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1

Oscillatory stability considerations in transmission expansion planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experience with the transmission expansion planning of a longitudinal power system is reported. To reach an optimal choice among several feasible expansion plans, indices such as maximum power transfer limits, fault currents, transient stability, system losses, and cost, which have been widely used by utilities, are computed to compare the relative merits of these alternatives. In view of past experience

Hsu Yuan-Yih; Huang Pei-Hwa; Lin Chia-Jen; Huang Chiang-Tsung

1989-01-01

2

Power system expansion planning under uncertainty  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a methodology for expansion planning of power systems under several uncertainty factors such as demand growth, fuel cost, delay in project completion, financial constraints etc. The solution approach is based on stochastic optimization techniques, decision analysis, and multiobjective tradeoff analysis. Case studies with the Brazilian system are presented and discussed.

Gorenstin, B.G.; Campodonico, N.M.; Costa, J.P.; Pereira, M.V.F. (Cepel, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Electrica)

1993-02-01

3

Transmission Expansion Planning and Cost Allocation Under Market Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important component to be considered in electric power system expansion planning is the security of service that the system is able to provide. Under the market environment the effect of expansion on the market conditions also has to be regarded during the planning. This article proposes a new method for transmission expansion planning under market environments which considers global

H. Shariati Dehaghan; H. Askarian Abyaneh; M. H. Javidi Dasht-Bayz

2011-01-01

4

216-B-3 expansion ponds closure plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes the activities for clean closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) of the 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds. The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds are operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (D...

1994-01-01

5

Application of Mathematical Programming to Electric Power System Expansion Planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis describes the results of a research project aimed at developing mathematical programming methods that could be used by electric power system planners, with emphasis on transmission network expansion planning. The work was carried out at the De...

D. Sjelvgren

1976-01-01

6

Advanced on-the-Job Training System: Expansion Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Advanced On-the-job Training System (AOTS) Expansion Plan provides a technical analysis and assessment of the factors that must be considered in the expansion of the AOTS program from an operational version of the AFHRL technology demonstration progra...

J. J. O'Connor

1990-01-01

7

Salinity Gradient of the Baltic Sea Limits the Reproduction and Population Expansion of the Newly Invaded Comb Jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi  

PubMed Central

The recent invasion of the comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi into northern European waters is of major public and scientific concern. One of the key features making M. leidyi a successful invader is its high fecundity combined with fast growth rates. However, little is known about physiological limitations to its reproduction and consequent possible abiotic restrictions to its dispersal. To evaluate the invasion potential of M. leidyi into the brackish Baltic Sea we studied in situ egg production rates in different regions and at different salinities in the laboratory, representing the salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea. During October 2009 M. leidyi actively reproduced over large areas of the Baltic Sea. Egg production rates scaled with animal size but decreased significantly with decreasing salinity, both in the field (7–29) and in laboratory experiments (6–33). Temperature and zooplankton, i.e. food abundance, could not explain the observed differences. Reproduction rates at conditions representing the Kattegat, south western and central Baltic Sea, respectively, were 2.8 fold higher at the highest salinities (33 and 25) than at intermediate salinities (10 and 15) and 21 times higher compared from intermediate to the lowest salinity tested (6). Higher salinity areas such as the Kattegat, and to a lower extent the south western Baltic, seem to act as source regions for the M. leidyi population in the central Baltic Sea where a self-sustaining population, due to the low salinity, cannot be maintained.

Jaspers, Cornelia; M?ller, Lene Friis; Ki?rboe, Thomas

2011-01-01

8

IRP methods for Environmental Impact Statements of utility expansion plans  

SciTech Connect

Most large electric utilities and a growing number of gas utilities in the United States are using a planning method -- Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) - which incorporates demand-side management (DSM) programs whenever the marginal cost of the DSM programs are lower than the marginal cost of supply-side expansion options. Argonne National Laboratory has applied the IRP method in its socio-economic analysis of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) of power marketing for a system of electric utilities in the mountain and western regions of the United States. Applying the IRP methods provides valuable information to the participants in an EIS process involving capacity expansion of an electric or gas utility. The major challenges of applying the IRP method within an EIS are the time consuming and costly task of developing a least cost expansion path for each altemative, the detailed quantification of environmental damages associated with capacity expansion, and the explicit inclusion of societal-impacts to the region.

Cavallo, J.D.; Hemphill, R.C.; Veselka, T.D.

1992-01-01

9

IRP methods for Environmental Impact Statements of utility expansion plans  

SciTech Connect

Most large electric utilities and a growing number of gas utilities in the United States are using a planning method -- Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) - which incorporates demand-side management (DSM) programs whenever the marginal cost of the DSM programs are lower than the marginal cost of supply-side expansion options. Argonne National Laboratory has applied the IRP method in its socio-economic analysis of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) of power marketing for a system of electric utilities in the mountain and western regions of the United States. Applying the IRP methods provides valuable information to the participants in an EIS process involving capacity expansion of an electric or gas utility. The major challenges of applying the IRP method within an EIS are the time consuming and costly task of developing a least cost expansion path for each altemative, the detailed quantification of environmental damages associated with capacity expansion, and the explicit inclusion of societal-impacts to the region.

Cavallo, J.D.; Hemphill, R.C.; Veselka, T.D.

1992-10-01

10

Power system expansion planning: BPA's perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. This panel contribution focuses on the strategic planning issues of a regional transmission operator in the western part of the US grid. There has been little investment in new regional transmission capacity over the last 15 years. Continuing load growth eroded reliability margins and deregulation stressed the grid in unforeseen ways. Transmission constraints played a large

A. L. Courts

2004-01-01

11

Powering the people: India's capacity expansion plans  

SciTech Connect

India has become a global business power even though hundreds of millions of its citizens still live in poverty. To sustain economic growth and lift its people out of poverty, India needs more and more reliable power. Details of government plans for achieving those goals demonstrate that pragmatism may be in shorter supply than ambition and political will. 1 ref., 12 figs., 1 tab.

Patel, S.

2009-05-15

12

Expansion Plans for the Telescope Array cosmic ray observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Telescope Array (TA) cosmic ray observatory has now been operational for nearly three years and will be the largest cosmic ray observatory in the Northern Hemisphere for the foreseeable future. Two major expansions are currently being planned. The first expansion, TA Low Energy Extension, will increase the dynamic range of TA in order to enable seamless observation from 10^16.5 to 10^20 eV in primary cosmic ray energy. The second expansion, TA Next, will dramatically increase the aperture of TA above 10^19.8 eV with the aim of searching for anisotropies inarrival directions for these highest energy events. Current efforts and future plans will be discussed.

Stokes, Benjamin

2011-04-01

13

Generation expansion planning in a competitive electric power industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work investigates the application of non-cooperative game theory to generation expansion planning (GEP) in a competitive electricity industry. We identify fundamental ways competition changes the nature of GEP, review different models of oligopoly behavior, and argue that assumptions of the Cournot model are compatible with GEP. Applying Cournot theory of oligopoly behavior, we formulate a GEP model that may characterize expansion in the new competitive regime, particularly in pool-dominated generation supply industries. Our formulation incorporates multiple markets and is patterned after the basic design of the California ISO/PX system. Applying the model, we conduct numerical experiments on a test system, and analyze generation investment and market participation decisions of different candidate expansion units that vary in costs and forced outage rates. Simulations are performed under different scenarios of competition. In particular, we observe higher probabilistic measures of reliability from Cournot expansion compared to the expansion plan of a monopoly with an equivalent minimum reserve margin requirement. We prove several results for a subclass of problems encompassed by our formulation. In particular, we prove that under certain conditions Cournot competition leads to greater total capacity expansion than a situation in which generators collude in a cartel. We also show that industry output after introduction of new technology is no less than monopoly output. So a monopoly may lack sufficient incentive to introduce new technologies. Finally, we discuss the association between capacity payments and the issue of pricing reliability. And we derive a formula for computing ideal capacity payment rates by extending the Value of Service Reliability technique.

Chuang, Angela Shu-Woan

14

A study on the optimal reliability criteria decision for a transmission system expansion planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimal design of transmission system expansion planning is an important part of the overall planning task of electric power system under competitive electricity market environments. One of main keys of the successful grid expansion planning comes from optimal reliability level\\/criteria decision, which should be given for constraint in the optimal expansion problem. However, it's very difficult to decide logically

J. S. Choi; T. T. Tran; S. R. Kang; D. H. Jeon; C. H. Lee; R. Billinton

2004-01-01

15

Irrigated Agricultural Expansion Planning in Developing Countries : Income Redistribution Objective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of agricultural expansion investment in improving the income redistribution conditions in society has been of considerable concern to planners. In this paper an approach based on distributing the newly developed land to a poorer sector (landless farmers) in society to gain agricultural revenues and improve their income is investigated. A mathematical optimization model is built to determine the distribution of land and a pricing policy established for the new areas in such a way that (1) a specified (by the government) income increase to the farmers can be achieved, (2) a predetermined level of recovery of the expansion cost can be insured, (3) high agricultural efficiency in the new land can be maintained, and (4) redistribution benefits can be maximized. In a case study application of the model, no conflict is found between the economic efficiency and income redistribution cirtieria in agricultural expansion investment within the planning framework presented in the companion paper (Allam and Marks, this issue). For a specified cost recovery condition it is found that the least cost planning alternatives give the opportunity to the largest number of landless farmers to own the new land and receive a specified income increase from the agricultural revenues, but a conflict between government return from the investment and redistribution objectives is found. This conflict is addressed and the trade-off between the two objectives is illustrated.

Allam, Mohamed N.; Marks, David H.

1984-07-01

16

Incorporation and Impact of a Wind Energy Conversion System in Generation Expansion Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper utilizes WASP, a state-of-the art computer model, to obtain optimal generation expansion plans for an electric utility in order to assess the impact of incorporating a wind energy conversion system into an electric utility generation expansion plan. The IEEE Reliability Test System is used in the evaluations. The optimal plans satisfy given levels of reliability, in terms of

K. F. Schenk; S. Chan

1981-01-01

17

Randomized discrepancy bounded local search for transmission expansion planning  

SciTech Connect

In recent years the transmission network expansion planning problem (TNEP) has become increasingly complex. As the TNEP is a non-linear and non-convex optimization problem, researchers have traditionally focused on approximate models of power flows to solve the TNEP. Existing approaches are often tightly coupled to the approximation choice. Until recently these approximations have produced results that are straight-forward to adapt to the more complex (real) problem. However, the power grid is evolving towards a state where the adaptations are no longer easy (e.g. large amounts of limited control, renewable generation) and necessitates new approaches. Recent work on deterministic Discrepancy Bounded Local Search (DBLS) has shown it to be quite effective in addressing this question. DBLS encapsulates the complexity of power flow modeling in a black box that may be queried for information about the quality of proposed expansions. In this paper, we propose a randomization strategy that builds on DBLS and dramatically increases the computational efficiency of the algorithm.

Bent, Russell W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daniel, William B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-11-23

18

Mathematical decomposition techniques for power system expansion planning: Volume 5, Use of parallel computers for multi-area expansion planning: Preliminary results, Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expansion planning problem under uncertainty is the central problem of our research. The problem is to find an expansion schedule which minimizes total discounted capital expenditures and operating costs over a long time frame subject to specified levels of reliability of a multi-area electric utility system. To test methodology described in Volume 1 of this report, models of two

S. Granville; M. V. F. Pereira; G. B. Dantzig; B. Avi-Itzhak; M. Avriel; A. Monticelli; L. M. V. G. Pinto

1988-01-01

19

Planning of the energy generation system expansion taking into account transmission lines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work presents the proposal of a methodology which, by exploring the interaction between generation and transmission systems expansion studies, aims for an Integrated Planning of Power Systems. It intends to emphasize the Integrated Planning importanc...

J. C. M. Lucio

1990-01-01

20

Models for planning capacity expansion of convenience stores under uncertain demand and the value of information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several stochastic optimization models for planning capacity expansion for convenience store chains (or other similar businesses) are developed that incorporate uncertainty in future demand. All of these models generate schedules for capacity expansion, specifying the size, location, and timing of these expansions in order to maximize the expected profit to the company and to remain within a budget constraint on

Janet M. Wagner; Oded Berman

1995-01-01

21

Impact of unit commitment constraints on generation expansion planning with renewables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing use of renewables pushes thermal gener- ators against operating constraints - e.g. ramping, minimum output, and operating reserves - that are traditionally ignored in expansion planning models. We show how including such unit-commitment-derived details can significantly change energy production and optimal capacity mix. We introduce a method for efficiently combining unit commitment and generation expansion planning into a single

Bryan Palmintier; Mort Webster

2011-01-01

22

Models Used in ENEL (Italian Electricity Board) Transmission Expansion Planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The streamlining of the basic computing programs, utilized for studying the expansion of the E.H.V. transmission network, assumes a very important role as they must necessarily be concatenated to draw from the same data base source and to allow the automa...

G. Manzoni C. Martocchia

1986-01-01

23

Integrated Power Generation and Natural Gas Expansion Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy companies and governments have considered alternative solutions over traditional planning problem where electricity, natural gas, oil are treated as an independent problem. The optimization and integration of the energy sources and demands in a common framework is one of the current challenges. New methodologies and tools for system planning and operation that include multiple energy carriers with sufficient topological

Clodomiro Unsihuay; J. W. Marangon-Lima; A. C. Zambroni de Souza

2007-01-01

24

Expansive spatial planning: the new European transnational spatial visions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial planning in Europe has reached new frontiers. The European Spatial Development Perspective covers the entire European Union and, in spite of having an informal, non-binding status, it is creeping into the regulatory frameworks of the European Union. To stimulate cooperation between the Member States of the European Union, including the accession countries, the map of Europe has been divided

Wil Zonneveld

2005-01-01

25

World Bank plans major expansion in renewable funding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Bank plans to increase its funding for renewable energy projects to more than $100 million annually in coming years. Last year, 15 percent of the Bank's $23.7 billion financing went to energy projects. But of that, renewables received less than $10 million. Environmentalists and sustainable energy groups have long criticized the World Bank for its reluctance to finance

1994-01-01

26

Development of Generation-Transmission Expansion Planning Method Based on a Hierarchical Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generation expansion planning and transmission planning are strongly related. It is increasingly demanded in power industry to optimize such a generation-transmission planning so that whole power system can be operated in a more economic and reliable manner. So far most of existing methods are to either solve generation expansion planning or transmission planning due to the computational burdens, in particular for a large-scale system, and also there are no commercial packages available to solve such a problem directly. In this paper, we propose a bi-level model that divides the original problem into a master problem and two sub-problems. Optimization for such bi-level model is facilitated by using the long-term nodal marginal costs, which is acted as economic signals for the master problem and the sub-problems. To demonstrate the proposed method, we adopt several test systems, which verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Fukutome, Suguru; Azuma, Hitoshi; Honjou, Nobuyuki; Chen, Luonan

27

Supply contracts for Italy prompt expansions, new construction plans  

SciTech Connect

Italy`s natural-gas demand is growing faster than that of any other European country, according to Italian gas-transmission operator SNAM S.p.A., Milan. Gas demand in Italy, as a share of total energy demand, is likely to grow from slightly more than a quarter in 1996 to more than a third by 2010. As a result, SNAM is actively negotiating and signing new gas contracts with existing and new suppliers to ensure and diversify gas supply to the peninsula over that period. This article concludes a two-part series on gas supplies and pipeline infrastructure development for Europe`s two southern peninsulas. Part 1 set forth pipeline construction and gas-movement developments on the Iberian peninsula. For European supplies to Italy, expansions on two major cross-country pipelines will have been completed by 2001 along with a third new line in France that will tie into an existing line from The Netherlands. Additionally, early in the next decade, SNAM could be on its way to laying yet another pipeline across the Mediterranean Sea, setting again yet another deepwater pipelay record.

True, W.R.

1998-02-23

28

A multiple objective mixed integer linear programming model for power generation expansion planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power generation expansion planning inherently involves multiple, conflicting and incommensurate objectives. Therefore, mathematical models become more realistic if distinct evaluation aspects, such as cost and environmental concerns, are explicitly considered as objective functions rather than being encompassed by a single economic indicator. With the aid of multiple objective models, decision makers may grasp the conflicting nature and the trade-offs among

C. Henggeler Antunes; A. Gomes Martins; Isabel Sofia Brito

2004-01-01

29

Demand scenario analysis and planned capacity expansion: A system dynamics framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper establishes an approach to develop models for forecasting demand and evaluating policy scenarios related to planned capacity expansion for meeting optimistic and pessimistic future demand projections. A system dynamics framework is used to model and to generate scenarios because of their capability of representing physical and information flows, which will enable us to understand the nonlinear dynamics behavior

Erma Suryani; Shuo-Yan Chou; Rudi Hartono; Chih-Hsien Chen

2010-01-01

30

A price guideline for generation expansion planning in competitive electricity markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generation expansion planning (GEP) in competitive markets is a decentralized decision making process. A set of conflicting decisions by independent generators that each of them tries to maximize its profit shapes this complex process. Because of these conflicts the whole process must be managed and conducted by regulatory body to prevent instability in the long-term electricity market. This paper proposes

Mohsen Parsa Moghaddam; Mohammad Kazem Sheikh-El-Eslami; Shahram Jadid

2005-01-01

31

Effective incentives design for renewable energy generation expansion planning: An inverse optimization approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an incentive policy design model consisting of lower level and upper level optimization to promote renewable energy. The lower level optimization is a generation expansion planning (GEP) problem, in which the planner aims to expand an energy system's generation capacity to serve projected load with minimum cost. In the upper level optimization, to achieve the goal of specific

Ying Zhou; Lizhi Wang; James D. McCalley

2010-01-01

32

A Genetic Algorithm to Solve the Static Transmission System Expansion Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper proposes a genetic algorithm (GA) to solve the transmission system expansion planning (TSEP) problem in power systems.\\u000a The transmission network is represented using the DC power flow model. The problem is then formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear\\u000a problem (MINLP) which is very complex to solve in large-scale networks using classical optimization algorithms. Genetic algorithms\\u000a (GAs) are a

José Antonio Sánchez Rodríguez; José Coto; Javier Gómez-Aleixandre

33

Baltic Ferry Transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article deals with the ferry transport in the Baltic Sea. Particular attention has been paid to shipping lines and ferries plying on them. Available ferries, their parameters, changes of basic parameters in time and functions of newbuildings are discussed. Characteristics of all the Baltic ferries and shipping lines are presented, according to data available in 2010.

Uriasz, Janusz

34

Review of Jamaica Public Service Company, Ltd. least-cost expansion plan.  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory has been asked to review the least-cost expansion plan (LCEP) of the Jamaica Public Service Company, Ltd. (JPSCo). The material that has been initially provided to Argonne included: (1) An electronic copy of the data and results from JPSCo's running the WASP electric system expansion planning model, (2) Approximately 20 pages of a document 'JPSCo Generation Expansion Plan', marked 'DRAFT 002', date unknown, and (3) The report 'JPSCo Least Cost Generation Expansion Plans, (1999-2009)', January 1999. It was noticed that the 20 pages from the 'DRAFT 002' document were different from the January 1999 report. An explanation was provided to Argonne that the excerpt was from an earlier draft and that the review should focus on the January 1999 report. Further, the electronic copy of the WASP case did not correspond to either the January 1999 report or to the 20-page excerpt. Again, the reason for these discrepancies was that the WASP case provided to Argonne was an earlier case and not the final one that was presented in the report. Based on the review of the available material, Argonne experts have prepared and submitted to the National Investment Bank of Jamaica (NIBJ) a preliminary draft report containing the initial findings, comments, questions and observations. As many of the comments and questions raised in the preliminary review needed to be discussed with the appropriate staff of JPSCo and other Jamaican experts, a 3-day mission to Jamaica was carried out by one Argonne expert (V. Koritarov) in the period July 20-23, 1999. Besides JPSCo experts, the discussions and the review of the LCEP during the mission included several experts from NIBJ, Ministry of Energy, and the Petroleum Corporation of Jamaica. Mr. Koritarov also worked with the JPSCo technical staff to reconstruct the WASP base case that was used as a basis for the January 1999 report. The first step was to verify that the results obtained after the resimulation of this case were identical to those presented in the January 1999 report. Then, in the next step, the Argonne expert and JPSCo team reviewed this case in detail and performed certain modifications and improvements of data where necessary. These modifications and data adjustments resulted in a new base case that served as a basis for further review and for the sensitivity analyses. Several sensitivity analyses were performed together with JPSCo experts and the results were discussed with the JPSCo management and other Jamaican experts at the end of the mission. Additional sensitivity analyses, as well as the cases for high and low load forecasts, were conducted by Mr. Koritarov after returning from Jamaica. The main findings of the review and issues that have been discussed with the Jamaican team can be summarized.

Koritarov, V.; Buehring, W.; Cirillo, R.; Decision and Information Sciences

2008-02-28

35

Is competence set expansion in the information service industry a planned behavior? The moderating effects of action control style  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technological advancement has brought dramatic changes to most industries. As a result, the pressure to compete has intensified tremendously. This is especially evident in the information service (IS) industry where the need of companies to expand their employees' competence set (CS) becomes critical. This study investigated whether CS expansion in the IS industry is a planned behavior moderated by individual

Daniel Y. Shee; Ya-Ling Wu

2008-01-01

36

Optimal generation expansion planning strategy for the utility with IPPs participation and considering Green House gas mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal power plants dominate electric power generation in Taiwan, which are also the major contributor to green house gases (GHG). CO2 is the most important greenhouse gas that cause global warming and sea-level rising. This paper pierces the relationship between GHG reduction and power generation expansion planning (GEP) problem for the utility. Refined immune algorithm (RIA) is presented to determine

Tung-Sheng Zhan; Shi-Jaw Chen; Ming-Tong Tsay; Meei-Song Kang; Jong-Ian Tsai; Bo-Xiang Liao

2009-01-01

37

Least cost generation expansion planning for a regional electricity board in India considering green house gas mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal power plants dominate electric power generation in India, which are the major contributor to green house gases (GHGs). Carbon dioxide is by far the most important greenhouse gas that causes global warming. This study offers valuable insight on the cost-effective efficient technologies available for GHG mitigation that need to be adopted in the power generation expansion plan. GHG emission

S. C. Srivastava; A. K. Srivastava; U. K. Rout; D. Paul; P. Gupta; R. M. Shrestha

2000-01-01

38

An Expert System Approach for Multi-Year Short-Term Transmission System Expansion Planning: An Indian Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an expert system approach to short-term expansion planning (STEP). The rules which drive STEP can be classified into MW, MVAR, and ampacity management rules. MW and ampacity management rules are for alleviating transmission line congestion. Reactive power management is required for voltage control at load busses, conformity to the capacity curve of the generators, and containing the

Rajeev Kumar Gajbhiye; Devang Naik; Sanjay Dambhare; S. A. Soman

2008-01-01

39

Lower paleozoic of Baltic Area  

SciTech Connect

The Baltic Sea offers a new and exciting petroleum play in northwestern Europe. The Kaliningrad province in the Soviet Union, which borders the Baltic Sea to the east, contains an estimated 3.5 billion bbl of recoverable oil from lower Paleozoic sandstones. To the south, in Poland, oil and gas fields are present along a trend that projects offshore into the Baltic. Two recent Petrobaltic wells in the southern Baltic have tested hydrocarbons from lower Paleozoic sandstone. Minor production comes from Ordovician reefs on the Swedish island of Gotland in the western Baltic. The Baltic synclise, which began subsiding in the late Precambrian, is a depression in the East European platform. Strate dip gently to the south where the Baltic Synclise terminates against a structurally complex border zone. Depth to the metamorphosed Precambrian basement is up to 4,000 m. Overlying basement is 200-300 m of upper Precambrian arkosic sandstone. The Lower Cambrian consists of shallow marine quartzites. During Middle and Late Camnbrian, restricted circulation resulted in anoxic conditions and the deposition of Alum shale. The Lower Ordovician consists of quartzites and shale. The Upper Ordovician includes sandstones and algal reefs. The Silurian contains marginal carbonates and shales. For the last 25 years, exploration in northwest Europe has concentrated on well-known Permian sandstone, Jurassic sandstone, and Cretaceous chalk plays. Extrapolation of trends known and exploited in eastern Europe could open an entirely new oil province in the lower Paleozoic in the Baltic.

Haselton, T.M.; Surlyk, F.

1988-01-01

40

The Baltics: Regional energy profiles  

SciTech Connect

However, all three Baltic Republics are heavily dependent on primary energy imports. Domestic energy sources in the Baltics are limited to oil shale mines in Estonia, small oil deposits in Lithuania, peat, and some very small hydroelectric power plants. A RBMK nuclear power station, similar to Chernobyl, operates at Snieckus in Lithuania, but the reactor fuel is also imported from Russia. However, Lithuania and Estonia are net exporters of electricity despite their reliance on primary fuels imports. The major power stations in these two Republics are the Ignalina Nuclear Power Station and the two thermal power plants at Narva in Estonia which are fueled by oil shale. The only oil refinery in the Baltics is also located in Lithuania, at Mazeikiai. This refinery has the capacity to satisfy the demand for selected refined products of the entire region, including the Kaliningrad oblast, a noncontiguous part of Russia. The Mazeikiai refinery has operated at only forty to sixty percent capacity since 1990 due to halts in crude oil supplies from Russia. The Baltic Republics also import one hundred percent of their coal and natural gas supplies. Russia is the main trading partner for all the Baltic states, accounting for more than half of their trade flow. Mutual trade within the Baltics has been surprisingly low. Other Baltic states contribute less than ten percent to each Republic`s exports or imports, even less than Belarus or Ukraine. Aside from Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, only Kazakhstan contributes more than two percent to Baltics trade.

Not Available

1993-01-01

41

The Baltics: Regional energy profiles  

SciTech Connect

However, all three Baltic Republics are heavily dependent on primary energy imports. Domestic energy sources in the Baltics are limited to oil shale mines in Estonia, small oil deposits in Lithuania, peat, and some very small hydroelectric power plants. A RBMK nuclear power station, similar to Chernobyl, operates at Snieckus in Lithuania, but the reactor fuel is also imported from Russia. However, Lithuania and Estonia are net exporters of electricity despite their reliance on primary fuels imports. The major power stations in these two Republics are the Ignalina Nuclear Power Station and the two thermal power plants at Narva in Estonia which are fueled by oil shale. The only oil refinery in the Baltics is also located in Lithuania, at Mazeikiai. This refinery has the capacity to satisfy the demand for selected refined products of the entire region, including the Kaliningrad oblast, a noncontiguous part of Russia. The Mazeikiai refinery has operated at only forty to sixty percent capacity since 1990 due to halts in crude oil supplies from Russia. The Baltic Republics also import one hundred percent of their coal and natural gas supplies. Russia is the main trading partner for all the Baltic states, accounting for more than half of their trade flow. Mutual trade within the Baltics has been surprisingly low. Other Baltic states contribute less than ten percent to each Republic's exports or imports, even less than Belarus or Ukraine. Aside from Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, only Kazakhstan contributes more than two percent to Baltics trade.

Not Available

1993-01-01

42

Current Status, Plans, and Constraints Related to Expansion of Natural Gas-Fired Power Plants, Pipelines and Bulk Electric Transmission in the California/Mexico Border Region.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the current status and expansion plans for gas-fired power plants, bulk electric transmission, and natural gas transmission pipelines in the California/Mexico border region. Existing and forecasted supply-demand balance for both elect...

2008-01-01

43

On the effect of structure-induced resistance and mixing on inflows into the Baltic Sea: A numerical model study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to estimate the additional mixing and dilution of dense bottom currents due to foundations of wind turbines in offshore wind farms projected in the region of the Western Baltic Sea. To some extent these offshore wind farms are planned to be build directly in the main pathways of dense bottom currents propagating into the Baltic Sea. This

Hannes Rennau; Stefan Schimmels; Hans Burchard

44

What causes the barren bottoms of the Baltic?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the largest impacts on the Baltic Sea ecosystem health is eutrophication, which causes hypoxia (< 2mg/l dissolved oxygen). It is estimated that the hypoxic zone in the Baltic Sea has increased about four times in area since 1960 due to surplus loads of waterborne and airborne nutrients (N and P) from anthropogenic sources. Hypoxia has barren vast areas of the sea-floor, reduced the macrobenthic communities and disrupted benthic food webs in the whole Baltic basin. Hypoxia alters nutrient biogeochemical cycles; it increases the internal load of phosphorus released from sediments, which causes low nitrogen/phosphorus (N/P) ratios during summer - a factor that favors cyanobacterial blooms. Hypoxia in the Baltic Sea is not unique to the modern era. Based on a compilation of Baltic geological records Zillén et al., (2008) showed that the deeper depressions of the Baltic Proper have experienced intermittent hypoxia during most of the Holocene. Hypoxia occurred basin-wide, at water depths varying between 73-240 m during three major periods; i.e. between c. 8000-4000, 2000-800 cal. yr BP and subsequent to AD 1800. These periods overlap the Holocene Thermal Maximum HTM (c. 9000-5000 cal. yr BP), the Medieval Warm Period MWP (c. AD 750-1200) and the modern historical period (AD 1800 to present). In contrast, oxic bottom conditions were common between c. 7000-6000, c. 4000-2000 and c. 800-200 cal. yr BP. The latter period coincides with the Little Ice Age (LIA) and its characteristic server winters. Although we know that hypoxia has occurred in the past and probably co-varied with external forces, such as climate change and nutrient fluxes, the relative importance of these two forcing mechanisms is unresolved, which restricts predictions about the Baltic Sea ecosystem response to future climate and anthropogenic stressors. Most previous research suggests that there may be a correlation between the oxygen conditions in the Baltic Sea and climate variability in the past, primarily driven by atmospheric changes over the North Atlantic region. However, this hypothesis has not yet been tested by model simulations and the potential climate forcing mechanism(s) behind the reconstructed long-term shifts in oxygen status in the Baltic Sea are still unclear. Hypoxia during the last two millennia can also be linked to population growth, technological development and land-use expansion phases, implying that historical trends in hypoxia may not have a natural cause, but result from anthropogenic impacts. We used a coupled physical-biogeochemical model to explore if shifts in oxygen conditions during the last two millennia in the Baltic Sea can be explained by physical forcing parameters that are known to affect bottom-water conditions in the Baltic Sea. To elucidate the driving mechanisms further, we studied the significance of changes in productivity on the size of the hypoxic area to assess the degree of human impact (eutrophication) on long time-scales. This study reveals the dominant physical forcing mechanism on hypoxia in the Baltic Sea and explains the shifts in bottom-water oxygen status during the last two millennia, especially through the MWP/LIA oscillation. We present new results on the significance of human perturbations on the marine environment and propose that cyanobacteria blooms may not be natural features of the Baltic Sea, but rather a consequence of enhanced phosphorus release that occurs together with hypoxia.

Zillén, Lovisa; Conley, Daniel J.; Gustafsson, Bo G.

2010-05-01

45

An artificial neural network for optimum topology in distribution expansion planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

An artificial neural network supported with an expert system is developed to determine the optimum topology in the expansion of distribution systems. This technique reduces considerably both training and testing time. The required input data is a digital simulation of the overloaded feeders switch status which is obtained directly from the expert system. The output of the neural network is

Y. G. Moustafa; A. H. Amer; M. M. Mansour; H. L. Temraz; M. A. Madeour

1996-01-01

46

A preliminary investigation on transmission system expansion planning in competitive electricity market environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major challenge to the transmission system planning problem in the emerging electricity market environment is that more uncertain factors have to be resolved. Although the transmission system optimal planning problem has been extensively studied for several decades, available standard optimization models and methods could not well solve this problem for the competitive electricity market environment. Given this background, a

Ning Yang; Fushuan Wen

2004-01-01

47

Role of Demand Resources in Regional Transmission Expansion Planning and Reliable Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Investigating the role of demand resources in regional transmission planning has provided mixed results. On one hand there are only a few projects where demand response has been used as an explicit alternative to transmission enhancement. On the other han...

B. J. Kirby

2006-01-01

48

Plan-94. Elkraft's anlaegsplan. (Plan-94. Elkraft's development plan).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The plan of development for Elkraft, a Danish electricity company, is presented in detail. Emphasis is laid on internationalisation. Agreements on development with other countries such as a Baltic Cable from Sydkraft to PreussenElektra power companies are...

1994-01-01

49

State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) Environmental Checklist Form 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds Closure Plan. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds Closure Plan (Revision 1) consists of a Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application and a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure Plan. An explanation of the Part A submitted with this document is provided at the beginning of the Part A Section. The closure plan consists of nine chapters and five appendices. The 216-B-3 Pond System consists of a series of four earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds and the 216-B-3-3 Ditch that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. These four ponds, collectively. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the 216-B-3-3 Ditch. Water discharged to the 216-8-3-3 Ditch flows directly into the 216-B-3 Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to B Pond and the 216-B-3-3 Ditch contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the nonradioactive dangerous portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA. Mixed waste also may be considered a hazardous substance under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) when considering remediation of waste sites.

Not Available

1993-12-01

50

Microbial Diversity in Baltic Sea Sediments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis focuses on microbial community structures and their functions in Baltic Sea sediments. First we investigated the distribution of archaea and bacteria in Baltic Sea sediments along a eutrophication gradient. Community profile analysis of 16S rR...

A. Edlund

2007-01-01

51

The DOE Office of Environmental Management International Cooperative Program: Current Status and Plans for Expansion  

SciTech Connect

The DOE-EM Office of Engineering and Technology is responsible for implementing EM’s international cooperative program. The Office of Engineering and Technology’s international efforts are aimed at supporting EM’s mission of risk reduction and accelerated cleanup of the environmental legacy of the nation's nuclear weapons program and government-sponsored nuclear energy research. To do this, EM pursues collaborations with government organizations, educational institutions, and private industry to identify and develop technologies that can address the site cleanup needs of DOE. Currently, DOE-EM is performing collaborative work with researchers at the Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI) and the SIA Radon Institute in Russia and the Ukraine’s International Radioecology Laboratory (IRL). Additionally, a task was recently completed with the Nuclear Engineering Technology Institute (NETEC) in South Korea. The objectives of these collaborations were to explore issues relating to high-level waste and to investigate technologies that could be leveraged to support EM site cleanup needs. In FY09, continued collaboration with the current partners is planned. Additionally, new research projects are being planned to expand the International Program. A collaborative project with Russian Electrotechnical University is underway to evaluate CCIM control and monitoring technologies. A Statement of Intent was recently signed between DOE-EM and the U.K. Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) to work cooperatively on areas of mutual interest. Under this umbrella, discussions were held with NDA representatives to identify potential areas for collaboration. Information and technical exchanges were identified as near-term actions to help meet the objectives of the Statement of Intent. Technical exchanges in identified areas are being pursued in FY09

Gerdes, Kurt D.; Han, Ana M.; Marra, James C.; Fox, Kevin M.; Peeler, David K.; Smith, Michael E.; Jannik, Gerald T.; Farfan, Eduardo B.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.; Roach, Jay; Aloy, A. S.; Stefanovsky, S. V.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Lopukh, D. P.; Kim, Chenwoo

2009-01-15

52

Phosphorus recycling and burial in Baltic Sea sediments with contrasting redox conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Baltic Sea is a classical example of a coastal system that is subject to an increased intensity and spatial extent of hypoxia due to human activities. The expansion of hypoxia since the 1960s is the result of increased inputs of nutrients from land (both from fertilizer and wastewater) and is negatively affecting living conditions for benthic organisms. In addition,

Caroline P. Slomp; Haydon P. Mort; Dan C. Reed; Tom Jilbert; Bo G. Gustafsson

2010-01-01

53

Texaco scores a first in the Baltic  

SciTech Connect

Wells on the first of 2 small concrete platforms designed specifically for the fragile but harsh environment of the Baltic Sea will produce the first oil from that offshore area by late 1984. The consortium of Deutsche Texaco AG and Wintershall AG awarded contracts late last year for the platforms and drilling equipment needed to develop the Schwedeneck-See field in Kiel Bay, off the northern coast of West Germany. Severe winter weather in the area dictated the use of concrete platforms rather than conventional 6-pile steel structures. Ice forces, generated by high winds and moderate waves, demanded heavy-duty structures in spite of the shallow water. A complicating factor in the field development plan is the presence of a German Navy submarine practice area which influenced location of one of the platforms. This means that all wells will be directionally drilled, and the reach will be greater than under more favorable conditions.

Not Available

1983-10-01

54

Hydrography of the Baltic Deep Basins II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Baltic surface water is considered to near the starving limit regarding nutrient salts. The phosphate has been suggested to be one of the limiting factors for organic life, and, especially in the Baltic, it may be the limiting factor. Therefore it is ...

S. H. Fonselius

1967-01-01

55

Um modelo computacional para determinacao de alternativas de expansao de custo minimo em planejamento de sistemas de transmissao. (A computational model for determining the minimal cost expansion alternatives in transmission systems planning).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A computational model for determining an economical transmission expansion plan, based in the decomposition techniques is presented. The algorithm was used in the Brazilian South System and was able to find an optimal solution, with a low computational re...

L. M. V. Pinto M. V. F. Pereira A. Nunes

1989-01-01

56

Sustainable Phosphorus Loadings from Effective and Cost-Effective Phosphorus Management Around the Baltic Sea  

PubMed Central

Nutrient over-enrichment of the Baltic Sea, accompanied by intensified algal blooms and decreasing water clarity, has aroused widespread concern in the surrounding countries during the last four decades. This work has used a well-tested dynamic mass-balance model to investigate which decrease in total phosphorus loading would be required to meet the environmental goal to restore the trophic state in the Baltic Sea to pre-1960s levels. Furthermore, the extent to which various abatement options may decrease the phosphorus loading in a cost-effective manner has been studied. Upgrading urban sewage treatment in the catchment could, alone or in combination with banning phosphates in detergents, be sufficient to meet the set environmental goal, at an estimated annual basin-wide cost of 0.21–0.43 billion euro. Such a plan would potentially decrease the total phosphorus loading to the Baltic Sea with 6,650–10,200 tonnes per year.

Bryhn, Andreas C.

2009-01-01

57

Extremes of temperature, oxygen and blooms in the Baltic sea in a changing climate.  

PubMed

In the future, the Baltic Sea ecosystem will be impacted both by climate change and by riverine and atmospheric nutrient inputs. Multi-model ensemble simulations comprising one IPCC scenario (A1B), two global climate models, two regional climate models, and three Baltic Sea ecosystem models were performed to elucidate the combined effect of climate change and changes in nutrient inputs. This study focuses on the occurrence of extreme events in the projected future climate. Results suggest that the number of days favoring cyanobacteria blooms could increase, anoxic events may become more frequent and last longer, and salinity may tend to decrease. Nutrient load reductions following the Baltic Sea Action Plan can reduce the deterioration of oxygen conditions. PMID:22926880

Neumann, Thomas; Eilola, Kari; Gustafsson, Bo; Müller-Karulis, Bärbel; Kuznetsov, Ivan; Meier, H E Markus; Savchuk, Oleg P

2012-09-01

58

The Baltic?a sea of invaders  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are about 100 nonindigenous species recorded in the Baltic Sea. Invasive species have resulted in major changes in nearshore ecosystems, especially in coastal lagoons and inlets that can be identified as \\

Erkki Leppäkoski; Stephan Gollasch; Piotr Gruszka; Henn Ojaveer; Sergej Olenin; Vadim Panov

2002-01-01

59

Dissolved silver in the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

The increased use of silver as a biocide in nanoparticle formulations has heightened concern on possible environmental implications owing to its toxicity. There is however very little data on the concentration levels of silver in marine and freshwaters. Here, I report data on dissolved (<0.4 ?m filter) silver concentration in the surface waters of the Baltic Sea, the first such data reported for a European coastal water body. Levels of dissolved silver in the Baltic are comparable to those reported for other American estuarine waters and range from non-detectable in the open Baltic Sea Proper (<1 pM) to 9.4 pM (1 ng/L) in the Stockholm Archipelago, with a mean of 2.8 pM (0.2 ng/L). Inputs from wastewater treatment are clearly discernable and might constitute the main source of silver to the Stockholm Archipelago and possibly the Baltic Sea Proper. PMID:21075364

Ndungu, Kuria

2010-11-13

60

Implications of capacity expansion under uncertainty and value of information: The near-term energy planning of Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the near-term analysis of capacity expansion under various uncertainties from the viewpoints of the decision-making process on the optimal allocation of investment and the value of information. An optimization model based on two-stage stochastic programming was developed using real data to describe the Japanese energy system as a case study. Different uncertainty parameters were taken

Pongsak Krukanont; Tetsuo Tezuka

2007-01-01

61

Status of Biodiversity in the Baltic Sea  

PubMed Central

The brackish Baltic Sea hosts species of various origins and environmental tolerances. These immigrated to the sea 10,000 to 15,000 years ago or have been introduced to the area over the relatively recent history of the system. The Baltic Sea has only one known endemic species. While information on some abiotic parameters extends back as long as five centuries and first quantitative snapshot data on biota (on exploited fish populations) originate generally from the same time, international coordination of research began in the early twentieth century. Continuous, annual Baltic Sea-wide long-term datasets on several organism groups (plankton, benthos, fish) are generally available since the mid-1950s. Based on a variety of available data sources (published papers, reports, grey literature, unpublished data), the Baltic Sea, incl. Kattegat, hosts altogether at least 6,065 species, including at least 1,700 phytoplankton, 442 phytobenthos, at least 1,199 zooplankton, at least 569 meiozoobenthos, 1,476 macrozoobenthos, at least 380 vertebrate parasites, about 200 fish, 3 seal, and 83 bird species. In general, but not in all organism groups, high sub-regional total species richness is associated with elevated salinity. Although in comparison with fully marine areas the Baltic Sea supports fewer species, several facets of the system's diversity remain underexplored to this day, such as micro-organisms, foraminiferans, meiobenthos and parasites. In the future, climate change and its interactions with multiple anthropogenic forcings are likely to have major impacts on the Baltic biodiversity.

Ojaveer, Henn; Jaanus, Andres; MacKenzie, Brian R.; Martin, Georg; Olenin, Sergej; Radziejewska, Teresa; Telesh, Irena; Zettler, Michael L.; Zaiko, Anastasija

2010-01-01

62

Hypoxia and cyanobacterial blooms are not natural features of the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last century (1900s) industrialized forms of agriculture and human activities have caused extensive eutrophication of Baltic Sea waters. As a consequence, the Baltic Sea developed a hypoxic zone that has caused serve ecosystem disturbance. Climate forcing has also been proposed to be responsible for the reported trends in hypoxia (<2 mg/l O2) both during the last c. 100 years and during the Medieval Period. By contrast, investigations on the degree of anthropogenic forcing on the ecosystem on long time-scales (millennial) have not been thoroughly addressed. This paper critically examines evidence for anthropogenic disturbance of the marine environment beyond the last century through the analysis of the population growth, technological development and land-use changes in the drainage area. Natural environmental changes, i.e. changes in the morphology and depths of the Baltic basin and the sills, were probably the main driver for large-scale hypoxia during the early Holocene (8000-4000 cal. yr BP). We show that hypoxia during the last two millennia has followed the general expansion and contraction trends in Europe and that human perturbations have been an important driver for hypoxia during that time. Hypoxia occurring during the Medieval Period coincides with a doubling of the population (from c. 4.6 to 9.5 million), a massive reclamation of land in both established and marginal cultivated areas and significant increases in soil nutrient release. The role of climate forcing on hypoxia in the Baltic Sea has yet to be convincingly demonstrated, although it could have contributed to sustain hypoxia through enhanced salt water inflows or through changes in hydrological inputs. In addition, cyanobacteria blooms are not natural features of the Baltic Sea as previously hypothesized, but are a consequence of enhanced phosphorus release that occurs together with hypoxia.

Zillén, L.; Conley, D. J.

2010-03-01

63

PLANNING MODELS FOR URBAN WATER SUPPLY EXPANSION. VOLUME 2. COST ALLOCATION POLICIES FOR REGIONAL WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

A three-volume report was developed relative to the modelling of investment strategies for regional water supply planning. Volumes 2 and 3 are successive parts of the research related to the study of cost allocation policies among participants in a regional system. Such policies ...

64

Fisheries Management Costs: The Case of Baltic Salmon Fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to examine the costs of managing the Baltic salmon fishery. To achieve we first review the theoretical framework about the costs of managing fisheries. Second, we describe the management system governing the Baltic salmon fishery. Finally, we estimate the costs of managing the Baltic salmon fishery based on the available data.

Aleksandar Shivarov; Soile Kulmala; Marko Lindroos

2005-01-01

65

Projected change in atmospheric nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea towards 2020  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ecological status of the Baltic Sea has for many years been affected by the high input of both waterborne and airborne nutrients. The focus is here on the airborne input of nitrogen (N) and the projected changes in this input, assuming the new National Emission Ceilings directive (NEC-II), currently under negotiation in the EU, is fulfilled towards the year 2020. The Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM) has been used to estimate the development in N deposition based on present day meteorology combined with present day (2007) or future (2020) anthropogenic emissions. By using a so called tagging method in the DEHM model, the contribution from ship traffic and from each of the nine countries with coastlines to the Baltic Sea has been assessed. The annual deposition to the Baltic Sea is estimated to be 203 k tonnes N for the present day scenario (2007) and 165 k tonnes N in the 2020 scenario, giving a projected reduction of 38 k tonnes N in the annual load in 2020. This equals a decline in N deposition of 19 %. The results from 20 model runs using the tagging method show that of the total N deposition in 2007, 52 % came from emissions within the bordering countries. By 2020 this is projected to decrease to 48 %. For some countries the projected decrease in N deposition arising from the implementation of the NEC-II directive will be a considerable part of the reductions agreed on in the provisional reduction targets of the Baltic Sea Action Plan. This underlines the importance of including projections like the current in future updates of the Baltic Sea Action Plan.

Geels, C.; Hansen, K. M.; Christensen, J. H.; Ambelas Skjøth, C.; Ellermann, T.; Hedegaard, G. B.; Hertel, O.; Frohn, L. M.; Gross, A.; Brandt, J.

2011-07-01

66

Projected change in atmospheric nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea towards 2020  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ecological status of the Baltic Sea has for many years been affected by the high input of both waterborne and airborne nutrients. The focus here is on the airborne input of nitrogen (N) and the projected changes in this input, assuming the new National Emission Ceilings directive (NEC-II), currently under negotiation in the EU, is fulfilled towards the year 2020. With a set of scenario simulations, the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM) has been used to estimate the development in nitrogen deposition based on present day meteorology combined with present day (2007) or future (2020) anthropogenic emissions. Applying a so-called tagging method in the DEHM model, the contribution from ship traffic and from each of the nine countries with coastlines to the Baltic Sea has been assessed. The annual deposition to the Baltic Sea is estimated to 203 k tonnes N for the present day scenario (2007) and 165 k tonnes N in the 2020 scenario, giving a projected reduction of 38 k tonnes N in the annual load in 2020. This equals a decline in nitrogen deposition of 19%. The results from 20 model runs using the tagging method show that of the total nitrogen deposition in 2007, 52% came from emissions within the bordering countries. By 2020, this is projected to decrease to 48%. For some countries the projected decrease in nitrogen deposition arising from the implementation of the NEC-II directive will contribute significantly to compliance with the reductions agreed on in the provisional reduction targets of the Baltic Sea Action Plan. This underlines the importance of including projections like the current in future updates of the Baltic Sea Action Plan.

