenith corrections were also considered. The preliminary results show average root mean square (RMS) errors of about ±3 cm in the horizontal position and ±7 cm in the vertical position relative to the Potsdam SLR station in ITRF89 system. After transformation of the GPS results to geoid heights using the levelled heights, an absolute comparison with gravimetric geoid heights using the least squares modification of Stokes' formula (LSMS), the modified Molodensky and the NKG Scandinavian geoid 1989 (NGK-89) models gives a standard deviation of the difference of ±7cm to ±9cm for the NKG-89 model and of ±9cm to ±30cm for the LSMS and the modified Molodensky model. The Swedish height system is found to be about 8-37cm higher than those of the other Baltic countries for NKG-89 model.

Pan, Ming; Sjöberg, Lars E.

1993-03-01

93

Cost-Effective Nutrient Reductions to the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to eutrophication caused by heavy loads of nitrogen and phosphorus, the biological conditions of the Baltic Sea have been disturbed: large sea bottom areas without any biological life, low stocks of cods, and toxic blue green algaes. It is recognized that the nitrogen and phosphorus loads to the Baltic Sea must be reduced by 50% in order to restore

Ing-Marie Gren; Paul Jannke; Katarina Elofsson

1997-01-01

94

Characteristics of major Baltic inflows---a statistical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major Baltic inflows are always the final stages of longer inflow processes. Only major inflows can transport substantial amounts of saline and oxygenated water into the Baltic deep basins. Such events lead to radical changes in the oceanological regime, both initiating an improvement in the general living conditions in the deep water and affecting the marine environment of the surface

Wolfgang Matthäus; Herbert Franck

1992-01-01

95

The Baltic Region in U.S. Western Civilization Textbooks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates six U.S. western civilization textbooks' treatment of the Baltic region. Reports that the books devote little or no attention to the region, emphasize larger nations, and ignore Baltic social history. Suggests that social histories may continue to neglect small countries, whereas reaction against "Eurocentrism" may result in sparse…

Mork, Gordon R.

1992-01-01

96

Growth and size structure in a baltic Mytilus edulis population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since Mytilus edulis L. has very few predators and competitors for space, it has become a biomass dominant in the Baltic proper covering hard substrates from the water surface to more than 30 m depth. In order to investigate the factors controlling size and production in a Baltic M. edulis population, growth was studied by the analysis of annual growth

N. Kautsky

1982-01-01

97

Language Politics and Practices in the Baltic States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph provides an overview of the language situation in the three Baltic countries: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. It examines the recent change in language regimes that the Baltic States have deliberately brought about since the restitution of their independence, the nature of these changes, the opposition they have engendered and the…

Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle; Ozolins, Uldis; Ramoniene, Meilute; Rannut, Mart

2008-01-01

98

The Royal Navy in the Baltic from 1807-1812  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation presents and analyzes British Naval Operations in the Baltic during the Napoleonic War. In addition, Political and Economic Relations between Britain and the nations bordering the Baltic will be addressed, in particular Denmark, Sweden and Russia. The intent is to present a comprehensive portrayal of a largely overlooked period of Naval and Napoleonic History.

David John Raymond

2010-01-01

99

[Labial expansion].  

PubMed

Lip expansion is an old procedure used by some ethnic groups to follow traditions of their ancestry. Medically speaking since the beginning of the XIXth century, various devices have been designed for distending the angles of the mouth in order to recreate the normal width of the mouth aperture. In the recent years, thanks to the development and refinements of new flaps, expanding the lips is rarely necessary. In proper indications however, specially in the vermillon border, lip expansion remains a good indication. PMID:12449877

Pittet, B; Montandon, D

2002-10-01

100

Acoustic evidence of a Baltic Ice lake drainage debrite in the northern Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sudden drainage of the Baltic Ice Lake (BIL) at the end of the Younger Dryas Chron was one of the major events within the Pleistocene\\/Holocene boundary in Scandinavia. Thus far the effects it might have had on sedimentary environments have been inadequately recorded outside of central and southern Sweden. In the present study, high-quality acoustic sounding data was used

Outi Hyttinen; Aarno Kotilainen; Veli-Pekka Salonen

2011-01-01

101

PLA2G6-associated neurodegeneration (PLAN): further expansion of the clinical, radiological and mutation spectrum associated with infantile and atypical childhood-onset disease.  

PubMed

Phospholipase A2 associated neurodegeneration (PLAN) is a major phenotype of autosomal recessive Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation (NBIA). We describe the clinical phenotypes, neuroimaging features and PLA2G6 mutations in 5 children, of whom 4 presented with infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD). One other patient was diagnosed with the onset of PLAN in childhood, and our report highlights the diagnostic challenges associated with this atypical PLAN subtype. In this series, the neuroradiological relevance of classical PLAN features as well as apparent claval hypertrophy' is explored. Novel PLA2G6 mutations were identified in all patients. PLAN should be considered not only in patients presenting with a classic INAD phenotype but also in older patients presenting later in childhood with non-specific progressive neurological features including social communication difficulties, gait disturbance, dyspraxia, neuropsychiatric symptoms and extrapyramidal motor features. PMID:24745848

Illingworth, M A; Meyer, E; Chong, W K; Manzur, A Y; Carr, L J; Younis, R; Hardy, C; McDonald, F; Childs, A M; Stewart, B; Warren, D; Kneen, R; King, M D; Hayflick, S J; Kurian, M A

2014-06-01

102

PLA2G6-associated neurodegeneration (PLAN): Further expansion of the clinical, radiological and mutation spectrum associated with infantile and atypical childhood-onset disease  

PubMed Central

Phospholipase A2 associated neurodegeneration (PLAN) is a major phenotype of autosomal recessive Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation (NBIA). We describe the clinical phenotypes, neuroimaging features and PLA2G6 mutations in 5 children, of whom 4 presented with infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD). One other patient was diagnosed with the onset of PLAN in childhood, and our report highlights the diagnostic challenges associated with this atypical PLAN subtype. In this series, the neuroradiological relevance of classical PLAN features as well as apparent claval hypertrophy’ is explored. Novel PLA2G6 mutations were identified in all patients. PLAN should be considered not only in patients presenting with a classic INAD phenotype but also in older patients presenting later in childhood with non-specific progressive neurological features including social communication difficulties, gait disturbance, dyspraxia, neuropsychiatric symptoms and extrapyramidal motor features.

Illingworth, M.A.; Meyer, E.; Chong, W.K.; Manzur, A.Y.; Carr, L.J.; Younis, R.; Hardy, C.; McDonald, F.; Childs, A.M.; Stewart, B.; Warren, D.; Kneen, R.; King, M.D.; Hayflick, S.J.; Kurian, M.A.

2014-01-01

103

Benthic marine landscapes of the Eastern Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Benthic marine landscapes are a combination of ecologically relevant hydrographical and geological datasets that characterize potential broad scale habitat distribution patterns with the overall aim to allocate conservation efforts on biodiversity and spaces instead of single species. At the best the benthic marine landscapes describe both the habitat distribution as well as the characteristics of the physical environment. This kind of spatial knowledge that informs both about geology and biology at the regional scale is very usable in ecosystem based management (ESBM) of marine areas. Here we will present the benthic marine landscapes of the Eastern Gulf of Finland at the scale of 1:500 000 and explain the analysis methods behind. The study area in the Eastern Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea, is a transboundary marine area shared by Finland and Russia. The HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan along with EU, Finnish and Russian legislation requires both countries to identify and assess the state of the marine environment in the Gulf of Finland. These appoint the need for shared knowledge on the marine environment, its state, physical characteristics and distribution of habitats among others. In order to produce ecologically relevant marine landscapes we have collected geological, hydrographical and biological data from the transboundary study area and studied their correlation. The statistical analyses have been run with Primer -software (BEST and LINKTREE). The study is a part of ENPI CBC funded Finnish-Russian co-operation project, the TOPCONS (http://www.merikotka.fi/topcons/). Project aims to develop innovative spatial tools for the regional planning of the sea areas in the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea. The objective is to create methodology and tools to map the locations of the most diverse and sensitive marine landscapes. These will help the society when striving for the sustainable consolidation of human activities and the marine nature values. The TOPCONS is implemented in close relationship to the Finnish Inventory Programme for the Underwater Marine Environment (VELMU).

Kaskela, Anu; Kotilainen, Aarno; Orlova, Marina; Ronkainen, Minna; Rousi, Heta; Ryabchuk, Daria

2014-05-01

104

Pole tide in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pole tide, which is driven by the Chandler Wobble, has a period of about 14 months and typical amplitudes in the World Ocean of ˜0.5 cm. However, in the Baltic Sea the pole tide is anomalously high. To examine this effect we used long-term hourly sea level records from 23 tide gauges and monthly records from 64 stations. The lengths of the series were up to 123 years for hourly records and 211 years for monthly records. High-resolution spectra revealed a cluster of neighboring peaks with periods from 410 to 440 days. The results of spectral analysis were applied to estimate the integral amplitudes of pole tides from all available tide gauges along the coast of the Baltic Sea. The height of the pole tide was found to gradually increase from the entrance (Danish Straits, 1.5-2 cm) to the northeast end of the sea. The largest amplitudes—up to 4.5-7 cm—were observed in the heads of the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia. Significant temporal fluctuations in amplitudes and periods of the pole tide were observed during the 19th and 20th centuries.

Medvedev, I. P.; Rabinovich, A. B.; Kulikov, E. A.

2014-03-01

105

Methane fluxes in the southeastern Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New data from surveys of gas-bearing mud areas in the Gdansk Deep (southeastern Baltic Sea) were collected during four research cruises in 2009-2011. These revealed the presence of seven large pockmarks apart from the three already known, and enabled significant improvement of the existing digital map of gassy mud distribution. Based on geochemical sediment analyses, calculated diffusive methane fluxes from the upper (0-5 cm) seabed layer into near-bottom waters were highest—3.3 mmol/(m2 day)—in pockmark mud, contrasting strongly with the minimum value of 0.004 mmol/(m2 day) observed in typical, background mud. However, fluxes of less than 0.1 mmol/(m2 day) were observed in all sediment types, including pockmarks. In a newer attempt to roughly estimate budgets at a more regional scale, diffusive methane venting amounts to 280 × 106 mmol/day for southeastern Baltic Sea muddy sediments. Elongated pockforms in the southern Gotland Deep, known since the end of the 1980s as pockmarks, had methane concentrations that were similar to those of gassy mud from the Gdansk Basin, and there was no geo-acoustic evidence of considerably increased gas levels.

Ulyanova, Marina; Sivkov, Vadim; Kanapatskij, Timur; Sigalevich, Pavel; Pimenov, Nikolay

2012-12-01

106

Hydrogeological model of the Baltic Artesian Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baltic Artesian Basin (BAB) is a complex multi-layered hydrogeological system in the south-eastern Baltic covering about 480,000 km2. The aim of this study is to develop a closed hydrogeological mathematical model for the BAB. Heterogeneous geological data from different sources were used to build the geometry of the model, i.e. geological maps and stratigraphic information from around 20,000 boreholes. The finite element method was used for the calculation of the steady-state three-dimensional (3D) flow of unconfined groundwater. The 24-layer model was divided into about 1,000,000 finite elements. A simple recharge model was applied to describe the rate of infiltration, and the discharge was set at the water-supply wells. Variable hydraulic conductivities were used for the upper (Quaternary) deposits, while constant hydraulic conductivity values were assumed for the deeper layers. The model was calibrated on the statistically weighted borehole water-level measurements, applying L-BFGS-B (automatic parameter optimization method) for the hydraulic conductivities of each layer. The principal flows inside the BAB and the integral flow parameters were analyzed. The modeling results suggest that deeper aquifers are characterized by strong southeast-northwest groundwater flow, which is altered by the local topography in the upper, active water-exchange aquifers.

Virbulis, Janis; Bethers, Uldis; Saks, Tomas; Sennikovs, Juris; Timuhins, Andrejs

2013-06-01

107

Tradeoffs between environmental goals and urban development: the case of nitrogen load from the Stockholm County to the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Urban dwellers depend on the generation of ecosystem services for their welfare. The city of Stockholm is growing, and a 25% increase in population is projected by 2030. The effects of urban development were estimated through the quantification of nitrogen (N) leakage to the Baltic Sea under two urban development scenarios. We found that total net N load will increase by 6% or 8%, depending on which growth scenario is applied, and population increase by itself will contribute at least 15% of the point source N leakage. Technical improvements in sewage treatment could, according to our results, decrease total N load to the Baltic Sea by 4%. Based on our results, we conclude that proactive measures such as spatial urban planning can provide a constructive tool for sustainable urban development on regional as well as national and international scales, depending on geographical context as well as the ecosystem services' scale of operation. PMID:18240680

Jansson, Asa; Colding, Johan

2007-12-01

108

The Baltic Basin Case Study—towards a sustainable Baltic Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four watersheds, each characterized by a major resource use were selected for the study: The Vistula River in Poland—agriculture; the Dalälven River in Sweden—forestry; the Archipelago Sea in Sweden, Finland, Estonia—tourism; and the Lake Peipsi in Estonia\\/Russia—fisheries\\/agriculture. The main objective was to examine the reactions of particular ecosystems within the Baltic Sea drainage area, and to assess sustainability conditions on

Bengt-Owe Jansson; Carl-Einar Stålvant

2001-01-01

109

Arsenic in sediments from the southeastern Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Arsenic occurs as a persistent constituent in many of the chemical weapons dumped into the Baltic Sea; it can be used as an indicator of leakage and dispersal of released munitions to the marine environment. Total arsenic was analysed in sediment samples taken from the Lithuanian economic zone in the Baltic Sea, which included samples from the chemical munitions dumpsite in the Gotland Basin and national monitoring stations in the southeastern Baltic Sea. Arsenic concentrations in sediments ranged from 1.1 to 19.0 mg kg(-1), with an average of 3.4 mg kg(-1). Although there was evidence of slightly elevated arsenic content in sediments near the weapons dumpsite, arsenic concentrations were nevertheless quite low relative to other investigations in the Baltic and North Seas. PMID:16678950

Garnaga, Galina; Wyse, Eric; Azemard, Sabine; Stankevicius, Algirdas; de Mora, Stephen

2006-12-01

110

COMPONENT-BASED ENGAGEMENT... An Argument for the Baltics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. Peacetime Engagement within the USEUCOM theater AOR, specifically those occurring within the Baltic region (Estonia, Latvia & Lithuania) may gain better results if a different approach to activities execution is taken. By linking the various peacetim...

J. A. Day

2000-01-01

111

On the thermohaline variability of the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coupled ice–ocean model is utilized to investigate the transports of heat, salt and water in the Baltic Sea for the years 1986, 1988, 1993 and 1994. The oceanic component of the coupled system is a three-dimensional baroclinic model of the Baltic Sea including the Belt Sea and the Skagerrak\\/Kattegat area. The model has a horizontal resolution of ?5 km

Andreas Lehmann; Hans-Harald Hinrichsen

2000-01-01

112

Rossby radii and phase speeds in the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of a data set recorded during seasonal cruises of the R.V.s A. v. Humboldt and Prof. A. Penck of the Academy of Sciences, G.D.R., in the Baltic Sea during 1977 1987, mean Brunt---Väisäläfrequency profiles were derived in order to compute vertical eigenvalues and internal, or baroclinic, Rossby radii for different seasons in various parts of the Baltic

Wolfgang Fennel; Torsten Seifert; Bernd Kayser

1991-01-01

113

Computing and Computer Science in the Soviet Baltic Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work includes references at events, people, and trends in computing in the three Baltic States: Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia during their Soviet period. The Soviet computing science and practice could be divided into league A and league B. The first was for defense industry and power structures, the second for wide public. Although the Baltic computing belonged in essence to the league B, its scientific results were on the level with the league A.

Tyugu, Enn

114

Living in a sea of exotics — the Baltic case  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brackish Baltic Sea is known to function as a bridgehead for the spread of non-indigenous species (NIS) between the Eastern\\u000a and Western Hemispheres and, in an ecological sense, between freshwater and the sea. The recent basin-wide invasion of the\\u000a predatory fishhook water flea Cercopagis pengoi and the North American bristle worm Marenzelleria viridis in the Baltic are the latest

Erkki LeppäKoski

115

Query Expansion and MEDLINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the retrieval effectiveness of query expansion strategies on a MEDLINE test collection using Cornell University's SMART retrieval system. Three expansion strategies are tested on their ability to identify appropriate McSH terms for user queries: expansion using an inter-field statistical thesaurus, expansion via retrieval feedback and expansion using a combined approach. These expansion strategies do not require prior

Padmini Srinivasan

1996-01-01

116

Evaluation of the Planning Target Volume in the Treatment of Head and Neck Cancer With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy: What Is the Appropriate Expansion Margin in the Setting of Daily Image Guidance?  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare patterns of disease failure among patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in conjunction with daily image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) for head and neck cancer, according to the margins used to expand the clinical target volume (CTV) to create a planning target volume (PTV). Methods and Materials: Two-hundred and twenty-five patients were treated with IMRT for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Daily IGRT scans were acquired using either kilovoltage or megavoltage volumetric imaging prior to each delivered fraction. The first 95 patients were treated with IMRT with 5-mm CTV-to-PTV margins. The subsequent 130 patients were treated using 3-mm PTV expansion margins. Results: Two-year estimates of overall survival, local-regional control, and distant metastasis-free survival were 76%, 78%, and 81%, respectively. There were no differences with respect to any of these endpoints among patients treated with 5-mm and 3-mm PTV expansion margins (p > 0.05, all). The 2-year local-regional control rate for patients treated with IMRT with 5-mm and 3-mm PTV margins was 78% and 78%, respectively (p = 0.96). Spatial evaluation revealed no differences in the incidences of marginal failures among those treated with 5-mm and 3-mm PTV margins. Conclusions: The use of 3-mm PTV expansion margins appears adequate and did not increase local-regional failures among patients treated with IMRT for head and neck cancer. These data demonstrate the safety of PTV reduction of less than 5 mm and support current protocols recommending this approach in the setting of daily IGRT.

Chen, Allen M., E-mail: allen.chen@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California (United States); Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California (United States); Donald, Paul J.; Perks, Julian; Purdy, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California (United States)

2011-11-15

117

Seismic LAB or LID? The Baltic Shield Case  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of the asthenosphere for old Precambrian cratons, including East European Craton and its part - the Baltic Shield, is still discussed. To study the seismic lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath the Baltic Shield we used records of 9 local events with magnitudes in the range 2.7-5.9. The relatively big number of seismic stations in the Baltic Shield with a station spacing of 30-100 km permits for relatively dense recordings, and is sufficient in lithospheric scale. For modelling of the lower lithosphere and asthenosphere, the original data were corrected for topography and the Moho depth for each event and each station location, using a reference model with a 46 km thick crust. Observed P and S arrivals are significantly earlier than those predicted by the iasp91 model, which clearly indicates that lithospheric P and S velocities beneath the Baltic Shield are higher than in the global iasp91 model. For two northern events at Spitsbergen and Novaya Zemlya we observe a low velocity layer, 60-70 km thick asthenosphere, and the LAB beneath Barents Sea was found at depth of about 200 km. Sections for other events show continous first arrivals of P waves with no evidence for "shadow zone" in the whole range of registration, which could be interpreted as absence of asthenosphere beneath the central part of the Baltic Shield, or that LAB in this area occurs deeper (>200 km). The relatively thin low velocity layer found beneath southern Sweden, 15 km below the Moho, could be interpreted as small scale lithospheric inhomogeneities, rather than asthenosphere. Differentiation of the lid velocity beneath the Baltic Shield could be interpreted as regional inhomogeneity. It could also be interpreted as anisotropy of the Baltic Shield lithosphere, with fast velocity close to the east-west direction, and slow velocity close to the south-north direction.

Grad, Marek; Tiira, Timo; Olsson, Sverker; Komminaho, Kari

2013-04-01

118

Seismic LAB or LID? The Baltic Shield case  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of the asthenosphere for old Precambrian cratons, including East European Craton and its part - the Baltic Shield, is still discussed. To study the seismic lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath the Baltic Shield we used records of 9 local events with magnitudes in the range 2.7-5.9. The relatively big number of seismic stations in the Baltic Shield with a station spacing of 30-100 km permits for relatively dense recordings, and is sufficient in lithospheric scale. For modelling of the lower lithosphere and asthenosphere, the original data were corrected for topography and the Moho depth for each event and each station location, using a reference model with a 46 km thick crust. Observed P and S arrivals are significantly earlier than those predicted by the iasp91 model, which clearly indicates that lithospheric P and S velocities beneath the Baltic Shield are higher than in the global iasp91 model. For two northern events at Spitsbergen and Novaya Zemlya we observe a low velocity layer, 60-70 km thick asthenosphere, and the LAB beneath Barents Sea was found at depth of about 200 km. Sections for other events show continous first arrivals of P waves with no evidence for "shadow zone" in the whole range of registration, which could be interpreted as absence of asthenosphere beneath the central part of the Baltic Shield, or that LAB in this area occurs deeper (>200 km). The relatively thin low velocity layer found beneath southern Sweden, 15 km below the Moho, could be interpreted as small scale lithospheric inhomogeneities, rather than asthenosphere. Differentiation of the lid velocity beneath the Baltic Shield could be interpreted as regional inhomogeneity. It could also be interpreted as anisotropy of the Baltic Shield lithosphere, with fast velocity close to the east-west direction, and slow velocity close to the south-north direction.

Grad, M.; Tiira, T.; Olsson, S.; Komminaho, K.

2013-05-01

119

The Baltic Basin: structure, properties of reservoir rocks, and capacity for geological storage of CO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baltic countries are located in the limits of the Baltic sedimentary basin, a 700 km long and 500 km wide synclinal structure. The axis of the syneclise plunges to the southwest. In Poland the Precambrian basement occurs at a depth of 5 km. The Baltic Basin includes the Neoproterozoic Ediacaran (Vendian) at the base and all Phanerozoic systems. Two aquifers,

Alla Shogenova; Saulius Sliaupa; Rein Vaher; K Shogenov; Raisa Pomeranceva

2009-01-01

120

On the causes of major Baltic inflows —an analysis of long time series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditions for life in the deep water of the Baltic Sea are strongly influenced by inflows of highly saline and oxygenated water from the North Sea. These events – termed major Baltic inflows (MBI) – have episodic character, and are the only mechanisms by which the central Baltic deep water is renewed. Although the cycle of water renewal is well

Holger Schinke; Wolfgang Matthäus

1998-01-01

121

Chemical physiological and morphological studies of feral baltic salmon (Salmo salar) suffering from abnormal fry mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1974, abnormally high mortality was recorded among yolk-sac fry of Baltic salmon (Salmo salar) originating from feral females manually stripped and fertilized with milt from feral males. The cause of this mortality, designated M74, is unknown. The hypothesis is that xenobiotic compounds responsible for reproduction failure in higher vertebrates in the Baltic Sea also interfere with reproduction in Baltic

L. Norrgren; T. Andersson; P.-A. Bergqvist; I. Bjoerklund

1993-01-01

122

Functional divergence in heat shock response following rapid speciation of Fucus spp. in the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Baltic Sea, the broadly distributed brown alga Fucus vesiculosus coexists in sympatry over part of its range (south west Gulf of Bothnia) with the Baltic endemic F. radicans sp. nov, while further north in colder and lower-salinity areas of the Baltic F. radicans occurs alone (north west Gulf of Bothnia). F. radicans appears to have arisen via rapid

Asunción Lago-Lestón; Catarina Mota; Lena Kautsky; Gareth A. Pearson

2010-01-01

123

Marshak Lectureship Talk: Women in Physics in the Baltic States Region: Problems and Solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this contribution the gender equality problem in physics will be discussed on the basis of the results obtained implementing the project ``Baltic States Network: Women in Sciences and High Technology'' (BASNET) initiated by Lithuanian women physicists and financed by European Commission. The main goal of BASNET project was creation of the regional Strategy how to deal with women in sciences problem in the Baltic States. It has some stages and the contribution follows them. The first one was in depth sociological study aiming to find out disincentives and barriers women scientists face in their career and work at science and higher education institutions. Analysis of results revealed wide range of problems concerned with science organization, management and financing common for both counterparts. However it also proved the existence of women discrimination in sciences. As main factors influencing women under-representation in Physics was found: the stereotypes existing in the society where physics is assigned to the masculine area of activity; failings of the science management system, where highest positions are distributed not using the institutionalized objective criteria but by voting, where the correctness of majority solutions is anticipated implicitly. In physics where male scientists are the majority (they also usually compose executive boards, committees etc.) results of such a procedures often are unfavorable for women. The same reasons also influence women ``visibility'' in physicist's community and as the consequence possibility to receive needed recourses for their research as well as appropriate presentation of results obtained. The study revealed also the conservatism of scientific community- reluctance to face existing in the scientific society problems and to start solving them. On the basis of the results obtained as well practice of other countries the common strategy of solving women in physics (sciences) in the Baltic States region was formulated. As changing the stereotypes is long lasting process it was decided firstly to concentrate strategy implementation plans on changes in science management policy tackling the problem from the top and allowing receive the most quick results. For this we created the regional Baltic States Network among the corresponding international women working groups, professional organizations (Scientific societies) and corresponding departments of the governmental institutions. BASNET also became a full member of European Platform of Women Scientists (EPWS)-prestige women organization signally influencing the European Community science policy.

Satkovskiene, Dalia

2008-03-01

124

The Baltic Basin Case Study—towards a sustainable Baltic Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four watersheds, each characterized by a major resource use were selected for the study: The Vistula River in Poland—agriculture; the Dalälven River in Sweden—forestry; the Archipelago Sea in Sweden, Finland, Estonia—tourism; and the Lake Peipsi in Estonia/Russia—fisheries/agriculture. The main objective was to examine the reactions of particular ecosystems within the Baltic Sea drainage area, and to assess sustainability conditions on the regional level. The degree of sustainability and impact on the Baltic Sea were investigated through workshops and seminars in the areas. Overviews of environmental and socio-economic conditions were succinctly summarized in commissioned papers. Interventions by and discussions with scholars, sector experts, administrators and stakeholders of the various sites laid the foundation for conceptualizing the interaction of natural and human forces for each case. The project was able to draw quite a number of conclusions, summarized as the following lessons learnt. In the Vistula Region, nutrient emissions have levelled off but shortage of freshwater is critical. Forestry in the Dalälven watershed is largely environmental-friendly, except for fragmentation of the landscape and its negative impact on biodiversity. In the Archipelago area a former low-energy community has been replaced by a leisure time society. Different types of tourism is developing, but despite this variety, an improved integration of ecological properties with socio-economic patterns is required in order to build a sustainable, living Archipelago. The lake Peipsi basin and the surrounding area suffer both from problems of resource management and economic backwardness. Parts of the local economy has lost access to the one time large Soviet market, although the Estonian side has apparently benefited from present economic growth. To cope with the division of the lake, a regime for trans-national management is unfolding. It is based on both informal and, to an increasing extent, agreed professional contacts. Networks of engaged people were in all sites a resource for and promoter of the sustainability path. In order to succeed and to maintain the zeal, they need strong institutional support and common goals. Public programmes in the Baltic, ie. the work of the Helsinki Commission and Baltic Agenda 21, have developed instruments to enhance sustainability beneficial for the management of these watersheds. But critical tasks remain to be done in developing a shared understanding of ways to improve management of ecosystems with social factors.

Jansson, Bengt-Owe; Stålvant, Carl-Einar

2001-12-01

125

Testing the potential for predictive modeling and mapping and extending its use as a tool for evaluating management scenarios and economic valuation in the Baltic Sea (PREHAB).  

PubMed

We evaluated performance of species distribution models for predictive mapping, and how models can be used to integrate human pressures into ecological and economic assessments. A selection of 77 biological variables (species, groups of species, and measures of biodiversity) across the Baltic Sea were modeled. Differences among methods, areas, predictor, and response variables were evaluated. Several methods successfully predicted abundance and occurrence of vegetation, invertebrates, fish, and functional aspects of biodiversity. Depth and substrate were among the most important predictors. Models incorporating water clarity were used to predict increasing cover of the brown alga bladderwrack Fucus vesiculosus and increasing reproduction area of perch Perca fluviatilis, but decreasing reproduction areas for pikeperch Sander lucioperca following successful implementation of the Baltic Sea Action Plan. Despite variability in estimated non-market benefits among countries, such changes were highly valued by citizens in the three Baltic countries investigated. We conclude that predictive models are powerful and useful tools for science-based management of the Baltic Sea. PMID:24414807

Lindegarth, Mats; Bergström, Ulf; Mattila, Johanna; Olenin, Sergej; Ollikainen, Markku; Downie, Anna-Leena; Sundblad, Göran; Bu?as, Martynas; Gullström, Martin; Snickars, Martin; von Numers, Mikael; Svensson, J Robin; Kosenius, Anna-Kaisa

2014-02-01

126

Geometrical model of the Baltic artesian basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Baltic artesian basin (BAB) is a multi-layer sedimentary basin spanning around 480'000 km2. BAB is located in the territory of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, parts of Poland, Russia, Belarus and large area of the Baltic Sea, including island of Gotland. The thickness of sedimentary cover is about 5000 m in the south-western part. Crystalline bedding reaches the surface in the northern and north-western parts. The aim of the present work is development of the model of geometric structure and three dimensional finite element mesh for the hydrogeological model of the whole BAB. The information that is used to build the geometrical structure includes: (1) Stratigraphic information from boreholes in Latvia and Estonia (2) Maps of height isolines of geological layers for Latvia and Lithuania (3) Maps of sub-quaternary deposits in Latvia and Lithuania (4) Maps of fault lines on the crystalline basement surface in Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia (5) Buried valley data from Latvia and Estonia (6) Earth topography data (7) Baltic sea depth data (8) Data from published geological cross-sections, information from books and other sources. Unification of the heterogeneous information from different sources, which are employed for building of the geometrical structure of the model are performed. Special algorithms are developed for this purpose considering the priority, importance and plausibility of each of the data sources. Pre-processing of the borehole information to screen out the outlying borehole data has been performed. Model of geological structure contains 42 layers. It includes aquifers and aquitards from Cambrian up to the Quaternary deposits. Fault displacements are incorporated into the model taking into account data from the published structural maps. Four reconstructed regional erosion surfaces (upper Ordovician, Devonian, Permian and Quaternary) are included into the model Three dimensional mesh of the geological structure is constructed layer-wise. The triangular mesh in horizontal plane is constructed including characteristic lines such as rivers, borders of countries and areas of presence of geological layers. Mesh consists of triangular prisms, pyramids and tetrahedrons. The construction of the geometric mesh is implemented by specially developed script in Python. Such approach has several advantages: (1) flexibility in choosing ways to build the structure; (2) parallelization of workload in developing/updating of different structure elements; (3) documentation and maintenance of repeatable structure building path; (4) opportunity to rebuild the structure with slight or significant modifications at any time; (5) possibility to build, and maintain several structures of different complexity simultaneously. Acknowledgement The present work has been funded by the European Social Fund project "Establishment of interdisciplinary scientist group and modelling system for groundwater research" (Project Nr. 2009/0212/1DP/1.1.1.2.0/09/APIA/VIAA/060)

Sennikovs, J.; Virbulis, J.; Bethers, U.

2012-04-01

127

Climate change effects on river flow to the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

River flow to the Baltic Sea originates under a range of different climate regimes in a drainage basin covering some 1,600,000 km2. Changes to the climate in the Baltic Basin will not only affect the total amount of freshwater flowing into the sea, but also the distribution of the origin of these flows. Using hydrological modeling, the effects of future climate change on river runoff to the Baltic Sea have been analyzed. Four different climate change scenarios from the Swedish Regional Climate Modelling Programme (SWECLIM) were used. The resulting change to total mean annual river flow to the Baltic Sea ranges from -2% to +15% of present-day flow according to the different climate scenarios. The magnitude of changes within different subregions of the basin varies considerably, with the most severe mean annual changes ranging from -30% to +40%. However, common to all of the scenarios evaluated is a general trend of reduced river flow from the south of the Baltic Basin together with increased river flow from the north. PMID:15264602

Graham, L Phil

2004-06-01

128

The regional geology and hydrocarbon potential of the Baltic Sea  

SciTech Connect

The Baltic Sea is roughly equivalent in size to the North Sea. Like the North Sea, is has an excellent oil prone source rock present over most of the area. In the entire Baltic Sea about 40 wells have been drilled. During the 1980s, exploration was carried out in the Soviet, Polish, and East German sectors of the Baltic Sea by Petrobaltic. Twenty-eight wells were drilled, 14 of which tested hydrocarbons. Two wells have been drilled in Danish waters and 11 in Swedish waters - all dry holes. Most of the Baltic Sea is included in the Baltic syneclise. In the deepest part of the basin a full Paleozoic and Mesozoic section is present. Major structural features are associated with reactivation of old basement faults. Most hydrocarbon discoveries are associated with structural arches. Exploration targets are Cambrian sandstones and Ordovician and Silurian reefs. The major discoveries are the B3 field in Poland and the D6 field offshore Lithuania and Kaliningrad, both of which have in-place reserves of around 100 million bbl. The Teisseyre-Tornquist line to the southwest represents the plate boundary between the East European platform and Europe. Repeated strike slip movements along this zone result in a complex pattern of extensional and compressional features in the Danish and German sectors. Primary exploration targets include Permian carbonates and sandstones as well as older zones. Gas has been tested in the German sector onshore.

Haselton, T.M. (Haselton 3D ApS, Klampenborg (Denmark)); Brangulis, A.P.; Margulis, L.S. (Soyuzmorinzhgeologiya, Riga, Lativa (USSR)); Kanev, S. (Vniimorgeo, Inst. of Submarine Geology and Geophysics, Riga, Lativa (USSR))

1991-08-01

129

A North Sea and Baltic Sea model ensemble eutrophication assessment.  

PubMed

A method to combine observations and an ensemble of ecological models is suggested to produce a eutrophication assessment. Using threshold values and methodology from the Oslo and Paris Commissions (OSPAR) and the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM), four models are combined to assess eutrophication for the Baltic and North Seas for the year 2006. The assessment indicates that the entire southeastern part of the North Sea, the Kattegat, the Danish Straits, the Gulf of Finland, and the Gulf of Riga as well as parts of the Arkona Basin, the Bornholm Basin, and the Baltic proper may be classified as problem areas. The Bothnian Bay and parts of the Baltic proper, the Bornholm Basin, and the Arkona Basin are classified as potential problem areas. This method is a useful tool for the classification of eutrophication; however, the results depend on the threshold values, and further work is needed within both OSPAR and HELCOM to harmonize these values. PMID:20496653

Almroth, Elin; Skogen, Morten D

2010-02-01

130

Oils and hydrocarbon source rocks of the Baltic syneclise  

SciTech Connect

Prolific source rock horizons of varying thickness, having considerable areal extent, occur over the Baltic syneclise. These source sediments are rich and have excellent petroleum generation potential. Their state of thermal maturity varies form immature in the northeastern part of the syneclise to peak generation maturity in the southwestern part of the region-the main kitchen area. These maturity variations are manifest in petroleum composition in the region. Hence, mature oils occur in the Polish and Kaliningrad areas, immature oils in small accumulations in Latvian and central Lithuanian onshore areas, and intermediate oils in areas between these extremes. The oil accumulations probably result from pooling of petroleum generated from a number of different source rocks at varying levels of thermal maturity. Hence, no single source for petroleum occurrences in the Baltic syneclise may be identified. The paper describes the baltic syneclise, source rocks, thermal maturity and oils and extracts.

Kanev, S.; Margulis, L. (Inst. of Marine Geology Geophysics, Rega (Latvia)); Bojesen-Koefoed, J.A. (Geological Survey of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Weil, W.A.; Merta, H. (Polish Oil Gas Co., Warsaw (Poland)); Zdanaviciute, O. (Inst. of Geology, Vilnius (Lithuania))

1994-07-11

131

Paleozoic oil and gas complexes of the Baltic syneclise  

SciTech Connect

Principal directions for exploration of new commercial accumulations of oil and gas in the main Paleozoic prospective complexes in the Baltic syneclise, including its sea portion, have been based on an analysis of the lithologic-facies composition, structural features, attitude of the rocks, and the distribution of the reservoir horizons and possible different types of traps. The promise of the deep parts of the southeastern Baltic Sea region, where a large number of local uplifts have been identified, and traps of nonanticlinal and combined types have been recorded, is emphasized where the principal focus for the generation of oil hydrocarbons inthe Baltic syneclise is located. As compared with the land area, it is suggested that there is an increase in the supply stock and the capacity parameters of the traps and an improvement in the conditions of preservation of petroleum accumulations here.

Geodekyan, A.A.; Dubovskoy, I.T.; Kleshchev, K.A.; Mazur, V.B.; Ostrovskiy, M.I.; Sakalavskas, K.A.

1981-10-01

132

History and scenarios of future development of Baltic Sea eutrophication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutrient loads from watersheds, atmospheric deposition, and cyanobacterial nitrogen fixation have led to eutrophication in the Baltic Sea. Here we give the historical evolution of this, detail some of the specific eutrophication features of the Baltic Sea, and examine future scenarios from climate related changes in the Baltic Sea region. We distinguish northern and southern regions of the Baltic Sea. The northern watersheds have sub-polar climate, are covered by boreal forest and wetlands, are sparsely populated, and the rivers drain into the Gulf of Bothnia. The southern watersheds have a marine influenced temperate climate, are more densely populated and are industrially highly developed. The southern areas are drained by several large rivers, including the representative Oder River. We compare these regions to better understand the present, and future changes in Baltic Sea eutrophication. Comparing the future projections for the two regions, we suggest that in addition to changes in nutrient inputs, increased temperature and precipitation are likely to become important forcings. Rising temperature may increase release of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from soils and may alter the vegetation cover which may in turn lead to changed nutrient and organic matter input to the Baltic Sea. For the southern Oder River catchment a model study of nutrient input is evaluated, MONERIS (Modelling Nutrient Emissions in River Systems). The strong correlation between precipitation, flow and nutrient discharge indicates a likely increase in nutrient concentrations from diffuse sources in future. The nutrients from the Oder River are modified in a lagoon, where removal processes change the stoichiometry, but have only minor effects on the productivity. We suggest that the lagoon and other nearshore areas fulfil important ecological services, especially the removal of large quantities of riverine nitrogen but at the same time are threatened systems due to increasing coastal hypoxia.

Voss, Maren; Dippner, Joachim W.; Humborg, Christoph; Hürdler, Jens; Korth, Frederike; Neumann, T.; Schernewski, Gerald; Venohr, Markus

2011-05-01

133

Regime shifts in North Sea and Baltic Sea: A comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ICES subdivisions in the North Sea (SD IIIa, SD IVa, and SD IVb) and the subdivisions in the Baltic Sea (SD 29, SD 27/28-2, and SD 25/26) are selected to compare the response in long term monitoring data (1970-2000) with respect to climate regime shifts. A modified AMOEBA model is applied to the data sets to identify the status and development of the North Sea and Baltic Sea system during two recent regime shifts. Biological regime shifts can be identified 1989/1990 in SD IIIa in the North Sea and in SD 25/26 in the Baltic Sea. A synchronous appearance of regime shifts could only be identified in the central and southern Baltic Sea for both regime shifts 1975/76 and 1989/90 where the AMOEBA model indicated a high similarity in ecosystem response. A clear difference was identified in the response of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Inter-annual and inter-decadal variability as well as regime shifts are driven in the Baltic Sea by direct atmospheric forcing only. In contrast, the changes in the North Sea are influenced by both the direct atmospheric forcing and the indirect forcing from the changes in North Atlantic. The fact that regime shifts as well as their synchronous appearance can be identified with the AMOEBA model might be of major interest for the management of sustainable use of ecosystem goods and services, the development of ecosystem approach to management and the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) of the European Union (EU).

