Moezi, Seyed Alireza; Rafeeyan, Mansour; Zakeri, Ehsan; Zare, Amin
2016-03-01
In this paper, a robust optimal fuzzy controller based on the Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique is proposed to control a laboratory parallel robot using inexpensive on/off solenoid valves. The controller coefficients are determined using Modified Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm. The objective function of this method is considered such that the results show the position tracking by the robot with less force and more efficiency. Regarding the results of experimental tests, the control strategy with on/off valves indicates good performance such that the maximum value of RMS of error for a circular path with increasing force on the system is 3.1mm. Furthermore, the results show the superiority of the optimal fuzzy controller compared with optimal PID controller in tracking paths with different conditions and uncertainties. PMID:26794489
Planar transformers for column parallel CCD clock drive
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hawes, B.; Cussans, D.; Damerell, C.; Devetak, E.; Fopma, J.; Gao, R.; Goldstein, J.; Greenshaw, T.; Hillert, S.; Kundu, N.; Nomerotski, A.; Perry, C.; Stefanov, K.; Thomas, S.; Worm, S.
2009-10-01
The LCFI Collaboration is developing the sensors, readout electronics and mechanical support structures for the Vertex Detector (VXD) of the International Linear Collider (ILC). High-speed readout is needed to ensure that the occupancy due to the pair production background at the ILC is kept below 1% level. In order to satisfy this requirement, Column Parallel CCDs (CPCCDs) and Column Parallel Readout chips (CPRs) have been developed. The CPCCD has to operate at a clock frequency of 50 MHz, which represents a difficult technical challenge due to the relatively large sensor capacitance. The design and performance of planar transformers, which can be used to provide the required 20 A clock current, are described.
A novel magnetorheological damper based parallel planar manipulator design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoyle, A.; Arzanpour, S.; Shen, Y.
2010-05-01
This paper presents a novel parallel planar robot design which is low cost and simple in structure. The design addresses some of the problems, such as concentration of excessive load on the links and joints, due to wrong commanding signals being given by the controller. In this application two of the conventional actuators are replaced by magnetorheological (MR) dampers, and only one actuator is used to generate motion. The design paradigm is based on the concept that a moving object 'intuitively' follows the path with minimum resistance to its motion. This implies that virtual adoptable constraints can be used effectively to define motion trajectories. In fact, motion generation and adaptive constraints are two elements essential to implementing this strategy. In this paper, MR dampers are used to provide adjustable constraints and to guide the platform that is moved by the linear motor. The model of the MR dampers is derived using the Bouc-Wen model. This model is then used for manipulator simulation and controller design. Two controllers are developed for this manipulator: (1) a closed loop on/off one and (2) a proportional-derivative controller. Also, three different trajectories are defined and used for both the simulations and experiments. The results indicate a good agreement between the simulations and experiments. The experimental results also demonstrate the capability of the manipulator for following sophisticated trajectories.
Parallel Helmholtz resonators for a planar acoustic notch filter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isozaki, Akihiro; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Tamura, Hiroto; Takahata, Tomoyuki; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Shimoyama, Isao
2014-12-01
This paper reports on an acoustic planar notch filter with a sub-wavelength thickness at the notch frequency. The developed notch filter consists of a number of spherical Helmholtz resonators (HRs) connected to a hole created in a plate. The HRs were placed at the in-plane vertices of a regular polygon. A simulated pressure distribution revealed that this uniform arrangement of HRs improves the silencing effect because the uniform applied waves emitted from the HRs act as canceling waves to the cross-section of the short hole (in this case, the length of the hole is sub-wavelength). The total pressure emitted from the HRs is equal regardless of the number of HRs connected to the hole. Therefore, the arrangement of HRs is essential for realizing a planar notch filter. Simulated transmittance spectra showed that the depth of the dip in the transmittance increased with the number of uniformly arranged HRs. We confirmed that the experimental transmittance spectra of fabricated notch filters, which consisted of between one and six HRs, agreed with the simulated transmittance spectra. The design of the acoustic filter presented in this study and the corresponding analysis should motivate further development of thin acoustic filters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yusuf, Yusril; Kusumasari, Ervanggis Minggar; Ula, Nur Mufidatul; Jahidah, Khannah; Triyana, Kuwat; Sosiati, Harini; Harsojo
2016-04-01
Optical properties of two nematic liquid crystals, i.e., 4-methoxybenzylidene-4-butylaniline (MBBA) and 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5 CB) which are parallel oriented by nanofibers has been successfully performed. Planar samples of liquid crystals were made using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofiber from electrospinning process. Electrospinning method was modified using copper (Cu) as gap collector. These planar samples area are 15 mm x 25 mm. Optical characteristic of these samples were studied by using optical polarizing microscope. The optical intensity changes by a rotationof crossed polarizers is observed. The sinusoidal intensity change was observedin these samples as such as in the planar sample prepared by the rubbing method.