Geels, C.; Hansen, K. M.; Christensen, J. H.; Ambelas Skjøth, C.; Ellermann, T.; Hedegaard, G. B.; Hertel, O.; Frohn, L. M.; Gross, A.; Brandt, J.

2012-03-01

67

Hypoxia in future climates: A model ensemble study for the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using an ensemble of coupled physical-biogeochemical models driven with regionalized data from global climate simulations we are able to quantify the influence of changing climate upon oxygen conditions in one of the numerous coastal seas (the Baltic Sea) that suffers worldwide from eutrophication and from expanding hypoxic zones. Applying various nutrient load scenarios we show that under the impact of warming climate hypoxic and anoxic areas will very likely increase or at best only slightly decrease (in case of optimistic nutrient load reductions) compared to present conditions, regardless of the used global model and climate scenario. The projected decreased oxygen concentrations are caused by (1) enlarged nutrient loads due to increased runoff, (2) reduced oxygen flux from the atmosphere to the ocean due to increased temperature, and (3) intensified internal nutrient cycling. In future climate a similar expansion of hypoxia as projected for the Baltic Sea can be expected also for other coastal oceans worldwide.

Meier, H. E. M.; Andersson, H. C.; Eilola, K.; Gustafsson, B. G.; Kuznetsov, I.; Müller-Karulis, B.; Neumann, T.; Savchuk, O. P.

2011-12-01

68

The Costs of Meeting the Environmental Objectives for the Baltic Sea: A Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental targets of the recently agreed Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) targets are likely associated with a considerable\\u000a cost, which motivates a search for low-cost policies. The following review shows there is a substantial literature on cost-efficient\\u000a nutrient reduction strategies, including suggestions regarding low-cost abatement, but actual policies at international and\\u000a national scale tend to be considerably more expensive

Katarina Elofsson

2010-01-01

69

Modeling nutrient transports and exchanges of nutrients between shallow regions and the open Baltic sea in present and future climate.  

PubMed

We quantified horizontal transport patterns and the net exchange of nutrients between shallow regions and the open sea in the Baltic proper. A coupled biogeochemical-physical circulation model was used for transient simulations 1961-2100. The model was driven by regional downscaling of the IPCC climate change scenario A1B from two global General Circulation Models in combination with two nutrient load scenarios. Modeled nutrient transports followed mainly the large-scale internal water circulation and showed only small circulation changes in the future projections. The internal nutrient cycling and exchanges between shallow and deeper waters became intensified, and the internal removal of phosphorus became weaker in the warmer future climate. These effects counteracted the impact from nutrient load reductions according to the Baltic Sea Action Plan. The net effect of climate change and nutrient reductions was an increased net import of dissolved inorganic phosphorus to shallow areas in the Baltic proper. PMID:22926881

Eilola, Kari; Rosell, Elin Almroth; Dieterich, Christian; Fransner, Filippa; Höglund, Anders; Meier, H E Markus

2012-09-01

70

Hypoxia and cyanobacteria blooms - are they really natural features of the late Holocene history of the Baltic Sea?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last century (1900s) industrialized forms of agriculture and human activities have caused eutrophication of Baltic Sea waters. As a consequence, the hypoxic zone in the Baltic Sea has increased, especially during the last 50 years, and has caused severe ecosystem disturbance. Climate forcing has been proposed to be responsible for the reported trends in hypoxia (< 2 mg/l O2) both during the last c. 100 years (since c. 1900 AD) and the Medieval Period. By contrast, investigations of the degree of anthropogenic forcing on the ecosystem on long time-scales (millennial and greater) have not been thoroughly addressed. This paper examines evidence for anthropogenic disturbance of the marine environment beyond the last century through the analysis of the human population growth, technological development and land-use changes in the drainage area. Natural environmental changes, i.e. changes in the morphology and depths of the Baltic basin and the sills, were probably the main driver for large-scale hypoxia during the early Holocene (8000-4000 cal yr BP). We show that hypoxia during the last two millennia has followed the general expansion and contraction trends in Europe and that human perturbation has been an important driver for hypoxia during that time. Hypoxia occurring during the Medieval Period coincides with a doubling of the population (from c. 4.6 to 9.5 million) in the Baltic Sea watershed, a massive reclamation of land in both established and marginal cultivated areas and significant increases in soil nutrient release. The role of climate forcing on hypoxia in the Baltic Sea has yet to be demonstrated convincingly, although it could have helped to sustain hypoxia through enhanced salt water inflows or through changes in hydrological inputs. In addition, cyanobacteria blooms are not natural features of the Baltic Sea as previously deduced, but are a consequence of enhanced phosphorus release from the seabed that occurs during hypoxia.

Zillén, L.; Conley, D. J.

2010-08-01

71

Expansion of discharge planning system in Japan: Comparison of results of a nationwide survey between 2001 and 2010  

PubMed Central

Background In response to the rapid aging of the population in Japan, many care systems have been created in quick succession. Establishment of discharge planning departments (DPDs) in hospitals is one of them. In this study, we compared the distribution and characteristics of DPDs and the characteristics of the hospitals that have DPDs between 2001 and 2010 in Japan. Methods We mailed a questionnaire about the characteristics of hospitals and existence and situation of DPDs to all general hospitals with 100 or more general beds in 2001 and in 2010. Results In 2001, of the 3,268 hospitals queried, 1,568 (48.0%) responded and 1,357 (41.5%) were selected for data analysis. In 2010, among 2,600 hospitals, 940 hospitals (36.1%) responded and 913 (35.1%) met the inclusion criteria. The percentage of hospitals with DPDs increased from 30% to more than 70% between the two surveys. More departments were under the direct control of the hospital director and more physicians participated in discharge planning activities in 2010 than in 2001. In 2001, private hospitals and hospitals with an affiliated institution or agency tended to have a DPD; however, the relationship between these factors and the presence of a DPD had disappeared in 2010. Larger hospitals and hospitals with more nurses per patient tended to have a DPD both in 2001 and 2010. Conclusions Since 2008, the establishment of a DPD has been directly connected to medical fees so hospital administrators might have recognized the DPD as a “necessary and paid for” department. Having a DPD was the majority’s policy in Japan, and we must recognize the importance of quality assurance through DPDs from now on, especially in small hospitals.

2012-01-01

72

Distribution of Urea in the Baltic Sea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The vertical distribution of urea has been determined during a five-year period (from June 1976 to May 1981) at 21 different stations in the Baltic Sea on samples collected during 20 cruises. Results show pronounced seasonal variations with the highest co...

J. C. Valderrama

1983-01-01

73

Dissolved silver in the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increased use of silver as a biocide in nanoparticle formulations has heightened concern on possible environmental implications owing to its toxicity. There is however very little data on the concentration levels of silver in marine and freshwaters. Here, I report data on dissolved (<0.4?m filter) silver concentration in the surface waters of the Baltic Sea, the first such data

Kuria Ndungu

2011-01-01

74

Development of Kaunas Medical University Hospital Master Plan. A Discussion Document.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The centralized planning culture prevalent during the Soviet era is the reason for many current problems in the Baltic area. Thus local level actors lack the experience in the planning of refurbishment and modernization of health care facilities, because ...

2003-01-01

75

Is Baltic Sea level rise accelerating?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have attempted to identify a possible acceleration of the global sea-level rise in the 20th century. The impacts of sea-level rise on the coast in the future will, however, occur at regional scales. Coastal engineers and planing authorities require projections of future sea-level rise at these local and regional scales. The Baltic Sea is a region strongly influenced

Birgit Hünicke; Eduardo Zorita

2010-01-01

76

Universal Expansion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a week-long activity for general to honors-level students that addresses Hubble's law and the universal expansion theory. Uses a discrepant event-type activity to lead up to the abstract principles of the universal expansion theory. (JRH)

McArdle, Heather K.

1997-01-01

77

Universal Expansion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a week-long activity for general to honors-level students that addresses Hubble's law and the universal expansion theory. Uses a discrepant event-type activity to lead up to the abstract principles of the universal expansion theory. (JRH)|

McArdle, Heather K.

1997-01-01

78

Projects to expand fuel sources in western states. Survey of planned or proposed coal oil shale, tar sand, uranium, and geothermal supply expansion projects, and related infrastructure, in states west of the Mississippi River (as of May 1976)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A listing is made of fuels-related projects that are presently under construction, planned, or proposed by various companies and organizations in the Western United States. The future facilities covered fall into the following categories: coal mines and expansions to existing mines, electric powerplants and waste-to-fuel conversion plants, oil shale projects, tar sands projects, potential geothermal facilities, coal slurry pipelines, railroads

J. S. Corsentino

1976-01-01

79

Cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic — A source of halocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

During summer, cyanobacteria become highly dominant in the Baltic Sea, forming extensive blooms. It is well established that algae form volatile halogenated organic compounds, halocarbons, but it has only been suggested that cyanobacteria are capable of a similar production. During a cruise in the Baltic proper in 29–31 July 2004, the halocarbon formation from a cyanobacterial bloom was studied. Incubation

Anders Karlsson; Nicole Auer; Detlef Schulz-Bull; Katarina Abrahamsson

2008-01-01

80

Arsenic in sediments from the southeastern Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic occurs as a persistent constituent in many of the chemical weapons dumped into the Baltic Sea; it can be used as an indicator of leakage and dispersal of released munitions to the marine environment. Total arsenic was analysed in sediment samples taken from the Lithuanian economic zone in the Baltic Sea, which included samples from the chemical munitions dumpsite

Galina Garnaga; Eric Wyse; Sabine Azemard; Algirdas Stankevi?ius; Stephen de Mora

2006-01-01

81

Oil Spill Detection with RADARSAT-1 in the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the oil slick detection algorithm developed at FIMR as a part of the project “OILI”, oil spill detection in the Baltic Sea, co-funded by National Technology Agency of Finland (TEKES). The implementation of this algorithm will be part of the operational oil slick detection over the Baltic Sea located at SYKE. The algorithm first makes some file

Juha Karvonen; Istvan Heiler; M. Simila; Kati Tahvonen

2006-01-01

82

Potential to promote healthy eating in Baltic workplaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to define the potential to promote healthy nutrition in workplaces in the Baltic States and to provide the strategic structure for health promotion at national level. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A survey, using the telephone questionnaire method, was conducted among the adult population in the three Baltic countries in 2007, to compare the general

Sirje Vaask; Tagli Pitsi

2010-01-01

83

INTERNATIONAL MARINE SCIENTIFIC ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIC SEA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ESTONIAN PARTICIPATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of international marine research in the Baltic Sea during the 20th century and Estonian participation are described. The organization of the International Council for Exploration of the Sea and its different working groups connected to the research in the Baltic Sea is explained. The founding and activities of the Conference of Baltic Oceanographers and the Baltic Marine Biologists

Bernt I. DYBERNa

84

[Tissue expansion in burns sequelae].  

PubMed

The skin expansion marks a turning point in the repair of burn sequelae by allowing replace the original tissue with a coating of the same quality or a large full-thickness skin graft. The authors explain the peculiarities of this process in the sequelae of burn: indications, surgical technique, complications. They stressed the difficulties related to the "invisible loss" of skin, the "mandatory deficit" of the expansion, the expansion sub-scarring, the development of the treatment plan, the sustainability of the expansion. PMID:21925783

Mimoun, M; Boccara, D; Chaouat, M

2011-09-16

85

Scenario analysis on protein consumption and climate change effects on riverine N export to the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

This paper evaluates possible future nitrogen loadings from 105 catchments surrounding the Baltic Sea. Multiple regressions are used to model total nitrogen (TN) flux as a function of specific runoff (Q), atmospheric nitrogen deposition, and primary emissions (PE) from humans and livestock. On average cattle contributed with 63%, humans with 20%, and pigs with 17% of the total nitrogen PE to land. Compared to the reference period (1992-1996) we then evaluated two types of scenarios for year 2070. i) An increased protein consumption scenario that led to 16% to 39% increased mean TN flux (kg per km(-2)). ii) Four climate scenarios addressing effects of changes in river discharge. These scenarios showed increased mean TN flux from the northern catchments draining into the Gulf of Bothnia (34%) and the Gulfs of Finland and Riga (14%), while the mean TN flux decreased (-27%) for catchments draining to the Baltic Proper. However, the net effect of the scenarios showed a possible increase in TN flux ranging from 3-72%. Overall an increased demand for animal protein will be instrumental for the Baltic Sea ecosystem and may be a major holdback to fulfill the environmental goals of the Baltic Sea Action Plan. PMID:20230019

Eriksson Hägg, Hanna; Humborg, Christoph; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Medina, Miguel Rodriguez; Wulff, Fredrik

2010-04-01

86

RSPT Expansion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site provides tools to calculuate and display the Rayleigh-Schrodinger perturbation expansion series for quantum mechanical problems. Mathematica and/or Fortran programs are used to compute the expansion coefficients for the state energies. These are displayed numerically and graphically. Input parameters include the unperturbed state of interest, the scale of the perturbation, the order of the calculation, and precision of the calculation. Problems include several perturbations of the harmonic oscillator and the Hellman potential.

Sergeev, Alexey

2005-06-02

87

Profiling of Small-Scale Fishing Communities in the Baltic Sea the Case of Freest and Heiligenhafen, Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fishing regulations affect fishing operations in many different ways. Next to biological-technical effects, e.g. rebuilding of stocks and changes in fishing gear, are socioeconomic effects, e.g. employment structure or income. Performing a baseline study to identify the socioeconomics of small-scale fishing communities in the Baltic Sea is the first step to understand the likely impacts of fisheries management plans and

Harry V. Strehlow

88

Past occurrences of hypoxia in the Baltic Sea and the role of climate variability, environmental change and human impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hypoxic zone in the Baltic Sea has increased in area about four times since 1960 and widespread oxygen deficiency has severely reduced macro benthic communities below the halocline in the Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Finland, which in turn has affected food chain dynamics, fish habitats and fisheries in the entire Baltic Sea. The cause of increased hypoxia is believed to be enhanced eutrophication through increased anthropogenic input of nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus. However, the spatial variability of hypoxia on long time-scales is poorly known: and so are the driving mechanisms. We review the occurrence of hypoxia in modern time (last c. 50 years), modern historical time (AD 1950-1800) and during the more distant past (the last c. 10 000 years) and explore the role of climate variability, environmental change and human impact. We present a compilation of proxy records of hypoxia (laminated sediments) based on long sediment cores from the Baltic Sea. The cumulated results show that the deeper depressions of the Baltic Sea have experienced intermittent hypoxia during most of the Holocene and that regular laminations started to form c. 8500-7800 cal. yr BP ago, in association with the formation of a permanent halocline at the transition between the Early Littorina Sea and the Littorina Sea s. str. Laminated sediments were deposited during three main periods (i.e. between c. 8000-4000, 2000-800 cal. yr BP and subsequent to AD 1800) which overlap the Holocene Thermal Maximum (c. 9000-5000 cal. yr BP), the Medieval Warm Period (c. AD 750-1200) and the modern historical period (AD 1800 to present) and coincide with intervals of high surface salinity (at least during the Littorina s. str.) and high total organic carbon content. This study implies that there may be a correlation between climate variability in the past and the state of the marine environment, where milder and dryer periods with less freshwater run-off correspond to increased salinities and higher accumulation of organic carbon resulting in amplified hypoxia and enlarged distribution of laminated sediments. We suggest that hydrology changes in the drainage area on long time-scales have, as well as the inflow of saltier North Sea waters, controlled the deep oxic conditions in the Baltic Sea and that such changes have followed the general Holocene climate development in Northwest Europe. Increased hypoxia during the Medieval Warm Period also correlates with large-scale changes in land use that occurred in much of the Baltic Sea watershed during the early-medieval expansion. We suggest that hypoxia during this period in the Baltic Sea was not only caused by climate, but increased human impact was most likely an additional trigger. Large areas of the Baltic Sea have experienced intermittent hypoxic from at least AD 1900 with laminated sediments present in the Gotland Basin in the Baltic Proper since then and up to present time. This period coincides with the industrial revolution in Northwestern Europe which started around AD 1850, when population grew, cutting of drainage ditches intensified, and agricultural and forest industry expanded extensively.

Zillén, Lovisa; Conley, Daniel J.; Andrén, Thomas; Andrén, Elinor; Björck, Svante

2008-12-01

89

Bathymetry of four deep Baltic basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extensive hydrographic field campaigns were carried out by the Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemuende (IOW) in four deep basins of the Baltic Sea during different seasons from 1996 to 1999. The spreading and transformation of dense deep water was studied using a fixed eddy-resolving station grid within the framework of the German-Russian project MESODYN (meso scale dynamics). The station spacing of each survey was 2.5 nm, which corresponds to a station distance of 2.5’ meridionally and about 4.5’ zonally. Using the Global Positioning System (GPS) for navigation, statistical uncertainties of the mean ship position during station work are on the order of ± 37 m in each direction. In this way, shipborne echosounders provided representative topographic data sets for the deepest parts of the Arkona Basin, the Bornholm Basin, the Stolpe Furrow and the Eastern Gotland Basin. The absolute accuracy of water depths lies in the range of ± 1 m while its spatially determined mean standard deviation does not exceed ± 0.2 m in each survey. The resulting topographic maps are presented. Derived direction tendencies of deep circulation patterns result from conservation of their potential vorticity above topographic irregularities. Resulting vectors suggest a permanent tendency for cyclonic circulation within all four deep Baltic basins. The most intense topographic control of the deep circulation must be expected above both the eastern and western flanks of the Eastern Gotland Basin. Beneath closed bathymetric contours, depthareavolume relationships have been estimated numerically to characterise the storage capacity of each basin for dense deep water.

Reissmann, Jan H.

1999-12-01

90

Plan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1937, the Plan organization was initially intended to provide food and education to the unfortunate children whose lives were disrupted by the trauma and horror of the Spanish Civil War. Almost 70 years later, Plan continues to provide much needed assistance to 45 countries around the world, primarily in the areas of education, housing, and cross-cultural learning. First-time visitors will want to begin by looking through the section titled "Issues affecting children." This area provides both background materials and general guiding principles on such topics as street children, children in disaster areas, and HIV/AIDS among young people in the developing world. The "Where we work" area of the site provides detailed material on the work of the Plan organization in each region and country that the organization serves. Finally, concerned visitors to the site may also learn about opportunities for sponsoring a child.

2002-01-01

91

Deep water exchange in the Baltic Proper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep-water exchange and mixing properties in the Baltic Proper were analysed on the basis of temperature and salinity data measured during the period 1970 90. The data were analysed applying basic model concepts as the conservation principles, the two-layer approach and the geostrophic flow assumption. The renewal of the deep water in the Baltic Proper consists of inflow from upstream basins. The inflowing dense water is diluted by surface water and on a 20-year average increased by a factor of 4, when entering from the Kattegat into the Landsort Deep. Three main mixing zones were localized. Firstly, the Belt Sea and the Sound, where the deep-water inflow increases by 79%; secondly, the Arkona Basin, where vertical mixing causes the increase of deep current volume flow by an average of 53%; and thirdly, in the Stolpe Channel, where the turbulent entrainment adds an average of 28% to the deep current. Applying the geostrophic flow model on salinity data, time series of deep current flow rates were calculated. The model was calibrated by 20-year mean flows calculated from conservation principles. The effective sill depths were introduced as calibration coefficients. It was found that the geostrophic flow model described deep-layer flows in the Bornholm Channel well, but the flow rate was underestimated in the Stolpe Channel and overestimated in the Fårö Channel. In the Stolpe Channel and in the Fårö Channel, the deep-layer flow showed seasonal variations with rapid increase during the autumn and winter seasons, respectively.

Kõuts, Tarmo; Omstedt, Anders

1993-08-01

92

Precipitation Fields Over The Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precipitation is one of the main components of the hydrological cycle and intimately linked with almost all aspects of climate change. To measure precipitation over the Baltic Sea several merchant ships have been equipped with ship rain gauges. These instruments are designed specially to measure rain under high wind speeds as they are typical for conditions over sea or on moving ships. The calibration of the ship rain gauges was performed by simultaneous measurements with an optical disdrometer on- board the R/V Alkor during a three year period. To derive precipitation fields from the ship rain gauge measurements on the merchant ships on their way from Germany to Finland an interpolation scheme was developed based on the Kriging method, which allows the calculation of seasonal precipitation fields. The interpolation scheme in- cludes the estimation of seasonal covariance functions and of the sampling error as a function of observation density. One result is that the covariance functions as a func- tion of the distance between simultaneous measurements is shortest in autumn. For the period from September 1998 until August 1999, the intensive field campaign of PEP in BALTEX (pilot study of evaporation and precipitation in the Baltic Sea Exper- iment), the resulting field was compared to model estimates. A comparison to fields of evaporation shows that precipitation exceeds evaporation for this period.

Bumke, K.; Clemens, M.; Uhlig, K.

93

The Baltic Basin Case Study—towards a sustainable Baltic Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four watersheds, each characterized by a major resource use were selected for the study: The Vistula River in Poland—agriculture; the Dalälven River in Sweden—forestry; the Archipelago Sea in Sweden, Finland, Estonia—tourism; and the Lake Peipsi in Estonia\\/Russia—fisheries\\/agriculture. The main objective was to examine the reactions of particular ecosystems within the Baltic Sea drainage area, and to assess sustainability conditions on

Bengt-Owe Jansson; Carl-Einar Stålvant

2001-01-01

94

Polonium, uranium and plutonium in the southern Baltic ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of the measurement of polonium, uranium and plutonium alpha radio-nuclides in seawater and biota of the southern Baltic ecosystem as well as the recognition of their accumulation processes in the trophic chain. Investigation of the polonium210Po and plutonium239+240Pu concentrations in Baltic biota revealed that these radionuclides are strongly accumulated by some species. Mean values of the bioconcentration factor (BCF) fell within the range 9·102 to 3.7·104. The Baltic Sea algae, benthic animals and fish concentrated uranium radioisotopes only to a small extent and mean BCF values for this element range from 1 to 55, which is several orders of magnitude lower than that for polonium and plutonium. Moreover, it was found that Baltic fish constitute an important source of polonium210Po for humans.

Skwarzec, B.

1999-01-01

95

Rossby radii and phase speeds in the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of a data set recorded during seasonal cruises of the R.V.s A. v. Humboldt and Prof. A. Penck of the Academy of Sciences, G.D.R., in the Baltic Sea during 1977 1987, mean Brunt---Väisäläfrequency profiles were derived in order to compute vertical eigenvalues and internal, or baroclinic, Rossby radii for different seasons in various parts of the Baltic

Wolfgang Fennel; Torsten Seifert; Bernd Kayser

1991-01-01

96

Nitrogen cycle of the Baltic Sea from an isotopic perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable nitrogen isotope ratios (15N\\/14N; delta15N) were determined in sediments, suspended matter, and water at selected sites in the Baltic Sea area in order to set up a source budget and trace the fate of anthropogenic N sources. Sediments of the shallow near-coastal area of the southern and eastern Baltic Sea have an average delta15N of 7.3 +\\/- 2.10\\/00, interpreted

M. Voss; K.-C. Emeis; S. Hille; T. Neumann; J. W. Dippner

2005-01-01

97

Nitrogen cycle of the Baltic Sea from an isotopic perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable nitrogen isotope ratios (15N\\/14N; ?15N) were determined in sediments, suspended matter, and water at selected sites in the Baltic Sea area in order to set up a source budget and trace the fate of anthropogenic N sources. Sediments of the shallow near-coastal area of the southern and eastern Baltic Sea have an average ?15N of 7.3 ± 2.1‰, interpreted

M. Voss; K.-C. Emeis; S. Hille; T. Neumann; J. W. Dippner

2005-01-01

98

Purification and characterisation of ferritin from the Baltic blue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baltic blue mussels Mytilus trossulus were collected from the Gulf of Gda?sk (southern Baltic Sea) in order to isolate ferritin from its soft tissues, as well as to purify and characterise this protein. Proteins were isolated from the inner organs of M. trossulus (hepatopancreas, gills and soft tissue residue) by thermal denaturation (70?C) and acidification (pH 4.5) of the homogenates,

Joanna Potrykus; Alicja Kosakowska

99

Orthogonal Expansions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The basic technique for solving PDEs on a bounded spatial domain is the Fourier method, named after Joseph Fourier (1768–1830).\\u000a In this section we take a nineteenth-century perspective and make some comments about the origin of the method. Our discussion\\u000a will motivate one of the fundamental topics in analysis and in PDEs, namely orthogonal expansions.

J. David Logan

100

Phosphorus recycling and burial in Baltic Sea sediments with contrasting redox conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baltic Sea is a classical example of a coastal system that is subject to an increased intensity and spatial extent of hypoxia due to human activities. The expansion of hypoxia since the 1960s is the result of increased inputs of nutrients from land (both from fertilizer and wastewater) and is negatively affecting living conditions for benthic organisms. In addition, the biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nutrients has been significantly altered. Water column studies have shown that the availability of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) is positively correlated with hypoxia due to release of phosphorus from sediment Fe-oxides and from organic matter upon the transition from oxic to hypoxic conditions. Thus, a large internal source of phosphorus exists in the sediment that largely controls short-term variability in water column DIP concentrations. In this presentation, we focus on results of recent field and modeling work for various parts of the Baltic Sea that confirm the role of Fe-bound P from seasonally hypoxic sediments at intermediate water depths as a major source of DIP. We also show that extended hypoxia and anoxia leads to depletion of sediment Fe-bound P and, ultimately, lower rates of sediment-water exchange of P. Authigenic Ca-P minerals appear to be only a relatively minor burial sink for P. The lack of major inorganic P burial makes the Baltic Sea sensitive to the feedback loop between increased hypoxia, enhanced regeneration of P and increased primary productivity. Historical records of bottom water oxygen at two sites (Bornholm, Northern Gotland) show a decline over the past century which is accompanied by a rise in values of typical sediment proxies for anoxia (total sulfur, molybdenum and organic C/P ratios). While sediment reactive P concentrations in anoxic basins are equal to or higher than at oxic sites, burial rates of P at hypoxic and anoxic sites are up to 20 times lower because of lower sedimentation rates. Nevertheless, burial of phosphorus in the hypoxic and anoxic areas is significant because of their large surface area and must be accounted for in budgets and models for the Baltic Sea.

Slomp, Caroline P.; Mort, Haydon P.; Reed, Dan C.; Jilbert, Tom; Gustafsson, Bo G.

2010-05-01

101

Seismic LAB or LID? The Baltic Shield Case  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of the asthenosphere for old Precambrian cratons, including East European Craton and its part - the Baltic Shield, is still discussed. To study the seismic lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath the Baltic Shield we used records of 9 local events with magnitudes in the range 2.7-5.9. The relatively big number of seismic stations in the Baltic Shield with a station spacing of 30-100 km permits for relatively dense recordings, and is sufficient in lithospheric scale. For modelling of the lower lithosphere and asthenosphere, the original data were corrected for topography and the Moho depth for each event and each station location, using a reference model with a 46 km thick crust. Observed P and S arrivals are significantly earlier than those predicted by the iasp91 model, which clearly indicates that lithospheric P and S velocities beneath the Baltic Shield are higher than in the global iasp91 model. For two northern events at Spitsbergen and Novaya Zemlya we observe a low velocity layer, 60-70 km thick asthenosphere, and the LAB beneath Barents Sea was found at depth of about 200 km. Sections for other events show continous first arrivals of P waves with no evidence for "shadow zone" in the whole range of registration, which could be interpreted as absence of asthenosphere beneath the central part of the Baltic Shield, or that LAB in this area occurs deeper (>200 km). The relatively thin low velocity layer found beneath southern Sweden, 15 km below the Moho, could be interpreted as small scale lithospheric inhomogeneities, rather than asthenosphere. Differentiation of the lid velocity beneath the Baltic Shield could be interpreted as regional inhomogeneity. It could also be interpreted as anisotropy of the Baltic Shield lithosphere, with fast velocity close to the east-west direction, and slow velocity close to the south-north direction.

Grad, Marek; Tiira, Timo; Olsson, Sverker; Komminaho, Kari

2013-04-01

102

Seismic LAB or LID? The Baltic Shield case  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of the asthenosphere for old Precambrian cratons, including East European Craton and its part - the Baltic Shield, is still discussed. To study the seismic lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath the Baltic Shield we used records of 9 local events with magnitudes in the range 2.7-5.9. The relatively big number of seismic stations in the Baltic Shield with a station spacing of 30-100 km permits for relatively dense recordings, and is sufficient in lithospheric scale. For modelling of the lower lithosphere and asthenosphere, the original data were corrected for topography and the Moho depth for each event and each station location, using a reference model with a 46 km thick crust. Observed P and S arrivals are significantly earlier than those predicted by the iasp91 model, which clearly indicates that lithospheric P and S velocities beneath the Baltic Shield are higher than in the global iasp91 model. For two northern events at Spitsbergen and Novaya Zemlya we observe a low velocity layer, 60-70 km thick asthenosphere, and the LAB beneath Barents Sea was found at depth of about 200 km. Sections for other events show continous first arrivals of P waves with no evidence for "shadow zone" in the whole range of registration, which could be interpreted as absence of asthenosphere beneath the central part of the Baltic Shield, or that LAB in this area occurs deeper (>200 km). The relatively thin low velocity layer found beneath southern Sweden, 15 km below the Moho, could be interpreted as small scale lithospheric inhomogeneities, rather than asthenosphere. Differentiation of the lid velocity beneath the Baltic Shield could be interpreted as regional inhomogeneity. It could also be interpreted as anisotropy of the Baltic Shield lithosphere, with fast velocity close to the east-west direction, and slow velocity close to the south-north direction.

Grad, M.; Tiira, T.; Olsson, S.; Komminaho, K.

2013-05-01

103

34 CFR 361.35 - Innovation and expansion activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Innovation and expansion activities. 361.35 Section 361.35...Vocational Rehabilitation Services Administration § 361.35 Innovation and expansion activities. (a) The State plan must...

2013-07-01

104

Population structure of flounder (Platichthys flesus) in the Baltic Sea: differences among demersal and pelagic spawners  

Microsoft Academic Search

We found significant population structure and isolation by distance among samples of flounder (Platichthys flesus) in the Baltic, Kattegat and Skagerrak seas using microsatellite genetic markers. This pattern was almost entirely due to a difference between flounder that have demersal spawning in the northern Baltic, as compared to pelagic spawners in the southern Baltic and on the west coast of

A-B Florin; J Höglund

2008-01-01

105

A review of the history of the Baltic Sea, 13.0-8.0 ka BP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic history of the Baltic Sea during the millennia following the last deglaciation has been one of the main topics for many generations of Quaternary geologists around the Baltic Sea. Based on the present-state-of-knowledge and certain hypotheses, a model for the development during the Baltic Ice Lake, Yoldia Sea, and Ancylus Lake stages are presented. The Öresund Strait was

Svante Björck

1995-01-01

106

The Baltic Basin Case Study—towards a sustainable Baltic Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four watersheds, each characterized by a major resource use were selected for the study: The Vistula River in Poland—agriculture; the Dalälven River in Sweden—forestry; the Archipelago Sea in Sweden, Finland, Estonia—tourism; and the Lake Peipsi in Estonia/Russia—fisheries/agriculture. The main objective was to examine the reactions of particular ecosystems within the Baltic Sea drainage area, and to assess sustainability conditions on the regional level. The degree of sustainability and impact on the Baltic Sea were investigated through workshops and seminars in the areas. Overviews of environmental and socio-economic conditions were succinctly summarized in commissioned papers. Interventions by and discussions with scholars, sector experts, administrators and stakeholders of the various sites laid the foundation for conceptualizing the interaction of natural and human forces for each case. The project was able to draw quite a number of conclusions, summarized as the following lessons learnt. In the Vistula Region, nutrient emissions have levelled off but shortage of freshwater is critical. Forestry in the Dalälven watershed is largely environmental-friendly, except for fragmentation of the landscape and its negative impact on biodiversity. In the Archipelago area a former low-energy community has been replaced by a leisure time society. Different types of tourism is developing, but despite this variety, an improved integration of ecological properties with socio-economic patterns is required in order to build a sustainable, living Archipelago. The lake Peipsi basin and the surrounding area suffer both from problems of resource management and economic backwardness. Parts of the local economy has lost access to the one time large Soviet market, although the Estonian side has apparently benefited from present economic growth. To cope with the division of the lake, a regime for trans-national management is unfolding. It is based on both informal and, to an increasing extent, agreed professional contacts. Networks of engaged people were in all sites a resource for and promoter of the sustainability path. In order to succeed and to maintain the zeal, they need strong institutional support and common goals. Public programmes in the Baltic, ie. the work of the Helsinki Commission and Baltic Agenda 21, have developed instruments to enhance sustainability beneficial for the management of these watersheds. But critical tasks remain to be done in developing a shared understanding of ways to improve management of ecosystems with social factors.

Jansson, Bengt-Owe; Stålvant, Carl-Einar

2001-12-01

107

Marshak Lectureship Talk: Women in Physics in the Baltic States Region: Problems and Solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this contribution the gender equality problem in physics will be discussed on the basis of the results obtained implementing the project ``Baltic States Network: Women in Sciences and High Technology'' (BASNET) initiated by Lithuanian women physicists and financed by European Commission. The main goal of BASNET project was creation of the regional Strategy how to deal with women in sciences problem in the Baltic States. It has some stages and the contribution follows them. The first one was in depth sociological study aiming to find out disincentives and barriers women scientists face in their career and work at science and higher education institutions. Analysis of results revealed wide range of problems concerned with science organization, management and financing common for both counterparts. However it also proved the existence of women discrimination in sciences. As main factors influencing women under-representation in Physics was found: the stereotypes existing in the society where physics is assigned to the masculine area of activity; failings of the science management system, where highest positions are distributed not using the institutionalized objective criteria but by voting, where the correctness of majority solutions is anticipated implicitly. In physics where male scientists are the majority (they also usually compose executive boards, committees etc.) results of such a procedures often are unfavorable for women. The same reasons also influence women ``visibility'' in physicist's community and as the consequence possibility to receive needed recourses for their research as well as appropriate presentation of results obtained. The study revealed also the conservatism of scientific community- reluctance to face existing in the scientific society problems and to start solving them. On the basis of the results obtained as well practice of other countries the common strategy of solving women in physics (sciences) in the Baltic States region was formulated. As changing the stereotypes is long lasting process it was decided firstly to concentrate strategy implementation plans on changes in science management policy tackling the problem from the top and allowing receive the most quick results. For this we created the regional Baltic States Network among the corresponding international women working groups, professional organizations (Scientific societies) and corresponding departments of the governmental institutions. BASNET also became a full member of European Platform of Women Scientists (EPWS)-prestige women organization signally influencing the European Community science policy.

Satkovskiene, Dalia

2008-03-01

108

BALTEX - A science broker for the Baltic Sea Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BALTEX (the Baltic Sea Experiment) is an interdisciplinary research network of scientists involved in environmental research dedicated to the Baltic Sea drainage basin (including disciplines such as meteorology, hydrology, oceanography, biogeochemistry and climate research). Originally founded in 1992 as a Continental Scale Experiment in GEWEX (the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment within the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) of the World Meteorological Organization, WMO), it was intended to form a common science, communication and data platform with the overall goal to integrate efforts to gain a better understanding of the water and energy cycle in the Baltic Sea basin. BALTEX Phase II (since 2003) has extended the scope to research on regional climate change and variability, climate change impacts on biogeochemistry and water management, but also made first steps towards overarching social and political issues as cross-cutting activities in the context of the scientific objectives. An important aspect of BALTEX Phase II is a more holistic approach towards observing, understanding and modelling major environmental relevant for the entire Baltic Sea region. Parts of the BALTEX Phase II research activities thus contribute to the establishment of a high resolution integrated modelling system for Northern Europe, embedded in an Earth System Model. An outstanding product of BALTEX as a “knowledge broker” for regional political institutions is the BACC report. Following to a large extent the method of IPCC, a regional assessment report on climate change in the Baltic Sea basin was compiled, which summarizes the published scientifically legitimate knowledge on regional climate change in the Baltic Sea basin and its impacts. The assessment, known as the BACC report (BALTEX Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin; BACC author team 2008, Reckermann et al., 2008) was published in 2008 as a book. A survey among climate researchers in the area confirmed the high credibility of this report (Bray et al. 2010). A remarkable aspect of this assessment, and BALTEX outreach activities in general, is the sensible cooperation with regional bodies acting as science-policy interfaces, such as HELCOM (Helsinki Commission, Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission), and basin-wide organized regional decision makers (BSSSC, Baltic Sea States Sub-regional Co-operation), who are dependent on reliable scientific information to design and implement regional adaptation strategies against climate change impacts. A new BACC report has been initiated as a scientific update extending the scope to socio-economic impacts, and is expected to be finished in 2014.

Reckermann, M.; von Storch, H.; Langner, J.; Omstedt, A. T.

2010-12-01

109

PLANNING MODELS FOR URBAN WATER SUPPLY EXPANSION. VOLUME 3. THE REGIONAL INTERTEMPORAL COST ALLOCATION PROBLEM: A SIMPLIFIED METHODOLOGY BASED ON THE SHAPLEY VALUE  

EPA Science Inventory

A three-volume report was developed relative to the modelling of investment strategies for regional water supply planning. Volumes 2 and 3 are successive parts of the research related to the study of cost allocation policies among participants in a regional system. Such policies ...

110

Hydroxylamine (NH2OH) in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vertical distribution of dissolved hydroxylamine (NH2OH) was measured for the first time at 10 stations in the western, southern and central Baltic Sea during a cruise in February 2004. The distribution of dissolved NH2OH was complex due to the interplay of in-situ production in the shallow western and southern Baltic Sea and the hydrographical setting in the central Baltic Sea caused by the major North Sea water inflow event in January 2003. We conclude that nitrification might be the major source of NH2OH, whereas anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) appeared to be negligible. We suggest that a "fresh" nitrifying system, in which the NH+4-oxidation rates exceeded the NO-2-oxidation rates, favoured the build-up of NH2OH.

Gebhardt, S.; Walter, S.; Nausch, G.; Bange, H. W.

2004-10-01

111

A North Sea and Baltic Sea model ensemble eutrophication assessment.  

PubMed

A method to combine observations and an ensemble of ecological models is suggested to produce a eutrophication assessment. Using threshold values and methodology from the Oslo and Paris Commissions (OSPAR) and the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM), four models are combined to assess eutrophication for the Baltic and North Seas for the year 2006. The assessment indicates that the entire southeastern part of the North Sea, the Kattegat, the Danish Straits, the Gulf of Finland, and the Gulf of Riga as well as parts of the Arkona Basin, the Bornholm Basin, and the Baltic proper may be classified as problem areas. The Bothnian Bay and parts of the Baltic proper, the Bornholm Basin, and the Arkona Basin are classified as potential problem areas. This method is a useful tool for the classification of eutrophication; however, the results depend on the threshold values, and further work is needed within both OSPAR and HELCOM to harmonize these values. PMID:20496653

Almroth, Elin; Skogen, Morten D

2010-02-01

112

Sediment surface geochemistry of three Baltic Sea Deep Basins.  

PubMed

Three deep basins were chosen for this study and the most recent changes that are reflected in the uppermost 15 to 35 cm are reported. The Gotland Basin, the largest continuous sedimentation basin in the southern Baltic Sea, was chosen for the present study. Simultaneously, a quite large basin, the North Central Baltic Basin was investigated and chemical data are reported for the first time. In the southern Baltic Sea the Bornholm Basin was investigated. All 3 basins are different as regards the physicochemical conditions in the area. The investigated elements were divided into different groups according to their origin and geochemical behavior: elements of natural terrestrial origin; nutrients; elements that are confined to early diagenetic minerals; and in the near-surface zone the anthropogenic elements including several harmful metals. Although there seems to be a decreasing trend in the surface zone the metal concentrations are still clearly elevated. PMID:11436660

Vallius, H; Kunzendorf, H

2001-05-01

113

Disposal of chemical weapons in the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Large quantities of chemical warfare agents were dumped in the Baltic Sea after World War II (WWII). This included 32,000 t of chemical munitions containing approximately 11,000 t of chemical warfare agents which were dumped into the Bornholm Basin and 2000 t of chemical munitions containing approximately 1000 t in the Gotland Basin. Because this material was contained in wooden crates, it was distributed throughout the Baltic. The long-term environmental impact of these agents is unknown. PMID:9394485

Glasby, G P

1997-11-01

114

Organic compounds in the water column of the eastern Baltic  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the transport, distribution, concentration, chemistry, environmental consequences, and chemical control strategies of organic wastes--including waste hydrocarbons, industrial effluents and oil spills--in the Baltic Sea and in the regions along its shorelines. Data on seasonal and compositional variations in organic waste content are provided.

Nemirovskaya, I.A.; Nesterova, M.P.; Pustel'nikov, O.S.

1987-11-01

115

Kelvin wave controlled upwelling in the western Baltic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of downwelling during an upwelling favourable longshore wind was observed in the summer of 1989 in the western Baltic. This effect can be explained by Kelvin waves which were excited at coastal irregularities and propagated a downwelling signal. A discussion of this mechanism based on analytical theory and a numerical simulation gives a consistent description of the features

W. Fennel; T. Seifert

1995-01-01

116

Operational Baltic Sea Circulation Model. Part 1. Baratropic Version.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the application of a barotropic circulation model to the Baltic Sea. The model is designed to be run operationally and is easily modified for specific circulation studies. In the operational mode, it will give daily forecasts on wate...

L. Funkquist

1993-01-01

117

Status of Baltic grey seals: Population assessment and extinction risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) population in the Baltic Sea is recovering after a century of bounty hunting and 3 decades of low fertility rates caused by environmental pollution. A con- servative estimate of the population size in 2003 was 19,400 animals, and available data suggest an annual rate of increase of 7.5% since 1990. The growing population has led

Karin C. Harding; Tero Härkönen; Björn Helander; Olle Karlsson

2007-01-01

118

The Professionalisation of Adult Educators in the Baltic States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Adult education and lifelong learning together form one of the priorities for development in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The important historical and social context in which the professional development of adult educators has been taking place in the Baltic States since they regained their independence in the 1990s is the changes that occurred…

Jogi, Larissa; Gross, Marin

2009-01-01

119

Level and origin of iodine-129 in the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Environmental samples, such as seawater, seaweed, lake water, lake sediment and grass collected from the Baltic Sea area were analyzed for 129I and 127I by radiochemical neutron activation analysis. In 2000, the concentration of 129I in the seawater from Borholm and Møen in the Baltic Sea has reached 6.0 x 10(-13) and 16 x 10(-13) g/l, respectively, these are more than two orders of magnitude higher than the global fallout level. The highest value of 270 x 10(-13) g/l being found in the seawater from the Kattegat. By comparison of the level of 129I in the lake water and precipitation in this region, it is estimated that more than 95% of 129I in the Baltic Sea originates from reprocessing emissions, especially from the French nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at La Hague. More than 30% of 129I in the south Baltic and 93% in the Kattegat directly originates from the marine discharges of the European reprocessing plants. PMID:14689996

Hou, X L; Dahlgaard, H; Nielsen, S P; Kucera, J

2002-01-01

120

Effectiveness of underwater devices in the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness and range of ultrasound devices used in underwater investigation and exploration is greatly dependable on spatial distribution of acoustical parameters. Therefore, this problem is usually taken into careful consideration. The aim of the paper is to characterise the possible changes in the range of underwater devices used in conditions typical for the Southern Baltic. The main factor having

Grazyna Grelowska; Eugeniusz Kozaczka

121

Microbial responses to mustard gas dumped in the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbiological studies were carried out on chemical weapon dump sites in the Baltic Sea. The effect of mustard gas hydrolysis products (MGHPs) on marine microbiota and the ability of microorganisms to degrade MGHPs were studied. Many stations at the dump sites demonstrated reduced microbial diversity, and increased growth of species able to use mustard gas hydrolysis products as sole source

Nadezda Medvedeva; Yulia Polyak; Harri Kankaanpää; Tatyana Zaytseva

2009-01-01

122

Trafficking in Women: The Danish Construction of Baltic Prostitution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a systematic reading of Danish newspaper articles and political documents on trafficking in women for prostitution, the article investigates how this debate constructs the gendered subject, and how this construction is inscribed in a particular symbolic geography that facilitates a certain understanding of the Baltic. The article shows that the Danish discourse on trafficking is based on two

KAREN LUND PETERSEN

2001-01-01

123

Baltic Sea Pipeline: The Profits Will Be Distributed Differently  

Microsoft Academic Search

In late 2005, the German energy companies E.ON and Wintershall and Russian Gazprom reached an agreement to build a new huge pipeline Nord Stream through the Baltic Sea. This pipeline will provide Russia for the first time ever with the direct access to its Western European customers. This pipeline will contribute to the security of the Western Europe's energy supply

Franz Hubert; Irina Suleymanova

2009-01-01

124

Diversity of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (cyanobacterium) populations along a Baltic Sea salinity gradient.  

PubMed

Colony-forming cyanobacteria of the genus Aphanizomenon form massive blooms in the brackish water of the Baltic Sea during the warmest summer months. There have been recent suggestions claiming that the Baltic Sea Aphanizomenon species may be different from Aphanizomenon flos-aquae found in lakes. In this study, we examined variability in the morphology and 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of A. flos-aquae populations along a salinity gradient from a string of lakes to a fjord-like extension of the Baltic Sea to the open Baltic Sea. Morphological differences among the populations were negligible. We found that the Baltic Sea was dominated (25 out of 27 sequences) by one ITS1-S (shorter band of ITS 1 [ITS1]) genotype, which also was found in the lakes. The lake populations of A. flos-aquae tended to be genetically more diverse than the Baltic Sea populations. Since the lake ITS1-S genotypes of A. flos-aquae are continuously introduced to the Baltic Sea via inflowing waters, it seems that only one ITS1 genotype is able to persist in the Baltic Sea populations. The results suggest that one of the ITS1-S genotypes found in the lakes is better adapted to the conditions of the Baltic Sea and that natural selection removes most of the lake genotypes from the Baltic Sea A. flos-aquae populations. PMID:12406717

Laamanen, Maria J; Forsström, Laura; Sivonen, Kaarina

2002-11-01

125

Past Occurrences of Hypoxia in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hypoxic zone in the Baltic Sea has increased in area by about four times since 1950. Widespread oxygen deficiency below the halocline has severely reduced macro benthic communities in the Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Finland over the past decades and negatively effected food chain dynamics, fish habitats and fisheries in the entire Baltic Sea. In addition, hypoxia alters nutrient biogeochemical cycles. The cause of the increased hypoxia is believed to be enhanced eutrophication through increased anthropogenic input of nutrients, such as phosphorous and nitrogen. Conditions prior to the 1950s are considered as the benchmark and some authors suggest that the earlier Baltic Sea was an oligothrophic, clear-water body with oxygenated deep waters. By contrast, studies of short sediment cores reveal that hypoxia has been present in some of the deepest basins for at least the last 100-200 years. In addition, long sediment cores suggest that hypoxia in the Baltic Sea has occurred intermittently in deep basins over the last c. 8500 years. Thus, the occurrence of present day hypoxia in the deeper basins need not necessarily be attributed to human activity but rather to natural oceanographic, geologic and climate conditions. We present a compilation of previous publications that reported the occurrence of laminated sediments (i.e. a palaeo-proxy for hypoxia) in the Baltic Sea. This review shows that the deeper parts of the Baltic Sea have experienced either intermittent or more regular hypoxia during most of the Holocene and that more continuous laminations started to form c. 7800-8500 cal. yr BP ago, in association with the establishment of a permanent halocline during the transition from the Ancylus Lake to the Littorina Sea. Laminated sediments were more common during the early and late Holocene and coincided with intervals of high organic productivity (high TOC content) and high salinity during the Holocene Thermal Maximum and the Medieval Climate Optimum. This study implies that there may be a correlation between past climate variability and the state of the marine environment, where milder periods correspond to increased primary production and higher salinities resulting in amplified hypoxia and enlarged distribution of benthic mortality and laminated sediments.