Dippner, Joachim W.; Möller, Caroline; Hänninen, Jari

2012-12-01

134

Expansive admixtures (mainly ettringite)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydration chemistry of expansive cements is described with emphasis on the components for formation of ettringites. Expansive cement concrete as ‘shrinkage-compensating concrete’ or ‘chemical prestressing concrete’ is applied to many kinds of concrete construction. This paper outlines the chemical composition of calcium sulfoaluminate and lime-based expansive admixtures and discusses the expanding mechanism, chemical prestressing, and typical properties of expansive

S. Nagataki; H. Gomi

1998-01-01

135

Generalized Moments Expansions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a number of years linked-cluster expansions have been a major part of techiques used for the investigation of quantum Hamiltonian systems. Such methods include the ``t-expansion" of Horn and Weinstein [Phys. Rev. D 30, 1256 (1984)] as well as the derivative expansions such as the Connected Moments Expansion (CMX) and the Alternate Moments Expansion (AMX). In this work we have derived a general expression for any moments expression of which both the CMX and AMX are particular cases.

Murawski, R.; Mancini, J.; Fessatidis, V.; Bowen, S.

2003-03-01

136

Challenges for the Baltic Sea Regional Stability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. military presence in Europe after World War II played a significant role in maintaining deterrence against Soviet expansion and influence in Western Europe during the Cold War. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, most European countries reduced t...

R. Vaiksnoras

2013-01-01

137

Security Concerns of the Baltic States as NATO Allies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although the Cold War never went very hot, it still left behind a great deal of fallout. One of the products of the end of the Soviet Union was the re-establishment of the independence of the three Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania in 1991. ...

J. S. Corum

2013-01-01

138

3-D flexural modelling of the Silurian Baltic Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Baltic Basin (BB) is situated on the western part of the East European Craton (EEC). It was established initially as a passive margin basin in response to the breaking apart of the Rodinia megacontinent during the Latest Precambrian–Early Cambrian times. Thereafter, it has been suggested that the Late Ordovician–Silurian basin subsidence was generated by foreland bending of the western

Randell Stephenson; Saulius Šliaupa; Jan-Diederik van Wees

2002-01-01

139

Prevalence of anisakin nematodes in fish from Southern Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Nematodes from the superfamily Ascaridoidea (families Anisakidae and Raphidascarididae) are worldwide distributed parasites. Their live cycles include many species of water invertebrates and teleostean fish as intermediate hosts, and fish, sea mammals or fish-eating birds being definitive hosts. Humans can be infected with some of these parasites after consumption of raw or wrongly processed fish. The parasitological investigations of fish (herring, cod and flatfish) from southern Baltic (ICES 24-26) provided in the years 80 and 90 showed their infection with larvae of several anisakid species: Anisakis simplex s. str., Contracaecum osculatum C and Hysterothylacium auctum. Sporadically Pseudoterranova decipiens and Raphidascaris acus were also found. Larvae of Anisakis simplex were noted mainly in herrings, C. osculatum primarily in cods and H. auctum in flounders. Additionally, preserved herrings (marinated, smoked) were also investigated and sporadically live larvae of A. simplex were found. The main etiological agent of human anisakidosis worldwide is A. simplex. Although the live cycle of this nematode cannot be completed in the Baltic Sea--this nematode is brought to the Baltic by infected herring migrating from the North Sea for spawning in coastal waters of the Southern Baltic--the prevalence and intensity of infection with larvae of this nematode species were the highest in fish investigated by us. The results obtained suggest the possibility of the human infection with A. simplex larvae in Poland. PMID:16457379

Szostakowska, Beata; Myjak, Przemys?aw; Wyszy?ski, Miros?aw; Pietkiewicz, Halina; Rokicki, Jerzy

2005-01-01

140

Modeling the Baltic Sea Eutrophication in a Decision Support System  

Microsoft Academic Search

is a model of the coupled nitrogen and phosphorus cycles. This model has been developed as an integral part of the decision support system MARE's Nest with the overall aim to evaluate management options for reducing Baltic Sea eutrophication. Simulated nutrient and oxygen concentrations as well as transport flows and major biogeochemical fluxes can be analyzed in many different ways,

Oleg P. Savchuk; Fredrik Wulff

2007-01-01

141

Bird's nest fungi (Nidulariales: Nidulariaceae) in Baltic and Dominican amber.  

PubMed

Nidula baltica sp. nov. and Cyathus dominicanus sp. nov. are described from Cenozoic Baltic and Dominican amber. These are the first fossil members of the Family Nidulariaceae and show that the basic characteristics of this group were already established some 40-50 million years ago. PMID:24607356

Poinar, George

2014-03-01

142

Organic carbon burial rates in the Baltic Sea sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies indicate the important role of the marine environment in the circulation of CO2. This is due to the occurrence of the so called "biological pump" mechanism. A special role in this process is played by the shelf seas. The paper presents estimates of organic carbon burial rates in the Baltic Sea sediments. Quantification of the burial rate required the determination of organic carbon accumulation rate to the Baltic sediments and the carbon return flux from sediments to the water column. Results of both sediment and mass accumulation rates as well as profiles of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were used. Sediment accumulation rates were based on 210Pb method validated by 137Cs measurements and ranged from 66 g m-2 yr-1 to 744 g m-2 yr-1 as regards mass accumulation rates and from 0.07 cm yr-1 to 0.25 cm yr-1 as regards linear accumulation rates. Carbon deposition to the Baltic sediments amounts to 1.955 ± 0.585 Tg m-2 yr-1, while 0.759 ± 0.020 g m-2 yr-1 of carbon returns from sediments to the water column. Thus the organic carbon burial rate in the Baltic Sea sediments is equal to 1.197 ± 0.584 Tg C m-2 yr-1.

Winogradow, A.; Pempkowiak, J.

2014-02-01

143

Organic compounds in the water column of the eastern Baltic  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the transport, distribution, concentration, chemistry, environmental consequences, and chemical control strategies of organic wastes--including waste hydrocarbons, industrial effluents and oil spills--in the Baltic Sea and in the regions along its shorelines. Data on seasonal and compositional variations in organic waste content are provided.

Nemirovskaya, I.A.; Nesterova, M.P.; Pustel'nikov, O.S.

1987-11-01

144

The Professionalisation of Adult Educators in the Baltic States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult education and lifelong learning together form one of the priorities for development in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The important historical and social context in which the professional development of adult educators has been taking place in the Baltic States since they regained their independence in the 1990s is the changes that occurred…

Jogi, Larissa; Gross, Marin

2009-01-01

145

Life Strategies of Filamentous Algae in the Northern Baltic Proper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short lived filamentous algae are a major component of the rocky-shore macroalgal vegetation of eutrophic waters in the Baltic Sea. They show considerable variation in abundance both seasonally and from year to year. In this study the seasonal pattern of growth and reproduction is documented in six species to outline their life strategies. Five of the species studied were reproductive

Mikko Kiirikki; Annamaija Lehvo

1997-01-01

146

Adsorption capacity of phosphorus in Baltic Sea sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutrient budgets of the Baltic Sea indicate that an increased loading of phosphorus to a great extent is counteracted by adsorption to the sediments, resulting in a comparatively small net increase of the phosphorus-concentration in the water column. The parmanent salinity stratification and increasing eutrophication of this sea has caused almost permanent anoxic conditions which limits the phosphorus-storage capacities in the deep basins below the halocline. The phosphorus-loading has increased about eight-fold during this century and does not show any sign of declination. The questions then arise—'what type of sediments store the phosphorus, what are the binding mechanisms and is the maximim storage capacity approached?' In an attempt to partly answer these questions, the phosphorus adsorption capacities of three different Baltic Sea sediments have been investigated. The greatest amount of adsorbed phosphorus, measured as mol g -1 dry substance, is found for an accumulation bottom from the deeper part of the Baltic Sea and the lowest for a transportation bottom above the halocline. However, if the rates are recalculated as phosphorus adsorption per area, which is more pertinent from an ecological point of view, i.e. most phosphorus is adsorbed in the shallow sediments. A comparison of the experimental data and ambient conditions in the water and sediments indicate that adsorption of phosphate from the water column plays a minor role in the phosphorus budget of the Baltic Sea. Only the assimilation of phosphate and subsequent sedimentation and decomposition of organic matter at the sediment surface will result in a sufficiently high sediment pore water concentration to explain the large sink of phosphorus to the Baltic Sea sediments calculated from input and output data.

Carman, R.; Wulff, F.

1989-11-01

147

Management of Helicobacter pylori -Related Diseases in the Baltic States.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori infection has been recognized as the main trigger of stomach-related diseases. The huge variation in H. pylori infection patterns across the globe requires targeted research and close monitoring of this infection in different regions. The Baltic countries have witnessed enormous changes in socioeconomic conditions in the last years. Evolution of H. pylori infection and related diseases has been a key interest of gastroenterology centers in the Baltic States over the last two decades, translating into up-to-date scientific data that are valuable locally and on the European level. The East-West gradient in the prevalence of H. pylori infection is still evident in the Baltic countries, but the gap is becoming smaller, and similar trends are expected for the coming years. Clarithromycin-based triple therapy remains the first-line treatment of H. pylori in the region; however, careful monitoring of resistance rates in the future remains highly relevant, though routine resistance testing is not available in all the countries. A high prevalence of gastric cancer is still notable in the Baltic States; nevertheless, a steady decline in gastric cancer incidence in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia is present and expected to be continuing during the coming decades. Currently, H. pylori-related diseases still constitute a substantial part of gastroenterologists' workload in the region. This paper reviews epidemiological, diagnostic, treatment as well as basic research trends on H. pylori infection and related diseases in the Baltic States during the last two decades. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:24732196

Kupcinskas, Juozas; Leja, Marcis

2014-01-01

148

Methane fluxes and their controlling processes in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baltic Sea is an ideal natural laboratory to study the methane cycle in the framework of diagenetic processes. With its brackish character and a gradient from nearly marine to almost limnic conditions, a strong permanent haline stratification leading to large vertical redox gradients in the water column, and a sedimentation history which resulted in the deposition of organic-rich young post-glacial sediments over older glacial and post-glacial strata with very low organic content, the Baltic allows to study the role of a variety of key parameters for early diagenetic processes including the methane cycle. Within the BONUS + Project “Baltic Gas”, a 3.5 week scientific expedition of RV Maria S. Merian in August 2010 was dedicated to study the methane cycle in the various basins of the Baltic Sea, with strong emphasis on the metabolic reactions of early diagenesis and the occurrence of shallow gas deposits. Various subbottom profiling systems were used to map the thickness and structure of organic-rich deposits and build the base for a detailed coring program for biogeochemical analysis, including methane, sulfur compounds, iron, and other compounds. Methane gradients in connection with the information of the areal extend of organic-rich deposits are used to estimate the diffusive flux from the sediments into the water column and the rate of methane oxidation, with changing importance of sulfate as oxidant along the salinity gradient. On selected key stations, rate measurements of methanogenic and methanotrophic reactions were executed. The methane distribution in the water column was comprehensively assessed, revealing amongst other findings a drastic increase in bottom water methane concentration between the post bloom summer situation and the situation in the winter of 2009, in connection to the occurrence of a benthic nepheloid layer. Air-sea flux measurements were executed along the ship’s track comprising all major basins of the Baltic. The talk gives an interdisciplinary overview of the first results of this research campaign.

Rehder, G. J.; Fossing, H.; Lapham, L.; Endler, R.; Spiess, V.; Bruchert, V.; Nguyen, T.; Gülzow, W.; Schneider von Deimling, J.; Conley, D. J.; Jorgensen, B.

2010-12-01

149

Effects of salinity on spermatozoa motility, percentage of fertilized eggs and egg development of Baltic cod ( Gadus morhua ), and implications for cod stock fluctuations in the Baltic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in cod stock strength in the Baltic Sea is considered to be dependent on abiotic conditions such as salinity and water oxygen content in the spawning areas (the Baltic deep basins). Spawning cod were caught off northern Gotland, Sweden, from April to June in 1989 and 1990. Our investigation revealed a reduction in spermatozoan motility and a subsequent reduction

L. Westin; A. Nissling

1991-01-01

150

International Partnership for Continuing Education and Training Expansion in the Baltic States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Latvia is striving to rebuild its socioeconomic system by strengthening continuing education and training in cooperation with British partners. The partnership has resulted in formation of international networks, comprehensive adult-education needs analysis, increased awareness of lifelong learning, modest European Community funding, and joint…

Buligina, Ilze; Chivers, Geoff

1999-01-01

151

Spectral quantification of Southern Baltic seabed roughness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work presents the fast and efficient tool for seafloor classification, where scales and shapes of geomorphological forms were taken into account. The precise bathymetry and seafloor texture was developed with multibeam echosounder at six different areas of size up to 10 by 20 km. This areas demonstrate typical geomorphological seafloor features of bottom relief at the southern Baltic Sea coastal waters. The acoustical measurements were accompanied by geological sampling and video inspection. High resolution mosaic maps were obtained as a result of multi-survey measurements with maximal spatial resolution of 0.05m. Such accuracy of the measurements allows to observe small geomorphologic forms as ripplemarks or pebbles. The most investigated polygons have bottom relief of polygenetic origin with relicts of periglacial forms together with contemporary forms of marine origin. In the studied areas different forms of sand accumulation were found, beginning with small ripplemarks ending at big sandy waves. In the seabed erosion zones the bottom surface is rough and varied with clearly formed embankments, abrasive platforms, inselbergs and stony gravely abrasive pavements on the bottom surface. Such geomorphic diversity of the bottom surface has allowed for development of consistent geomorphological classification system based mainly on spectral properties of seafloor roughness. Each analysed area was divided into squares (200 by 200 m) with an overlap between adjacent subareas of 75% a square size. Next, subdivided areas were spectrally transformed using a two dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D FFT). The spectral parameters as maximal value of spectral density function, spectral exponent and strength, spectral moments, mean frequency, spectral width and skewness for each characteristic type of bottom surface were determined relaying on the calculated 2D spectra. Moreover, other features characterised the corrugated surface as fractal dimension, radius of autocorrelation, elevation slope, statistical and wavelet transformation parameters were estimated. The set of parameters was the input to the Principal Component Analysis and next to the unsupervised neural network algorithm which produced maps containing morphologically classified seabed areas. The obtained results revealed that acoustical technique provides very useful capabilities for the seafloor characterisation.

Szefler, K.; Tegowski, J.; Nowak, J.

2012-12-01

152

Toward Better Planning for Urban Expansion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Existing and new land use control techniques that urban fringe area local governments can use to cope with extensive new development are considered. It is proposed that resources to deal with development problems exist but are underutilized. The 31 techni...

1973-01-01

153

Expansion Planning for the Smart Grid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The introduction of renewable and smart grid technologies into the electric power grid has created a number of challenges and opportunlties for researchers. The challenges and opportunities spread across a number of areas including control, stability, and...

R. Bent

2013-01-01

154

The Development of the Baltic Sea Basin During the Last 130 ka  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a During the Eemian interglacial 130–115 ka BP, the hydrology of the Baltic Sea was significantly different from the Holocene.\\u000a A pathway between the Baltic basin and the Barents Sea through Karelia existed during the first ca. 2.5 ka of the interglacial.\\u000a Both sea surface temperature and salinity of the SW Eemian Baltic Sea were much higher, ca. 6°C and 15‰, respectively, than

Thomas Andrén; Svante Björck; Elinor Andrén; Daniel Conley; Lovisa Zillén; Johanna Anjar

155

Long-term dynamics of zooplankton in the southeastern Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term research in the Baltic Sea revealed the basic trends of zooplankton community variations depending on oceanographic\\u000a processes. Alternation of the periods of increase and decrease in salinity of the Baltic Sea against the background of climate\\u000a changes (temperature increase) and eutrophication affect the state of the entire Baltic ecosystem, including zooplankton.\\u000a For these periods, the dynamics of zooplankton in

S. V. Aleksandrov; N. N. Zhigalova; A. S. Zezera

2009-01-01

156

Cryogenic Expansion Machine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A reciprocating expansion-engine refrigerator for cooling helium to a low temperature is described. The cryogenic expansion engine includes intake and exhaust poppet valves each controlled by a cam having adjustable dwell, the valve seats for the valves b...

C. B. Pallaver M. W. Morgan

1976-01-01

157

Subfamily Limoniinae Speiser, 1909 (Diptera, Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene): the genus Helius Lepeletier & Serville, 1828.  

PubMed

A revision of the genus Helius Lepeletier & Serville, 1828 (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene) is presented. Redescriptions of 5 species, Helius formosus Krzemi?ski, 1993, Helius linus Podenas, 2002, Helius minutus (Loew, 1850), Helius mutus Podenas, 2002, Helius pulcher (Loew, 1850) of this genus from Baltic amber are given and documented by photographs and drawings. Four new species of the genus Helius from Baltic amber are described: Helius gedanicus sp. nov., Helius hoffeinsorum sp. nov., Helius similis sp. nov., Helius fossilis sp. nov. A key to species of Helius from Baltic amber is provided. Patterns morphological evolution and the aspects evolutionary history of Helius are discussed. PMID:24943432

Kania, Iwona

2014-01-01

158

Concept based query expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Query expansion methods have been studied for a long time - with debatable success in many instances. In this paper we present a probabilistic query expansion model based on a similarity thesaurus which was constructed automatically. A similarity thesaurus reflects domain knowledge about the particular collection from which it is constructed. We address the two important issues with query expansion:

Yonggang Qiu; Hans-Peter Frei

1993-01-01

159

Application of a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model to the Himmerfjärden, Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Himmerfjärden is a coastal fjord-like bay situated in the north-western part of the Baltic Sea. The fjord has a mean depth of 17 m and a maximum depth of 52 m. The water is brackish (6 psu) with small salinity fluctuation (±2 psu). A sewage treatment plant, which serves about 300 000 people, discharges into the inner part of Himmerfjärden. This area is the subject of a long-term monitoring program. We are planning to develop a publicly available modelling system for this area, which will perform short-term forecast predictions of pertinent parameters (e.g., water-levels, currents, salinity, temperature) and disseminate them to users. A key component of the system is a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The open source Delft3D Flow system (http://www.deltaressystems.com/hydro) has been applied to model the Himmerfjärden area. Two different curvilinear grids were used to approximate the modelling domain (25 km × 50 km × 60 m). One grid has low horizontal resolution (cell size varies from 250 to 450 m) to perform long-term numerical experiments (modelling period of several months), while another grid has higher resolution (cell size varies from 120 to 250 m) to model short-term situations. In vertical direction both z-level (50 layers) and sigma coordinate (20 layers) were used. Modelling results obtained with different horizontal resolution and vertical discretisation will be presented. This model will be a part of the operational system which provides automated integration of data streams from several information sources: meteorological forecast based on the HIRLAM model from the Finnish Meteorological Institute (https://en.ilmatieteenlaitos.fi/open-data), oceanographic forecast based on the HIROMB-BOOS Model developed within the Baltic community and provided by the MyOcean Project (http://www.myocean.eu), riverine discharge from the HYPE model provided by the Swedish Meteorological Hydrological Institute (http://vattenwebb.smhi.se/modelarea/).

Sokolov, Alexander

2014-05-01

160

The Baltic Sea IODP project "Paleoenvironmental evolution of the Baltic Sea Basin through the last glacial cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baltic Sea IODP project "Paleoenvironmental evolution of the Baltic Sea Basin through the last glacial cycle" Despite an almost 100 year long history of geological research in the Baltic Sea, no scientific deep drilling has been carried out until now; the Baltic Sea IODP project drillings will take place in 2013. We aim at retrieving sediments, in different settings of the Baltic Sea Basin (BSB), from the last interglacial-glacial cycle. This will be accomplished by drilling in six sub-basins, one in the gateway of the BSB (Anholt), where we focus on sediments from MIS 6-5 as well as MIS 2-1. A sub-basin in the southwesternmost part of the BSB (Little Belt) possibly holds a unique MIS 5 record. Two sub-basins in the south (Bornholm Basin and Hanö Bay) may hold long complete records from MIS 4-2, and the deepest (450 m) sub-basin in the central Baltic (Landsort Deep) promises to contain a thick and continuous record of the last ca 14000 years, and perhaps also older deposits. Finally, the sub-basin in the very north (Ångermanälven River eustary) contains a unique varved (annually deposited) sediment record of the last >10000 years. All in all these six areas will contain a set of sediment sequences of the last ca 140000 years, with paleoenvironmental information on a semi-continental scale; the Baltic Sea drains an area four times as large as the basin itself. The location of the BSB in the heartland of a recurrently waning and waxing ice sheet, the Scandinavian Ice Sheet (SIS), has resulted in a complex development: repeated glaciations of different magnitude, sensitive responses to sea level and gateway threshold changes, large shifts in sedimentation patterns and with usually high sedimentation rates. Its geographic position also makes it a unique link between Eurasian and NW European terrestrial records. Therefore the sediments of this largest European intra-continental basin form a rare archive of climate evolution over the last glacial cycle. The high sedimentation rates provide an excellent opportunity to reconstruct climatic variability of global importance at unique resolution from a marine-brackish setting, and comparable sequences cannot be retrieved anywhere in the surrounding onshore regions. Furthermore, and very crucial, the large variability (salinity, climate, sedimentation pattern and oxygenation) that the BSB has undergone during the last glacial cycle makes it optimal for new research on the deep biosphere, its evolution, biogeochemical processes and e.g. also on how the post-glacial diffusive penetration of conservative seawater ions may alter the chemical composition and microbial physiology in the sub-seafloor biosphere. The scientific communities of the nine countries around the Baltic Sea have by tradition had the Baltic Sea and its many intriguing scientific problems as a focal point for research. Now comes the real challenge!

Andrén, T.; Bitinas, A.; Björck, S.; Emelyanov, E.; Harff, J.; Houmark-Nielsen, M.; Jakobsson, M.; Jensen, J. B.; Jørgensen, B. B.; Kotilainen, A.; Knudsen, K. L.; Lambeck, K.; Moros, M.; Spiess, V.; U?cinowicz, S.; Veski, S.; Zelchs, V.

2012-04-01

161

A new proposal concerning the botanical origin of Baltic amber  

PubMed Central

Baltic amber constitutes the largest known deposit of fossil plant resin and the richest repository of fossil insects of any age. Despite a remarkable legacy of archaeological, geochemical and palaeobiological investigation, the botanical origin of this exceptional resource remains controversial. Here, we use taxonomically explicit applications of solid-state Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy, coupled with multivariate clustering and palaeobotanical observations, to propose that conifers of the family Sciadopityaceae, closely allied to the sole extant representative, Sciadopitys verticillata, were involved in the genesis of Baltic amber. The fidelity of FTIR-based chemotaxonomic inferences is upheld by modern–fossil comparisons of resins from additional conifer families and genera (Cupressaceae: Metasequoia; Pinaceae: Pinus and Pseudolarix). Our conclusions challenge hypotheses advocating members of either of the families Araucariaceae or Pinaceae as the primary amber-producing trees and correlate favourably with the progressive demise of subtropical forest biomes from northern Europe as palaeotemperatures cooled following the Eocene climate optimum.

Wolfe, Alexander P.; Tappert, Ralf; Muehlenbachs, Karlis; Boudreau, Marc; McKellar, Ryan C.; Basinger, James F.; Garrett, Amber

2009-01-01

162

Reconstructing the development of Baltic sea eutrophication 1850-2006.  

PubMed

A comprehensive reconstruction of the Baltic Sea state from 1850 to 2006 is presented: driving forces are reconstructed and the evolution of the hydrography and biogeochemical cycles is simulated using the model BALTSEM. Driven by high resolution atmospheric forcing fields (HiResAFF), BALTSEM reproduces dynamics of salinity, temperature, and maximum ice extent. Nutrient loads have been increasing with a noteworthy acceleration from the 1950s until peak values around 1980 followed by a decrease continuing up to present. BALTSEM shows a delayed response to the massive load increase with most eutrophic conditions occurring only at the end of the simulation. This is accompanied by an intensification of the pelagic cycling driven by a shift from spring to summer primary production. The simulation indicates that no improvement in water quality of the Baltic Sea compared to its present state can be expected from the decrease in nutrient loads in recent decades. PMID:22926877

Gustafsson, Bo G; Schenk, Frederik; Blenckner, Thorsten; Eilola, Kari; Meier, H E Markus; Müller-Karulis, Bärbel; Neumann, Thomas; Ruoho-Airola, Tuija; Savchuk, Oleg P; Zorita, Eduardo

2012-09-01

163

Evaluation of Baltic Sea transport properties using particle tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle tracking model (PTM) is an effective tool for quantifying transport properties of large water bodies such as the Baltic Sea. We have applied PTM to our fully calibrated and validated Baltic Sea 3D hydrodynamic model for a 10-years period (2000-9). One hundred particles were released at a constant rate during an initial 10-days period from all the Baltic Sea sub-basins, the major rivers, and the open boundary in the Arkona Basin. In each basin, the particles were released at two different depths corresponding to the deep water and middle water layers. The objectives of the PTM simulations were to analyse the intra-exchange processes between the Baltic Sea basins and to estimate the arrival times and the paths of particles released from the rivers. The novel contribution of this study is determining the paths and arrival times of deeper water masses rather than the surface masses. Advective and diffusive transport processes in the Bornholm and Arkona basins are both driven by the interacting flows of the northern basins of the Baltic Sea and the North Sea. Particles released from Arkona basin flows northwards along the Stople Channel. The Gotland basins are the major contributors to the exchange process in the Baltic Sea. We find high values of the advection ratio, indicative of a forced advective transport process. The Bay of Gdansk is probably the most vulnerable region in the Baltic Sea. This is despite the fact that the main exchanging basins are the Bornholm Sea and the Easter Gotland Basin. The main reason is the intensive supply of the particles from the northern basins that normally take about 3000 days to reach the Bay of Gdansk. The process maintains a high level of particle concentration (90%) along its coastlines even after the 10-years period. Comparing the particle paths in the Western and Eastern Gotland basins two interesting features were found. Particles travelled in all four directions in the former basin and the middle layer particles reached the surface flow in the eastern most part of the Gulf of Finland. This implies mixing of deeper waters of the Western Gotland Basin with the sub-surface waters of the Gulf of Finland. We believe strong density current and upwelling processes drive the process. Surprisingly, the two rivers Narva and Venta have the highest spreading in comparison to other rivers. This is despite the relatively low flow discharge values that rules out a correlation between high moment flows and the extent of spreading. We found the flow discharge to be correlated with the advection lengths. The lack of any correlation for the other rivers, signifies different hydrodynamic characteristics among the basins. The results of our PTM study may be used for a general environmental assessment in terms of sensitivity of the various coastlines and rick to the release of contaminants in the Baltic Sea.

Dargahi, Bijan; Cvetkovic, Vladimir

2014-05-01

164

Climatology of thunderstorms in the Baltic countries, 1951-2000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides an overview of the thunderstorm climate of the Baltic countries during the period of 1951-2000. Our study area is in northeastern Europe and encompasses Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. Visual thunderstorm observations at 59 weather stations were used as a data source. The mean annual number of thunderstorm days was 12-29.5. The seasonal cycle of thunderstorm hours with a daily step unexpectedly showed two maxima, whereas the monthly numbers of thunderstorm days had one clear mid-latitude specific peak between June and August. The diurnal cycle of thunderstorm hours showed a peak between 1400 and 1800 local time and a minimum between 0400 and 1000 hours local time. The average annual duration of thunderstorm events was 112 min. The average number of thunderstorm events per thunderstorm day was around 1.1-1.2. Our results showed that the thunderstorm climate of the Baltic countries generally resembles that of other mid-latitude study sites.

Enno, S. E.; Briede, A.; Valiukas, D.

2013-01-01

165

On skin expansion.  

PubMed

This article discusses skin expansion without considering cellular growth of the skin. An in vivo analysis was carried out that involved expansion at three different sites on one patient, allowing for the observation of the relaxation process. Those measurements were used to characterize the human skin of the thorax during the surgical process of skin expansion. A comparison between the in vivo results and the numerical finite elements model of the expansion was used to identify the material elastic parameters of the skin of the thorax of that patient. Delfino's constitutive equation was chosen to model the in vivo results. The skin is considered to be an isotropic, homogeneous, hyperelastic, and incompressible membrane. When the skin is extended, such as with expanders, the collagen fibers are also extended and cause stiffening in the skin, which results in increasing resistance to expansion or further stretching. We observed this phenomenon as an increase in the parameters as subsequent expansions continued. The number and shape of the skin expanders used in expansions were also studied, both mathematically and experimentally. The choice of the site where the expansion should be performed is discussed to enlighten problems that can lead to frustrated skin expansions. These results are very encouraging and provide insight into our understanding of the behavior of stretched skin by expansion. To our knowledge, this study has provided results that considerably improve our understanding of the behavior of human skin under expansion. PMID:23651568

Pamplona, Djenane C; Velloso, Raquel Q; Radwanski, Henrique N

2014-01-01

166

Statistical characteristics of aerosol in Baltic Sea region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article presents the results of the aerosol measurements carried out on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea during 1986-1993. Aerosol size distributions in the diameter range of 0.01-10 mum have been measured with the electric aerosol spectrometer (EAS). A short description of EAS is given. The majority of number distributions obtained by measurements were of monomodal shape. Modal

Ü. Kikas; A. Mirme; E. Tamm; T. Raunemaa

1996-01-01

167

Local Government in the Baltic States: Similar but Different  

Microsoft Academic Search

The administrative–territorial structure of local government in the three Baltic countries is very different. In Lithuania, administrative–territorial reorganisation was achieved quickly using command methods, by removing local governments at the municipal level, leaving local governments at county level with average population over 60,000, among the largest in Europe. In Estonia, local government exists in town and rural municipalities, but many

Edvins Vanags; Inga Vilka

2006-01-01

168

Climate Change Impacts on Coastal Waters of the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Coastal regions are particular sensitive towards environmental changes. Climate Change is likely to cause changes in main\\u000a determining environmental factors in coastal waters of the Baltic Sea. Several model studies indicate an increasing water\\u000a temperature (in average about 3.0°C in sea surface temperature), a decrease in salinity (in the range of 2–3 g kg–1 in sea surface salinity) as well as

Oda Störmer

169

Numerical investigations of future ice conditions in the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Global climate changes is expected to have an effect on the physical and ecological characteristics of the Baltic Sea. Estimates of future climate on the regional scale can be obtained by using either statistical or dynamical downscaling methods of global AOGCM scenario results. In this paper, we use 2 different coupled ice-ocean models of the Baltic Sea to simulate present and future ice conditions around 100 years from present. Two 10-year time slice experiments have been performed using the results of atmospheric climate model simulations as forcing, one representing pre-industrial climate conditions (control simulation), and the other global warming with a 150% increase in CO2 greenhouse gas concentration (scenario simulation). Present-day climatological ice conditions and interannual variability are realistically reproduced by the models. The simulated range of the maximum annual ice extent in the Baltic in both models together is 180 to 420 x 10(3) km2 in the control simulation and 45 to 270 x 10(3) km2 in the scenario simulation. The range of the maximum annual ice thickness is from 32 to 96 cm and from 11 to 60 cm in the control and scenario simulations, respectively. In contrast to earlier estimates, sea ice is still formed every winter in the Northern Bothnian Bay and in the most Eastern parts of the Gulf of Finland. Overall, the simulated changes of quantities such as ice extent and ice thickness, as well as their interannual variations are relatively similar in both models, which is remarkable, because the 2 coupled ice-ocean model systems have been developed independently. This increases the reliability of future projections of ice conditions in the Baltic Sea. PMID:11697256

Haapala, J; Meier, H E; Rinne, J

2001-08-01

170

Macronutrient and food intake in the Baltic republics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of this study was to describe mean macronutrient and food intakes in the Baltic republics, with a particular focus on fat, vegetable and fruit consumption.Design: Cross-sectional study.Setting: Data from surveys conducted in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania in the summer of 1997 were used. Information was collected using a 24 h recall of dietary intake and an interviewer-administered

J Pomerleau; M McKee; A Robertson; K Kadziauskiene; A Abaravicius; S Vaask; I Pudule; D Grinberga

2001-01-01

171

Wave climate in the Arkona Basin, the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic features of the wave climate in the Southwestern Baltic Sea (such as the average and typical wave conditions, frequency of occurrence of different wave parameters, variations in wave heights from weekly to decadal scales) are established based on waverider measurements at the Darss Sill in 1991-2010. The measured climate is compared with two numerical simulations with the WAM wave model driven by downscaled reanalysis of wind fields for 1958-2002 and by adjusted geostrophic winds for 1970-2007. The wave climate in this region is typical for semi-enclosed basins of the Baltic Sea. The maximum wave heights are about half of those in the Baltic Proper. The maximum recorded significant wave height HS =4.46 m occurred on 3 November 1995. The wave height exhibits no long-term trend but reveals modest interannual (about 12 % of the long-term mean of 0.76 m) and substantial seasonal variation. The wave periods are mostly concentrated in a narrow range of 2.6-4 s. Their distribution is almost constant over decades. The role of remote swell is very small.

Soomere, T.; Weisse, R.; Behrens, A.

2012-04-01

172

Ecology of Host Parasite Relationships in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baltic Sea is one of the greatest brackish waters, and for 7000years it has been affected by the influx of haline waters from the North Sea. Many marine and some fresh water organisms have adapted to its lower salinity. Some organisms, referred to as genuine brackish water species, predominate over their near relatives in this environment. All these elements are also present among parasites, which differ in the degree of specialization to their hosts. Analyses of parasite communities, especially those of small fish hosts, reveal characteristics which differ from communities in the marine milieu: (a) suspension of specifity, (b) new hosts, (c) reduction in the number of hosts in life cycles, and (d) adaptation to genuine brackish water hosts. The view of the Baltic Sea as a species-poor but balanced ecosystem is also valid for parasites. The Baltic Sea is endangered by the high level of eutrophication, as the organisms are not adapted to its consequences. The study of parasite communities reveals such threatening conditions for the respective environments.

Zander, C. Dieter

173

The Internationalisation of Baltic Library and Information Science Education with Emphasis on the Cooperation with Nordic Partners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the development of library and information science education (LIS) in the Baltic and Nordic countries and gives a brief overview of the historical and present connections of these countries. The similarities and differences between the Baltic countries as well as the Nordic and Baltic higher education systems are described.…

Virkus, Sirje; Harbo, Ole

2002-01-01

174

Selectivity experiments with window codends fished in the Baltic Sea cod ( Gadus morhua) fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The declining cod stock in the Baltic Sea has highlighted a need for the use of more selective fishing gears. From 1995, the use of 105-mm `Danish' and `Swedish' designed escape windows was adopted into legislation in the Baltic Sea, as alternatives to a mesh size increase from 105 to 120 mm. As the legislation was based on very few

N Madsen; T Moth-Poulsen; N Lowry

1998-01-01

175

Seasonal Variations in Suspended Sediment Yield in the Baltic Sea Drainage Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this article is to describe the seasonal fluctuations of suspended sediment yield in the Baltic Sea drainage basin and to quantify the monthly inflow of suspended sediment to the Baltic. The seasonal fluctuations of sedi- ment yield are controlled by rain and snow amounts and by ground thawing. The rhythm of the sediment yield shows great differences

Adam Lajczak; Margareta B. Jansson

176

Analysis of runoff for the Baltic basin with an integrated Atmospheric-Ocean-Hydrology Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fully integrated Atmospheric-Ocean-Hydrology Model (BALTIMOS = Baltic Integrated Model System) has been developed using existing model components. Experiment and model design has been adapted to the Baltic basin with a catchment area of approximately 1 750 000 km2. A comprehensive model validation has been completed using large meteorological and hydrological measurement database. Comparing the calculated runoff from the integrated

K.-G. Richter; M. Ebel

2006-01-01

177

Mobility, contact, and exchange in the Baltic Sea basin 6000-2000 BC  

Microsoft Academic Search

My intention in this paper is to outline the main features and principal aspects of contact and exchange among the later prehistoric hunter-gatherers (late Mesolithic and {post-Mesolithic)} in the Baltic Sea basin, which covers the southern and eastern reaches of Northern Europe, and to summarise the main advances in current research. The area broadly covered includes the Baltic Sea basin

Marek Zvelebil

2006-01-01

178

Upwardly Mobile Languages: The Politics of Language in the Baltic States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines language policy in the Baltic states since they regained their independence from the Soviet Union. The article argues that each Baltic state has substantially realized its language policy aims and that the favorable response to language requirements at the group and individual level signals the extraordinary reversal of a colonial…

Ozolins, Uldis

1994-01-01

179

Quantitative studies on gonad cycle, fecundity, reproductive output and recruitment in a baltic Mytilus edulis population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since Mytilus edulis L. is a biomass dominant in the Baltic much interest is focused on the ecology of the species. In this paper an attempt is made to quantitatively cover the reproductive cycle of a Baltic M. edulis population in order to provide data for energy flow models and to discuss aspects of recruitment in this species. Histological preparations

N. Kautsky

1982-01-01

180

Managing nutrient fluxes and pollution in the Baltic: an interdisciplinary simulation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This interdisciplinary paper reports the results of a study into the costs and benefits of eutrophication reduction in the Baltic Sea. A large multidisciplinary team of natural and social scientists estimated nutrient loadings and pathways within the entire Baltic drainage basin, together with the costs of a range of abatement options and strategies. The abatement cost results were compared with

R. Kerry Turner; Stavros Georgiou; Ing-Marie Gren; Fredric Wulff; Scott Barrett; Tore Söderqvist; Ian J. Bateman; Carl Folke; Sindre Langaas; Tomasz ?ylicz; Karl-Göran Mäler; Agnieszka Markowska

1999-01-01

181

Organohalogen pollutants in herring from the northern Baltic Sea: Concentrations, congener profiles and explanatory factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organohalogen contaminants were investigated in Baltic herring caught from three catchment areas in the Baltic Sea, off the coasts of Finland. Pools of both small and large herring were analysed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, naphthalenes, camphenes (toxaphene), polybrominated diphenyl ethers and the pesticide DDT and its metabolites. PCB concentrations per fresh weight in small herring were at the

Jaana Koistinen; Hannu Kiviranta; Päivi Ruokojärvi; Raimo Parmanne; Matti Verta; Anja Hallikainen; Terttu Vartiainen

2008-01-01

182

Ecological modernization of the agriculture industry in southern Sweden: reducing emissions to the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient and pesticide pollution accompanying the intensive agriculture activities of the last fifty years has significantly impacted the Baltic Sea ecosystem in northern Europe. This research focused on identifying and describing the factors that may be promoting or inhibiting the implementation of environmental approaches that could reduce the negative impact of agriculture practices on the Baltic Sea. It is a

Steven Archambault

2004-01-01

183

Hydrographic thresholds in the western Baltic Sea: Late Quaternary geology and the Dana River concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the final Weichselian deglaciation the water exchange between Kattegat and the Baltic Sea and hence the palaeogeographical development of the (western) Baltic has been controlled by a number of sills. Major thresholds are found at the southern entrance of the Great Belt and in the Darss Sill area. The easternmost of these structures is formed by Late Weichselian sands

W Lemke; J. B Jensen; O Bennike; R Endler; A Witkowski; A Kuijpers

2001-01-01

184

A relative sea-level curve for the Polish Southern Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative sea-level curve was developed for the southern Baltic area, based on a set of 315 radiocarbon dates of different terrestrial and marine sediments, collected at 164 sites located in the Polish part of the Southern Baltic and in the adjacent coastal land area. When developing the curve, relicts of various formations related to the shoreline evolution as well

Szymon U?cinowicz

2006-01-01

185

The Baltic Sea as a dumping site of chemical munitions and chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the problem of chemical weapons dumped in the Baltic Sea by the Allied and Soviet forces after World War II is presented. The types and properties of the chemical warfare agents found in the Baltic, as well as the known dumping regions, are described. The potential hazards for the environment arising from the long-term disposal of munitions

Aleksandra Szarejko; Jacek Namie?nik

2009-01-01

186

Building capacity of the Baltic States to meet the EU Water Framework Directive through watershed demonstration projects.  