Antibiotic translocation through porins studied in planar lipid bilayers using parallel platforms.
Weichbrodt, Conrad; Bajaj, Harsha; Baaken, Gerhard; Wang, Jiajun; Guinot, Serap; Kreir, Mohamed; Behrends, Jan C; Winterhalter, Mathias; Fertig, Niels
2015-07-21
In general, the method of choice to characterize the conductance properties of channel-forming bacterial porins is electrophysiology. Here, the classical method is to reconstitute single porins into planar lipid bilayers to derive functional information from the observed channel conductance. In addition to an estimated pore size, ion selectivity or transport properties in general are of importance. For the latter, measuring the ion current fluctuation can provide some information about the mode of transport of charged molecules penetrating the proteins. For instance, increasing the external voltage modifies the residence time in the channel: charged molecules with the ability to permeate through channels will travel faster whereas non-permeating molecules get pushed to the constriction zone with enhanced residence time. Here, we are interested in the ability of antibiotics to permeate channels and compare different techniques to reveal fast events. PMID:25834843
Robust nonlinear PID-like fuzzy logic control of a planar parallel (2PRP-PPR) manipulator.
Londhe, P S; Singh, Yogesh; Santhakumar, M; Patre, B M; Waghmare, L M
2016-07-01
In this paper, a robust nonlinear proportional-integral-derivative (PID)-like fuzzy control scheme is presented and applied to complex trajectory tracking control of a 2PRP-PPR (P-prismatic, R-revolute) planar parallel manipulator (motion platform) with three degrees-of-freedom (DOF) in the presence of parameter uncertainties and external disturbances. The proposed control law consists of mainly two parts: first part uses a feed forward term to enhance the control activity and estimated perturbed term to compensate for the unknown effects namely external disturbances and unmodeled dynamics, and the second part uses a PID-like fuzzy logic control as a feedback portion to enhance the overall closed-loop stability of the system. Experimental results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. PMID:27012441
Variation in efficiency of parallel algorithms. [for study of stiffness matrices in planar trusses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hayashi, A.; Melosh, R. J.; Utku, S.; Salama, M.
1985-01-01
The present study has the objective to investigate some iterative parallel-processor linear equation solving algorithms with respect to efficiency for analyses of typical linear engineering systems. Attention is given to a set of n linear equations, Ku = p, where K = an n x n positive definite, sparsely populated, symmetric matrix, u = an n x 1 vector of unknown responses, and p = an n x 1 vector of prescribed constants. This study is concerned with a hybrid method in which iteration is used to solve the problem, while a direct method is used on the local processor level. Variations in the efficiency of parallel algorithms are explored. Measures of the efficiency are based on computer experiments regarding the algorithms. For all the algorithms, the wall clock time is found to decrease as the number of processors increases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kong, Lingyu; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Pu; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Genliang; Zhao, Longhai
2015-07-01
Redundantly actuated parallel manipulators have the advantage of enhancing load-carrying capability over their non-redundant ones, however they also cause the problem of uneven load distribution and need a high requirement for the control system. This paper presents a 2-RPR/RP planar redundantly actuated parallel manipulator which can self-coordinate the distribution of external loads. This capability is realized by an appropriate design of the moving platform to make the manipulator stable at equilibrium position. The stability is proved by the theorem of direct Lyapunov method in classical mechanics. The numerical simulations are conducted to validate the stable capability by means of the observation of potential energies and phase planes. This paper offers an alternative way to design a redundantly actuated manipulator with the capability of self-coordinating the load distribution to actuations, such that parts of the controlling work are assigned to the manipulator itself by its own structure and only a little work remains to the control system.
Motion control of planar parallel robot using the fuzzy descriptor system approach.