Zillen, L.; Conley, D. J.; Bjorck, S.

2007-12-01

126

Methane fluxes and their controlling processes in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baltic Sea is an ideal natural laboratory to study the methane cycle in the framework of diagenetic processes. With its brackish character and a gradient from nearly marine to almost limnic conditions, a strong permanent haline stratification leading to large vertical redox gradients in the water column, and a sedimentation history which resulted in the deposition of organic-rich young post-glacial sediments over older glacial and post-glacial strata with very low organic content, the Baltic allows to study the role of a variety of key parameters for early diagenetic processes including the methane cycle. Within the BONUS + Project “Baltic Gas”, a 3.5 week scientific expedition of RV Maria S. Merian in August 2010 was dedicated to study the methane cycle in the various basins of the Baltic Sea, with strong emphasis on the metabolic reactions of early diagenesis and the occurrence of shallow gas deposits. Various subbottom profiling systems were used to map the thickness and structure of organic-rich deposits and build the base for a detailed coring program for biogeochemical analysis, including methane, sulfur compounds, iron, and other compounds. Methane gradients in connection with the information of the areal extend of organic-rich deposits are used to estimate the diffusive flux from the sediments into the water column and the rate of methane oxidation, with changing importance of sulfate as oxidant along the salinity gradient. On selected key stations, rate measurements of methanogenic and methanotrophic reactions were executed. The methane distribution in the water column was comprehensively assessed, revealing amongst other findings a drastic increase in bottom water methane concentration between the post bloom summer situation and the situation in the winter of 2009, in connection to the occurrence of a benthic nepheloid layer. Air-sea flux measurements were executed along the ship’s track comprising all major basins of the Baltic. The talk gives an interdisciplinary overview of the first results of this research campaign.

Rehder, G. J.; Fossing, H.; Lapham, L.; Endler, R.; Spiess, V.; Bruchert, V.; Nguyen, T.; Gülzow, W.; Schneider von Deimling, J.; Conley, D. J.; Jorgensen, B.

2010-12-01

127

Integrated framework for analysis: electric sector expansion in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this dissertation is the development of an analytical framework for the assessment of electric sector expansion strategies in developing countries, in the context of overall development planning, and with particular emphasis on macroeconomic and social implications. The framework will ensure that each electric capacity expansion alternative is linked quantitatively and consistently with a given economic development plan.

1982-01-01

128

Decadal-Scale Changes of Dinoflagellates and Diatoms in the Anomalous Baltic Sea Spring Bloom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The algal spring bloom in the Baltic Sea represents an anomaly from the winter-spring bloom patterns worldwide in terms of frequent and recurring dominance of dinoflagellates over diatoms. Analysis of approximately 3500 spring bloom samples from the Baltic Sea monitoring programs revealed (i) that within the major basins the proportion of dinoflagellates varied from 0.1 (Kattegat) to >0.8 (central Baltic

Riina Klais; Timo Tamminen; Anke Kremp; Kristian Spilling; Kalle Olli; Dirk Steinke

2011-01-01

129

Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis in the Baltic Sea—a supply-side invader?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis (H. Milne-Edwards, 1853) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Varunidae) invaded the Baltic Sea about 80 years ago, published information\\u000a on its present distribution and abundance in this region is lacking. We provide here information on its Baltic-wide distribution\\u000a and long-term population dynamics. The species has been found all over the coastal Baltic Sea and also in some

Henn Ojaveer; Stephan Gollasch; Andres Jaanus; Jonne Kotta; Ari O. Laine; Atis Minde; Monika Normant; Vadim E. Panov

2007-01-01

130

A coupled three-basin sea level model for the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea level variations in the Baltic Sea on time-scales 2 days and longer are studied using a coupled three-basin quasi-stationary model. The three large sub-basins (Baltic proper, Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay) are coupled in series by two short and narrow straits. A third strait connects the Baltic proper with the Kattegat. Currents are forced through the connecting straits by

Madleine Carlsson

1998-01-01

131

Geological Evolution and Resources of the Baltic Sea Area from the Precambrian to the Quaternary  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Baltic Sea is a young geomorphologic feature that formed during Quaternary time. It covers the western and the central\\u000a part of the Baltic sedimentary basin. The origin of the Baltic Sea and of the corresponding morphological low is still controversial,\\u000a considered by some as an erosional structure and as a tectonic depression by others. The chapter gives a summary

Saulius Šliaupa; Peer Hoth

132

The Development of the Baltic Sea Basin During the Last 130 ka  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a During the Eemian interglacial 130–115 ka BP, the hydrology of the Baltic Sea was significantly different from the Holocene.\\u000a A pathway between the Baltic basin and the Barents Sea through Karelia existed during the first ca. 2.5 ka of the interglacial.\\u000a Both sea surface temperature and salinity of the SW Eemian Baltic Sea were much higher, ca. 6°C and 15‰, respectively, than

Thomas Andrén; Svante Björck; Elinor Andrén; Daniel Conley; Lovisa Zillén; Johanna Anjar

133

Phosphorus recycling in sediments of the Central Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Benthic fluxes of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) were measured in situ in the Eastern Gotland Basin (EGB), Central Baltic Sea, using benthic landers. A total of 40 flux measurements on 13 stations at water depths ranging from 30-210 m and under different oxygen regimes were carried out on three cruises during three consecutive years (2008-2010) in August-September. Our study is the first to report in situ DIP fluxes in the Baltic Proper, and it provides the most comprehensive data set of benthic DIP fluxes in the Baltic Proper existing to date. DIP fluxes increased with increasing water depth and with decreasing bottom water oxygen concentration. Average fluxes were calculated for oxic bottom water conditions (-0.003 ± 0.040 mmol m-2 d-1), hypoxic conditions (0.027 ± 0.067 mmol m-2 d-1) and anoxic conditions (0.376 ± 0.214 mmol m-2 d-1). The mean flux on anoxic bottoms was ca. 5-10 times higher than previous estimates based on ex situ measurements, but agreed well with previous flux estimations from changes in the basin water DIP pool. The DIP flux was positively correlated with the organic carbon inventory of sediment and the benthic flux of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) on anoxic stations, but these variables were uncorrelated on oxic stations. The positive correlation between DIP and DIC fluxes suggests that the benthic DIP flux on anoxic bottoms in the Baltic Proper is mainly controlled by rates of deposition and degradation of organic matter. The flux from anoxic sediment was very P rich in relation to both C and N, and the average C:P ratio in fluxes on anoxic accumulation bottoms was 69 ± 15, which is well below the Redfield C:P ratio of 106:1. On oxic stations, however, the C:P flux ratio was much higher than the Redfield ratio, consistent with well-known P retention mechanisms associated with iron and bacteria in oxidized sediment. Using a benthic mass balance approach, a burial efficiency of 4% was calculated for the anoxic part of the EGB, which suggests that anoxic Baltic sediments are very efficient in recycling deposited P. Based on the measured fluxes and recent estimates of the areal extent of anoxic and hypoxic bottoms, an internal load of 146 kton yr-1 was calculated. This is 7-12 times higher than recent estimates of the external load and clearly highlights the dominance of anoxic sediments as a P source in the Baltic Sea.

Viktorsson, L.; Ekeroth, N.; Nilsson, M.; Kononets, M.; Hall, P. O. J.

2012-11-01

134

Population structure of flounder (Platichthys flesus) in the Baltic Sea: differences among demersal and pelagic spawners.  

PubMed

We found significant population structure and isolation by distance among samples of flounder (Platichthys flesus) in the Baltic, Kattegat and Skagerrak seas using microsatellite genetic markers. This pattern was almost entirely due to a difference between flounder that have demersal spawning in the northern Baltic, as compared to pelagic spawners in the southern Baltic and on the west coast of Sweden. Among demersal spawners we found neither genetic differentiation nor any isolation by distance among sampling sites. We speculate that demersal flounder are descendants of a population that colonized the Baltic previous to pelagic spawners. The demersal flounder may thus have had longer time to adapt to the low salinity in the Baltic, and accordingly display egg characteristics that make it possible to reproduce at the low salinity levels in the northern Baltic. Among pelagic spawners significant isolation by distance was detected. Pelagic spawners have previously been shown to display clinal variation in egg size, which allows them to float also at the moderate salinity levels up to the region north of the island Bornholm. Management units for harvesting should ideally be based on true biological populations, and for the commercially important flounder up to 15 different management stocks in the Baltic have been suggested. We could not find a population genetic foundation for such a high number of management units, and our data suggest three management units: the northern Baltic (demersal populations), southern Baltic with the Oresund straits and the most northwestern sampling sites (Skagerrak, Kattegat and North Sea). PMID:18461089

Florin, A-B; Höglund, J

2008-05-07

135

Rossby radii and phase speeds in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of a data set recorded during seasonal cruises of the R.V.s A. v. Humboldt and Prof. A. Penck of the Academy of Sciences, G.D.R., in the Baltic Sea during 1977 1987, mean Brunt—Väisäläfrequency profiles were derived in order to compute vertical eigenvalues and internal, or baroclinic, Rossby radii for different seasons in various parts of the Baltic Sea. Due to regional variations of stratification and the depth of the different basins, these parameters vary considerably. Moreover, the Rossby radii show a seasonal cycle with minimum values during the winter and autumn, and maxima during summer. The largest Rossby radius, 7 km, was found in the Bornholm Basin and the smallest ones, 1.3 km, in the Belt Sea and in the Gulf of Finland during autumn. Approximated Rossby radii, as obtained by a WKB treatment, appear to be too small by about 10 30%.

Fennel, Wolfgang; Seifert, Torsten; Kayser, Bernd

1991-01-01

136

Solar radiation at the surface around the Baltic Proper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation data recorded at 12 sites around the centre part of the Baltic Sea during 1996-2000 were drawn from the BALTEX (Baltic Sea Experiment) meteorological data archives. The average daily sums of global radiation for different months describe the annual course of solar radiation that shows remarkable spatio-tremporal differences. Annual average daily sum of global radiation varies from about 10 MJm-2 at Visby (on Gotland) and Ko?obrzeg (on the coast of Poland) to less than 9 MJm-2 in Zil?ni (inland Latvia), Šilut? (Lithuania) and Jokioinen (Finland). The regional average daily sum of global radiation reaches from 0.93 in December to 19.0 in June. The coefficient of variation over the whole region is the largest in December when the daily sums are small, but there are serious differences between different observation sites that can be interpreted as differences in meteorological situation, especially in cloudiness.

Loitjärv, K.; Keevallik, S.

2010-09-01

137

Reconstructing the development of Baltic sea eutrophication 1850-2006.  

PubMed

A comprehensive reconstruction of the Baltic Sea state from 1850 to 2006 is presented: driving forces are reconstructed and the evolution of the hydrography and biogeochemical cycles is simulated using the model BALTSEM. Driven by high resolution atmospheric forcing fields (HiResAFF), BALTSEM reproduces dynamics of salinity, temperature, and maximum ice extent. Nutrient loads have been increasing with a noteworthy acceleration from the 1950s until peak values around 1980 followed by a decrease continuing up to present. BALTSEM shows a delayed response to the massive load increase with most eutrophic conditions occurring only at the end of the simulation. This is accompanied by an intensification of the pelagic cycling driven by a shift from spring to summer primary production. The simulation indicates that no improvement in water quality of the Baltic Sea compared to its present state can be expected from the decrease in nutrient loads in recent decades. PMID:22926877

Gustafsson, Bo G; Schenk, Frederik; Blenckner, Thorsten; Eilola, Kari; Meier, H E Markus; Müller-Karulis, Bärbel; Neumann, Thomas; Ruoho-Airola, Tuija; Savchuk, Oleg P; Zorita, Eduardo

2012-09-01

138

Patterns of salt propagation in the Southwestern Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The paper gives a descriptive study of salt propagation in the area between Fehmarn Belt and Dar? Sill which is part of the\\u000a transition region between the Baltic and the North Sea. A synthesis of observations and numerical modelling is used to elucidate\\u000a the dynamics of currents and salinity patterns in response to the external forcing.\\u000a \\u000a Quasi-synoptic pictures of the

Martin Schmidt; Torsten Seifert; Hans Ulrich Lass; Wolfgang Fennel

1998-01-01

139

Fatty acids of long chain length in baltic herring lipids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The component fatty acids with carbon numbers exceeding 22 in flesh lipids of Baltic herring caught in May and September 1967\\u000a in the Turku archipelago have been studied. The total lipid content of the flesh of the herring was 3.5% on average in May\\u000a and 7.2% on average in September. The fatty acids in the lipids were converted to methyl

Reino R. Linko; Hannu Karinkanta

1970-01-01

140

Responses of Baltic benthic invertebrates to hypoxic events  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Baltic Sea, oxygen-depleted areas are widespread and have increased in a relatively short period of time. In a laboratory experiment, microcosms with natural soft-bottom communities were exposed to (a) hypoxia (0.2 mg O2\\/l) (b) hypoxia (0.2 mg O2\\/l)\\/normoxia (11–12 mg O2\\/l) altered on a weekly basis and (c) normoxia for two months. Multidimensional scaling ordination separated all treatments

Helene Modig; Emil Ólafsson

1998-01-01

141

Access to distributed marine databases on the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Baltic Nest Institute, Stockholm University (Sweden) in cooperation with Department of Bioscience/DCE, National Centre for Environment and Energy, Aarhus University (Denmark), Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research (Germany), Finnish Environment Institute, Finnish Meteorological Institute and Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute developed a data assessment system, aimed at providing tools for online analysis of marine environmental data (temperature, salinity, chemical properties) from distributed collection of databases on the Baltic Sea. Such approach allows users to have fast access to the most recent data from all major data providers and providers remain in control of their data. The system contains a web data portal, which provides concurrent access to distributed marine databases and presents information in a unified way. Two client programs use the data portal and provide tools to analyse the data. The DAS - Data Assimilation System (http://nest.su.se/das/) accesses databases through the data portal and allow analysing the raw data and creating gridded data, which can be used as initial fields for 3D hydrodynamic models. A decision support system Nest (http://nest.su.se/nest/) developed and maintained at the Stockholm University as a tool to support decision-making at international negotiations regarding the Baltic Sea environment also uses the data portal to access marine data, provide access to the raw data and perform time-series analysis. The data portal designed to output data in a common format (CSV) for further post-processing using other software. It makes the system open to develop another client programs for data analysis.

Sokolov, A.; Axe, P.; Bock, S.; Kaitala, S.; Manscher, O. H.; Rodriguez-Medina, M.; Olsonen, R.; Priha, I.; Tikka, K.

2012-04-01

142

Climate Change Impacts on Coastal Waters of the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Coastal regions are particular sensitive towards environmental changes. Climate Change is likely to cause changes in main\\u000a determining environmental factors in coastal waters of the Baltic Sea. Several model studies indicate an increasing water\\u000a temperature (in average about 3.0°C in sea surface temperature), a decrease in salinity (in the range of 2–3 g kg–1 in sea surface salinity) as well as

Oda Störmer

143

Genetic structure of whitefish (Coregonus maraena) in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stocks of whitefish (Coregonus maraena) in the northern part of the Baltic Sea have in many areas declined drastically during recent years. Causes for the decline are yet not fully understood, but knowledge on the genetic population structure of the species is pivotal for future conservation measures. In this study we analyse the genetic variation at seven microsatellite loci for whitefish from 18 different sites along the Swedish coast of the Baltic Sea. We found a strong dependence of isolation by distance (R = 0.73), and a week but rather fine scaled genetic structure. In addition, there were differences between more northern and southern sites in the population genetic structure, where the degree of differentiation appears to be stronger in the north compared to the south. The results suggest that whitefish is a species suitable for local management with a regional context of the management strategy. In addition, the findings corroborate what is previously known for other coastal fish species in the Baltic Sea, such as perch and pike, suggesting that the majority of gene flow occurs between adjacent areas. Finally, our results highlight the potential for genetic subdivision even when the dependence of isolation by distance is strong.

Olsson, Jens; Florin, Ann-Britt; Mo, Kerstin; Aho, Teija; Ryman, Nils

2012-01-01

144

Cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes in fish from the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Laboratory studies suggest that the cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMS) octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) will persist in the aquatic environment and bioaccumulate in fish. Here these cVMS were measured in herring collected in the Swedish waters of the Baltic Sea and the North Sea and in grey seals from the Baltic Proper. D4, D5, and D6 were present in herring muscle at concentrations around 10, 200, and 40ngg(-1) lipid weight, respectively. The ratio of these concentrations was similar to the relative magnitude of estimated emissions to water, suggesting that the efficiency of overall transfer through the environment and food web was similar (within a factor 2-3) for the three chemicals. The concentrations of D5 and D6 were similar in herring caught in the highly populated Baltic Proper and in the less populated Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay. The D4 concentrations were lower at the most remote northern station, suggesting that D4 is less persistent than D5 and D6. Herring from the North Sea had lower levels of all three chemicals. The concentrations of D4, D5 and D6 in grey seal blubber were lower than the lipid normalized concentrations in herring, indicating that they do not biomagnify in grey seals. PMID:23177719

Kierkegaard, Amelie; Bignert, Anders; McLachlan, Michael S

2012-11-21

145

Monthly Ensembles in Algal Bloom Predictions on the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we explore the statistical features of monthly ensembles and their capability to predict biogeochemical conditions in the Baltic Sea. Operational marine environmental modelling has been considered hard, and consequently there are very few operational ecological models. Operational modelling of harmful algal blooms is harder still, since it is difficult to separate the algal species in models, and in general, very little is known of HAB properties. We present results of an ensemble approach to HAB forecasting in the Baltic, and discuss the applicability of the forecasting method to biochemical modelling. It turns out that HABs are indeed possible to forecast with useful accuracy. For modelling the algal blooms in Baltic Sea we used FMI operational 3-dimensional biogeochemical model to produce seasonal ensemble forecasts for different physical, chemical and biological variables. The modelled variables were temperature, salinity, velocity, silicate, phosphate, nitrate, diatoms, flagellates and two species of potentially toxic filamentous cyanobacteria nodularia spumigena and aphanizomenon flos-aquae. In this work we concentrate to the latter two. Ensembles were produced by running the biogeochemical model several times and forcing it on every run with different set of seasonal weather parameters from ECMWF's mathematically perturbed ensemble prediction forecasts. The ensembles were then analysed by statistical methods and the median, quartiles, minimum and maximum values were calculated for estimating the probable amounts of algae. Validation for the forecast method was made by comparing the final results against available and valid in-situ HAB data.

Roiha, Petra; Westerlund, Antti; Stipa, Tapani

2010-05-01

146

Wave climatology in the Arkona Basin, the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic features of the wave climate in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea are studied based on available long-term measurements and simulations. The analysis of average, typical and extreme wave conditions, frequency of occurrence of different wave parameters, variations in wave heights from weekly to decadal scales, etc., is performed based on waverider measurements at the Darss Sill since 1991. The measured climatology is compared against numerical simulations with the WAM wave model driven by downscaled reanalysis of wind fields for 1958-2002 and by adjusted geostrophic winds for 1970-2007. The wave climate in this region is typical for semi-enclosed basins of the Baltic Sea. The maximum wave heights are about half of those in the Baltic Proper. The overall reliably recorded maximum significant wave height HS =4.46 m occurred during a severe S-SW storm in 1993 when the 10-min average wind speed reached 28 m s-1. The long-term average significant wave height (0.75 m) shows modest interannual (about 12 % of the long-term mean) and substantial seasonal variation. The wave periods are mostly concentrated in a narrow range of 2.5-4 s and their distribution is almost constant over decades. The role of remote swell is very small. The annual wave properties show large interannual variability but no long-term trends in average and extreme wave heights can be observed.

Soomere, T.; Weisse, R.; Behrens, A.

2011-11-01

147

Wave climate in the Arkona Basin, the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic features of the wave climate in the Southwestern Baltic Sea (such as the average and typical wave conditions, frequency of occurrence of different wave parameters, variations in wave heights from weekly to decadal scales) are established based on waverider measurements at the Darss Sill in 1991-2010. The measured climate is compared with two numerical simulations with the WAM wave model driven by downscaled reanalysis of wind fields for 1958-2002 and by adjusted geostrophic winds for 1970-2007. The wave climate in this region is typical for semi-enclosed basins of the Baltic Sea. The maximum wave heights are about half of those in the Baltic Proper. The maximum recorded significant wave height HS =4.46 m occurred on 3 November 1995. The wave height exhibits no long-term trend but reveals modest interannual (about 12 % of the long-term mean of 0.76 m) and substantial seasonal variation. The wave periods are mostly concentrated in a narrow range of 2.6-4 s. Their distribution is almost constant over decades. The role of remote swell is very small.

Soomere, T.; Weisse, R.; Behrens, A.

2012-04-01

148

MODELLING POPULATION DENSITY IN THE BALTIC STATES USING THE DIGITAL CHART OF THE WORLD AND OTHER SMALL SCALE DATA SETS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a Geographic Information Systems approach to analyse the Baltic Sea drainage basin allows us to rationally merge economic and ecological data and thus aid in developing efficient coastal management policies. The objective of this study is to develop a model which can estimate population density within the Baltic Sea drainage basin area. The three Baltic States, Estonia, Latvia, and

J. Sweitzer; S. Langaas

149

Convection and the Timing of Phytoplankton Spring Blooms in the Western Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of water column stability on the occurrence of phytoplankton spring blooms in an estuarine system (western Baltic Sea) was studied by means of a coupled 3-D model. The model comprised a mesoscale circulation model and a simple biochemical model.The onset of the spring bloom in the western Baltic Sea is known to show a time lag from west

K. Fennel

1999-01-01

150

Russia and the Baltic: Is There a Threat to European Security.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two years after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russian troops still remain in the Baltic. The author examines the current problems of Russian troop withdrawals from this region, which are progressing too slowly for the Baltic states, and Russian charge...

S. J. Blank

1993-01-01

151

Evidence of trends in near-surface wind speeds over the Baltic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annual mean wind speeds over the Baltic significantly increased over the period 1953-1999 with the majority of the increase being associated with increases in the upper quartile of the wind speed distribution and the winter season. Trends in annual and seasonal mean wind speeds are greatest in relative and absolute sense in the south-west of the Baltic basin where they

S. C. Pryor; R. J. Barthelmie; J. Schoof

152

Optimum spatial analysis of monitoring data on temperature, salinity and nutrient concentrations in the Baltic Proper  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of the large number of monitoring data on hydrography and nutrients collected from the Baltic Sea, it is still difficult to describe large-scale distribution patterns of these variables. We therefore suggest a stochastic approach that allows the spatial reconstruction of the fields for the entire sea. The Baltic Sea monitoring data on temperature, salinity and nutrient concentrations from

Aleksander Toompuu; Fredrik Wulff

1996-01-01

153

Transport interests and environmental regimes: The Baltic Sea transit of Russian oil exports  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the environmentally exposed Baltic Sea, a prolonged confrontation has set the transport interests of Russian crude oil against environmental interests, promoted by Russia's neighbours. During the 1990s all the Baltic littoral states – including Russia – collaborated well on marine environmental issues. When Russian oil exports accelerated after 1999, this environmental understanding broke down. Russian interests shifted as its

Olav F. Knudsen

2010-01-01

154

Predator-inducible changes in blue mussels from the predator-free Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blue mussels, Mytilus spp., have inhabited the brackish Baltic Sea, an environment lacking predatory crabs and starfish, for several thousand years. In this paper we examined whether Baltic Mytilus that were transplanted to the North Sea showed predator-inducible plasticity like their \\

O. Reimer; S. Harms-Ringdahl

2001-01-01

155

Locomotor activity patterns of nineteen fish and five crustacean species from the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis Activity patterns of some common Baltic fish species and macrocrustaceans have been investigated in natural light\\/dark conditions — in most cases for periods of at least one full year. The fauna of the northern Baltic proper consists of species of both marine and freshwater origin, with both types represented in the study. The different patterns found are discussed in

Lars Westin; Gunnar Aneer

1987-01-01

156

Using fossils to determine an amber source: aphids and crane flies in Chinese or Baltic amber?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aphids and crane flies in amber purported to have originated in China were examined. Six aphid specimens were characterised and determined to be conspecific with Germaraphis defuncta Heie, originally described from Baltic amber. Two crane flies from the same collection were identified as Cheilotrichia minuta and Rhabdomastix brevis, species also previously described from Baltic amber. This study shows that when

O. E. Heie; G. O. Poinar Jr

2011-01-01

157

Estimated Nutrient Load from Waste Waters Originating from Ships in the Baltic Sea Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Maritime transport in the Baltic Sea area, and especially in the Gulf of Finland, has changed significantly over the last decade. The new oil terminals in Russia and the economic boom in the Baltic States have resulted in remarkable rise in maritime traff...

H. K. Huhta J. Rykonen J. Sassi

2007-01-01

158

The Baltic Sea as a dumping site of chemical munitions and chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the problem of chemical weapons dumped in the Baltic Sea by the Allied and Soviet forces after World War II is presented. The types and properties of the chemical warfare agents found in the Baltic, as well as the known dumping regions, are described. The potential hazards for the environment arising from the long-term disposal of munitions

Aleksandra Szarejko; Jacek Namie?nik

2009-01-01

159

Microbial indicators of contamination of water and sediments by warfare agents in Baltic Sea dump sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our research revealed changes in the composition of the Baltic Sea microbial populations, namely, an increase in numbers of the physiological group of microorganisms that develop owing to organic compounds contaminating chemical weapon dump sites. We found that mustard gas hydrolysis products (MGHPs) - tolerant microorganisms were predominant in nearbottom water in many stations in the Baltic Sea dumping areas.

Yulia Polyak; Nadezda Medvedeva; Tatyana Zaytseva

2008-01-01

160

Mitochondrial DNA variation in populations of the mussel Mytilus trossulus from the Southern Baltic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mussel Mytilus trossulus is an important component of the Baltic brackish water ecosystem. The genetic structure of mussel (M. trossulus) populations was studied in sites along the Polish coast, Southern Baltic for two segments of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The mode of inheritance of Mytilus mtDNA is termed doubly uniparental; two genomes are passed independently down the female (the F

M. Zbawicka; R. Wenne; D. O. F. Skibinski

2003-01-01

161

The relationship between the Baltic states and Japan during the interwar period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan and the Baltic states set up official relations when the latter achieved independence after the First World War. At the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the provisional governments in the Baltic provinces tried to contact the Japanese delegation as part of their quest for de jure recognition. The Japanese government, however, recognized them only in 1921–22. Several treaties were

Makoto Onaka

2005-01-01

162

COMPARISON OF WIND CONDITIONS OF OFFSHORE WIND FARM SITES IN THE BALTIC AND NORTH SEA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field measurement data from the Rødsand measurement program in the Baltic Sea and from the FINO I platform in the North Sea are used to characterize and compare the different wind conditions for the Baltic and North Sea. Rødsand is surrounded by land in 10 km to 100 km distance, while the FINO I platform is located in the open

Bernhard Lange

163

Oscillatory Stability Considerations in Transmission Expansion Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to fast economic growth on the island of Taiwan, load demand in Taiwan Power Company (TPC) has been rapidly increasing in the past ten years and is expected to continue throughout the next decade. By 1995, the peak load demand in Taiwan is forecasted to reach 16,000 MW, an increase of 60% from the present level of 10,000 MW.

Yuan-Yih Hsu; Pei-Hwa Huang; Chia-Jen Lin; Chiang-Tsung Huang

1989-01-01

164

Capacity planning for development wafer fab expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The simulation model described offers many different opportunities for increasing understanding of a development wafer fab. The results of simulation runs must be analyzed with an understanding of the effect of randomness on the model. Multiple random number runs might be required to confirm a model result. Simulation models can account for dynamic interactions between wafers, tools and operators. The

W. Chou; J. Everton

1996-01-01

165

Thermal expansion coefficients for low expansion oxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study to identify low expansion oxides that could have excellent thermal-shock resistance led to several promising materials. This paper ranks the oxides in order of their thermal expansivities: very low (< 1 x 10⁻⁶\\/K), low (1-4 x 10⁻⁶\\/K), and intermediate (4-9 x 10⁻⁶\\/K). The materials exhibited melting points ranging from 1680 to > 2625 K with CTE values ranging

Holcombe; C. E. Jr

1980-01-01

166

On skin expansion.  

PubMed

This article discusses skin expansion without considering cellular growth of the skin. An in vivo analysis was carried out that involved expansion at three different sites on one patient, allowing for the observation of the relaxation process. Those measurements were used to characterize the human skin of the thorax during the surgical process of skin expansion. A comparison between the in vivo results and the numerical finite elements model of the expansion was used to identify the material elastic parameters of the skin of the thorax of that patient. Delfino's constitutive equation was chosen to model the in vivo results. The skin is considered to be an isotropic, homogeneous, hyperelastic, and incompressible membrane. When the skin is extended, such as with expanders, the collagen fibers are also extended and cause stiffening in the skin, which results in increasing resistance to expansion or further stretching. We observed this phenomenon as an increase in the parameters as subsequent expansions continued. The number and shape of the skin expanders used in expansions were also studied, both mathematically and experimentally. The choice of the site where the expansion should be performed is discussed to enlighten problems that can lead to frustrated skin expansions. These results are very encouraging and provide insight into our understanding of the behavior of stretched skin by expansion. To our knowledge, this study has provided results that considerably improve our understanding of the behavior of human skin under expansion. PMID:23651568

Pamplona, Djenane C; Velloso, Raquel Q; Radwanski, Henrique N

2013-04-19

167

Regional changes in the seasonality of Baltic sea-level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seasonal cycle is an ubiquitous feature in sea-level records. In the Baltic Sea the seasonal cycle exhibits a marked minimum in the Spring and accounts typically for about 40% of the total sea-level variability. In a climate change context changes are expected to occur not only in mean levels but also in sea-level seasonal characteristics. Such changes, even if not large in magnitude, are extremely important for ecosystems adapted to seasonal changes of the environment. Furthermore, quantifying and comprehending changes in seasonality is important to understand the mechanisms influencing regional sea level variability. Previous studies of Baltic sea-level suggested the existence of long-term changes in the seasonal cycle, in particular a possible increase of the annual amplitude. The present study addresses the quantification of changes in the seasonal cycle of sea-level in the Baltic Sea from a discrete wavelet analysis of long tide gauge records. As a pre-processing step all tide gauge records are linearly detrended, thereby removing long-term changes in the mean (either from oceanographic or vertical land movement origin). The seasonal cycle is then extracted from a multiresolution decomposition based on the maximal overlap discrete wavelet transform and changes in both amplitude and phase are quantified. Long-term changes in the seasonal cycle are further examined by comparing the results from different methods including autoregressive-based decomposition, singular spectral analysis (SSA) and empirical mode decomposition (EMD). To assess the potential mechanisms determining the identified changes in the seasonal cycle, a coherence analysis is performed on atmospheric pressure, temperature, and precipitation reanalysis data.

Barbosa, Susana; Donner, Reik

2013-04-01

168

Magnetic enhancement of Baltic Sea sapropels by greigite magnetofossils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are known to biosynthesise single-domain magnetite (Fe3O4) for geomagnetic navigation and their relict magnetosomes (called magnetofossils) can control the magnetic properties of lake and marine sediments. Magnetotactic bacteria also produce greigite (Fe3S4) magnetosomes but, compared to those made of magnetite, relatively little is known about the sedimentary environments where they are produced and the magnetic properties of the preserved particles. We studied the magnetic properties of sediment cores from two basins (the North Central Baltic Proper and eastern Gotland Basin) that currently experience hypoxia and we discovered the magnetic enhancement of older laminated sapropels, which are a signal of past occurrences of anoxia and hypoxia in the Baltic Sea. Magnetic concentrates extracted from the laminated sapropels were characterised by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and we identified only single-domain greigite (Fe3S4) particles with a mean size of 55×75nm, which we interpret as magnetofossils due to diagnostic chains of individual particles separated by an intact dividing membrane. The degree of magnetic enhancement in the laminated sapropels has a positive relationship with loss-on-ignition data, which indicates a link between the production of greigite magnetosomes, organic matter supply and preservation and redox conditions. The coercive force of collections of non-interacting greigite magnetofossils is ?13mT, which is considerably lower than the magnetite counterparts (?30mT) and strictly non-bacterial and larger greigite single-domain grains (?60mT). The values of the interparametric ratios of SIRM/?, ?ARM/SIRM and ?ARM/? that we obtain for our greigite magnetofossils overlap with those previously considered to be diagnostic of magnetosomal magnetite. The presence of bacterial greigite, which is easily detected by magnetic measurements, forms a proxy for hypoxia and anoxia, thus aiding the palaeoenvironmental interpretation of how oxygen conditions in the Baltic Sea have changed over time.

Reinholdsson, M.; Snowball, I.; Zillén, L.; Lenz, C.; Conley, D. J.

2013-03-01

169

Ice-ocean-ecosystem operational model of the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

3D-CEMBS is a fully coupled model adopted for the Baltic Sea and have been developed within the grant, wchich is supported by the Polish State Committee of Scientific Reasearch. The model is based on CESM1.0 (Community Earth System Model), in our configuration it consists of two active components (ocean and ice) driven by central coupler (CPL7). Ocean (POP version 2.1) and ice models (CICE model, version 4.0) are forced by atmospheric and land data models. Atmospheric data sets are provided by ICM-UM model from University of Warsaw. Additionally land model provides runoff of the Baltic Sea (currently 78 rivers). Ecosystem model is based on an intermediate complexity marine ecosystem model for the global domain (J.K. Moore et. al., 2002) and consists of 11 main components: zooplankton, small phytoplankton, diatoms, cyanobacteria, two detrital classes, dissolved oxygen and the nutrients nitrate, ammonium, phosphate and silicate. The model is configured at two horizontal resolutions, approximately 9km and 2km (1/12° and 1/48° respectively). The model bathymetry is represented as 21 vertical levels and the thickness of the first four layers were chosen to be five metres. 3D-CEMBS model grid is based on stereographic coordinates, but equator of these coordinates is in the centre of the Baltic Sea (rotated stereographic coordinates) and we can assume that shape of the cells are square and they are identical. Currently model works in a operational state. The model creates 48-hour forecasts every 6 hours (or when new atmospheric dataset is available). Prognostic variables such as temperature, salinity, ice cover, currents, sea surface height and phytoplankton concentration are presented online on a the website and are available for registered users. Also time series for any location are accessible. This work was carried out in support of grant No NN305 111636 and No NN306 353239 - the Polish state Committee of Scientific Research. The partial support for this study was also provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBaltyk founded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract no. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09. Calculations were done at the Academic Computer Center in Gdansk.

Janecki, M.; Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, L.; Jakacki, J.; Nowicki, A.

2012-04-01

170

Measurements of Scattering Function of sea water in Southern Baltic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Volume Scattering Functions (VSF) were measured in Southern Baltic area. The instrument used to this aim allow to measure in full range of angles and for four wavelengths. Obtained characteristics create the set of data which is need to solve the radiative transfer equation. Measured functions were compared with Petzold Average-Particle Phase Function. Spectral variations of measured scattering coefficients and backscattering coefficients are presented. Furthermore the instability of measured scattering ratios is discussed in this paper. Such instability have not been mentioned in the literature before.

Freda, W.; Król1, T.; Martynov, O. V.; Shybanov, E. B.; Hapter, R.

2007-05-01

171

Baltic Sea Region: GIS, Maps and Statistical Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United Nations Environment Programme GRID-Arendal information center, UNEP/GRID-Arendal (described in the June 24, 1998 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) has recently released these data sets for the Baltic Sea Region. The data sets cover Arable Lands (350 K), Land and Ocean/Coastline (830 K), Land Cover (710 K), Pasture Lands (270 K), Population Density (890 K), Sub-watershed Drainage Basins (520 K), and Wetlands Distribution (10 K) and are downloadable as compressed files (.zip format). Instructions for downloading, and descriptions of parameters are provided on site.

2008-09-22

172

The Baltic Sea in 1996 — continuation of stagnation and decreasing phosphate concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The severe winter of 1995/96, which was among the coldest in the western and central Baltic Sea since 1946 (4th rank), caused negative temperature anomalies in the winter surface and summer intermediate waters. The surface temperatures remained below the long-term mean until July, but reached positive anomalies between 2 and 4 K in August due to sunny high pressure weather conditions and weak winds. Compared with 1995, the mean inflow of saline water into the Baltic decreased. This supported the continued stagnation in the deep water of the central Baltic in 1996. The intensive inflow at the beginning of November, which just failed to meet the criteria for a major Baltic inflow, transported about 80 km3 water with salinities up to 26 PSU and 20 PSU respectively across the Drogden and Darß Sills into the Baltic Sea. Oxygen conditions in central Baltic deep waters deteriorated in 1996 due to the continued stagnation period which began in 1995. Hydrogen sulphide was observed in the Gotland and Fårö Deeps for the first time since 1994. Advective processes linked with minor inflow events in March and June 1996 supplied the deep water of the Bornholm and Gdansk Basins with small amounts of oxygen. Although winter concentrations of nitrate remained high with little change in the surface layer in 1996, phosphate concentrations continued to decrease in all Baltic regions under investigation. Changes in the redox potential which depend on oxygen conditions influenced the distribution of inorganic phosphorus and nitrogen compounds in central Baltic deep waters in 1996. The observed concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) in the Baltic Proper varied from 200 350 ?mol/dm3 (DOC) and from 15 30 ?mol/dm3 (DON). The abiotic environmental conditions were unfavourable for the development of good year classes of cod, sprat and herring in 1996 due to deteriorating oxygen conditions and the severe winter.

Matthäus, Wolfgang; Nehring, Dietwart; Ulrich Lass, Hans; Nausch, Günther; Nagel, Klaus; Siegel, Herbert

1996-06-01

173

A Conceptual Model of Strategic Considerations for International Retail Expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expansion into global markets is a dominant issue influencing most retailers' plans for strategic growth. However,internationalisation is not a viable alternative for every retailer. This paper discusses four independent elements that areconsidered as preconditions that should take precedence in the global expansion decision-making process. These elementscomprise the PLIN Model.

Eithel M. Simpson; Dayle I. Thorpe

1995-01-01

174

Virial Expansion Bounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 1960s, the technique of using cluster expansion bounds in order to achieve bounds on the virial expansion was developed by Lebowitz and Penrose (J. Math. Phys. 5:841, 1964) and Ruelle (Statistical Mechanics: Rigorous Results. Benjamin, Elmsford, 1969). This technique is generalised to more recent cluster expansion bounds by Poghosyan and Ueltschi (J. Math. Phys. 50:053509, 2009), which are related to the work of Procacci (J. Stat. Phys. 129:171, 2007) and the tree-graph identity, detailed by Brydges (Phénomènes Critiques, Systèmes Aléatoires, Théories de Jauge. Les Houches 1984, pp. 129-183, 1986). The bounds achieved by Lebowitz and Penrose can also be sharpened by doing the actual optimisation and achieving expressions in terms of the Lambert W-function. The different bound from the cluster expansion shows some improvements for bounds on the convergence of the virial expansion in the case of positive potentials, which are allowed to have a hard core.

Tate, Stephen James

2013-08-01

175

Virial Expansion Bounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 1960s, the technique of using cluster expansion bounds in order to achieve bounds on the virial expansion was developed by Lebowitz and Penrose (J. Math. Phys. 5:841, 1964) and Ruelle (Statistical Mechanics: Rigorous Results. Benjamin, Elmsford, 1969). This technique is generalised to more recent cluster expansion bounds by Poghosyan and Ueltschi (J. Math. Phys. 50:053509, 2009), which are related to the work of Procacci (J. Stat. Phys. 129:171, 2007) and the tree-graph identity, detailed by Brydges (Phénomènes Critiques, Systèmes Aléatoires, Théories de Jauge. Les Houches 1984, pp. 129-183, 1986). The bounds achieved by Lebowitz and Penrose can also be sharpened by doing the actual optimisation and achieving expressions in terms of the Lambert W-function. The different bound from the cluster expansion shows some improvements for bounds on the convergence of the virial expansion in the case of positive potentials, which are allowed to have a hard core.

Tate, Stephen James

2013-10-01

176

The occurrence and depth penetration of macroalgae along environmental gradients in the northern Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eutrophication is known to affect the community structure of macroalgae by e.g. decreasing the depth penetration of species and by shifting dominance from perennial to annual species. However, there is substantial lack of knowledge in the Baltic Sea regarding the distribution of many of the macroalgal species, how natural environmental factors affect their occurrence and how they respond to eutrophication. As macroalgae are used as indicators of the quality of the sea areas in the EU legislation (Water Framework Directive, Marine Strategy Framework Directive), this kind of knowledge is essential. The aim of this study was to determine which variables were related to variation in species occurrence and their lower limit of occurrence in the Finnish marine area. The study was carried out on data from five study areas along the Finnish coastline and included about 30 taxa. Our results showed that both the macroalgal communities and the occurrence (presence/absence) of most of the species differed between the study areas and that the differences were mainly related to salinity and exposure, although also eutrophication related factors played a role. Of the perennial species, eutrophied conditions seemed to favour only the occurrence of Sphacelaria arctica and Polysiphonia fucoides. Secchi depth was important in determining the lower limit of occurrence of brown and red algal species. However, Secchi depth was rarely the only factor causing variation in the lower limit of occurrence as also exposure, salinity and slope of the shore affected it. We conclude that in the northern Baltic Sea, the taxonomic composition of the macroalgal communities is not a very useful indicator of eutrophication as perennial species seem to tolerate rather eutrophied conditions, when suitable substrate is available. The lower limit of occurrence of many of the brown and red algal species is a good indicator of eutrophication but due to lack of suitable substrate in more eutrophied areas, especially in the depths where light becomes limiting, it is only applicable in the middle and outer archipelago areas. Furthermore, when planning monitoring programmes or setting thresholds for evaluating the ecological status of the sea, the natural variation in the lower limit of occurrence of macroalgae across sea areas is problematic and should carefully be taken into account.

Rinne, Henna; Salovius-Laurén, Sonja; Mattila, Johanna

2011-08-01

177

Nocturnal lepidopterans (Lepidoptera, Macroheterocera) of the Courish Spit in the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty-two species of Macroheterocera belonging to 15 families were collected from 1982 to 2004 on the Courish Spit of the\\u000a Baltic Sea; records of 21 more species are borrowed from the published sources.

N. A. Shapoval; A. P. Shapoval

2007-01-01

178

Bioaccumulation of mercury in the trophic chain of flatfish from the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Mercury concentrations in three flatfish species - flounder (Platichtys flesus), plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), and Baltic turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), netted in the southern Baltic Sea were assessed and compared to concentrations of this metal in sediments, sea water, and flatfish food - bivalve Macoma balthica, isopod Saduria entomon, and sprat (Sprattus sprattus). Collected simultaneously with flatfish in 2009 and 2010. Different concentrations of mercury depending on species, tissue or organ, sex, individual length, kind of food, and region were determined. The muscle tissues of turbot had the highest concentrations of the metal. The bioaccumulation (BF) and biomagnification (BMF) factors has been counted showing that the muscle tissues of turbot have maximum affinity for mercury, and thus best reflected the metal contamination of the Baltic Sea environment. The data suggest that the common Baltic turbot (S. maximus) is an important model species, suitable and cost-effective to biomonitor environmental mercury pollution for ecological research. PMID:22704208

Polak-Juszczak, Lucyna

2012-06-15

179

Distribution of methane in the water column of the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution of dissolved methane in the water column of the Baltic Sea was extensively investigated. A strong correlation between the vertical density stratification, the distribution of oxygen, hydrogen sulfide, and methane has been identified. A widespread release of methane from the seafloor is indicated by increasing methane concentrations with water depth. The deep basins in the central Baltic Sea show the strongest methane enrichments in stagnant anoxic water bodies (max. 1086 nM and 504 nM, respectively), with a pronounced decrease towards the pelagic redoxcline and slightly elevated surface water concentrations (saturation values of 206% and 120%, respectively). In general the more limnic basins in the northern part of the Baltic are characterized by lower water column methane concentrations and surface water saturation values close to the atmospheric equilibrium (between 106% and 116%). In contrast, the shallow Western Baltic Sea is characterized by high saturation values up to 746%.

Schmale, O.; Schneider von Deimling, J.; Gülzow, W.; Nausch, G.; Waniek, J. J.; Rehder, G.

2010-06-01

180

Transformation and Deposition of Airborne Gaseous and Particulate Pollutants During Transport over the Baltic Sea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Researchers used the concentration data and meteorological information collected during a cruise over the Baltic Sea in April-June, 1985, to study transformation and deposition processes of atmospheric pollutants in marine conditions. A simple Lagrangian-...

V. T. Lindfors S. M. Joffre

1989-01-01

181

Report on the intercomparison run IAEA-306 radionuclides in Baltic Sea sediment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of an intercomparison exercise on a Baltic Sea sediment sample, coded as IAEA-306, designed for the determination of artificial and natural radionuclide levels, are reported. This sample was collected in the fall 1986. It was anticipated that ...