PubMed

The Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Commission (ORSANCO), in cooperation with the United States EPA, is completing it role in assisting the Baltic Countries of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia with watershed management capacity building demonstration projects under the Great Lakes/Baltic Sea Partnership Program. The Countries of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania view the skills gained through this program as important to their objective of complying with the European Union's Water Framework Directive and thus facilitating accession into the European Union. The program also addressed Kaliningrad's desire to work cooperatively with their neighboring countries concerning shared waters. Three watershed demonstration projects were designed and implemented, two of which involved joint country efforts: Parnu River (Estonia) modeling for nutrients and bacteria survey; river basin assessment and management planning for the Lielupe Basin (Latvia and Lithuania); and data base development and cooperative water quality survey and analysis for the Sesupe River (Lithuania and Kaliningrad). The benefits of the projects include enhancing the country's technical skills and the forging of relationships, without which achieving effective watershed management will be difficult to achieve. PMID:15137146

Vicory, A; Staniskis, J; Heath, J; Davenport, T

2003-01-01

187

Towards uncertainty estimation for operational forecast products - a multi-model-ensemble approach for the North Sea and the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several independent operational ocean models provide forecasts of the ocean state (e.g. sea level, temperature, salinity and ice cover) in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea on a daily basis. These forecasts are the primary source of information for a variety of information and emergency response systems used e.g. to issue sea level warnings or carry out oil drift forecast. The forecasts are of course highly valuable as such, but often suffer from a lack of information on their uncertainty. With the aim of augmenting the existing operational ocean forecasts in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea by a measure of uncertainty a multi-model-ensemble (MME) system for sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface salinity (SSS) and water transports has been set up in the framework of the MyOcean-2 project. Members of MyOcean-2, the NOOS² and HIROMB/BOOS³ communities provide 48h-forecasts serving as inputs. Different variables are processed separately due to their different physical characteristics. Based on the so far collected daily MME products of SST and SSS, a statistical method, Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis is applied to assess their spatial and temporal variability. For sea surface currents, progressive vector diagrams at specific points are consulted to estimate the performance of the circulation models especially in hydrodynamic important areas, e.g. inflow/outflow of the Baltic Sea, Norwegian trench and English Channel. For further versions of the MME system, it is planned to extend the MME to other variables like e.g. sea level, ocean currents or ice cover based on the needs of the model providers and their customers. It is also planned to include in-situ data to augment the uncertainty information and for validation purposes. Additionally, weighting methods will be implemented into the MME system to develop more complex uncertainty measures. The methodology used to create the MME will be outlined and different ensemble products will be presented. In addition, some preliminary results based on the statistical analysis of the uncertainty measures provide first estimates of the regional and temporal performance of the ocean models for each parameter. ²Northwest European Shelf Operational Oceanography System ³High-resolution Operational Model of the Baltic / Baltic Operational Oceanographic System

Golbeck, Inga; Li, Xin; Janssen, Frank

2014-05-01

188

Long-Term Prospects for Nordic-Baltic Security: Diagnostic Statements by Governments in the Baltic Sea Region, December 1996-July 1997.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nordic, Baltic and Russian policymakers' own statements are used to convey their thinking about their country's security environment during the months before NATO's Madrid summit in July 1997. The time seemed ripe for a shift of alignments for the former ...

O. F. Knudsen

1997-01-01

189

An ecological model evaluation of two nutrient abatement strategies for the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reduction of nutrient loads is the overriding strategy in order to abate eutrophication and to improve the ecological state of the Baltic Sea. A 3D-ecosystem model of the Baltic Sea was used to analyze the effects of two different 50% nitrogen and phosphorus load reduction scenarios. The first scenario assumed a proportional 50% load reduction in all riparian countries. The second was based on a cost-effective approach by Gren [I.-M. Gren, 2000. Managing a sea. Cost-Effective Nutrient Reduction To The Baltic Sea. Earthscan Publ., London. Ch. 43-56.] with significant regional differences in load reduction. The simulations suggest that a 50% reduction of nitrogen and phosphorus loads affect predominantly the coastal waters and favours cyanobacteria blooms in the central Baltic Sea. In the cost-effective approach, blooms of the potentially toxic cyanobacteria become even more pronounced in the northern part of the Baltic Proper. The comparison between the two 50% reduction scenarios reveals differences mainly in coastal waters. Near large rivers in the southern Baltic, like the Oder and the Vistula, the cost-effective scenario shows a greater decrease of nutrients and chlorophyll- a concentrations. Altogether the water quality in southern Baltic Sea, especially in Germany, Poland and the Baltic states benefits from a cost-effective approach. However, differences in nutrient and chlorophyll- a concentrations between the scenarios are small. Referring to our simulation results, in a medium-term perspective the measures to abate eutrophication in the Baltic Sea will be not very efficient concerning the central Baltic Sea and might generate undesirable summer blooms of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria. These are a result of nutrient imbalances in the system and may persist for several decades. A more pronounced and early reduction of the phosphorus loads might shorten the period of bloom persistence.

Neumann, Thomas; Schernewski, Gerald

2005-05-01

190

Expansion, geometry, and gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In general-relativistic cosmological models, the expansion history, matter content, and geometry are closely intertwined. In this brief paper, we clarify the distinction between the effects of geometry and expansion history on the luminosity distance. We show that the cubic correction to the Hubble law, measured recently with high-redshift supernovae, is the first cosmological measurement, apart from the cosmic microwave background,

Robert R. Caldwell; Marc Kamionkowski

2004-01-01

191

Virial Expansion Bounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 1960s, the technique of using cluster expansion bounds in order to achieve bounds on the virial expansion was developed by Lebowitz and Penrose (J. Math. Phys. 5:841, 1964) and Ruelle (Statistical Mechanics: Rigorous Results. Benjamin, Elmsford, 1969). This technique is generalised to more recent cluster expansion bounds by Poghosyan and Ueltschi (J. Math. Phys. 50:053509, 2009), which are related to the work of Procacci (J. Stat. Phys. 129:171, 2007) and the tree-graph identity, detailed by Brydges (Phénomènes Critiques, Systèmes Aléatoires, Théories de Jauge. Les Houches 1984, pp. 129-183, 1986). The bounds achieved by Lebowitz and Penrose can also be sharpened by doing the actual optimisation and achieving expressions in terms of the Lambert W-function. The different bound from the cluster expansion shows some improvements for bounds on the convergence of the virial expansion in the case of positive potentials, which are allowed to have a hard core.

Tate, Stephen James

2013-10-01

192

Sea Salt Source Function over the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of production and transport of aerosol over the sea are very important for many areas of knowledge. Marine aerosol emitted from the sea surface helps to clean the boundary layer from other aerosol particles. The emitted droplets do not dry out in the highly humid surface layer air and because of their sizes most of them are deposited quickly at the sea surface. Therefore, marine aerosol has many features of rain i.e. the deposition in the marine boundary layer in high wind events is controlled not only by the "dry" processes but also by the "wet" scavenging. While many cruises conducted on board S/Y Oceania, we collected many data which were used to calculate sea salt source function over the Baltic Sea. Our cruises held between 2009 and 2012. Measurements were carried out using gradient method. For this method we used Laser Particle Counter (PMS model CSASP-100_HV) placed on one oft the mast of S/Y Oceania. Measurements were performed on five different levels around sea level: 8, 11, 14, 17 and 20 meters. Based on the averaged vertical concentration, profiles were calculated, using Monin-Obuchow theory, vertical sea spray fluxes in the near water layer. Based on fluxes calculated from vertical concentration profiles was calculated sea salt source function over the Baltic Sea. This function gives emission for different particle size, depending on environmental parameters. Emission of sea spray depends of the size of energy lost by the wind waves in process of collapse. Acknowledgements: The support for this study was provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBa?tyk founded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract No. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09.

Petelski, Tomasz; Makuch, Przemyslaw; Markuszewski, Piotr; Jankowski, Andrzej; Zieli?ski, Tymon

2013-04-01

193

Lead mobilization during tectonic reactivation of the western Baltic Shield  

SciTech Connect

Lead isotope data from sulfide deposits of the western part of the Baltic Shield define mixing lines in the [sup 206]Pb/[sup 204]Pb-[sup 207]Pb/[sup 204]Pb diagram. Lead from two types of sulfide deposits have been investigated: (1) Exhalative and volcanogenic deposits that are syngenetic with their host rocks; and (2) vein deposits. The syngenetic deposits locally show a very wide range of lead isotopic compositions that reflect a variable addition of highly radiogenic lead, while the vein deposits, although they have radiogenic lead isotopic compositions, exhibit only limited isotopic variations. In different provinces of the shield, both types of deposits fall on the same lead mixing array. The slope of the lead mixing lines varies as a function of the age of basement rocks and the age of the tectonic event which produced the lead mobilization and therefore relates the source rock age with the age of lead mobilization. Calculated mixing ages fall into several short time periods that correspond either to orogenic events or to major phases of continental rifting. The orogenic events are the ca 360--430 Ma Caledonian, ca 900--1100 Ma Sveconorwegian, and the ca 1800--1900 Ma Svecofennian orogenic cycles. The rifting events correspond to the formation of the ca 280 Ma Oslo rift and the Ordovician (ca 450 Ma) graben system in the area of the present Gulf of Bothnia. Each mixing age indicates that lead was mobilized, probably as a consequence of mild thermal disturbances, and that the crust was permeable to lead migration. The data show that the geographic distribution of sulfide deposits with highly radiogenic lead isotopic compositions coincides with old graben systems, orogenic belts, and orogenic forelands on the Baltic Shield. The ages of vein deposits and their geographic distribution demonstrate multiple tectonic reactivation of the interior of the Baltic Shield in response to orogenic events at its margin. 68 refs., 6 refs., 4 tabs.

Romer, R.L. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States) Luleaa Univ. (Sweden)); Wright, J.E. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States))

1993-06-01

194

Unique Baltic Outcrops Reveal Millennia of Ecological Changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Throughout Earth's history, tectonic forces, often violent and unpredictable, have been responsible for exposing geological formations to scientific scrutiny. But forces of uplift are not restricted to plate boundaries. For example, when looking at forested coastal dunes bordering placid Curonian Lagoon along the Lithuanian coast of the Baltic Sea, one hardly suspects that any powerful forces are at work. Yet this is a site where massive migrating hills of sand have put pressure on the deep strata of the ancient lagoon, forcing its sediments to the surface and offering rare access to fossils of the Holocene, which spans the past 10,000 years.

Buynevich, Ilya V.; Bitinas, Albertas; Damušyt?, Aldona; Pupienis, Donatas

2010-03-01

195

Measurements of Scattering Function of sea water in Southern Baltic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Volume Scattering Functions (VSF) were measured in Southern Baltic area. The instrument used to this aim allow to measure in full range of angles and for four wavelengths. Obtained characteristics create the set of data which is need to solve the radiative transfer equation. Measured functions were compared with Petzold Average-Particle Phase Function. Spectral variations of measured scattering coefficients and backscattering coefficients are presented. Furthermore the instability of measured scattering ratios is discussed in this paper. Such instability have not been mentioned in the literature before.

Freda, W.; Król1, T.; Martynov, O. V.; Shybanov, E. B.; Hapter, R.

2007-05-01

196

Geophysics of sea ice in the Baltic Sea: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With improved observation methods, increased winter navigation, and increased awareness of the climate and environmental changes, research on the Baltic Sea ice conditions has become increasingly active. Sea ice has been recognized as a sensitive indicator for changes in climate. Although the inter-annual variability in the ice conditions is large, a change towards milder ice winters has been detected from the time series of the maximum annual extent of sea ice and the length of the ice season. On the basis of the ice extent, the shift towards a warmer climate took place in the latter half of the 19th century. On the other hand, data on the ice thickness, which are mostly limited to the land-fast ice zone, basically do not show clear trends during the 20th century, except that during the last 20 years the thickness of land-fast ice has decreased. Due to difficulties in measuring the pack-ice thickness, the total mass of sea ice in the Baltic Sea is, however, still poorly known. The ice extent and length of the ice season depend on the indices of the Arctic Oscillation and North Atlantic Oscillation. Sea ice dynamics, thermodynamics, structure, and properties strongly interact with each other, as well as with the atmosphere and the sea. The surface conditions over the ice-covered Baltic Sea show high spatial variability, which cannot be described by two surface types (such as ice and open water) only. The variability is strongly reflected to the radiative and turbulent surface fluxes. The Baltic Sea has served as a testbed for several developments in the theory of sea ice dynamics. Experiences with advanced models have increased our understanding on sea ice dynamics, which depends on the ice thickness distribution, and in turn redistributes the ice thickness. During the latest decade, advance has been made in studies on sea ice structure, surface albedo, penetration of solar radiation, sub-surface melting, and formation of superimposed ice and snow ice. A high vertical resolution has been found as a prerequisite to successfully model thermodynamic processes during the spring melt period. A few observations have demonstrated how the river discharge and ice melt affect the stratification of the oceanic boundary layer below the ice and the oceanic heat flux to the ice bottom. In general, process studies on ice-ocean interaction have been rare. In the future, increasingly multidisciplinary studies are needed with close links between sea ice physics, geochemistry and biology.

Vihma, Timo; Haapala, Jari

2009-03-01

197

Baltic Sea Region: GIS, Maps and Statistical Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United Nations Environment Programme GRID-Arendal information center, UNEP/GRID-Arendal (described in the June 24, 1998 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) has recently released these data sets for the Baltic Sea Region. The data sets cover Arable Lands (350 K), Land and Ocean/Coastline (830 K), Land Cover (710 K), Pasture Lands (270 K), Population Density (890 K), Sub-watershed Drainage Basins (520 K), and Wetlands Distribution (10 K) and are downloadable as compressed files (.zip format). Instructions for downloading, and descriptions of parameters are provided on site.

198

PREFACE: 5th Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Logo This Volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering presents a selection of the contributions to the 5th Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials (BaltSilica2011) held at Riga Technical University, Riga, Latvia from 23-25 May 2011. The conference was organized by Riga Technical University (Latvia) and Kaunas University of Technology (Lithuania). The series of Baltic conferences on silicate materials was started since 2004: the first conference was held in Riga, Latvia, 2004; the second conference was held in Kaunas, Lithuania 2005; the third was held again in Riga, Latvia, 2007, and the fourth was held in Kaunas, Lithuania 2009. BaltSilica 2011 was attended by around 50 participants from Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Germany, Poland, Italy, France, Ukraine and Russia. In comparison with previous silicate materials conferences, the broadening of participating countries is an indication of the interest of scientists, engineers and students to exchange research ideas, latest results, and to find new research topics for cooperation in the fields of silicate, high temperature materials, and inorganic nanomaterials. The scientific programme included 8 invited plenary lectures 23 oral presentations and 25 posters [1]. Scientific themes covered in the conference and in this special issue: Natural and Artificial Stone Materials; Traditional and New Ceramic and Glass-Like Materials; Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials. This volume consists of 23 selected proceeding papers. The Editor of this special issue is grateful to all the contributors to BaltSilica 2011. I am also very grateful to the scientific committee, the local organizing committee, the session chairs, the referees who refereed the submitted articles to this issue, and to students from the Department of Silicate, High Temperature and Inorganic Nanomaterials Technology of the Riga Technical University who ensured the smooth running of the conference. Particular thanks goes to eight plenary speakers who provided interesting findings and thoughtful overviews in the scientific themes of the conference. Special thanks go to Prof., Dr.rer.nat. Günther Heinz Frischat (Germany) who encouraged and supported the organization of these scientific meetings from the very first BaltSilica conferences. With warm regards and best wishes for the next BaltSilica conference. The Conference Chairman Gundars Mezinskis Reference [1] Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials. Book of abstracts of the 5th Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials BaltSilica 2011 : 23-25 May 2011, Riga, Latvia ed G Mezinskis, G Sedmale, J Setina, I Sperberga, L Krage, I Pavlovska, D Andersone (Riga: RTU Publishing House) p 94

Mezinskis, G.; Bragina, L.; Colombo, P.; Frischat, G. H.; Grabis, J.; Greil, P.; Deja, J.; Kaminskas, R.; Kliava, J.; Medvids, A.; Nowak, I.; Siauciunas, R.; Valancius, Z.; Zalite, I.

2011-12-01

199

Stratification-induced hypoxia as a structuring factor of macrozoobenthos in the open Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term (1965-2000) changes of macrozoobenthos and hydrography have been studied in the Gulf of Finland (GoF). For the first time, statistical multivariate time series analysis is applied to Baltic Sea data to verify the relationship between biota and interacting environmental factors causing large-scale hypoxia in the open sea. For macrozoobenthos, a consistent long-term development of the assemblages was found over the study area. In the period before the 1990s, very sparse macrozoobenthos prevailed, followed by a notable expansion of macrofauna between the late 1980s and early 1990s and leading to a maximum of total abundance and species number between 1991 and 1996. After that, a sudden collapse of the communities took place in 1996-1997. The hydrographical changes included a continuous decrease in salinity and density stratification until the early 1990s, after which an increase took place again. In contrast, low mean and minimum dissolved oxygen concentrations were observed at the beginning of the study period, followed by increasing values in the late 1980s and early 1990s, and a simultaneous decline of oxygen conditions in 1996. Based on non-linear trends estimated by dynamic factor analysis (DFA), high and significant correlations were found between total macrofauna abundance, number of species, salinity, oxygen conditions, strength of stratification and freshwater run-off. The results confirm that oxygen is obviously a fundamental factor that determines the state of the macrozoobenthos in the deep GoF, overruling other abiotic factors. However, the improvement of the oxygen conditions is apparently caused by the long-term decrease of salinity and loss of stratification in the relatively shallow GoF, reflecting large-scale changes in hydrography of the Baltic Sea during the long 1977-1993 stagnation period. Thus the development in GoF is opposite to the deeper basins in the central Baltic. We conclude that salinity and stratification are probably linked with climatic variability via freshwater run-off, which may be important in regulating the oxygen conditions and state of macrozoobenthos in GoF.

Laine, Ari O.; Andersin, Ann-Britt; Leiniö, Sari; Zuur, Alain F.

2007-01-01

200

SatBa?tyk - a project for satellite remote sensing of the Baltic ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main aim of the five-year SatBa?tyk (2010-2014) research project (Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment) is to prepare the technical infrastructure and set in motion operational procedures for the satellite monitoring of the Baltic environment. This system is to characterize on a routine basis the structural and functional properties of this sea on the basis of data supplied by the relevant satellites. The characterization and large-scale dissemination of the following properties of the Baltic is anticipated: the solar radiation influx to the sea's waters in various spectral intervals, energy balances of the short- and long-wave radiation at the Baltic Sea surface and in the upper layers of the atmosphere over the Baltic, sea surface temperature distribution, dynamic states of the water surface, concentrations of chlorophyll a and other phytoplankton pigments in the Baltic water, distributions of algal blooms, the occurrence of upwelling events, and the characteristics of primary organic matter production and photosynthetically released oxygen in the water. It is also intended to develop and, where feasible, to implement satellite techniques for detecting slicks of petroleum derivatives and other compounds, evaluating the state of the sea's ice cover, and forecasting the hazards from current and future storms and providing evidence of their effects in the Baltic coastal zone. The ultimate objective of the project is to implement an operational system for the routine determination and dissemination on the Internet of the above-mentioned features of the Baltic in the form of distribution maps as well as plots, tables and descriptions characterizing the state of the various elements of the Baltic environment

Wozniak, B.; Bradtke, K.; Darecki, M.; Dera, J.; Dudzinska-Nowak, J.; Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, L.; Ficek, D.; Furmanczyk, K.; Kowalewski, M.; Krezel, A.; Majchrowski, R.; Ostrowska, M.; Paszkuta, M.; Ston-Egiert, J.; Stramska, M.; Zapadka, T.

2012-04-01

201

Evidence for adaptive phenotypic differentiation in Baltic Sea sticklebacks.  

PubMed

The evidence for adaptive phenotypic differentiation in mobile marine species remains scarce, partly due to the difficulty of obtaining quantitative genetic data to demonstrate the genetic basis of the observed phenotypic differentiation. Using a combination of phenotypic and molecular genetic approaches, we elucidated the relative roles of natural selection and genetic drift in explaining lateral plate number differentiation in threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) across the entire Baltic Sea basin (approximately 392 000 km(2) ). We found that phenotypic differentiation (PST  = 0.213) in plate number exceeded that in neutral markers (FST  = 0.008), suggesting an adaptive basis for the observed differentiation. Because a close correspondence was found between plate phenotype and genotype at a quantitative trait loci (QTL; STN381) tightly linked to the gene (Ectodysplasin) underlying plate variation, the evidence for adaptive differentiation was confirmed by comparison of FST at the QTL (FSTQ  = 0.089) with FST at neutral marker loci. Hence, the results provide a comprehensive demonstration of adaptive phenotypic differentiation in a high-gene-flow marine environment with direct, rather than inferred, verification for the genetic basis of this differentiation. In general, the results illustrate the utility of PST -FST -FSTQ comparisons in uncovering footprints of natural selection and evolution and add to the growing evidence for adaptive genetic differentiation in high-gene-flow marine environments, including that of the relatively young Baltic Sea. PMID:23859314

Defaveri, J; Merilä, J

2013-08-01

202

Structural evolution and petroleum productivity of the Baltic basin  

SciTech Connect

The Baltic basin is an oval depression located in the western part of the Russian craton; it occupies the eastern Baltic Sea and adjacent onshore areas. The basin contains more than 5,000 m of sedimentary rocks ranging from latest Proterozoic to Tertiary in age. These rocks consist of four tectonostratigraphic sequences deposited during major tectonic episodes of basin evolution. Principal unconformities separate the sequences. The basin is underlain by a rift probably filled with Upper Proterozoic rocks. Vendian and Lower Cambrian rocks (Baikalian sequence) form two northeast-trending depressions. The principal stage of the basin development was during deposition of a thick Middle Cambrian-Lower Devonian (Caledonian) sequence. This stage was terminated by the most intense deformations in the basin history. The Middle Devonian-Carboniferous (Hercynian) and Permian-Tertiary (Kimmerian-Alpine) tectonic and depositional cycles only slightly modified the basin geometry and left intact the main structural framework of underlying rocks. The petroleum productivity of the basin is related to the Caledonian tectonostratigraphic sequence that contains both source rocks and reservoirs. However, maturation of source rocks, migration of oil, and formation of fields took place mostly during deposition of the Hercynian sequence.

Ulmishek, G.F. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States))

1991-08-01

203

Anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus diet in the North and Baltic Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diet of anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicolus) in the North and Baltic Seas was studied using stomach analysis from four sampling events in different areas. Zooplanktivory was confirmed; the most frequent prey items (in over 40% of stomachs) were copepods, malacostracan larvae and fish larvae. In the Baltic Sea, Paracalanus spp. and Pseudocalanus spp. were important in relative terms; in the German Bight, Temora spp. dominated the stomach contents. Relative abundances of prey items varied with area more than absolute abundance or presence absence of items. Moreover, the level of resolution of prey categories influenced which prey categories were considered to be most important in driving variability in stomach content. Anchovy diet is broad across the seasons, years and areas sampled, suggesting that it is not a specialist feeder in the North Sea. The similarity of diet between anchovy and other clupeids, as well as anchovy consumption of larval fish, makes the new increased anchovy population a potential intraguild predator of commercial species like herring.

Raab, K.; Nagelkerke, L. A. J.; Boerée, C.; Rijnsdorp, A. D.; Temming, A.; Dickey-Collas, M.

2011-01-01

204

Thermal Expansion "Paradox."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a paradox in the equation for thermal expansion. If the calculations for heating a rod and subsequently cooling a rod are determined, the new length of the cool rod is shorter than expected. (PR)

Fakhruddin, Hasan

1993-01-01

205

Expansive Cements and Their Use.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary purpose of shrinkage-compensating expansive cement concrete is to minimize cracking in concrete pavements and structures caused by drying shrinkage. The paper reviews the various types of expansive cements and their properties. The expansive m...

G. C. Hoff

1972-01-01

206

Quantitative Analysis of Urban Expansion in Central China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantifying urban expansion forms is important to understanding regional urbanization processes and urban planning. For this purpose, conventional landscape indices are commonly used for quantitative analysis of urban landscape patterns. However, these landscape indices only reflect information for one particular temporal phase of landscape patterns. This paper studies and quantifies the dynamic changes of urban landscape from 1993 to 2006 in Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan metropolitan areas in Hunan province of China using landscape expansion index (LEI), which contains information of the formation processes of landscape patterns. The results indicate that there are three types of urban expansions: infilling, edge-expansion and outlying in the study area. The change of proportion of the three urban expansion types reveals that urban expansion patterns have changed from a messy, dispersed early development phase to more compact and reasonable layout from 1993 to 2006. Moreover, the urban expansion modes varied in different periods. From 1993 to 1996, the edge-expansion and outlying were the main types of urban expansion forms, indicating an early stage of rapid urban developments. Comparing with the edge-expansion, the outlying expansion increased rapidly in this period, which indicates urban development is messy and dispersion. Overall, the edge-expansion was the major type of urban expansion form during the study period with outlying as the second and rapidly-increasing major form of expansion prior to 1998, which indicates urbanization is in the early stage of rapid urban developments, and infilling as the second and rapidly-increasing major form of expansion after 1998.

Zeng, Y.; Xu, Y.; Li, S.; He, L.; Yu, F.; Zhen, Z.; Cai, C.

2012-08-01

207

Multispecies Virial Expansions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the virial expansion of mixtures of countably many different types of particles. The main tool is the Lagrange-Good inversion formula, which has other applications such as counting coloured trees or studying probability generating functions in multi-type branching processes. We prove that the virial expansion converges absolutely in a domain of small densities. In addition, we establish that the virial coefficients can be expressed in terms of two-connected graphs.

Jansen, Sabine; Tate, Stephen J.; Tsagkarogiannis, Dimitrios; Ueltschi, Daniel

2014-03-01

208

Multipole expansion in magnetostatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We derive the multipole expansions of the magnetostatic field and vector potential of an arbitrary steady current density. A simplifying parametrization of the (l+1)th-order tensor of lth-order moments of the current density in terms of an lth-order tensor bi1...il allows us to derive all orders in the multipole expansions using only Cartesian coordinates of tensors. We do not use a

H. González; S. R. Juárez; P. Kielanowski; Mark Loewe

1998-01-01

209

Expansion of Hanford concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents results of measurements of thermal expansion of concrete cores from Hanford, Washington facilities, and concrete cast at the Construction Technology Laboratories of Portland Cement Association (CTL\\/PCA). Thermal expansion was measured from room temperature to 1600°F on 0.5 x 3.0-in. specimens heated at a rate of 10°F\\/min. Specimens were cored from concrete cylinders cast at CTL\\/PCA in 1975

Gillen

1978-01-01

210

Linking denitrifier community structure and prevalent biogeochemical parameters in the pelagial of the central Baltic Proper (Baltic Sea).  

PubMed

The oxic-anoxic interface of the water column of the Gotland Basin (central Baltic Sea) is characterised by defined biogeochemical gradients and is hypothesised to be a zone of pronounced denitrification. Our aim was to analyse the composition and distribution of pelagic denitrifying microorganisms in relation to the physico-chemical gradients in the water column. PCR-amplified nirS genes--coding for dissimilatory nitrite reductase--were analysed as functional markers by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and cloning. The overall nirS diversity was low, with the lowest levels found at the oxic-anoxic interface. Only a few terminal restriction fragments dominated the denitrifier communities throughout the water column, and these could be assigned to several new Baltic Sea clusters that were revealed by phylogenetic analysis. The novel clusters were separated in two groups corresponding to the oxygen concentrations within specific layers of the water column. Gradients of prevalent biogeochemical parameters (H(2)S, NH(4) (+), NO(3) (-) and O(2)) largely determined the composition of the nirS-type denitrifier communities within the water column of the Gotland Basin. PMID:16867144

Hannig, Michael; Braker, Gesche; Dippner, Joachim; Jürgens, Klaus

2006-08-01

211

Reluctant Rapprochement: Russia and the Baltic States in the Context of NATO and EU Enlargements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Throughout the 1990s Russia resisted the Baltic states' striving for NATO membership by using military threats, political blackmail and economic pressure, but when this did not work, it reluctantly accepted the process. The improved relations with USA and...

I. Oldberg

2003-01-01

212

Radioactive pollution of the waters of the baltic sea during 1986  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented from an investigation of radioactive pollution of the waters of the Baltic Sea during 1986. Inhomogeneities in the pollution of this area of water, due to varying density of atmospheric radioactive fallout, are detected. It is found that among the radionuclides entering the surface of the Baltic Sea in 1986 as a result of atmospheric transport, the main one in terms of radiation dose is cesium-137. Comparisons are made of the level of cesium-137 content in the waters of the Baltic Sea in 1986 and in preceding years. It is noted that even in the most polluted regions of the sea the cesium-137 content was 500 times less than the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) in the USSR for drinking water. The first results of the determination of plutonium-239 and 240 in the Baltic Sea are presented.

Lazarev, L.N.; Kuznetsov, Yu.V.; Gedeonov, L.I.; Gavrilov, V.M.; Gritchenko, Z.G.; Ivanova, L.M.; Orlova, T.E.; Tishkova, N.A.

1989-01-01

213

Universities and Adult Education in Central and East European and Baltic Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of adult education in the Baltic States and Central and Eastern Europe in terms of noncredit education (university extension), professional continuing education, part-time degree study, distance education, adult educator training, and research. (SK)

Kulich, Jindra

1996-01-01

214

Intrusion of radioactive industrially polluted water from North Sea into central Baltic Sea  

SciTech Connect

The problem of penetration of radioactive industrially polluted water into the central Baltic Sea was studied. The content of Cs-134 as determined in water near the bottom of deep water trenches along the path traveled by North Sea water entering the Baltic. Samples were taken at 5 locations, with Cs-134 concentrated from samples of several thousands of liters. It was found that radioactive pollution caused by the entry of water from the North Sea extends through the system of deep water depressions into the Baltic as far as the Gotland trench. The greatest degree of contamination is found in the Arkona depression adjacent to the straits. The concentration of Cs-134 in the Gdansk trench is one-half as great and in the Gotland trench one-third as great as in the Arkona depression. Radioactive contamination in the Baltic is attributed to discharge of radioactive wastes by plants at Windscale.

Vakulovskiy, S.M.; Nikitin, A.I.

1985-02-01

215

Bioaccumulation of mercury in the trophic chain of flatfish from the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Mercury concentrations in three flatfish species - flounder (Platichtys flesus), plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), and Baltic turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), netted in the southern Baltic Sea were assessed and compared to concentrations of this metal in sediments, sea water, and flatfish food - bivalve Macoma balthica, isopod Saduria entomon, and sprat (Sprattus sprattus). Collected simultaneously with flatfish in 2009 and 2010. Different concentrations of mercury depending on species, tissue or organ, sex, individual length, kind of food, and region were determined. The muscle tissues of turbot had the highest concentrations of the metal. The bioaccumulation (BF) and biomagnification (BMF) factors has been counted showing that the muscle tissues of turbot have maximum affinity for mercury, and thus best reflected the metal contamination of the Baltic Sea environment. The data suggest that the common Baltic turbot (S. maximus) is an important model species, suitable and cost-effective to biomonitor environmental mercury pollution for ecological research. PMID:22704208

Polak-Juszczak, Lucyna

2012-10-01

216

Model simulation of inflow water to the Baltic Sea based on ¹²?I.  

PubMed

The semi-enclosed Baltic Sea represents a vital economic and recreational resource for more than 90 million people inhabiting its coasts. Extensive contamination of this sea by a variety of anthropogenic pollutants has raised the concern of the people in the region. Quantifying seawater inflow is crucial for estimating potential environmental risks as well as to find the best remedial strategy. We present here a model to estimate water inflow from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea by utilizing ¹²?I as a tracer. The results predicted inflow range of 230-450 km³/y with best fit value around 330 km³/y from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea during 1980-1999. Despite limited time series data on ¹²?I, the model presented here demonstrates a new management tool for the Baltic Sea to calculate inflow water compared to conventional methods (such as salinity, temperature and hydrographic models). PMID:24056000

Yi, P; Chen, X G; Bao, D X; Qian, R Z; Aldahan, A; Tian, F Y; Possnert, G; Bryhn, A C; Gu, T F; Hou, X L; He, P; Yu, Z B; Wang, B

2013-12-01

217

Transformation and Deposition of Airborne Gaseous and Particulate Pollutants During Transport over the Baltic Sea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Researchers used the concentration data and meteorological information collected during a cruise over the Baltic Sea in April-June, 1985, to study transformation and deposition processes of atmospheric pollutants in marine conditions. A simple Lagrangian-...

V. T. Lindfors S. M. Joffre

1989-01-01

218

Attitudes of Major Soviet Nationalities. Volume II. The Baltics. Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Baltic nationalities described in this volume -- the Estonians, the Latvians, and the Lithuanians -- are in a number of ways a distinctive group within the USSR. They are commonly regarded as the most 'Western' among the Soviet nationalities. They sha...

1973-01-01

219

Reconstructing the Younger Dryas ice dammed lake in the Baltic Basin: Bathymetry, area and volume  

Microsoft Academic Search

A digital 3D-reconstruction of the Baltic Ice Lake's (BIL) configuration during the termination of the Younger Dryas cold phase (ca. 11700 cal. yr BP) was compiled using a combined bathymetric–topographic Digital Terrain Model (DTM), Scandinavian ice sheet limits, Baltic Sea Holocene bottom sediment thickness information, and a paleoshoreline database maintained at the Lund University. The bathymetric–topographic DTM, assembled from publicly available

Martin Jakobsson; Svante Björck; Göran Alm; Thomas Andrén; Greger Lindeberg; Nils-Olof Svensson

2007-01-01

220

Water balance modelling in the Baltic Sea drainage basin – analysis of meteorological and hydrological approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary   Efforts to understand and simulate the global climate in numerical models have led to regional studies of the energy and\\u000a water balance. The Baltic Basin provides a continental scale test basin where meteorology, oceanography and hydrology all\\u000a can meet. Using a simple conceptual approach, a large-scale hydrological model of the water balance of the total Baltic Sea\\u000a Drainage Basin

L. P. Graham; S. Bergström

2001-01-01

221

Seasonality of coastal phytoplankton in the Baltic Sea: Influence of salinity and eutrophication  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study long-term (1984–2001) phytoplankton and physico-chemical monitoring data representing different salinity regimes of the Baltic Sea were compiled from HELCOM, national and regional databases. The aim was to define seasonal succession patterns of phytoplankton in seven different areas of the Baltic sea, characterised by different salinity, climate, and trophic conditions and to delineate a set of phytoplankton community

Z. R. Gasi?nait?; A. C. Cardoso; A.-S. Heiskanen; P. Henriksen; P. Kauppila; I. Olenina; R. Pilkaityte; I. Purina; A. Razinkovas; S. Sagert; H. Schubert; N. Wasmund

2005-01-01

222

Heavy?metal pollution in surficial sediments from the Southern Baltic sea off Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gulf of Gda?sk is one of the pollution “hot spots”; of the Baltic Sea. In order to investigate heavy?metal pollution there, 31 bulk (<2 mm), surficial sediments from the Gulf of Gda?sk and the southern Baltic Sea were analyzed for 20 elements. Cobalt, Ni, Cs, Rb, Fe, Mg, Li, and K covary with Al and display an enrichment factor

P. Szefer; K. Szefer; G. P. Glasby; J. Pempkowiak; R. Kaliszan

1996-01-01

223

Tritium volume activity in the Baltic Sea in 1987-1989  

SciTech Connect

Tritium volume activities measured in the Baltic Sea are summarized in this paper. Activity levels were determined by the liquid scintillation method with a LS-1000 counter. The field investigations showed that the tritium volume activity in the Baltic Sea can change substantially in absolute magnitude. Therefore, average volume activity is used as an indicator of natural content. Correlations between calculated (averaged) tritium activity levels and the Chernobyl accident are very briefly discussed. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Styro, D.B.; Korotkov, V.P. [St. Petersburg Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

1994-11-01

224

A three-dimensional baroclinic eddy-resolving model of the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional eddy-resolving baroclinic model of the Baltic Sea is presented. The model comprises the whole Baltic Sea including the Gulf of Bothnia, the Gulf of Finland, Gulf of Riga as well as the Belt Sea, Kattegat and Skagerrak. With a horizontal resolution of 5km and a discretization of 21 levels in the vertical, the general circulation and mesoscale dynamics

Andreas Lehmann

1995-01-01

225

Geological Structure of the Quaternary Sedimentary Sequence in the Klaip?da Strait, Southeastern Baltic  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Klaip?da Strait is located between the Curonian Spit and the mainland coast of Lithuania. It links the Curonian Lagoon\\u000a with the Baltic Sea. The Quaternary sequence is represented here by Pleistocene sediments formed during a few glaciations\\u000a and interglacials. Its uppermost part is composed of Late glacial and Holocene sediments originating from different stages\\u000a of the Baltic Sea development.

Albertas Bitinas; Aldona Damušyt?; Anatoly Molodkov

226

Accelerating the loop expansion  

SciTech Connect

This thesis introduces a new non-perturbative technique into quantum field theory. To illustrate the method, I analyze the much-studied phi/sup 4/ theory in two dimensions. As a prelude, I first show that the Hartree approximation is easy to obtain from the calculation of the one-loop effective potential by a simple modification of the propagator that does not affect the perturbative renormalization procedure. A further modification then susggests itself, which has the same nice property, and which automatically yields a convex effective potential. I then show that both of these modifications extend naturally to higher orders in the derivative expansion of the effective action and to higher orders in the loop-expansion. The net effect is to re-sum the perturbation series for the effective action as a systematic ''accelerated'' non-perturbative expansion. Each term in the accelerated expansion corresponds to an infinite number of terms in the original series. Each term can be computed explicitly, albeit numerically. Many numerical graphs of the various approximations to the first two terms in the derivative expansion are given. I discuss the reliability of the results and the problem of spontaneous symmetry-breaking, as well as some potential applications to more interesting field theories. 40 refs.