Vermeiren, Laurent; Dequidt, Antoine; Afroun, Mohamed; Guerra, Thierry-Marie
2012-09-01
This work presents the control of a two-degree of freedom parallel robot manipulator. A quasi-LPV approach, through the so-called TS fuzzy model and LMI constraints problems is used. Moreover, in this context a way to derive interesting control laws is to keep the descriptor form of the mechanical system. Therefore, new LMI problems have to be defined that helps to reduce the conservatism of the usual results. Some relaxations are also proposed to leave the pure quadratic stability/stabilization framework. A comparison study between the classical control strategies from robotics and the control design using TS fuzzy descriptor models is carried out to show the interest of the proposed approach. PMID:22633366
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fortini, Andrea; Schmidt, Matthias; Dijkstra, Marjolein
2006-05-01
Using Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo simulations and density functional theory we investigate the fluid-fluid demixing transition in inhomogeneous colloid-polymer mixtures confined between two parallel plates with separation distances between one and ten colloid diameters covering the complete range from quasi-two-dimensional to bulklike behavior. We use the Asakura-Oosawa-Vrij model in which colloid-colloid and colloid-polymer interactions are hard-sphere like, while the pair potential between polymers vanishes. Two different types of confinement induced by a pair of parallel walls are considered—namely, either through two hard walls or through two semipermeable walls that repel colloids but allow polymers to freely penetrate. For hard (semipermeable) walls we find that the capillary binodal is shifted towards higher (lower) polymer fugacities and lower (higher) colloid fugacities as compared to the bulk binodal; this implies capillary condensation (evaporation) of the colloidal liquid phase in the slit. A macroscopic treatment is provided by a symmetric Kelvin equation for general binary mixtures based on the proximity in chemical potentials of statepoints at capillary coexistence and the reference bulk coexistence. Results for capillary binodals compare well with those obtained from the classic version of the Kelvin equation due to [Evans and Marini Bettolo Marconi, J. Chem. Phys. 86, 7138 (1987)] and are quantitatively accurate away from the fluid-fluid critical point, even at small wall separations. However, the significant shift of the critical polymer fugacity towards higher values upon increasing confinement, as found in simulations, is not reproduced. For hard walls the density profiles of polymers and colloids inside the slit display oscillations due to packing effects for all statepoints. For semipermeable walls either similar structuring or flat profiles are found, depending on the statepoint considered.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Yi; Li, Xuepeng
2014-09-01
It is significant to develop a robot hand with high rigidity by a 6-DOF parallel manipulator(PM). However, the existing 6-DOF PMs include spherical joint which has less capability of pulling force bearing, less rotation range and lower precision under alternately heavy loads. A novel 6-DOF PM with three planar limbs and equipped with three fingers is proposed and its kinematics and statics are analyzed systematically. A 3-dimension simulation mechanism of the proposed manipulator is constructed and its structure characteristics is analyzed. The kinematics formulae for solving the displacement, velocity, acceleration of the platform, the active legs and the fingers are established. The statics formulae are derived for solving the active forces of PM and the finger mechanisms. An analytic example is given for solving the kinematics and statics of proposed manipulator and the analytic solved results are verified by the simulation mechanism. It is proved from the error analysis of analytic solutions and simulation solutions that the derived analytic formulae are correct and provide the theoretical and technical foundations for its manufacturing, control and application.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Yi; Li, Xuepeng
2014-08-01
It is significant to develop a robot hand with high rigidity by a 6-DOF parallel manipulator(PM). However, the existing 6-DOF PMs include spherical joint which has less capability of pulling force bearing, less rotation range and lower precision under alternately heavy loads. A novel 6-DOF PM with three planar limbs and equipped with three fingers is proposed and its kinematics and statics are analyzed systematically. A 3-dimension simulation mechanism of the proposed manipulator is constructed and its structure characteristics is analyzed. The kinematics formulae for solving the displacement, velocity, acceleration of the platform, the active legs and the fingers are established. The statics formulae are derived for solving the active forces of PM and the finger mechanisms. An analytic example is given for solving the kinematics and statics of proposed manipulator and the analytic solved results are verified by the simulation mechanism. It is proved from the error analysis of analytic solutions and simulation solutions that the derived analytic formulae are correct and provide the theoretical and technical foundations for its manufacturing, control and application.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kantsyrev, V. L.; Chuvatin, A. S.; Rudakov, L. I.; Velikovich, A. L.; Shrestha, I. K.; Esaulov, A. A.; Safronova, A. S.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Osborne, G. C.; Astanovitsky, A. L.; Weller, M. E.; Stafford, A.; Schultz, K. A.; Cooper, M. C.; Cuneo, M. E.; Jones, B.; Vesey, R. A.