S. Ballestra D. Vas J. J. Lopez V. Noshkin

1989-01-01

182

Modelling the Baltic Sea as thirteen sub-basins with vertical resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model of the Baltic Sea is presented and explored. The model divides the Baltic Sea into 13 sub-basins. The dynamics in each sub-basin is reduced to a one dimensional boundary layer problem with vertical mean velocities based upon in- and outflows from surrounding basins. The turbulent exchange coefficients are calculated using a two-equation model of turbulence. The boundary

Anders Omstedt

1990-01-01

183

Presence of Chlorinated Paraffins in Sediments from the North and Baltic Seas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloroparaffins (CPs) were determined in sediments collected from the North and Baltic Seas during monitoring campaigns in 2001–2003. Electron ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MS\\/MS) was used for a first screening. It allowed the simultaneous determination of short (SCCP) and medium chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCP). SCCP+MCCP concentrations between 5 and 499 ng\\/g dry weight were found. In general, Baltic Sea sediments

Jan Hüttig; Michael Oehme

2005-01-01

184

Experimental simulations with an ecosystem model of the Baltic Sea: A nutrient load reduction experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study presents results of decadal simulations of the dynamics of the ecosystem of the Baltic Sea with a three-dimensional coupled physical chemical biological model for the 1980s. The model consists of a circulation model, which is an implementation of the Modular Ocean Model (MOM 2) for the Baltic Sea and an embedded ecosystem model based on a nine-component model

Thomas Neumann; Wolfgang Fennel; Christine Kremp

2002-01-01

185

Long-term trends in near-surface flow over the Baltic  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an analysis of trends in 850 hPa wind speed, as manifest in the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis fields, over the Baltic region during the latter half of the 20th century. The results indicate that annual mean wind speeds over the Baltic significantly increased over the period 1953-99 with the majority of the increase being associated with increases in the upper

S. C. Pryor; R. J. Barthelmie

2003-01-01

186

Settlement Development in the Shadow of Coastal Changes – Case Studies from the Baltic Rim  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The maritime zone of the Baltic basin, in all the phases of its settlement history, was of special importance to the people\\u000a living there. Only there did they have access to marine resources and to the transportation and communication routes. The\\u000a Baltic shore was therefore utilized, occupied, settled and even modified by humans, despite the unstable environmental conditions\\u000a due to

Hauke Jöns

187

The radiological exposure of man from radioactivity in the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

A radiological assessment has been carried out considering discharges of radioactivity to the Baltic Sea marine environment since 1950. The sources of radioactivity that have been evaluated are atmospheric nuclear-weapons fallout, fallout from the Chernobyl accident in 1986, discharges of radionuclides from Sellafield and La Hague transported into the Baltic Sea, and discharges of radionuclides from nuclear installations located in the Baltic Sea area. Dose rates from man-made radioactivity to individual members of the public (critical groups) have been calculated based on annual intake of seafood and beach occupancy time. The dose rates to individuals from the regions of the Bothnian Sea and Gulf of Finland are predicted to be larger than from any other area in the Baltic Sea due to the pattern of Chernobyl fallout. The dose rates are predicted to have peaked in 1986 at a value of 0.2 mSv year-1. Collective committed doses to members of the public have been calculated based on fishery statistics and predicted concentrations of radionuclides in biota and coastal sediments. The total collective dose from man-made radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is estimated at 2600 manSv, of which approximately two-thirds originate from Chernobyl fallout, approximately one-quarter from atmospheric nuclear-weapons fallout, approximately 8% from European reprocessing facilities, and approximately 0.04% from nuclear installations bordering the Baltic Sea area. An assessment of small-scale dumping of low-level radioactive waste in the Baltic Sea in the 1960s by Sweden and the Soviet Union has showed that doses to man from these activities are negligible. Dose rates and doses from natural radioactivity dominate except for the year 1986 where dose rates to individuals from Chernobyl fallout in some regions of the Baltic Sea approached those from natural radioactivity. PMID:10568271

Nielsen, S P; Bengtson, P; Bojanowsky, R; Hagel, P; Herrmann, J; Ilus, E; Jakobson, E; Motiejunas, S; Panteleev, Y; Skujina, A; Suplinska, M

1999-09-30

188

Denitrification in the water column of the central Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Removal of fixed nitrogen in the water column of the eastern Gotland Basin, central Baltic Sea, was studied during two cruises in September 2008 and August 2010. The water column was stratified with anoxic sulfidic bottom water meeting oxic nitrate containing water at the oxic-anoxic interface. Anammox was never detected whereas denitrification was found in all incubations from anoxic depths and occurred immediately below the oxic-anoxic interface. Sulfide (H2S + HS- + S2-) was in most cases the only electron donor for denitrification but, in contrast to previous findings, denitrification was in some situations driven by organic matter alone. Nitrous oxide (N2O) became an increasingly important product of denitrification with increasing sulfide concentration and was >80% of the total N gas formation at 10 ?M sulfide. The potential rates of denitrification measured in incubations at elevated NO3- or sulfide concentrations were converted to in situ rates using the measured water column concentrations of NO3- and sulfide and the actual measured relations between NO3- and sulfide concentrations and denitrification rates. In situ denitrification ranged from 0.24 to 15.9 nM N2 h-1. Assuming that these rates were valid throughout the anoxic NO3- containing zone, depth integrated in situ denitrification rates of 0.06-2.11 mmol N m-2 d-1 were estimated. The thickness of this zone was generally 3-6 m, which is probably what can be maintained through regular turbulent mixing induced by internal waves at the oxic-anoxic interface. However, layers of up to 55 m thickness with low O2 water (<10 ?M) were observed which was probably the result of larger scale mixing. In such a layer nitrification may produce NO3- and once the O2 has been depleted denitrification will follow resulting in enormous rates per unit area. Even with an active denitrification layer of 3-6 m thickness the pelagic denitrification per unit area clearly exceeded sediment denitrification rates elsewhere in the Baltic Sea. When extrapolated to the entire Baltic Proper (BP) denitrification in the water column was in the range of 132-547 kton N yr-1 and was thus at least as important as sediment denitrification which has recently been estimated to 191 kton N yr-1. With a total external N-input of 773 kton N yr-1 it is clear that denitrification plays a significant role in the N-budget of the BP.

Dalsgaard, Tage; De Brabandere, Loreto; Hall, Per O. J.

2013-04-01

189

Expansion, geometry, and gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In general-relativistic cosmological models, the expansion history, matter content, and geometry are closely intertwined. In this brief paper, we clarify the distinction between the effects of geometry and expansion history on the luminosity distance. We show that the cubic correction to the Hubble law, measured recently with high-redshift supernovae, is the first cosmological measurement, apart from the cosmic microwave background, that probes directly the effects of spatial curvature. We illustrate the distinction between geometry and expansion with a toy model for which the supernova results already indicate a curvature radius larger than the Hubble distance.

Caldwell, Robert R.; Kamionkowski, Marc

2004-09-01

190

Natural variability and human impacts reflected in longterm changes in the baltic deep water conditions—A brief review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The Baltic Sea is particularly sensitive to natural fluctuations and anthropogenic impacts because it is a semi-enclosed,\\u000a brackish sea area with only narrow and shallow connections to the ocean. Conditions in the central Baltic deep water can be\\u000a regarded to some extent as a record of variations in the water exchange between the North Sea and the Baltic. However, changes

Wolfgang Matthäus; Baltic Sea

1995-01-01

191

Observed And Predicted Flow Variability Over The Baltic Region: Implications Of Climate Change For Wind Energy Viability  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present analysis of historical and prognostic future flow regimes in the Baltic with the perspective of the viability of wind energy. Analysis of 850 hPa wind speeds as manifest in the NCEP\\/NCAR reanalysis fields over the Baltic region indicates annual mean wind speeds over the Baltic significantly increased over the period 1953-1999 with the majority of the increase being

S. C. Pryor; R. J. Barthelmie; J. T. Schoof

2003-01-01

192

Relativistic Eikonal Expansion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The generalized ladder series of Feynman diagrams for scattering of two particles by scalar meson exchange is expanded, using functional methods, to obtain the relativistic eikonal approximation and the next two terms of an expansion about the eikonal lim...

S. J. Wallace J. A. McNeil

1977-01-01

193

Pen Branch delta expansion  

SciTech Connect

Since 1954, cooling water discharges from K Reactor ({anti X} = 370 cfs {at} 59 C) to Pen Branch have altered vegetation and deposited sediment in the Savannah River Swamp forming the Pen Branch delta. Currently, the delta covers over 300 acres and continues to expand at a rate of about 16 acres/yr. Examination of delta expansion can provide important information on environmental impacts to wetlands exposed to elevated temperature and flow conditions. To assess the current status and predict future expansion of the Pen Branch delta, historic aerial photographs were analyzed using both basic photo interpretation and computer techniques to provide the following information: (1) past and current expansion rates; (2) location and changes of impacted areas; (3) total acreage presently affected. Delta acreage changes were then compared to historic reactor discharge temperature and flow data to see if expansion rate variations could be related to reactor operations.

Nelson, E.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Christensen, E.J.; Mackey, H.E. [Savannah River Lab., Aiken, SC (United States); Sharitz, R.R. [Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab.; Jensen, J.R.; Hodgson, M.E. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Geography Dept.

1984-02-01

194

Fish stocks in the Baltic Sea: finite or infinite resource?  

PubMed

Human-induced environmental changes, especially eutrophication, and fluctuations of natural environmental conditions under the changes in climate and solar activity affect the reproduction and growth of various fish species and communities in the Baltic Sea. The importance of human impacts has increased considerably during the last decades, overshadowing in many cases natural factors. High exploitation rates have depressed some valuable fish species and affected the species dominance hierarchy. Oxygen depletion in deeper layers progressively deteriorates the living conditions of certain marine species. Mass immigration of nonindigenous species with ballast waters can seriously affect ecosystems and fish stocks. The summary effect of these variables upon marine, relict and freshwater species can yield unexpected results. Fish resources should be properly assessed and managed by their natural units (populations). Based on cyclic fluctuations of global climatic processes, composition of long-term forecasts on changes in the structure and abundance of fish fauna should be started. PMID:11697253

Ojaveer, E; Lehtonen, H

2001-08-01

195

Microbial responses to mustard gas dumped in the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Microbiological studies were carried out on chemical weapon dump sites in the Baltic Sea. The effect of mustard gas hydrolysis products (MGHPs) on marine microbiota and the ability of microorganisms to degrade MGHPs were studied. Many stations at the dump sites demonstrated reduced microbial diversity, and increased growth of species able to use mustard gas hydrolysis products as sole source of carbon. Significant amounts of MGHP-degrading bacteria were revealed in the near-bottom water. The MGHP-degrading microorganisms identified as Achromobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Arthrobacter sp. were isolated. These microorganisms were capable of utilizing the major product of hydrolysis, thiodiglycol, as the sole source of carbon and energy. The bacteria were capable of metabolizing MGHPs at a low temperature. The metabolic pathway for thiodiglycol degradation was proposed. The results suggest the potential for MGHPs biodegradation by naturally occurring populations of near-bottom-water and sediment microorganisms. PMID:19481794

Medvedeva, Nadezda; Polyak, Yulia; Kankaanpää, Harri; Zaytseva, Tatyana

2009-04-22

196

Ecological forecasting under climate change: the case of Baltic cod  

PubMed Central

Good decision making for fisheries and marine ecosystems requires a capacity to anticipate the consequences of management under different scenarios of climate change. The necessary ecological forecasting calls for ecosystem-based models capable of integrating multiple drivers across trophic levels and properly including uncertainty. The methodology presented here assesses the combined impacts of climate and fishing on marine food-web dynamics and provides estimates of the confidence envelope of the forecasts. It is applied to cod (Gadus morhua) in the Baltic Sea, which is vulnerable to climate-related decline in salinity owing to both direct and indirect effects (i.e. through species interactions) on early-life survival. A stochastic food web-model driven by regional climate scenarios is used to produce quantitative forecasts of cod dynamics in the twenty-first century. The forecasts show how exploitation would have to be adjusted in order to achieve sustainable management under different climate scenarios.

Lindegren, Martin; Mollmann, Christian; Nielsen, Anders; Brander, Keith; MacKenzie, Brian R.; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

2010-01-01

197

Thermal expansion of stishovite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal expansion of stishovite has been determined by an X-ray camera technique in a temperature range of 18 - 600°C at an atmospheric pressure. The thermal-expansion coefficients along the crystallographic a- and c-axes at 300 K are alphaa = (6.0 +\\/- 0.6) . 10-6 K-1 and alphac = (1.4 +\\/- 0.5) . 10-6 K-1, respectively. The volume coefficient at

Ito Hisao; Kawada Kaoru; Akimoto Syun-Iti

1974-01-01

198

Microlocal WKB Expansions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In relation with microlocal tunneling, we investigate the existence of micro-local WKB expansions for the eigenfunctions of semiclassical pseudodifferential operators whose symbol admits a non degenerate minimum at some point (x0, ?0) of R2n. More precisely, under assumptions of analyticity, we prove that the FBI (or Bargman) transform of the first eigenfunction of such an operator admits near (x0, ?0) an expansion

André Martinez; Vania Sordoni

1999-01-01

199

PUMa - modelling the groundwater flow in Baltic Sedimentary Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2009-2012 at University of Latvia and Latvia University of Agriculture project "Establishment of interdisciplinary scientist group and modelling system for groundwater research" is implemented financed by the European Social Fund. The aim of the project is to develop groundwater research in Latvia by establishing interdisciplinary research group and modelling system covering groundwater flow in the Baltic Sedimentary Basin. Researchers from fields like geology, chemistry, mathematical modelling, physics and environmental engineering are involved in the project. The modelling system is used as a platform for addressing scientific problems such as: (1) large-scale groundwater flow in Baltic Sedimentary Basin and impact of human activities on it; (2) the evolution of groundwater flow since the last glaciation and subglacial groundwater recharge; (3) the effects of climate changes on shallow groundwater and interaction of hydrographical network and groundwater; (4) new programming approaches for groundwater modelling. Within the frame of the project most accessible geological information such as description of geological wells, geological maps and results of seismic profiling in Latvia as well as Estonia and Lithuania are collected and integrated into modelling system. For example data form more then 40 thousands wells are directly used to automatically generate the geological structure of the model. Additionally a groundwater sampling campaign is undertaken. Contents of CFC, stabile isotopes of O and H and radiocarbon are the most significant parameters of groundwater that are established in unprecedented scale for Latvia. The most important modelling results will be published in web as a data set. Project number: 2009/0212/1DP/1.1.1.2.0/09/APIA/VIAA/060. Project web-site: www.puma.lu.lv

Kalvane, G.; Marnica, A.; Bethers, U.

2012-04-01

200

Icy heritage: ecological evolution of the postglacial Baltic Sea reflected in the allozymes of a living fossil, the priapulid Halicryptus spinulosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variation of 16 allozyme loci in 397 Halicryptus spinulosus (Priapulida) revealed overall polymorphism of P=0.438 and Hardy-Weinberg expectations for heterozygosity of He=0.060 for Baltic Sea stocks, He=0.143 for the White Sea and He=0.121 for Iceland. Maximal unbiased standard distances of D=0.0693 separated Baltic and White Sea populations. Nordic and Baltic populations could be distinguished by allozymes, but Baltic subsamples

A. Schreiber; M. Eisinger; H. Rumohr; V. Storch

1996-01-01

201

Angts prebuild expansion solves pressure constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foothills Pipe Line Ltd., Calgary, has employed a unique solution to pipeline-capacity delivery problems around its Empress, Atla., extraction plants. The problems arose as Foothills began planning for its expansion to export more Canadian gas into the U.S. The location is just north of Foothills' Monchy, Sask., delivery point to the U.S. at Northern Border Pipeline. This capacity constraint resulted

Kitt

1991-01-01

202

Economic Analysis of Electric Power Transmission Expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

When transmission congestion reaches a high level, short-term congestion management tools become more expensive than capital cost investments such as generation or transmission expansion. In such cases, an economics-based investment plan should be developed for the power system. Although there is no well-accepted procedure to accomplish this, numerous models and approaches have been proposed in the power literature. In this

Sevin Sozer; Chan S. Park; Jorge Valenzuela

2008-01-01

203

Transmission expansion and pricing in Colombia: An appraisal of current practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the current practices of transmission expansion and pricing in Colombia. Transmission expansion in Colombia is formulated by a central governmental agency that is commissioned to establish the required transmission enhancements. The commission consolidates all the needs based on economic growth and the current regulation into a single plan. We review how the single plan is elaborated and

Harold Salazar; Luis J. Zuluaga-López; Ramón A. León

2009-01-01

204

Accelerating the loop expansion  

SciTech Connect

This thesis introduces a new non-perturbative technique into quantum field theory. To illustrate the method, I analyze the much-studied phi/sup 4/ theory in two dimensions. As a prelude, I first show that the Hartree approximation is easy to obtain from the calculation of the one-loop effective potential by a simple modification of the propagator that does not affect the perturbative renormalization procedure. A further modification then susggests itself, which has the same nice property, and which automatically yields a convex effective potential. I then show that both of these modifications extend naturally to higher orders in the derivative expansion of the effective action and to higher orders in the loop-expansion. The net effect is to re-sum the perturbation series for the effective action as a systematic ''accelerated'' non-perturbative expansion. Each term in the accelerated expansion corresponds to an infinite number of terms in the original series. Each term can be computed explicitly, albeit numerically. Many numerical graphs of the various approximations to the first two terms in the derivative expansion are given. I discuss the reliability of the results and the problem of spontaneous symmetry-breaking, as well as some potential applications to more interesting field theories. 40 refs.

Ingermanson, R.

1986-07-29

205

US foreign policy and the Baltic states. Master`s thesis  

SciTech Connect

This thesis examines U. S. foreign policy toward the Baltic states from 1918 to 1991 to determine if the U.S. has been realistic in its dealings with small nations. An analysis of U.S. policy indicates that the United States acts hypocritically by accepting compromises on the very moral principals to which it claims to be the protectorate of when domestic political costs are high. The sacrifice of national values degrades the credibility of the moral high ground necessary for U.S. policy. This study reviews the events that occurred during the three major periods in U.S.-Baltic relations: The initial period of Baltic independence following World War I; the Soviet annexation of the Baltics during World War II: and finally the beginning of the second period of Baltic independence during the breakup of the Soviet Union. In all three cases U.S. policy was unclear and contradictory. The Baltic case provides a good example of the tendency for U.S. policy to be paradoxical and ineffective. This study concludes that despite the U.S. policy of nonrecognition of the Soviet annexation of the Baltic states during the Cold War, the United States failed to adhere to its principals when given the opportunity. In the process, it also neglected problems within its borders that required attention perhaps more urgently than those outside. The tendency for U.S. policy to ignore the issues that actually threaten its security internally and placing a higher priority on external matters that do not have a real impact on its standing could likely lead to its inadvertent downfall.

Shuey, K.A.

1996-03-01

206

A convergent expansion about mean field theory : I. The expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A convergent expansion in the multiphase region is given for nearly Gaussian quantum field theory. The expansion combines (1) an expansion in phase boundaries, (2) a cluster expansion, and (3) a perturbation expansion to isolate dominant behavior. The ground state of the P (phi)â= (lambdaphi⁴-phi²-..mu..phi)â model is studied, with mod ..mu.. < or =lambda²very-much-less-than1. The ground state is close to

James Glimm; Arthur Jaffe; Thomas Spencer

1976-01-01

207

Effects of temperature on egg and larval survival of cod ( Gadus morhua ) and sprat ( Sprattus sprattus ) in the Baltic Sea – implications for stock development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stock development of cod and sprat, two major fish species in the Baltic Sea, is linked by trophic interactions. Depending on recruitment success the Baltic may be pushed towards either a cod- or a clupeid dominated system. Both cod and sprat spawn in the Baltic deep basins at strongly varying hydrographical conditions with survival during the egg and early larval

Anders Nissling

2004-01-01

208

Coulomb expansion: analytical solutions.  

PubMed

Exact and approximate analytical solutions are presented, describing expansion of a cloud of charged particles in one, two, and three dimensions (assuming the planar, axial, and spherical symmetries, respectively). The expansion occurs in a gas or dilute plasma, where the screening is unimportant, so that particles interact with each other via Coulomb repulsive forces. It is shown that, irrespective of dimensionality, the density distribution remains homogeneous across the cloud and the velocity increases linearly towards the cloud boundary. The density evolution obeys a universal dependence, asymptotically decreasing with time as t(-1). It is also shown that in the presence of an inhomogeneous external field the interparticle repulsion becomes negligible at an early stage of expansion and then the density decreases with time exponentially. PMID:23496647

Ivlev, A V

2013-02-28

209

Projects to Expand Fuel Sources in Western States. Survey of Planned or Proposed Coal, Oil Shale, Tar Sand, Uranium, and Geothermal Supply Expansion Projects, and Related Infrastructure, in States West of the Mississippi River (as of May 1976).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a listing of fuels-related projects that are presently under construction, planned, or proposed by various companies and organizations in the Western United States. The future facilities covered fall into the following categories: coal mine...

J. S. Corsentino

1976-01-01

210

Wind induced upwelling as a possible explanation for mass occurrences of epiphytic Ectocarpus siliculosus (Phaeophyta) in the northern Baltic Proper  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantity of epiphytic filamentous algae varies considerably in macroalgal vegetation along rocky shores of the northern Baltic Proper. The main species responsible for irregular mass occurrences is the summer annual brown algaEctocarpus siliculosus (Dillw.) Lyngb. In this study, data collected over a 3-yr monitoring period are related to hydrographical parameters. The tideless and brackish Baltic Sea is salinity stratified,

M. Kiirikki; J. Blomster

1996-01-01

211

Genetic variability and level of differentiation in North Sea and Baltic Sea populations of the green alga Cladophora rupestris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cladophora rupestris is a perennial filamentous macroalga belonging to the Chlorophyta. It is widely distributed on both sides of the northern Atlantic Ocean and penetrates into the brackish Baltic Sea down to ca. 4 psu salinity. In this paper we present evidence for genetic differentiation of a Baltic form of this marine alga. We assessed genetic structure within and among

G. Johansson; P. Snoeijs

2003-01-01

212

Biomagnification of PBDEs and PCBs in food webs from the Baltic Sea and the northern Atlantic Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomagnification of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) in food webs from the Baltic Sea and the northern Atlantic Sea was investigated. For this, we used PCB and PBDE concentration data, together with data on fish body weight and ?15N of fish and zooplankton as a measure of trophic position. In the Baltic Sea material, consisting of zooplankton, sprat,

Sven Burreau; Yngve Zebühr; Dag Broman; Rasha Ishaq

2006-01-01

213

Hydrography and mollusc faunas of the Baltic and the White Sea–North Sea seaway in the Eemian  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palynologically dated mollusc and cirriped faunas from a region extending from the North Sea through the Baltic and Karelia to the Arkhangelsk region show that the hydrography of the Baltic was very different from the Holocene. For 2–2.5 ka in the Early Eemian a seaway existed from the Barents to the North Sea through Karelia, until it was severed at

Svend Funder; Igor Demidov; Yadviga Yelovicheva

2002-01-01

214

An evaluation of methods for obtaining water column integrated samples of filamentous cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we investigated the influence of hose diameter when collecting surface- water integrating samples of filamentous cyanobacteria and image analysis as a tool for estimating the total length of filaments during a summer bloom in the Northern Baltic Proper. We sampled filamentous cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon sp. and Nodularia spumigena) on three occasions at a coastal station in the Baltic

Lisa Almesjö; Carl Rolff

2003-01-01

215

Between Political Rhetoric and Realpolitik Calculations: Western Diplomacy and the Baltic Independence Struggle in the Cold War Endgame  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen years after the Baltic SSRs' independence declarations, this article sheds new light on the Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian struggle to regain statehood in the context of international relations between 1988 and 1991. Based on declassified archival sources from Western and Eastern archives, memoirs and official histories, it reveals the nature of ‘Western’ Baltic policies and analyses how (far) they

Kristina Spohr Readman

2006-01-01

216

Expansion/De-expansion Tool to Quantify the Accuracy of Prostate Contours  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Accurate delineation of the prostate gland on computed tomography (CT) remains a persistent challenge and continues to introduce geometric uncertainty into the planning and delivery of external beam radiotherapy. We, therefore, developed an expansion/de-expansion tool to quantify the contour errors and determine the location of the deviations. Methods and Materials: A planning CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging scan were prospectively acquired for 10 patients with prostate cancer. The prostate glands were contoured by 3 independent observers using the CT data sets with instructions to contour the prostate without underestimation but to minimize overestimation. The standard prostate for each patient was defined using magnetic resonance imaging and CT on multiple planes. After registration of the CT and magnetic resonance imaging data sets, the CT-defined prostates were scored for accuracy. The contours were defined as ideal if they were within a 2.5-mm expansion of the standard without underestimation, acceptable if they were within a 5.0-mm expansion and a 2.5-mm de-expansion, and unacceptable if they extended >5.0 mm or underestimated the prostate by >2.5 mm. Results: A total of 636 CT slices were individually analyzed, with the vast majority scored as ideal or acceptable. However, none of the 30 prostate contour sets had all the contours scored as ideal or acceptable. For all 3 observers, the unacceptable contours were more likely from underestimation than overestimation of the prostate. The errors were more common at the base and apex than the mid-gland. Conclusions: The expansion/de-expansion tool allows for directed feedback on the location of contour deviations, as well as the determination of over- or underestimation of the prostate. This metric might help improve the accuracy of prostate contours.

Chung, Eugene; Stenmark, Matthew H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Evans, Cheryl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Providence Cancer Center, Novi, MI (United States); Narayana, Vrinda [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Providence Cancer Center, Novi, MI (United States); McLaughlin, Patrick W., E-mail: mclaughb@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Providence Cancer Center, Novi, MI (United States)

2012-05-01

217

Presence of chlorinated paraffins in sediments from the North and Baltic Seas.  

PubMed

Chloroparaffins (CPs) were determined in sediments collected from the North and Baltic Seas during monitoring campaigns in 2001-2003. Electron ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was used for a first screening. It allowed the simultaneous determination of short (SCCP) and medium chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCP). SCCP+MCCP concentrations between 5 and 499 ng/g dry weight were found. In general, Baltic Sea sediments were more highly contaminated by CPs than the North Sea was. However, concentrations related to the total organic carbon content were on the same order of magnitude due to the higher organic content in the Baltic Sea. Additional information about the congener and homologue pattern was obtained for selected samples from the Baltic Sea by high-resolution gas chromatography combined with negative ion chemical ionization and low-resolution mass spectrometry, Concentrations in the North Sea were in general too low for this approach. In the Baltic Sea, MCCP concentrations were 1.7-2.4 times higher than for SCCPs. Lower chlorinated C(13) and C(14) compounds were the main CP compounds. The CP congener and homologue patterns showed similarities with technical SCCP and MCCP mixtures when compared using principal component analysis. PMID:16132413

Hüttig, Jan; Oehme, Michael

2005-08-26

218

Oceanographic connectivity and environmental correlates of genetic structuring in Atlantic herring in the Baltic Sea  

PubMed Central

Marine fish often show little genetic structuring in neutral marker genes, and Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in the Baltic Sea are no exception; historically, very low levels of population differentiation (FST ? 0.002) have been found, despite a high degree of interpopulation environmental heterogeneity in salinity and temperature. Recent exome sequencing and SNP studies have however shown that many loci are under selection in this system. Here, we combined population genetic analyses of a large number of transcriptome-derived microsatellite markers with oceanographic modelling to investigate genetic differentiation and connectivity in Atlantic herring at a relatively fine scale within the Baltic Sea. We found evidence for weak but robust and significant genetic structuring (FST = 0.008) explainable by oceanographic connectivity. Genetic differentiation was also associated with site differences in temperature and salinity, with the result driven by the locus Her14 which appears to be under directional selection (FST = 0.08). The results show that Baltic herring are genetically structured within the Baltic Sea, and highlight the role of oceanography and environmental factors in explaining this structuring. The results also have implications for the management of herring fisheries, the most economically important fishery in the Baltic Sea, suggesting that the current fisheries management units may be in need of revision.

Teacher, Amber GF; Andre, Carl; Jonsson, Per R; Merila, Juha

2013-01-01

219

Bacterial sulfate reduction and methanogenesis in brackish, oligotrophic northern Baltic Sea sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent sediments of the northernmost Baltic Sea form underneath low-phosphate surface waters with year-round low primary production. Terrestrial organic matter from subarctic peatlands and tundra are important sources of organic matter in these sediments. These conditions make the northern Baltic an attractive Baltic analog of the Arctic shelf, because effects of changes in weathering patterns on land due to climate-related changes in temperature and runoff can be more easily studied in these sediments. Due to low production and salinities below 4 permil of northern Baltic Sea seawater, organic matter mineralization in these sediments has traditionally been thought to be dominated by aerobic respiration and suboxic diagenesis via bacterial denitrification, manganese, and iron reduction. Here we show with porewater water analyses of sulfate and methane as well as direct rate measurements of bacterial sulfate reduction and methanogenesis that these processes are more important for organic matter mineralization in these sediments than previously thought. Methane concentrations in porewaters reach saturation only few decimeters below the sediment surface and attest to the steep concentration profiles of sulfate driven by high rates of bacterial sulfate reduction. Anaerobic carbon mineralization and methane formation, and upward transport of methane to the sediment surface and water column are therefore significant components of Northern Baltic Sea sediment biogeochemistry.

Brüchert, Volker; Nguyen, Thang M.; Deutschmann, André; Böttcher, Michael E.; Ferdelman, Timothy G.

2010-05-01

220

Chemical physiological and morphological studies of feral baltic salmon (Salmo salar) suffering from abnormal fry mortality  

SciTech Connect

In 1974, abnormally high mortality was recorded among yolk-sac fry of Baltic salmon (Salmo salar) originating from feral females manually stripped and fertilized with milt from feral males. The cause of this mortality, designated M74, is unknown. The hypothesis is that xenobiotic compounds responsible for reproduction failure in higher vertebrates in the Baltic Sea also interfere with reproduction in Baltic salmon. The significance of M74 should not be underestimated, because the syndrome has caused up to 75% yearly mortality of developing Baltic salmon yolk-sac larvae in a fish hatchery dedicated to production of smolt during the last two decades. The author cannot exclude the possibility that only a relatively low number of naturally spawned eggs develop normally because of M74. No individual pollutant has been shown to be responsible for the development of M74 syndrome. However, a higher total body burden of organochlorine substances may be responsible for the M74 syndrome. The presence of induced hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes in both yolk-sac fry suffering from M74 and adult feral females producing offspring affected by M74 supports this hypothesis. In addition, the P450 enzyme activity in offspring from feral fish is higher than the activity in yolk-sac fry from hatchery-raised fish, suggesting that feral Baltic salmon are influenced by organic xenobiotics.

Norrgren, L. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Pathology Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)); Andersson, T. (Univ. of Goteborg, (Sweden). Dept. of Zoophysiology); Bergqvist, P.A. (Univ. of Umea, (Sweden). Inst. of Environmental Chemistry); Bjoerklund, I. (Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Solna (Sweden))

1993-11-01

221

Tracing inputs of terrestrial high molecular weight dissolved organic matter within the Baltic Sea ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To test the hypothesis whether high molecular weight dissolved organic matter (HMW-DOM) in a high latitude marginal sea is dominated by terrestrial derived matter, 10 stations were sampled along the salinity gradient of the central and northern Baltic Sea and were analyzed for concentrations of dissolved organic carbon as well as ?13C values of HMW-DOM. Different end-member-mixing models were applied to quantify the influence of terrestrial DOM and to test for conservative versus non-conservative behavior of the terrestrial DOM in the different Baltic Sea basins. The share of terrestrial DOM to the total HMW-DOM was calculated for each station, ranging from 43 to 83%. This shows the high influence of terrestrial DOM inputs for the Baltic Sea ecosystem. The data also suggest that terrestrial DOM reaching the open Baltic Sea is not subject to substantial removal anymore. However compared to riverine DOM concentrations, our results indicate that substantial amounts of HMW-DOM (> 50%) seem to be removed near the coastline during estuarine mixing. A budget approach yielded residence times for terrestrial DOM of 2.8, 3.0, and 4.5 yr for the Bothnian Bay, the Bothnian Sea and the Baltic Proper.

Deutsch, B.; Alling, V.; Humborg, C.; Korth, F.; Mörth, C. M.

2012-11-01

222

Anisakid larvae in the liver of cod (Gadus morhua) L. from the southern Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

In the present investigation a sample of 490 cod (Gadus morhua) was examined from three regions in the southern Baltic Sea (the Polish Exclusive Economic Zone, EEZ). Three species of anisakid nematodes with zoonotic potential, namely species of Contracaecum, Anisakis and Pseudoterranova, were found in the liver of cod, with Contracaecum being the most dominant species. The prevalence of infection was highest in the Western Baltic (22.5%) compared to the Central Baltic (10.4%) and the Gulf of Gdansk (3.4%). Generalized linear models (GLMs) were applied to analyse the prevalence of infection with Anisakis sp. and Contracaecum sp. relative to biological and spatial parameters. The effect of the sampling region, age and body length of the fish were significant in both GLMs. The effect of region was higher in the Western Baltic than in other regions. The prevalence of infection was correlated with the length of the fish and was higher in adult compared with sub-adult fish. These results suggest that the prevalence of infection with anisakid nematodes (especially Contracaecum sp.) in cod sampled in Polish waters of the Baltic Sea has significantly increased compared with previous studies undertaken over the past few decades. PMID:23452650

Nadolna, K; Podolska, M

2013-03-01

223

Regional flow in the Baltic Shield during Holocene coastal regression  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The occurrence of saline waters in the Baltic Shield in Sweden is consistent with ongoing but incomplete Holocene flushing and depends on the geometry and connectivity of conductive structures at both regional and local scales, and on the surface topography. Numerical simulation of regional variable-density fluid flow during Holocene land-rise and coastal regression shows that the existence of any old saline water, whether derived from submarine recharge in regions below Sweden's highest postglacial coastline or geochemical processes in the crystalline rock, is an indication either of slow fluid movements through the bedrock over long times, or of long travel distances through fracture systems before arriving at measurement points. During the land-rise period, regional flow is not affected by the variable density of fluids in the upper few kilometers of the shield, and the topography of the water table is the only driving force. The spatial distribution of meteoric flushing water and pre-Holocene waters may be complex, with the possibility of relatively fresh water in fracture zones below salty units even at depths of a few kilometers. The domination of the topographic driving force implies that deep saline water is not necessarily stagnant, and significant flow may be expected to occur in well-connected horizons even at depth. Local topography variation and fracture zone location combine to create a complex flow field in which local topographic driving forces extend to considerable depth in some areas, whereas regional topographic forces predominate in others. Thus, a pattern may be difficult to discern in measurements of the regional salinity distribution, although it is clear that the coastal region is the major zone of discharge for deeper pre-Holocene fluids. During the land-rise period, the regional flow field equilibrates with changing climatic conditions and coastal positions, while the distribution of flushing water and older water lags and will perpetually change between successive glaciations. These characteristics have direct implications for the safety of nuclear water repositories located at depth in Baltic Shield rocks.

Voss, Clifford, I.; Andersson, Johan

1993-01-01

224

Ecosystem consequences of cyanobacteria in the northern Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria of the Baltic Sea have multiple effects on organisms that influence the food chain dynamics on several trophic levels. Cyanobacteria contain several bioactive compounds, such as alkaloids, peptides, and lipopolysaccharides. A group of nonribosomally produced oligopeptides, namely microcystins and nodularin, are tumor promoters and cause oxidative stress in the affected cells. Zooplankton graze on cyanobacteria, and when ingested, the hepatotoxins (nodularin) decrease the egg production of, for example, copepods. However, the observed effects are very variable, because many crustaceans are tolerant to nodularin and because cyanobacteria may complement the diet of grazers in small amounts. Cyanobacterial toxins are transferred through the food web from one trophic level to another. The transfer rate is relatively low in the pelagic food web, but reduced feeding and growth rates of fish larvae have been observed. In the benthic food web, especially in blue mussels, nodularin concentrations are high, and benthic feeding juvenile flounders have been observed to disappear from bloom areas. In the littoral ecosystem, gammarids have shown increased mortality and weakening of reproductive success under cyanobacterial exposure. In contrast, mysid shrimps seem to be tolerant to cyanobacterial exposure. In fish larvae, detoxication of nodularin poses a metabolic cost that is reflected as decreased growth and condition, which may increase their susceptibility to predation. Cyanobacterial filaments and aggregates also interfere with both hydromechanical and visual feeding of planktivores. The feeding appendages of mysid shrimps may clog, and the filaments interfere with prey detection of pike larvae. On the other hand, a cyanobacterial bloom may provide a refuge for both zooplankton and small fish. As the decaying bloom also provides an ample source of organic carbon and nutrients for the organisms of the microbial loop, the zooplankton species capable of selective feeding may thrive in bloom conditions. Cyanobacteria also compete for nutrients with other primary producers and change the nitrogen (N): phosphorus (P) balance of their environment by their N-fixation. Further, the bioactive compounds of cyanobacteria directly influence other primary producers, favoring cyanobacteria, chlorophytes, dinoflagellates, and nanoflagellates and inhibiting cryptophytes. As the selective grazers also shift the grazing pressure on other species than cyanobacteria, changes in the structure and functioning of the Baltic Sea communities and ecosystems are likely to occur during the cyanobacterial bloom season. PMID:17520934

Karjalainen, Miina; Engström-Ost, Jonna; Korpinen, Samuli; Peltonen, Heikki; Pääkkönen, Jari-Pekka; Rönkkönen, Sanna; Suikkanen, Sanna; Viitasalo, Markku

2007-04-01

225

Impact of climate change on ecological quality indicators and biogeochemical fluxes in the Baltic sea: a multi-model ensemble study.  

PubMed

Multi-model ensemble simulations using three coupled physical-biogeochemical models were performed to calculate the combined impact of projected future climate change and plausible nutrient load changes on biogeochemical cycles in the Baltic Sea. Climate projections for 1961-2099 were combined with four nutrient load scenarios ranging from a pessimistic business-as-usual to a more optimistic case following the Helsinki Commission's (HELCOM) Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP). The model results suggest that in a future climate, water quality, characterized by ecological quality indicators like winter nutrient, summer bottom oxygen, and annual mean phytoplankton concentrations as well as annual mean Secchi depth (water transparency), will be deteriorated compared to present conditions. In case of nutrient load reductions required by the BSAP, water quality is only slightly improved. Based on the analysis of biogeochemical fluxes, we find that in warmer and more anoxic waters, internal feedbacks could be reinforced. Increased phosphorus fluxes out of the sediments, reduced denitrification efficiency and increased nitrogen fixation may partly counteract nutrient load abatement strategies. PMID:22926879

Meier, H E Markus; Müller-Karulis, Bärbel; Andersson, Helén C; Dieterich, Christian; Eilola, Kari; Gustafsson, Bo G; Höglund, Anders; Hordoir, Robinson; Kuznetsov, Ivan; Neumann, Thomas; Ranjbar, Zohreh; Savchuk, Oleg P; Schimanke, Semjon

2012-09-01

226

Static gas expansion cooler  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a cooler for television cameras and other temperature sensitive equipment. The cooler uses compressed gas ehich is accelerated to a high velocity by passing it through flow passageways having nozzle portions which expand the gas. This acceleration and expansion causes the gas to undergo a decrease in temperature thereby cooling the cooler body and adjacent temperature sensitive equipment.

Guzek, J.C.; Lujan, R.A.

1984-01-01

227

Thermal expansion of skutterudites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current paper gives an overview of the newly obtained thermal expansion coefficients of skutterudites as well as those so far available in literature. Thermal expansion was determined for CoSb3, Pt4Sn4.4Sb7.6, for As- and Ge-based skutterudites as well as for various high-ZT skutterudites (micro- and nanostructured) with didymium (DD) and mischmetal (Mm) as filler atoms in frameworks of (Fe1-xCox)4Sb12 and (Fe1-xNix)4Sb12, and for double and triple-filled skutterudites such as Ca0.07Ba0.23Co3.95Ni0.05Sb12 and Sr0.025Ba0.075Yb0.1Co4Sb12. For low temperatures, a capacitance dilatometer was used (4-300 K), whereas for temperatures 300expansion coefficient. The semiclassical model of Mukherjee [Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1876 (1996)] has been successfully used to quantitatively describe the thermal expansion coefficient in terms of Einstein and Debye temperatures, which compare well with the corresponding results from specific heat, electrical resistivity, or temperature dependent x-ray measurements.

Rogl, G.; Zhang, L.; Rogl, P.; Grytsiv, A.; Falmbigl, M.; Rajs, D.; Kriegisch, M.; Müller, H.; Bauer, E.; Koppensteiner, J.; Schranz, W.; Zehetbauer, M.; Henkie, Z.; Maple, M. B.

2010-02-01

228

Singularity Expansion Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the transient currents induced on an arbitrary system of thin linear scatterers by an electromagnetic plane wave are solved by using an electric field integral equation (EFIE) formulation. The transient analysis is carried out using the singularity expansion method (SEM). The general analysis developed here is useful for assessing the vulnerability of military aircraft to a nuclear

Lloyd Stephen Riggs

1985-01-01

229

AUTO-EXPANSIVE FLOW  

EPA Science Inventory

Physics suggests that the interplay of momentum, continuity, and geometry in outward radial flow must produce density and concomitant pressure reductions. In other words, this flow is intrinsically auto-expansive. It has been proposed that this process is the key to understanding...

230

Artificial radionuclides ??Sr and ²?¹Am in the sediments of the Baltic Sea: total and spatial inventories and some temporal trends.  

PubMed

The Baltic Sea was contaminated by radioactivity following global nuclear fallout and later by the Chernobyl accident. Despite the decrease of radioactivity caused by radioactive decay, radionuclides have a prolonged residence time in the water of the Baltic Sea due to slow water exchange and relatively rapid sedimentation. Very little is known about the amounts or spatial differences of ??Sr and ²?¹Am in the Baltic Sea sediments. In this study, 20 sediment cores taken around the Baltic Sea were investigated to estimate inventories of these radionuclides. The rough results show that the Chernobyl fallout added the amount of ??Sr in the same areas where the increase of ¹³?Cs can be detected, whereas this is not the case for ²?¹Am which is more evenly distributed in the sea bottom. In addition, local differences occur in the concentrations. These results are an important amendment to the radioactivity baseline of the Baltic Sea. PMID:23582977

Hutri, Kaisa-Leena; Mattila, Jukka; Ikäheimonen, Tarja Tuulikki; Vartti, Vesa-Pekka

2013-04-11

231

Controlling medical expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

governing structures of the three hospitals would remain separate. During the mid-1960s several delays in planning occurred, resulting largely from the hospitals' traditional independence. By 1969 AHC and Harvard officials had not clearly explained why the new hospital needed to be built on land occupied by housing, rather than on nearby empty land. There were also no concrete plans for

Howard Waitzkin; John A. Sharratt

1977-01-01

232

Enrichment of Omnivorous Cercozoan Nanoflagellates from Coastal Baltic Sea Waters  

PubMed Central

Free-living nano-sized flagellates are important bacterivores in aquatic habitats. However, some slightly larger forms can also be omnivorous, i.e., forage upon both bacterial and eukaryotic resources. This hitherto largely ignored feeding mode may have pronounced implications for the interpretation of experiments about protistan bacterivory. We followed the response of an uncultured group of omnivorous cercozoan nanoflagellates from the Novel Clade 2 (Cerc_BAL02) to experimental food web manipulation in samples from the Gulf of Gda?sk (Southern Baltic Sea). Seawater was either prefiltered through 5 µm filters to exclude larger predators of nanoflagellates (F-treatment), or prefiltered and subsequently 1?10 diluted with sterile seawater (F+D-treatment) to stimulate the growth of both, flagellates and bacteria. Initially, Cerc_BAL02 were rapidly enriched under both conditions. They foraged on both, eukaryotic prey and bacteria, and were highly competitive at low concentrations of food. However, these omnivores were later only successful in the F+D treatment, where they eventually represented almost one fifth of all aplastidic nanoflagellates. By contrast, their numbers stagnated in the F-treatment, possibly due to top-down control by a concomitant bloom of other, unidentified flagellates. In analogy with observations about the enrichment of opportunistically growing bacteria in comparable experimental setups we suggest that the low numbers of omnivorous Cerc_Bal02 flagellates in waters of the Gulf of Gda?sk might also be related to their vulnerability to grazing pressure.

Piwosz, Kasia; Pernthaler, Jakob

2011-01-01

233

Sorption and predicted mobility of herbicides in Baltic soils.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to determine sorption coefficients of eight herbicides (alachlor, amitrole, atrazine, simazine, dicamba, imazamox, imazethapyr, and pendimethalin) to seven agricultural soils from sites throughout Lithuania. The measured sorption coefficients were used to predict the susceptibility of these herbicides to leach to groundwater. Soil-water partitioning coefficients were measured in batch equilibrium studies using radiolabeled herbicides. In most soils, sorption followed the general trend pendimethalin > alachlor > atrazine approximately amitrole approximately simazine > imazethapyr > imazamox > dicamba, consistent with the trends in hydrophobicity (log K(ow)) except in the case of amitrole. For several herbicides, sorption coefficients and calculated retardation factors were lowest (predicted to be most susceptible to leaching) in a soil of intermediate organic carbon content and sand content. Calculated herbicide retardation factors were high for soils with high organic carbon contents. Estimated leaching times under saturated conditions, assuming no herbicide degradation and no preferential water flow, were more strongly affected by soil textural effects on predicted water flow than by herbicide sorption effects. All herbicides were predicted to be slowest to leach in soils with high clay and low sand contents, and fastest to leach in soils with high sand content and low organic matter content. Herbicide management is important to the continued increase in agricultural production and profitability in the Baltic region, and these results will be useful in identifying critical areas requiring improved management practices to reduce water contamination by pesticides. PMID:17701699

Sakaliene, Ona; Papiernik, Sharon K; Koskinen, William C; Spokas, Kurt A

2007-08-01

234

MPC&A training needs of the NIS/Baltics States.  

SciTech Connect

This report serves to document contract deliverables considered to be of continuing interest associated with two workshops conducted as part of an initial assessment of Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) training needs of the Newly Independent and Baltic States (NIS/Baltics). These workshops were held in Kiev, Ukraine, ca. 2003-2004, with the assistance of personnel from the George Kuzmycz Training Center (GKTC) of the Kiev Institute of Nuclear Research (KINR). Because of the dominant role Ukraine plays in the region in terms of the nuclear industry, one workshop focused exclusively on Ukrainian training needs, with participants attending from twelve Ukrainian organizations (plus U.S. DOE/NNSA representatives). The second workshop included participation by a further ten countries from the NIS/Baltics region. In addition, the training needs data developed during the workshop were supplemented by the outcomes of surveys and studies conducted by the GKTC.

Beck, David Franklin; Stoy-McLeod, Carol L.

2006-07-01

235

Injury mortality in local communities in Sweden and in the three Baltic States: implications for prevention.  

PubMed

This study provides a comparative time-trend evaluation of injury mortality in local communities in Sweden and the three Baltic States, considering their national socio-political and economic situations and with analysis of local injury prevention structures and activities. Data for the period from 1990 to 2002 were gathered from national statistical offices for the cities of Borås, Tartu, Jelgava and Kaunas and from WHO databases for national level analyses. The death rates for Borås remained relatively stable over the time period, while the Baltic communities had increasing rates until 1994 and seemed to stabilize after 1997. The differences in injury mortality in the studied communities were highest for the 0 - 19 year age group and especially in the 20 - 64 year age group, but not for the 65+ year age group. Local communities in the Baltic States should consider coordinated safety promotion and injury prevention programmes as a complement to national safety promotion framework. PMID:17729134

Ekman, Robert; Kaasik, Taie; Villerusa, Anita; Starkuviene, Skirmante; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I

2007-09-01

236

Baltic Sea Ice Regional Indices and their relationship with atmospheric circulation patterns and maritime navigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baltic navigation and urban activities of the coastal communities around the Baltic Sea depended always very much on the ice conditions in the sea. The sea ice occurs different in form and amount, depending on the sea area and the winter season. The aim of the work was the investigation of influence of atmospheric circulation patterns on sea ice condition of Baltic Sea (by the sea ice regional indices). The atmospheric circulation patterns were represented by the German Weather Service's - Grosswetterlagen. The relationship between the ice severity indices and icebreakers activities (number of cases, in which the Swedish and Finnish icebreakers assisted the ships) were investigated. The work was done under the Seaman project (Norwegian Financial Mechanism)

Sztobryn, M.; Kowalska, B.