Ingermanson, R.

1986-07-29

227

The great human expansion  

PubMed Central

Genetic and paleoanthropological evidence is in accord that today’s human population is the result of a great demic (demographic and geographic) expansion that began approximately 45,000 to 60,000 y ago in Africa and rapidly resulted in human occupation of almost all of the Earth’s habitable regions. Genomic data from contemporary humans suggest that this expansion was accompanied by a continuous loss of genetic diversity, a result of what is called the “serial founder effect.” In addition to genomic data, the serial founder effect model is now supported by the genetics of human parasites, morphology, and linguistics. This particular population history gave rise to the two defining features of genetic variation in humans: genomes from the substructured populations of Africa retain an exceptional number of unique variants, and there is a dramatic reduction in genetic diversity within populations living outside of Africa. These two patterns are relevant for medical genetic studies mapping genotypes to phenotypes and for inferring the power of natural selection in human history. It should be appreciated that the initial expansion and subsequent serial founder effect were determined by demographic and sociocultural factors associated with hunter-gatherer populations. How do we reconcile this major demic expansion with the population stability that followed for thousands years until the inventions of agriculture? We review advances in understanding the genetic diversity within Africa and the great human expansion out of Africa and offer hypotheses that can help to establish a more synthetic view of modern human evolution.

Henn, Brenna M.; Cavalli-Sforza, L. L.; Feldman, Marcus W.

2012-01-01

228

PAH-profiles in sediment cores from the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

To document the historical input the PAH-profiles of sediment cores in two different basins of the Baltic Sea, the Gotland Basin (GB) and Arkona Basin (AB), were analysed by means of GC-MS. 35 PAHs were quantified in all samples, and additionally, several marker PAHs, like Cyclopenta[cd]phenanthrene (CCP) for combustion processes and retene for terrigenous input, were quantified in selected samples. The preindustrial sediments (older than 200-250 years) in the GB core illustrate concentrations <100 ng PAH15 g(-1) d.w. Calculated PAH-ratios indicated combustion processes as the main sources for both basins. The Perylene concentrations within the sediment cores decrease with increasing depth, along with an increase in relative percentage, indicating slow diagenetic processes. The preservation and enrichment of the introduced PAHs was more pronounced in the GB core. PMID:12146840

Ricking, M; Schulz, H M

2002-06-01

229

Bacterial methanogenesis in holocene sediments in the Baltic Sea  

SciTech Connect

Soviet biologists have found evidence of viable methanogenic microorganisms in mud samples collected in 1978 from the Baltic Sea by the research ship Academician Kurchatov. Experiments with radioactive carbon and direct measurements of the samples' methane concentrations led to several conclusions: (1) the process of bacterial methanogenesis occurs mainly via carbon dioxide reduction, (2) the methanogenic intensity depends on the depth of the deposited sediment and its distance from land; shallow-water sediments found in gulfs produced more methane than deepwater ones taken from low spots, (3) organic-matter consumption during bacterial methane reduction makes up 0.14-7.9 mg of carbon/kg of wet mud per year; this is over 20 times less than during bacterial sulfate reduction, (4) The bulk of the methane generated migrates from the muds into the water and (5) marine sediments are undersaturated with methane, suggesting that the methane migrates via filtration of pore waters, not by diffusion.

Lein, A.Y.; Namsaraev, B.B.; Trotsyuk, V.Y.; Ivanov, M.V.

1981-01-01

230

Changes in extreme sea-levels in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a climate change context changes in extreme levels rather than changes in the mean are of particular interest in view of its importance for coastal protection. In this work extreme sea-levels in the Baltic sea are investigated from daily tide gauge records for the period 1916-2005 using the block maxima approach on annual means. Extreme events are analyzed based on the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution considering both stationary and time-varying models. The likelihood ratio test is applied to select between stationary and non-stationary models for the maxima and return values are estimated from the final model. As an independent and complementary approach quantile regression is applied for comparison with the results from extreme value theory. The rates of change in the uppermost quantiles are in general consistent and more pronounced for the northernmost stations.

Ribeiro, Andreia; Barbosa, Susana

2013-04-01

231

Allelopathic activity of the Baltic cyanobacteria against microalgae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this work was to investigate the influence of Baltic cyanobacteria Anabaena variabilis and Nodularia spumigena cells and cell-free filtrates on the growth of green algae Chlorella vulgaris. We have demonstrated that Anabaena variabilis and Nodularia spumigena caused allelopathic effects against microalgae. The cyanobacterial and microalgal cultures were provided on liquid medium, in 22 °C at continuous light. Cell-free filtrates were obtained by centrifugation and filtering aliquots of cyanobacterial cultures (including cultures in exponential and stationary phase of growth). Growth response of free cells (batch culture technique) and immobilized cultures (in alginate beads) of the unicellular green algae to cyanobacteria allelochemicals were tested and compared. In this experiment Anabaena variabilis supressed the growth of microalgae compared to control samples. Nodularia spumigena stimulated the growth of Chlorella vulgaris in most cases, however both positive and negative effects were observed.

?ak, Adam; Musiewicz, Krzysztof; Kosakowska, Alicja

2012-10-01

232

PUMa - modelling the groundwater flow in Baltic Sedimentary Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2009-2012 at University of Latvia and Latvia University of Agriculture project "Establishment of interdisciplinary scientist group and modelling system for groundwater research" is implemented financed by the European Social Fund. The aim of the project is to develop groundwater research in Latvia by establishing interdisciplinary research group and modelling system covering groundwater flow in the Baltic Sedimentary Basin. Researchers from fields like geology, chemistry, mathematical modelling, physics and environmental engineering are involved in the project. The modelling system is used as a platform for addressing scientific problems such as: (1) large-scale groundwater flow in Baltic Sedimentary Basin and impact of human activities on it; (2) the evolution of groundwater flow since the last glaciation and subglacial groundwater recharge; (3) the effects of climate changes on shallow groundwater and interaction of hydrographical network and groundwater; (4) new programming approaches for groundwater modelling. Within the frame of the project most accessible geological information such as description of geological wells, geological maps and results of seismic profiling in Latvia as well as Estonia and Lithuania are collected and integrated into modelling system. For example data form more then 40 thousands wells are directly used to automatically generate the geological structure of the model. Additionally a groundwater sampling campaign is undertaken. Contents of CFC, stabile isotopes of O and H and radiocarbon are the most significant parameters of groundwater that are established in unprecedented scale for Latvia. The most important modelling results will be published in web as a data set. Project number: 2009/0212/1DP/1.1.1.2.0/09/APIA/VIAA/060. Project web-site: www.puma.lu.lv

Kalvane, G.; Marnica, A.; Bethers, U.

2012-04-01

233

Expansion/De-expansion Tool to Quantify the Accuracy of Prostate Contours  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Accurate delineation of the prostate gland on computed tomography (CT) remains a persistent challenge and continues to introduce geometric uncertainty into the planning and delivery of external beam radiotherapy. We, therefore, developed an expansion/de-expansion tool to quantify the contour errors and determine the location of the deviations. Methods and Materials: A planning CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging scan were prospectively acquired for 10 patients with prostate cancer. The prostate glands were contoured by 3 independent observers using the CT data sets with instructions to contour the prostate without underestimation but to minimize overestimation. The standard prostate for each patient was defined using magnetic resonance imaging and CT on multiple planes. After registration of the CT and magnetic resonance imaging data sets, the CT-defined prostates were scored for accuracy. The contours were defined as ideal if they were within a 2.5-mm expansion of the standard without underestimation, acceptable if they were within a 5.0-mm expansion and a 2.5-mm de-expansion, and unacceptable if they extended >5.0 mm or underestimated the prostate by >2.5 mm. Results: A total of 636 CT slices were individually analyzed, with the vast majority scored as ideal or acceptable. However, none of the 30 prostate contour sets had all the contours scored as ideal or acceptable. For all 3 observers, the unacceptable contours were more likely from underestimation than overestimation of the prostate. The errors were more common at the base and apex than the mid-gland. Conclusions: The expansion/de-expansion tool allows for directed feedback on the location of contour deviations, as well as the determination of over- or underestimation of the prostate. This metric might help improve the accuracy of prostate contours.

Chung, Eugene; Stenmark, Matthew H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Evans, Cheryl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Providence Cancer Center, Novi, MI (United States); Narayana, Vrinda [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Providence Cancer Center, Novi, MI (United States); McLaughlin, Patrick W., E-mail: mclaughb@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Providence Cancer Center, Novi, MI (United States)

2012-05-01

234

Urban Expansion Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under an Egyptian government contract, PADCO studies urban growth in the Nile Area. They were assisted by LANDSAT survey maps and measurements provided by TAC. TAC had classified the raw LANDSAT data and processed it into various categories to detail urban expansion. PADCO crews spot checked the results, and correlations were established.

1985-01-01

235

Static gas expansion cooler  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a cooler for television cameras and other temperature sensitive equipment. The cooler uses compressed gas ehich is accelerated to a high velocity by passing it through flow passageways having nozzle portions which expand the gas. This acceleration and expansion causes the gas to undergo a decrease in temperature thereby cooling the cooler body and adjacent temperature sensitive equipment.

Guzek, J.C.; Lujan, R.A.

1984-01-01

236

Icy heritage: ecological evolution of the postglacial Baltic Sea reflected in the allozymes of a living fossil, the priapulid Halicryptus spinulosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variation of 16 allozyme loci in 397 Halicryptus spinulosus (Priapulida) revealed overall polymorphism of P=0.438 and Hardy-Weinberg expectations for heterozygosity of He=0.060 for Baltic Sea stocks, He=0.143 for the White Sea and He=0.121 for Iceland. Maximal unbiased standard distances of D=0.0693 separated Baltic and White Sea populations. Nordic and Baltic populations could be distinguished by allozymes, but Baltic subsamples

A. Schreiber; M. Eisinger; H. Rumohr; V. Storch

1996-01-01

237

US foreign policy and the Baltic states. Master`s thesis  

SciTech Connect

This thesis examines U. S. foreign policy toward the Baltic states from 1918 to 1991 to determine if the U.S. has been realistic in its dealings with small nations. An analysis of U.S. policy indicates that the United States acts hypocritically by accepting compromises on the very moral principals to which it claims to be the protectorate of when domestic political costs are high. The sacrifice of national values degrades the credibility of the moral high ground necessary for U.S. policy. This study reviews the events that occurred during the three major periods in U.S.-Baltic relations: The initial period of Baltic independence following World War I; the Soviet annexation of the Baltics during World War II: and finally the beginning of the second period of Baltic independence during the breakup of the Soviet Union. In all three cases U.S. policy was unclear and contradictory. The Baltic case provides a good example of the tendency for U.S. policy to be paradoxical and ineffective. This study concludes that despite the U.S. policy of nonrecognition of the Soviet annexation of the Baltic states during the Cold War, the United States failed to adhere to its principals when given the opportunity. In the process, it also neglected problems within its borders that required attention perhaps more urgently than those outside. The tendency for U.S. policy to ignore the issues that actually threaten its security internally and placing a higher priority on external matters that do not have a real impact on its standing could likely lead to its inadvertent downfall.

Shuey, K.A.

1996-03-01

238

Effects of an extensive Prymnesium polylepis bloom on breeding eiders in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of an extensive bloom of the potentially toxic Prymnesium polylepis (Haptophyta) on breeding eiders (Somateria mollissima) in the Baltic Sea were analysed. Increasing abundances of the alternate stage P. polylepis was detected by a marine monitoring programme in the autumn 2007. The bloom peaked between March and May 2008 in the southern, central and northwestern Baltic Proper and abundances of up to 5 × 106 cells l? 1 were recorded. At several sites P. polylepis constituted between 30 and 90% of the total phytoplankton biovolume. The flagellate was only recorded in low numbers in the northeastern Baltic Proper and Gulf of Finland. The abundances were low in 2007, 2009 and 2010. In 28 eider colonies situated in the southern and central Baltic Proper, sharp and synchronous declines in the number of nesting eiders were observed from 2007 to 2008. In colonies on Gotland in the central Baltic Proper, a 76% decrease, from 6650 nests to 1620 nests, was followed by increases in 2009 and 2010, although not up to numbers observed in 2007. At Utklippan and Ertholmene in the southern Baltic Proper, the observed decreases of 55%, from 144 to 65 nests, and 36%, from 1660 to 1060 nests, respectively, between 2007 and 2008, were followed by increases in 2009 and 2010 up to the level observed in 2007. By contrast, no general decline of the number of nesting eiders was observed from 2007 to 2008 in 75 colonies in the northeastern Baltic Proper and Gulf of Finland. Hence, the spatial distribution of the P. polylepis bloom in 2008 closely matched the observed distribution of extensive non-breeding of female eiders. We suggest that the intensive spring bloom of P. polylepis, either through a toxic or non-toxic pathway, affected the main benthic food of eiders, i.e. blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus × Mytilus edulis), at pre-breeding foraging sites close to the breeding sites, and, subsequently, the body condition of adult female eiders and their breeding propensity.

Larsson, K.; Hajdu, S.; Kilpi, M.; Larsson, R.; Leito, A.; Lyngs, P.

2014-04-01

239

Expansion tube test time predictions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interaction of an interface between two gases and strong expansion is investigated and the effect on flow in an expansion tube is examined. Two mechanisms for the unsteady Pitot-pressure fluctuations found in the test section of an expansion tube are proposed. The first mechanism depends on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of the driver-test gas interface in the presence of a strong expansion. The second mechanism depends on the reflection of the strong expansion from the interface. Predictions compare favorably with experimental results. The theory is expected to be independent of the absolute values of the initial expansion tube filling pressures.

Gourlay, Christopher M.

1988-01-01

240

Planning for uncertainty: NYISO planning process and smart grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

To maintain the capability to reliably run the New York power systems and its electricity market, NYISO has developed a comprehensive planning process to systematically address the reliability needs and system expansion under the condition of limited rights-of-way and tight available transmission capability. Market responses to the planning process have been active, and specific technologies have been introduced utilizing ldquosmart

J. Adams; H. Chao; C. Custer; B. Lamanna

2008-01-01

241

Modelling the influence of climate change on the chemical concentrations in the Baltic Sea region with the POPCYCLING-Baltic model.  

PubMed

The effect of projected future changes in temperature, wind speed, precipitation and particulate organic carbon on concentrations of persistent organic chemicals in the Baltic Sea regional environment is evaluated using the POPCYCLING-Baltic multimedia chemical fate model. Steady-state concentrations of hypothetical perfectly persistent chemicals with property combinations that encompass the entire plausible range for non-ionizing organic substances are modelled under two alternative climate change scenarios (IPCC A2 and B2) and compared to a baseline climate scenario. The contributions of individual climate parameters are deduced in model experiments in which only one of the four parameters is changed from the baseline scenario. Of the four selected climate parameters, temperature is the most influential, and wind speed is least. Chemical concentrations in the Baltic region are projected to change by factors of up to 3.0 compared to the baseline climate scenario. For chemicals with property combinations similar to legacy persistent organic pollutants listed by the Stockholm Convention, modelled concentration ratios between two climate change scenarios and the baseline scenario range from factors of 0.5 to 2.0. This study is a first step toward quantitatively assessing climate change-induced changes in the environmental concentrations of persistent organic chemicals in the Baltic Sea region. PMID:24880596

Kong, Deguo; MacLeod, Matthew; Cousins, Ian T

2014-09-01

242

Ultraprecise thermal expansion measurements of seven low expansion materials.  

PubMed

We summarize a large number of ultraprecise thermal expansion measurements made on seven different low expansivity materials. Expansion coefficients in the -150-300 degrees C temperature range are shown for Owens-Illinois Cer-Vit C-101, Corning ULE 7971 (titanium silicate) and fused silica 7940, Heraeus-Schott Zerodur low-expansion material and Homosil fused silica, Universal Cyclops Invar LR-35, and Simonds Saw and Steel Super Invar. PMID:20165397

Berthold Iii, J W; Jacobs, S F

1976-10-01

243

Ultraprecise thermal expansion measurements of seven low expansion materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We summarize a large number of ultraprecise thermal expansion measurements made on seven different low expansivity materials. Expansion coefficients in the -150-300 C temperature range are shown for Owens-Illinois Cer-Vit C-101, Corning ULE 7971 (titanium silicate) and fused silica 7940, Heraeus-Schott Zerodur low-expansion material and Homosil fused silica, Universal Cyclops Invar LR-35, and Simonds Saw and Steel Super Invar.

Berthold, J. W., III; Jacobs, S. F.

1976-01-01

244

Construction Management: Planning Ahead.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains that preconstruction planning is essential when undertaking the challenges of a school building renovation or expansion, focusing on developing a detailed estimate, creating an effective construction strategy, conducting reviews and value-engineering workshops, and realizing savings through effective risk analysis and contingency…

Arsht, Steven

2003-01-01

245

The expansive nondecelerative universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that, among the models of the universe described by Friedmann's (1922, 1924) equations of universe dynamics, the only model which does not contradict observations is the model of a flat expansive nondecelerative universe (ENU), derived by Skalsky and Sukenik (1991, 1992) and Skalsky (1991). This model fulfills the conditions which result from the special theory of relativity, the general theory of relativity, and the quantum mechanics, and unites them in a complementary manner.

Skalsky, Vladimir

1993-03-01

246

Sensing dissolved methane in aquatic environments: an experiment in the central baltic sea using surface plasmon resonance.  

PubMed

A new sensor for in situ, real time methane (CH4) measurements in aqueous environments is based on the refractive index (RI) modulation of a sensitive film composed of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer incorporating molecules of cryptophane-A. The RI varies according to the amount of CH4 bound to the cryptophane-A in the film and is determined using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Tests of the sensor in the summer of 2012 reveal the expansive range of conditions of the Central Baltic Sea with CH4 concentrations varying from 5 nM up to a few hundred nanomolar. The sensor showed detection limits down to 3 nM, sensitivity of 6 to 7 × 10(-6) RIU/nM, and response times of 1 to 2 min. Best responses were obtained for concentrations up to 200 nM. Side effects (temperature, cross-sensitivity) are reviewed for future improvements to the sensor design. CH4 values are highest in the Landsort Deep up to 1.2 ?M at 400 m depth and lowest in the Gotland Deep with 900 nM at 220 m depth. However, variable values in the upper layers indicate higher mixing rates due to currents and wind driven forces in the Gotland Basin compared with almost constant CH4 values in the Landsort Deep. PMID:23815404

Boulart, Cédric; Prien, Ralf; Chavagnac, Valérie; Dutasta, Jean-Pierre

2013-08-01

247

Operator product expansion algebra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We establish conceptually important properties of the operator product expansion (OPE) in the context of perturbative, Euclidean J4-quantum field theory. First, we demonstrate, generalizing earlier results and techniques of hep-th/1105.3375, that the 3-point OPE, =?CA1A2A3C, usually interpreted only as an asymptotic short distance expansion, actually converges at finite, and even large, distances. We further show that the factorization identity A1A2A3B=?CA1A2CCA3B is satisfied for suitable configurations of the spacetime arguments. Again, the infinite sum is shown to be convergent. Our proofs rely on explicit bounds on the remainders of these expansions, obtained using refined versions, mostly due to Kopper et al., of the renormalization group flow equation method. These bounds also establish that each OPE coefficient is a real analytic function in the spacetime arguments for non-coinciding points. Our results hold for arbitrary but finite loop orders. They lend support to proposals for a general axiomatic framework of quantum field theory, based on such ``consistency conditions'' and akin to vertex operator algebras, wherein the OPE is promoted to the defining structure of the theory.

Holland, Jan; Hollands, Stefan

2013-07-01

248

Geological Storage od CO2 in the Southern Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological Storage of CO2 in the Southern Baltic Sea Region The BASTOR project identifies and characterises the potential CO2 storage sites in the southern Baltic Sea. A regional theoretical storage capacity of 16Gt of CO2 in the Middle Cambrian sandstone beneath 900 metres of cap rock was estimated. 1.9Gt of this storage potential is estimated in the Dalders Monocline with some 743Mt CO2 in individual hydrocarbon and saline aquifer structures located mainly offshore Latvia and 128Mt in the Dalders Structure. Although the study has established a relatively large theoretical storage capacity, there is no effective capacity proven within these totals. Dynamic modelling undertaken in the Southern Swedish sector suggests that the relatively poor permeability and porosity characteristics would limit the injection rate to 0.5Mt per well per annum and restrict the reservoir pressure increase to 50% above the hydrostatic pressure for an injection period of 50 years. The dynamic modelling for this area suggests that an injection strategy for this sector would be limited to 5 injection wells giving a total injection capacity of 2.5 Mt per annum. Based on these results, the potential of the Southern Swedish offshore sector to sustain injection rates of CO2 required for regional industrial capture, even when using horizontal wells, brine extraction and hydraulic fracturing, would appear to be very low. Areas to the north east of the Monocline, such as offshore Latvia have been identified as having better reservoir quality despite limited data being available. These areas could sustain higher rates of injection and prove suitable areas for commercial storage. Furthermore, the regional storage capacity assessment demonstrated that there are sweet spots in the Cambrian reservoir such as onshore Latvia, where there is commercial gas storage, and both onshore and offshore Kaliningrad, where there is ongoing hydrocarbon production. The potential for seal failure was investigated as part of the BASTOR study and three possible modes of seal failure were identified. These include top seal failure, migration up the bounding fault planes and leakage across fault planes. The risk associated with all of these is considered low, based on currently available data. A test injection methodology aimed at assessing the commercial viability of CO2 injection in the Baltic Sea region has been designed. This includes the characterisation of reservoir, caprock and hydraulic properties, pump testing as well as CO2 migration and trapping using a phased approach methodology. An outline MMV programme has been developed based on the results of the dynamic modelling and the development phases of a CO2 injection site. Since the potential to store significant quantities of CO2 in the Swedish part of the Dalders Monocline appears to be limited, exploration efforts and the acquisition of new, site specific data through geophysical surveys, drilling and injection testing as well as detailed sampling and laboratory analyses, should be focussed on areas of better reservoir qualities than the current study area. New data covering the north eastern portion of the Dalders Monocline, in particular offshore Latvia and onshore as well as offshore Kaliningrad, would allow a detailed charterisation of individual potential sites for CO2 storage. This would also define site-specific seal integrity as well as chracterise small-scale fault structures that would ultimately dictate the potential injection and storage conditions.

Vernon, Richard; O'Neill, Nick; Pasquali, Riccardo; Niemi, Auli

2014-05-01

249

Variability of Atmospheric Circulation Patterns associated with Major Baltic Inflows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the narrow and shallow Danish Straits the water exchange between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea is greatly restrained. As a consequence the salt flux into the Baltic Sea is reduced, so that during stagnation periods where no strong inflows occur the permanent halocline weakens, and even disappears in some basins. Only Major Baltic inflows (MBIs), when large volumes of highly saline and oxygenated water invade over the sills, are capable to flow as dense bottom currents into the central deeps and replace the stagnant water there, simultaneously improving living conditions to biota. MBIs are typically forced by a sequence of easterly winds lasting for about 20 days followed by strong to very strong westerly winds of similar duration. Since the mid-1970s, the frequency and intensity of major inflows have decreased, and they were completely absent between February 1983 and January 1993. As the major inflows are mainly forced by the atmosphere, the reason for this kind of change is assumed to be connected to variations in the atmospheric circulation. There have been several studies where the changes in regional atmospheric circulation have been described through local wind climatology or modes of large scale low-frequency circulation variability, defined by means of principal component analysis. Another way to describe atmospheric circulation patterns is by classifying them into different atmospheric circulation types. The latter are well suited for describing sequences of circulation patterns in appropriate temporal (in hours) and spatial (regional to local) scales. Circulation types reflect real circulation patterns, which are easy to interpret, unlike the modes of variability, that cannot be considered as typical patterns of airflow, but just as building bricks for describing variability of the atmospheric circulation. Hence, our aim was to characterize the variability of sequences of atmospheric circulation patterns at the time of MBIs, to use this knowledge for studying their recurrence in different time periods. We defined the patterns of air flow over the Danish Straits by using the Jenkinson-Collison types (JCT) of atmospheric circulation. The JCT is based on six different flow indices, that quantify the zonal and meridional airflow and its vorticity. JCT could be called also synoptic weather types, which describe the positions of cyclones and anticyclones that determine the airflow. The gridded dataset of sea level pressures from NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis have been classified for 6 hourly data subsets into 26 circulation patterns over the period 1948-2013. The sequence and variability of circulation patterns over 60 days long periods, including 30 days before the main inflow period have been analyzed. During all 11 MBI events there was dominant SW, W or NW air flow, with very similar zonal gradient at the first day of inflow for all cases. The pre-inflow period was dominated by anticyclonic vorticity, while during the inflow period and the post-period cyclonic vorticity prevailed. These conclusions are in good accordance with previous studies. However, the detailed inspection of the JCT flow indices revealed high variability.

Post, Piia; Lehmann, Andreas

2014-05-01

250

Periodicity in Sediments from the Baltic Sea and in Greenland Ice as Climate Signals for the Late Quaternary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climatic records from Greenland ice and Baltic Sea provide as well information about global climate changes as about local basin peculiarities. Late Quaternary sediments have been accumulated in the Baltic Basin with high accumulation rates, qualifying them for the study of late Pleistocene to Holocene climate and environmental history in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic realm. Physical and geochemical

J. Harff; R. Endler; S. Kotov; T. Leipe; A. Witkowski

2009-01-01

251

Eutrophication-driven sediment microbial processes can explain the regional variation in phosphorus concentrations between Baltic Sea sub-basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the ecological significance of microbial iron and sulphate reduction in aquatic environments, the processes involved have been poorly studied in Baltic Sea sediments. On the basis of indirect evidence, we conclude that the bottom sediments of the non-stratified and oligotrophic northernmost, and the poorly stratified and mesotrophic next northern, sub-basins of the Baltic have tolerated the external nutrient load

Jouni Lehtoranta; Petri Ekholm; Heikki Pitkänen

2008-01-01

252

Early diagenesis and chemical characteristics of interstitial water and sediments in the deep deposition bottoms of the Baltic proper  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutrient load into the brackish Baltic Sea has increased over the last century. This increase, together with varying deep-water supply, has resulted in a large-scale oxygen deficiency in the deeper basins of the Baltic proper. Moreover, since 1976 hydrogen sulphide has been present in the bottom water of the eastern Gotland basin. In January 1990 it was found up

Rolf Carman; Lars Rahm

1997-01-01

253

Security Dilemma in the Baltic Sea Region and Its Impact on the Regional Security and Defense Cooperation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis argues that the Baltic Sea region still faces significant security challenges in the post-Cold War era. In particular, nations in the region confront a 'cooperative security dilemma.' Baltic Sea countries are adopting a range of cooperative ag...

H. Moelder

1998-01-01

254

Biomagnification of PBDEs and PCBs in food webs from the Baltic Sea and the northern Atlantic Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomagnification of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) in food webs from the Baltic Sea and the northern Atlantic Sea was investigated. For this, we used PCB and PBDE concentration data, together with data on fish body weight and ?15N of fish and zooplankton as a measure of trophic position. In the Baltic Sea material, consisting of zooplankton, sprat,

Sven Burreau; Yngve Zebühr; Dag Broman; Rasha Ishaq

2006-01-01

255

Hydrography and mollusc faunas of the Baltic and the White Sea–North Sea seaway in the Eemian  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palynologically dated mollusc and cirriped faunas from a region extending from the North Sea through the Baltic and Karelia to the Arkhangelsk region show that the hydrography of the Baltic was very different from the Holocene. For 2–2.5 ka in the Early Eemian a seaway existed from the Barents to the North Sea through Karelia, until it was severed at

Svend Funder; Igor Demidov; Yadviga Yelovicheva

2002-01-01

256

Benthic competition and population dynamics of Monoporeia affinis and Marenzelleria sp. in the northern Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last two decades major changes of the benthic fauna have occurred in the northern Baltic Sea, the Gulf of Bothnia. The native amphipod, Monoporeia affinis, has shown a large-scale abundance decrease, while polychaetes, Marenzelleria spp. have invaded the system. Marenzelleria co-exist with the native fauna in the southern Baltic Sea, but in the north the pelagic production might be too low to allow co-existence. Thus, M. affinis might have been out-competed by Marenzelleria in the Gulf of Bothnia. This hypothesis was tested in a competition experiment with a high and a low fresh phytoplankton food supply. When exposed to high food supply both species showed stable or increased biomass over the four week test period. In low food supply, however, M. affinis was found to have a competitive advantage. The experimental data were also related to Baltic Sea monitoring data on primary production, sedimentation and invertebrate abundances. Data from the northern Baltic Sea show that the dominance in the benthic community by M. affinis was replaced by Marenzelleria around 2001. The amphipod decrease might be explained by a marked decrease in primary production during this period. Combining monitoring and experimental data suggests that the invasion of Marenzelleria did not cause the decrease of M. affinis in the northern Baltic Sea; it rather took advantage of the density gap that had occurred. A shift may thus have been established in the Bothnian Sea benthic community.

Eriksson Wiklund, A.-K.; Andersson, A.

2014-05-01

257

Tracing inputs of terrestrial high molecular weight dissolved organic matter within the Baltic Sea ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To test the hypothesis whether high molecular weight dissolved organic matter (HMW-DOM) in a high latitude marginal sea is dominated by terrestrial derived matter, 10 stations were sampled along the salinity gradient of the central and northern Baltic Sea and were analyzed for concentrations of dissolved organic carbon as well as ?13C values of HMW-DOM. Different end-member-mixing models were applied to quantify the influence of terrestrial DOM and to test for conservative versus non-conservative behavior of the terrestrial DOM in the different Baltic Sea basins. The share of terrestrial DOM to the total HMW-DOM was calculated for each station, ranging from 43 to 83%. This shows the high influence of terrestrial DOM inputs for the Baltic Sea ecosystem. The data also suggest that terrestrial DOM reaching the open Baltic Sea is not subject to substantial removal anymore. However compared to riverine DOM concentrations, our results indicate that substantial amounts of HMW-DOM (> 50%) seem to be removed near the coastline during estuarine mixing. A budget approach yielded residence times for terrestrial DOM of 2.8, 3.0, and 4.5 yr for the Bothnian Bay, the Bothnian Sea and the Baltic Proper.

Deutsch, B.; Alling, V.; Humborg, C.; Korth, F.; Mörth, C. M.

2012-11-01

258

Chemical physiological and morphological studies of feral baltic salmon (Salmo salar) suffering from abnormal fry mortality  

SciTech Connect

In 1974, abnormally high mortality was recorded among yolk-sac fry of Baltic salmon (Salmo salar) originating from feral females manually stripped and fertilized with milt from feral males. The cause of this mortality, designated M74, is unknown. The hypothesis is that xenobiotic compounds responsible for reproduction failure in higher vertebrates in the Baltic Sea also interfere with reproduction in Baltic salmon. The significance of M74 should not be underestimated, because the syndrome has caused up to 75% yearly mortality of developing Baltic salmon yolk-sac larvae in a fish hatchery dedicated to production of smolt during the last two decades. The author cannot exclude the possibility that only a relatively low number of naturally spawned eggs develop normally because of M74. No individual pollutant has been shown to be responsible for the development of M74 syndrome. However, a higher total body burden of organochlorine substances may be responsible for the M74 syndrome. The presence of induced hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes in both yolk-sac fry suffering from M74 and adult feral females producing offspring affected by M74 supports this hypothesis. In addition, the P450 enzyme activity in offspring from feral fish is higher than the activity in yolk-sac fry from hatchery-raised fish, suggesting that feral Baltic salmon are influenced by organic xenobiotics.

Norrgren, L. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Pathology Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)); Andersson, T. (Univ. of Goteborg, (Sweden). Dept. of Zoophysiology); Bergqvist, P.A. (Univ. of Umea, (Sweden). Inst. of Environmental Chemistry); Bjoerklund, I. (Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Solna (Sweden))

1993-11-01

259

Anisakid larvae in the liver of cod (Gadus morhua) L. from the southern Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

In the present investigation a sample of 490 cod (Gadus morhua) was examined from three regions in the southern Baltic Sea (the Polish Exclusive Economic Zone, EEZ). Three species of anisakid nematodes with zoonotic potential, namely species of Contracaecum, Anisakis and Pseudoterranova, were found in the liver of cod, with Contracaecum being the most dominant species. The prevalence of infection was highest in the Western Baltic (22.5%) compared to the Central Baltic (10.4%) and the Gulf of Gdansk (3.4%). Generalized linear models (GLMs) were applied to analyse the prevalence of infection with Anisakis sp. and Contracaecum sp. relative to biological and spatial parameters. The effect of the sampling region, age and body length of the fish were significant in both GLMs. The effect of region was higher in the Western Baltic than in other regions. The prevalence of infection was correlated with the length of the fish and was higher in adult compared with sub-adult fish. These results suggest that the prevalence of infection with anisakid nematodes (especially Contracaecum sp.) in cod sampled in Polish waters of the Baltic Sea has significantly increased compared with previous studies undertaken over the past few decades. PMID:23452650

Nadolna, K; Podolska, M

2014-06-01

260

Redfield ratios, primary production, and organic carbon burial in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biogeochemical cycling of oxygen, phosphorus and carbon in the Baltic Sea is investigated using a natural coordinate conservation method. The mean Redfield ratio of oxygen consumption to phosphate production due to organic decomposition is found to be 159 ± 6 in the Baltic proper deep water. Utilizing the C:N ratio for particulate matter in the deep water, a "best" set of Redfield ratios is found to be 159:130:14.4:1 for -O 2:C:N:P. Present net community production in the Baltic proper appears to be ˜50 ± 7 g C m -2 y -1 as calculated from oxygen consumption rates and transport rates of "new" PO 43- into the euphotic zone. From these results and traditional transfer ratios, total primary production is estimated to be ˜175 g C m -2 y -1, consistent with 14C primary production in the Baltic proper. Also, organic carbon may be presently buried at a rate of ˜10 g C m -2 y -1. The results are used to discuss the transformation of the Baltic proper into a eutrophied system due to man's activities over this century. They also shed light on recent controversies about Redfield ratios and 14C primary production in the ocean as well as on the role of burial of organic carbon as a sink in the present global CO 2 cycle.

Shaffer, Gary

1987-06-01

261

Bacterial sulfate reduction and methanogenesis in brackish, oligotrophic northern Baltic Sea sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent sediments of the northernmost Baltic Sea form underneath low-phosphate surface waters with year-round low primary production. Terrestrial organic matter from subarctic peatlands and tundra are important sources of organic matter in these sediments. These conditions make the northern Baltic an attractive Baltic analog of the Arctic shelf, because effects of changes in weathering patterns on land due to climate-related changes in temperature and runoff can be more easily studied in these sediments. Due to low production and salinities below 4 permil of northern Baltic Sea seawater, organic matter mineralization in these sediments has traditionally been thought to be dominated by aerobic respiration and suboxic diagenesis via bacterial denitrification, manganese, and iron reduction. Here we show with porewater water analyses of sulfate and methane as well as direct rate measurements of bacterial sulfate reduction and methanogenesis that these processes are more important for organic matter mineralization in these sediments than previously thought. Methane concentrations in porewaters reach saturation only few decimeters below the sediment surface and attest to the steep concentration profiles of sulfate driven by high rates of bacterial sulfate reduction. Anaerobic carbon mineralization and methane formation, and upward transport of methane to the sediment surface and water column are therefore significant components of Northern Baltic Sea sediment biogeochemistry.

Brüchert, Volker; Nguyen, Thang M.; Deutschmann, André; Böttcher, Michael E.; Ferdelman, Timothy G.

2010-05-01

262

The Native Bacterioplankton Community in the Central Baltic Sea Is Influenced by Freshwater Bacterial Species? †  

PubMed Central

The Baltic Sea is one of the largest brackish environments on Earth. Despite extensive knowledge about food web interactions and pelagic ecosystem functioning, information about the bacterial community composition in the Baltic Sea is scarce. We hypothesized that due to the eutrophic low-salinity environment and the long water residence time (>5 years), the bacterioplankton community from the Baltic proper shows a native “brackish” composition influenced by both freshwater and marine phylotypes. The bacterial community composition in surface water (3-m depth) was examined at a single station throughout a full year. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that the community composition changed over the year. Further, it indicated that at the four extensive samplings (16S rRNA gene clone libraries and bacterial isolates from low- and high-nutrient agar plates and seawater cultures), different bacterial assemblages associated with different environmental conditions were present. Overall, the sequencing of 26 DGGE bands, 160 clones, 209 plate isolates, and 9 dilution culture isolates showed that the bacterial assemblage in surface waters of the central Baltic Sea was dominated by Bacteroidetes but exhibited a pronounced influence of typical freshwater phylogenetic groups within Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Betaproteobacteria and a lack of typical marine taxa. This first comprehensive analysis of bacterial community composition in the central Baltic Sea points to the existence of an autochthonous estuarine community uniquely adapted to the environmental conditions prevailing in this brackish environment.

Riemann, L.; Leitet, C.; Pommier, T.; Simu, K.; Holmfeldt, K.; Larsson, U.; Hagstrom, A.

2008-01-01

263

Biodiversity gradient in the Baltic Sea: a comprehensive inventory of macrozoobenthos data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Helsinki Commission Red List project 2009-2012, taxonomic and distributional data of benthic (macro) invertebrates were compiled by the present authors in a comprehensive checklist of the Baltic Sea fauna. Based on the most recent and comprehensive data, this paper presents the diversity patterns observed among benthic invertebrates in the Baltic Sea. As expected, the total number of species per sub-region generally declined along the salinity gradient from the Danish Straits to the northern Baltic Sea. This relationship is well known from the Baltic Sea and has resulted in a general assumption of an exponentially positive relationship between species richness and salinity for marine species, and a negative relationship for freshwater species. In 1934, Remane produced a diagram to describe the hypothetical distribution of benthic invertebrate diversity along a marine-freshwater salinity gradient. Our results clearly indicated the validity of this theory for the macrozoobenthic diversity pattern within the Baltic Sea. Categorisation of sub-regions according to species composition showed both separation and grouping of some sub-regions and a strong alignment of similarity patterns of zoobenthic species composition along the salinity gradient.

Zettler, Michael L.; Karlsson, Anna; Kontula, Tytti; Gruszka, Piotr; Laine, Ari O.; Herkül, Kristjan; Schiele, Kerstin S.; Maximov, Alexey; Haldin, Jannica

2014-03-01

264

PCDD/F source apportionment in the Baltic Sea using positive matrix factorization.  