2014-12-01
A compact Z-pinch x-ray hohlraum design with parallel-driven x-ray sources is experimentally demonstrated in a configuration with a central target and tailored shine shields at a 1.7-MA Zebra generator. Driving in parallel two magnetically decoupled compact double-planar-wire Z pinches has demonstrated the generation of synchronized x-ray bursts that correlated well in time with x-ray emission from a central reemission target. Good agreement between simulated and measured hohlraum radiation temperature of the central target is shown. The advantages of compact hohlraum design applications for multi-MA facilities are discussed.
Kantsyrev, V L; Chuvatin, A S; Rudakov, L I; Velikovich, A L; Shrestha, I K; Esaulov, A A; Safronova, A S; Shlyaptseva, V V; Osborne, G C; Astanovitsky, A L; Weller, M E; Stafford, A; Schultz, K A; Cooper, M C; Cuneo, M E; Jones, B; Vesey, R A
2014-12-01
A compact Z-pinch x-ray hohlraum design with parallel-driven x-ray sources is experimentally demonstrated in a configuration with a central target and tailored shine shields at a 1.7-MA Zebra generator. Driving in parallel two magnetically decoupled compact double-planar-wire Z pinches has demonstrated the generation of synchronized x-ray bursts that correlated well in time with x-ray emission from a central reemission target. Good agreement between simulated and measured hohlraum radiation temperature of the central target is shown. The advantages of compact hohlraum design applications for multi-MA facilities are discussed. PMID:25615200
Hu, Xiaoqing; Chen, Xiao; Liu, Xin; Zheng, Hairong
2014-01-01
An 8-channel planar phased array was proposed based on the common-mode differential-mode (CMDM) structure for ultrahigh field MRI. The parallel imaging performance of the 8-channel CMDM planar array was numerically investigated based on electromagnetic simulations and Cartesian sensitivity encoding (SENSE) reconstruction. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of multichannel images combined using root-sum-of-squares (rSoS) and covariance weighted root-sum-of-squares (Cov-rSoS) at various reduction factors were compared between 8-channel CMDM array and 4-channel CM and DM array. The results of the study indicated the 8-channel CMDM array excelled the 4-channel CM and DM in SNR. The g-factor maps and artifact power were calculated to evaluate parallel imaging performance of the proposed 8-channel CMDM array. The artifact power of 8-channel CMDM array was reduced dramatically compared with the 4-channel CM and DM arrays demonstrating the parallel imaging feasibility of the CMDM array. PMID:24649433
Dewaraja, Yuni K.; Ljungberg, Michael; Majumdar, Amitava; Bose, Abhijit; Koral, Kenneth F.
2009-01-01
This paper reports the implementation of the SIMIND Monte Carlo code on an IBM SP2 distributed memory parallel computer. Basic aspects of running Monte Carlo particle transport calculations on parallel architectures are described. Our parallelization is based on equally partitioning photons among the processors and uses the Message Passing Interface (MPI) library for interprocessor communication and the Scalable Parallel Random Number Generator (SPRNG) to generate uncorrelated random number streams. These parallelization techniques are also applicable to other distributed memory architectures. A linear increase in computing speed with the number of processors is demonstrated for up to 32 processors. This speed-up is especially significant in Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) simulations involving higher energy photon emitters, where explicit modeling of the phantom and collimator is required. For 131I, the accuracy of the parallel code is demonstrated by comparing simulated and experimental SPECT images from a heart/thorax phantom. Clinically realistic SPECT simulations using the voxel-man phantom are carried out to assess scatter and attenuation correction. PMID:11809318
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chandra, Rohitash; Rolland, Luc
2015-01-01
Memetic algorithms (MA) are evolutionary computation methods that employ local search to selected individuals of the population. This work presents global-local population MA for solving the forward kinematics of parallel manipulators. A real-coded generation algorithm with features of diversity is used in the global population and an evolutionary algorithm with parent-centric crossover operator which has local search features is used in the local population. The forward kinematics of the 3RPR and 6-6 leg manipulators are examined to test the performance of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method improves the performance of the real-coded genetic algorithm and can obtain high-quality solutions similar to the previous methods for the 6-6 leg manipulator. The accuracy of the solutions and the optimisation time achieved by the methods in this work motivates for real-time implementation of the 3RPR parallel manipulator.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Weichao; Qiao, Xiaolan; Yang, Jianbing; Yu, Bo; Yan, Donghang
2012-03-01
Efficient parallel tandem organic solar cells are demonstrated by using the highly crystalline chloroaluminum phthalocyanine (AlClPc) films as the planar layer. Their broad photoresponse from 400-900 nm is contributed to the strong near-infrared absorption of the AlClPc films and the good complementarity between AlClPc and zinc phthalocyanine. Importantly, the high external quantum efficiency is obtained in the entire response range with the peak value 65% due to the high carrier mobility of the AlClPc films, and correspondingly the high power conversion efficiency of 3.5% is attributed to the large short circuit current density of 12.15 mA/cm2.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Lei; Mao, Xiaoan; Jaworski, Artur J.