2009-04-01

237

Long-chain alkenone patterns in the Baltic Sea - An ocean-freshwater transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two different patterns of long-chain alkenones are found in surficial sediments of the Baltic Sea, which is the largest brackish water body on Earth. One pattern occurs in surficial sediments from the Western Baltic Sea where surface-water salinitiy is in excess of 7.7 PSU. It corresponds to the pattern produced by the marine coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi with a suite of C 37 di- to tetra-unsaturated methyl ketones and C 38 di- and tri-unsaturated methyl and ethyl ketones. A second pattern, resembling that found in lake sediments in lacking C 38 methyl ketones and having distinctly higher C 37:4 methyl ketone concentrations, dominates in surficial sediments of the eastern and northern Baltic Sea, where salinities are lower than 7.7 PSU. Correspondence of sea-surface temperature (SST) estimates from the U37K and U37K' indices (using marine calibrations) with mean SST in the euphotic zone from July-August (the main haptophyte growth season) is poor. Thus, these indices are not applicable as sedimentary thermometers in surficial sediments of the Baltic Sea. The different patterns may either reflect the salinity-dependent occurrence of specific alkenone producers or changes in the alkenone biosynthesis due to physiological stress caused by salinity variations. Furthermore, advection of saline and oxygenated North Sea water may transport marine algal material characterized by a marine E. huxleyi-like alkenone pattern into the western Baltic Sea, thus covering the signature of the local alkenone producers with a Baltic Sea pattern.

Schulz, Hans-Martin; Schöner, Anne; Emeis, Kay-Christian

2000-02-01

238

Non-tidal loading by the Baltic Sea: comparison of modelled deformation with GNSS time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baltic Sea is a well-monitored semi-enclosed sea in northern Europe. The mass variations of the Baltic Sea are mostly due to atmospheric pressure changes and wind, which redistribute the water within the basin and also govern the so-called fill level, the amount of water exchange with the North Sea. The variations in the sea level can be abrupt and and large, for example during storms. The variable load may cause significant effects in geodetic measurements, especially near the coastline. We have computed the time series of non-tidal loading due to Baltic Sea for 193 stations in northern Europe. These stations are used for GNSS, absolute and relative gravity measurements and other geodetic observations.. We have used hourly observations of the sea level at the tide gauges of the Baltic Operational Oceanographic Service (BOOS, http://boos.org) to estimate the momentary sea level over the whole basin of the Baltic Sea. These sea level models are then convolved with Green's functions for the Gutenberg-Bullen Earth model using program SPOTL (Agnew, 2012, http://escholarship.org/uc/item/954322pg) to obtain gravity change, deformation in three dimensions and change in tilt and strain. The time period is four years, February 2008 to February 2012. The time series could be used for several purposes, e.g. for the studies of other error sources, to create stable time series and also to correct campaign measurements, which take place in varying conditions. In this study we have compared the computed deformation to coordinate changes measured by GNSS at selected stations around the Baltic Sea. We use two different daily time series of GNSS positions: the PPP (Precise Point Positioning) time series provided by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL, http://sideshow.jpl.nasa.gov/post/series.html) and a double difference solution computed at our institute.

Nordman, Maaria; Virtanen, Heikki; Nyberg, Sonja; Mäkinen, Jaakko; Virtanen, Jenni

2013-04-01

239

Ctenophore population recruits entirely through larval reproduction in the central Baltic Sea  

PubMed Central

The comb jelly Mertensia ovum, widely distributed in Arctic regions, has recently been discovered in the northern Baltic Sea. We show that M. ovum also exists in the central Baltic but that the population consists solely of small-sized larvae (less than 1.6 mm). Despite the absence of adults, eggs were abundant. Experiments revealed that the larvae were reproductively active. Egg production and anticipated mortality rates suggest a self-sustaining population. This is the first account of a ctenophore population entirely recruiting through larval reproduction (paedogenesis). We hypothesize that early reproduction is favoured over growth to compensate for high predation pressure.

Jaspers, Cornelia; Haraldsson, Matilda; Bolte, Soren; Reusch, Thorsten B. H.; Thygesen, Uffe H.; Ki?rboe, Thomas

2012-01-01

240

Diseases and injuries associated with mortality of hatchery reared Baltic cod (Gadus morhua L.) larvae.  

PubMed

A cod hatching plant was established in 1992 on the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea in order to elucidate the possibilities for restocking of cod fry in this brackishwater system. The disease prevalence in 3 batches of hatchery-reared yolksac larvae from the Baltic cod (Gadus morhua L.) was monitored during the posthatch period. High prevalences of bacteriosis/mycosis, lordosis/scoliosis, injuries and protozoan endoparasitism were recorded. Vibrio sp. and Vibrio anguillarum serovar 04, 06, 08 in addition to nontypable strains and saprolegniaceous fungi were isolated from the larvae. The dinoflagellate-like endoparasites were located in the yolksac of the cod larvae. PMID:8147291

Buchmann, K; Larsen, J L; Dalsgaard, I

1993-01-01

241

Range expansion of mutualists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The expansion of a species into new territory is often strongly influenced by the presence of other species. This effect is particularly striking for the case of mutualistic species that enhance each other's proliferation. Examples range from major events in evolutionary history, such as the spread and diversification of flowering plants due to their mutualism with pollen-dispersing insects, to modern examples like the surface colonisation of multi-species microbial biofilms. Here, we investigate the spread of cross-feeding strains of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on an agar surface as a model system for expanding mutualists. Depending on the degree of mutualism, the two strains form distinctive spatial patterns during their range expansion. This change in spatial patterns can be understood as a phase transition within a stepping stone model generalized to two mutualistic species.

Muller, Melanie J. I.; Korolev, Kirill S.; Murray, Andrew W.; Nelson, David R.

2012-02-01

242

EXPANSION NOW!: HAITI, \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to analyze Frederick Douglass' responses to U.S. empire formation in Santo Domingo, between 1870-1872, and in Haiti, between 1889-1891. As U.S. Minister to Haiti and as Assistant Secretary of U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant's commission to annex the Dominican Republic, Douglass fully supported the virtues of U.S. expansion and U.S. Pan-American- ism as long as it promoted

Millery Polyné

2006-01-01

243

Tissue expansion in perspective.  

PubMed Central

Tissue expansion is a recent advance in skin cover technique. Its empirical use has enabled many previously difficult reconstructions to be completed without recourse to distant flaps. Its high complication rate and lack of basic scientific understanding at present restrict its use to selected cases, but the quality of repairs possible by this method encourage further serious scientific study. Images fig. 1 fig. 2 fig. 3 fig. 4 fig. 5

Sharpe, D. T.; Burd, R. M.

1989-01-01

244

Ideal Gas Expansion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Ideal Gas Expansion model simulates a two-dimensional ideal gas in a square box. This simulation can be used as part of the activity described in "The Statistical Interpretation of Entropy: An Activity" by Todd Timberlake, to be published in The Physics Teacher. In the model, the particles are initially all on the left (red) side of the box with otherwise random positions and random velocities (distributed according to a Maxwell distribution). Separate windows show the motion of the gas particles, a plot of the number of particles on each side versus time, and a histogram of the number of occurrences of a given number of particles on the left. The user can modify this simulation if EJS is installed locally by right-clicking within the plot and selecting "Open Ejs Model" from the pop-up menu item. EJS Ideal Gas Expansion model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_entropy_IdealGasExpansion.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. EJS is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional EJS models re available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or EJS.

Timberlake, Todd

2010-06-18

245

Thermal expansion of glassy polymers.  

PubMed

The thermal expansion of a number of glassy polymers of interest in dentistry has been studied using a quartz dilatometer. In some cases, the expansion was linear and therefore the coefficient of thermal expansion readily determined. Other polymers exhibited non-linear behaviour and values appropriate to different temperature ranges are quoted. The linear coefficient of thermal expansion was, to a first approximation, a function of both the molar volume and van der Waal's volume of the repeating unit. PMID:1472592

Davy, K W; Braden, M

1992-01-01

246

The Thermal Expansion Of Feldspars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hovis and others (1) investigated the thermal expansion of natural and synthetic AlSi3 feldspars and demonstrated that the coefficient of thermal expansion (alpha) decreases significantly, and linearly, with increasing room-temperature volume (VRT). In all such feldspars, therefore, chemical expansion limits thermal expansion. The scope of this work now has been broadened to include plagioclase and Ba-K feldspar crystalline solutions. X-ray

G. L. Hovis; A. Medford; M. Conlon

2009-01-01

247

International expansion of US retailers  

Microsoft Academic Search

US retailers do business in the largest and most affluent mass market in the world. However, they have reached a saturation point for some popular retail formats. US retailers are looking outside national borders for expansion opportunities. The Strategic International Retail Expansion (SIRE) model combines ideas presented in four separate theories to predict future expansion of these retailers.

Brenda Sternquist

1997-01-01

248

Construction Management: Planning Ahead.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains that preconstruction planning is essential when undertaking the challenges of a school building renovation or expansion, focusing on developing a detailed estimate, creating an effective construction strategy, conducting reviews and value-engineering workshops, and realizing savings through effective risk analysis and contingency…

Arsht, Steven

2003-01-01

249

Construction Management: Planning Ahead.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains that preconstruction planning is essential when undertaking the challenges of a school building renovation or expansion, focusing on developing a detailed estimate, creating an effective construction strategy, conducting reviews and value-engineering workshops, and realizing savings through effective risk analysis and contingency…

Arsht, Steven

2003-01-01

250

Nd isotope signature of Holocene Baltic Mn/Fe precipitates as monitor of climate change during the Little Ice Age  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neodymium (Nd) isotope profiles were analyzed on two Baltic Mn/Fe precipitates (99/2 and TL1) from shallow water (20 m) of the Mecklenburg Bay. The age range of these Mn/Fe precipitates determined by 226Raex/Ba dating reaches from recent growth back to ˜4300 and 1000 yr BP, respectively. Over this time range, the Nd isotope composition varies from ?Nd (0) = -13.1 to -17.5 in the selected Baltic precipitates indicating substantial changes in the Nd isotope composition of the Baltic Sea. The lowest ?Nd values were recorded during the time interval of the Little Ice Age (LIA, AD ˜1350 to 1850). These minimum values indicate either an increase of the input of less radiogenic Nd from Scandinavian Archean-Proterozoic sources (?Nd about -22) to the Baltic Sea or a decrease of the input of more radiogenic Nd from continental European sources (?Nd about -12) and/or North Sea water (?Nd about -10). Variations of both, erosive continental input and North Sea inflow may indicate a direct response of the Nd isotope signal in the Baltic Sea to climate changes during the LIA and be related to cyclic shifts in the atmospheric circulation triggered by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Another aspect that possibly influenced the input of trace elements and Nd isotopes into the Baltic Sea is the population development in the circum Baltic area during the LIA. The lowest ?Nd values also correspond to the medieval demographic crises that led to a significant decrease of agricultural activity and farmland. The reduction of soil erosion and enhanced regrowth of natural vegetation may have changed the amount and proportions of dissolved and suspended particulate matter transported into the Baltic Sea by rivers which in turn may have resulted in a change of the Nd isotope composition of Baltic Sea water.

Bock, B.; Liebetrau, V.; Eisenhauer, A.; Frei, R.; Leipe, T.

2005-05-01

251

Assessment of the Present and Future Offshore Wind Power Potential: A Case Study in a Target Territory of the Baltic Sea Near the Latvian Coast  

PubMed Central

Offshore wind energy development promises to be a significant domestic renewable energy source in Latvia. The reliable prediction of present and future wind resources at offshore sites is crucial for planning and selecting the location for wind farms. The overall goal of this paper is the assessment of offshore wind power potential in a target territory of the Baltic Sea near the Latvian coast as well as the identification of a trend in the future wind energy potential for the study territory. The regional climate model CLM and High Resolution Limited Area Model (Hirlam) simulations were used to obtain the wind climatology data for the study area. The results indicated that offshore wind energy is promising for expanding the national electricity generation and will continue to be a stable resource for electricity generation in the region over the 21st century.

Teilans, Artis

2013-01-01

252

Assessment of the present and future offshore wind power potential: a case study in a target territory of the Baltic Sea near the Latvian coast.  

PubMed

Offshore wind energy development promises to be a significant domestic renewable energy source in Latvia. The reliable prediction of present and future wind resources at offshore sites is crucial for planning and selecting the location for wind farms. The overall goal of this paper is the assessment of offshore wind power potential in a target territory of the Baltic Sea near the Latvian coast as well as the identification of a trend in the future wind energy potential for the study territory. The regional climate model CLM and High Resolution Limited Area Model (Hirlam) simulations were used to obtain the wind climatology data for the study area. The results indicated that offshore wind energy is promising for expanding the national electricity generation and will continue to be a stable resource for electricity generation in the region over the 21st century. PMID:23983619

Lizuma, Lita; Avotniece, Zanita; Rupainis, Sergejs; Teilans, Artis

2013-07-29

253

BASIC: Baltic Sea cyanobacteria. An investigation of the structure and dynamics of water blooms of cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea—responses to a changing environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blooms of cyanobacteria that develop each summer in the Baltic Sea are composed of two functional groups, namely the small-sized picocyanobacteria (Synechococcus sp.) and the larger, colony-forming, filamentous N2-fixing cyanobacteria. The former encompassed both red (phycoerythrin-rich) and blue-green (phycocyanin-rich) species. The majority of the picocyanobacteria measured less than 1?m and this size fraction comprised as much as 80% of

Lucas J. Stal; Patrizia Albertano; Birgitta Bergman; Klaus von Bröckel; John R. Gallon; Paul K. Hayes; Kaarina Sivonen; Anthony E. Walsby

2003-01-01

254

Baltic soil survey: total concentrations of major and selected trace elements in arable soils from 10 countries around the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural soils were collected from 10 European countries over a 1800000 km2 area surrounding the Baltic Sea. The sampling density was 1 site\\/2500 km2. Two samples were taken at each site: topsoil 0–25 cm (ploughing layer, Ap-horizon) and subsoil (bottom samples, usually B- or C-horizon) at an approximate depth of 50–75 cm, well below the ploughed layer. The samples were

C Reimann; U Siewers; T Tarvainen; L Bityukova; J Eriksson; A Gilucis; V Gregorauskiene; V Lukashev; N. N Matinian; A Pasieczna

2000-01-01

255

Load regulating expansion fixture  

DOEpatents

A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig.

Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

1998-12-15

256

Load regulating expansion fixture  

DOEpatents

A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components.

Wagner, Lawrence M. (San Jose, CA); Strum, Michael J. (San Jose, CA)

1998-01-01

257

Vacuum driven accelerated expansion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been shown that an improved estimation of quantum vacuum energy can yield not only acceptable but also experimentally sensible results. The very idea consists in a straightforward extraction of gravitationally interacting part of the full quantum vacuum energy by means of gauge transformations. The implementation of the idea has been performed in the formalism of effective action, in the language of Schwinger's proper time and the Seeley-DeWitt heat kernel expansion, in the background of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker geometry.

Broda, B.; Bronowski, P.; Ostrowski, M.; Szanecki, M.

2008-11-01

258

Feed intake, growth rate and body composition of juvenile Baltic salmon exposed to different constant temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feed intake, specific growth rate and changes in body composition of age 1+ and 2+ Baltic salmon, Salmo salar L, were studied for fish held under constant temperature conditions. The 1+ fish (60 g) were reared for 6 weeks at 11, 15, 17, 19 or 23 °C and 2+ fish (250 g) were held at 15 °C. Feed intake of

J. Koskela; J. Pirhonen; M. Jobling

1997-01-01

259

Diet and growth of pikeperch ( Stizostedion lucioperca L.) in a Baltic Sea area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diet of the freshwater fish pikeperch (Stizostedion lucioperca L.), inhabiting Himmerfjärden bay in the northern Baltic Sea proper, is dominated by prey of marine origin: crustaceans, gobies (Pomatoschistus sp.) and herring (Clupea harengus L.). At a length of 10 cm, the stomach contents consist of roughly equal proportions of fish and crustaceans. The proportion of crustaceans decreases with the

Sture Hansson; Fredrik Arrhenius; Sture Nellbring

1997-01-01

260

The 1810s in the Baltic region, 1816 in particular: Air temperatures, grain supply and mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mean acidity of the ice core from Crête, Central Greenland, for the layer dating to 1816, one year after Tambora's eruption, has been found by Hammer, Clausen and Dansgaard (1980) to be nearly three times greater than that of the layer dating to 1884, one year after Krakatau's eruption. Despite the aforementioned fact, air-temperature data of the Baltic meteorological

J. Neumann

1990-01-01

261

ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF COOLING WATER DISCHARGE ON HYDROLITTORAL EPILITHIC DIATOM COMMUNITIES IN THE NORTHERN BALTIC SEA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discharge of brackish cooling water from a nuclear power plant on the Swedish Baltic coast has major effects on the species composition, biomass and seasonal variation of epilithic diatom communities in the hydrolittoral zone. Greatest effects occur in winter and early spring, when enormous diatom blooms are caused by the higher water temperatures (6–10°C above natural level) and by

P. J. M. Snoeijs

1989-01-01

262

A model of the yearly cycle of nutrients and plankton in the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of plankton dynamics in parts of the Baltic Sea is constructed which is as simple as possible but able to simulate the yearly cycle of nutrients and plankton in a horizontally averaged two layer system. State variables are limiting nutrients, phytoplankton, Zooplankton and detritus expressed by concentrations relative to a certain density of limiting nutrients. The physical control

W. Fennel

1995-01-01

263

Model studies of transport of sedimentary material in the western Baltic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theoretical description of sedimentation, resuspension and transport of sedimentary material is an important prerequisite for the modeling of the benthic–pelagic interaction, the impact of dumping on the coastal environment and the fluxes of material from coastal areas into the deep basins. The present study aims at model studies of the transport of sedimentary material in parts of the Baltic

Christiane Kuhrts; Wolfgang Fennel; Torsten Seifert

2004-01-01

264

Aeromonas hydrophila septicaemia in a grey seal ( Halichoerus grypus) from the Baltic Sea: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aeromonas hydrophila septicaemia in a grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) from the Swedish part of the Baltic Sea is reported. The pathogen was isolated from both lung and spleen specimens. All of the A. hydrophila isolates produced haemolysin and Vero active cytotoxin. The aerolysin gene was found in all tested isolates as evidenced by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Also,

Karel Krovacek; Kui Huang; Susanna Sternberg; Stefan B Svenson

1998-01-01

265

Environmental Safety in Baltic Sea Oil Transportation - Global Regimes and Regional Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Despite significant efforts to improve environmental safety in Baltic Sea oil transportation, the risk of amajor accident with devastating oil spills has most likely increased. In this article, it is argued that unilateral and sub-regional initiatives may increase maritime safety significantly, compared to exclu- sive reliance on international environmental ,conventions. An analytic ,distinction is made ,between stationary and non-stationary

Björn Hassler

2008-01-01

266

Distribution and relationships between selected chemical elements in green alga Enteromorpha sp. from the southern Baltic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Mn) and macroelements (K, Na, Ca and Mg) were determined in green alga Enteromorpha sp. from the coastal zone of the southern Baltic including Gulf of Gda?sk and Vistula Lagoon in 2000–2003. In order to estimate the degree of accumulation of each element by the green alga, concentration and

Rados?aw ?bikowski; Piotr Szefer; Adam Lata?a

2006-01-01

267

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and sediment of the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1992 and 1994, the distribution of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated in seawater and surface sediments of the Baltic Sea. The analysis of PAHs in seawater is very difficult due to the low concentration. High separation capability is required. A method for analysing very low concentrations of PAHs is presented. The method is based on the high-performance

G. Witt

1995-01-01

268

Shift from denitrification to anammox after inflow events in the central Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incubation experiments with 15N-labeled compounds (NO { 3 and NH z 4 ) were performed during three cruises (2002, 2004, and 2005) to study the loss of inorganic N as dinitrogen gas (N2) via denitrification and anammox in the water column of the Gotland Deep (central Baltic Sea). 15N incubations did not provide evidence for direct conversion of NO {

M. Hannig; G. Lavik; M. M. M. Kuypers; K. Jurgens

2007-01-01

269

Food and habitat choice of the isopod Idotea baltica in the northeastern Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isopod Idotea baltica is the most important benthic herbivore in the Baltic Sea. There exists a significant correlation between the distribution of the adult isopod and the belts of bladder wrack Fucus vesiculosus. However, following the eutrophication induced blooms of the filamentous macroalga Pilayella littoralis and the disappearance of F. vesiculosus a notable increase in idoteid abundances has been observed.

Helen Orav-Kotta; Jonne Kotta

2004-01-01

270

Cultural and Linguistic Diversity of the Baltic States in a New Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language questions are increasingly on the agenda in Europe. This paper addresses some problematic aspects of language teaching and learning that have come to the fore in the Baltic states after the European Union enlargement of 2004. First, the paper aims at providing relevant information about language policies in the former USSR and the…

Savickien, Ineta; Kaledaite, Violeta

2005-01-01

271

Small-scale diffusion experiments in the Baltic surface-mixed layer under different weather conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the experiment “Baltic '75” east of Bornholm, in May 1975 dye mixing experiments were carried out in the surface-mixed layer on scales of less than a few hundred meters. The dye was measured by aerial photography and synoptic concentration distributions were calculated from the colour photographs by a computerized processing method and by use of a towed fluorometer for

Friedrich Schott; Mafred Ehlers; Lutz Hubrich; Detlef Quadfasel

1978-01-01

272

Recovering the voice of the oppressed: Master, slave, and serf in the Baltic provinces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historians writing about the Baltic provinces allude to the harsh life of the peasants, but since the peasants did not leave their own historical records, their voice has been absent from scholars' accounts of the 700-years period of German domination. The elusive voice of the peasants may be found in the Latvian folk songs or dainas. The dainas inform us

Maruta Lieti?a Ray

2003-01-01

273

Associations of Cyanobacterial Toxin, Nodularin, with Environmental Factors and Zooplankton in the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of a cyanobacterial toxin, nodularin, were measured in the Baltic Sea in 1998 and 1999. Statistical associations of nodularin concentrations with environmental factors were tested by multiple regression analysis. To reveal the toxin-producing organism, colonies of Aphanizomenon and filaments of Nodularia were picked and analyzed for peptide toxins. It was also investigated whether there was an association with zooplankton

S. Repka; M. Meyerhöfer; K. von Bröckel; K. Sivonen

2004-01-01

274

Fishermen responses on marine protected areas in the Baltic cod fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the research that concerns the impacts of management measures in the eastern Baltic cod fishery has focused on fish stock rather than understanding fishermen's attitudes towards regulations. Hence, there is little information available on fishermen's responses although they are the ones whom the regulations affect most profoundly. This study analyses the views of fishermen towards management measures with

Petri Suuronen; Pekka Jounela; Vesa Tschernij

2010-01-01

275

Results of a Five Year Survey of the Distribution of Urea in the Baltic Sea,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The vertical distribution of urea has been determined during a five year period (from June 1976 to May 1981) at 21 different stations in the Baltic Sea on samples collected during 20 cruises. Results show pronounced seasonal variations with the highest co...

J. C. Valderrama

1987-01-01

276

Toxic, essential and non-essential metals in harbour porpoises of the Polish Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of Hg, Cd, Pb, Ag, Zn, Cu and Mn in liver, kidney, muscle, lung, heart and diaphragm of harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) from the Polish Baltic Sea were determined. Distinct inter-tissue differentiation in metal concentrations was noted; liver showed maximum concentrations of Ag, Cu and Mn; kidney had the greatest concentrations of Cd and Pb while diaphragm contained most

P. Szefer; M. Malinga; W. Czarnowski; K. Skóra

1995-01-01

277

Bloom forming Alexandrium ostenfeldii (Dinophyceae) in shallow waters of the Åland Archipelago, Northern Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past years, late summer blooms of the bioluminescent dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii have become a recurrent phenomenon in coastal waters of the central and Northern Baltic Sea. This paper reports exceptionally high cell concentrations (105 to 106cellsL?1) of the species found during bioluminescent blooms in 2003 and 2004 in a shallow embayment of the Åland archipelago at the SW

Anke Kremp; Tore Lindholm; Nicole Dreßler; Katrin Erler; Gunnar Gerdts; Sanna Eirtovaara; Elina Leskinen

2009-01-01

278

Screening level fish community risk assessment of chemical warfare agents in the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical warfare agents (CWAs) have been disposed of in various fashions over the past decades. Significant amounts (?11,000tonnes) have been dumped in the Baltic Sea east of the island Bornholm following the disarmament of Germany after World War II, causing concerns over potential environmental risks. Absence of risk based on assumptions of extremely low solubility of CWAs cannot alone dismiss

Hans Sanderson; Patrik Fauser; Marianne Thomsen; Peter B. Sørensen

2008-01-01

279

Marshak Lectureship Talk: Women in Physics in the Baltic States Region: Problems and Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this contribution the gender equality problem in physics will be discussed on the basis of the results obtained implementing the project ``Baltic States Network: Women in Sciences and High Technology'' (BASNET) initiated by Lithuanian women physicists and financed by European Commission. The main goal of BASNET project was creation of the regional Strategy how to deal with women in

Dalia Satkovskiene

2008-01-01

280

Mesozooplankton resting eggs in the Baltic Sea: identification and vertical distribution in laminated and mixed sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benthic resting eggs of rotifers, cladocerans and calanoid copepods were studied at two sites with different hydrographical and sediment properties off the SW coast of Finland, the northern Baltic Sea between 1991 and 1993. Vertical distribution of the resting eggs in the sediment was studied down to 10 cm depth, and hatching of the eggs extracted from different 1-cm thick

M. Viitasalo; T. Katajisto

1994-01-01

281

Long-term spatial variations in the Baltic Sea wave fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on spatial patterns in linear trends of numerically reconstructed basic wave properties (average and extreme wave heights, wave periods) in the Baltic Sea under the assumption of no ice cover. Numerical simulations of wave conditions for 1970-2007, using the WAM wave model and adjusted geostrophic winds, revealed extensive spatial variations in long-term changes in both average and extreme wave heights in the Baltic Sea but almost no changes in the basinwide wave activity and wave periods. There has been a statistically significant decrease in the annual mean significant wave height by more than 10% between the islands of Öland and Gotland and in the southward sea area, and a substantial increase to the south-west of Bornholm, near the coast of Latvia, between the Åland Archipelago and the Swedish mainland, and between the Bothnian Sea and the Bothnian Bay. Variations in extreme wave heights (defined as the threshold for 1% of the highest waves each year) show similar patterns of changes. In several areas the trends in average and extreme wave heights are different. Such a complicated pattern of changes indicates that (i) different regions of the Baltic Sea basin have experienced widespread but essentially different changes in wind properties and (ii) many seemingly controversial trends and variations established in wave properties at different sites in the recent past may reflect the natural spatial variability in the Baltic Sea wave fields.

Soomere, T.; Räämet, A.

2011-02-01

282

Detecting transport barriers using Lagrangian descriptors with applications to the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method of Lagrangian descriptors developed by A. Mancho and co-workers in [1] has been applied by the authors to the dynamics of the water masses in the Arkona Basin and the Bornholm Basin in the South Western Baltic Sea. The South Western Baltic Sea is the region where water exchange between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea takes place. It is characterized by mixing between salty, cold North Sea water masses and brackish, warm Baltic Sea water masses in winter and stratification in summer. The Lagrangian descriptor is used to identify eddy cores and stable and unstable manifolds in the velocity field in the Arkona Basin and in the Bornholm Basin in February 2006 and July 2006. The results for February and July for each Basin are compared to illustrate differences in the dynamics between summer and winter. Furthermore, the results of the Lagrangian descriptor are compared with the dynamics of the salinity field, the temperature field and the density field in the Arkona Basin and in the Bornholm Basin in February and July 2006. This is done to show that the identified structures fit the structure in the dynamics of the temperature field, the salinity field and the density field. [1] Jimenez-Madrid, J., and Mancho, A.: Distinguished trajectories in time dependent vector fields. Chaos 19 (2009), 013111-1-18.

Vortmeyer, Rahel; Gräwe, Ulf; Feudel, Ulrike

2013-04-01

283

Long-term spatial variations in the Baltic Sea wave fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on spatial patterns in linear trends of numerically reconstructed basic wave properties (average and extreme wave heights, wave period) in the Baltic Sea. Numerical simulations of wave conditions for 1970-2007, using the WAM wave model and adjusted geostrophic winds, revealed extensive spatial variations in long-term changes in both average and extreme wave heights in the Baltic Sea but almost no changes in the basinwide wave activity and wave periods. There has been a statistically significant decrease in the annual mean significant wave height by more than 10% between the islands of Öland and Gotland and in the southward sea area, and a substantial increase to the south-west of Bornholm, near the coast of Latvia, between Åland and the Swedish mainland, and between the Bothnian Sea and the Bothnian Bay. Variations in extreme wave heights (defined as the threshold for 1% of the highest waves each year) show similar patterns of changes. In several areas the trends in average and extreme wave heights are different. Such a complicated pattern of changes indicates that (i) different regions of the Baltic Sea basin have experienced widespread but essentially different changes in wind properties and (ii) many seemingly controversial trends and variations established in wave properties at different sites in the recent past may reflect the natural spatial variability in the Baltic Sea wave fields.

Soomere, T.; Räämet, A.

2010-11-01

284

Density and Absolute Salinity of the Baltic Sea 2006-2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brackish water of the Baltic Sea is a mixture of ocean water from the Atlantic\\/North Sea with fresh water from various rivers draining a large area of lowlands and mountain ranges. The evaporation-precipitation balance results in an additional but minor excess of fresh water. The rivers carry different loads of salts washed out of the ground, in particular calcium

R. Feistel; S. Weinreben; H. Wolf; S. Seitz; P. Spitzer; B. Adel; G. Nausch; B. Schneider; D. G. Wright

2010-01-01

285

Density and Absolute Salinity of the Baltic Sea 2006-2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The brackish water of the Baltic Sea is a mixture of ocean water from the Atlantic/North Sea with fresh water from various rivers draining a large area of lowlands and mountain ranges. The evaporation-precipitation balance results in an additional but minor excess of fresh water. The rivers carry different loads of salts washed out of the ground, in particular calcium carbonate, which cause a composition anomaly of the salt dissolved in the Baltic Sea in comparison to Standard Seawater. Directly measured seawater density shows a related anomaly when compared to the density computed from the equation of state as a function of Practical Salinity, temperature and pressure. Samples collected from different regions of the Baltic Sea during 2006-2009 were analysed for their density anomaly. The results obtained for the river load deviate significantly from similar measurements carried out forty years ago; the reasons for this decadal variability are not yet fully understood. An empirical formula is derived which estimates Absolute from Practical Salinity of Baltic Sea water, to be used in conjunction with the new Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater 2010 (TEOS-10), endorsed by IOC/UNESCO in June 2009 as the substitute for the 1980 International Equation of State, EOS-80. Our routine measurements of the samples were accompanied by studies of additional selected properties which are reported here: conductivity, density, chloride, bromide and sulphate content, total CO2 and alkalinity.

Feistel, R.; Weinreben, S.; Wolf, H.; Seitz, S.; Spitzer, P.; Adel, B.; Nausch, G.; Schneider, B.; Wright, D. G.

2010-01-01

286

Density and Absolute Salinity of the Baltic Sea 2006-2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brackish water of the Baltic Sea is a mixture of ocean water from the Atlantic\\/North Sea with fresh water from various rivers draining a large area of lowlands and mountain ranges. The evaporation-precipitation balance results in an additional but minor excess of fresh water. The rivers carry different loads of salts washed out of the ground, in particular calcium

R. Feistel; S. Weinreben; H. Wolf; S. Seitz; P. Spitzer; B. Adel; G. Nausch; B. Schneider; D. G. Wright

2009-01-01

287

Density and Absolute Salinity of the Baltic Sea 2006-2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The brackish water of the Baltic Sea is a mixture of ocean water from the Atlantic/North Sea with fresh water from various rivers draining a large area of lowlands and mountain ranges. The evaporation-precipitation balance results in an additional but minor excess of fresh water. The rivers carry different loads of salts washed out of the ground, in particular calcium carbonate, which cause a composition anomaly of the salt dissolved in the Baltic Sea in comparison to Standard Seawater. Directly measured seawater density shows a related anomaly when compared to the density computed from the equation of state as a function of Practical Salinity, temperature and pressure. Samples collected from different regions of the Baltic Sea during 2006-2009 were analysed for their density anomaly. The results obtained for the river load deviate significantly from similar measurements carried out forty years ago; the reasons for this decadal variability are not yet fully understood. An empirical formula is derived which estimates Absolute from Practical Salinity of Baltic Sea water, to be used in conjunction with the new Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater 2010 (TEOS-10), endorsed by IOC/UNESCO in June 2009 as the substitute for the 1980 International Equation of State, EOS-80. Our routine measurements of the samples were accompanied by studies of additional selected properties which are reported here: conductivity, density, chloride, bromide and sulphate content, total CO2 and alkalinity.

Feistel, R.; Weinreben, S.; Wolf, H.; Seitz, S.; Spitzer, P.; Adel, B.; Nausch, G.; Schneider, B.; Wright, D. G.

2009-08-01

288

Modelling the uptake and release of carbon dioxide in the Baltic Sea surface water  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present and analyse a fully coupled physical–biogeochemical model of the uptake and release of carbon dioxide in the Baltic Sea. The modelling includes the interaction between physical (stratification, temperature, salinity, penetration of solar radiation, and ice), chemical (total alkalinity, pH, dissolved inorganic carbon, oxygen, and nutrients), and biological processes (plankton and dissolved organic carbon (DOC)). These processes have been

Anders Omstedt; Erik Gustafsson; Karin Wesslander

2009-01-01

289

Quantitative Real-Time PCR Detection of Toxic Nodularia Cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea?  

PubMed Central

A specific quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) method was developed for the quantification of hepatotoxin nodularin-producing Nodularia, one of the main bloom-forming cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea. Specific PCR primers were designed for subunit F of the nodularin synthetase gene (ndaF), which encodes the NdaF subunit of the nodularin synthetase gene complex needed for nodularin production. The qPCR method was applied to water samples (a total of 120 samples) collected from the Baltic Sea in July 2004. As few as 30 ndaF gene copies ml?1 of seawater could be detected, and thus, the method was very sensitive. The ndaF gene copy numbers and nodularin concentrations were shown to correlate in the Baltic seawater, indicating the constant production of nodularin by Nodularia. This qPCR method for the ndaF gene can be used for detailed studies of Nodularia blooms and their formation. ndaF gene copies and nodularin were detected mostly in the surface water but also in deeper water layers (down to 30 m). Toxic Nodularia blooms are not only horizontally but also vertically widely distributed, and thus, the Baltic fauna is extensively exposed to nodularin.

Koskenniemi, Kerttu; Lyra, Christina; Rajaniemi-Wacklin, Pirjo; Jokela, Jouni; Sivonen, Kaarina

2007-01-01

290

Birds of the Baltic Region: Ecology and Migrations (Ekologiya I Migratsii Ptits Pribaltiki).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Fourth Baltic Ornithological Conference took place in Latvia. The present publication is a collection of reports and papers read at the Conference. The material is divided into several parts, beginning with a review of the work of the Conference, and ...

1968-01-01

291

Lateglacial of Lake Onega — Contribution to the history of the eastern Baltic basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

New stratigraphy data especially diatom analyses are presented from the area north of Lake Onega relevant to the discussion on possible Lateglacial connection between the Baltic Sea and White Sea. Following the deglaciation 12,000–11,000 years ago Lake Onega basin was occupied by a system of ice dammed lakes which drained to the Lake Ladoga basin. When the ice retreated from

Matti Saarnisto; Tuulikki Grönlund; Ilpo Ekman

1995-01-01

292

A new species of Diochus from Baltic amber (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Diochini).  

PubMed

The first fossil of the staphylinine tribe Diochini Casey is described and figured from an inclusion in mid-Eocene (Lutetian) Baltic amber. Diochus electrussp. n. is distinguished from its congeners and the diversity of rove beetles (Staphylinidae s.l.) is summarized briefly. PMID:22144854

Chatzimanolis, Stylianos; Engel, Michael S

2011-10-19

293

Fossil Velvet Worms in Baltic and Dominican Amber: Onychophoran Evolution and Biogeography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Velvet worms identified in Baltic and Dominican amber demonstrate that terrestrial onychophorans were present in the early Tertiary. Characters of the amber fossils are similar to those of the Cambrian Aysheaia and the Pennsylvanian Helenodora, which suggests that these Paleozoic lobopods are ancestral to extant velvet worms. The presence of slime secretions in the Dominican amber fossil shows that the

George Poinar Jr.

1996-01-01

294

Genetic population structure of sympatric and allopatric populations of Baltic ciscoes (Coregonus albula complex, Teleostei, Coregonidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Teleost fishes of the Coregonidae are good model systems for studying postglacial evolution, adaptive radiation and ecological speciation. Of particular interest is whether the repeated occurrence of sympatric species pairs results from in-situ divergence from a single lineage or from multiple invasions of one or more different lineages. Here, we analysed the genetic structure of Baltic ciscoes (Coregonus albula

Thomas Mehner; Kirsten Pohlmann; Che Elkin; Michael T Monaghan; Barbara Nitz; Jörg Freyhof

2010-01-01

295

Language-in-Education across the Baltic: Policies, Practices and Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since their political reorientation that started in the late 1980s, the Baltic states have experienced profound social reforms to rebuild their democratizing societies. Education has featured as a key vehicle to this transformation process of overcoming the limitations of the Soviet past. National legislative frameworks were therefore soon…

Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle

2007-01-01

296

Civil society versus nationalizing state? Advocacy of minority rights in the post-socialist Baltic states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strong civil society provides individuals with arenas to bring their interests to the attention of policymakers. In so doing, civil society organizations (CSOs) can support state policies, but can also criticize policies. This paper argues that most minority rights advocacy CSOs in the Baltic states have little say in the crafting of policy and are compartmentalized into the existing agendas,

Timofey Agarin

2011-01-01

297

Evolutionary implications of discordant clines across the Baltic Mytilus hybrid zone (Mytilus edulis and Mytilus trossulus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well established that reproductive isolation often arises from genome incompatibilities and that genes encoding reproductive traits are less prone to introgression. Hybrid zones of Mytilus trossulus and Mytilus edulis provide an intriguing model to assess reproductive isolation. Although gene flow is restricted in North America, introgression is pervasive in the Baltic. This study aimed at analyzing the shape

H Stuckas; K Stoof; H Quesada; R Tiedemann

2009-01-01

298

Recalculated Areas for Maximum Ice Extents of the Baltic Sea During Winters 1971-2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

Publication of operational ice charts in Finland was started from the Baltic Sea in a year 1915. Until year 1993 all ice charts were hand drawn paper copies but in the year 1993 ice charting software IceMap was introduced. Since then all ice charts were produced digitally. Since the year 1996 IceMap has had an option that user can calculate

T. Niskanen; J. Vainio; P. Eriksson; I. Heiler

2009-01-01

299

The occurrence and depth penetration of macroalgae along environmental gradients in the northern Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eutrophication is known to affect the community structure of macroalgae by e.g. decreasing the depth penetration of species and by shifting dominance from perennial to annual species. However, there is substantial lack of knowledge in the Baltic Sea regarding the distribution of many of the macroalgal species, how natural environmental factors affect their occurrence and how they respond to eutrophication.

Henna Rinne; Sonja Salovius-Laurén; Johanna Mattila

2011-01-01

300

Impact of river basin management on coastal water quality and ecosystem services: A southern Baltic estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eutrophication management is still a major challenge in the Baltic Sea region. Estuaries or coastal waters linked to large rivers cannot be managed independently. Nutrient loads into these coastal ecosystems depend on processes, utilisation, structure and management in the river basin. In practise this means that we need a large scale approach and integrated models and tools to analyse, assess

Gerald Schernewski; Jens Hürdler; Thomas Neumann; Nardine Stybel; Markus Venohr

2010-01-01

301

Experimental evidence for interactions between bacterial peptidase and alkaline phosphatase activity in the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the observed pattern of aminopeptidase and alkaline phosphatase activities in the Baltic Sea, the question arose whether there is an interaction between the activities of both enzymes. In experiments with 0.8 µm filtered seawater, the effects of commercial alkaline phosphatase on bacterial aminopeptidase, the effects of commercial peptidase on bacterial alkaline phosphatase activity (APA), and the effects of proteins,

Monika Nausch

2000-01-01

302

The influence of upwelling and entrainment on the algal bloom in the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrodynamic processes control many geochemical and ecological processes in the sea. In this paper, the influence of up- and downwelling and entrainment on the ecosystem components are studied. The ecohydrodynamic model was initially used to simulate the whole Baltic Sea to get the boundary conditions for the Gulf of Riga. Then, to study the influence of different hydrodynamic conditions on

Peeter Ennet; Harri Kuosa; Rein Tamsalu

2000-01-01

303

Estimating uncertainties of projected Baltic Sea salinity in the late 21st century  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the uncertainty of projected precipitation and wind changes in regional climate change scenario simulations over Europe for the late 21st century is large, we applied a multi-model ensemble approach using 16 scenario simulations based upon seven regional models, five global models, and two emission scenarios to gain confidence in projected salinity changes in the Baltic Sea. In the dynamical

H. E. Markus Meier; Erik Kjellström; L. Phil Graham

2006-01-01

304

Language and Education Orientations in Lithuania: A Cross-Baltic Perspective Post-EU Accession  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents an up-to-date overview of language policies and practices in Lithuania, paying particular attention to the latest developments that have taken place in national educational contexts. Against the background of recent sociodemographic changes in the three Baltic republics, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, it analyzes issues…

Bulajeva, Tatjana; Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle

2008-01-01

305

234U and 238U isotopes in water and sediments of the southern Baltic.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to determine the concentration of 234U and 238U and calculate the values of the 234U/238U activity ratio in waters and sediments from the various regions of the southern Baltic Sea: Gda?sk Deep, S?upsk Narrow and Bornholm Deep. The concentration of uranium in analysed sediments from southern Baltic increase with core depth to what probably is connected with diffusion from sediments to water through interstitial water, where uranium concentration is much higher than in bottom water. The highest concentrations of uranium were observed in sediments of S?upsk Narrow (0.66-7.11 mg kg(-1) d.w.) and S?upsk Bank (0.61-6.93 mg kg(-1) d.w.), the lowest in sediments from Bornholm Deep (0.54-3.77 mg kg(-1) d.w.). The 234U/238U activity ratio results indicated that the sedimentation of terrigenic material and Vistula River transport are the general sources of uranium in the southern Baltic sediments. The value of 234U/238U activity ratio in sediments from reduction areas from southern Baltic (Gda?sk Deep and Bornholm Deep) indicated that reduction process of U(VI) to U(IV) and removing of anthropogenic uranium from seawater to sediments constitutes a small part only in Gda?sk Deep. PMID:14689997

Skwarzec, B; Bory?o, A; Strumi?ska, D

2002-01-01

306

Possibilities of utilizing alternative energy sources for combined heat supply systems in the Baltic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of alternative energy sources is an issue of major importance for the Baltic republics because of the limited supply of conventional energy resources. One of the ways to solve this problem could be the introduction of combined heat supply systems (CHSS). The combined heat supply systems are such systems where various energy sources in different regimes are made

P. Shipkovs; V. Grislis; V. Zebergs

1991-01-01

307

Experimental Analysis on Flow Expansion Over Fan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present experimental evidence on the occurrence of large angles of flow expansion with no flow separation over depositional fans. The evolution of a number of self-formed experimental fans was analyzed using overhead images and detailed topographic surveys. Angles of flow expansion up to 45 degrees were found in association with a characteristic bed curvature. Although precise measurements indicate that transverse curvature appeared to slightly decrease downstream over the fans, an approximately constant value of curvature of about 0.1 (r/W = 0.1, where r is the dimensional curvature and W is the maximum width of the fan) fits well all fan sections analyzed. In addition, we found that bed curvature shows a weak proportional dependence with fan expansion angles (alpha around 20 degrees, where alpha is the local plan angle). The curvature appears sufficient to explain the common occurrence of unchannelized, simple fans with opening angles, and hence rates of bedload divergence, much larger than would be predicted from jet theory. We have also analyzed fan development. In our experiments, an instability phenomenon causes a sudden increase in channel width, in association with the formation of a scour. A common development pattern was observed: the upstream-migrating scour initiates flow expansion, inducing in turn the formation of a transient concave heart-shaped fan shape that then slowly develops into a final, steady cone-shaped deposit. Most of the deposition appears to occur during the initial expansion phase. During final steady conditions, fans were also observed to reach values of L/0.5W (L is the final fan length and W is the fan width) approximately constant and in the range 2-4.

Sittoni, L.; Paola, C.

2005-12-01

308

Expansion Dynamics of Ultracold Neutral Plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultracold neutral plasmas [1], formed by photoionizing laser-cooled atoms near the ionization threshold, stretch the boundaries of traditional neutral plasma physics. The electron temperature in these plasmas is from 1-1000K and the ion temperature is around 1 K. The density can be as high as 10^10 cm-3. Fundamental interest stems from the possibility of creating strongly-coupled plasmas, but recent experimental and theoretical work has focused on the equilibration and expansion dynamics. Using optical absorption imaging [2], we study expansion dynamics during the first 30 microseconds after photoionization. Images record the spatial extent of the plasma, while the Doppler broadened absorption spectrum measures the ion velocity spectrally. The expansion is driven by the pressure of the electron gas, so the ion acceleration depends on the electron temperature. Evidence for terminal ion velocity supports predictions of adiabatic cooling of electrons during expansion [3]. Images confirm the self-similar nature of a Gaussian density distribution. Understanding expansion dynamics is important for plans to laser cool and trap the plasma. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation and David and Lucille Packard Foundation. [1] T. C. Killian, S. Kulin, S. D. Bergeson, L. A. Orozco, C. Orzel, and S. L. Rolston, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4776 (1999). [2] C. E. Simien, Y.C. Chen, P. Gupta, S. Laha, Y. N. Martinez, P. G. Mickelson, S. B. Nagel, T. C. Killian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 143001 (2004). [3] F. Robicheaux and J. D. Hanson, Phys. Plasmas 10, 2217 (2003), T. Pohl, T. Pattard, and J. M. Rost, Phys. Rev. A 70, 033416 (2004).