PubMed

Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was used to identify and apportion candidate sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) in samples of offshore and coastal surface sediments from the Baltic Sea. Atmospheric deposition was the dominant source in offshore and pristine areas, in agreement with previous studies. Earlier chlorophenol use and a source suggested origins from pulp and paper production and related industries were identified as important coastal sources. A previously presumed major source, chlorine bleaching of pulp, was of only minor importance for modern Baltic surface sediments. The coastal source impacts were mostly local or regional, but pattern variations in offshore samples indicate that coastal sources may have some importance for offshore areas. Differences between sub-basins also indicated that local and regional air emissions from incineration or other high-temperature processes are more important in the southern Baltic Sea compared to those in northerly areas. These regional differences demonstrated the importance of including offshore sediments from the Bothnian Bay, Gulf of Finland, and other areas of the Baltic Sea in future studies to better identify the major PCDD/F sources to the Baltic Sea. PMID:20121084

Sundqvist, K L; Tysklind, M; Geladi, P; Hopke, P K; Wiberg, K

2010-03-01

265

Iron cycling microbial communities in sediments of the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biogeochemical cycling of iron is a key early diagenetic process. However, limited information exists about the diversity and metabolic pathways of microorganisms linked to iron cycling in marine sediments. The goal of this study was to determine the bacterial community diversity in sediments showing ongoing dissimilatory iron reduction using 454-pyrosequencing as a first step in characterizing microorganisms potentially involved in iron reduction. For this purpose, two 35 cm cores were sampled from ferruginous sediments in the Skagerrak (SK) and the Bothnian Bay (BB) from the North-Sea Baltic Sea and the northern Baltic Sea respectively. Pore water profiles showed Fe2+ and Mn2+ levels of ~140-150 µM throughout the core below a 6 cm thick oxidized surface layer in SK sediments and ~300 µM below a 2 cm thick surface layer in BB sediments. Dissolved sulphide levels were below detection in both sediments. No significant depletion of SO42- occurred at both sites, further supported by stable S and O isotope analyses of dissolved sulfate at SK site. Only very minor net sulfate reduction is suggested here from the trend in sulphur isotope signatures, in agreement with previously reported gross microbial sulphate rate measurements (Canfield et al., 1993;GCA). Based on these biogeochemical constraints, Fe reduction in the studied sediments is therefore dominated by microbial dissimilatory iron reduction, while cryptic Fe-S-cycling can be largely excluded. 16S rRNA gene sequences indicate Proteobacteria as the dominating microbial group in these sediments. Potential iron and manganese reducing bacteria included Geobacteraceae, Pelobacteraceae, Shewanellaceae, and Oceanospirillales. Additionally, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were present. Also, Fe-oxidizers were present and their occurrence correlated in depth with a Fe-oxide-rich layer, most likely a former buried Fe-oxidation front. Gene sequences point to the presence of Mariprofundus in SK sediments and Gallionella in the brackisch BB sediment, hence, Fe oxidizers are adapted to the prevailing salinity. Beta diversity indicates that most diversity between the two sites is due to Gaiellaceae and Ellin6529 groups in BB and Phycisphaerae and Desulfobacteraceae in SK sediments. Considering the entire community in these zones of Fe reduction, it is clearly distinct from communities commonly found in sulphate reduction zones.

Reyes, Carolina; Delwig, Olaf; Noriega-Ortega, Beatriz; Dähnke, Kirstin; Böttcher, Michael E.; Friedrich, Michael W.

2014-05-01

266

Extreme Eutrophication and Anoxic Events in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The anoxic and reducing conditions in the deepest Baltic basins are today so extreme that there is nowhere else in the world that manganese sulfide minerals (both hexagonal and cubic MnS) are known to form and be preserved in sea-floor sediments. However, the same MnS mineralogy, reflecting similarly extreme reducing conditions, was also formed ca. 1500 C14-yrs ago in the Landsort Deep. Therefore, anthropogenic sources of nutrients are not necessarily the primary cause of modern eutrophication as is commonly assumed, and the reduction of these nutrient sources may not result in the desired impact on environmental conditions as many models would predict. Detailed element scans and thin-section studies using Markov-chain analyses have indicated cyclic variations on mm-, cm- and m-scales in both detrital and authigenic components, interpreted to relate to climatic or circulation changes. Carbon, sulfur and grain size vary together, suggesting the importance of organic matter for sulfur precipitation. In addition to favorable climatic and nutrient conditions, organic matter production is influenced by mixing processes and salinity changes that are associated with periodic inflow from the North Sea as part of the estuarine circulation that renews bottom water. We have calculated sedimentation rates and element fluxes. Detrital mineralogy was used to identify and partition sediment supply from idealized source types. Initially, the sediment contributions from glacial meltwater, sediment reworking and soil terrains have been modelled. Although human influence was much less 1500 C14-yrs ago, forest clearing and changed land use might have allowed greater erosion and nutrient supply. This is supported by an increased proportion of sediment supplied from soil terrains, but not supported by the slow total sedimentation rates (<0.4 mm yr) related to sapropel formation. Climatic influences and paleoceanographic dynamics are considered most important. Natural causes for rapid organic production, extreme eutrophication and anoxic precipitation of MnS minerals need to be better accounted for in models for eutrophication in the modern Baltic Sea.

Stevens, R. L.; Lepland, A.; Iskhakov, A.

2006-12-01

267

Modelling of the groundwater flow in Baltic Artesian Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Baltic Artesian Basin (BAB) is a multi-layered complex hydrogeological system underlying about 480'000 km2 in the territory of Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland, Russia, Belarus and the Baltic Sea. The model of the geological structure contains 42 layers including aquifers and aquitards from Cambrian up to the Quaternary deposits. The finite element method was employed for the calculation of the steady state three-dimensional groundwater flow with free surface. The horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities of geological materials were assumed constant in each of the layers. The Precambrian basement forms the impermeable bottom of the model. The zero water exchange is assumed through the side boundaries of BAB. Simple hydrological model is applied on the surface. The level of the lakes, rivers and the sea is fixed as constant hydraulic head in corresponding mesh points. The infiltration is set as a flux boundary condition elsewhere. Instead of extensive coupling with hydrology model, a constant mean value of 70 mm/year was assumed as an infiltration flux for the whole BAB area and this value was adjusted during the automatic calibration process. Averaged long-term water extraction was applied at the water supply wells with large debits. In total 49 wells in Lithuania (total abstraction 45000 m3/day), 161 in Latvia (184000 m3/day) and 172 in Estonia (24000 m3/day) are considered. The model was calibrated on the statistically weighted (using both spatial and temporal weighting function) borehole water level measurements applying automatic parameter optimization method L-BFGS-B for hydraulic conductivities of each layer. The steady-stade calculations were performed for the situations corresponding to undisturbed situation (1950-ies), intensive groundwater use (1980-ies) and present state situation (after 2000). The distribution of piezometric heads and principal flows inside BAB was analyzed based on the model results. The results demonstrate that generally the flow is directed from southeast to northwest, but the more shallow aquifers show strong influence by local topography. There is an intensive transient flow in Cm aquifer system and this flow is separated from upper layers by thick aquitard O-S. About 25% of the aquifers volume is under free flowing artesian conditions. Acknowledgement The present work has been funded by the European Social Fund project "Establishment of interdisciplinary scientist group and modelling system for groundwater research" (Project No. 2009/0212/1DP/1.1.1.2.0/09/APIA/VIAA/060)

Virbulis, J.; Sennikovs, J.; Bethers, U.

2012-04-01

268

Artificial radionuclides ??Sr and ²?¹Am in the sediments of the Baltic Sea: total and spatial inventories and some temporal trends.  

PubMed

The Baltic Sea was contaminated by radioactivity following global nuclear fallout and later by the Chernobyl accident. Despite the decrease of radioactivity caused by radioactive decay, radionuclides have a prolonged residence time in the water of the Baltic Sea due to slow water exchange and relatively rapid sedimentation. Very little is known about the amounts or spatial differences of ??Sr and ²?¹Am in the Baltic Sea sediments. In this study, 20 sediment cores taken around the Baltic Sea were investigated to estimate inventories of these radionuclides. The rough results show that the Chernobyl fallout added the amount of ??Sr in the same areas where the increase of ¹³?Cs can be detected, whereas this is not the case for ²?¹Am which is more evenly distributed in the sea bottom. In addition, local differences occur in the concentrations. These results are an important amendment to the radioactivity baseline of the Baltic Sea. PMID:23582977

Hutri, Kaisa-Leena; Mattila, Jukka; Ikäheimonen, Tarja Tuulikki; Vartti, Vesa-Pekka

2013-05-15

269

Surgically Assisted Rapid Palatal Expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion on the skeletal structures of the midface. Ten patients (mean age 28.5 years) were investigated by means of acoustic rhinometry, study model analysis and sonography before and after the procedure of surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion. The measurements revealed that surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion not only

Susanne Wriedt; Martin Kunkel; Andrej Zentner; Ulrich.-W. Wahlmann

2001-01-01

270

[The Baltic countries as the birthplace of embryology. Contingencies of a transnational region of science].  

PubMed

Modern embryology is grounded on the research of Pander (theory of germ-layers), von Baer (human egg) and Rathke (branchial arches in mammals). All these scientists lived and worked in the Baltic region. They held professorships at the universities of Koenigsberg and Dorpat and at the Imperial Academy of St. Petersburg, thus moving between the Kingdom of Prussia and the Russian Czardom. Since the Baltic countries are not commonly considered to be predestined as a birthplace of embryology, special attention is turned to the coincidences that, there of all places, made those people focus on that special field of research. Considering the peripheral position of the Baltic, the paper examines personal relations, national identities, cultural exchange, and local working conditions, including room for development as well as formidable obstacles. PMID:21563375

Riha, Ortrun; Schmuck, Thomas

2010-01-01

271

Impact of climate change on fish population dynamics in the Baltic sea: a dynamical downscaling investigation.  

PubMed

Understanding how climate change, exploitation and eutrophication will affect populations and ecosystems of the Baltic Sea can be facilitated with models which realistically combine these forcings into common frameworks. Here, we evaluate sensitivity of fish recruitment and population dynamics to past and future environmental forcings provided by three ocean-biogeochemical models of the Baltic Sea. Modeled temperature explained nearly as much variability in reproductive success of sprat (Sprattus sprattus; Clupeidae) as measured temperatures during 1973-2005, and both the spawner biomass and the temperature have influenced recruitment for at least 50 years. The three Baltic Sea models estimate relatively similar developments (increases) in biomass and fishery yield during twenty-first century climate change (ca. 28 % range among models). However, this uncertainty is exceeded by the one associated with the fish population model, and by the source of global climate data used by regional models. Knowledge of processes and biases could reduce these uncertainties. PMID:22926884

Mackenzie, Brian R; Meier, H E Markus; Lindegren, Martin; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Eero, Margit; Blenckner, Thorsten; Tomczak, Maciej T; Niiranen, Susa

2012-09-01

272

The influence of upwelling and entrainment on the algal bloom in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrodynamic processes control many geochemical and ecological processes in the sea. In this paper, the influence of up- and downwelling and entrainment on the ecosystem components are studied. The ecohydrodynamic model was initially used to simulate the whole Baltic Sea to get the boundary conditions for the Gulf of Riga. Then, to study the influence of different hydrodynamic conditions on the algal bloom, three simulations were made for the Gulf of Riga using different boundary and entrainment conditions. It appears that upwelling in the gulf was strongly dependent on open boundary conditions between the Baltic Proper and the gulf. The vertical transport in the Gulf of Riga was many times more intensive in the calculation system Baltic Proper and Gulf of Riga, than in the case where only the Gulf of Riga was simulated. The blue-green algal bloom was influenced by the vertical transport due to different nutrients' limitation mechanism.

Ennet, Peeter; Kuosa, Harri; Tamsalu, Rein

2000-07-01

273

The future of Baltic Sea populations: local extinction or evolutionary rescue?  

PubMed

Environmental change challenges local and global survival of populations and species. In a species-poor environment like the Baltic Sea this is particularly critical as major ecosystem functions may be upheld by single species. A complex interplay between demographic and genetic characteristics of species and populations determines risks of local extinction, chances of re-establishment of lost populations, and tolerance to environmental changes by evolution of new adaptations. Recent studies show that Baltic populations of dominant marine species are locally adapted, have lost genetic variation and are relatively isolated. In addition, some have evolved unusually high degrees of clonality and others are representatives of endemic (unique) evolutionary lineages. We here suggest that a consequence of local adaptation, isolation and genetic endemism is an increased risk of failure in restoring extinct Baltic populations. Additionally, restricted availability of genetic variation owing to lost variation and isolation may negatively impact the potential for evolutionary rescue following environmental change. PMID:21446396

Johannesson, Kerstin; Smolarz, Katarzyna; Grahn, Mats; André, Carl

2011-03-01

274

Wave conditions in the Baltic Proper and in the Gulf of Finland during windstorm Gudrun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wave conditions in the northern Baltic Proper during windstorm Erwin/Gudrun (January 2005) are analysed based on in situ measurements in three locations and output of operational wave models from the German Weather Forecast Service, the Danish Meteorological Institute and the Finnish Institute of Marine Research. The measured significant wave height reached 7.2 m in the northern Baltic Proper and 4.5 m in the Gulf of Finland. The roughest wave conditions, estimated from the comparison of the forecast and measured data, occurred remote from the sensors, off the coasts of Saaremaa and Latvia where the significant wave height was about 9.5 m. Peak periods exceeded 12 s in a large part of the northern Baltic Proper and in the central part of the Gulf of Finland.

Soomere, T.; Behrens, A.; Tuomi, L.; Nielsen, J. W.

2008-01-01

275

The identity of Romanian amber (rumanite) with Baltic amber (succinite).  

SciTech Connect

Romanian amber (rumanite) has been considered to be a separate species of fossil resin for more than a century. While earlier investigators held it to be very similar to succinite (Baltic amber), modern scholars have assigned it a distinctly different botanical origin. We have found that almost all of the constituents of the ether-soluble fractions of 13 specimens of authentic rumanite identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry have previously been reported in the soluble fraction of succinite, including succinic acid and its monoterpene esters. Additionally and significantly, the soluble fraction of rumanite contains a number defunctionalized compounds that do not preexist in succinite, but that are produced by pyrolysis of whole succinite or of its insoluble polymeric fraction. Simultaneous methylation pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of the polymeric fraction of seven of the rumanite specimens yielded further copious amounts of dimethyl succinate, a number of diterpene resin acid methyl esters, and additional defunctionalized compounds known to be pyrolysis products of succinite. The evidence shows conclusively that the botanical origin of rumanite is not distinct from that of succinite. Rather, rumanite is a succinite that has suffered partial thermal degradation in the course of the folding of the Oligocene Kliwa sandstone formation in which it is most commonly found.

Stout, E. C.; Beck, C. W.; Anderson, K. B.; Chemistry; Vassar Coll.

2000-11-01

276

Enrichment of Omnivorous Cercozoan Nanoflagellates from Coastal Baltic Sea Waters  

PubMed Central

Free-living nano-sized flagellates are important bacterivores in aquatic habitats. However, some slightly larger forms can also be omnivorous, i.e., forage upon both bacterial and eukaryotic resources. This hitherto largely ignored feeding mode may have pronounced implications for the interpretation of experiments about protistan bacterivory. We followed the response of an uncultured group of omnivorous cercozoan nanoflagellates from the Novel Clade 2 (Cerc_BAL02) to experimental food web manipulation in samples from the Gulf of Gda?sk (Southern Baltic Sea). Seawater was either prefiltered through 5 µm filters to exclude larger predators of nanoflagellates (F-treatment), or prefiltered and subsequently 1?10 diluted with sterile seawater (F+D-treatment) to stimulate the growth of both, flagellates and bacteria. Initially, Cerc_BAL02 were rapidly enriched under both conditions. They foraged on both, eukaryotic prey and bacteria, and were highly competitive at low concentrations of food. However, these omnivores were later only successful in the F+D treatment, where they eventually represented almost one fifth of all aplastidic nanoflagellates. By contrast, their numbers stagnated in the F-treatment, possibly due to top-down control by a concomitant bloom of other, unidentified flagellates. In analogy with observations about the enrichment of opportunistically growing bacteria in comparable experimental setups we suggest that the low numbers of omnivorous Cerc_Bal02 flagellates in waters of the Gulf of Gda?sk might also be related to their vulnerability to grazing pressure.

Piwosz, Kasia; Pernthaler, Jakob

2011-01-01

277

Eye function of Mysidacea (Crustacea) in the northern Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Eye spectral sensitivity, [S(lambda)], was measured in seven northern Baltic mysid species using an electroretinogram technique. Their S(lambda) curves were compared with the spectral distribution of underwater light at their normal habitats. In the littoral species Neomysis integer, Praunus flexuosus and Praunus inermis, the S(lambda) maxima, [S(lambda)(max)], were in the wavelength-bands of 525-535, 505-515 and 520-530 nm respectively. The neoimmigrant species Hemimysis anomala had a S(lambda)(max) around 500 nm and high sensitivity at 393 nm, possibly indicating UV-sensitivity. S(lambda) of the pelagic species Mysis mixta and Mysis relicta sp. II was at about 505-520 nm. M. relicta sp. I from Pojoviken Bay and fresh water humic Lake Pääjärvi had S(lambda)(max) at approximately 550 nm and 570 nm respectively. This is in accordance with a similar long-wavelength shift in light transmittance of the respective waters. The eyes of the latter population were also damaged by strong light. The pontocaspian neoimmigrant H. anomala is clearly adapted to waters transmitting more blue light. PMID:10699220

Lindström

2000-03-30

278

Upwelling events may cause cyanobacteria blooms in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cyanobacteria blooms in the Baltic Sea appear after upwelling events, which transport phosphate-rich intermediate water to the surface. The growth potential of diazotrophic cyanobacteria in upwelled water was studied in a mesocosm (tank) experiment in summer 2007. An Anabaena bloom was only induced in the tanks filled with upwelled surface water but not in those filled with surface water from outside the upwelling cell and with intermediate water. The low initial cyanobacteria biomass in the intermediate water could not grow to bloom concentrations within three weeks. It is concluded that mixing of upwelled water with surrounding surface water forms a precondition for a cyanobacteria bloom. An additional mesocosm experiment conducted in 2009 revealed that mixing of intermediate water with surface water had the same stimulating effect on nitrogen fixation and cyanobacteria growth as artificial phosphate input. Phosphate input stimulates the growth of Nodularia and Anabaena more than that of Aphanizomenon. We suggest that the upwelled phosphate-rich intermediate water has to be mixed with the surface water containing physiologically "young" cyanobacteria biomass of at least 20 mg/m 3 as an inoculum in order to initiate a cyanobacteria bloom.

Wasmund, Norbert; Nausch, Günther; Voss, Maren

2012-02-01

279

Operator product expansion algebra  

SciTech Connect

We establish conceptually important properties of the operator product expansion (OPE) in the context of perturbative, Euclidean ?{sup 4}-quantum field theory. First, we demonstrate, generalizing earlier results and techniques of hep-th/1105.3375, that the 3-point OPE, =?{sub C}C{sub A{sub 1A{sub 2A{sub 3}{sup C}}}}, usually interpreted only as an asymptotic short distance expansion, actually converges at finite, and even large, distances. We further show that the factorization identity C{sub A{sub 1A{sub 2A{sub 3}{sup B}}}}=?{sub C}C{sub A{sub 1A{sub 2}{sup C}}}C{sub CA{sub 3}{sup B}} is satisfied for suitable configurations of the spacetime arguments. Again, the infinite sum is shown to be convergent. Our proofs rely on explicit bounds on the remainders of these expansions, obtained using refined versions, mostly due to Kopper et al., of the renormalization group flow equation method. These bounds also establish that each OPE coefficient is a real analytic function in the spacetime arguments for non-coinciding points. Our results hold for arbitrary but finite loop orders. They lend support to proposals for a general axiomatic framework of quantum field theory, based on such “consistency conditions” and akin to vertex operator algebras, wherein the OPE is promoted to the defining structure of the theory.

Holland, Jan [School of Mathematics, Cardiff University, Senghennydd Rd, Cardiff CF24 4AG (United Kingdom)] [School of Mathematics, Cardiff University, Senghennydd Rd, Cardiff CF24 4AG (United Kingdom); Hollands, Stefan [School of Mathematics, Cardiff University, Senghennydd Rd, Cardiff CF24 4AG (United Kingdom) [School of Mathematics, Cardiff University, Senghennydd Rd, Cardiff CF24 4AG (United Kingdom); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Leipzig, Brüderstr. 16, Leipzig, D-04103 (Germany)

2013-07-15

280

Load regulating expansion fixture  

DOEpatents

A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig.

Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

1998-12-15

281

Load regulating expansion fixture  

DOEpatents

A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components.

Wagner, Lawrence M. (San Jose, CA) [San Jose, CA; Strum, Michael J. (San Jose, CA) [San Jose, CA

1998-01-01

282

Electric utility system master plan  

SciTech Connect

This publication contains the electric utility system plan and guidelines for providing adequate electric power to the various facilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in support of the mission of the Laboratory. The topics of the publication include general information on the current systems and their operation, a planning analysis for current and future growth in energy demand, proposed improvements and expansions required to meet long range site development and the site`s five-year plan.

Erickson, O.M.

1992-10-01

283

Non-tidal loading by the Baltic Sea: comparison of modelled deformation with GNSS time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baltic Sea is a well-monitored semi-enclosed sea in northern Europe. The mass variations of the Baltic Sea are mostly due to atmospheric pressure changes and wind, which redistribute the water within the basin and also govern the so-called fill level, the amount of water exchange with the North Sea. The variations in the sea level can be abrupt and and large, for example during storms. The variable load may cause significant effects in geodetic measurements, especially near the coastline. We have computed the time series of non-tidal loading due to Baltic Sea for 193 stations in northern Europe. These stations are used for GNSS, absolute and relative gravity measurements and other geodetic observations.. We have used hourly observations of the sea level at the tide gauges of the Baltic Operational Oceanographic Service (BOOS, http://boos.org) to estimate the momentary sea level over the whole basin of the Baltic Sea. These sea level models are then convolved with Green's functions for the Gutenberg-Bullen Earth model using program SPOTL (Agnew, 2012, http://escholarship.org/uc/item/954322pg) to obtain gravity change, deformation in three dimensions and change in tilt and strain. The time period is four years, February 2008 to February 2012. The time series could be used for several purposes, e.g. for the studies of other error sources, to create stable time series and also to correct campaign measurements, which take place in varying conditions. In this study we have compared the computed deformation to coordinate changes measured by GNSS at selected stations around the Baltic Sea. We use two different daily time series of GNSS positions: the PPP (Precise Point Positioning) time series provided by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL, http://sideshow.jpl.nasa.gov/post/series.html) and a double difference solution computed at our institute.

Nordman, Maaria; Virtanen, Heikki; Nyberg, Sonja; Mäkinen, Jaakko; Virtanen, Jenni

2013-04-01

284

Comparison of nematode communities in Baltic and North Sea sublittoral, permeable sands Diversity and environmental control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of free-living nematode communities was investigated seasonally at two sandy locations representing typical shallow sublittoral, permeable environments of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. At the Baltic study site the chlorophyll and organic carbon concentrations in the sediment were, on average, four times lower than at the North Sea. Highest nematode densities (1674-4100 ind. 10 cm -2) and a higher number of free-living nematode genera (66) were recorded in the North Sea (Baltic: 206-1227 ind. 10 cm -2, 30 genera). Despite lower salinity and lower food availability the less dense and less diverse Baltic nematode community was similar in generic composition to the North Sea community. At the North Sea site, all trophic groups according to Wieser's classification were present with omnivores/predators, dominated by Viscosia, prevailing and followed by epistrate-feeders. In the food-limited Baltic community, non-selective deposit feeders (mainly Ascolaimus, Axonolaimus and Daptonema) and omnivores/predators dominated by Enoplolaimus were the most abundant trophic groups while selective deposit feeders were absent or their contribution was negligible. An analysis of the vertical generic distribution revealed highest diversity of the Baltic community in deeper sediment layers, below the sediment surface affected by ripple migration and near the interface of oxic and anoxic conditions. The diversity pattern in the North Sea sediment was more variable but generally showed high diversity in the upper centimetre of the sediment. These observations suggest that food supply and sediment oxygenation are the most important factors influencing the vertical pattern of nematode generic diversity in sublittoral, permeable sands.

Urban-Malinga, Barbara; Hedtkamp, Stefanie I. C.; van Beusekom, Justus E. E.; Wiktor, Józef; W?s?awski, Jan Marcin

2006-10-01

285

Atlas of Urban Expansion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How have cities grown over time? Answers to this important question are provided in visual form via the Lincoln Land Institute's Atlas of Urban Expansion. This resource "provides the geographic and quantitative dimensions of urban expansion and its key attributes in cities the world over." Visitors to the site should start their own exploration by looking at "Making Room for a Planet of Cities," a policy report that examines how the world has become heavily urbanized over the past few decades. Much of the material within the Atlas can be found in the five sections presented on the left toolbar of this site. They include Section 2: A Representative Sample of 30 Cities, 1800-2000 and Section 3: Urban and National Data. The most incredible section here is Section 5: Google Earth Data for the Universe of 3646 Cities. It is a remarkable look at the accuracy of various maps portraying the world's primary cities in a variety of settings. Overall, this site is an invaluable resource for planners, demographers, policy folks, and anyone interested in the urban condition.

286

Physiological plasticity is key to the presence of the isopod Idotea baltica (Pallas) in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The low salinity of the Baltic Sea presents a physiological challenge to marine species. The marine isopod Idotea baltica is notably dominant among the shallow sublittoral of the Baltic Sea in association with Fucus vesiculosus, with permanent populations documented in salinities as low as 3 psu. To investigate the role of physiological plasticity in the successful colonisation of the Baltic by I. baltica three populations from the Swedish coast were here studied, one from the Kattegat (Malmö) and two from the Baltic Sea (Kalmar and Öregrund). These three sites cover the geographic range of this species within the Baltic Sea on the Swedish coast, and also the salinity range of this species within the Baltic Sea (10-5 psu). Individuals from these populations were exposed in the laboratory to a fully crossed experiment with the factors salinity and food source, to test for differences in the physiology of these populations under different conditions that may indicate local adaptation, or no differences that indicate physiological plasticity to differing salinity and food source. Metabolic rate, growth and thermal tolerance responses did not differ between the three populations across salinity treatments after a 12 week exposure. The results of this study indicate that the physiology of adult I. baltica is highly plastic with regard to salinity; this plasticity is likely to have facilitated their colonisation of the Baltic Sea.

Wood, Hannah L.; Nylund, Göran; Eriksson, Susanne P.

2014-01-01

287

Eemian sea-level highstand in the eastern Baltic Sea linked to long-duration White Sea connection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Revised diatom and new dinoflagellate cyst and benthic foraminiferal data from the eastern Baltic Sea have refined our understanding of Eemian (Last Interglacial; 131-119.5 ka) sea-level change on the Russian Karelia, a former seaway linking the Baltic to the White Sea. Results from Peski, eastern Baltic show the initiation of marine conditions just before 131 ka in the latest Saalian, after the opening of a connection to the North Sea. Following the onset of the Eemian marine highstand and the opening of the White Sea connection at around 130.25 ka, near-fully marine conditions persisted in the eastern Baltic area for ca 6 kyr, until ca 124 ka. For most of the Eemian, a strong thermal stratification in the eastern Baltic resulted from an Arctic and possible North Atlantic water component from the White Sea merging with warmer waters from the North Sea. From ca 124 ka, decreasing salinity indicates the end of the marine highstand and a simultaneous closure of the Baltic Sea-White Sea connection, i.e. a duration of ca 6 kyr for this seaway. The main influence of White Sea inflow appears to be restricted to the eastern Baltic area, although a large submerged area in the Russian Karelia associated with temperate Atlantic waters could have assisted in creating a more oceanic climate for Central Europe.

Miettinen, Arto; Head, Martin J.; Knudsen, Karen Luise

2014-02-01

288

Assessment of the present and future offshore wind power potential: a case study in a target territory of the Baltic Sea near the Latvian coast.  

PubMed

Offshore wind energy development promises to be a significant domestic renewable energy source in Latvia. The reliable prediction of present and future wind resources at offshore sites is crucial for planning and selecting the location for wind farms. The overall goal of this paper is the assessment of offshore wind power potential in a target territory of the Baltic Sea near the Latvian coast as well as the identification of a trend in the future wind energy potential for the study territory. The regional climate model CLM and High Resolution Limited Area Model (Hirlam) simulations were used to obtain the wind climatology data for the study area. The results indicated that offshore wind energy is promising for expanding the national electricity generation and will continue to be a stable resource for electricity generation in the region over the 21st century. PMID:23983619

Lizuma, Lita; Avotniece, Zanita; Rupainis, Sergejs; Teilans, Artis

2013-01-01

289

Assessment of the Present and Future Offshore Wind Power Potential: A Case Study in a Target Territory of the Baltic Sea Near the Latvian Coast  

PubMed Central

Offshore wind energy development promises to be a significant domestic renewable energy source in Latvia. The reliable prediction of present and future wind resources at offshore sites is crucial for planning and selecting the location for wind farms. The overall goal of this paper is the assessment of offshore wind power potential in a target territory of the Baltic Sea near the Latvian coast as well as the identification of a trend in the future wind energy potential for the study territory. The regional climate model CLM and High Resolution Limited Area Model (Hirlam) simulations were used to obtain the wind climatology data for the study area. The results indicated that offshore wind energy is promising for expanding the national electricity generation and will continue to be a stable resource for electricity generation in the region over the 21st century.

Teilans, Artis

2013-01-01

290

Seabird Guano Fertilizes Baltic Sea Littoral Food Webs  

PubMed Central

Nutrient enrichment in coastal marine systems can have profound impacts on trophic networks. In the Baltic Sea, the population of Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) has increased nearly exponentially since the mid-1990s, and colonies of these seabirds can be important sources of nitrogen enrichment for nearby benthic communities due to guano runoff. In this study we used stable isotope analyses and diet mixing models to determine the extent of nitrogen enrichment from cormorant colonies, as well as to examine any possible changes in herbivore diet preferences due to enrichment. We found significantly higher levels of ?15N in samples from colony islands than control islands for producers (the dominant macroalga Fucus vesiculosus, filamentous algae, and periphyton) and herbivores, as well as a positive correlation between enrichment and nest density in colony sites. We also found that enrichment increased over the breeding season of the cormorants, with higher enrichment in late summer than early summer. While the amount of total nitrogen did not differ between colony and control sites, the amount of guano-based nitrogen in algae was >50% in most sites, indicating high nitrogen enrichment from colonies. Herbivores (the isopod Idotea balthica and the gastropod Theodoxus fluviatilis) preferred feeding upon the dominant macroalga Fucus vesiculosus rather than on filamentous algae or periphyton in both control and colony, and there was a significant increase in periphyton consumption near colony sites. Overall, guano from cormorant colonies seems to have effects on both producers and herbivores, as well as the potential to modify algae-herbivore interactions.

Gagnon, Karine; Rothausler, Eva; Syrjanen, Anneli; Yli-Renko, Maria; Jormalainen, Veijo

2013-01-01

291

Seabird guano fertilizes Baltic Sea littoral food webs.  

PubMed

Nutrient enrichment in coastal marine systems can have profound impacts on trophic networks. In the Baltic Sea, the population of Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) has increased nearly exponentially since the mid-1990 s, and colonies of these seabirds can be important sources of nitrogen enrichment for nearby benthic communities due to guano runoff. In this study we used stable isotope analyses and diet mixing models to determine the extent of nitrogen enrichment from cormorant colonies, as well as to examine any possible changes in herbivore diet preferences due to enrichment. We found significantly higher levels of ?(15)N in samples from colony islands than control islands for producers (the dominant macroalga Fucus vesiculosus, filamentous algae, and periphyton) and herbivores, as well as a positive correlation between enrichment and nest density in colony sites. We also found that enrichment increased over the breeding season of the cormorants, with higher enrichment in late summer than early summer. While the amount of total nitrogen did not differ between colony and control sites, the amount of guano-based nitrogen in algae was >50% in most sites, indicating high nitrogen enrichment from colonies. Herbivores (the isopod Idotea balthica and the gastropod Theodoxus fluviatilis) preferred feeding upon the dominant macroalga Fucus vesiculosus rather than on filamentous algae or periphyton in both control and colony, and there was a significant increase in periphyton consumption near colony sites. Overall, guano from cormorant colonies seems to have effects on both producers and herbivores, as well as the potential to modify algae-herbivore interactions. PMID:23593452

Gagnon, Karine; Rothäusler, Eva; Syrjänen, Anneli; Yli-Renko, Maria; Jormalainen, Veijo

2013-01-01

292

Mapping Baltic Sea shallow water environments with airborne remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is known that the structure of benthic macrophyte and invertebrate habitats indicate the quality of coastal water. Thus, a large-scale analysis of the spatial patterns of coastal marine habitats makes it possible to adequately estimate the status of valuable coastal marine habitats, provide better evidence for environmental changes, and describe the processes behind the changes. Knowing the spatial distribution of benthic habitats is also important from the coastal management point of view. Our previous results clearly demonstrated that remote sensing methods can be used to map water depth and distribution of taxonomic groups of benthic algae (e.g., red, green, and brown algae) in the optically complex coastal waters of the Baltic Sea. We have as well shown that benthic habitat mapping should be done at high spatial resolution owing to the small-scale heterogeneity of such habitats in Estonian coastal waters. Here we tested the capability of high spatial resolution hyperspectral airborne image in its application for mapping benthic habitats. A big challenge is to define appropriate mapping classes that are also meaningful from the ecological point of view. In this study two benthic habitat classification schemes—broader level and finer level—were defined for the study area. The broader level classes were relatively well classified, but discrimination among the units of the finer classification scheme posed a considerable challenge and required a careful approach. Benthic habitat classification provided the highest accuracy in the case of the Spectral Angle Mapper classification method applied to a radiometrically corrected image. Further processing levels, such as spatial filtering and glint correction, decreased the classification accuracy.

Vahtmäe, Ele; Kutser, Tiit; Kotta, Jonne; Pärnoja, Merli; Möller, Tiia; Lennuk, Lennart

2012-11-01

293

Burial Ground Expansion Hydrogeologic Characterization  

SciTech Connect

Sirrine Environmental Consultants provided technical oversight of the installation of eighteen groundwater monitoring wells and six exploratory borings around the location of the Burial Ground Expansion.

Gaughan , T.F.

1999-02-26

294

Recalculated Areas for Maximum Ice Extents of the Baltic Sea During Winters 1971-2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

Publication of operational ice charts in Finland was started from the Baltic Sea in a year 1915. Until year 1993 all ice charts were hand drawn paper copies but in the year 1993 ice charting software IceMap was introduced. Since then all ice charts were produced digitally. Since the year 1996 IceMap has had an option that user can calculate

T. Niskanen; J. Vainio; P. Eriksson; I. Heiler

2009-01-01

295

Impact of climate change on the Baltic Sea ecosystem over the past 1,000 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change has a strong impact on ecosystem health, particularly in marginal seas such as the Baltic, for example causing the spreading of anoxic areas (oxygen-free areas, the so-called dead zones) through strong feedbacks. Marked ecosystem changes in the Baltic Sea have been recorded in the sedimentary archive, but the reasons are not fully understood. Here we report an integrated study of high-resolution sediment records (past 1,000 years) in combination with an ecosystem modelling approach, providing new insights into the functioning of the Baltic Sea ecosystem under natural and human-influenced climatic changes. Between the Little Ice Age and the Modern Warm Period the surface water temperatures reconstructed using TEX86 palaeothermometry increased by ~2°C. Simultaneously, the anoxic areas in the Baltic Sea began to expand significantly as evident from the accumulation of laminated sediments. Ecosystem model simulations support our findings of widespread oxic areas during the Little Ice Age. Backed up by the modelling results that take into account anthropogenic-influenced nutrient load scenarios, our results provide evidence that surface temperature changes strongly influence deepwater oxygenation. This highlights the risk of a continued spreading of anoxic areas during scenarios of continued climate warming in the future.

Kabel, Karoline; Moros, Matthias; Porsche, Christian; Neumann, Thomas; Adolphi, Florian; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Siegel, Herbert; Gerth, Monika; Leipe, Thomas; Jansen, Eystein; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

2012-12-01

296

Ghost fishing by lost cod gill nets in the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was set up to study the catching efficiency of lost bottom gill nets. In September 1998 and May 1999, 24 fleets of normal commercial gill nets were deployed in a typical gill net fishing ground in the Hanö Bay in the southern Baltic Sea (ICES sub-division 25). At each of the nine fixed exposure times up to 27

Vesa Tschernij; P.-O Larsson

2003-01-01

297

COMPONENTS OF REMOTE SENSING REFLECTANCE OF NORTHERN BALTIC NATURAL WATER BASINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses two components of remote sensing reflectance connected to the solar light reflected from the sea surface and the light diffusely reflected by the water mass. Results of this analysis are applied to the experimental spectral signatures of light reflected from the surface of various Estonian and Finnish lakes and coastal areas of Baltic Sea. The role of

Helgi Arst; Vladimir I. Haltrin

2002-01-01

298

Dikerogammarus villosus (Sowinsky, 1894) (Crustacea, Amphipoda) enters Vistula - the biggest river in the Baltic basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dikerogammarus villosus (Sowinsky, 1894) has been recorded for the first time in the Vistula River, the biggest river in Poland and in the whole Baltic drainage system. Until now the species has been found in the Bug River that is a tributary of the Vistula. It has migrated there from the Ponto-Caspian basin through the central invasion corridor (namely Pripet-Bug

Sudeep Chandra; Almut Gerhardt; Alicja Konopacka

299

Model Simulations of the Alkaline Dust Distribution from Estonian Sources over the Baltic Sea Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The model calculations of oil-shale fly ash deposition from the Narvapower plants (north-eastern Estonia) are performed using the models HILATAR (regional scale) and AEROPOL (local scale). The modelling results are compared with air quality monitoring results from the observation stations in the Baltic Sea region and with the results of snow pollution study in Estonia. It was found, that although

M. Sofiev; M. Kaasik; M. Hongisto

2003-01-01

300

Detecting transport barriers using Lagrangian descriptors with applications to the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method of Lagrangian descriptors developed by A. Mancho and co-workers in [1] has been applied by the authors to the dynamics of the water masses in the Arkona Basin and the Bornholm Basin in the South Western Baltic Sea. The South Western Baltic Sea is the region where water exchange between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea takes place. It is characterized by mixing between salty, cold North Sea water masses and brackish, warm Baltic Sea water masses in winter and stratification in summer. The Lagrangian descriptor is used to identify eddy cores and stable and unstable manifolds in the velocity field in the Arkona Basin and in the Bornholm Basin in February 2006 and July 2006. The results for February and July for each Basin are compared to illustrate differences in the dynamics between summer and winter. Furthermore, the results of the Lagrangian descriptor are compared with the dynamics of the salinity field, the temperature field and the density field in the Arkona Basin and in the Bornholm Basin in February and July 2006. This is done to show that the identified structures fit the structure in the dynamics of the temperature field, the salinity field and the density field. [1] Jimenez-Madrid, J., and Mancho, A.: Distinguished trajectories in time dependent vector fields. Chaos 19 (2009), 013111-1-18.

Vortmeyer, Rahel; Gräwe, Ulf; Feudel, Ulrike

2013-04-01

301

The submarine groundwater discharge as a carbon source to the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD) is an important, yet poorly recognized pathway of material transport to the marine environment. This work reports on the results of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in the groundwater seeping to the Bay of Puck. The loads of carbon via SGD were quantified for the Baltic Sea sub-basins and the entire Baltic Sea. The annual averages of DIC and DOC concentrations in the groundwater were equal to 64.5 ± 10.0 mg C L-1 and 5.8 ± 0.9 mg C L-1. The DIC and DOC fluxes via SGD to the Baltic Sea were estimated at 283.6 ± 66.7 kt yr-1 and 25.5 ± 4.2 kt yr-1. The SGD derived carbon load to the Baltic Sea is an important component of carbon budget, which turns the status of the sea into firmly heterotrophic. The carbon load to the World Ocean, which was calculated basing on few reports on groundwater discharges and the measured carbon concentrations, amounts to- (142-155) × 103 kt yr-1 (DIC), and (13-14) × 103 kt yr-1 (DOC). The carbon flux via SGD amounts to some 25% of the riverine carbon load, and should be included into the World Ocean carbon budget.

Szymczycha, B.; Maciejewska, A.; Szczepanska, A.; Pempkowiak, J.

2013-02-01

302

Mantle flow modeling of the anomalous subsidence of the Silurian Baltic Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent reconstructions of the Silurian Baltic Basin indicate a long-wavelength component of sediment deposition. This deposition extends over 400 km beyond basins predicted on the basis of supracrustal loading in the region; it has been suggested that the discrepancy may be due to dynamic topography associated with mantle flow linked to Silurian plate subduction under Baltica. We test this suggestion

A. Daradich; R. N. Pysklywec; J. X. Mitrovica

2002-01-01

303

Cultural and Linguistic Diversity of the Baltic States in a New Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language questions are increasingly on the agenda in Europe. This paper addresses some problematic aspects of language teaching and learning that have come to the fore in the Baltic states after the European Union enlargement of 2004. First, the paper aims at providing relevant information about language policies in the former USSR and the…

Savickien, Ineta; Kaledaite, Violeta

2005-01-01

304

PHOTOCHEMICAL MINERALIZATION OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC NITROGEN TO AMMONIUM IN THE BALTIC SEA  

EPA Science Inventory

Solar radiation-induced photochemistry can be considered as a new source of nutrients when photochemical reactions release bioavailable nitrogen from biologically non-reactive dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). Pretreatments of Baltic Sea waters in the dark indicated that >72% of ...

305

Activation of the marine ecosystem model 3D CEMBS for the Baltic Sea in operational mode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a new marine ecosystem model 3D CEMBS designed for the Baltic Sea. The ecosystem model is incorporated into the 3D POPCICE ocean-ice model. The Current Baltic Sea model is based on the Community Earth System Model (CESM from the National Center for Atmospheric Research) which was adapted for the Baltic Sea as a coupled sea-ice model. It consists of the Community Ice Code (CICE model, version 4.0) and the Parallel Ocean Program (version 2.1). The ecosystem model is a biological submodel of the 3D CEMBS. It consists of eleven mass conservation equations. There are eleven partial second-order differential equations of the diffusion type with the advective term for phytoplankton, zooplankton, nutrients, dissolved oxygen, and dissolved and particulate organic matter. This model is an effective tool for solving the problem of ecosystem bioproductivity. The model is forced by 48-hour atmospheric forecasts provided by the UM model from the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling of Warsaw University (ICM). The study was financially supported by the Polish State Committee of Scientific Research (grants: No N N305 111636, N N306 353239). The partial support for this study was also provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBaltyk founded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract no. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09. Calculations were carried out at the Academy Computer Centre in Gda?sk.

Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, Lidia; Jakacki, Jaromir; Janecki, Maciej; Nowicki, Artur

2013-04-01

306

pattern of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar )i n the Baltic Sea with management implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic structure and isolation pattern of the Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar) throughout its range in the Baltic Sea were examined as a starting point for a conservation strategy for the species in this area. The allozyme variation in seven polymorphic loci was studied in 5125 salmon from 24 rivers in four countries. A clear dichotomy was observed between

Marja-Liisa Koljonen; Håkan Jansson; Tiit Paaver; Oleg Vasin; Jarmo Koskiniemi

307

Industrialization affects heavy metal and carbon isotope concentrations in recent Baltic Sea sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent sediment cores of the western Baltic Sea were analyzed for heavy metal and carbon isotope contents. The sedimentation rate was determined from radiocarbon dates to be 1.4 mm\\/yr. The `recent age' of the sediment was about 850 yr. Within the upper 20 cm of sediment, certain heavy metals became increasingly enriched towards the surface; Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu

Helmut Erlenkeuser; Erwin Suess; Horst Willkomm

1974-01-01

308

Nutrient limitation and grazing control of the Baltic plankton community during annual succession  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient limitation and grazing control of the planktonic community were studied in the northern Baltic Sea off the SW coast of Finland during the phytoplankton growth season of 1985. In situ experiments based on a 23 factorial design were performed in mesocosm enclosures on 10 occasions. The manipulations used included phosphorus (PO,? ) and nitrogen (NH,+ ) additions and the

K. KIVI; S. KAITALA; H. KUOSA; J. KUPARINEN; E. LESKINEN; R. LIGNELL; B. MARCUSSEN; T. TAMMINEN

1993-01-01

309

Influence of atmospheric circulation on the maximum ice extent in the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work analyzes long-term changes in the annual maximum ice extent in the Baltic Sea and Skagerrak between 1720 and 1997. It focuses on the sensitivity of the ice extent to changes in air temperature and on the relationships between the ice extent and large-scale atmospheric circulation. A significant regime shift in 1877 explains the decreasing trend in the ice

Anders Omstedt; Deliang Chen

2001-01-01

310

Research Materials in Baltic Studies: A Survey of Availability and Need.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a survey designed to find out the status of research materials in the field of Baltic studies. Deals primarily with such reference tools as bibliographies, catalogs, indexes, encyclopedias, dictionaries, and such sources as critical editions, collections of documents, media information, statistical information, and others. (Executive…

Nollendorfs, Valters; Zeps, Betty S.

1980-01-01

311

Intercultural Education in the Curriculum: Some Comparative Aspects from the Baltic and Nordic Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the 1990s, the educational systems of the Baltic countries, newly independent of the Soviet Union, underwent rapid and far-reaching change. National educational traditions were re-established and the countries achieved an internationally recognized quality of education. In the second half of the past decade, however, it came to be…

Asser, Hiie; Trasberg, Karmen; Vassilchenko, Larissa

2004-01-01

312

Toxicity and isolation of the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena from the southern Baltic Sea in 1986  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three water bloom samples were collected in August 1986 from the southern Baltic Sea. Acute toxicity of the samples was determined by mouse bioassay and the toxins were further studied by HPLC. The bloom samples contained equal amounts of cyanobacteria Nodularia spumigena and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and were hepatotoxic. Two hepatotoxic Nodularia spumigena strains were isolated from the samples. The isolates

K. Sivonen; K. Kononen; A.-L. Esala; S. I. Niemelä

1989-01-01

313

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and sediment of the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1992 and 1994, the distribution of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated in seawater and surface sediments of the Baltic Sea. The analysis of PAHs in seawater is very difficult due to the low concentration. High separation capability is required. A method for analysing very low concentrations of PAHs is presented. The method is based on the high-performance

G. Witt

1995-01-01

314

The Baltic Republics and Language Ideological Debates Surrounding European Union Accession  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the impact of European Union accession negotiations on language ideological debates regarding minority (language) and citizenship rights in the Baltic Republics. It explores issues pertaining to the transferability of standards developed for established democracies in the West to the situation of democratising countries in…

Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle

2005-01-01

315

Forest policy networks in changing political systems: Case study of the Baltic states  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shift from the Soviet system to market economies has induced a wide range of changes in the forest sectors of the three Baltic states. The majority of these changes are the result of compromises made between stakeholders participating in forest policymaking and implementation. In this article it is argued that the relative success of the increasingly complex and dynamic

Marius Lazdinis; Andrew Carver; Lars Carlsson; Kristjan Tõnisson; Lelde Vilkriste

2004-01-01

316

Species specific uptake of radio-labelled phytodetritus by benthic meiofauna from the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diatom Sheletonema costatum is one of the dominant phytoplankton species during spring in the northern Baltic Sea. We followed the uptake of radio-labelled S, costatum by all major meiofauna species in a laboratory experiment. The uptake of labelled diatom carbon varied greatly among major meiobenthic tars and among species belonging to the same class or phylum. Both total uptake

E. Ólafsson; H. Modig; W. J. Van de Bund

1999-01-01

317

Bimodal variation in mercury wet deposition to the coastal zone of the southern Baltic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the following periods: November 2005-June 2006 and October 2007-January 2009, concentrations and deposition rates of total mercury (THg) and Hg(II) were measured in precipitation over the urbanized and industrialized area of the southern Baltic - the city of Gdynia. Rains over the coastal zone had different concentrations of total mercury, they ranged from 8.6 to 118.0 ng L-1, out of which about 32% were labile, inorganic forms, easily reducible in a SnCl2 solution. Over the southern Baltic two maxima of concentrations were observed: first, in the heating season and second, in the non-heating season. Elevated concentrations of mercury in precipitations during heating seasons were the result of the activity of local emission sources (intensive combustion of fossil fuels in domestic furnaces and individual power and heat generating plants). During the warm season, precipitation over the southern Baltic could clean the air from Hg reemitted from sea and land surfaces. Precipitations, which purified marine and continental air masses were responsible for the comparable input of mercury to the coastal zone. The wet deposition value in 2008 was estimated to be 28.9 ?g m-2. In the coastal zone of the southern Baltic, acid precipitations with the elevated Hg concentrations are very frequent.

Siudek, P.; Falkowska, L.; Urba, A.

2009-10-01

318

Internationalization of small and medium sized enterprises in the Baltic Sea Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

We integrate internationalization process theory with industrial network theory to explain SME entry in emerging markets. We show that entry modes are complemented by entry nodes and entry processes. We develop a Five\\/Five Stages Model to consider the dynamic interaction between these factors. We undertook a survey of 116 SMEs in Southern Sweden trading with the Baltic States, Poland and

Hans Jansson; Susanne Sandberg

2008-01-01

319

234U and 238U isotopes in water and sediments of the southern Baltic.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to determine the concentration of 234U and 238U and calculate the values of the 234U/238U activity ratio in waters and sediments from the various regions of the southern Baltic Sea: Gda?sk Deep, S?upsk Narrow and Bornholm Deep. The concentration of uranium in analysed sediments from southern Baltic increase with core depth to what probably is connected with diffusion from sediments to water through interstitial water, where uranium concentration is much higher than in bottom water. The highest concentrations of uranium were observed in sediments of S?upsk Narrow (0.66-7.11 mg kg(-1) d.w.) and S?upsk Bank (0.61-6.93 mg kg(-1) d.w.), the lowest in sediments from Bornholm Deep (0.54-3.77 mg kg(-1) d.w.). The 234U/238U activity ratio results indicated that the sedimentation of terrigenic material and Vistula River transport are the general sources of uranium in the southern Baltic sediments. The value of 234U/238U activity ratio in sediments from reduction areas from southern Baltic (Gda?sk Deep and Bornholm Deep) indicated that reduction process of U(VI) to U(IV) and removing of anthropogenic uranium from seawater to sediments constitutes a small part only in Gda?sk Deep. PMID:14689997

Skwarzec, B; Bory?o, A; Strumi?ska, D

2002-01-01

320

Sediment facies and hydrodynamic setting: a study in the south western Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims at investigating the relationship between sedimentary facies and hydrodynamic setting by applying statistical analysis of sedimentological data and hydrodynamic modelling. The facies description bases on a dataset of grain-size analysis of surface sediments of the southwestern Baltic Sea. The facies is described by the grain-size parameters median, sorting, and skewness – parameters of a distribution function fitting

Bernd Bobertz; Jan Harff

2004-01-01

321

Chloroplast DNA variation of white oak in the Baltic countries and Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we were interested how recolonisation of oak in the Baltic region occurred after the last ice-age. To analyse the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) variation for white oak species at the more northerly limit of their distribution, a total of 394 samples from 54 locations from Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland were assessed for previously characterised as well as

Ulrike M Csaikl; Izabela Glaz; Virgilijus Baliuckas; Rémy J Petit; Jan Svejgaard Jensen

2002-01-01

322

Late Pleistocene and early Holocene paleogeography of the Darss Sill area, southwestern Baltic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, about 73% of the water exchange between the Baltic and the North Sea takes place through the Darss Sill area. In hydrographic terms the Darss Sill is a major morphological unit separating the deeper areas of the Mecklenburg Bay and the Arkona Basin from each other. It is characterized by an average water depth of 16 m. The main

Wolfram Lemke; Antoon Kuijpers

1995-01-01

323

Late and Postglacial Sea-Level Change and Paleoenvironments in the Oder Estuary, Southern Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of sea-level change in the southern Baltic Sea region is important for understanding the variations in late Pleistocene and Holocene sea-level change across northern Europe. These variations are a consequence of the response of the Earth's crust to the deglaciation of Fennoscandia and of the water added to the oceans from the melting of all Pleistocene ice sheets. The

Anne Müller

2001-01-01

324

The radiocarbon age of marine and land deposits in the southern Baltic area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basing on statistical analysis of ca. 150 radiocarbon dates of sedi- ments from different environments an attempt to reconstruct the time framework of main environmental changes during the late Pleistocene and Holocene in the Southern Baltic area was made. The main results are as follow: - 45 000-22 000 years BP - period of interpleniglacial (Grudziaþdz Interstadial), - 22 000-14

SZYMON USCINOWICZ; REGINA KRAMARSKA; ANNA TOMCZAK; JOANNA ZACHOWICZ

325

Sea to air bacteria transfer over the baltic sea coast and Gulf of Gda?sk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number concentration of living bacteria within the psychrophile and mesophile categories, in the water and in the air along with meteorology and hydrographic conditions were investigated over the Southern Baltic Sea and coastal station in Lubiatowo in 1994, 1995 and 1996. Separate data sets were collected at four coastal stations over the Gulf of Gda?sk in Jantar, Zaspa, Sopot

Ma?gorzata Michalska; Maria Królska

1997-01-01

326

Material transport from the nearshore to the basinal environment in the southern Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Processes involved in erosion, transport and deposition of cohesive materials are studied in a transect from shallow (16 m) to deep (47 m) water of the SW Baltic Sea. The wave- and current-induced energy input to the seabed in shallow water is high with strong variability and suspended matter concentrations may double within a few hours. Primary settling fluxes (from

C. Christiansen; K Edelvang; K Emeis; G Graf; S Jähmlich; J Kozuch; M Laima; T Leipe; A Löffler; L. C Lund-Hansen; A Miltner; K Pazdro; J Pempkowiak; G Shimmield; T Shimmield; J Smith; M Voss; G Witt

2002-01-01

327

Model studies of transport of sedimentary material in the western Baltic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theoretical description of sedimentation, resuspension and transport of sedimentary material is an important prerequisite for the modeling of the benthic–pelagic interaction, the impact of dumping on the coastal environment and the fluxes of material from coastal areas into the deep basins. The present study aims at model studies of the transport of sedimentary material in parts of the Baltic

Christiane Kuhrts; Wolfgang Fennel; Torsten Seifert

2004-01-01

328

Sedimentation and Pelagic Retention of Particulate C, N and P in the Coastal Northern Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sedimentation and pelagic retention capacity of particulate carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus as well as the impact of resuspension and preservation on sedimentation rates were studied during spring and summer in the SW coast of Finland, Baltic Sea. Formaldehyde preservation resulted in significantly higher carbon, nitrogen and chlorophyllasedimentation rates when compared to traps without preservative. This was mainly attributable to contamination

A. S. Heiskanen; J. Haapala; K. Gundersen

1998-01-01

329

Significance of microphytobenthic primary production in the Bodden (southern Baltic Sea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations of phytoplankton and microphytobenthic primary production were carried out at two estuarine study sites located in the southern Baltic Sea (Germany). Special attention was given to the balance between pelagic and benthic primary production which is widely considered to have become disturbed by eutrophication in the region, as well as to the importance of the flocculent sediment surface layer

S. Gerbersdorf; H. J. Black; J. Meyercordt; L.-A. Meyer-Reil; T. Rieling; I. Stodian

2000-01-01

330

The distribution of selected chlorinated microcontaminants in Baltic waters, 1992 to 1994  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations on the distribution of selected chlorinated hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides were carried out in the waterbody of the Baltic Sea with special focus on the coastal waters of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern between 1992 and 1994. The contaminations during sampling and blank measurements of the extracting medium were investigated. The organochlorine compounds including the individual isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), individual congeners of chlorinated biphenyls (CBs), dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and some of its metabolites were analysed by gaschromatographic techniques (HRGC-ECD/ECD). In Baltic waters the highest concentrations in the range between 200 and 2000 pg dm-3 were found for HCH isomers. Clear regional variations exist only for ?-HCH. In contrast, ?-HCH is more homogeneously distributed in Baltic surface waters. Seasonal variations for both HCH isomers were observed. The concentrations of the lower water soluble individual CB congeners ranged between <5 and 175 pg dm-3. The regional distribution of CBs in Baltic Sea water showed only weak gradients. The nonortho-Cl substituted CBs were below the detection limit of 5 pg dm-3. The concentrations of DDTs including metabolites were below the limit of detection of 5 pg dm-3 up to 150 pg dm-3.

Dannenberger, Dirk; Lerz, Astrid

1995-12-01

331

The influence of upwelling and entrainment on the algal bloom in the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrodynamic processes control many geochemical and ecological processes in the sea. In this paper, the influence of up- and downwelling and entrainment on the ecosystem components are studied. The ecohydrodynamic model was initially used to simulate the whole Baltic Sea to get the boundary conditions for the Gulf of Riga. Then, to study the influence of different hydrodynamic conditions on

Peeter Ennet; Harri Kuosa; Rein Tamsalu

2000-01-01

332

Future nutrient load scenarios for the Baltic Sea due to climate and lifestyle changes.  

PubMed

Dynamic model simulations of the future climate and projections of future lifestyles within the Baltic Sea Drainage Basin (BSDB) were considered in this study to estimate potential trends in future nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea. Total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads were estimated using a simple proxy based only on human population (to account for nutrient sources) and stream discharges (to account for nutrient transport). This population-discharge proxy provided a good estimate for nutrient loads across the seven sub-basins of the BSDB considered. All climate scenarios considered here produced increased nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea over the next 100 years. There was variation between the climate scenarios such that sub-basin and regional differences were seen in future nutrient runoff depending on the climate model and scenario considered. Regardless, the results of this study indicate that changes in lifestyle brought about through shifts in consumption and population potentially overshadow the climate effects on future nutrient runoff for the entire BSDB. Regionally, however, lifestyle changes appear relatively more important in the southern regions of the BSDB while climatic changes appear more important in the northern regions with regards to future increases in nutrient loads. From a whole-ecosystem management perspective of the BSDB, this implies that implementation of improved and targeted management practices can still bring about improved conditions in the Baltic Sea in the face of a warmer and wetter future climate. PMID:23765871

Hägg, Hanna Eriksson; Lyon, Steve W; Wällstedt, Teresia; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Claremar, Björn; Humborg, Christoph

2014-04-01

333

Observations of Ship Performance and the Structure of Fast Ice Channels in the Northern Baltic Sea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Field data of the structure of fast ice ship channels in the northern Baltic Sea, and of the performance characteristics of ships in these channels are presented. The field work was done in two areas in the Bay of Bothnia during March 15 to 21, 1990. Obse...

B. Veitch M. Leppaeranta P. Kujala P. Kosloff

1991-01-01

334

Performance of Ice-Strengthened Ships in the Northern Baltic Sea in Winter 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Observations of ship performance and ice conditions in the northern Baltic Sea during the winter 1991 are presented in the report. Ten Finnish ships were studied in various ice conditions by observers onboard the ships. The ice conditions were visually de...

P. Kujala T. Sundell

1992-01-01

335

Language and Education Orientations in Lithuania: A Cross-Baltic Perspective Post-EU Accession  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an up-to-date overview of language policies and practices in Lithuania, paying particular attention to the latest developments that have taken place in national educational contexts. Against the background of recent sociodemographic changes in the three Baltic republics, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, it analyzes issues…

Bulajeva, Tatjana; Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle

2008-01-01

336

Language-in-Education across the Baltic: Policies, Practices and Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since their political reorientation that started in the late 1980s, the Baltic states have experienced profound social reforms to rebuild their democratizing societies. Education has featured as a key vehicle to this transformation process of overcoming the limitations of the Soviet past. National legislative frameworks were therefore soon…

Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle

2007-01-01

337

Lateglacial of Lake Onega — Contribution to the history of the eastern Baltic basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

New stratigraphy data especially diatom analyses are presented from the area north of Lake Onega relevant to the discussion on possible Lateglacial connection between the Baltic Sea and White Sea. Following the deglaciation 12,000–11,000 years ago Lake Onega basin was occupied by a system of ice dammed lakes which drained to the Lake Ladoga basin. When the ice retreated from

Matti Saarnisto; Tuulikki Grönlund; Ilpo Ekman

1995-01-01

338

The Baltic states and Moscow's 9 May commemoration: Analysing memory politics in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article develops a three-level framework for analysing the role of memory in contemporary European politics. It tests the utility of this framework based on the three Baltic states and their public and political debates around the World War II anniversary commemorations in Moscow in 2005. Existing concepts for analysing the impact of memory on policy decisions are discussed first

Eva-Clarita Onken

2007-01-01

339

A general modelling of expansive and non-expansive clays  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an elastoplastic model for saturated expansive and non-expansive clays. The original feature of this model is that a plastic mechanism is introduced during unloading to take into account the irreversible swelling of the macroporosities. These strains are induced by the repulsive stresses which are unbalanced at the scale of the microporosities. Thus two yield surfaces are activated:

J. C. Robinet; M. Pakzad; A. Jullien; F. Plas

1999-01-01

340

Temporal trends of PCDD/Fs in Baltic Sea sediment cores covering the 20th century.  

PubMed

The pollution trend of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the Baltic Sea region was studied based on depth profiles of PCDD/Fs in sediment cores collected from six offshore areas, eight coastal sites impacted by industrial/urban emissions, and one coastal reference site. A general trend was observed for the offshore and coastal reference sites with substantial increase in PCDD/F concentrations in the mid-late 1970s and peak levels during 1985-2002. The overall peak year for PCDD/Fs in Baltic Sea offshore areas was estimated (using spline-fit modeling) to 1994 ± 5 years, and a half-life in sediments was estimated at 29 ± 11 years. For the industrial/urban impacted coastal sites, the temporal trend was more variable with peak years occurring 1-2 decades earlier compared to offshore areas. The substantial reductions from peak levels (38 ± 11% and 81 ± 12% in offshore and coastal areas, respectively) reflect domestic and international actions taken for reduction of the release of PCDD/Fs to the environment. The modeled overall half-life and reductions of PCDD/Fs in offshore Baltic Sea sediment correspond well to both PCDD/F trends in European lakes without any known direct PCDD/F sources (half-lives 30 and 32 years), and previously modeled reduction in atmospheric deposition of PCDD/Fs to the Baltic Sea since 1990. These observations support previous findings of a common diffuse source, such as long-range air transport of atmospheric emissions, as the prime source of PCDD/Fs to the Baltic Sea region. The half-life of PCDD/Fs in Baltic Sea offshore sediments was estimated to be approximately 2 and 4-6 times longer than in semirural and urban European air, respectively. This study highlights the need for further international actions to reduce the levels of PCDD/Fs in Baltic Sea air specifically and in European air in general. PMID:24351230

Assefa, Anteneh T; Sobek, Anna; Sundqvist, Kristina L; Cato, Ingemar; Jonsson, Per; Tysklind, Mats; Wiberg, Karin

2014-01-21

341

Decadal trends in simulated oxygen dynamics and hypoxia in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last century hypoxia is increasing in large parts of the Baltic Sea. Inflowing salt water brings new supplies of oxygen to the bottom water however is at the same time enhancing stratification and thereby creating favourable conditions for hypoxia. Moreover, it is the increased flux of organic material to the bottom water and sediments due to nutrient enrichment, which has disrupted the balance between oxygen supply through physical processes and oxygen consumption from decomposition of organic material. The aim of the present work is to explore the oxygen availability in the Baltic Sea on the base of the 3D numerical model GETM (General Estuarine Transport Model, http://getm.eu). The model is implemented for the whole Baltic Sea including the Kattegat and is forced with realistic sea-level and meteorological data. The simulated time period covers the years from 1960 until the end of 2010. The oxygen removal is assumed to be independent of the content of oxygen in the Baltic Sea and has been simply parameterized. Despite the simplistic approach taken for describing oxygen, the modelled oxygen concentrations agree well with independent observational data. This implies that the realistic modelling of the long term evolution of oxygen is requiring an accurate description of the physical circulation. The adequate accordance between simulations and data indicates that the time evolution of surface oxygen is mainly determined by the gas exchange at the surface. We find that bottom oxygen in the Kattegat is mainly controlled by the oxygen saturation. In the Baltic Proper however long-term inflow variations determine the bottom oxygen concentration. For example, in the Bornholm Basin the increase of the near bottom oxygen usually corresponds to a sudden increase in salinity due to an inflow whereas the oxygen dynamics in the deep waters of the Gulf of Finland has a seasonal behaviour. We confirmed that the major factors controlling the oxygen dynamics in the Baltic Sea are natural physical factors, like the magnitude of the vertical turbulent mixing, wind speed and the variation in temperature and salinity. Thorough statistical evaluation of the time series for anoxic and hypoxic areas in the Baltic Sea resulted in overall non-significant increasing trends during the last 50 years. Contrary to the non-conclusive trend evaluation the time series have a significant structural break point (changing from negative to positive trend) at about 1975-1980.

Miladinova, S.; Stips, A. K.; Lessin, G.

2012-04-01

342

The Impacts of Highway Expansion on Population Change: An Integrated Spatial Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of highways on transforming human society and promoting population change have been investigated in several disciplines, including geography, sociology, economics, and planning. Currently, the primary highway construction activity in the nation is highway expansion; however, this expansion has not been the focus of much of the existing…

Chi, Guangqing

2010-01-01

343

The Stratification of Students in Israeli Universities: Persistent Outcomes of an Educational Expansion Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expansion trends of higher education systems involve the planned growth of new universities, frequently stratified lower than established ones in academic breadth and excellence as well as in the socio-demographic origins of their students. The persistence of this internal stratification of the university system subsequent to its expansion remains…

Yogev, Abraham

2007-01-01

344

Study in 1790 Baltic men: FSHR Asn680Ser polymorphism affects total testes volume  

PubMed Central

Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) contains two common linked polymorphisms, Thr307Ala (rs6165) and Asn680Ser (rs6166), shown to modulate ovarian function in women. The effect on male fertility and reproductive parameters has been inconclusive. We studied FSHR Asn680Ser polymorphism in a large study group (n = 1790) from the Baltic countries. The population-based Baltic male cohort (Estonians, Latvians, Lithuanians; n = 1052) and Estonian oligo-/azoospermic (sperm concentration <20 × 106/mL) idiopathic infertile patients (n = 738) were genotyped for the FSHR Asn680Ser using PCR-RFLP. Genetic associations were tested using linear regression under additive model and results were combined in meta-analysis. No statistical difference was detected in allelic distribution of the FSHR Asn680Ser between the Baltic cohort and Estonian male infertility group. A consistent significant association was detected between the FSHR Ser680 allele and lower total testes volume in both, the Baltic cohort (p = 0.010, effect = ?1.16 mL) and Estonian idiopathic infertility group (p = 0.007, effect = ?1.77 mL). In meta-analysis, the statistical significance was enhanced (p = 0.000066, effect = ?1.40 mL). Meta-analysis supported further associations with moderate effect between the FSHR Ser680 variant and higher serum FSH (p = 0.072), lower Inhibin B (p = 0.037) and total testosterone (p = 0.034). No statistically significant associations were identified with serum LH and estradiol, and sperm parameters. In conclusion, the study in 1790 Baltic men shows statistically highly significant association of the FSHR Asn680Ser with total testes volume and supportive association with serum reproductive hormone levels indicative to the functional effect of the alternative FSHR variants on male reproductive physiology.

Grigorova, M; Punab, M; Poolamets, O; Sober, S; Vihljajev, V; Zilaitiene, B; Erenpreiss, J; Matulevicius, V; Tsarev, I; Laan, M

2013-01-01

345

Long-term variability of extreme waves in the Caspian, Black, Azov and Baltic Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to study extreme storm waves in the Caspian, Black, Azov and Baltic Sea we used the spectral wave model SWAN. Significant wave height, swell and sea height, direction of propagation, their length and period were calculated with the NCEP/NCAR (1,9°x1,9°, 4-daily) reanalysis wind forcing from 1948 to 2010 in the Caspian, Black and Baltic Seas and with the NCEP/CFSR (0,3°x0,3°, 1 hour) for the period from 1979 to 2010 in the Azov Sea. The calculations were performed on supercomputers of Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU). The spatial resolution of the numerical grid was of order 5 km for the Caspian, Baltic and Black Seas, 2 km for the Azov Sea. These model wave hindcasts were used to calculate interannual and seasonal variability of the storm frequency, location and duration. The Initial Distribution Method and Annual Maxima Series Methods were used to study probable waves of a century reoccurrence. The long-term variability of extreme waves revealed different trends in the investigated seas. The Caspian and Azov seas decreased the storm activity, while in the Baltic Sea the number of storm cases increased and the Black Sea showed no significant trend. The of more than 12 m were observed in two centers in the middle part of the Caspian Sea and in the center of the Baltic Sea. In the Black Sea the extreme waves of the same probability of more than 14 m were found in the region to the south of the Crimean peninsula. In the Azov Sea the highest waves of a century reoccurrence do not exceed 5 m. The work was done in Natural Risk Assessment Laboratory, MSU under contract G.34.31.0007.

Arkhipkin, Victor; Dobroliubov, Sergey

2013-04-01

346

Characterization of the bacterioplankton community and its antibiotic resistance genes in the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

The residues from human environments often contain antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) that can contaminate natural environments; the clearest consequence of that is the selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The Baltic Sea is the second largest isolated brackish water reservoir on Earth, serving as a drainage area for people in 14 countries, which differ from one another in antibiotic use and sewage treatment policies. The aim of this study was to characterize the bacterioplankton structure and quantify ARGs (tetA, tetB, tetM, ermB, sul1, blaSHV, and ampC) within the bacterioplankton community of the Baltic Sea. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was applied to quantify ARGs from four different sampling sites of the Baltic Sea over 2 years, and the bacterial communities were profiled sequencing the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene on Illumina HiSeq2000. The results revealed that all the resistance genes targeted in the study were detectable from the Baltic Sea bacterioplankton. The percentage of tetA, tetB, tetM, ermB, and sul1 genes in the sea bacterial community varied between 0.0077% and 0.1089%, 0.0003% and 0.0019%, 0.0001% and 0.0105%, 0% and 0.0136%, and 0.0001% and 0.0438%, respectively. The most numerous ARG detected was the tetA gene and this gene also had the highest proportion in the whole microbial community. A strong association between bacterioplankton ARGs' abundance data and community phylogenetic composition was found, implying that the abundance of most of the studied ARGs in the Baltic Sea is determined by fluctuations in its bacterial community structure. PMID:23941523

Tiirik, Kertu; Nõlvak, Hiie; Oopkaup, Kristjan; Truu, Marika; Preem, Jens-Konrad; Heinaru, Ain; Truu, Jaak

2014-01-01

347

Failure Limiting Pipe Expansion Joint.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application describes a failure limiting pipe expansion joint for fluid conduits. It comprises a bellows, single or multi-ply, welded into each pipe section, a ribbed inner sleeve welded to the pipe at one end of the expansion joint; an outer s...

F. A. Flint

1974-01-01

348

Learning color image expansion filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image expansion by linear filtering is attractive and widely used because of its simplicity and efficiency, and many interpolation methods fall in this category. In this study, we model filtering as linear regression from low- to high-resolution color image patches, and propose a learning-based design method of image expansion filters based on sparse Bayesian estimation. Sparseness is imposed on the

Atsunori Kanemura; Shin-ichi Maeda; Shin Ishii

2009-01-01

349

Cool Hot Rod (Thermal Expansion)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phenomenon is thermal expansion of copper. This demonstration allows an observer to see the effect of heating (and cooling) a copper tube. When heated, the copper tube lengthens and thickens. When cooled, the tube shrinks. The lengthening of the rod rotates a toothpick with an attached flag to make the expansion visible and measurable.

350

Modelling of LIBS plasma expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A one-dimensional time-dependent fluid dynamic model has been developed to describe the expansion of the plume produced by laser ablation. The model includes chemical reactions considered in local thermodynamic equilibrium to describe the expansion of a TiO plasma. The results are discussed in connection with LIBS plasmas.

G. Colonna; A. Casavola; M. Capitelli

2001-01-01

351

Vancouver Community College Educational Plan, 1988-1993.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vancouver Community College's (VCC's) educational plan for 1988-93 is set forth in this document. First, an outline is presented of VCC's current planning initiatives, including efforts related to controlled enrollment expansion, the demand for part-time studies, instructional quality, facility expansion, instructional innovation, management…

Gallagher, Paul

352

Trace elements in the livers of cod (Gadus morhua L.) from the Baltic Sea: levels and temporal trends.  

PubMed

This paper presents and discusses the levels and temporal trends of concentrations of Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu, Zn, and As in livers and Hg in the muscle tissues of cod (Gadus morhua L) from the Baltic Sea during the period 1994-2010. Concentrations of Pb, Hg, and Cd exhibited significant downward trends. Cu and Zn concentrations exhibited upward trends in the period 1994 to 2010. No trends were detected for concentrations of As. The temporal trends identified in heavy metal concentrations in cod livers corresponded to the directions of changes in concentrations of these elements introduced into the Baltic Sea via river runoff and atmospheric emission, and those in surface and deep waters of the Baltic. Downward trends in the concentrations of toxic metals in cod livers suggest that advantageous changes are occurring in concentrations of heavy metals in the environment of the southern Baltic Sea. PMID:22371038

Polak-Juszczak, Lucyna

2013-01-01

353

On the proper choice of wind stress drag coefficient for ROMS model in the numerical simulation of the Baltic variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Baltic Sea circulation is largely dominated by the wind forcing. Changes in the wind regimes may influence strong variability in surface currents and, thus, accurate representation of the wind forcing is critically important for the accurate simulation of the Baltic Sea circulation. We used ROMS for simulation of the dynamics of Baltic Sea and analysed the sensitivity of the results to the formulation of surface wind stress for which different formulations of the drag coefficients were tested. Surface wind speed has been taken from CFSR reanalysis. The main focus of the study is on the representation of statistical characteristics of the sea level variability. The reliability of simulations with different wind stress formulations has been tested against the data from 40 tide gauge stations in the Baltic Sea.

Medvedev, Igor; Kulikov, Evgueni

2014-05-01

354

Energy economy of salmon aquaculture in the Baltic sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resource utilization in Atlantic salmon aquaculture in the Baltic Sea was investigated by means of an energy analysis. A comparison was made between cage farming and sea ranching enterprises each with yearly yields of 40 t of Atlantic salmon. A variety of sea ranching options were evaluated, including (a) conventional ranching, (b) ranching employing a delayed release to the sea of young smolts, (c) harvesting salmon both by offshore fishing fleets and as they return to coastal areas, and (d) when offshore fishing is banned, harvesting salmon only as they return to coastal areas where released. Inputs both from natural ecosystems (i.e., fish consumed by ranched salmon while in the sea and raw materials used for producing dry food pellets) and from the economy (i.e., fossil fuels and energy embodied in economic goods and services) were quantified in tonnes for food energy and as direct plus indirect energy cost (embodied energy). The fixed solar energy (estimated as primary production) and the direct and indirect auxiliary energy requirements per unit of fish output were expressed in similar units. Similar quantities of living resources in tonnes per unit of salmon biomass output are required whether the salmon are feeding in the sea or are caged farmed. Cage farming is about 10 times more dependent on auxiliary energies than sea ranching. Sea ranching applying delayed release of smolts is 35 45% more efficient in the use of auxiliary energies than conventional sea ranching and cage farming. Restriction of offshore fishing would make sea ranching 3 to 6.5 times more efficient than cage farming. The fixed solar energy input to Atlantic salmon aquaculture is 4 to 63 times larger than the inputs of auxiliary energy. Thus, cage farming and sea ranching are both heavily dependent on the productivity of natural ecosystems. It is concluded that sustainable development of the aquaculture industry must be founded on ecologically integrated technologies which utilize the free production in marine ecosystems without exhausting or damaging the marine environment.

Folke, Carl

1988-07-01

355

Azimuthal and Radial Seismic Anisotropy Beneath the Baltic Shield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SVEKALAPKO passive seismic array in Finland provides us with an exceptional opportunity to study seismic anisotropy in and below the lithosphere in a shield. The array was composed of almost 150 sensors - out of which 46 were broadband - in a regular 2D grid which facilitated high-quality array analysis. We analyse phase velocities of both Love and Rayleigh waves to constrain radial and azimuthal anisotropy. We invert for the anisotropic parameters ? and Gc on the one hand, and for the percentage of aligned olivine on the other. This latter parametrization of the inverse problem makes it straightforward to quantitatively compare the radial and the azimuthal anisotropies, under the assumption that aligned olivine dominates the anisotropy. The radial anisotropy, for which we have resolution in the lithosphere only, is strong, and can be explained by 40%-60% of the rock being olivine with the a-axis in the horizontal plane, equivalent to values of ? between 1.09 and 1.14. This radial anisotropy is stronger than observed in shield areas in global models (e.g. Beghein and Trampert, 2004). The azimuthal anisotropy is on the contrary very small in the lithosphere. This indicates that the orientation of the olivine minerals is random within the horizontal plane or that the overall effect across the area is negligible due to different orientations in different domains. Results from body-waves (Plomerová et al., 2005, Vecsey et al., in prep.) would support the latter interpretation. The azimuthal anisotropy as estimated by Rayleigh wave analysis is on the contrary significant below 200-250km depth, and corresponds to approximately 15%-20% of the rock being olivine with the a-axis aligned in direction N20. Xenolith analysis in the area shows that the rheologic lithosphere is at most 250km thick, so we suggest that this observed anisotropy is sub-lithospheric. Interestingly, the fast direction is significantly different from the absolute plate motion of the Baltic Shield, indicating that the lithosphere is not simply coupled to the underlying convecting mantle.

Pedersen, H. A.; Bruneton, M.; Maupin, V.

2005-12-01

356

Between Scania and Samland. From Studies of Stylistic Links in the Baltic Basin during the Early Migration Period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bitner-Wröblewska, A. 1991. Between Scania and Samland. From Studies of Stylistic I.inks in the Baltic Basin during the Early Migration Period. Fornvännen 86, Stockholm. The question of the contacts between Seandinavia and lhe south-eastern Baltic zone in lhe Early Migration Period has so far received scant attention in lhe literature. The present paper seeks to demonstrate the striking proximity of

Anna Bitner-Wröblewska

357

Quantifying the nitrogen retention capacity of natural wetlands in the large-scale drainage basin of the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

We estimate the nitrogen retention capacity of natural wetlands in the 1.7 million km2 Baltic Sea drainage basin, using a wetland GIS data base. There are approximately 138,000 km2 of wetlands (bogs and fens) in the Baltic Sea drainage basin, corresponding to 8% of the area. The input of nitrogen to natural wetlands from atmospheric deposition was estimated to 55,000–161,000

Åsa Jansson; Carl Folke; Sindre Langaas

1998-01-01

358

Content of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in a number of regions of the Baltic Sea in 1982  

SciTech Connect

The authors present the data gathered from the samples of water and bed deposits taken at various sites in the Baltic Sea, the Gulf of Riga, and the Gulf of Finland. By means of the radiochemical method using ferrocyanide-carbonate concentration, they determine strotium-90 and cesium-137 content. The authors conclude by noting an increase in the cesium-137 content in the deep waters of the Baltic Sea and in bed deposits, and by cautioning that this development commands close attention.