Killian, Thomas

2006-05-01

309

Decadal trends in simulated oxygen dynamics and hypoxia in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last century hypoxia is increasing in large parts of the Baltic Sea. Inflowing salt water brings new supplies of oxygen to the bottom water however is at the same time enhancing stratification and thereby creating favourable conditions for hypoxia. Moreover, it is the increased flux of organic material to the bottom water and sediments due to nutrient enrichment, which has disrupted the balance between oxygen supply through physical processes and oxygen consumption from decomposition of organic material. The aim of the present work is to explore the oxygen availability in the Baltic Sea on the base of the 3D numerical model GETM (General Estuarine Transport Model, http://getm.eu). The model is implemented for the whole Baltic Sea including the Kattegat and is forced with realistic sea-level and meteorological data. The simulated time period covers the years from 1960 until the end of 2010. The oxygen removal is assumed to be independent of the content of oxygen in the Baltic Sea and has been simply parameterized. Despite the simplistic approach taken for describing oxygen, the modelled oxygen concentrations agree well with independent observational data. This implies that the realistic modelling of the long term evolution of oxygen is requiring an accurate description of the physical circulation. The adequate accordance between simulations and data indicates that the time evolution of surface oxygen is mainly determined by the gas exchange at the surface. We find that bottom oxygen in the Kattegat is mainly controlled by the oxygen saturation. In the Baltic Proper however long-term inflow variations determine the bottom oxygen concentration. For example, in the Bornholm Basin the increase of the near bottom oxygen usually corresponds to a sudden increase in salinity due to an inflow whereas the oxygen dynamics in the deep waters of the Gulf of Finland has a seasonal behaviour. We confirmed that the major factors controlling the oxygen dynamics in the Baltic Sea are natural physical factors, like the magnitude of the vertical turbulent mixing, wind speed and the variation in temperature and salinity. Thorough statistical evaluation of the time series for anoxic and hypoxic areas in the Baltic Sea resulted in overall non-significant increasing trends during the last 50 years. Contrary to the non-conclusive trend evaluation the time series have a significant structural break point (changing from negative to positive trend) at about 1975-1980.

Miladinova, S.; Stips, A. K.; Lessin, G.

2012-04-01

310

Improvement of Baltic proper water quality using large-scale ecological engineering.  

PubMed

Eutrophication of the Baltic proper has led to impaired water quality, demonstrated by, e.g., extensive blooming of cyanobacteria during the premium summer holiday season and severe oxygen deficit in the deepwater. Sustainable improvements in water quality by the reduction of phosphorus (P) supplies will take several decades before giving full effects because of large P storages both in soils in the watershed and in the water column and bottom sediments of the Baltic proper. In this article it is shown that drastically improved water quality may be obtained within a few years using large-scale ecological engineering methods. Natural variations in the Baltic proper during the last decades have demonstrated how rapid improvements may be achieved. The present article describes the basic dynamics of P, organic matter, and oxygen in the Baltic proper. It also briefly discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different classes of methods of ecological engineering aimed at restoring the Baltic proper from eutrophication effects. Preliminary computations show that the P content might be halved within a few years if about 100 kg O2 s(-1) are supplied to the upper deepwater. This would require 100 pump stations, each transporting about 100 m3 s(-1) of oxygen-rich so-called winter water from about 50 to 125 m depth where the water is released as a buoyant jet. Each pump station needs a power supply of 0.6 MW. Offshore wind power technology seems mature enough to provide the power needed by the pump stations. The cost to install 100 wind-powered pump stations, each with 0.6 MW power, at about 125-m depth is about 200 million Euros. PMID:17520945

Stigebrandt, Anders; Gustafsson, Bo G

2007-04-01

311

BALTEX—an interdisciplinary research network for the Baltic Sea region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BALTEX is an environmental research network dealing with the Earth system of the entire Baltic Sea drainage basin. Important elements include the water and energy cycle, climate variability and change, water management and extreme events, and related impacts on biogeochemical cycles. BALTEX was founded in 1993 as a GEWEX continental-scale experiment and is currently in its second 10 yr phase. Phase I (1993-2002) was primarily dedicated to hydrological, meteorological and oceanographic processes in the Baltic Sea drainage basin, hence mostly dealt with the physical aspects of the system. Scientific focus was on the hydrological cycle and the exchange of energy between the atmosphere, the Baltic Sea and the surface of its catchment. The BALTEX study area was hydrologically defined as the Baltic Sea drainage basin. The second 10 yr phase of BALTEX (Phase II: 2003-12) has strengthened regional climate research, water management issues, biogeochemical cycles and overarching efforts to reach out to stakeholders and decision makers, as well as to foster communication and education. Achievements of BALTEX Phase II have been the establishment of an assessment report of regional climate change and its impacts on the Baltic Sea basin (from hydrological to biological and socio-economic), the further development of regional physical climate models and the integration of biogeochemical and ecosystem models. BALTEX features a strong infrastructure, with an international secretariat and a publication series, and organizes various workshops and conferences. This article gives an overview of the BALTEX programme, with an emphasis on Phase II, with some examples from BALTEX-related research.

Reckermann, Marcus; Langner, Joakim; Omstedt, Anders; von Storch, Hans; Keevallik, Sirje; Schneider, Bernd; Arheimer, Berit; Markus Meier, H. E.; Hünicke, Birgit

2011-10-01

312

Long-term variability of extreme waves in the Caspian, Black, Azov and Baltic Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to study extreme storm waves in the Caspian, Black, Azov and Baltic Sea we used the spectral wave model SWAN. Significant wave height, swell and sea height, direction of propagation, their length and period were calculated with the NCEP/NCAR (1,9°x1,9°, 4-daily) reanalysis wind forcing from 1948 to 2010 in the Caspian, Black and Baltic Seas and with the NCEP/CFSR (0,3°x0,3°, 1 hour) for the period from 1979 to 2010 in the Azov Sea. The calculations were performed on supercomputers of Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU). The spatial resolution of the numerical grid was of order 5 km for the Caspian, Baltic and Black Seas, 2 km for the Azov Sea. These model wave hindcasts were used to calculate interannual and seasonal variability of the storm frequency, location and duration. The Initial Distribution Method and Annual Maxima Series Methods were used to study probable waves of a century reoccurrence. The long-term variability of extreme waves revealed different trends in the investigated seas. The Caspian and Azov seas decreased the storm activity, while in the Baltic Sea the number of storm cases increased and the Black Sea showed no significant trend. The of more than 12 m were observed in two centers in the middle part of the Caspian Sea and in the center of the Baltic Sea. In the Black Sea the extreme waves of the same probability of more than 14 m were found in the region to the south of the Crimean peninsula. In the Azov Sea the highest waves of a century reoccurrence do not exceed 5 m. The work was done in Natural Risk Assessment Laboratory, MSU under contract G.34.31.0007.

Arkhipkin, Victor; Dobroliubov, Sergey

2013-04-01

313

The need for family planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to examine the evidence on the need for family planning. The available evidence on current levels\\u000a of unmet need for contraceptives, fertility preferences, and the non-contraceptive benefits of family planning is reviewed.\\u000a I argue that expansion of family planning programs is still needed. These programs provide couples with tools to reach their\\u000a desired family

Ndola Prata

2007-01-01

314

Monitoring of radionuclides in the Baltic Sea in 1988. Supplement 1 to Annual Report STUK-A--89.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Monitoring of radioactive substances in the Baltic Sea was continued within the framework of the Finnish national monitoring programme. Samples of sea water, bottom sediment and fish were collected for radionuclide analyses. All samples were analysed for ...

R. Saxen T. K. Ikaeheimonen E. Ilus

1989-01-01

315

Monitoring of radionuclides in the Baltic Sea in 1989-1990. Supplemet 10 to Annual Report STUK-A--89.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Monitoring of radioactive substances in the Baltic Sea continued within the framework of the Finnish national monitoring programme. Samples of sea water, bottom sediment and fish were collected for radionuclide analyses. All samples were analysed for gamm...

E. Ilus K. L. Sjoeblom T. Ikaeheimonen R. Saxen S. Klemola

1993-01-01

316

Finnish Studies on Radioactivity in the Baltic Sea after the Chernobyl Accident. Supplement to Annual Report STUK-A55.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After the Chernobyl accident extensive studies were started in the Baltic Sea area. Samples of sea water, bottom sediment, fish, plnkton, littoral algae and benthic animals were collected for radionuclide analyses. All the samples were analysed gammaspect...

E. Ilus K. L. Sjoeblom R. Saxen H. Aaltonen T. K. Taipale

1987-01-01

317

Expansion of Private Health Insurance in Papua New Guinea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the eyes of the Papua New Guinea's National Department of Health, expansion of the private health insurance market through the introduction of a managed care plan would both alleviate the growing shortfall in public health resources and improve the qua...

Z. Ashir

1994-01-01

318

Salt Lake City International Airport expansion transmission line relocations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Salt Lake City International Airport is expanding. The expansion includes the addition of a new runway and ancillary facilities to provide for existing and future operation of the airport. The planned location of the new runway required that a corridor of PacifiCorp's overhead transmission lines located west and northwest of the airport be relocated further west. Unforeseen at the

J. C. Hallman; B. W. Jensen; R. L. Villarreal

1994-01-01

319

Monitoring the Bio-optical State of the Baltic Sea Ecosystem with Remote Sensing and Autonomous In Situ Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter focuses on recent advances in water quality monitoring of the Baltic Sea using remote sensing techniques in combination\\u000a with optical in situ measurements. Here the Baltic Sea ecosystem is observed through its bio-optical properties, which are\\u000a defined by the concentration of optical in-water constituents governing the spectral attenuation of light. In the introduction,\\u000a typical geographical patterns and seasonal

Susanne Kratzer; Kerstin Ebert; Kai Sørensen

320

Quantifying the nitrogen retention capacity of natural wetlands in the large-scale drainage basin of the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

We estimate the nitrogen retention capacity of natural wetlands in the 1.7 million km2 Baltic Sea drainage basin, using a wetland GIS data base. There are approximately 138,000 km2 of wetlands (bogs and fens) in the Baltic Sea drainage basin, corresponding to 8% of the area. The input of nitrogen to natural wetlands from atmospheric deposition was estimated to 55,000–161,000

Åsa Jansson; Carl Folke; Sindre Langaas

1998-01-01

321

Angts prebuild expansion solves pressure constraints  

SciTech Connect

Foothills Pipe Line Ltd., Calgary, has employed a unique solution to pipeline-capacity delivery problems around its Empress, Atla., extraction plants. The problems arose as Foothills began planning for its expansion to export more Canadian gas into the U.S. The location is just north of Foothills' Monchy, Sask., delivery point to the U.S. at Northern Border Pipeline. This capacity constraint resulted from the requirement for gas stripping by low- pressure Empress extraction plants severely limiting the operating pressure level of the high-pressure pipeline there. The solution entailed construction of facilities for decompressing then recompressing gas on the pipeline adjacent the Empress extraction plants. Such facilities would enable the pipeline to operate at high pressure, while allowing the low-pressure extraction plants to maintain gas stripping. The segment of line at the point forms part of the 396-mile Eastern Leg prebuild section of the future Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System (Angts) pipeline project. This first of two articles on the project describes the pre-expansion system operation, the possible expansion options, and critical engineering and operating factors.

Kitt, S.R. (Foothills Pipe Lines Ltd., Calgary (CA))

1991-06-24

322

Burial Ground Expansion Hydrogeologic Characterization  

SciTech Connect

Sirrine Environmental Consultants provided technical oversight of the installation of eighteen groundwater monitoring wells and six exploratory borings around the location of the Burial Ground Expansion.

Gaughan , T.F.

1999-02-26

323

Maryland State Plan for Coordinated Child Development Services.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comprehensive plan for the expansion and coordination of programs for child care, child development, and early childhood education in Maryland is presented. The plan was developed by the Maryland Community Coordinated Child Care (4-C) Committee, a quasi...

1974-01-01

324

Stable Isotope Evidence for Late Medieval (14th-15th C) Origins of the Eastern Baltic Cod (Gadus morhua) Fishery  

PubMed Central

Although recent historical ecology studies have extended quantitative knowledge of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) exploitation back as far as the 16th century, the historical origin of the modern fishery remains obscure. Widespread archaeological evidence for cod consumption around the eastern Baltic littoral emerges around the 13th century, three centuries before systematic documentation, but it is not clear whether this represents (1) development of a substantial eastern Baltic cod fishery, or (2) large-scale importation of preserved cod from elsewhere. To distinguish between these hypotheses we use stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis to determine likely catch regions of 74 cod vertebrae and cleithra from 19 Baltic archaeological sites dated from the 8th to the 16th centuries. ?13C and ?15N signatures for six possible catch regions were established using a larger sample of archaeological cod cranial bones (n?=?249). The data strongly support the second hypothesis, revealing widespread importation of cod during the 13th to 14th centuries, most of it probably from Arctic Norway. By the 15th century, however, eastern Baltic cod dominate within our sample, indicating the development of a substantial late medieval fishery. Potential human impact on cod stocks in the eastern Baltic must thus be taken into account for at least the last 600 years.

Orton, David C.; Makowiecki, Daniel; de Roo, Tessa; Johnstone, Cluny; Harland, Jennifer; Jonsson, Leif; Heinrich, Dirk; Enghoff, Inge B?dker; Lougas, Lembi; Van Neer, Wim; Ervynck, Anton; Hufthammer, Anne Karin; Amundsen, Colin; Jones, Andrew K. G.; Locker, Alison; Hamilton-Dyer, Sheila; Pope, Peter; MacKenzie, Brian R.; Richards, Michael; O'Connell, Tamsin C.; Barrett, James H.

2011-01-01

325

The University of Michigan, Kellogg Building Expansion & Renovation, Ann Arbor, Michigan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents design, construction, and cost data for the University of Michigan's Kellogg Building expansion and renovation project. A list of project manufacturers and suppliers is provided along with four photographs and four floor plans. (GR)|

Design Cost Data, 2001

2001-01-01

326

The Impacts of Highway Expansion on Population Change: An Integrated Spatial Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The effects of highways on transforming human society and promoting population change have been investigated in several disciplines, including geography, sociology, economics, and planning. Currently, the primary highway construction activity in the nation is highway expansion; however, this expansion has not been the focus of much of the…

Chi, Guangqing

2010-01-01

327

Link or sink: a modelling interpretation of the open Baltic biogeochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 1-D model system, consisting of the 1-D version of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) coupled with the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM) has been applied to a sub-basin of the Baltic Proper, the Bornholm basin. The model has been forced with 3h meteorological data for the period 1979-1990, producing a 12-year hindcast validated with datasets from the Baltic Environmental Database for the same period. The model results demonstrate the model to hindcast the time-evolution of the physical structure very well, confirming the view of the open Baltic water column as a three layer system of surface, intermediate and bottom waters. Comparative analyses of modelled hydrochemical components with respect to the independent data have shown that the long-term system behaviour of the model is within the observed ranges. Also primary production processes, deduced from oxygen (over)saturation are hindcast correctly over the entire period and the annual net primary production is within the observed range. The largest mismatch with observations is found in simulating the biogeochemistry of the Baltic intermediate waters. Modifications in the structure of the model (addition of fast-sinking detritus and polysaccharide dynamics) have shown that the nutrient dynamics are linked to the quality and dimensions of the organic matter produced in the euphotic zone, highlighting the importance of the residence time of the organic matter within the microbial foodweb in the intermediate waters. Experiments with different scenarios of riverine nutrient loads, assessed in the limits of a 1-D setup, have shown that the external input of organic matter makes the open Baltic model more heterotrophic. The characteristics of the inputs also drive the dynamics of nitrogen in the bottom layers leading either to nitrate accumulation (when the external sources are inorganic), or to coupled nitrification-denitrification (under strong organic inputs). The model indicates the permanent stratification to be the main feature of the system as regulator of carbon and nutrient budgets. The model predicts that most of the carbon produced in the euphotic zone is also consumed in the water column and this enhances the importance of heterotrophic benthic processes as final closure of carbon and nutrient cycles in the open Baltic.

Vichi, M.; Ruardij, P.; Baretta, J. W.

328

Link or sink: a modelling interpretation of the open Baltic biogeochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 1-D model system, consisting of the 1-D version of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) coupled with the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM) has been applied to a sub-basin of the Baltic Proper, the Bornholm basin. The model has been forced with 3h meteorological data for the period 1979-1990, producing a 12-year hindcast validated with datasets from the Baltic Environmental Database for the same period. The model results demonstrate the model to hindcast the time-evolution of the physical structure very well, confirming the view of the open Baltic water column as a three layer system of surface, intermediate and bottom waters. Comparative analyses of modelled hydrochemical components with respect to the independent data have shown that the long-term system behaviour of the model is within the observed ranges. Also primary production processes, deduced from oxygen (over)saturation are hindcast correctly over the entire period and the annual net primary production is within the observed range. The largest mismatch with observations is found in simulating the biogeochemistry of the Baltic intermediate waters. Modifications in the structure of the model (addition of fast-sinking detritus and polysaccharide dynamics) have shown that the nutrient dynamics is linked to the quality and dimensions of the organic matter produced in the euphotic zone, highlighting the importance of the residence time of the organic matter within the microbial foodweb in the intermediate waters. Experiments with different scenarios of riverine nutrient loads, assessed in the limits of a 1-D setup, have shown that the external input of organic matter makes the open Baltic model more heterotrophic. The characteristics of the inputs also drive the dynamics of nitrogen in the bottom layers leading either to nitrate accumulation (when the external sources are inorganic), or to coupled nitrification-denitrification (under strong organic inputs). The model indicates the permanent stratification to be the main feature of the system as regulator of carbon and nutrient budgets. The model predicts that most of the carbon produced in the euphotic zone is also consumed in the water column and this enhances the importance of heterotrophic benthic processes as final closures of carbon and nutrient cycles in the open Baltic.

Vichi, M.; Ruardij, P.; Baretta, J. W.

2004-08-01

329

Trend Analysis of Nitrogen Deposition to Baltic Sea and its sub basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the beginning of last century, Baltic Sea has changed from a clear-water sea into a eutrophic marine environment. Eutrophication is the major problem in the Baltic Sea. Excessive nitrogen and phosphorus loads coming from land-based sources within and outside the catchment area of the bordering countries of the Baltic Sea are the main cause of the eutrophication in the sea. Even though a major part of nitrogen(75%) and phosphorus load(95%) enter the sea via rivers or as water-born discharges, 25% of the nitrogen load comes as atmospheric deposition. Numerical models are the best tools to measure atmospheric deposition into sea waters. We have used the latest version of the Unified EMEP model - which has been developed at the EMEP/MSC-W (Meteorological Synthesizing Centre - West of EMEP) for simulating atmospheric transport and deposition of acidifying and eutrophying compounds as well as photo-oxidants in Europe- to study the trends in atmospheric deposition of nitrogen into Baltic Sea for the period 1995-2006. The model domain covers Europe and the Atlantic Ocean. The model grid (of the size 170×133) has a horizontal resolution of 50 km at 60o N, which is consistent with the resolution of emission data reported to CLRTAP. Approximately 10 of these layers are placed below 2 km to obtain high resolution of the boundary layer which is of special importance to the long range transport of air pollution. EMEP model has been thouroughly validated (Fagerli et.al.[1], Simpson et.al.[2], Simpson et.al.[3] ) The contribution of deposition of nitrogen into Baltic Sea from each of the bordering countries of the Baltic Sea and the deposition trends for the period 1995-2006 has been analysed and the results will be presented. References: [1]. Fagerli H., Simpson D. and Aas W.: Model performance for sulphur and nitrogen compounds for the period 1980 to 2000. [In:] L. Tarra?on, (editor), Transboundary Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground Level Ozone in Europe. EMEP Status Report 1/2003, Part II Unified EMEP Model Performance, pages 1-66. The Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo, Norway, 2003. [2]. Simpson D., Butterbach-Bahl K., Fagerli H., Kesik M. and Skiba U.: Deposition and Emissions of Reactive Nitrogen over European Forests: A Modelling Study. Atmos. Environ., 2006, 40(29), 5712-5726. [3]. Simpson D., Fagerli H., Hellsten S., Knulst K. and Westling O.: Comparison of modelled and monitored deposition fluxes of sulphur and nitrogen to ICP-forest sites in Europe. Biogeosciences, 2006, 337-355.

Semeena, V. S.; Jerzy, Bartnicki

2009-04-01

330

Femtosecond dynamics of cluster expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noble gas clusters irradiated by intense ultrafast laser expand quickly and become typical plasma in picosecond time scale. During the expansion, the clustered plasma demonstrates unique optical properties such as strong absorption and positive contribution to the refractive index. Here we studied cluster expansion dynamics by fs-time-resolved refractive index and absorption measurements in cluster gas jets after ionization and heating

Xiaohui Gao; Xiaoming Wang; Bonggu Shim; Alexey Arefiev; Mikhail Tushentsov; Boris Breizman; Mike Downer

2010-01-01

331

Energy efficient perlite expansion process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermally efficient process for the expansion of perlite ore is described. The inlet port and burner of a perlite expansion chamber (Preferably a vertical expander) are enclosed such that no ambient air can enter the chamber. Air and fuel are metered to the burner with the amount of air being controlled such that the fuel\\/air premix contains at least

1982-01-01

332

Calculate thermal-expansion coefficients  

Microsoft Academic Search

To properly design and use process equipment, an engineer needs a sound knowledge of physical and thermodynamic property data. A lack of such knowledge can lead to design or operating mistakes that can be dangerous, costly or even fatal. One useful type of property data is the thermal-expansion coefficient. This article presents equations and tables to find the thermal-expansion coefficients

Yaws

1995-01-01

333

Thermal Expansion of Magnesian Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results for periclase-carbon materials with different proportion of the finely dispersed fraction tested for linear expansion at 20 – 1420°C under argon are reported. The composition of finely dispersed fraction (varying in proportion from 100% periclase to 100% alumomagnesian spinel) and the carbonization regime are factors that determine the thermal expansion of the materials studied. A hysteretic behavior of the

I. G. Maryasev; V. N. Koptelov; F. S. Kaplan; O. R. Grishina

2003-01-01

334

Calculations of Surface Thermal Expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a method previously described, we have calculated the coefficients of thermal expansion for the first two interplanar spacings near the (111) and (100) surfaces of Ar, Kr, and Xe. The bulk thermal expansion, which is obtained as a by-product in the calculation, is found to be in good agreement with experimental measurements at all temperatures up to the melting

V. E. Kenner; R. E. Allen

1973-01-01

335

Cool Hot Rod (Thermal Expansion)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phenomenon is thermal expansion of copper. This demonstration allows an observer to see the effect of heating (and cooling) a copper tube. When heated, the copper tube lengthens and thickens. When cooled, the tube shrinks. The lengthening of the rod rotates a toothpick with an attached flag to make the expansion visible and measurable.

336

The importance of choosing interactive coupling on the atmosphere in the Baltic Sea region and in the North Sea-Baltic Sea transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the purpose of a climate study around Denmark, a regional coupled atmosphere-ocean-ice model for the North Sea (NS) and Baltic Sea (BS) is introduced with a horizontal resolution of 6 nautical miles. The coupled model is validated in a hindcast experiment from 1990-2010 with a focus on surface quantities. Lateral boundary conditions are provided from the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis project. The impact of the interactive coupling on the atmosphere is shown to be confined to the Baltic Sea region. Compared with the uncoupled simulation: 1) The coupled model gives warmer winter and colder summer with a maximum difference not exceeding 1° on an average of 21-year daily fields. 2) Winter precipitation is slightly increased by the large-scale higher temperatures over the Baltic; Summer precipitation (convective) is somewhat decreased and controlled by local conditions. This seasonal difference between the two simulations varies within 10 mm month-1. The coupled regional ocean model gives results of SST and SSS with a statistically equivalent quality to the results of the uncoupled simulation for the NS, BS and NS-BS transition in comparison with observations. Sea ice coverage is a sensitive quantity to a warmer winter. The integration of 21-year results of the coupled run shows a reduction of 24% of the ice coverage in the uncoupled one. The coupled models are free of drift and are suitable for long-term climate simulations. In addition to prevailing large-scale conditions, our ocean model for the NS-BS transition with fine bathymetry (1 nm and 52 vertical layers) shows advantages in simulating local climate. This work is the first to assess the NS-BS water transport with such a high resolution in regional climate research and certainly in a coupled model system. It shows a great potential to improve the prediction of climate change impacts for adaptation work in a coastal country like Denmark.

Tian, T.; Boberg, F.; Christensen, O. B.; Christensen, J. H.

2012-04-01

337

Language Policy and Planning: Fundamental Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fundamental issues in language policy and planning are discussed: language death, language survival, language change, language revival, language shift and expansion, language contact and pidginization or creolization, and literacy development. (Contains 21 references.) (LB)

Kaplan, Robert B.

1994-01-01

338

Bioindicative potential of shell abnormalities occurring in the clam Macoma balthica (L.) from the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

This study reports the occurrence of shell deformities in the Baltic clam Macoma balthica from the Northern Baltic Sea (Trösa Archipelago, Sweden). The functional significance and the bioindicative potential of observed exoskeleton' anomalies was assessed using a suite of physiological and morphological biomarkers. Analyzed shell deformations (SD) included damages of the dorsal margin visible as shell excavations, destruction of the beak, umbo and hinge ligament and decreased shell' transparency. Deformed clams exhibited worse physiological conditions and increased frequency of micronuclei. Skewed sex ratio towards male domination was observed in all studied populations. Spatial differences in the occurrence of deformed clams are reported, with more than 50% of deformed clams inhabiting polluted locations and 8% the reference station. These results are encouraging for the use of described SDs as initial and cost effective indicators of environmental health. PMID:21600618

Smolarz, Katarzyna; Bradtke, Katarzyna

2011-05-19

339

Spatial genetic structure of northern pike (Esox lucius) in the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

The genetic relationships among 337 northern pike (Esox lucius) collected from the coastal zone of the central Baltic region and the Finnish islands of Aland were analysed using five microsatellite loci. Spatial structure was delineated using both traditional F-statistics and individually based approaches including spatial autocorrelation analysis. Our results indicate that the observed genotypic distribution is incompatible with that of a single, panmictic population. Isolation by distance appears important for shaping the genetic structure of pike in this region resulting in a largely continuous genetic change over the study area. Spatial autocorrelation analysis (Moran's I) of individual pairwise genotypic data show significant positive genetic correlation among pike collected within geographical distances of less than c. 100-150 km (genetic patch size). We suggest that the genetic patch size may be used as a preliminary basis for identifying management units for pike in the Baltic Sea. PMID:15910318

Laikre, Linda; Miller, Loren M; Palmé, Anna; Palm, Stefan; Kapuscinski, Anne R; Thoresson, Gunnar; Ryman, Nils

2005-06-01

340

Simulated sea surface temperature and heat fluxes in different climates of the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

The physical state of the Baltic Sea in possible future climates is approached by numerical model experiments with a regional coupled ocean-atmosphere model driven by different global simulations. Scenarios and recent climate simulations are compared to estimate changes. The sea surface is clearly warmer by 2.9 degrees C in the ensemble mean. The horizontal pattern of average annual mean warming can largely be explained in terms of ice-cover reduction. The transfer of heat from the atmosphere to the Baltic Sea shows a changed seasonal cycle: a reduced heat loss in fall, increased heat uptake in spring, and reduced heat uptake in summer. The interannual variability of surface temperature is generally increased. This is associated with a smoothed frequency distribution in northern basins. The overall heat budget shows increased solar radiation to the sea surface, which is balanced by changes of the other heat flux components. PMID:15264603

Döscher, Ralf; Meier, H E Markus

2004-06-01

341

Effect of ocean acidification on marine fish sperm (Baltic cod: Gadus morhua)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean acidification, as a consequence of increasing marine pCO2, may have severe effects on the physiology of marine organisms. However, experimental studies remain scarce, in particular concerning fish. While adults will most likely remain relatively unaffected by changes in seawater pH, early life-history stages are potentially more sensitive - particularly the critical stage of fertilization, in which sperm motility plays a central role. In this study, the effects of ocean acidification (decrease of pHT to 7.55) on sperm motility of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua, were assessed. We found no significant effect of decreased pH on sperm speed, rate of change of direction or percent motility for the population of cod analyzed. We predict that future ocean acidification will probably not pose a problem for sperm behavior, and hence fertilization success, of Baltic cod.

Frommel, A. Y.; Stiebens, V.; Clemmesen, C.; Havenhand, J.

2010-12-01

342

Effect of ocean acidification on marine fish sperm (Baltic cod: Gadus morhua)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean acidification, as a consequence of increasing marine pCO2, may have severe effects on the physiology of marine organisms. However, experimental studies remain scarce, in particular concerning fish. While adults will most likely remain relatively unaffected by changes in seawater pH, early life-history stages are potentially more sensitive - particularly the critical stage of fertilization, in which sperm motility plays a central role. In this study, the effects of ocean acidification (decrease of pH to 7.55) on sperm motility of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua, were assessed. We found no significant effect of decreased pH on sperm speed, rate of change of direction or percent motility for the population of cod analyzed. We predict that future ocean acidification will probably not pose a problem for sperm behavior, and hence fertilization success, of Baltic cod.

Frommel, A. Y.; Stiebens, V.; Clemmesen, C.; Havenhand, J.

2010-08-01

343

Infusorians as a component of the planktonic community in the Baltic Sea  

SciTech Connect

The authors' investigations of infusorians as a component of the planktonic community in the Baltic Sea coincided with the heterotrophic stage of seasonal succession, and as a result the infusorians were numerous. In the deep troughs of the Sea at a depth of more than 150 m, the water is saturated with hydrogen sulfide. A community of infusorians relating to the saprobionts and capable of living with the minimal amount of oxygen was discovered for the first time--in the upper boundary of the hydrogen sulfide zone. In its level of infusorian abundance, the Baltic Sea must be considered a eutrophic body of water where infusorians serve as one of the leading agents in its self-purification.

Mamaeva, N.V.

1985-09-01

344

The dense water exchange of the bornholm basin in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bornholm Basin in the southwestern Baltic Sea is stratified with a halocline at a depth of approximately 50 m. The upper layer is brackish water flowing out of the Baltic, while the lower saline layer enters through the Bomholm Strait, passes the Bornholm Basin and exits through the Stolpe Channel. A monitoring campaign took place in the Bornholm Basin in the period from 7-17 October, 1994. On the basis of the measurements, the dynamics of the water exchange was investigated. The water column in the Bornholm Basin during the measurement period was composed of four water masses. Intruding waters pass through the southern part of the Bornholm Basin. The highly saline inflowing waters observed in the Bornholm Strait in this period originated exclusively from the Drogden Sill area (not the Darß Sill area). Bottom currents in the Bornholm Strait and Stolpe Channel are the sum of different wind-induced currents and a baroclinic current.

Jakobsen, Flemming

1996-06-01

345

The impact of benthic macrofauna for nutrient fluxes from Baltic Sea sediments.  

PubMed

This article focuses on the ecological role of benthic macrofauna on nutrient dynamics and benthic-pelagic coupling in the Baltic Sea with relation to eutrophication. Generally, benthic macrofaunal activities have large effects on sediment biogeochemistry and often with stimulatory effects on processes that counteract eutrophication, i.e., denitrification and increased phosphorus retention of the sediment. The degree of faunal impact on such processes varies depending on faunal density and functional group composition. The effect of macrofaunal activities on sediment nutrient dynamics can also result in a higher nitrogen: phosporus ratio of the sediments efflux compared with sediments without macrofauna. Increased internal nutrient loading during eutrophication-induced anoxia is suggested to be caused both by altered sediment biogeochemical processes and through reduced or lost bioturbating macrofauna and thereby a reduced stimulatory effect from their activities on natural purification processes of the Baltic Sea ecosystem. PMID:17520929

Karlson, Karin; Bonsdorff, Erik; Rosenberg, Rutger

2007-04-01

346

Framing environmental risks in the Baltic Sea: a news media analysis.  

PubMed

Scientific complexity and uncertainty is a key challenge for environmental risk governance and to understand how risks are framed and communicated is of utmost importance. The Baltic Sea ecosystem is stressed and exposed to different risks like eutrophication, overfishing, and hazardous chemicals. Based on an analysis of the Swedish newspaper Dagens Nyheter, this study discusses media representations of these risks. The results show that the reporting on the Baltic Sea has been fairly stable since the beginning of the 1990s. Many articles acknowledge several risks, but eutrophication receives the most attention and is also considered the biggest threat. Authorities, experts, organizations, and politicians are the dominating actors, while citizens and industry representatives are more or less invisible. Eutrophication is not framed in terms of uncertainty concerning the risk and consequences, but rather in terms of main causes. PMID:21446391

Jönsson, Anna Maria

2011-03-01

347

Effect of low temperature on feed intake, growth rate and body composition of juvenile Baltic salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feed intake, specific growth rate and changes in body composition were studied in juvenile (140-170 g) Baltic salmon, Salmo salar, reared at three temperatures (2, 4 and 6 °C) under continuous light conditions. Feed intake increased from 20.4 kJ kg-1 day-1 at 2 °C to 63.8 kJ kg-1 day-1 at 6 °C, and growth rate increased from 0.10% day-1 to

J. Koskela; J. Pirhonen; M. Jobling

1997-01-01

348

Statistical properties of sea ice surface topography in the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results from helicopter-borne laser profiling of the ice surface in the Baltic Sea for March 1988 are presented. The laser was a PRAM III system with a measurement frequency of 1 4kHz, a footprint of approximately 20cm at a flight elevation of 100 m and a single-shot vertical resolution of 12.5cm. The laser profiles were calibrated to remove aircraft

John E. Lewis; Matti Leppäranta; Hardy B. Granberg

1993-01-01

349

Impacts of nutrient enrichment and sediment on phytoplankton community structure in the northern Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-week mesocosm experiment was conducted in order to study the effects of bottom sediment and nutrient enrichment on\\u000a phytoplankton and zooplankton community structure in the Archipelago Sea, northern Baltic Sea. The transparent polyethylene\\u000a enclosures included the whole water column and varied in volume from 30 to 40 m3. There were two types of enclosures: some with natural sediment as

Annika Lagus; Janne Suomela; Harri Helminen; Jaana Sipura

2007-01-01

350

When is year-class strenght determined in western Baltic herring?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weekly surveys of larvae in the Strelasund and the Greifswalder Bodden were used to investigate when year-class strength is determined in western Baltic spring-spawning (WBSS) herring. An abundance metric of larvae reaching a length of 20 mm over the entire spawning season was constructed by accounting for increases in daily growth resulting from seasonal increases in temperature (5¿20°C). The index

R. Oeberst; B. Klenz; T. Groehsler; M. Dickey-Collas; R. D. M. Nash; C. Zimmermann

2009-01-01

351

Direct Evidence for Production of Microcystins by Anabaena Strains from the Baltic Sea?  

PubMed Central

Anabaena is a filamentous, N2-fixing, and morphologically diverse genus of cyanobacteria found in freshwater and brackish water environments worldwide. It contributes to the formation of toxic blooms in freshwater bodies through the production of a range of hepatotoxins or neurotoxins. In the Baltic Sea, Anabaena spp. form late summer blooms, together with Nodularia spumigena and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. It has been long suspected that Baltic Sea Anabaena may produce microcystins. The presence of microcystins has been reported for the coastal regions of the Baltic proper, and a recent report also indicated the presence of the toxin in the open Gulf of Finland. However, at present there is no direct evidence linking Baltic Sea Anabaena spp. to microcystin production. Here we report on the isolation of microcystin-producing strains of the genus Anabaena in the open Gulf of Finland. The dominant microcystin variants produced by these strains included the highly toxic MCYST-LR as well as [d-Asp3]MCYST-LR, [d-Asp3]MCYST-HtyR, MCYST-HtyR, [d-Asp3,Dha7]MCYST-HtyR, and [Dha7]MCYST-HtyR variants. Toxic strains were isolated from the coastal Gulf of Finland as well as from the easternmost open-sea sampling station, where there were lower salinities than at other stations. This result suggests that lower salinity may favor microcystin-producing Anabaena strains. Furthermore, we sequenced 16S rRNA genes and found evidence for pronounced genetic heterogeneity of the microcystin-producing Anabaena strains. Future studies should take into account the potential presence of microcystin-producing Anabaena sp. in the Gulf of Finland.

Halinen, Katrianna; Jokela, Jouni; Fewer, David P.; Wahlsten, Matti; Sivonen, Kaarina

2007-01-01

352

Modelling the Baltic Sea ocean climate on centennial time scale: temperature and sea ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study considers the possible use of different kinds of forcing datasets in Baltic Sea ocean climate modelling on centennial\\u000a time scales, in particular for the past half millennium. We demonstrate that high-quality station data of the past century\\u000a and gridded multi-proxy reconstructions for the past 500 years can be used with great success but with various levels of detail.\\u000a We

Daniel Hansson; Anders Omstedt

2008-01-01

353

Optical thickness of stratus clouds over the Baltic retrieved from ship-borne irradiance measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents optical thickness of non-precipitating stratus clouds retrieved from sea surface irradiance measurements collected during cruises of r\\/v Oceania to the Baltic Sea from 1994 to 2002. Pyranometer measurements were accompanied by standard meteorological observations. Cloud optical thickness was obtained by a comparison of downward irradiance in the visible part of the spectrum averaged over 1-minute interval with

A. Rozwadowska

2003-01-01

354

Human-induced Trophic Cascades and Ecological Regime Shifts in the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecosystems of coastal and enclosed seas are under increasing anthropogenic pressure worldwide, with Chesapeake Bay, the\\u000a Gulf of Mexico and the Black and Baltic Seas as well known examples. We use an ecosystem model (Ecopath with Ecosim, EwE)\\u000a to show that reduced top-down control (seal predation) and increased bottom-up forcing (eutrophication) can largely explain\\u000a the historical dynamics of the

Henrik Österblom; Sture Hansson; Ulf Larsson; Olle Hjerne; Fredrik Wulff; Ragnar Elmgren; Carl Folke

2007-01-01

355

The extinct Baltic amber genus Propelma Trjapitzin, a valid genus of Neanastatinae (Hymenoptera, Eupelmidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The extinct Eocene Baltic amber genus Propelma Trjapitzin 1963 is removed from synonymy under Eupelmus Dalman 1820 (Hymenoptera, Eupelmidae, Eupelminae) and treated as a valid genus within Neanastatinae Kalina 1984 based on examination of the holotype female of Propelma rohdendorfi Trjapitzin. Propelma rohdendorfi is redescribed, illustrated by photomacrographs, and compared to other described extant and extinct genera of Neanastatinae. Taxonomic, morphological and geological diversity of Neanastatinae relative to Eupelminae and Calosotinae is also discussed relative to potential age of the subfamily.

Gibson, Gary A. P.

2013-01-01

356

Nodularin concentrations in Baltic Sea zooplankton and fish during a cyanobacterial bloom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxic cyanobacterial blooms, dominated by Nodularia spumigena, are a recurrent phenomenon in the Baltic Sea during late summer. Nodularin, a potent hepatotoxin, has been previously observed\\u000a to accumulate on different trophic levels, in zooplankton, mysid shrimps, fish as well as benthic organisms, even in waterfowl.\\u000a While the largest concentrations of nodularin have been measured from the benthic organisms and the

Miina Karjalainen; Jari-Pekka Pääkkönen; Heikki Peltonen; Vesa Sipiä; Terhi Valtonen; Markku Viitasalo

2008-01-01

357

Behavioural response to gradually declining oxygen concentration by Baltic Sea macrobenthic crustaceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioural responses to decreasing oxygen concentrations were studied in the amphipods Monoporeia affinis (Lindström) and Pontoporeia femorata Krøyer and the isopod Saduria entomon (L.), all benthic macrofauna species from the Baltic Sea. Infrared time-lapse video recording was used. Seven oxygen concentrations\\u000a were studied, starting near saturation (about 90%), followed by about 65, 49, 33, 16, 8 and 5% oxygen saturation,

B. Johansson

1997-01-01

358

The Future of Baltic Sea Populations: Local Extinction or Evolutionary Rescue?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental change challenges local and global survival of populations and species. In a species-poor environment like the\\u000a Baltic Sea this is particularly critical as major ecosystem functions may be upheld by single species. A complex interplay\\u000a between demographic and genetic characteristics of species and populations determines risks of local extinction, chances of\\u000a re-establishment of lost populations, and tolerance to environmental

Kerstin Johannesson; Katarzyna Smolarz; Mats Grahn; Carl André

2011-01-01

359

Seasonality of coastal phytoplankton in the Baltic Sea: Influence of salinity and eutrophication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study long-term (1984 2001) phytoplankton and physico-chemical monitoring data representing different salinity regimes of the Baltic Sea were compiled from HELCOM, national and regional databases. The aim was to define seasonal succession patterns of phytoplankton in seven different areas of the Baltic sea, characterised by different salinity, climate, and trophic conditions and to delineate a set of phytoplankton community indicators that are independent of season and salinity, but indicative of trophic status of different coastal areas. The cluster analysis of the combined data set resulted in eight phytoplankton community types, common for all locations, and characterised by different taxonomic composition representing different stages of seasonal succession. A hierarchy of explanatory variables that best predicted the communities, dominated by either diatoms, cyanophytes, cryptophytes or dinoflagellates, was revealed through a redundancy analysis (RDA). Nutrients were not found to be significant factors shaping the common phytoplankton community types for all locations. RDA analysis at the location level, covering all seasonal succession stages, confirmed phytoplankton community composition to be sensitive to nutrient concentrations. Even with the limitations of utilizing databases from different sources we identified community types that were indicative of climatic conditions (particularly temperature), salinity and eutrophication. The dominance of cyanobacteria as such, would not be an appropriate indicator of trophic conditions in the Baltic Sea, in the areas where cyanobacteria blooms occur naturally. The structure of both diatom- and cyanophyte-dominated communities is governed by salinity, and thus the abundances of these groups cannot be directly used as an indicator across the whole Baltic Sea.

Gasiunaite, Z. R.; Cardoso, A. C.; Heiskanen, A. S.; Henriksen, P.; Kauppila, P.; Olenina, I.; Pilkaityte, R.; Purina, I.; Razinkovas, A.; Sagert, S.; Schubert, H.; Wasmund, N.

2005-10-01

360

Has the invasive round goby caused new links in Baltic food webs?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ponto-Caspian round goby (Neogobius melanostomus, Pallas 1814) most probably was established in the Gulf of Gda?sk, Baltic Sea, in the late 1980’s and has since become one\\u000a of the dominant species in the region. In this study we assess the role of round gobies as prey for two important fish species\\u000a in the Gulf of Gda?sk, cod (Gadus morhua)

Gustaf Almqvist; Alma K. Strandmark; Magnus Appelberg

2010-01-01

361

The influence of river runoff on deep water conditions of the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of variations in river runoff on abiotic environmental conditions in the deep water of semi-enclosed stratified\\u000a sea areas in humid climatic zones in temperate latitudes was investigated using the Baltic Sea as an example. Runoff has an\\u000a indirect effect on deep water conditions, where it acts through two mechanisms. First, in the shallow transition area, the\\u000a inflowing highly

Wolfgang Matthäus; Holger Schinke

1999-01-01

362

A new genus and species of Dictyopharidae (Homoptera) from Rovno and Baltic amber based on nymphs.  

PubMed

Alicodoxa rasnitsynigen. et sp. n. (Dictyopharinae: Orthopagini) is described based on a nymph from Rovno amber; it also occurs in Baltic amber. A small additional wax plate dorsal to the large wax plate of abdominal tergites VI-VIII is first reported in this and other genera of Dictyopharidae. A lectotype is designated for Pseudophana reticulata Germar & Berendt, 1856 transferred to Protepiptera (Achilidae): Protepiptera reticulata (Germar & Berendt, 1856), comb. n. PMID:22259275

Emeljanov, Alexander F; Shcherbakov, Dmitry E

2011-09-24

363

A new genus and species of Dictyopharidae (Homoptera) from Rovno and Baltic amber based on nymphs  

PubMed Central

Abstract Alicodoxa rasnitsyni gen. et sp. n. (Dictyopharinae: Orthopagini) is described based on a nymph from Rovno amber; it also occurs in Baltic amber. A small additional wax plate dorsal to the large wax plate of abdominal tergites VI–VIII is first reported in this and other genera of Dictyopharidae. A lectotype is designated for Pseudophana reticulata Germar & Berendt, 1856 transferred to Protepiptera (Achilidae): Protepiptera reticulata (Germar & Berendt, 1856), comb. n.

Emeljanov, Alexander F.; Shcherbakov, Dmitry E.

2011-01-01

364

Sensitivity of oxygen dynamics in the water column of the Baltic Sea to external forcing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 1-D biogeochemical/physical model of marine systems has been applied to study the oxygen cycle in four stations of different sub-basins of the Baltic Sea, namely, in the Gotland Deep, Bornholm, Arkona and Fladen. The model consists of the biogeochemical model of Neumann et al. (2002) coupled with the 1-D General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM). The model has been forced with meteorological data from the ECMWF reanalysis project for the period 1998-2003, producing a six year hindcast which is validated with datasets from the Baltic Environmental Database (BED) for the same period. The vertical profiles of temperature and salinity are relaxed towards both profiles provided by 3-D simulations of General Estuarine Transport Model (GETM) and observed profiles from BED. Modifications in the parameterisation of the air-sea oxygen fluxes have led to a significant improvement of the model results in the surface and intermediate water layers. The largest mismatch with observations is found in simulating the oxygen dynamics in the Baltic Sea bottom waters. The model results demonstrate the good capability of the model to predict the time-evolution of the physical and biogeochemical variables at all different stations. Comparative analysis of the modelled oxygen concentrations with respect to observation data is performed to distinguish the relative importance of several factors on the seasonal, interannual and long-term variations of oxygen. It is found that natural physical factors, like the magnitude of the vertical turbulent mixing, wind speed and the variation of temperature and salinity fields are the major factors controlling the oxygen dynamics in the Baltic Sea. The influence of limiting nutrients is less pronounced, at least under the nutrient flux parameterisation assumed in the model.

Miladinova, S.; Stips, A.

2010-04-01

365

Developing Baltic cod recruitment models. II. Incorporation of environmental variability and species interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate whether a process-oriented approach based on the results of field, laboratory, and modelling studies can be used to develop a stock-environment-recruitment model for Central Baltic cod (Gadus morhua). Based on exploratory statistical analysis, significant variables influencing survival of early life stages and varying systemati - cally among spawning sites were incorporated into stock-recruitment models, first for major cod

Friedrich W. Köster; Hans-Harald Hinrichsen; Michael A. St. John; Dietrich Schnack; Brian R. MacKenzie; Jonna Tomkiewicz; Maris Plikshs

2001-01-01

366

Metals in edible fish from Vistula River and Dead Vistula River channel, Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metals including Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn were determined in muscle tissue of 12 fish species by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and cold vapour-atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AAS). Fish were collected from Vistula River at lower course and Dead Vistula River channel in south of Baltic

Barbara Wyrzykowska; Jerzy Falandysz; Gra?yna Jarzy?ska

2012-01-01

367

Atmospheric BTEX concentrations in the vicinity of the crude oil refinery of the Baltic region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among chemical industries, petroleum refineries have been identified as large emitters of a wide variety of pollutants. Benzene,\\u000a toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) form an important group of aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) because of\\u000a their role in the troposphere chemistry and the risk posed to human health. A very large crude oil refinery of the Baltic\\u000a States (200,000 bbl\\/day) is

Pranas Baltr?nas; Edita Baltr?nait?; Vaida Šerevi?ien?; Paulo Pereira

368

Elemental and organic carbon in aerosols over urbanized coastal region (southern Baltic Sea, Gdynia).  