Lazarev, L.N.; Flegontov, V.M.; Gedenov, L.I.; Ivanova, L.M.; Orlova, T.B.; Stepanov, A.V.

1985-07-01

359

Temporal and spatial variability of surface fluxes over the ice edge zone in the northern Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three land-fast ice stations (one of them was the Finnish research ice breaker Aranda) and the German research aircraft Falcon were applied to measure the turbulent and radiation fluxes over the ice edge zone in the northern Baltic Sea during the Baltic Air-Sea-Ice Study (BASIS) field experiment from 16 February to 6 March 1998. The temporal and spatial variability of

B. Brümmer; D. Schröder; J. Launiainen; T. Vihma; A.-S. Smedman; M. Magnusson

2002-01-01

360

Modeling decadal variability of the Baltic Sea: 1. Reconstructing atmospheric surface data for the period 1902–1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical model is developed to reconstruct atmospheric surface data for the period 1902–1998 to force a coupled sea ice-ocean model of the Baltic Sea. As the response timescale of the Baltic Sea on freshwater inflow is of the order of 30–40 years, climate relevant model studies should cover at least century-long simulations. Such an observational atmospheric data set is

F. Kauker; H. E. M. Meier

2003-01-01

361

Modeling decadal variability of the Baltic Sea: 1. Reconstructing atmospheric surface data for the period 1902-1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical model is developed to reconstruct atmospheric surface data for the period 1902-1998 to force a coupled sea ice-ocean model of the Baltic Sea. As the response timescale of the Baltic Sea on freshwater inflow is of the order of 30-40 years, climate relevant model studies should cover at least century-long simulations. Such an observational atmospheric data set is

F. Kauker; H. E. M. Meier

2003-01-01

362

Assessment of natal origin of pike ( Esox lucius ) in the Baltic Sea using Sr:Ca in otoliths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spawning habitat of pike (Esox lucius) in the Baltic Sea include brackish water bays, brooks and rivers. Elevated salinity concentrations are one of several stressors\\u000a that might increase the use and importance of freshwater habitats for spawning. In the Baltic Sea, one of the largest brackish\\u000a seas in the world, freshwater species like pike, perch (Perca fluviatilis), whitefish (Coregonus sp),

Olof Engstedt; Patrik Stenroth; Per Larsson; Lars Ljunggren; Mikael Elfman

2010-01-01

363

Pardee prep plant expansion  

SciTech Connect

By adding a heavy-media vessel and improving the fine coal circuit, Cumberland River Coal's Pardee preparation plant (in Wise County, VA) increased raw feed capacity with minimal disruptions. The plan called for the installation of a heavy media vessel to treat 5 x 1/2 inch material with a cyclone circuit processing 1/2 inch x 1 mm, and a deslime column flotation circuit. The article describes the new circuit design and the construction process. In January 2006, the plant's raw feed capacity averaged 765 tph over six days. The article was adapted from a paper presented at Coal prep 2006 (2-4 May, Lexington, KY (United States)). 3 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Holcomb, T.; Pinson, K.; Bethell, P. [Cumberland River Coal (United States)

2007-01-15

364

Effect of major Baltic inflows on the vertical distribution of hydrophysical parameters, oxygen and inorganic nutrients in the Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Finland: a numerical modelling experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Certain meteorological and oceanographic conditions cause episodic inflows of highly saline and usually oxygen-rich water into the Baltic Sea termed major Baltic inflows (MBI). These events ventilate the deep water of the Central Baltic Sea, but also increase stratification stability and suppress vertical mixing. During stagnation periods the deep water oxygen pool is exhausted and salinity is decreasing due to mixing processes. While the effect of MBIs on the deep area of the Central Baltic received much attention in the recent years, less is known about their influence on hydrophysical and ecological conditions in the Baltic sub-basins. It is a fact, that despite a reduction in nutrient discharge to the Baltic Sea from agricultural runoff and industrial production in the beginning of 1990s, in the Gulf of Finland (GoF) near-bottom oxygen conditions became worse and phosphate concentrations have even increased during the recent decade. This is raising the question of the role that MBIs play in the exchange of water and material between Baltic Proper and the GoF. To improve our understanding of the effects of MBIs on the interaction of the Gulf of Finland and the Baltic Proper, the hydrodynamic model GETM coupled with the ecosystem model ERGOM was applied to the Baltic Sea area for the period 1991-2009. Model performance was validated and showed good agreement with the available measurement data at HELCOM monitoring stations BY15, LL17, LL12, LL7 and LL3A, which represent a transition from the Gotland Deep to the eastern GoF. To exclude the effect of MBIs, an experimental model run without imposed sea-level variations at the open boundary in Kattegat was performed, thus excluding one of the major factors driving the barotropic inflows to the Baltic Sea. Model results have shown that in no-inflow situations, surface salinity is lower by about 1 PSU and near-bottom salinity by about 2 PSU in the Baltic Proper, while in the GoF the difference is about 0.5 and 1.5 PSU, respectively. There is no significant difference in surface temperature values, but in the absence of inflows near-bottom temperature is in general lower. In the case without inflows, near-bottom oxygen content in the GoF is higher and phosphate concentration is lower, while in the Baltic Proper the situation is opposite. Nitrate is either absent or very low in the Baltic Proper, while in the GoF its concentration is higher than in the "default" case. Comparison of model results has shown that variability of stratification clearly influenced vertical distributions of all the parameters. Our results confirm that MBIs have played a distinct role in shaping the status of the GoF ecosystem during recent decades and emphasize the fact that the exchange between Baltic Proper and the GoF should receive proper attention in the process of the Baltic Sea ecosystem management.

Lessin, Gennadi; Stips, Adolf

2013-04-01

365

Long-term changes in Secchi depth and the role of phytoplankton in explaining light attenuation in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secchi depth, as a proxy of water transparency, provides valuable information on the availability of light to the underwater ecosystems. Changes in water transparency have also been widely linked to eutrophication and phytoplankton biomass. This study aimed to describe the development of water transparency in the Baltic Sea through a unique century-long set of Secchi depth observations. Furthermore, the aim was to explain the role of phytoplankton in determining water transparency in these optically complex waters. Water transparency in the open Baltic Sea has decreased during the last one hundred years. The development differs between the sub-basins of the Baltic Sea. The decrease has been most profound in the north-eastern Baltic sub-basins, but apparent also in parts of the Southern and Central Baltic. In many of the northern areas the decrease has accelerated during the last decades, whereas in the Southern Baltic a recent increase was observed. The analysis of simultaneous chlorophyll a observations during the period from 1972 to 2006 revealed that during summer time, 13-17% of the light attenuation can be attributed to phytoplankton. In spring, the average proportion is between 31 and 42%, with great variation between observations. We find Secchi depth a suitable indicator of eutrophication, integrating various organic matter related features. It should always be applied with sufficient background information of the optical properties of the water mass, and complemented by other indicators.

Fleming-Lehtinen, Vivi; Laamanen, Maria

2012-05-01

366

All Order Covariant Tubular Expansion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider tubular neighborhood of an arbitrary submanifold embedded in a (pseudo-) Riemannian manifold. This can be described by Fermi normal coordinates (FNC) satisfying certain conditions as described by Florides and Synge in [15]. By generalizing the work of Muller et al. in [54] on Riemann normal coordinate expansion, we derive all order FNC expansion of vielbein in this neighborhood with closed form expressions for the curvature expansion coefficients. Our result is shown to be consistent with certain integral theorem for the metric proved in [15].

Mukhopadhyay, Partha

2014-11-01

367

Thermal Expansion of Polyurethane Foam  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Closed cell foams are often used for thermal insulation. In the case of the Space Shuttle, the External Tank uses several thermal protection systems to maintain the temperature of the cryogenic fuels. A few of these systems are polyurethane, closed cell foams. In an attempt to better understand the foam behavior on the tank, we are in the process of developing and improving thermal-mechanical models for the foams. These models will start at the microstructural level and progress to the overall structural behavior of the foams on the tank. One of the key properties for model characterization and verification is thermal expansion. Since the foam is not a material, but a structure, the modeling of the expansion is complex. It is also exacerbated by the anisoptropy of the material. During the spraying and foaming process, the cells become elongated in the rise direction and this imparts different properties in the rise direction than in the transverse directions. Our approach is to treat the foam as a two part structure consisting of the polymeric cell structure and the gas inside the cells. The polymeric skeleton has a thermal expansion of its own which is derived from the basic polymer chemistry. However, a major contributor to the thermal expansion is the volume change associated with the gas inside of the closed cells. As this gas expands it exerts pressure on the cell walls and changes the shape and size of the cells. The amount that this occurs depends on the elastic and viscoplastic properties of the polymer skeleton. The more compliant the polymeric skeleton, the more influence the gas pressure has on the expansion. An additional influence on the expansion process is that the polymeric skeleton begins to breakdown at elevated temperatures and releases additional gas species into the cell interiors, adding to the gas pressure. The fact that this is such a complex process makes thermal expansion ideal for testing the models. This report focuses on the thermal expansion tests and the response of the microstructure. A novel optical method is described which is appropriate for measuring thermal expansion at high temperatures without influencing the thermal expansion measurement. Detailed microstructural investigations will also be described which show cell expansion as a function of temperature. Finally, a phenomenological model on thermal expansion will be described.

Lerch, Bradley A.; Sullivan, Roy M.

2006-01-01

368

Scaling relations and the ? expansion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ? expansion is an expansion of a quantum field theory in a parameter describing the degree of non-linearity of the theory. We show how to use engineering scaling relations to enforce the correct functional dependence of physical quantities on the coupling constant g when calculated order by order in ? and thus improving the accuracy of the ? expansion. To illustrate this idea we study the equal-time correlation functions for supersymmetric quantum mechanics, and the effective potential for a generalized Gross-Neveu model: g2 (ovbar??)2? in the large-N limit. Permanent address: Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000, Israel.

Cooper, Fred; Moshe, Moshe

1991-04-01

369

Micromechanics of expansive mechanisms in expansive cement concretes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinetics of hydration were studied by monitoring the presence of various compounds by X-ray diffractometer, a chemical extraction method, and scanning electron microscope. These studies indicated that the rates of depletion of the expanding particles and sulfates are higher in the finer blends, which is why expansion stops earlier in these blends. It is shown that the double curvature phenomenon (strength-drop and sudden increase in the rate of expansion) is caused by mechanical failure (e.g., microcracking) of the matrix surrounding the expanding particles that are producing ettringite crystals. The theory of protective and partial protective coating is reviewed. A hypothesis is introduced which assumes that monosulfate is not formed immediately when ettringite stops forming but is preceded by an intermediate phase. Shrinkage studies show that expansive cements shrink more than portland cements. The results of these studies were used to develop a modified model of the expansive process. It was shown theoretically that the time of expansion is inversely proportional to the surface area of the expansive clinker and directly proportional to the amount of sulfate used.

Cohen, M. D.

370

What can ARGO's tell us on the processes in Baltic Sea?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finnish Meteorological Institute has been testing ARGO floats in the Baltic Sea as a mean for collecting data from the sea areas that are not easily reachable by research vessels or remote sensing. The observational data for Baltic Sea off-shore areas is very sparse and new observational methods are needed to fill the gaps in our knowledge and collect new data for different purposes, such as, operational activities, modelling and ocean science. The ARGO floats have been used successfully in the deep oceans. However, applying the ARGO floats in Baltic Sea is not straight forward, as the conditions differ greatly: the water is brackish, some areas are heavily trafficked and the northern parts freeze during the winter. In addition, the mean depth is only 54 metres, which is only a fraction of depths where ARGO floats have commonly been used. FMI has deployed three ARGO floats in Baltic Sea for different missions. The first ARGO was deployed in 2012 with normal diving algorithm, which checks the pressure hourly. The second float was modified by Aalto University so that the algorithm checks the pressure every 15 minutes. The first float was deployed in the Bothnian Sea in May 2013 and it measured over 200 profiles during its half year mission. The float with faster pressure detection was deployed in the Bothnian Sea in May 2013, and during it's 4 month mission it measured succesfully over 120 profiles. Another, longer test is ongoing on Eastern Gotland basin, where another ARGO float was deployed at Aug 2013, and still measures at Jan 2014. This one differs from earlier experiments as it has additional oxygen and scattering meters, also the area of measurements is deeper (200+ meters). The missions so far indicate, that with proper control and monitoring, ARGO's can be operated, and can measure long series of profiles. In addition to the actual measurements, the movement of ARGO floats gives possibilities to analyse currents in deeper areas of Baltic, and help determining correlations between currents and bathymetry, for example. In this presentation we present and analyse the results from these experiments and discuss further possibilities of ARGO's in Baltic Sea.

Roiha, Petra; Siiriä, Simo-Matti; Nummelin, Aleksi; Aro, Eemeli; Purokoski, Tero

2014-05-01

371

Trend Analysis of Nitrogen Deposition to Baltic Sea and its sub basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the beginning of last century, Baltic Sea has changed from a clear-water sea into a eutrophic marine environment. Eutrophication is the major problem in the Baltic Sea. Excessive nitrogen and phosphorus loads coming from land-based sources within and outside the catchment area of the bordering countries of the Baltic Sea are the main cause of the eutrophication in the sea. Even though a major part of nitrogen(75%) and phosphorus load(95%) enter the sea via rivers or as water-born discharges, 25% of the nitrogen load comes as atmospheric deposition. Numerical models are the best tools to measure atmospheric deposition into sea waters. We have used the latest version of the Unified EMEP model - which has been developed at the EMEP/MSC-W (Meteorological Synthesizing Centre - West of EMEP) for simulating atmospheric transport and deposition of acidifying and eutrophying compounds as well as photo-oxidants in Europe- to study the trends in atmospheric deposition of nitrogen into Baltic Sea for the period 1995-2006. The model domain covers Europe and the Atlantic Ocean. The model grid (of the size 170×133) has a horizontal resolution of 50 km at 60o N, which is consistent with the resolution of emission data reported to CLRTAP. Approximately 10 of these layers are placed below 2 km to obtain high resolution of the boundary layer which is of special importance to the long range transport of air pollution. EMEP model has been thouroughly validated (Fagerli et.al.[1], Simpson et.al.[2], Simpson et.al.[3] ) The contribution of deposition of nitrogen into Baltic Sea from each of the bordering countries of the Baltic Sea and the deposition trends for the period 1995-2006 has been analysed and the results will be presented. References: [1]. Fagerli H., Simpson D. and Aas W.: Model performance for sulphur and nitrogen compounds for the period 1980 to 2000. [In:] L. Tarra?on, (editor), Transboundary Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground Level Ozone in Europe. EMEP Status Report 1/2003, Part II Unified EMEP Model Performance, pages 1-66. The Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo, Norway, 2003. [2]. Simpson D., Butterbach-Bahl K., Fagerli H., Kesik M. and Skiba U.: Deposition and Emissions of Reactive Nitrogen over European Forests: A Modelling Study. Atmos. Environ., 2006, 40(29), 5712-5726. [3]. Simpson D., Fagerli H., Hellsten S., Knulst K. and Westling O.: Comparison of modelled and monitored deposition fluxes of sulphur and nitrogen to ICP-forest sites in Europe. Biogeosciences, 2006, 337-355.

Semeena, V. S.; Jerzy, Bartnicki

2009-04-01

372

SAGEWASP. Optimal Electric Utility Expansion  

SciTech Connect

SAGE-WASP is designed to find the optimal generation expansion policy for an electrical utility system. New units can be automatically selected from a user-supplied list of expansion candidates which can include hydroelectric and pumped storage projects. The existing system is modeled. The calculational procedure takes into account user restrictions to limit generation configurations to an area of economic interest. The optimization program reports whether the restrictions acted as a constraint on the solution. All expansion configurations considered are required to pass a user supplied reliability criterion. The discount rate and escalation rate are treated separately for each expansion candidate and for each fuel type. All expenditures are separated into local and foreign accounts, and a weighting factor can be applied to foreign expenditures.

Clark, P.D.II; Ullrich, C.J. [Lakeland Electric and Water, FL (United States)

1989-10-10

373

Conversion algorithm for MPRM expansion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conversion of the Reed—Muller (RM) expansion between two different polarities is an important step in the synthesis and optimization of RM circuits. By investigating XOR decomposition, a new conversion algorithm is proposed to convert MPRM expansion from one polarity to another. First, the relationship between XOR decomposition and mixed polarity is set up. Second, based on this, the operation relation of term coefficients between the two polarities is derived to realize MPRM expansion conversion. And finally, with the MCNC Benchmark, the results of our algorithm show that it is more suitable for dealing with MPRM expansion with more terms. Compared to the previous tabular technique, the conversion efficiency is improved up to approximately 44.39%.

Pengjun, Wang; Zhenhai, Wang; Rui, Xu; Zhidi, Jiang; Disheng, Wang

2014-03-01

374

Cover For Duct Expansion Joint  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Size and shape of cover reduces stress and increases strength. Cover for expansion joints on duct-work seals tightly while accommodating movement of joint. Provides ample bonding area on both members of joint.

Brown, A. R.

1988-01-01

375

Range expansion of heterogeneous populations.  

PubMed

Risk spreading in bacterial populations is generally regarded as a strategy to maximize survival. Here, we study its role during range expansion of a genetically diverse population where growth and motility are two alternative traits. We find that during the initial expansion phase fast-growing cells do have a selective advantage. By contrast, asymptotically, generalists balancing motility and reproduction are evolutionarily most successful. These findings are rationalized by a set of coupled Fisher equations complemented by stochastic simulations. PMID:24766021

Reiter, Matthias; Rulands, Steffen; Frey, Erwin

2014-04-11

376

Hygroscopic Expansion of Polyester Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hygroscopic expansion of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyethylene 2,6-naphthalate (PEN) films was measured by use of a thermomechanical analyzer at 30, 40 or 50°C. Their initial weight increase was proportional to the square root of time after exposure to moisture, obeying Fick's law; the hygroscopic expansion with time showed the same relationship. The equilibrium moisture content was 1.0× 10-5\\/%

Isuke Ouchi; Masahiro Hosoi; Takashi Tomie

1992-01-01

377

Infusorians as a component of the planktonic community in the Baltic Sea  

SciTech Connect

The authors' investigations of infusorians as a component of the planktonic community in the Baltic Sea coincided with the heterotrophic stage of seasonal succession, and as a result the infusorians were numerous. In the deep troughs of the Sea at a depth of more than 150 m, the water is saturated with hydrogen sulfide. A community of infusorians relating to the saprobionts and capable of living with the minimal amount of oxygen was discovered for the first time--in the upper boundary of the hydrogen sulfide zone. In its level of infusorian abundance, the Baltic Sea must be considered a eutrophic body of water where infusorians serve as one of the leading agents in its self-purification.

Mamaeva, N.V.

1985-09-01

378

Organohalogen pollutants in herring from the northern Baltic Sea: concentrations, congener profiles and explanatory factors.  

PubMed

Organohalogen contaminants were investigated in Baltic herring caught from three catchment areas in the Baltic Sea, off the coasts of Finland. Pools of both small and large herring were analysed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, naphthalenes, camphenes (toxaphene), polybrominated diphenyl ethers and the pesticide DDT and its metabolites. PCB concentrations per fresh weight in small herring were at the same level in all catchment areas, i.e. the Bothnian Bay, the Bothnian Sea and the Gulf of Finland, revealing no hot spots and reflecting most likely long term emissions and atmospheric deposition. Differences in the levels and/or congener profiles of other contaminants between catchment areas may be explained by point sources. Similar concentrations in small and large herring in the Gulf of Finland were possibly due to their common nutrition. In the other areas, differences between small and large herring most likely reflected their different food sources. PMID:18055079

Koistinen, Jaana; Kiviranta, Hannu; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Parmanne, Raimo; Verta, Matti; Hallikainen, Anja; Vartiainen, Terttu

2008-07-01

379

Framing environmental risks in the Baltic Sea: a news media analysis.  

PubMed

Scientific complexity and uncertainty is a key challenge for environmental risk governance and to understand how risks are framed and communicated is of utmost importance. The Baltic Sea ecosystem is stressed and exposed to different risks like eutrophication, overfishing, and hazardous chemicals. Based on an analysis of the Swedish newspaper Dagens Nyheter, this study discusses media representations of these risks. The results show that the reporting on the Baltic Sea has been fairly stable since the beginning of the 1990s. Many articles acknowledge several risks, but eutrophication receives the most attention and is also considered the biggest threat. Authorities, experts, organizations, and politicians are the dominating actors, while citizens and industry representatives are more or less invisible. Eutrophication is not framed in terms of uncertainty concerning the risk and consequences, but rather in terms of main causes. PMID:21446391

Jönsson, Anna Maria

2011-03-01

380

OMV studies ethylene expansion in Germany  

SciTech Connect

OMV(Vienna) is evaluating plans to debottleneck its ethylene plant at Burghausen from 310,000 m.t./year to at least 400,000 m.t./year. Senior v.p. Jochen Berger says OMV is studying the limits to which the cracker can be expanded. {open_quotes}We`re pretty sure we can go to 400,000 m.t./year, but in two months we`ll have a better idea,{close_quotes} says Berger. The expansion will also depend on the future requirements of downstream operations at the Burghausen site, which include OMV plastics subsidiary PCD`s high-density polyethylene and polypropylene units and the vinyl chloride monomer and polyvinyl chloride units operated by Hoechst-Wacker joint venture Vinnolit.

NONE

1996-10-23

381

A multicriteria decision support methodology for evaluating airport expansion plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rational decision-making requires an assessment of advantages and disadvantages of choice possibilities, including non-market effects (such as externalities). This also applies to strategic decision-making in the transport sector (including aviation). In the past decades various decision support and evaluation methods have been developed in which a market evaluation played a prominent role. The intrinsic limitations of these approaches were also

Ron Vreeker; Peter Nijkamp; Chris Ter Welle

2002-01-01

382

Attitudes towards organ donation and transplantation – a study involving Baltic physicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to identify and describe attitudes towards organ donation and transplantation among a group of\\u000a Baltic physicians who are involved in this aspect of medical care. A total of 151 neurosurgeons, anesthesiologists, and neurologists\\u000a anonymously answered a questionnaire between February and March 1995. The majority of physicians said they would be willing\\u000a to donate their

M. Omnell Persson; P. Dmitriev; V. Shevelev; A. Zelvys; G. Hermerén; N. H. Persson

1998-01-01

383

Facies and depositional environment of the Pridoli carbonate ramp in the Silurian Baltic Basin, Lithuania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study focuses on the Pridoli succession in the Lithuanian part of the Silurian Baltic Basin. Seven main microfacies are distinguished, based on the carbonate classification system of Dunham (1962): marly shale, mudstone, brachiopod-crinoid wackestone, crinoid-brachiopod packstone, crinoid grainstone, stromatoporoid-crinoid or coral-crinoid float-rudstone and dolomudstone. These microfacies are arranged in five major lateral depositional facies belts. From proximal to

Giedrius Bickauskas; Nicolaas Molenaar

2008-01-01

384

Geochemical evolution of groundwater in the Cambrian–Vendian aquifer system of the Baltic Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shallowly buried marginal part of the Cambrian–Vendian confined aquifer system of the Baltic Basin is characterised by fresh and low ?18O composition water, whereas the deeply settled parts of the aquifer are characterized by typical Na–Ca–Cl basinal brines. Spatial variation in water geochemistry and stable isotope composition suggests mixing origin of the diluted water of three end-members—glacial melt water

Valle Raidla; Kalle Kirsimäe; Rein Vaikmäe; Argo Jõeleht; Enn Karro; Andres Marandi; Lehte Savitskaja

2009-01-01

385

Application of magnetic susceptibility for correlation of the Lower Triassic red beds of the Baltic basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Katinas V., Nawrocki J. Application of magnetic susceptibility for correlation of the Lower Triassic red beds of the Baltic basin. Geologija. Vilnius, 2006. No 56. P. 53-59. ISSN 1392-110X Correlation of red beds by magnetic susceptibility is a new and cheap research method in Lithuania. Lower Triassic samples were collected from three boreholes of Lithuania and one well of Kaliningrad

Valentas Katinas; Jerzy Nawrocki

386

Regressive to transgressive transits reflected in tidal bars, Middle Devonian Baltic Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison between tidal bars from a deltaic to estuarine complex in the Middle Devonian Baltic Basin shows contrasts in sedimentary structures and bar preservation, related to changes from a regressive to transgressive setting. Detailed facies analysis of the 20–30 m thick tide-dominated estuarine Amata Formation is combined with previous analysis of the underlying deltaic Gauja Formation in order to develop

Anna Pontén; Piret Plink-Björklund

2009-01-01

387

The Ancylus Lake stage of the Baltic Sea in Fehmarn Belt: Indications of a new threshold?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baltic Ice Lake, Yoldia Sea, Ancylus Lake and Littorina Sea stages of regression and transgression controlled the history of the Baltic Sea since the last glacial period. Many details regarding their development remain unknown, including the question whether the regression of the Ancylus Lake (between 10,700 and 10,200 cal yr BP) took place west of the Darss Sill, or elsewhere. This study addresses whether a drowned river system in Fehmarn Belt (SW Baltic Sea) can be related to the drainage of the Ancylus Lake. The river channel is cut into glacial till in the western part of Fehmarn Belt. Here, the channel reaches an incision depth of up to 12 m at a base level of 40 m b.s.l. (below sea level). Near Mecklenburg Bay, the buried channel is incised down to 60 m b.s.l. and widens rapidly from several hundred meters to more than 1 km, fading towards east. It was mainly shaped as part of a glacial meltwater system at a maximum water level of 30 m b.s.l., and is therefore not related to the Ancylus Lake drainage. During the lowstand of the Baltic Ice Lake, local shallow water bodies covered the study area. A previously reported westward directed drainage of a lake in the eastern Fehmarn Belt could be restricted to a time interval between the highstand of the Ancylus Lake and prior to the Littorina Transgression. Timing, water level and potential water discharge of this event suggest a connection to a partial drainage of the Ancylus Lake. It is concluded that the threshold separating the Ancylus Lake from the North Sea needs to be located west of Fehmarn Belt.

Feldens, Peter; Schwarzer, Klaus

2012-03-01

388

Air-water exchange of brominated anisoles in the northern baltic sea.  

PubMed

Bromophenols produced by marine algae undergo O-methylation to form bromoanisoles (BAs), which are exchanged between water and air. BAs were determined in surface water of the northern Baltic Sea (Gulf of Bothnia, consisting of Bothnian Bay and Bothnian Sea) during 2011-2013 and on a transect of the entire Baltic in September 2013. The abundance decreased in the following order: 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (2,4,6-TBA) > 2,4-dibromoanisole (2,4-DBA) ? 2,6-dibromoanisole (2,6-DBA). Concentrations of 2,4-DBA and 2,4,6-TBA in September were higher in the southern than in the northern Baltic and correlated well with the higher salinity in the south. This suggests south-to-north advection and dilution with fresh riverine water enroute, and/or lower production in the north. The abundance in air over the northern Baltic also decreased in the following order: 2,4,6-TBA > 2,4-DBA. However, 2,6-DBA was estimated as a lower limit due to breakthrough from polyurethane foam traps used for sampling. Water/air fugacity ratios ranged from 3.4 to 7.6 for 2,4-DBA and from 18 to 94 for 2,4,6-TBA, indicating net volatilization. Flux estimates using the two-film model suggested that volatilization removes 980-1360 kg of total BAs from Bothnian Bay (38000 km(2)) between May and September. The release of bromine from outgassing of BAs could be up to 4-6% of bromine fluxes from previously reported volatilization of bromomethanes and bromochloromethanes. PMID:24811233

Bidleman, Terry F; Agosta, Kathleen; Andersson, Agneta; Haglund, Peter; Nygren, Olle; Ripszam, Matyas; Tysklind, Mats

2014-06-01

389

Impact of biological factors on the ennoblement of stainless steel in Baltic seawater  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Open circuit potentials of stainless steels increased when immersed in the Baltic Sea. The ennoblement potential was +200\\u000a mVsce in 40 to 50 days when sea water temperature was below 52°C and +300–400 mVsce within <40 days at around 102°C. Ennoblement occurred in a laboratory ecosystem at 232°C in 20 to 30 days, and at 262°C in\\u000a <20 days, but

K Mattila; L Carpen; L Raaska; H-L Alakomi; T Hakkarainen; M S Salkinoja-Salonen

2000-01-01

390

A three-dimensional model of the Baltic Shield crust from data of deep seismic studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3-D velocity structure of the crust has been constructed for almost the entire Baltic Shield area from data of extensive\\u000a deep seismic studies on the shield. The construction involved a revision of all primary data (record sections and observed\\u000a traveltime curves) obtained in this region over 50 years of research. Comparative analysis of wave fields revealed that three\\u000a reference

N. I. Pavlenkova

2006-01-01

391

Age dependence of the concentrations of harmful substances in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus)  

SciTech Connect

The age dependence of Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Hg, CH/sub 3/-Hg, DDT, DDD, DDE, HCH, HCB and the PCBs have been studied in Baltic herring of 1 to 6 years of age. Lead, cadmium, mercury and the organochlorine concentrations increase significantly with age. In the case of the DDTs and the PCBs, the variations can be attributed almost totally to the combined effect of age and variations in the lipid percentage.

Perttila, M. (Inst. of Marine Research, Helsinki, Finland); Tervo, V.; Parmanne, R.

1982-01-01

392

Baltic Sea nitrogen fixation estimated from the summer increase in upper mixed layer total nitrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

We estimated nitrogen fixation from the increase in total nitrogen (N 2 gas excluded) in the upper 20 m during the summer biomass increase of heterocystous filamentous cyanobacteria at the off-shore Landsort Deep station (BY31, 5 yr) and at 10 more stations in all major basins of the Baltic Sea proper. Estimated fixation rates were 2.3-5.9 mmol N m 22

Ulf Larsson; Susanna Hajdu; Jakob Walve; Ragnar Elmgren

2001-01-01

393

Production of fuel products by the thermal dissolution of enriched Baltic combustible shale  

SciTech Connect

The thermal dissolution of enriched Baltic shale (kerogen-70) in the presence of an organosilicon compound reduces the formation of gas and raises the solubility of its organic matter and, when the sludge from the process is coked, it decreases the formation of semicoke and gas; as a result of this, the yield of liquid products calculated on the shale processed is increased one and a half times.

Vol-Epshtein, A.B.; Gorlov, E.G.; Shpilberg, M.B.

1983-01-01

394

Towards a 3D-ecosystem model of the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes briefly the preliminary results of a coupled chemical–biological and circulation model of the Baltic Sea. The chemical–biological model involves nine state variables to simulate the nitrogen cycle. A 1-year simulation shows how the model could be used to estimate budgets and nitrogen transports. The importance of shallow coastal areas for the removal of riverborne nitrogen is demonstrated

Thomas Neumann

2000-01-01

395

Methane in the Baltic and North Seas and a reassessment of the marine emissions of methane  

Microsoft Academic Search

During three measurement campaigns on the Baltic and North Seas, atmospheric and dissolved methane was determined with an automated gas chromatographic system. Area-weighted mean saturation values in the sea surface waters were 113{+-}5% and 395{+-}82% and 126{+-}8%. On the bases of our data and a compilation of literature data the global oceanic emissions of methane were reassessed by introducing a

H. W. Bange; U. H. Bartell; S. Rapsomanikis; M. O. Andreae

1994-01-01

396

Elemental and organic carbon in aerosols over urbanized coastal region (southern Baltic Sea, Gdynia).  

PubMed

Studies on PM 10, total particulate matter (TSP), elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) concentrations were carried out in the Polish coastal zone of the Baltic Sea, in urbanized Gdynia. The interaction between the land, the air and the sea was clearly observed. The highest concentrations of PM 10, TSP and both carbon fractions were noted in the air masses moving from southern and western Poland and Europe. The EC was generally of primary origin and its contribution to TSP and PM 10 mass was on average 2.3% and 3.7% respectively. Under low wind speed conditions local sources (traffic and industry) influenced increases in elemental carbon and PM 10 concentrations in Gdynia. Elemental carbon demonstrated a pronounced weekly cycle, yielding minimum values at the weekend and maximum values on Thursdays. The role of harbors and ship yards in creating high EC concentrations was clearly observed. Concentration of organic carbon was ten times higher than that of elemental carbon, and the average OC contribution to PM 10 mass was very high (31.6%). An inverse situation was observed when air masses were transported from over the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. These clean air masses were characterized by the lowest concentrations of all analysed compounds. Obtained results for organic and elemental carbon fluxes showed that atmospheric aerosols can be treated, along with water run-off, as a carbon source for the coastal waters of the Baltic Sea. The enrichment of surface water was more effective in the case of organic carbon (0.27+/-0.19 mmol m(-2) d(-1)). Elemental carbon fluxes were one order of magnitude smaller, on average 0.03+/-0.04 mmol m(-2) d(-1). We suggest that in some situations atmospheric carbon input can explain up to 18% of total carbon fluxes into the Baltic coastal waters. PMID:20638103

Lewandowska, Anita; Falkowska, Lucyna; Murawiec, Dominika; Pryputniewicz, Dorota; Burska, Dorota; Be?dowska, Magdalena

2010-09-15

397

History of the Sturgeon in the Baltic Sea and Lake Ladoga  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper presents a short review of the information on the history regarding Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus Mitchill in the Baltic Sea and Lake Ladoga. Due to overfishing and habitat alternation, including damming and pollution,\\u000a the Atlantic sturgeon was extirpated from this area. The history of the fisheries exploitation of the Atlantic sturgeon population\\u000a dates back to the Neolithic period.

Ryszard Kolman; Andrzej Kapusta; Jacek Morzuch

398

Ecotoxicity assessment of natural attenuation effects at a historical dumping site in the western Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the late 1950s and early 1960s of the past century, industrial waste material highly enriched in various contaminants (heavy metals, PAHs) was dumped in the inner Mecklenburg Bay, western Baltic Sea. Large-scale shifts in the spatial distribution of heavy metals in surface sediments were mapped by geochemical monitoring in the mid-1980s and 12years later in 1997. A further study

Thomas Leipe; Michael Kersten; Susanne Heise; Christa Pohl; Gesine Witt; Gladys Liehr; Michael Zettler; Franz Tauber

2005-01-01

399

Correlation of Pleistocene deposits in the area between the Baltic and Black Sea, Central Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lindner L., Bogutsky A., Gozhik P., Marks L., £anczont M. and Wojtanowicz J. (2006) — Correlation of Pleistocene deposits in the area between the Baltic and Black Sea, Central Europe. Geol. Quart., 50 (1): 195-210. Warszawa. The distribution, age and correlation of Pleistocene sediments (1.806-0.01 Ma) is presented for an about 1200 km long geologic cross-section that extends from the

Leszek LINDNER; Andrey BOGUTSKY; Petro GOZHIK; Leszek MARKS; Józef WOJTANOWICZ

400

Sediment budget calculation to estimate Holocene coastal changes on the southwest Baltic Sea (Germany)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tide-less SW Baltic Sea has a paraglacial coast. Alternating Pleistocene cliff sections and Holocene barrier systems separate shallow lagoons from the open sea. More than 300 cores penetrating the Holocene coastal sequence allowed for detailed reconstruction of the palaeogeographic evolution. The sequence formed in response to transgression in the early Holocene (?8000 year BP). The barrier–cliff system evolution is described

Gösta Hoffmann; Reinhard Lampe

2007-01-01

401

Last Interglacial (Eemian) hydrographic conditions in the southeastern Baltic Sea, NE Europe, based on dinoflagellate cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rich organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst and pollen record from the Licze borehole in northern Poland has been used to reconstruct the hydrographic history of the southeastern Baltic Sea during the Last Interglacial (Eemian Stage, Late Pleistocene). Warm, saline waters (ca. 10–15psu) entered the site from the North Sea within the first few hundred years of the Eemian, corresponding to the

Martin J. Head; Marit-Solveig Seidenkrantz; Zofia Janczyk-Kopikowa; Leszek Marks; Philip L. Gibbard

2005-01-01

402

Provenance of silt and clay within sandy deposits of the Lithuanian coastal zone (Baltic Sea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineralogical analysis of the silt and clay fraction of sandy deposits of 37 surface samples and grain-size data are used to interpret sediment sources acting in the SE Baltic Sea along the Lithuanian coast. Mineralogical composition was determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. Grain-size distribution was obtained by standard dry sieving and pipette techniques. For identification of sources we combined

Milda Kairyt?; Rodney L. Stevens; Egidijus Trimonis

2005-01-01

403

Late Glacial to Holocene coastal changes of SE Rügen Island (Baltic Sea, NE Germany)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term coastal evolution of Mönchgut peninsula (Rügen Island) on the non-tidal SW Baltic Sea coast. The geological setting of the barriers was determined by coring Late Pleistocene to Holocene deposits. The sediment succession starts with a Late Glacial till overlain by Late Pleistocene\\/Early Holocene sandy freshwater deposits of fluvial origin. There

Gösta Hoffmann; Jens Barnasch

2005-01-01

404

Dissolved iron (II) in the Baltic Sea surface water and implications for cyanobacterial bloom development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron chemistry measurements were conducted during summer 2007 at two distinct locations in the Baltic Sea (Gotland Deep and Landsort Deep) to evaluate the role of iron for cyanobacterial bloom development in these estuarine waters. Depth profiles of Fe(II) were measured by chemiluminescent flow injection analysis (CL-FIA). Up to 0.9 nmol Fe(II) L-1 were detected in light penetrated surface waters,

E. Breitbarth; J. Gelting; J. Walve; L. J. Hoffmann; D. R. Turner; M. Hassellöv; J. Ingri

2009-01-01

405

An intercomparison exercise for trace metal monitoring in oxygen-rich and anoxic Baltic waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seawater samples for a laboratory intercomparison of trace metal concentrations (Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Cd, Pb) in the dissolved\\u000a (<0.4 µm filtered) and particle-bound phases as well as total and reactive Hg were collected in the Gotland Basin, a region\\u000a in the Baltic Sea with trace metal gradients in the halocline and the redox boundary. Two laboratories took part in

Christa Pohl; Diether Schmidt; Klaus Nagel; Peter Freimann; Ursula Hennings; Andreas Jacobsen; Ute Michel; Astrid Neubauer-Ziebarth; Achim Schulz

2001-01-01

406

A new species of the bee genus Ctenoplectrella in middle Eocene Baltic amber (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new species of the extinct bee genus Ctenoplectrella Cockerell (Megachilinae: Ctenoplectrellini) is described and figured from two females preserved in middle Eocene (Lutetian) Baltic amber. Ctenoplectrella phaeton sp. n. is distinguished from its congeners on the basis of its body proportions, integumental sculpturing, wing venation, and pubescence, and is one of the more distinctive members of the genus. A revised key to the species of Ctenoplectrella is provided.

Gonzalez, Victor H.; Engel, Michael S.