PubMed

Studies on PM 10, total particulate matter (TSP), elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) concentrations were carried out in the Polish coastal zone of the Baltic Sea, in urbanized Gdynia. The interaction between the land, the air and the sea was clearly observed. The highest concentrations of PM 10, TSP and both carbon fractions were noted in the air masses moving from southern and western Poland and Europe. The EC was generally of primary origin and its contribution to TSP and PM 10 mass was on average 2.3% and 3.7% respectively. Under low wind speed conditions local sources (traffic and industry) influenced increases in elemental carbon and PM 10 concentrations in Gdynia. Elemental carbon demonstrated a pronounced weekly cycle, yielding minimum values at the weekend and maximum values on Thursdays. The role of harbors and ship yards in creating high EC concentrations was clearly observed. Concentration of organic carbon was ten times higher than that of elemental carbon, and the average OC contribution to PM 10 mass was very high (31.6%). An inverse situation was observed when air masses were transported from over the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. These clean air masses were characterized by the lowest concentrations of all analysed compounds. Obtained results for organic and elemental carbon fluxes showed that atmospheric aerosols can be treated, along with water run-off, as a carbon source for the coastal waters of the Baltic Sea. The enrichment of surface water was more effective in the case of organic carbon (0.27+/-0.19 mmol m(-2) d(-1)). Elemental carbon fluxes were one order of magnitude smaller, on average 0.03+/-0.04 mmol m(-2) d(-1). We suggest that in some situations atmospheric carbon input can explain up to 18% of total carbon fluxes into the Baltic coastal waters. PMID:20638103

Lewandowska, Anita; Falkowska, Lucyna; Murawiec, Dominika; Pryputniewicz, Dorota; Burska, Dorota; Be?dowska, Magdalena

2010-07-17

369

Evaluation of a chemical munition dumpsite in the Baltic Sea based on geophysical and chemical investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the results of geophysical and chemical investigations carried out in a chemical munition dumpsite in the southern Baltic Sea, east of the island of Bornholm. After WW2 over 32,000tons of chemical war material was dumped here including shells and bombs as well as small drums and containers. The geophysical investigations combined very-high-resolution seismics and gradiometric measurements. The

Tine Missiaen; Martin Söderström; Irina Popescu; Paula Vanninen

2010-01-01

370

Detailed seismic imaging of a chemical munition dumpsite in the Bornholm Basin, south-western Baltic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very high resolution seismic investigations were carried out over a munition dumpsite in the Bornholm Basin, south-western\\u000a Baltic Sea. After WW2 over 32,000 tons of chemical weapons were dumped in this area. The aim of the investigations was to\\u000a image the internal structure of the dumpsite and to identify possible natural hazards with regard to the dumped war material.\\u000a Two geophysical

Tine Missiaen; Lieselot Noppe

2010-01-01

371

Direct evidence for production of microcystins by Anabaena strains from the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Anabaena is a filamentous, N(2)-fixing, and morphologically diverse genus of cyanobacteria found in freshwater and brackish water environments worldwide. It contributes to the formation of toxic blooms in freshwater bodies through the production of a range of hepatotoxins or neurotoxins. In the Baltic Sea, Anabaena spp. form late summer blooms, together with Nodularia spumigena and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. It has been long suspected that Baltic Sea Anabaena may produce microcystins. The presence of microcystins has been reported for the coastal regions of the Baltic proper, and a recent report also indicated the presence of the toxin in the open Gulf of Finland. However, at present there is no direct evidence linking Baltic Sea Anabaena spp. to microcystin production. Here we report on the isolation of microcystin-producing strains of the genus Anabaena in the open Gulf of Finland. The dominant microcystin variants produced by these strains included the highly toxic MCYST-LR as well as [d-Asp(3)]MCYST-LR, [d-Asp(3)]MCYST-HtyR, MCYST-HtyR, [d-Asp(3),Dha(7)]MCYST-HtyR, and [Dha(7)]MCYST-HtyR variants. Toxic strains were isolated from the coastal Gulf of Finland as well as from the easternmost open-sea sampling station, where there were lower salinities than at other stations. This result suggests that lower salinity may favor microcystin-producing Anabaena strains. Furthermore, we sequenced 16S rRNA genes and found evidence for pronounced genetic heterogeneity of the microcystin-producing Anabaena strains. Future studies should take into account the potential presence of microcystin-producing Anabaena sp. in the Gulf of Finland. PMID:17766456

Halinen, Katrianna; Jokela, Jouni; Fewer, David P; Wahlsten, Matti; Sivonen, Kaarina

2007-08-31

372

Grazing preferences of marine isopods and amphipods on three prominent algal species of the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preference tests were performed over a two-week period in September 2001 in which isopods (Idotea baltica) and amphipods (Gammarus oceanicus) were offered choices of three common species of algae from the Baltic Sea: Enteromorpha intestinalis, Cladophora spp., and Fucus vesiculosus. After a 48-hour starvation period, 20 individuals of each grazer species were placed in aquaria containing approximately 1.0 g of

Margene E. Goecker; Sara E. Kåll

2003-01-01

373

Framing Environmental Risks in the Baltic Sea: A News Media Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific complexity and uncertainty is a key challenge for environmental risk governance and to understand how risks are\\u000a framed and communicated is of utmost importance. The Baltic Sea ecosystem is stressed and exposed to different risks like\\u000a eutrophication, overfishing, and hazardous chemicals. Based on an analysis of the Swedish newspaper Dagens Nyheter, this study discusses media representations of these risks.

Anna Maria Jönsson

2011-01-01

374

Growth, nitrogen fixation, and nodularin production by two baltic sea cyanobacteria.  

PubMed

In late summer, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria Nodularia spumigena and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae form blooms in the open Baltic Sea. N. spumigena has caused several animal poisonings, but Baltic A. flos-aquae is not known to be toxic. In this laboratory study, performed with batch cultures, the influences of environmental conditions on the biomass and nitrogen fixation rate of N. spumigena and A. flos-aquae were compared and the toxin (nodularin) concentration produced by N. spumigena was measured. Several differences in the biomasses and nitrogen fixation rates of N. spumigena and A. flos-aquae were observed. A. flos-aquae preferred lower irradiances, salinities, and temperatures than N. spumigena. The biomass of both species increased with high phosphate concentrations and with accompanying bacteria and decreased with unnaturally high inorganic nitrogen concentrations. Nodularin concentrations in cells and growth media, as well as nitrogen fixation rates, were generally highest under the conditions that promoted growth. Intracellular nodularin concentrations increased with high temperature, high irradiance, and high phosphate concentration and decreased with low and high salinities and high inorganic nitrogen concentrations. Nodularin concentrations in growth media increased with incubation time, indicating that intracellular nodularin was released when cells lysed. The different responses of A. flos-aquae and N. spumigena to changes in salinity, irradiance, and temperature may explain the different spatial and temporal distribution of these species in the Baltic Sea. According to the results, toxic N. spumigena blooms may be expected in late summer in areas of the Baltic Sea with high phosphorus concentrations and moderate salinity. PMID:16535588

Lehtimaki, J; Moisander, P; Sivonen, K; Kononen, K

1997-05-01

375

Occurrence of the hepatotoxic cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena in the Baltic Sea and structure of the toxin.  

PubMed

Water blooms formed by potentially toxic species of cyanobacteria are a common phenomenon in the Baltic Sea in late summer. Twenty-five cyanobacterial bloom samples were collected from open and coastal waters of the Baltic Sea during 1985 to 1987, and their toxicity was determined by mouse bioassay. All of 5 bloom samples from the southern Baltic Sea, 6 of 6 from the open northern Baltic Sea (Gulf of Finland), and 7 of 14 Finnish coastal samples were found to contain hepatotoxic cyanobacteria. Nodularia spumigena and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae occurred together in high amounts in blooms from the open-sea areas. In addition, coastal samples contained the species Anabaena lemmermannii, Microcystis aeruginosa, and Oscillatoria agardhii. Eighteen hepatotoxic N. spumigena cultures were isolated from water bloom and open-sea water samples. High-pressure liquid chromatographic analysis of both hepatotoxic bloom samples and Nodularia strains showed a single toxic fraction. The toxin concentrations of the blooms were less than or equal to 2.4 mg/g of freeze-dried material, and those of laboratory-grown cultures were 2.5 to 8.0 mg/g of freeze-dried cells. A single toxin was isolated from three N. spumigena-containing bloom samples and three N. spumigena laboratory isolates. Amino acid analysis and low- and high-resolution fast-atom bombardment mass spectroscopy indicated that the toxin from all of the sources was a cyclic pentapeptide (molecular weight, 824) containing glutamic acid, beta-methylaspartic acid, arginine, N-methyldehydrobutyrine, and 3-amino-9-methoxy-2,6,8-trimethyl-10-phenyl-4,6-decadienoic acid.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2506812

Sivonen, K; Kononen, K; Carmichael, W W; Dahlem, A M; Rinehart, K L; Kiviranta, J; Niemela, S I

1989-08-01

376

Decadal-Scale Changes of Dinoflagellates and Diatoms in the Anomalous Baltic Sea Spring Bloom  

PubMed Central

The algal spring bloom in the Baltic Sea represents an anomaly from the winter-spring bloom patterns worldwide in terms of frequent and recurring dominance of dinoflagellates over diatoms. Analysis of approximately 3500 spring bloom samples from the Baltic Sea monitoring programs revealed (i) that within the major basins the proportion of dinoflagellates varied from 0.1 (Kattegat) to >0.8 (central Baltic Proper), and (ii) substantial shifts (e.g. from 0.2 to 0.6 in the Gulf of Finland) in the dinoflagellate proportion over four decades. During a recent decade (1995–2004) the proportion of dinoflagellates increased relative to diatoms mostly in the northernmost basins (Gulf of Bothnia, from 0.1 to 0.4) and in the Gulf of Finland, (0.4 to 0.6) which are typically ice-covered areas. We hypothesize that in coastal areas a specific sequence of seasonal events, involving wintertime mixing and resuspension of benthic cysts, followed by proliferation in stratified thin layers under melting ice, favors successful seeding and accumulation of dense dinoflagellate populations over diatoms. This head-start of dinoflagellates by the onset of the spring bloom is decisive for successful competition with the faster growing diatoms. Massive cyst formation and spreading of cyst beds fuel the expanding and ever larger dinoflagellate blooms in the relatively shallow coastal waters. Shifts in the dominant spring bloom algal groups can have significant effects on major elemental fluxes and functioning of the Baltic Sea ecosystem, but also in the vast shelves and estuaries at high latitudes, where ice-associated cold-water dinoflagellates successfully compete with diatoms.

Klais, Riina; Tamminen, Timo; Kremp, Anke; Spilling, Kristian; Olli, Kalle

2011-01-01

377

On the infection of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua L.) by the acanthocephalan Echinorhynchus gadi (Zoega) Müller.  

PubMed

297 specimens of Baltic cod, caught in the Bornholm Basin, were examined for infection with the acanthocephalan Echinorhynchus gadi. Only two cod were not infected. Negative correlations between the parasite load and the liver index were found, while no clear correlation between the parasite load and the condition factor was observed. Besides a parasitic effect on the liver the food type and ration were suggested as influential factors in the investigation. PMID:3797238

Buchmann, K

378

Twentieth-century trends in the thermal growing season in the Greater Baltic Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenological data have shown an increase of ca. 10 days in European growing season length in the latter part of the twentieth\\u000a century. In general, these changes have been associated with global warming. Here we present a study of thermal growing season\\u000a (GS) trends in the Greater Baltic Area, northern Europe. Yearly dates for the start, end and length of the

Hans W. Linderholm; Alexander Walther; Deliang Chen

2008-01-01

379

AIRBORNE EM SEA-ICE THICHNESS PROFILING OVER BRACKISH BALTIC SEA WATER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helicopter-borne electromagnetic-inductive (EM) ice thickness measurements have been performed in February 2003 along the Finish Baltic Sea coast. Both, the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia were surveyed. Measurements have been performed with a small, two-frequency EM-Bird, a towed sensor suspended 20 m below the heli- copter and operated 15 m above the ice surface. Results show that

Christian Haas

380

A new species of the bee genus Ctenoplectrella in middle Eocene Baltic amber (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new species of the extinct bee genus Ctenoplectrella Cockerell (Megachilinae: Ctenoplectrellini) is described and figured from two females preserved in middle Eocene (Lutetian) Baltic amber. Ctenoplectrella phaeton sp. n. is distinguished from its congeners on the basis of its body proportions, integumental sculpturing, wing venation, and pubescence, and is one of the more distinctive members of the genus. A revised key to the species of Ctenoplectrella is provided.

Gonzalez, Victor H.; Engel, Michael S.

2011-01-01

381

Seasonal Ensemble Forecasting with Ocean General Circulation Model in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ensemble forecasts are a promising new approach to numerous applications in oceanography. They have for long been an essential tool in meteorology. In marine environment, there is a possibility of even further development, in large part due to the longer predictability. This may, e.g., mean more accurate long-term forecasts for oceanographic parameters. In this work we used the ensemble approach to seasonal forecasting of physical and chemical changes during spring bloom in Baltic Sea. We present results of an ensemble forecasting in the Baltic, and discuss the applicability of this method to operational biogeochemical ocean modelling. FMI's operational 3-dimensional biogeochemical model was used to produce monthly ensemble forecasts for different physical, chemical and biological variables. The modelled variables were temperature, salinity, velocity, silicate, phosphate, nitrate, diatoms, flagellates and two species of potentially toxic filamentous cyanobacteria. Ensembles were produced by running several 30 day runs of the biogeochemical model. The model was forced every run with different set of seasonal weather parameters from ECMWF's mathematically perturbed ensemble prediction forecasts. The ensembles were then analysed by statistical methods and the median, quartiles, minimum and maximum values were calculated for model output variables to gain insight into the applicability of the results. Validation for the forecast method was made by comparing the results against in-situ data. The results of the model demonstrated that ensemble forecasting is a viable tool and it is indeed possible to forecast with useful accuracy the Baltic Sea with these time spans.

Roiha, P.; Westerlund, A.; Stipa, T.

2009-04-01

382

Model simulations of the atmospheric trace metals concentrations and depositions over the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of application of two nested Eulerian atmospheric transport models for investigation of airborne heavy metal pollution are presented. The distribution and deposition over Europe and Baltic Sea region were simulated for Pb, Cd and Zn for 2 two-months periods: June-July 1997 and February-March 1998. The European-wide calculations were made with the ADOM model from the GKSS Research Centre, and the Baltic regional calculations were made with the HILATAR model from the Finnish Meteorological Institute. The one-way 3-D nesting was used: hourly concentrations from the ADOM model were used by the HILATAR as vertically resolved boundary conditions. Input data for both models were taken from the weather forecast model HIRLAM and UBA/TNO emission inventory. This allows interpreting of some diversity in the calculation results in terms of different internal parameterization and spatial resolution of the models. Simulation results were compared with high-resolution atmospheric measurements carried out at four stations in the southern part of the Baltic Sea for the same period. Manifesting quite good agreement with observations, the models missed several high deposition events of Cd observed at coastal station Hel. Study of this phenomenon enabled to build a 2-D probability function for potential location of the unknown Cd source.

Sofiev, M.; Petersen, G.; Krüger, O.; Schneider, B.; Hongisto, M.; Jylha, K.

383

The role of open ocean boundary forcing on potential warming in the North and Baltic Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study uncertainty in the regional model of using temperature boundary conditions from the ocean models covering larger areas at reduced resolution, like GCMs, the EC-Earth CMIP5 Experiments are used to provide lateral boundary forcing for the regional atmospheric model (HIRHAM) and the regional ocean model (HBM) in the North and Baltic Seas. HIRHAM has been extensively used over the European region to downscale variability and climate change signals from the global model, for instance during the PRUDENCE project. The downscaling simulation started from January 1, 1960 and was implemented for the historical period of 1960 to 2009 and for the continuing future period of 2010 to 2100 for the two scenarios RCP8.5 and RCP4.5. The effects of using different prescribed temperature boundary conditions in the northern North Sea and the English Channel borders on potential warming in the North and Baltic Seas are investigated. The lateral transport of heat and the details of density structure of the boundary conditions have relatively large impact in the deeper oceanic regions in the northern North Sea, but little in the southern North Sea. The effect in the Baltic Sea and the transition area between the two regional seas is negligible.

Tian, Tian; Su, Jian; Boberg, Fredrik; Yang, Shuting

2013-04-01

384

Long-term changes in summer phytoplankton communities of the open northern Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in the biomass and species composition of phytoplankton may reflect major shifts in environmental conditions. We investigated relationships between the late summer biomass of different phytoplankton taxa and environmental factors, and their long-term (1979 2003) trends in two areas of the Baltic Sea, the northern Baltic proper (NBP) and the Gulf of Finland (GF), with statistical analyses. An increasing trend was found in late summer temperature and chlorophyll a of the surface water layer (0 10 m) in both areas. There was also a significant decrease in summer salinity and an increase in winter dissolved inorganic nitrogen to phosphorus (DIN:DIP) ratio in the NBP, as well as increases in winter DIN concentrations and DIN:SiO4 ratio in the GF. Simultaneously, the biomass of chrysophytes and chlorophytes increased in both areas. In the NBP, also the biomass of dinophytes increased and that of euglenophytes decreased, whereas in the GF, cyanobacteria increased and cryptophytes decreased. Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that summer temperature and winter DIN concentration were the most important factors with respect to changes in the phytoplankton community structure. Thus, the phytoplankton communities seem to reflect both hydrographic changes and the ongoing eutrophication process in the northern Baltic Sea.

Suikkanen, Sanna; Laamanen, Maria; Huttunen, Maija

2007-02-01

385

The general distribution pattern and mixing probability of Baltic sprat juvenile populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transport of Baltic sprat Sprattus sprattus L. larvae spawned on different spawning grounds was investigated by detailed drift model simulations for the years 1979 2002. Modeling approaches with and without diurnal vertical migration were applied. We used recently collected data on spawning location, vertical distribution and the timing of spawning as input to a particle tracking model. Results of this modeling study enabled the identification of potential nursery grounds for sprat originating from different spawning grounds. On average, westerly winds are prevailing over the Baltic Sea. This leads to on average higher abundance of juvenile sprat along the southern and the eastern coast lines of the Baltic. The horizontal distribution of simulated larval or 0-group sprat is consistent with the observed distribution of 0-group sprat obtained from the hydroacoustic field surveys. In addition, this analysis identifies the potential for advective mixing between juveniles originating from different spawning sites or from the same spawning site throughout the spawning season. High spatial overlap was found between Arkona- and Bornholm Basin larvae hatched at the beginning of the spawning season. Mixing probability of sprat juveniles between Arkona- and Gotland Basin as well as between Bornholm- and Gotland Basin were on relatively low levels.

Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Kraus, Gerd; Voss, Rüdiger; Stepputtis, Daniel; Baumann, Hannes

2005-10-01

386

Complete sequences of mitochondrial genomes from the Baltic mussel Mytilus trossulus.  

PubMed

Marine mussels Mytilus possess two mitochondrial (mt) genomes, which undergo doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI). Female (F) and male (M) genomes are usually highly diverged at the sequence level. Both genomes contain the same set of metazoan genes (for 12 proteins, 2 rRNAs and 23 tRNAs), both lack the atp8 gene and have two tRNAs for methionine. However, recently recombination between those variants has been reported. Both original F and M mt genomes of M. trossulus were replaced by M. edulis mtDNA in the Baltic populations. Highly diverged M genome occurs rarely in the Baltic mussels. Full sequences of the M genome identified in males (sperm) and F genome in females (eggs) were obtained. Both genomes were diverged by 24% in nucleotide sequence, but had similar nucleotide composition and codon usage bias. Constant domain (CD) of the control region (CR), the tRNA and rRNA genes were the most conserved. The most diverged was the variable domain 1 (VD1) of the control region. The F genome was longer than M by 147 bp. and the main difference was localised in the VD1 region. No recombination was observed in whole mtDNA of both studied variants. Nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes (numts) have not been found by hybridisation with probes complementary to several fragments of the Baltic M. trossulus mtDNA. PMID:17980515

Zbawicka, Ma?gorzata; Burzy?ski, Artur; Wenne, Roman

2007-10-09

387

Centennial changes in water clarity of the Baltic Sea and the North Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secchi depth is a valuable proxy for detecting long term changes in the water clarity of oceanic and coastal ecosystems. We analyse approximately 40 000 observations, which are available from ICES, from the Baltic Sea and the North Sea in the 20th century. Our results suggest pronounced effects of bottom depth and distance to coast on Secchi depth, and we account for this topographical effect in an assessment of the long term change in water clarity. Our results suggest a centennial Secchi depth shoaling of 3.2 ± 0.2 and 5.8 ± 0.6 m in areas that are shallower and deeper than 100 m in the Baltic Sea. For the North Sea the corresponding numbers were 1.8 ± 0.3 and 5.2 ± 0.9 m. We discuss potential ecosystem effects involving pronounced reductions in photic habitats and reduced visibility for visual predators. We suggest that the role of long term variations in colour dissolved organic matter (CDOM) on the transparency in the Baltic Sea and North Sea deserves future attention.

Dupont, N.; Aksnes, D. L.

2013-10-01

388

Variability of the Baltic Sea level and floods in the Gulf of Finland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The statistical analysis of the long-term data on the variability of the Baltic Sea level has revealed the complicated character of the wave field structure. The wave field formed by the variable winds and the disturbances of the atmospheric pressure in the Baltic Sea is a superposition of standing oscillations with random phases. The cross spectral analysis of the synchronous observation series of the level in the Gulf of Finland has shown that the nodal lines of the standing dilatational waves are clearly traced with frequencies corresponding to the distance from the nodal line to the top of the gulf (a quarter of the wave length). Several areas of the water basin with clearly expressed resonant properties may be distinguished: the Gulfs of Finland, Riga, and Bothnia, Neva Bay, etc. The estimations of the statistical correlation of the sea level oscillations with the variation of the wind and atmospheric pressure indicate the dominant role of the zonal wind component during the formation of the floods in the Gulf of Finland. The probable reason for the extreme floods in St. Petersburg may be the resonance rocking of the eigenmode oscillations corresponding to the basic fundamental seiche mode of the Gulf of Finland with a period of 27 h when the repeated atmospheric disturbances in the Baltic Sea occur with a period of 1-2 days.

Kulikov, E. A.; Medvedev, I. P.

2013-03-01

389

Spiral eddies in the Baltic, Black and Caspian seas as seen by satellite radar data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite spiral eddies were first seen on the sea surface more than 40 years ago, there is still a lot of uncertainty concerning these eddies. The present paper is aimed to provide the comprehensive results on the occurrence and statistics of small-scale eddies in the three inner seas (the Baltic, Black and Caspian) using satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. The dataset used includes over 2000 medium resolution Envisat ASAR and ERS-2 SAR images obtained in 2009-2010 in the different parts of the seas mentioned. As a result of the analysis performed ˜14,000 vortical structures were detected. 71% of them were visualized due to surfactant films ("black" eddies), while 29% due to wave/current interactions ("white" eddies). Practically all the eddies detected were cyclonically rotating. Their diameter was within 1-20 km. Characteristic size of the "black" eddies in all the basins was discovered to be less than that of the "white" eddies. Characteristic eddy size for the Baltic, Black and Caspian seas proved to be strictly proportional to the values of the baroclinic Rossby radius of deformation typical for these basins. The "black" eddies did not demonstrate a significant connection with the basin- and meso-scale surface circulation of the seas. Most of the "white" eddies detected were attributed to the zones with the most intense drift currents, i.e. those along the western boundaries and (in the Baltic Sea only) in the elongated parts of the basin.

Karimova, Svetlana

2012-10-01

390

The hydrodynamic part of the 3D CEMBS model for the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a hydrodynamic part of the coupled ice-ocean model 3D CEMBS designed for the Baltic Sea. It is based on the Community Earth System Model (CESM from the National Center for Atmospheric Research). It was adopted for the Baltic Sea as a coupled sea-ice model. It consists of the Community Ice Code (CICE model, version 4.0) and the Parallel Ocean Program (version 2.1). The models are linked through the coupler (CPL7) based on the Model Coupling Toolkit library. The ocean model has 21 vertical levels and horizontal grid of 600x640 cells. Horizontal resolution is approximately 2km. It is forced by atmospheric fields from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts and in operational mode from 48-hour atmospheric forecasts provided by the UM model from the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling of Warsaw University (ICM). The study was financially supported by the Polish State Committee of Scientific Research (grants: No N N305 111636, N N306 353239). The partial support for this study was also provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBaltyk founded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract no. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09. Calculations were carried out at the Academy Computer Centre in Gdansk.

Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, Lidia; Jakacki, Jaromir; Janecki, Maciej; Nowicki, Artur

2013-04-01

391

The Baltic Macoma: abundance and distribution of an important winter food of diving ducks in Chesapeake Bay  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Poor water quality and widespread depletion of wild celery (Vallisneria americana) and other submerged aquatic plants important as waterfowl foods has resulted in the continued dependence of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) on Baltic clams (Macoma balthica) as their primary winter food. Despite this dependence, no information exists regarding the distribution and abundance of Baltic clams, and changes that occur in Baltic clam populations over time. We conducted benthic surveys to determine the distribution and abundance of Macoma balthica and M. mitchelli in major tributaries of the upper and middle Chesapeake Bay. Tributaries sampled included the Chester River south to Monie Bay on the Eastern Shore, and Middle River to the Potomac River on the western shore of Maryland. Data on depth, bottom type, shellfish, and submerged aquatic vegetation were recorded. The Baltic clam had the highest frequency of occurrence (50%), followed by M. mitchelli (36%). Other species of clams occurred in less than 14% of the 2995 sites sampled. In addition, every third month since June 1991, we have studied seasonal changes in Baltic clam abundance and recruitment at 13 high abundance sites. Recruitment was recorded at only one high density site (97% increase) between June and September transect surveys. Clam length histograms clearly indicated a new year class and depletion of older cohorts. Average summer decline in Baltic clam abundance at the other 12 sites was 59% and ranged from -11% to -97%. Based on clam length, younger cohorts were depleted at a higher rate. More than half of the Baltic clam population was depleted during the summer and spring recruitment was low.

Jorde, D.G.; Haramis, G.M.

1997-01-01

392

Atom cooling by nonadiabatic expansion  

SciTech Connect

Motivated by the recent discovery that a reflecting wall moving with a square-root-in-time trajectory behaves as a universal stopper of classical particles regardless of their initial velocities, we compare linear-in-time and square-root-in-time expansions of a box to achieve efficient atom cooling. For the quantum single-atom wave functions studied the square-root-in-time expansion presents important advantages: asymptotically it leads to zero average energy whereas any linear-in-time (constant box-wall velocity) expansion leaves a nonzero residual energy, except in the limit of an infinitely slow expansion. For finite final times and box lengths we set a number of bounds and cooling principles which again confirm the superior performance of the square-root-in-time expansion, even more clearly for increasing excitation of the initial state. Breakdown of adiabaticity is generally fatal for cooling with the linear expansion but not so with the square-root-in-time expansion.

Chen Xi [Departamento de Quimica-Fisica, UPV-EHU, Apdo 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Department of Physics, Shanghai University, 200444 Shanghai (China); Muga, J. G. [Departamento de Quimica-Fisica, UPV-EHU, Apdo 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Campo, A. del [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College London, 53 Princes Gate, SW7 2PG London (United Kingdom); QOLS, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, SW7 2BW London (United Kingdom); Ruschhaupt, A. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Appelstrasse 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

2009-12-15

393

Micromechanics of expansive mechanisms in expansive cement concretes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinetics of hydration were studied by monitoring the presence of various compounds by X-ray diffractometer, a chemical extraction method, and scanning electron microscope. These studies indicated that the rates of depletion of the expanding particles and sulfates are higher in the finer blends, which is why expansion stops earlier in these blends. It is shown that the double curvature phenomenon (strength-drop and sudden increase in the rate of expansion) is caused by mechanical failure (e.g., microcracking) of the matrix surrounding the expanding particles that are producing ettringite crystals. The theory of protective and partial protective coating is reviewed. A hypothesis is introduced which assumes that monosulfate is not formed immediately when ettringite stops forming but is preceded by an intermediate phase. Shrinkage studies show that expansive cements shrink more than portland cements. The results of these studies were used to develop a modified model of the expansive process. It was shown theoretically that the time of expansion is inversely proportional to the surface area of the expansive clinker and directly proportional to the amount of sulfate used.

Cohen, M. D.

394

Breaking the Link between Environmental Degradation and Oil Palm Expansion: A Method for Enabling Sustainable Oil Palm Expansion.  

PubMed

Land degradation is a global concern. In tropical areas it primarily concerns the conversion of forest into non-forest lands and the associated losses of environmental services. Defining such degradation is not straightforward hampering effective reduction in degradation and use of already degraded lands for more productive purposes. To facilitate the processes of avoided degradation and land rehabilitation, we have developed a methodology in which we have used international environmental and social sustainability standards to determine the suitability of lands for sustainable agricultural expansion. The method was developed and tested in one of the frontiers of agricultural expansion, West Kalimantan province in Indonesia. The focus was on oil palm expansion, which is considered as a major driver for deforestation in tropical regions globally. The results suggest that substantial changes in current land-use planning are necessary for most new plantations to comply with international sustainability standards. Through visualizing options for sustainable expansion with our methodology, we demonstrate that the link between oil palm expansion and degradation can be broken. Application of the methodology with criteria and thresholds similar to ours could help the Indonesian government and the industry to achieve its pro-growth, pro-job, pro-poor and pro-environment development goals. For sustainable agricultural production, context specific guidance has to be developed in areas suitable for expansion. Our methodology can serve as a template for designing such commodity and country specific tools and deliver such guidance. PMID:24039700

Smit, Hans Harmen; Meijaard, Erik; van der Laan, Carina; Mantel, Stephan; Budiman, Arif; Verweij, Pita

2013-09-06

395

Reprint of: The ecophysiology of Sprattus sprattus in the Baltic and North Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European sprat (Sprattus sprattus) was a main target species of the German GLOBEC program that investigated the trophodynamic structure and function of the Baltic and North Seas under the influence of physical forcing. This review summarizes literature on the ecophysiology of sprat with an emphasis on describing how environmental factors influence the life-history strategy of this small pelagic fish. Ontogenetic changes in feeding and growth, and the impacts of abiotic and biotic factors on vital rates are discussed with particular emphasis on the role of temperature as a constraint to life-history scheduling of this species in the Baltic Sea. A combination of field and laboratory data suggests that optimal thermal windows for growth and survival change during early life and are wider for eggs (5-17 °C) than in young (8- to 12-mm) early feeding larvae (5-12 °C). As larvae become able to successfully capture larger prey, thermal windows expand to include warmer waters. For example, 12- to 16-mm larvae can grow well at 16 °C and larger, transitional-larvae and early juveniles display the highest rates of feeding and growth at ˜18-22 °C. Gaps in knowledge are identified including the need for additional laboratory studies on the physiology and behavior of larvae (studies that will be particularly critical for biophysical modeling activities) and research addressing the role of overwinter survival as a factor shaping phenology and setting limits on the productivity of this species in areas located at the northern limits of its latitudinal range (such as the Baltic Sea). Based on stage- and temperature-specific mortality and growth potential of early life stages, our analysis suggests that young-of-the year sprat would benefit from inhabiting warmer, near-shore environments rather than the deeper-water spawning grounds such as the Bornholm Basin (central Baltic Sea). Utilization of warmer, nearshore waters (or a general increase in Baltic Sea temperatures) is expected to accelerate growth rates but also enhance the possibility for density-dependent regulation of recruitment (e.g., top-down control of zooplankton resources) acting during the late-larval and juvenile stages, particularly when sprat stocks are at high levels.

Peck, Myron A.; Baumann, Hannes; Bernreuther, Matthias; Clemmesen, Catriona; Herrmann, Jens-Peter; Haslob, Holger; Huwer, Bastian; Kanstinger, Philipp; Köster, Fritz W.; Petereit, Christoph; Temming, Axel; Voss, Rudi

2012-12-01

396

The ecophysiology of Sprattus sprattus in the Baltic and North Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European sprat (Sprattus sprattus) was a main target species of the German GLOBEC program that investigated the trophodynamic structure and function of the Baltic and North Seas under the influence of physical forcing. This review summarizes literature on the ecophysiology of sprat with an emphasis on describing how environmental factors influence the life-history strategy of this small pelagic fish. Ontogenetic changes in feeding and growth, and the impacts of abiotic and biotic factors on vital rates are discussed with particular emphasis on the role of temperature as a constraint to life-history scheduling of this species in the Baltic Sea. A combination of field and laboratory data suggests that optimal thermal windows for growth and survival change during early life and are wider for eggs (5-17 °C) than in young (8- to 12-mm) early feeding larvae (5-12 °C). As larvae become able to successfully capture larger prey, thermal windows expand to include warmer waters. For example, 12- to 16-mm larvae can grow well at 16 °C and larger, transitional-larvae and early juveniles display the highest rates of feeding and growth at ˜18-22 °C. Gaps in knowledge are identified including the need for additional laboratory studies on the physiology and behavior of larvae (studies that will be particularly critical for biophysical modeling activities) and research addressing the role of overwinter survival as a factor shaping phenology and setting limits on the productivity of this species in areas located at the northern limits of its latitudinal range (such as the Baltic Sea). Based on stage- and temperature-specific mortality and growth potential of early life stages, our analysis suggests that young-of-the year sprat would benefit from inhabiting warmer, near-shore environments rather than the deeper-water spawning grounds such as the Bornholm Basin (central Baltic Sea). Utilization of warmer, nearshore waters (or a general increase in Baltic Sea temperatures) is expected to accelerate growth rates but also enhance the possibility for density-dependent regulation of recruitment (e.g., top-down control of zooplankton resources) acting during the late-larval and juvenile stages, particularly when sprat stocks are at high levels.

Peck, Myron A.; Baumann, Hannes; Bernreuther, Matthias; Clemmesen, Catriona; Herrmann, Jens-Peter; Haslob, Holger; Huwer, Bastian; Kanstinger, Philipp; Köster, Fritz W.; Petereit, Christoph; Temming, Axel; Voss, Rudi

2012-09-01

397

Modeling the pathways and ages of inflowing salt- and freshwater in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-dimensional, eddy-permitting ocean circulation model with implemented bottom boundary layer model and flux-corrected transport scheme is used to calculate the pathways and ages of various water masses in the Baltic Sea. The agreement between simulated and observed temperature and salinity profiles of the period 1980 2004 is satisfactory. Especially the renewal of the deep water in the Baltic proper by gravity-driven dense bottom flows is better simulated than in previous versions of the model. Based upon these model results details of the mean circulation are analyzed. For instance, it is found that after the major Baltic inflow in January 2003 saline water passing the S?upsk Furrow flows directly towards northeast along the eastern slope of the Hoburg Channel. However, after the baroclinic summer inflow in August/September 2002 the deep water flow spreads along the southwestern slope of the Gdansk Basin. Further, the model results show that the patterns of mean vertical advective fluxes across the halocline that close the large-scale vertical circulation are rather patchy. Mainly within distinct areas are particles of the saline inflow water advected vertically from the deep water into the surface layer. To analyze the time scales of the circulation mean ages of various water masses are calculated. It is found that at the sea surface of the Bornholm Basin, Gotland Basin, Bothnian Sea, and Bothnian Bay the mean ages associated to inflowing water from Kattegat amount to 26 30, 28 34, 34 38, and 38 42 years, respectively. Largest mean sea surface ages of more than 30 years associated to the freshwater of the rivers are found in the central Gotland Basin and Belt Sea. At the bottom the mean ages are largest in the western Gotland Basin and amount to more than 36 years. In the Baltic proper vertical gradients of ages associated to the freshwater inflow are smaller than in the case of inflowing saltwater from Kattegat indicating an efficient recirculation of freshwater in the Baltic Sea.

Markusmeier, H.

2007-09-01

398

Estimates of expansion time scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monte Carlo simulations of the expansion of a spacefaring civilization show that descendants of that civilization should be found near virtually every useful star in the Galaxy in a time much less than the current age of the Galaxy. Only extreme assumptions about local population growth rates, emigration rates, or ship ranges can slow or halt an expansion. The apparent absence of extraterrestrials from the solar system suggests that no such civilization has arisen in the Galaxy.

Jones, E. M.

399

Quantum vacuum and accelerated expansion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new approach to extraction of quantum vacuum energy, in the context of the accelerated expansion, is proposed, and it is shown that experimentally realistic orders of values can be derived. The idea has been implemented in the framework of the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker geometry in the language of the effective action in the relativistic formalism of Schwinger's proper time and Seeley-DeWitt's heat kernel expansion.

Broda, B.; Szanecki, M.

400

Thermal expansion of bismuth telluride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of X-ray and dilatometric measurements of the thermal expansion of bismuth telluride in the temperature range\\u000a of 4.2–850 K have been critically analyzed. The joint statistical processing of the experimental data has been performed by\\u000a the least squares method and the most reliable temperature dependences of the linear thermal expansion coefficients along\\u000a the principal crystallographic axes ?\\u000a a

L. M. Pavlova; Yu. I. Shtern; R. E. Mironov

2011-01-01

401

Blue mussels, Mytilus edulis , at the edge of the range: population structure, growth and biomass along a salinity gradient in the north-eastern Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, is the most conspicuous animal species in the northern Baltic rocky sublittoral. In the studied area the species lives at the margin of its salinity tolerance. Although dwarfed by the low-salinity conditions, blue mussels in the northern Baltic are very abundant and have a decisive role in the benthic and pelagic ecosystems. We studied abundance,

M. Westerbom; M. Kilpi; O. Mustonen

2002-01-01

402

Brackish-water submergence of the common periwinkle, Littorina littorea , and its digenean parasites in the Baltic Sea and in the Kattegat  

Microsoft Academic Search

North Sea and Baltic Sea populations ofLittorina littorea differ with respect to their vertical distribution. In the North SeaL. littorea is strictly intertidal while in the Baltic Sea maximum population densities occur in the sublittoral. Levels of infestation with larval digenetic trematodes diminish qualitatively (number of species recorded) and quantitatively (number of hosts infested) with decreasing salinity. Both the host

G. Lauckner

1984-01-01

403

The Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX): A European Contribution to the Investigation of the Energy and Water Cycle over a Large Drainage Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX) is one of the five continental-scale experiments of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX). More than 50 research groups from 14 European countries are participating in this project to measure and model the energy and water cycle over the large drainage basin of the Baltic Sea in northern Europe. BALTEX aims to provide

E. Raschke; J. Meywerk; K. Warrach; U. Andrea; S. Bergström; F. Beyrich; F. Bosveld; K. Bumke; C. Fortelius; L. P. Graham; S.-E. Gryning; S. Halldin; L. Hasse; M. Heikinheimo; H.-J. Isemer; D. Jacob; I. Jauja; K.-G. Karlsson; S. Keevallik; J. Koistinen; A. van Lammeren; U. Lass; J. Launianen; A. Lehmann; B. Liljebladh; M. Lobmeyr; W. Matthäus; T. Mengelkamp; D. B. Michelson; J. Napiórkowski; A. Omstedt; J. Piechura; B. Rockel; F. Rubel; E. Ruprecht; A.-S. Smedman; A. Stigebrandt

2001-01-01

404

Seismic reprocessing of 2D marine seismic reflection data from the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large quantities of seismic reflection data acquired in the Baltic Sea before 1990 exist. Several decades later, it is common that these datasets are considered to be obsolete. However re-processing these data using modern technology can provide significant uplift in the quality of the final product. As highlighted by this study, opportunities to extract additional subsurface information from these historical data at a relatively low cost are significant. In this study, several historical 2D seismic reflection lines from different vintages acquired between 1970 and 1990 in the Baltic Sea have been re-processed from raw shot gathers using current techniques and computer hardware. A significant uplift has been achieved in pre-stack gathers and the final stacked images when compared to the original processing. As a result a more confident interpretation of the shallow crustal sedimentary sequence is obtained, which differs notably from the interpretation of the original data. The potential benefits of seismic data re-processing are wide ranging. However, in this case the reprocessed lines form a small part of a large publicly available historical dataset of 2D seismic reflection data acquired in the Baltic Sea. Reprocessing this dataset could therefore provide valuable information which would be of interest for a number of research areas. These could include the evaluation of the CO2 storage potential in Scandinavia and the Baltic states, improving the understanding of Baltic Sea geology and evaluating remaining hydrocarbon potential. The data presented consists of lines from 3 different 2D marine surveys acquired using a single towed streamer. The offset range across all 3 acquisitions is 65m to 1397m, both airgun and water gun sources were used. Receiver spacing across the 3 surveys varied from 6.25 to 50m. The study profiles are located in the Southern Baltic Sea, with two intersecting profiles lying approximately 50km south of Öland and one profile lying 10km to the south east of Gotland. A revised processing flow for these Baltic Sea data has been developed and implemented. This provides general improvements to the processing flow as well as specifically targeting two significant data issues which exist in the original stacked sections. The first is the presence of high angle linear noise which is identified as diffracted multiple energy. This noise is thought to be generated as a result of undulating structure at the top of a layer with a sharp impedance increase located in the shallow subsurface. In this study this noise is successfully attenuated by filtering out negative dips by means of an FK mute applied to shot and receiver gathers. The second issue is multiple energy. In this case, the same sharp impedance increase located in the near subsurface acts together with the seabed to generate significant multiple noise. Deconvolution applied in the Tau P domain is found to be the most effective method for attenuating multiples in this dataset. This study therefore highlights the uplift in final stacked image and tangible differences in interpretation which can be achieved when re-processing historical seismic data with modern day technology.

Sopher, D.; Juhlin, C.

2012-04-01

405

Sediment trace metals as a recorder of bottom water redox conditions in the Baltic Sea over the Holocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increased inputs of nutrients from waste water and fertilizer have driven enhanced algal growth in the surface waters of the Baltic Sea over the past century. The sinking of this organic matter to the seafloor and subsequent decay has led to an oxygen demand in the bottom water that outpaces oxygen supply. Water column records indicate that this has resulted in a major redox shift in bottom water conditions from oxic to sulfidic (euxinic) in the late 1970's and early 1980's. Here, we show that this redox shift is recorded in sediment trace metal records throughout the Baltic Proper. We demonstrate that while rhenium (Re) tracks suboxia, molybdenum (Mo) is an accurate indicator of euxinia in the Baltic Sea. We subsequently use sediment Mo data for two long cores to assess changes in redox conditions over the Holocene. At one site, our results confirm earlier work showing three distinct periods of bottom water euxinia, namely during modern and medieval times and the early Holocene. The second site, in contrast, was euxinic throughout most of the Holocene. We suggest that the variable trends in redox observed at the first site are representative for most of the Baltic Proper and long-term bottom water euxinia in the Baltic Sea is limited to several small restricted basins.

Slomp, C. P.; Jilbert, T.; van Riel, K. P. G. L.; Mort, H. P.; Conley, D. J.; Gustafsson, B. G.

2012-04-01

406

Baltic Salmon, Salmo salar, from Swedish River Lule ?lv Is More Resistant to Furunculosis Compared to Rainbow Trout  

PubMed Central

Background Furunculosis, caused by Aeromonas salmonicida, continues to be a major health problem for the growing salmonid aquaculture. Despite effective vaccination programs regular outbreaks occur at the fish farms calling for repeated antibiotic treatment. We hypothesized that a difference in natural susceptibility to this disease might exist between Baltic salmon and the widely used rainbow trout. Study Design A cohabitation challenge model was applied to investigate the relative susceptibility to infection with A. salmonicida in rainbow trout and Baltic salmon. The course of infection was monitored daily over a 30-day period post challenge and the results were summarized in mortality curves. Results A. salmonicida was recovered from mortalities during the entire test period. At day 30 the survival was 6.2% and 34.0% for rainbow trout and Baltic salmon, respectively. Significant differences in susceptibility to A. salmonicida were demonstrated between the two salmonids and hazard ratio estimation between rainbow trout and Baltic salmon showed a 3.36 higher risk of dying from the infection in the former. Conclusion The finding that Baltic salmon carries a high level of natural resistance to furunculosis might raise new possibilities for salmonid aquaculture in terms of minimizing disease outbreaks and the use of antibiotics.

Holten-Andersen, Lars; Dalsgaard, Inger; Buchmann, Kurt

2012-01-01

407

OMV studies ethylene expansion in Germany  

SciTech Connect

OMV(Vienna) is evaluating plans to debottleneck its ethylene plant at Burghausen from 310,000 m.t./year to at least 400,000 m.t./year. Senior v.p. Jochen Berger says OMV is studying the limits to which the cracker can be expanded. {open_quotes}We`re pretty sure we can go to 400,000 m.t./year, but in two months we`ll have a better idea,{close_quotes} says Berger. The expansion will also depend on the future requirements of downstream operations at the Burghausen site, which include OMV plastics subsidiary PCD`s high-density polyethylene and polypropylene units and the vinyl chloride monomer and polyvinyl chloride units operated by Hoechst-Wacker joint venture Vinnolit.

NONE

1996-10-23

408

Transient simulations help decide expansion design  

SciTech Connect

Foothills Pipe Lines Ltd., Calgary, evaluated two approaches to solving pipeline-capacity delivery problems around the Empress, Alta., extraction plants. This capacity constraint resulted from the requirement for gas stripping by low-pressure Empress extraction plants which severely limited the operating pressure level of the high-pressure pipeline there. The engineering evaluation employed off-line hydraulic transient analyses of alternative low-pressure and high-pressure scenarios. The problems arose as Foothills began planning an expansion to export more Canadian gas into the U.S. The location is about 160 miles north of Foothills' Monchy, Sask., delivery point to the Northern Border Pipeline in the U.S. The segment of line around the Empress plants forms part of the 396-mile Eastern Leg prebuild section of the future Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System (Angts) Pipeline project.

Kitt, S.R. (Foothills Pipe Lines Ltd., Calgary (CA))

1991-07-08

409

A mass zero cluster expansion: Part 1. The expansion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cluster expansion is developed and applied to study the perturbation ?(??)4 of the massless lattice field ? in dimension 3. The method is loosely inspired by the work of Gawedzki and Kupiainen on block spin techniques for the? (mathop nabla limits^ to ? )^4 system. The cluster expansion is given in terms of expansion coefficients for the field as a sum of certain special block spin functions. These functions are chosen with a large number of moments zero, so that the interaction couples spatially separated functions with an interaction falling off as a high inverse power of the separation distance. The present techniques, with some technical development, should work for broad classes of other models, including the lattice dipole gas and the? (mathop nabla limits^ to ? )^4 model. Models ?(, ?,; ?)2 s , ?>1/2, are essentially included in the present work.

Federbush, Paul G.

1981-09-01

410

Atmospheric nutrient input to the Baltic sea from 1850 to 2006: a reconstruction from modeling results and historical data.  

PubMed

In this study, a consistent basin-wise monthly time series of the atmospheric nutrient load to the Baltic Sea during 1850-2006 was compiled. Due to the lack of a long time series (1850-1960) of nutrient deposition to the Baltic Sea, the data set was compiled by combining a time series of deposition data at the Baltic Nest Institute from 1970 to 2006, published historical monitoring data and deposition estimates, as well as recent modeled Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) emission estimates. The procedure for nitrogen compounds included estimation of the deposition in a few intermediate reference years, linear interpolation between them, and the decomposition of annual deposition into a seasonal deposition pattern. As no reliable monitoring results were found for the atmospheric deposition of phosphorus during the early period of our study, we used published estimates for the temporal and spatial pattern of the phosphorus load. PMID:22926878

Ruoho-Airola, Tuija; Eilola, Kari; Savchuk, Oleg P; Parviainen, Maija; Tarvainen, Virpi

2012-09-01

411

Is fish a major source of fluorinated surfactants and repellents in humans living on the Baltic Coast?  

PubMed

Concentrations of 19 perfluorochemicals have been quantified in human blood and in some marine food resources from the region of the Gulf of Gdañsk at the Baltic Sea south coast in Poland. We indicate that in addition to PFOS and PFOA, a further 8 perfluorochemicals bioaccumulate in the human body. Food chain is an important route of exposure for all 10 perfluoroalkyl compounds detected in nonoccupationally exposed humans. Individuals who declared to have a high fish intake in their diet (mainly Baltic fish) on average contained the highest load of all 10 fluorochemicals when compared with the other human subpopulations. Baltic seafood has been found to highly influence human body burden of PFHxS, PFOS, PFOSA, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, and PFDoDA, and to a lesser extent PFOA. PMID:16509313

Falandysz, Jerzy; Taniyasu, Sachi; Gulkowska, Anna; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike

2006-02-01

412

INTEGRATED PLANNING MODEL - EPA APPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Integrated Planning Model (IPM) is a multi-regional, dynamic, deterministic linear programming (LP) model of the electric power sector in the continental lower 48 states and the District of Columbia. It provides forecasts up to year 2050 of least-cost capacity expansion, elec...

413

Planning Report, 2007-2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is prepared in accordance to state law requiring the Nevada System of Higher Education (NSHE) to prepare a biennial report for submission to the Nevada State Legislature that outlines a plan for new programs and expansions of existing programs of instruction, public service and research. This report highlights the strategic objectives…

Nevada System of Higher Education, 2011

2011-01-01

414

Incremental Markov-Model Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach to building plansusing partially observable Markov decision processes.The approach begins with a base solution that assumesfull observability. The partially observable solutionis incrementally constructed by considering increasingamounts of information from observations. The basesolution directs the expansion of the plan by providingan evaluation function for the search fringe. We showthat incremental observation moves from the base solutiontowards

Richard Washington; Philadelphia VAMC

1996-01-01

415

Inclusion of Wind in the MISO Transmission Expansion Planning Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Midwest ISO performs exploratory studies to determine information about the combined generation and transmission system operating the Eastern Interconnection and the Joint and Common Market with PJM. The example in this paper is a simulation of the power system in the year 2016 with 16,000 MW of wind generation added to a MISO and PJM wide 765 kV transmission

D. Osborn; J. L. Wilson

2007-01-01

416

A multiple objective integer programming approach for planning franchise expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number and configuration of franchise outlets in a market defines the distribution strategy of a franchise company. The introduction of new franchise outlets contributes to conflict between the franchisee and franchisor over the degree of market penetration. The selection of sites for new franchises is an important factor in the long-term profitability of many types of franchises. This selection

Sai Kolli; Gerald W. Evans

1999-01-01

417

Models for planning capacity expansion in local access telecommunication networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid progress of communications technology has created new opportunities for modeling and optimizing the design of local telecommunication systems. The complexity, diversity, and continuous evolution of these networks pose several modeling challenges. In this paper, we present an overview of the local telephone network environment, and discuss possible modeling approaches. In particular, we (i) discuss the engineering characteristics of

A. Balakrishnan; T. L. Magnanti; A. Shulman; R. T. Wong

1991-01-01

418

Large Mass Expansion, Operator Product Expansion, and R*-OPERATION  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An explicit formula for the effective Lagrangian in arbitrary order of the large mass expansion (LME) is derived. It describes the asymptotic expansion of Green functions of light fields when heavy masses tend to infinity and expresses the effective Lagrangian as a sum of the light fields and their derivatives with coefficients which expand in vacuum Feynman amplitudes at zero values of light masses. These coefficients are UV- and IR-finite due to the R*-operation that is a generalisation of the R-operation when IR divergences are involved.

Smirnov, V. A.

419

Severity of sea ice in the Southern Baltic Sea, Gulf of Finland and Gulf of Bothnia up 21st century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study focused on the evaluation of probable changes in the severity of sea ice conditions occurring in 3 selected areas of the Baltic Sea: the Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf of Finland and the Southern Baltic Sea up to the year 2100. The areas have been chosen due to the high intensity of marine traffic (the Gulfs—of Bothnia and of Finland) and due to differences in sea ice conditions; winters in the Gulf of Bothnia were characterized as the most severe, whereas in the Southern Baltic were classified as the mildest ones. Consequently, three scenarios were taken into account in the study: A2 (slow rate of global economic development, market scenario), A1B (regional scenario, rapid economic development, with ecological priorities), B1 (sustainable, median economic development with strong ecological priorities), all three constructed on the basis of Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES models of greenhouse gas emission). The probable changes of sea ice conditions expressed as severity index S were calculated from these models. The main results of the investigation are as follows, the variety of sea ice conditions occurring in specific regions of the Baltic will remain stable (i.e. the most severe winter conditions will still occur in Gulf of Bothnia, while the mildest in the Southern Baltic Sea). The most significant changes are likely to occur in the Southern Baltic, where some winters without ice cover in the Vistula Lagoon may happen. Nonetheless, some extremely severe winters will occur and also within specific seasons more winters with a lower number of days with ice will occur.

Marzenna, Sztobryn

2012-11-01

420

Hybrid origin of Baltic salmon-specific parasite Gyrodactylus salaris: a model for speciation by host switch for hemiclonal organisms.  

PubMed

Host switching explains the high species number of ectoparasitic, viviparous, mainly parthenogenetic but potentially hermaphroditic flatworms of the genus Gyrodactylus. The starlike mitochondrial phylogeny of Gyrodactylus salaris suggested parallel divergence of several clades on grayling (also named as Gyrodactylus thymalli) and an embedded sister clade on Baltic salmon. The hypothesis that the parasite switched from grayling to salmon during the glacial diaspora was tested using a 493-bp nuclear DNA marker ADNAM1. The parasites on salmon in lakes Onega and Ladoga were heterozygous for divergent ADNAM1 alleles WS1 and BS1, found as nearly fixed in grayling parasites in the White Sea and Baltic Sea basins, respectively. In the Baltic salmon-specific mtDNA clade, the WS/BS heterozygosity was maintained in 23 out of the 24 local clones. The permanently heterozygous clade was endemic in the Baltic Sea basin, and it had accumulated variation in mtDNA (31 variable sites on 1600 bp) and in the alleles of the nuclear locus (two point mutations and three nucleotide conversions along 493 bp). Mendelian shuffling of the nuclear alleles between the local clones indicated rare sex within the clade, but the WS/BS heterozygosity was lost in only one salmon hatchery clone, which was heterozygous WS1/WS3. The Baltic salmon-specific G. salaris lineage was monophyletic, descending from a single historical hybridization and consequential host switch, frozen by permanent heterozygosity. A possible time for the hybridization of grayling parasite strains from the White Sea and Baltic Sea basins was during the Eemian interglacial 132 000 years bp. Strains having a separate divergent mtDNA observed on farmed rainbow trout, and on salmon in Russian lake Kuito were suggested to be clones derived from secondary and tertiary recombination events. PMID:17971088

Kuusela, Jussi; Zietara, Marek S; Lumme, J

2007-10-30

421

INTEGRATED PLANNING FOR ONSITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unplanned, compartmentalized approaches for onsite wastewater treatment fail to consider cumulative water resource and pollutant impacts. Planning is the key to cost effective wastewater treatment, regardless of whether the facilities are centralized or decentralized. Centralized facility planning has been required for treatment expansion projects since passage of the Clean Water Act in 1972. We have now arrived at the time

Barry Tonning; Rod Frederick; Robert Goo; James Kreissl

422

Understanding the variables in planning infrastructure projects.  

PubMed

When planning for an infrastructure renovation or expansion, hospital executives should ask five questions to guide the decision-making process: What is the best way to plan for infrastructure improvements? What funding options exist? What is the best way to manage risk? What outcomes should I expect from my investment? When complete, will my project support the intended use? PMID:22128601

Sherman, Michael

2011-11-01

423

The Identity Crisis of Educational Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Educational planning is presently confronted by an identity crisis. As long as it was believed that educational expansion was a principal ingredient for securing economic growth, democratic political processes, and greater equality of economics and social participation, the tenets and practice of educational planning were rarely questioned.…

Levin, Henry M.

424

Artificial radionuclides in the surface waters of the Baltic Sea and the North Sea in the fall of 1984  

SciTech Connect

The authors compare data from the literature with data taken in the fall of 1984 on the concentrations of cesium 137, strontium 90, cesium 144, and tritium in the waters of the Baltic and North seas. Sampling was conducted along the coastal regions as well as offshore and the consequent concentration and distribution profiles are mapped. They attempt to assess the weight of meteorological and water current as well as seasonal factors on the determined levels and also point to possible sources of the isotopes, including nuclear power plants situated along Baltic and North Sea shorelines and an atmospheric test of a thermonuclear bomb carried out by China.

Kadzhene, G.I.; Kleiza, I.V.; Korotkov, V.P.; Lukinskene, M.V.; Mironov, V.K.; Styro, D.B.

1987-10-01

425

Repeated expansion in burn sequela.  

PubMed

This paper presents a retrospective study of the use of 346 expanders in 132 patients operated at the Ivo Pitanguy Clinic, between the period of 1985 and 2000. The expanders were used in the treatment of burn sequela. In the majority of cases, more than one expander was used at the same time. In 42 patients, repeated tissue expansion was done. The re-expanded flaps demonstrated good distension and viability. With the increase in area at each new expansion, larger volume expanders were employed, achieving an adequate advancement of the flaps to remove the injured tissue. The great advantage of using tissue re-expansion in the burned patient is the reconstruction of extensive areas with the same color and texture of neighboring tissues, without the addition of new scars. PMID:12163292

Pitanguy, Ivo; Gontijo de Amorim, Natale Ferreira; Radwanski, Henrique N; Lintz, José Eduardo

2002-08-01

426

Nonicosahedral pathways for capsid expansion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a significant number of viruses a structural transition of the protein container that encapsulates the viral genome forms an important part of the life cycle and is a prerequisite for the particle becoming infectious. Despite many recent efforts the mechanism of this process is still not fully understood, and a complete characterization of the expansion pathways is still lacking. We present here a coarse-grained model that captures the essential features of the expansion process and allows us to investigate the conditions under which a viral capsid becomes unstable. Based on this model we demonstrate that the structural transitions in icosahedral viral capsids are likely to occur through a low-symmetry cascade of local expansion events spreading in a wavelike manner over the capsid surface.

Cermelli, Paolo; Indelicato, Giuliana; Twarock, Reidun

2013-09-01

427

An expansion for neutrino phenomenology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a formalism for constructing the Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata (PMNS) matrix and neutrino masses using an expansion that originates when a sequence of heavy right handed neutrinos are integrated out, assuming a seesaw mechanism for the origin of neutrino masses. The expansion establishes relationships between the structure of the PMNS matrix and the mass differences of neutrinos, and allows symmetry implications for measured deviations from tri-bimaximal form to be studied systematically. Our approach does not depend on choosing the rotation between the weak and mass eigenstates of the charged lepton fields to be diagonal. We comment on using this expansion to examine the symmetry implications of the recent results from the Daya-Bay collaboration reporting the discovery of a non zero value for ? 13, indicating a deviation from tri-bimaximal form, with a significance of 5.2 ?.

Grinstein, Benjamín; Trott, Michael

2012-09-01

428

Mechanical waves during tissue expansion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The processes by which an organism develops its shape and heals wounds involve expansion of a monolayer sheet of cells. The mechanism underpinning this epithelial expansion remains obscure, despite the fact that its failure is known to contribute to several diseases, including carcinomas, which account for about 90% of all human cancers. Here, using the micropatterned epithelial monolayer as a model system, we report the discovery of a mechanical wave that propagates slowly to span the monolayer, traverses intercellular junctions in a cooperative manner and builds up differentials of mechanical stress. Essential features of this wave generation and propagation are captured by a minimal model based on sequential fronts of cytoskeletal reinforcement and fluidization. These findings establish a mechanism of long-range cell guidance, symmetry breaking and pattern formation during monolayer expansion.

Serra-Picamal, Xavier; Conte, Vito; Vincent, Romaric; Anon, Ester; Tambe, Dhananjay T.; Bazellieres, Elsa; Butler, James P.; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.; Trepat, Xavier

2012-08-01

429

Energy efficient perlite expansion process  

SciTech Connect

A thermally efficient process for the expansion of perlite ore is described. The inlet port and burner of a perlite expansion chamber (Preferably a vertical expander) are enclosed such that no ambient air can enter the chamber. Air and fuel are metered to the burner with the amount of air being controlled such that the fuel/air premix contains at least enough air to start and maintain minimum combustion, but not enough to provide stoichiometric combustion. At a point immediately above the burner, additional air is metered into an insulated enclosure surrounding the expansion chamber where it is preheated by the heat passing through the chamber walls. This preheated additional air is then circulated back to the burner where it provides the remainder of the air needed for combustion, normally full combustion. Flow of the burner fuel/air premix and the preheated additional air is controlled so as to maintain a long luminous flame throughout a substantial portion of the expansion chamber and also to form a moving laminar layer of air on the inner surface of the expansion chamber. Preferably the burner is a delayed mixing gas burner which materially aids in the generation of the long luminous flame. The long luminous flame and the laminar layer of air at the chamber wall eliminate hot spots in the expansion chamber, result in relatively low and uniform temperature gradients across the chamber, significantly reduce the amount of fuel consumed per unit of perlite expanded, increase the yield of expanded perlite and prevent the formation of a layer of perlite sinter on the walls of the chamber.

Jenkins, K.L.

1982-08-31

430

Transformation of aerosol in Planetary Boundary Layer over the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosols are one of the most important components of the atmosphere. The content and composition of aerosols in the atmosphere depends on their origin. In maritime areas transformation of aerosols in the atmosphere may occur. This depends on many factors, such as wind speed and direction, humidity and emission from the sea surface. The transformation of aerosols in the Planetary Boundary Layer over the Baltic Sea is replacing other sources of aerosols to aerosols composed of sea salt. When the air passing over the Baltic aerosol optical thickness (AOT) initially decreases and then increases in strong winds due to increase of the marine aerosol content in the layer. This type of change can be followed with use of many numerical experiments performed on the model of the transformation of aerosols in the Planetary Boundary Layer. This model consists of two parts, dynamic and optical. The dynamic part is based on the repeated numerical solution of the equation of diffusion for different particle size and optical properties. The result of the dynamic part provides vertical profiles of aerosol size distributions. Optical module to calculate the relative cross sections for the weakening used Mie single process. We compare data from numerical experiments with data from in situ experiments and with data from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) on board of Terra and Aqua satellite. From the resulting comparisons received correlations are in order as 0.789 and 0.862. What indicates a good correlation between the data from numerical experiment and in situ data or MODIS data. Acknowledgements: The support for this study was provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBa?tyk founded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract No. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09

Makuch, Przemyslaw; Petelski, Tomasz; Piskozub, Jacek; Jankowski, Andrzej; Zieli?ski, Tymon; Rozwadowska, Anna; Markuszewski, Piotr; Zawadzka, Olga

2013-04-01

431

Distribution and sources of (129)I in rivers of the Baltic region.  

PubMed

The concentration of (129)I was measured in 54 river waters discharging into the Baltic Sea from Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Germany. Sample collection was performed during a well-bracketed time interval (June-July 1999), thus allowing comparison of the rivers over a wide latitude range without the effect of long temporal spread. Although there is no direct input of anthropogenic (129)I in the watersheds, the concentration of the isotope is about two to three orders of magnitude higher than the expected pre-nuclear era natural values in the rivers of Finland and northern Sweden, and in the rivers of southern Sweden, Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia, Poland and Germany; the (129)I concentration may reach five orders of magnitude higher. Furthermore, there are significant correlations between the (129)I concentration and latitude and/or distance from the North Sea and between (129)I and Cl. These findings suggest seawater as a main source of (129)I to the rivers through atmospheric transport. Of the many chemical parameters investigated, the pH may account for some of the variability in (129)I concentrations of the rivers. The contribution from nuclear weapon tests and the Chernobyl accident to the riverine (129)I is insignificant compared to the releases from the nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. The total flux of (129)I by rivers to the Baltic Sea and related basins represents minor amounts of the isotope pool in these marine waters. External radioactivity hazards from (129)I are considered to be negligible in the Baltic region. However, as the main (129)I intake to the human body is likely through water, due to the large amount of daily water consumption, more concern should be given to internal radioactivity hazard that may be associated with the isotope's localized elevated concentration in the human organs. PMID:16527378

Aldahan, A; Kekli, A; Possnert, G

2006-03-09

432

Spatiotemporal variability of thermal front features in the Baltic Sea 2010-2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regions of the formation of the thermal front in the Baltic Sea (a direct manifestation of the lacustrine thermal bar), and its specific features, were analyzed on the basis of subsurface temperature and salinity. Data were obtained from 25 horizontal tows along sections in the southern and central parts of the Baltic Sea during spring 2010 and autumn/winter 2010/2011. The width of the front was approximately 5-30 km, and the front lifetime was 1.5 months. Horizontal temperature ranged from 0.7 to 2.5°C; thus, the temperature gradient was one- to twofold larger than the long-term monthly mean equivalent. Analysis of hourly temperature and salinity data from the Arkona basin and at the Darss Sill, obtained at 2 m depth, indicated that the surface temperature increased during the transition through temperatures of maximum density at a rate of approximately 0.01-0.02°C/h between 3-5 days; which is 1.4- to 5-fold higher than values before and after this period. The thermal front simultaneously propagated along the main sea axis (due to the significant salinity and buoyancy flux variations from south to north), and from the shallow parts towards the deep parts of the Baltic Sea. Therefore, the horizontal advection of the cold/warm waters clearly contributes to the speed increase of the thermal front at the end of the respective season. The speed of the thermal front propagation from south to north was approximately 28 km/day at the end of the spring period of 2010 (based on field data). This was considerably higher in comparison with the typical values of the lacustrine thermal bar speeds; however, it accords with estimates for a basin with depth/salinity horizontal variation.

Demchenko, N. Yu.; Chubarenko, I. P.

2012-11-01

433

Modeling the age of Baltic Seawater masses: Quantification and steady state sensitivity experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ages of Baltic Seawater masses for the period 1903-1998 were quantified using a three-dimensional (3-D) coupled ice-ocean model. Therefore an additional Eulerian tracer for the age of seawater was embedded. The age is the time elapsed since a water particle left the sea surface. Median ages of the bottom water between 1 year in the Bornholm Basin and 7 years in the northwestern Gotland Basin were found. During 1903-1998 the oldest bottom water of about 11 years appeared at Landsort Deep. In the halocline of the deeper basins a secondary age maximum was calculated. In the eastern Gotland Basin 3 stagnation periods (in the 1920/1930s, 1950/1960s, and 1980/1990s) with ages exceeding 8 years were found. Further, the sensitivities of modeled salinity and age on freshwater supply, wind speed, and amplitude of the sea level in Kattegat were investigated. In steady state the average salinity of the Baltic is most sensitive to perturbations of freshwater inflow. Increased freshwater inflow and wind speed result both in decreased salinity whereas increased amplitude of the Kattegat sea level results in increased salinity. The average age is most sensitive to perturbations of the wind speed. Especially, decreased wind speed causes significantly increased age of the deep water. On the other hand, the impact of changing freshwater or sea level in Kattegat on the average age is comparatively small, suggesting invariance of stability and ventilation in steady state approximately. A simple conceptual model for the Baltic deep water ventilation was applied to explain the 3-D model results.

Meier, H. E. Markus

2005-02-01

434

Scyphozoa in the Bornholm Basin (central Baltic Sea) The role of advection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The usual absence of ephyrae and late appearance of medusae of the Scyphozoa Aurelia aurita and Cyanea capillata in the Bornholm Basin (BB; central Baltic Sea) indicate that these species are not strobilating in the region and their presence depends on advection. To study their potential origin we compared drift from historically known strobilation areas derived from a circulation model with spatial distributions observed during 19 cruises in the BB during 2002 and 2003. The model results are in good accordance with the field observations. According to the model results inter-annual differences in the timing of first appearance and life stage at appearance of A. aurita were clearly related to differences in the hydrodynamic regime during the investigation periods. During the stagnation regime in 2002 young medusae occurred first in June in the BB. In contrast, in 2003 fast transport due to several inflow events advected ephyrae released between January and March in the western Baltic already in April to the BB. Although the Gullmar Fjord (western Sweden) is the nearest known strobilation area for C. capillata, the model did not support advection from there in numbers explaining the occurrence of this species in the BB in 2002 and 2003. If the model works adequately in this regions we have to assume that the Gullmar Fjord is not a main source region of C. capillata in the BB, but other strobilation areas in the Kattegat or the North Sea appear more important. Our results imply that advection and inflow events are critical for the occurrence and distribution of early stages of jellyfish in the central Baltic Sea. They demonstrate the potential of circulation models as tools to study the effect of long-range transport on the spatial composition of these organisms.

Barz, Kristina; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Hirche, Hans-Jürgen

2006-04-01

435

Does the zooplankton prey availability limit the larval habitats of pike in the Baltic Sea?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate whether the availability of suitable zooplankton prey limits the distribution of the coastal larval areas of pike ( Esox lucius) in two archipelago areas of the northern Baltic Sea and (2) compare the availability of zooplankton prey in spring between different types of coastal littoral habitat. According to the results, reed belt habitats formed by Phragmites australis constitute hot spots for zooplankton prey in the coastal ecosystem. During the spring, reed-covered shores of the inner archipelago maintained more than 10 times higher densities of copepods and cladocerans, the preferred prey for larval pike, compared to the other studied shores. Temperature conditions were also most favourable in the reed belt habitat. Thus, the reed belts of the inner and middle archipelago were shown to form the best habitat for larval pike in the coastal area of the northern Baltic Sea, and this was also the only habitat where pike larvae were found. Our results suggest that the poor survival and recruitment of pike in the outer archipelago, however, cannot exclusively be explained by sub-optimal feeding conditions of the larvae. There are also other important factors, presumably connected to the exposure to the open sea, that affect the distribution of the pike larvae. Our results, however, highlight the importance of sheltered coastal reed belt shores as reproduction habitat for spring-spawning fish in the northern Baltic Sea. Further, this study disproves the assumption that the seaweed bladder wrack ( Fucus vesiculosus) forms a reproduction habitat for pike in the coastal area.

Kallasvuo, Meri; Salonen, Maiju; Lappalainen, Antti

2010-01-01

436

Active nitrogen-fixing heterotrophic bacteria at and below the chemocline of the central Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

The Baltic Sea receives large nitrogen inputs by diazotrophic (N2-fixing) heterocystous cyanobacteria but the significance of heterotrophic N2 fixation has not been studied. Here, the diversity, abundance and transcription of the nifH fragment of the nitrogenase enzyme in two basins of the Baltic Sea proper was examined. N2 fixation was measured at the surface (5?m) and in anoxic water (200?m). Vertical sampling profiles of >10 and <10??m size fractions were collected in 2007, 2008 and 2011 at the Gotland Deep and in 2011 in the Bornholm Basin. Both of these stations are characterized by permanently anoxic bottom water. The 454-pyrosequencing nifH analysis revealed a diverse assemblage of nifH genes related to alpha-, beta- and gammaproteobacteria (nifH cluster I) and anaerobic bacteria (nifH cluster III) at and below the chemocline. Abundances of genes and transcripts of seven diazotrophic phylotypes were investigated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealing abundances of heterotrophic nifH phylotypes of up to 2.1 × 10(7) nifH copies?l(-1). Abundant nifH transcripts (up to 3.2 × 10(4) transcripts?l(-1)) within nifH cluster III and co-occurring N2 fixation (0.44±0.26?nmol?l(-1)?day(-1)) in deep water suggests that heterotrophic diazotrophs are fixing N2 in anoxic ammonium-rich waters. Our results reveal that N2 fixation in the Baltic Sea is not limited to illuminated N-deplete surface waters and suggest that N2 fixation could also be of importance in other suboxic regions of the world's oceans. PMID:23446833

Farnelid, Hanna; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Andersson, Anders F; Bertilsson, Stefan; Jost, Günter; Labrenz, Matthias; Jürgens, Klaus; Riemann, Lasse

2013-02-28

437

A Eulerian nutrient to fish model of the Baltic Sea — A feasibility-study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nutrient-to-fish-model with an explicit two-way interaction between a biogeochemical model of the lower food web and a fish model component is presented for the example of the Baltic Sea, demonstrating the feasibility of a consistent coupling of the upper and lower parts of the food web in a Eulerian model system.In the Baltic Sea, the fish stock is dominated by two prey species (sprat and herring) and one predator (cod). The dynamics of the fish model is driven by size (mass-class) dependent predator–prey interactions while the interaction between the biogeochemical and Fish model component is established through feeding of prey fish on zooplankton and recycling of fish biomass to nutrients and detritus.The fish model component is coupled to an advanced three dimensional biogeochemical model (ERGOM, Neumann et al., 2002). A horizontally explicit representation of fish requires the implementation of fish behavior. As a first step, we propose an algorithm to stimulate fish migration by letting the fish follow the food. Moreover, fish species are guided to their respective spawning areas. Results of first three-dimensional simulations are presented with emphasis on the transport of matter by moving fish. The spawning areas of cod and sprat are in the deep basins, which are not well reached by advective transport. Hence the deposition of matter in these areas by spawning fish could play some role in the distribution of matter.The approach is not limited to applications for the Baltic and the model can be transferred also to other systems.

Radtke, Hagen; Neumann, Thomas; Fennel, Wolfgang

2013-09-01

438

Temperature expansions for magnetic systems  

SciTech Connect

We derive finite temperature expansions for relativistic fermion systems in the presence of background magnetic fields, and with nonzero chemical potential. We use the imaginary-time formalism for the finite temperature effects, the proper-time method for the background field effects, and zeta function regularization for developing the expansions. We emphasize the essential difference between even and odd dimensions, focusing on 2+1 and 3+1 dimensions. We concentrate on the high temperature limit, but we also discuss the {ital T}=0 limit with nonzero chemical potential. Copyright {copyright} 1996 Academic Press, Inc.

Cangemi, D. [Department of Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States); Dunne, G. [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-3046 (United States)

1996-08-01

439

Light element distributions (N, B, Li) in Baltic Basin bentonites record organic sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distributions of nitrogen, boron and lithium were studied in illite-smectite from Ordovician-Silurian K-bentonites in the Baltic Basin. These trace elements are linked to thermal maturation of organic matter, creating fluid signatures that are distinct from those in regionally buried sediments. The fluid chemistry is ideally recorded in authigenic illite within the K-bentonite because B substitutes in tetrahedral sites of illite, Li in octahedral sites, and N is fixed in the interlayers as NH4+. Three nanometric size fractions of illite (<0.02 ?m; 0.02-0.05 ?m; 0.05-0.2 ?m) were compared within each sample. Boron and Li-isotope variations (>10‰) among these size fractions relate mainly to changes in fluid composition during illite growth. Bentonite (volcanic ash) layers mark stratigraphic timelines, while illitization of the bentonite (K-bentonite) varies as a function of burial and tectonic temperature gradients. In the central Baltic Basin, bentonites were deposited across a carbonate platform near Estonia, grading to deep basin shales near Denmark and Poland. Compositional variations in illite reflect fluids from different sources. High N illite (>2000 ppm) in the southwest basin transitions to high B (>250 ppm) and high Li (>100 ppm) illite to the northeast. These trends follow a thermal gradient decreasing from southwest (200 °C) to northeast (90 °C). Isotope ratios of B and Li show opposing trends in samples across this thermal gradient: the Bisotopes decrease from southwest to northeast (+18‰ to -4‰), while Li-isotopes increase from +5‰ to +32‰. The Cambrian Alum shale, a regional hydrocarbon source rock, was studied as a potential source of B and Li, as more than 50% of its B and Li was associated with organic matter. With increasing thermal maturity, illite ?11B decreased from 0‰ to -13‰, while ?7Li increased from -20‰ to -5‰. These opposing trends are similar to those observed in the K-bentonites. This suggests that organic sources of N, B and Li dominate fluids in bentonites from the southwestern Baltic Basin, whereas basement derived fluids dominate in the northeastern Baltic Basin. These trace elements record paleofluid changes during illite crystal growth and can identify pathways of chemically distinct oil and gas related fluids.

Williams, Lynda B.; ?rodo?, Jan; Huff, Warren D.; Clauer, Norbert; Hervig, Richard L.

2013-11-01

440

Validating an Ensemble based Forecasting System of the North and Baltic Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quality of the forecast provided by the German Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH) for the North and Baltic Seas had been previously improved by assimilating satellite sea surface temperature (SST). We investigate possible further improvements using in situ observational temperature and salinity data: Marnet time series and CTD and Scan Fish measurements. To assimilate the data, the SEIK filter is implemented. The Principle of Maximum Entropy is used as an additional criterion of plausibility of the assumptions made on error statistics and of the system performance on its own.

Losa, Svetlana; Danilov, Sergey; Nerger, Lars; Schröter, Jens; Maßmann, Silvia; Janssen, Frank

2013-04-01

441

Some Atlantic cod Gadus morhua in the Baltic Sea visit hypoxic water briefly but often.  

PubMed

Individual behaviour of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua in the presence of hypoxic water was measured in situ in the vertically stratified Bornholm Basin of the Baltic Sea. Considering all recaptured individuals, the use of hypoxic habitat was comparable to data derived by traditional survey data, but some G. morhua had migrated towards the centre of the c.100 m deep basin and spent about a third of their time at oxygen saturation <50%, possibly to forage on zoobenthos. Maximal residence time per visit in such hypoxic water was limited to a few hours, allowing for the digestion of consumed prey items in waters with sufficient dissolved oxygen. PMID:20738498

Neuenfeldt, S; Andersen, K H; Hinrichsen, H-H

2009-07-01

442

The Thermal Expansion Of Feldspars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hovis and others (1) investigated the thermal expansion of natural and synthetic AlSi3 feldspars and demonstrated that the coefficient of thermal expansion (?) decreases significantly, and linearly, with increasing room-temperature volume (VRT). In all such feldspars, therefore, chemical expansion limits thermal expansion. The scope of this work now has been broadened to include plagioclase and Ba-K feldspar crystalline solutions. X-ray powder diffraction data have been collected between room temperature and 925 °C on six plagioclase specimens ranging in composition from anorthite to oligoclase. When combined with thermal expansion data for albite (2,3,4) a steep linear trend of ? as a function of VRT emerges, reflecting how small changes in composition dramatically affect expansion behavior. The thermal expansion data for five synthetic Ba-K feldspars ranging in composition from 20 to 100 mole percent celsian, combined with data for pure K-feldspar (3,4), show ?-VRT relationships similar in nature to the plagioclase series, but with a slope and intercept different from the latter. Taken as a group all Al2Si2 feldspars, including anorthite and celsian from the present study along with Sr- (5) and Pb-feldspar (6) from other workers, show very limited thermal expansion that, unlike AlSi3 feldspars, has little dependence on the divalent-ion (or M-) site occupant. This apparently is due to the necessitated alternation of Al and Si in the tetrahedral sites of these minerals (7), which in turn locks the tetrahedral framework and makes the M-site occupant nearly irrelevant to expansion behavior. Indeed, in feldspar series with coupled chemical substitution it is the change away from a 1:1 Al:Si ratio that gives feldspars greater freedom to expand. Overall, the relationships among ?, chemical composition, and room-temperature volume provide useful predictive tools for estimating feldspar thermal expansion and give insight into the controls of expansion behavior in this important mineral system. We thank the Earth Sciences Division of the National Science Foundation for support of this research via grant EAR-0408829, which has provided valuable learning experiences for the undergraduate coauthors of this abstract. We appreciate the cooperation of the Department of Mineral Sciences, Smithsonian Institution, which provided five of the plagioclase specimens. Thanks to Tony Abraham, Department of Earth Sciences, Cambridge University, who conducted a portion of the high-temperature X-ray experiments. The Ba-K feldspar crystalline solutions were synthesized and chemically characterized in the 1970's at Harvard University by our good friend, Dr. Jun Ito, now deceased. (1) Hovis, Morabito, Spooner, Mott, Person, Henderson, Roux and Harlov, 2008, American Mineralogist, (2) Stewart and von Limbach, 1967, American Journal of Science, (3) Hovis and Graeme-Barber, 1997, American Mineralogist, (4) Hovis, Brennan, Keohane, and Crelling, 1999, The Canadian Mineralogist, (5) Henderson, 1984, Progress in Experimental Petrology, NERC Report, Volume 6, (6) Benna, Tribaudino, and Bruno, 1999, American Mineralogist, (7) Lowenstein, 1954, American Mineralogist.

Hovis, G. L.; Medford, A.; Conlon, M.

2009-12-01

443

Histone Deacetylase Complexes Promote Trinucleotide Repeat Expansions  

PubMed Central

Expansions of DNA trinucleotide repeats cause at least 17 inherited neurodegenerative diseases, such as Huntington's disease. Expansions can occur at frequencies approaching 100% in affected families and in transgenic mice, suggesting that specific cellular proteins actively promote (favor) expansions. The inference is that expansions arise due to the presence of these promoting proteins, not their absence, and that interfering with these proteins can suppress expansions. The goal of this study was to identify novel factors that promote expansions. We discovered that specific histone deacetylase complexes (HDACs) promote CTG•CAG repeat expansions in budding yeast and human cells. Mutation or inhibition of yeast Rpd3L or Hda1 suppressed up to 90% of expansions. In cultured human astrocytes, expansions were suppressed by 75% upon inhibition or knockdown of HDAC3, whereas siRNA against the histone acetyltransferases CBP/p300 stimulated expansions. Genetic and molecular analysis both indicated that HDACs act at a distance from the triplet repeat to promote expansions. Expansion assays with nuclease mutants indicated that Sae2 is one of the relevant factors regulated by Rpd3L and Hda1. The causal relationship between HDACs and expansions indicates that HDACs can promote mutagenesis at some DNA sequences. This relationship further implies that HDAC3 inhibitors being tested for relief of expansion-associated gene silencing may also suppress somatic expansions that contribute to disease progression.

Gleeson, Olive; Kirkham-McCarthy, Lucy; Mertz, Tony; Lahue, Robert S.

2012-01-01

444

Optimal Expansion of a Drinking Water Infrastructure System with Respect to Carbon Footprint, Cost Effectiveness and Water Demand  

EPA Science Inventory

Urban water infrastructure requires careful long-term expansion planning to reduce the risk from climate change during both the periods of economic boom and recession. As part of the adaptation management strategies, capacity expansion in concert with other management alternativ...

445

Forest expansion in mountain ecosystems: \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the main threats that mountain areas in industrialised countries are nowadays facing, land abandonment is by far the most important. Land abandonment is mainly due to marginalisation trends and it is closely associated with other processes such as depopulation and decline of mountain farming. The most evident consequence of such a situation is the phenomenon of forest expansion, due

Giorgio Conti; Laura Fagarazzi

446

Demic Expansions and Human Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographic expansions are caused by successful innovations, biological or cultural, that favor local growth and movement. They have had a powerful effect in determining the present patterns of human genetic geography. Modern human populations expanded rapidly across the Earth in the last 100,000 years. At the end of the Paleolithic (10,000 years ago) only a few islands and other areas

Luigi L. Cavalli-Sforza; Paolo Menozzi; Alberto Piazza

1993-01-01

447

Sustainable Brasilia's University Campus Expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper shows the sustainability principle s adopted in the urban design of the southern extremity expansion of the Campus of the University of Brasilia, in which will feature a Scientific and Technological Park. From the analysis of a number of environmental conditioners, the structural core of the design was a fragment of Cerrado, aiming to recover the original

Marta Romero

2008-01-01

448

Thermal Expansion at High Pressures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of the coefficient of thermal expansion, at pressures up to several megabars, are needed for various geophysical calculations. As experimental determinations are scanty and limited to a few tens of kilobars, we must depend on largely untested deductions from solid-state theory and equations of state. The recent treatment by Anderson [1967], a discussion by Gilvarry [1957], and questions from

Francis Birch

1968-01-01

449

Extended expansion diesel cycle engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extended expansion method of operating a diesel cycle engine is described comprising; operating the venting valve means and valve timing means to provide air venting communication from the combustion chamber by maintaining the venting valve means in an open position during an initial portion of the compression stroke; closing the venting valve means when the cylinder swept volume has

Palko

1989-01-01

450

Conversational Expansion in Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The importance of contextual influences to conversational competence development is emphasized. Included are one or more significant adults whose systematic patterns of feedback teach children rules of conversation while providing guided practice in the use of these rules. The role of expansion is examined as one of the common patterns of…

Boynton, Kathleen Reardon; Henke, Lucy L.

1978-01-01

451

Accurate, inexpensive, thermal expansion microtranslator  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed an accurate, inexpensive translator utilizing the thermal expansion of an electrically heated wire. The resistance of the wire, measured in a Wheatstone bridge, provides a readout of the length of the wire based on its temperature coefficient of resistance.

James J. Snyder

1993-01-01

452

Great Historical Events That Were Significantly Affected by the Weather: Part 10, Crop Failure in Britain in 1799 and 1800 and the British Decision to Send a Naval Force to the Baltic Early in 1801.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1799 and 1800, crop failures struck the British Isles. The crop failure of 1799 was due to the combined effects of the cold winter of 1798-99 and the cool and rainy growing season of the year. The summer was characterized by the prevalence of low-pressure systems resembling cyclonic weather patterns of the winter.The crop failure of 1800 was mainly due to a drought early in summer. In July there was either no rain at all (especially in the south) or the amounts were negligible. The general synoptic situation indicated an extension of the Azores High to Britain and beyond to central Europe. In the London area the pressure in duly was never below 1020 mb.The wheat harvests of 1799 and 1800 were about one-half and three-quarters of the average, respectively. The deficiencies could not be made up by imports, for, at least in 1799, the weather conditions were also unfavorable to grain production in the countries of northern Europe that were "traditional" exporters of grain to Britain. We estimate that in the "bread-consumption year", October 1799 to September 1800, harvest and imports accounted for but 60% of the required quantity of wheat, the principal ingredient of bread in England and Wales at the time. In consequence of the bread scarcity, there were sharp rises in the price of bread and in bread riots. Some of the slogans of the rioters made mention of the French Revolution.In parallel with the increasing scarcity of bread, diplomatic relations between Britain and Russia worsened from 1799 on. Its significance on the bread crisis, as well as a crisis of naval supplies, was that the Baltic ports through which the grain of the northern countries (East Prussia, Poland, and Russia) was channeled for Britain stood under the tsar's direct or indirect control. The strained relations between Britain and Russia peaked in November 1800. On 18 November, Tsar Paul I imposed an embargo on British ships and their crews. This embargo meant that the bread scarcity was to become even graver, even more threatening, in 1801. On 28 November (apparently), the British cabinet decided to launch a naval war against Russia in the Baltic as soon as ice conditions permitted. In Dudley Pope's (1972) on words, "at this stage the climate governed Britian' naval strategy and planning for the Baltic". When the decision of late November was taken, it was directed against Russia alone. Its primary purpose was to break the embargo. Subsequent complications involving the other northern powers (mainly Denmark and Sweden), led to an extension of the plan of a naval war to include all the northern powers.

Neumann, J.; Kington, J.

1992-02-01

453

Fujian electric system analysis and nuclear power planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the study is to conduct a long term electric expansion planning and nuclear power planning for Fujian Province. The Wien Automatic System Planning Package (WASP-III) is used to optimize the electric system. Probabilistic Simulation is one...

Lin Jianwen Fu Qiang Cheng Ping

1994-01-01

454

Liver histopathology in Baltic flounder (Platichthys flesus) as indicator of biological effects of contaminants.  

PubMed

Results are presented of a study on liver histopathology in Baltic flounder (Platichthys flesus) carried out in 2001 and 2002 in four coastal sampling areas of the Baltic Sea: Kvädöfjärden (Swedish east coast, reference area), Klaipeda-Butinge (Lithuanian coast), Gulf of Gdansk (Polish coast), and Wismar Bay (German coast) within the framework of the EU-funded BEEP project. Liver lesions were diagnosed and categorised using standardised methodologies and, for a spatial and temporal assessment of the prevalence and types of lesions detected, a scoring system was applied, involving the calculation of mean histopathology lesion scores. 83.0% of the 436 female flounder examined (size range: 20-43 cm total length, age range: 2-8 years) were affected by liver lesions, out of which 74.3% were assigned to the category of non-specific, 3.4% to the category of early toxicopathic non-neoplastic, 4.6% to the category of pre-neoplastic and 0.7% to the category of neoplastic lesions. Mean lesions scores were highest in the areas at the Lithuanian and Swedish coast and there is indication of an impact of the age structure of the flounder populations studied, the sampling season as well as of contaminant effects. PMID:16423373

Lang, Thomas; Wosniok, Werner; Barsiene, Janina; Broeg, Katja; Kopecka, Justyna; Parkkonen, Jari

2006-01-19

455

Biomass and number of fish impinged at a nuclear power plant by the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

The main aim of this study was to investigate the number and biomass of impinged fish at Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant in Sweden, located on the coast of the Baltic Sea. Of particular interest was the number of impinged individuals of the critically endangered European eel (Anguilla anguilla) which is regularly caught in the cooling system. Another aim was to determine the comparability of the results from Forsmark and results from impingement studies in other types of waters. Cross-systems studies make it possible to (1) estimate fish loss at plants where fish is not counted, and (2) to predict changes in fish loss from changes in electricity production or cooling water use. In 2010, 31,300,000 fish with a total biomass of 62,600 kg were impinged at Forsmark. In 2011, 27,300,000 fish weighing 38,500 kg were impinged. The maximum peak in total fish number and biomass occurred in spring. The most critical period for herring was in late summer and early autumn. Regarding eel, the largest impingement losses were recorded in November. The number of fish agreed with earlier established quantities of impinged fish in both freshwater and marine ecosystems. The study also estimated that 1,300 critically endangered eels could survive at Forsmark each year if a fish return system would be constructed to allow the passage of fish from the plant back to the Baltic Sea. PMID:23880915

Bryhn, Andreas C; Bergenius, Mikaela A J; Dimberg, Peter H; Adill, Anders

2013-07-24

456

Active bacterial community structure along vertical redox gradients in Baltic Sea sediment  

SciTech Connect

Community structures of active bacterial populations were investigated along a vertical redox profile in coastal Baltic Sea sediments by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and clone library analysis. According to correspondence analysis of T-RFLP results and sequencing of cloned 16S rRNA genes, the microbial community structures at three redox depths (179 mV, -64 mV and -337 mV) differed significantly. The bacterial communities in the community DNA differed from those in bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled DNA, indicating that the growing members of the community that incorporated BrdU were not necessarily the most dominant members. The structures of the actively growing bacterial communities were most strongly correlated to organic carbon followed by total nitrogen and redox potentials. Bacterial identification by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from clones of BrdU-labeled DNA and DNA from reverse transcription PCR (rt-PCR) showed that bacterial taxa involved in nitrogen and sulfur cycling were metabolically active along the redox profiles. Several sequences had low similarities to previously detected sequences indicating that novel lineages of bacteria are present in Baltic Sea sediments. Also, a high number of different 16S rRNA gene sequences representing different phyla were detected at all sampling depths.

Jansson, Janet; Edlund, Anna; Hardeman, Fredrik; Jansson, Janet K.; Sjoling, Sara

2008-05-15

457

Climate impacts on ocean acidification in the North Sea and Baltic Sea: a modelling study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CO2 increase in the atmosphere does not only potentially change the overall climate, but also increase the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) content in the ocean by ocean-atmosphere gas exchange leading to a decrease in oceanic ph (acidification). Hence, it has both direct (via acidification) and indirect (via changes in atmospheric fields) implications for marine ecosystems and their productivity. On the other hand, changes in primary production would likewise impact the DIC content and could potentially alter the process of acidification on different temporal scales (seasonal, inter-annual, and decadal). Here, we extended the 3d coupled ecosystem model ECOSMO II by formulations for carbon chemistry and applied the model system to the North Sea and Baltic Sea in order to investigate ocean acidification in that specific region. We specifically aim in disentangling direct and indirect impacts of changes in atmospheric CO2 on acidification. Therefore we will first, present results from a multi-decadal model hind cast (1948-2008) to describe the dynamics in ocean acidification with respect to the different time scales. Secondly, we apply downscaled products from General Circulation Models to project future climate impacts (2070-2100) on acidification. And thirdly, we will present results from cross-experiments, where we investigate the influence of future CO2 increase under present day atmospheric condition and vice versa. These scenarios allow disentangling the direct and indirect impacts on the process of acidification comparative in the North Sea and Baltic Sea.

Daewel, Ute; Schrum, Corinna; Pushpadas, Dhanya

2013-04-01

458

Spatial patterns of linear and nonparametric long-term trends in Baltic sea-level variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of long-term trends in tide gauge data is important for understanding the present and future risk of changes in sea-level variability for coastal zones, particularly with respect to the ongoing debate on climate change impacts. Traditionally, most corresponding analyses have exclusively focused on trends in mean sea-level. However, such studies are not able to provide sufficient information about changes in the full probability distribution (especially in the more extreme quantiles). As an alternative, we apply quantile regression (QR) for studying changes in arbitrary quantiles of sea-level variability. For this purpose, we chose two different QR approaches and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different settings. In particular, traditional linear QR poses very restrictive assumptions that are often not met in reality. For monthly data from 47 tide gauges from along the Baltic Sea coast, the spatial patterns of quantile trends obtained in a linear and nonparametric (spline-based) framework display marked differences, which need to be understood in order to fully assess the impact of future changes in sea-level variability on coastal areas. In general, QR demonstrates that the general variability of Baltic sea-level has increased over the last decades. Linear quantile trends estimated for sliding windows in time reveal a wide-spread acceleration of trends in the median, but only localised changes in the rates of lower and upper quantiles.

Donner, R. V.; Ehrcke, R.; Barbosa, S. M.; Wagner, J.; Donges, J. F.; Kurths, J.

2012-04-01