2011-01-01

407

The influence of river runoff on deep water conditions of the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of variations in river runoff on abiotic environmental conditions in the deep water of semi-enclosed stratified\\u000a sea areas in humid climatic zones in temperate latitudes was investigated using the Baltic Sea as an example. Runoff has an\\u000a indirect effect on deep water conditions, where it acts through two mechanisms. First, in the shallow transition area, the\\u000a inflowing highly

Wolfgang Matthäus; Holger Schinke

1999-01-01

408

Decadal-scale changes of dinoflagellates and diatoms in the anomalous baltic sea spring bloom.  

PubMed

The algal spring bloom in the Baltic Sea represents an anomaly from the winter-spring bloom patterns worldwide in terms of frequent and recurring dominance of dinoflagellates over diatoms. Analysis of approximately 3500 spring bloom samples from the Baltic Sea monitoring programs revealed (i) that within the major basins the proportion of dinoflagellates varied from 0.1 (Kattegat) to >0.8 (central Baltic Proper), and (ii) substantial shifts (e.g. from 0.2 to 0.6 in the Gulf of Finland) in the dinoflagellate proportion over four decades. During a recent decade (1995-2004) the proportion of dinoflagellates increased relative to diatoms mostly in the northernmost basins (Gulf of Bothnia, from 0.1 to 0.4) and in the Gulf of Finland, (0.4 to 0.6) which are typically ice-covered areas. We hypothesize that in coastal areas a specific sequence of seasonal events, involving wintertime mixing and resuspension of benthic cysts, followed by proliferation in stratified thin layers under melting ice, favors successful seeding and accumulation of dense dinoflagellate populations over diatoms. This head-start of dinoflagellates by the onset of the spring bloom is decisive for successful competition with the faster growing diatoms. Massive cyst formation and spreading of cyst beds fuel the expanding and ever larger dinoflagellate blooms in the relatively shallow coastal waters. Shifts in the dominant spring bloom algal groups can have significant effects on major elemental fluxes and functioning of the Baltic Sea ecosystem, but also in the vast shelves and estuaries at high latitudes, where ice-associated cold-water dinoflagellates successfully compete with diatoms. PMID:21747911

Klais, Riina; Tamminen, Timo; Kremp, Anke; Spilling, Kristian; Olli, Kalle

2011-01-01

409

Shallow gas depth-contour map of the Skagerrak-western Baltic Sea region  

Microsoft Academic Search

A shallow gas depth-contour map covering the Skagerrak-western Baltic Sea region has been constructed using a relatively dense\\u000a grid of existing shallow seismic lines. The digital map is stored as an ESRI® shape file in order to facilitate comparison\\u000a with other data from the region. Free gas usually occurs in mud and sandy mud but is observed only when sediment

Troels Laier; Jørn Bo Jensen

2007-01-01

410

Germination in Baltic coastal wetland meadows: similarities and differences between vegetation and seed bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundance and variety of seedlings in Baltic coastal grasslands was studied in cattle grazed and ungrazed areas in seashore\\u000a and delta on the western coast of Finland. The vegetation, seed bank and environmental conditions of the same sites were also\\u000a studied. Altogether 4609 seedlings were observed in 79 field plots (20 cm 20 cm) making an average of 1458.54

Heli M. Jutila

2003-01-01

411

Decadal-Scale Changes of Dinoflagellates and Diatoms in the Anomalous Baltic Sea Spring Bloom  

PubMed Central

The algal spring bloom in the Baltic Sea represents an anomaly from the winter-spring bloom patterns worldwide in terms of frequent and recurring dominance of dinoflagellates over diatoms. Analysis of approximately 3500 spring bloom samples from the Baltic Sea monitoring programs revealed (i) that within the major basins the proportion of dinoflagellates varied from 0.1 (Kattegat) to >0.8 (central Baltic Proper), and (ii) substantial shifts (e.g. from 0.2 to 0.6 in the Gulf of Finland) in the dinoflagellate proportion over four decades. During a recent decade (1995–2004) the proportion of dinoflagellates increased relative to diatoms mostly in the northernmost basins (Gulf of Bothnia, from 0.1 to 0.4) and in the Gulf of Finland, (0.4 to 0.6) which are typically ice-covered areas. We hypothesize that in coastal areas a specific sequence of seasonal events, involving wintertime mixing and resuspension of benthic cysts, followed by proliferation in stratified thin layers under melting ice, favors successful seeding and accumulation of dense dinoflagellate populations over diatoms. This head-start of dinoflagellates by the onset of the spring bloom is decisive for successful competition with the faster growing diatoms. Massive cyst formation and spreading of cyst beds fuel the expanding and ever larger dinoflagellate blooms in the relatively shallow coastal waters. Shifts in the dominant spring bloom algal groups can have significant effects on major elemental fluxes and functioning of the Baltic Sea ecosystem, but also in the vast shelves and estuaries at high latitudes, where ice-associated cold-water dinoflagellates successfully compete with diatoms.

Klais, Riina; Tamminen, Timo; Kremp, Anke; Spilling, Kristian; Olli, Kalle

2011-01-01

412

Baltic Sea ice SAR segmentation and classification using modified pulse-coupled neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for segmentation and classification of Baltic Sea ice synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, based on pulse-coupled neural networks (PCNNs), is presented. Also, automated training, which is based on decomposing the total pixel value distribution into a mixture of class distributions, is presented and discussed. The algorithms have been trained and tested using logarithmic scale Radarsat-1 ScanSAR Wide mode

Juha A. Karvonen

2004-01-01

413

Precision and accuracy of spectrophotometric pH measurements at environmental conditions in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing uptake of anthropogenic CO2 by the oceans has raised an interest in precise and accurate pH measurement in order to assess the impact on the marine CO2-system. Spectrophotometric pH measurements were refined during the last decade yielding a precision and accuracy that cannot be achieved with the conventional potentiometric method. However, until now the method was only tested in oceanic systems with a relative stable and high salinity and a small pH range. This paper describes the first application of such a pH measurement system at conditions in the Baltic Sea which is characterized by a wide salinity and pH range. The performance of the spectrophotometric system at pH values as low as 7.0 (“total” scale) and salinities between 0 and 35 was examined using TRIS-buffer solutions, certified reference materials, and tests of consistency with measurements of other parameters of the marine CO2 system. Using m-cresol purple as indicator dye and a spectrophotometric measurement system designed at Scripps Institution of Oceanography (B. Carter, A. Dickson), a precision better than ±0.001 and an accuracy between ±0.01 and ±0.02 was achieved within the observed pH and salinity ranges in the Baltic Sea. The influence of the indicator dye on the pH of the sample was determined theoretically and is presented as a pH correction term for the different alkalinity regimes in the Baltic Sea. Because of the encouraging tests, the ease of operation and the fact that the measurements refer to the internationally accepted “total” pH scale, it is recommended to use the spectrophotometric method also for pH monitoring and trend detection in the Baltic Sea.

Hammer, Karoline; Schneider, Bernd; Kuli?ski, Karol; Schulz-Bull, Detlef E.

2014-06-01

414

Direct Evidence for Production of Microcystins by Anabaena Strains from the Baltic Sea?  

PubMed Central

Anabaena is a filamentous, N2-fixing, and morphologically diverse genus of cyanobacteria found in freshwater and brackish water environments worldwide. It contributes to the formation of toxic blooms in freshwater bodies through the production of a range of hepatotoxins or neurotoxins. In the Baltic Sea, Anabaena spp. form late summer blooms, together with Nodularia spumigena and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. It has been long suspected that Baltic Sea Anabaena may produce microcystins. The presence of microcystins has been reported for the coastal regions of the Baltic proper, and a recent report also indicated the presence of the toxin in the open Gulf of Finland. However, at present there is no direct evidence linking Baltic Sea Anabaena spp. to microcystin production. Here we report on the isolation of microcystin-producing strains of the genus Anabaena in the open Gulf of Finland. The dominant microcystin variants produced by these strains included the highly toxic MCYST-LR as well as [d-Asp3]MCYST-LR, [d-Asp3]MCYST-HtyR, MCYST-HtyR, [d-Asp3,Dha7]MCYST-HtyR, and [Dha7]MCYST-HtyR variants. Toxic strains were isolated from the coastal Gulf of Finland as well as from the easternmost open-sea sampling station, where there were lower salinities than at other stations. This result suggests that lower salinity may favor microcystin-producing Anabaena strains. Furthermore, we sequenced 16S rRNA genes and found evidence for pronounced genetic heterogeneity of the microcystin-producing Anabaena strains. Future studies should take into account the potential presence of microcystin-producing Anabaena sp. in the Gulf of Finland.

Halinen, Katrianna; Jokela, Jouni; Fewer, David P.; Wahlsten, Matti; Sivonen, Kaarina

2007-01-01

415

The seasonal cycle of carbon dioxide in Baltic Sea surface waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed analysis of the seasonal cycle of carbon dioxide (CO2) within the surface waters of the Baltic Proper is presented. Based on the data sets of two cruises during winter and summer, a model has been developed interpolating the annual cycles of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2). The model balances the CO2 budget

Helmuth Thomas; Bernd Schneider

1999-01-01

416

EDUCATIONAL PLANNING.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

SIX ARTICLES CRITICALLY EXAMINE THE PROCESS OF EDUCATIONAL PLANNING FROM THE UNDERLYING ASSUMPTIONS TO THE PRACTICAL PROBLEMS OF IMPLEMENTATION. ANDERSON AND BOWMAN IN "THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN EDUCATIONAL PLANNING" DISCUSS SUCH TOPICS AS THE DEFINITION OF PLANNING, EDUCATIONAL PLANNING AND SOCIAL DEMOCRATIZATION, PLANNING FOR MANPOWER…

ADAMS, DON

417

INTEGRATED PLANNING FOR ONSITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unplanned, compartmentalized approaches for onsite wastewater treatment fail to consider cumulative water resource and pollutant impacts. Planning is the key to cost effective wastewater treatment, regardless of whether the facilities are centralized or decentralized. Centralized facility planning has been required for treatment expansion projects since passage of the Clean Water Act in 1972. We have now arrived at the time

Barry Tonning; Rod Frederick; Robert Goo; James Kreissl

418

Nitrate source identification using its isotopic ratios in combination with a Bayesian isotope mixing model in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrate (NO3-) is the major nutrient responsible for coastal eutrophication worldwide and its production is related to intensive food production and fossil-fuel combustion. In the Baltic Sea NO3-inputs have increased four-fold over the last decades and now remain constantly high. NO3- source identification is therefore an important consideration in environmental management strategies. In this study focusing on the Baltic Sea, we used a method to estimate the proportional contributions of NO3- from atmospheric deposition, N2 fixation, and runoff from pristine soils as well as from agricultural land. Our approach combines data on the dual isotopes of NO3- (?15N-NO3- and ?18O-NO3-) in winter surface waters with a Bayesian isotope mixing model (Stable Isotope Analysis in R, SIAR). Based on data gathered from 46 sampling locations over the entire Baltic Sea, the majority of the NO3- in the southern Baltic was shown to derive from runoff from agricultural land (30-70%), whereas in the northern Baltic, i.e., the Gulf of Bothnia, NO3- originates from nitrification in pristine soils (47-100%). Atmospheric deposition accounts for only a small percentage of NO3- levels in the Baltic Sea, except for contributions from northern rivers, where the levels of atmospheric NO3- are higher. An additional important source in the central Baltic Sea is N2 fixation by diazotrophs, which contributes 31-62% of the overall NO3- pool at this site. The results obtained with this method are in good agreement with source estimates based upon ?15N values in sediments and a three-dimensional ecosystem model, ERGOM. We suggest that this approach can be easily modified to determine NO3- sources in other marginal seas or larger near-coastal areas where NO3- is abundant in winter surface waters when fractionation processes are minor.

Korth, F.; Deutsch, B.; Frey, C.; Moros, C.; Voss, M.

2014-04-01

419

Tracking the migratory success of stocked European eels Anguilla anguilla in the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

To investigate the extent to which European silver eels Anguilla anguilla, originating from stocking programmes in the Baltic Sea tributaries, effectively contribute to the spawning stock, two hundred and seventy-four formerly stocked A. anguilla. emigrating from the Schwentine River near Kiel, Germany, were tagged with T-Bar anchor tags. A total of 29 Anguilla spp. were recaptured (c. 11%) up to 14 months after release. Stocking history of recaptured A. anguilla. was confirmed by otolith microchemistry. Recapture locations were concentrated around the outlet of the Baltic Sea (Danish Belt Sea) with 62% of all recaptures reported here or in the Kattegat. Recaptured Anguilla spp. showed a reduction in both L(T) and mass (mean ± s.d. = -1.5 ± 0.9 cm and -125.3 ± 50.1 g) while average total fat content remained in the order of values previously reported as high enough to provide energy resources to allow successful completion of the spawning migration (mean ± s.d. = 28.4 ± 4.4%). The documented mean rate of travel (0.8 km day(-1)), however, indicated a delay in the target-oriented migration that might be interpreted as a delayed initial migration phase of orientation towards the exit of the Baltic Sea. PMID:23398076

Prigge, E; Marohn, L; Hanel, R

2013-02-01

420

Variability of the Baltic Sea level and floods in the Gulf of Finland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The statistical analysis of the long-term data on the variability of the Baltic Sea level has revealed the complicated character of the wave field structure. The wave field formed by the variable winds and the disturbances of the atmospheric pressure in the Baltic Sea is a superposition of standing oscillations with random phases. The cross spectral analysis of the synchronous observation series of the level in the Gulf of Finland has shown that the nodal lines of the standing dilatational waves are clearly traced with frequencies corresponding to the distance from the nodal line to the top of the gulf (a quarter of the wave length). Several areas of the water basin with clearly expressed resonant properties may be distinguished: the Gulfs of Finland, Riga, and Bothnia, Neva Bay, etc. The estimations of the statistical correlation of the sea level oscillations with the variation of the wind and atmospheric pressure indicate the dominant role of the zonal wind component during the formation of the floods in the Gulf of Finland. The probable reason for the extreme floods in St. Petersburg may be the resonance rocking of the eigenmode oscillations corresponding to the basic fundamental seiche mode of the Gulf of Finland with a period of 27 h when the repeated atmospheric disturbances in the Baltic Sea occur with a period of 1-2 days.

Kulikov, E. A.; Medvedev, I. P.

2013-03-01

421

Synoptic variability of the currents in the Gotland Basin of the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The series of long-term observations of synoptic-scale currents obtained by instrumental measurements at the moorings in the Gotland Basin of the Baltic Sea are analyzed. The results of the statistical analysis of the currents reveal their wave structure. The characteristics of the low-frequency waves received on the basis of the cross-spectral analysis show that, in the range of periods from 2 to 20 days, they propagated in the southwestern, southeastern, and northwestern directions with phase speeds of 0.02-2.08 m/s and have lengths from 28 to 431 km. It is suggested that the distinguished wavelike perturbations of the synoptic-scale currents are related to topographic waves. The analysis of the meteorological conditions and the results of the numerical hydrodynamic modeling of the Baltic Sea free low-frequency fluctuations led us to conclude that the most possible mechanism of the generation of the intense wave-like oscillations of synoptic-scale currents in the Gotland Basin is the resonance between the anemobaric forces and the relatively slow-moving anticyclones over the open Baltic Sea and the eigenmode of the basin.

Zakharchuk, E. A.; Tikhonova, N. A.

2013-07-01

422

Long-term characteristics of simulated ice deformation in the Baltic Sea (1962-2007)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index is a frequently used measure for the mean winter conditions in Northern Europe. A positive, high index is associated with strong westerlies and anomalous warm temperatures. The effects on sea ice conditions in the Baltic Sea are twofold. Warm temperatures prevent sea ice formation. If ice is present nevertheless, the strong winds can promote the formation of ice ridges which hinders ship traffic. We use an ocean-sea ice model to investigate the NAO impact on the ridged ice area fraction in the Baltic during 1962-2007. Our simulations indicate that in the northern Bothnian Bay, a high NAO index is related to an anomalous accumulation of ridges, while in the rest of the Baltic Sea, the relationship is contrary. The NAO explains locally at most only 20-25% of the ridged ice fraction interannual variability which indicates the systems complexity. However, we find high skill with local correlations around 0.8 for annually averaged ridged ice fraction reconstructed from multilinear regression using winter averaged wind extremes, surface air temperature, and sea surface temperature (SST). This suggests that the amount of ridged ice in late winter can be derived from these routinely measured quantities. In large parts of the basin, it is sufficient to use the atmospheric parameters as a predictor, while in the eastern Bothnian Bay and southern Gulf of Finland, the SST is required to reconstruct the bulk of the ridged ice fraction.

LöPtien, U.; MâRtensson, S.; Meier, H. E. M.; HöGlund, A.

2013-02-01

423

Evaluating a model of the historical behavior of two hexachlorocyclohexanes in the Baltic Sea environment.  

PubMed

The POPCYCLING-Baltic model, a non-steady-state multicompartmental mass balance model of long-term chemical fate in the Baltic Sea environment, is evaluated for its capability to simulate the behavior of alpha- and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane isomers from 1970 to 2000. The model predicts HCH concentrations in air, seawater, marine sediments, and needles well within an order of magnitude, often within a factor of 2, and reproduces major features of the observed differences in space and time. The spatial and temporal patterns of HCHs in the Baltic Sea environment are found to be controlled mostly by chemical input, both through direct emissions within the drainage basin and through advective inflow from adjacent areas, but variable environmental conditions can significantly modify the spatial distribution patterns. Simulations with different boundary conditions, i.e., variable assumptions concerning advective atmospheric inflow, suggest that sources within the drainage basin alone are not capable of explaining the observed HCH levels and that significant transport into the region must occur. Deviations between predicted and measured HCH concentrations can often be explained by uncertain estimates of usage and advective import, illustrating the usefulness of the model for evaluating the reasonability of emission estimates and boundary conditions. PMID:11917985

Breivik, Knut; Wania, Frank

2002-03-01

424

Occurrence of Plasmids in the Aromatic Degrading Bacterioplankton of the Baltic Sea  

PubMed Central

Plasmids are mobile genetic elements that provide their hosts with many beneficial traits including in some cases the ability to degrade different aromatic compounds. To fulfill the knowledge gap regarding catabolic plasmids of the Baltic Sea water, a total of 209 biodegrading bacterial strains were isolated and screened for the presence of these mobile genetic elements. We found that both large and small plasmids are common in the cultivable Baltic Sea bacterioplankton and are particularly prevalent among bacterial genera Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter. Out of 61 plasmid-containing strains (29% of all isolates), 34 strains were found to carry large plasmids, which could be associated with the biodegradative capabilities of the host bacterial strains. Focusing on the diversity of IncP-9 plasmids, self-transmissible m-toluate (TOL) and salicylate (SAL) plasmids were detected. Sequencing the repA gene of IncP-9 carrying isolates revealed a high diversity within IncP-9 plasmid family, as well as extended the assumed bacterial host species range of the IncP-9 representatives. This study is the first insight into the genetic pool of the IncP-9 catabolic plasmids in the Baltic Sea bacterioplankton.

Jutkina, Jekaterina; Heinaru, Eeva; Vedler, Eve; Juhanson, Jaanis; Heinaru, Ain

2011-01-01

425

MODIS-based sea surface temperature of the Baltic Sea Curonian Lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on analysis of sea surface temperature (SST) derived from Terra/Aqua Moderate Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) infrared imagery between 2000 and 2011 to document the hydrological regime in the Baltic Sea Curonian Lagoon. Records of the daytime SST from MODIS were validated against conventional in situ observations from an oceanographic buoy in the SE Baltic and two coastal hydrographic stations in the Curonian Lagoon. In general a very good agreement between them was found with positive bias (RMSD) not higher than 0.49 °C (1.31 °C) and R2 not less than 0.78. The MODIS-based SST data set, having a wide spatial coverage and relatively high spatial resolution enables one to study spatial, seasonal and inter-annual SST variations unavailable from sparse in situ measurements in the Curonian Lagoon. In addition satellite SST maps allow monitoring main spatio-temporal characteristics of mesoscale frontal features associated with the Curonian Lagoon coastal plume and coastal upwelling in the SE Baltic influencing coastal and lagoon ecosystems. The satellite infrared measurements and results obtained in near-shore waters in this study are unique and should be useful to researchers of near-shore water dynamics in other coastal regions of the world.

Kozlov, Igor; Dailidien?, Inga; Korosov, Anton; Klemas, Victor; Ming?lait?, Toma

2014-01-01

426

Seasonal Ensemble Forecasting with Ocean General Circulation Model in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ensemble forecasts are a promising new approach to numerous applications in oceanography. They have for long been an essential tool in meteorology. In marine environment, there is a possibility of even further development, in large part due to the longer predictability. This may, e.g., mean more accurate long-term forecasts for oceanographic parameters. In this work we used the ensemble approach to seasonal forecasting of physical and chemical changes during spring bloom in Baltic Sea. We present results of an ensemble forecasting in the Baltic, and discuss the applicability of this method to operational biogeochemical ocean modelling. FMI's operational 3-dimensional biogeochemical model was used to produce monthly ensemble forecasts for different physical, chemical and biological variables. The modelled variables were temperature, salinity, velocity, silicate, phosphate, nitrate, diatoms, flagellates and two species of potentially toxic filamentous cyanobacteria. Ensembles were produced by running several 30 day runs of the biogeochemical model. The model was forced every run with different set of seasonal weather parameters from ECMWF's mathematically perturbed ensemble prediction forecasts. The ensembles were then analysed by statistical methods and the median, quartiles, minimum and maximum values were calculated for model output variables to gain insight into the applicability of the results. Validation for the forecast method was made by comparing the results against in-situ data. The results of the model demonstrated that ensemble forecasting is a viable tool and it is indeed possible to forecast with useful accuracy the Baltic Sea with these time spans.

Roiha, P.; Westerlund, A.; Stipa, T.

2009-04-01

427

Heavy metals in Macoma balthica and extractable metals in sediments from the southern Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, Fe, Mn, Co and Cd in soft tissues of Macoma balthica and their extractable forms in the adjacent sediments from 15 sampling sites in the southern Baltic Sea were determined by AAS. The samples were collected during cruises of M/S Hestia and R/V Baltica in July-August 2006. In order to estimate the degree of element bioaccumulation in the molluscs with respect to their extractable forms of the associated sediments, the bioaccumulation factor (BF) was calculated. ANOVA clearly indicates spatial differences between the concentrations of the metals, and factor analysis (FA) confirms that spatial variations exist between the concentrations of metals in M. balthica and their extractable forms in the adjacent sediments from the Gulf of Gda?sk and open Baltic waters. This differentiation can be explained by differences in environmental parameters between these two areas. M. balthica may be useful as a biomonitor of heavy-metal bioavailability and contamination in the Baltic Sea. PMID:19819551

Hendozko, Edyta; Szefer, Piotr; Warzocha, Jan

2010-02-01

428

Centennial changes in water clarity of the Baltic Sea and the North Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secchi depth is a valuable proxy for detecting long term changes in the water clarity of oceanic and coastal ecosystems. We analyse approximately 40 000 observations, which are available from ICES, from the Baltic Sea and the North Sea in the 20th century. Our results suggest pronounced effects of bottom depth and distance to coast on Secchi depth, and we account for this topographical effect in an assessment of the long term change in water clarity. Our results suggest a centennial Secchi depth shoaling of 3.2 ± 0.2 and 5.8 ± 0.6 m in areas that are shallower and deeper than 100 m in the Baltic Sea. For the North Sea the corresponding numbers were 1.8 ± 0.3 and 5.2 ± 0.9 m. We discuss potential ecosystem effects involving pronounced reductions in photic habitats and reduced visibility for visual predators. We suggest that the role of long term variations in colour dissolved organic matter (CDOM) on the transparency in the Baltic Sea and North Sea deserves future attention.

Dupont, N.; Aksnes, D. L.

2013-10-01

429

Basic intrusives and hydrocarbonic potential of the South-East Baltic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Paleozoic rocks of Kaliningrad oblast and the adjacent areas of the SE Baltic Sea have recently became exploration targets. The small size and number of prospective structures, as well as the small size of the oil reserves in the onshore areas, have resulted in a decline in production and a decrease in exploration activity. At the same time, previous studies conducted by the Institute of Oceanology of the Russian Academy of Sciences and other institutions show that the SE Baltic Sea contains numerous yet-to-be-explored structures, which could be attractive exploration targets. Recent studies indicate that the region was intensely intruded by numerous diabase sills, which cut across Paleozoic reservoir rocks. This fact may have both positive and negative implications for the petroleum potential of the basin and should be taken into account in outlining the possible future directions for resource exploration. This study presents data on the distribution, sizes, ages, composition, and volumes of the mafic intrusions and discusses their thermal effects on the petroleum potential of the SE Baltic Basin.

Kharin, G. S.; Eroshenko, D. V.

2014-03-01

430

Spatial analysis and visualization of oil spill monitoring results of the North Sea and Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many European countries air- and spaceborne remote sensing data is operationally used for oil spill monitoring. For the Baltic Sea the yearly results of the aerial surveillance are collected by the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM) and for the North Sea by the Bonn Agreement Secretariat. To improve knowledge of the oil spill situation in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea these data sets were analyzed and visualized. If a geographical phenomenon may be reasonably modeled as point data is largely a question of scale. Oil spills on a sea basin level (North Sea, Baltic Sea) can be considered as point data. During the analysis we are essentially looking for patterns in the data. However, to combine oil spill surveillance results from different countries the data must be standardized. For standardization purposes it is important to have information about the surveillance effort, which means for instance the number of pollution control flights per year and the area covered or the number of acquired and analyzed satellite. Special incidents (e.g. accidents) may lead to a multitude of oil spills in a certain period of time which has to be considered during the analysis. The data was visualized taking into account additional information and available information about the surveillance activities. Kernel estimation was used to calculate oil spill density estimation. First results are promising. The strongest impediment is the unavailability of information for data standardization.

Tufte, Lars; Trieschmann, Olaf; Hunsaenger, Thomas; Barjenbruch, Ulrich

2004-10-01

431

High resolution model studies of transport of sedimentary material in the south-western Baltic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents high resolution model simulations of transport, deposition and resuspension of sedimentary material in the south-western Baltic, based on an upgrade of the sediment transport model described in the work of Kuhrts et al. [Kuhrts, C., Fennel, W., Seifert, T., 2004. Model studies of transport of sedimentary material in the Western Baltic. Journal of Marine Systems 52, 167.]. In the western Baltic, a grid spacing of at least 1 nautical mile is required to resolve the shallow and narrow bathymetry and the associated current patterns. A series of experimental model simulations is carried out with forcing data for the year 1993, which include a sequence of storms in January. Compared to earlier model versions, a more detailed description of potential deposition areas can be provided. The study quantifies the influence of enhanced bottom roughness caused by biological structures, like mussels and worm holes, provides estimates of the regional erosion risks for fine grained sediments, and analyses scenarios of the settling and spreading of material at dumping sites. Although the effects of changed bottom roughness, as derived from more detailed, re-classified sea floor data, are relatively small, the sediment transport and deposition patterns are clearly affected by the variation of the sea bed properties.

Seifert, Torsten; Fennel, Wolfgang; Kuhrts, Christiane

2009-02-01

432

Rock expansion caused by ultrasound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has during many years been reported that materials' elastic modulus decrease when exposed to influences like mechanical impacts, ultrasound, magnetic fields, electricity and even humidity. Non-perfect atomic structures like rocks, concrete, or damaged metals exhibit a larger effect. This softening has most often been recorded by wave resonance measurements. The motion towards equilibrium is slow - often taking hours or days, which is why the effect is called Slow Dynamics [1]. The question had been raised, if a material expansion also occurs. 'The most fundamental parameter to consider is the volume expansion predicted to occur when positive hole charge carriers become activated, causing a decrease of the electron density in the O2- sublattice of the rock-forming minerals. This decrease of electron density should affect essentially all physical parameters, including the volume.' [2]. A new type of configuration has measured expansion of a rock subjected to ultrasound. A PZT was used as a pressure sensor while the combined thickness of the rock sample and the PZT sensor was held fixed. The expansion increased the stress in both the rock and the PZT, which gave an out-put voltage from the PZT. Knowing its material properties then made it possible to calculate the rock expansion. The equivalent strain caused by the ultrasound was approximately 3 x 10-5. The temperature was monitored and accounted for during the tests and for the maximum expansion the increase was 0.7 C, which means the expansion is at least to some degree caused by heating of the material by the ultrasound. The fraction of bonds activated by ultrasound was estimated to be around 10-5. References: [1] Guyer, R.A., Johnson, P.A.: Nonlinear Mesoscopic Elasticity: The Complex Behaviour of Rocks, Soils, Concrete. Wiley-VCH 2009 [2] M.M. Freund, F.F. Freund, Manipulating the Toughness of Rocks through Electric Potentials, Final Report CIF 2011 Award NNX11AJ84A, NAS Ames 2012.

Hedberg, C.; Gray, A.

2013-12-01

433

Recruitment processes in Baltic sprat - A re-evaluation of GLOBEC Germany hypotheses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GLOBEC Germany program (2002-2007) had the ambitious goal to resolve the processes impacting the recruitment dynamics of Baltic sprat (Sprattus sprattus L.) by examining various factors affecting early life history stages. At the start of the research program, a number of general recruitment hypotheses were formulated, i.e. focusing on (1) predation, (2) food availability, (3) physical parameters, (4) the impact of current systems, and finally (5) the importance of top-down vs bottom-up effects. The present study synthesizes the results of field sampling (2002 and 2003), laboratory experiments, and modeling studies to re-evaluate these hypotheses for the Baltic sprat stock. Recruitment success was quite different in the 2 years investigated. Despite a lower spawning stock biomass in 2003, the total number of recruits was almost 2-fold higher that year compared to 2002. The higher recruitment success in 2003 could be attributed to enhanced survival success during the post-larval/juvenile stage, a life phase that appears to be critical for recruitment dynamics. In the state of the Baltic ecosystem during the period of investigation, we consider bottom-up control (e.g. temperature, prey abundance) to be more important than top-down control (predation mortality). This ranking in importance does not vary seasonally. Prevailing water circulation patterns and the transport dynamics of larval cohorts have a strong influence on sprat recruitment success. Pronounced transport to coastal areas is detrimental for year-class strength particularly at high sprat stock sizes. A suggested mechanism is density-dependant regulation of survival via intra- and inter-specific competition for prey in coastal areas. A documented change in larval vertical migration behavior between the early 1990s and early 2000s increased the transport potential to the coast, strengthening the coupling between inter-annual differences in the magnitude and direction of wind-driven surface currents and year-to-year changes in reproductive success. However, due to the strong linkages and feed-back loops in the Baltic Sea food web, the most robust projections of the future strength of the Baltic sprat stock will need to take into account climate-driven changes in both abiotic (e.g., drift trajectories) and biotic (trophodynamic) factors. Although our understanding of processes affecting pre-recruit (larval) growth and survival has been advanced by the integrated research conducted within the GLOBEC Germany program, key mechanisms potentially affecting life stages outside of the spawning basins remain to be explored including the dynamics of coastal habitats of juveniles and the feeding and overwintering grounds of adults.

Voss, Rüdiger; Peck, Myron A.; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Clemmesen, Catriona; Baumann, Hannes; Stepputtis, Daniel; Bernreuther, Matthias; Schmidt, Jörn O.; Temming, Axel; Köster, Fritz W.

2012-12-01

434

Meteorological conditions influencing the formation of level ice within the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baltic Sea is covered by ice every winter and on average, the ice-covered area is 45% of the total area of the Baltic Sea. The beginning of ice season usually starts in the end of November, ice extent is the largest between mid-February and mid-March and sea ice disappears completely in May. The ice covered areas during a typical winter are the Gulf of Bothnia, the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Riga. The studies of sea ice in the Baltic Sea are related to two aspects: climate and marine transport. Depending on the local weather conditions during the winter different types of sea ice can be formed. From the point of winter shipping it is important to locate level and deformed ice areas (rafted ice, ridged ice, and hummocked ice). Because of cloud and daylight independency as well as good spatial resolution, SAR data seems to be the most suitable source of data for sea ice observation in the comparatively small area of the Baltic Sea. We used ASAR Wide Swath Mode data with spatial resolution 150 m. We analyzed data from the three winter seasons which were examples of severe, typical and mild winters. To remove the speckle effect the data were resampled to 250 m pixel size and filtred using Frost filter 5x5. To detect edges we used Sobel filter. The data were also converted into grayscale. Sea ice classification was based on Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA). Object-based methods are not a common tool in sea ice studies but they seem to accurately separate level ice within the ice pack. The data were segmented and classified using eCognition Developer software. Level ice were classified based on texture features defined by Haralick (Grey Level Co-Occurrence Matrix homogeneity, GLCM contrast, GLCM entropy and GLCM correlation). The long-term changes of the Baltic Sea ice conditions have been already studied. They include date of freezing, date of break-up, sea ice extent and some of work also ice thickness. There is a little knowledge about the relationship of short term changes in sea ice cover and meteorological conditions. In following studies we analyzed the formation of level sea ice depending on some weather conditions (temperature, humidity, pressure at sea level, 10 meter wind). It can be clearly seen that the most important factors influencing formation of level ice are the temperature and wind.

Mazur, A. K.; Krezel, A.

2012-12-01

435

Dissolved organic phosphorus in the Baltic Sea - temporal variability and utilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temporal variability of dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) concentrations in the Baltic Sea was investigated during three cruises in summer 2008, late winter/early spring 2009 and summer 2012 with focus on the central Baltic Sea. In summer 2008, characteristic cyanobacteria blooms occured in the Baltic Proper and DOP concentrations in the surface layer of 0.32 ± 0.05 µM have been estimated. In summer 2012, meteorological conditions did not favour intense cyanobacteria development and DOP concentrations were with 0.24 ± 0.04 µM lower on average. DOP degradation in autumn and winter resulted in lower concentrations of 0.21 ± 0.06 µM as can be seen in the winter cruise 2009. During the first two cruises also the spatial distribution of DOP in the surface layer between the Skagerrak and the northern Gulf of Bothnia could be measured. Highest summer concentrations of 0.32 ± 0.05 µM were found in the Baltic Proper, followed by the Gulf of Finland having on mean 0.25 ± 0.01 µM. DOP decreased down to 0.12 µM in the phosphorus limited Bay of Bothnia. Similar low concentrations were measured in the Skagerrak. The same spatial DOP pattern as in summer 2008 was observed in late winter/early spring 2009, but on lower concentration levels, except the Skagerrak and Kattegat were the spring bloom already has started. In addition, the bioavailable and refractory DOP fractions (B-DOP and R-DOP) were measured in time course experiments in 2008 and 2012, excluding C- and N- limitation. In summer 2008, the R-DOP constituted a higher proportion of DOP compared to B-DOP. A gradient has been observed from the northernmost station in the Bothnian Bay to the southern Baltic Proper. In the Bothnian Bay, only 0.01µM B-DOP could be detected, comprising 8% of DOP whereas B-DOP constituted a proportion of 25-29% in the Gotland Basin and up to 46% in the Gulf of Finland. In summer 2012, B-DOP concentrations of 0.09 ± 0.02 µM were measured in the eastern Gotland Basin corresponding to 27 - 40% of DOP. An additional supplied cocktail of DNA, RNA, ATP and phospholipides was used together with the natural B-DOP and stimulated bacteria growth by 15-26%.

Nausch, Günther; Nausch, Monika; Steinrücken, Pia; Balke, Jana; Woelk, Jana

2014-05-01

436

Bearing-Mounting Concept Accommodates Thermal Expansion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pins or splines allow radial expansion without slippage. Design concept for mounting rotary bearing accommodates differential thermal expansion between bearing and any structure(s) to which bearing connected. Prevents buildup of thermal stresses by allowing thermal expansion to occur freely but accommodating expansion in such way not to introduce looseness. Pin-in-slot configuration also maintains concentricity.

Nespodzany, Robert; Davis, Toren S.

1995-01-01

437

Nonicosahedral pathways for capsid expansion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a significant number of viruses a structural transition of the protein container that encapsulates the viral genome forms an important part of the life cycle and is a prerequisite for the particle becoming infectious. Despite many recent efforts the mechanism of this process is still not fully understood, and a complete characterization of the expansion pathways is still lacking. We present here a coarse-grained model that captures the essential features of the expansion process and allows us to investigate the conditions under which a viral capsid becomes unstable. Based on this model we demonstrate that the structural transitions in icosahedral viral capsids are likely to occur through a low-symmetry cascade of local expansion events spreading in a wavelike manner over the capsid surface.

Cermelli, Paolo; Indelicato, Giuliana; Twarock, Reidun

2013-09-01

438

Hygroscopic Expansion of Polyester Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hygroscopic expansion of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyethylene 2,6-naphthalate (PEN) films was measured by use of a thermomechanical analyzer at 30, 40 or 50°C. Their initial weight increase was proportional to the square root of time after exposure to moisture, obeying Fick’s law; the hygroscopic expansion with time showed the same relationship. The equilibrium moisture content was 1.0× 10-5/% RH for both films; the hygroscopic expansion at equilibrium was also about the same for these films. However, the diffusion constant for moisture in PEN films was 1\\cdot6× 10-9 cm2/s at 30°C in comparison with 4\\cdot8× 10-8 for PET, although the activation energies were 45 kJ/mol for PET and 41 for PEN.

Ouchi, Isuke; Hosoi, Masahiro; Tomie, Takashi

1992-08-01

439

Mechanical waves during tissue expansion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The processes by which an organism develops its shape and heals wounds involve expansion of a monolayer sheet of cells. The mechanism underpinning this epithelial expansion remains obscure, despite the fact that its failure is known to contribute to several diseases, including carcinomas, which account for about 90% of all human cancers. Here, using the micropatterned epithelial monolayer as a model system, we report the discovery of a mechanical wave that propagates slowly to span the monolayer, traverses intercellular junctions in a cooperative manner and builds up differentials of mechanical stress. Essential features of this wave generation and propagation are captured by a minimal model based on sequential fronts of cytoskeletal reinforcement and fluidization. These findings establish a mechanism of long-range cell guidance, symmetry breaking and pattern formation during monolayer expansion.

Serra-Picamal, Xavier; Conte, Vito; Vincent, Romaric; Anon, Ester; Tambe, Dhananjay T.; Bazellieres, Elsa; Butler, James P.; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.; Trepat, Xavier

2012-08-01

440

Relationship between the optical properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter and total concentration of dissolved organic carbon in the southern Baltic Sea region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Absorption and fluorescence of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) measurements were performed during three oceanographic surveys in 1994 in the southern Baltic Sea (Polish area of the Baltic Proper). DOC was measured both by high-temperature catalytic oxidation (HTCO) and low-temperature oxidation (LTO) conventional persulphate methods. CDOM fluorescence was shown to be highly correlated with absorption,

Giovanni M. Ferrari; Mark D. Dowell; Stefania Grossi; Cristina Targa

1996-01-01

441

Long-term observations on salinity dynamics in a tideless shallow coastal lagoon of the Southern Baltic Sea coast and their biological relevance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Darß-Zingst Bodden Chain (DZBC) is a tideless shallow inner coastal water of the Southern Baltic Sea. Important water volumes are exchanged with the Baltic Sea in dependence of wind direction and strength, water levels and coastal water currents. The Bodden chain is a system of 4 consecutive water basins which are connected via narrow streams with the opening to

R. Schumann; H. Baudler; Ä. Glass; K. Dümcke; U. Karsten

2006-01-01

442