2010-11-01
This paper describes the development of an experimental arrangement and the application of acetone-based planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) measurement techniques to study the unsteady characteristics of heat transfer processes in the parallel-plate heat exchangers of thermoacoustic devices. The experimental rig is a quarter-wavelength acoustic resonator where a standing wave imposes oscillatory flow conditions. Two mock-up heat exchangers, 'hot' and 'cold', have their fins kept at constant temperatures by electrical heating and water cooling, respectively. A purpose-designed acetone tracer seeding mechanism is used for PLIF temperature measurement. Acetone concentration is optimized from the viewpoint of PLIF signal intensity. Two-dimensional temperature distributions in the gas surrounding the heat exchanger plates, as a function of phase angle in the acoustic cycle, are obtained. Local and global (instantaneous and cycle-averaged) heat flux values on the fin surface are estimated and used to obtain the dependence of the space-cycle averaged Nusselt versus Reynolds number. Measurement uncertainties are discussed.
Bernhardt, A.F.; Contolini, R.J.
1993-10-26
In a process for fabricating planarized thin film metal interconnects for integrated circuit structures, a planarized metal layer is etched back to the underlying dielectric layer by electropolishing, ion milling or other procedure. Electropolishing reduces processing time from hours to minutes and allows batch processing of multiple wafers. The etched back planarized thin film interconnect is flush with the dielectric layer. 12 figures.
Bernhardt, Anthony F.; Contolini, Robert J.
1993-01-01
In a process for fabricating planarized thin film metal interconnects for integrated circuit structures, a planarized metal layer is etched back to the underlying dielectric layer by electropolishing, ion milling or other procedure. Electropolishing reduces processing time from hours to minutes and allows batch processing of multiple wafers. The etched back planarized thin film interconnect is flush with the dielectric layer.
Fiechtner, Gregory J.; Singh, Anup K.; Wiedenman, Boyd J.
2008-03-18
The present embodiment describes a laminar-mixing embodiment that utilizes simple, three-dimensional injection. Also described is the use of the embodiment in combination with wide and shallow sections of channel to affect rapid mixing in microanalytical systems. The shallow channel sections are constructed using all planar micromachining techniques, including those based on isotropic etching. The planar construction enables design using minimum dispersion concepts that, in turn, enable simultaneous mixing and injection into subsequent chromatography channels.
Planar electrochemical device assembly
Jacobson; Craig P. , Visco; Steven J. , De Jonghe; Lutgard C.
2010-11-09
A pre-fabricated electrochemical device having a dense electrolyte disposed between an anode and a cathode preferably deposited as thin films is bonded to a porous electrically conductive support. A second porous electrically conductive support may be bonded to a counter electrode of the electrochemical device. Multiple electrochemical devices may be bonded in parallel to a single porous support, such as a perforated sheet to provide a planar array. Planar arrays may be arranged in a stacked interconnected array. A method of making a supported electrochemical device is disclosed wherein the method includes a step of bonding a pre-fabricated electrochemical device layer to an existing porous metal or porous metal alloy layer.
Planar electrochemical device assembly
Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.
2007-06-19
A pre-fabricated electrochemical device having a dense electrolyte disposed between an anode and a cathode preferably deposited as thin films is bonded to a porous electrically conductive support. A second porous electrically conductive support may be bonded to a counter electrode of the electrochemical device. Multiple electrochemical devices may be bonded in parallel to a single porous support, such as a perforated sheet to provide a planar array. Planar arrays may be arranged in a stacked interconnected array. A method of making a supported electrochemical device is disclosed wherein the method includes a step of bonding a pre-fabricated electrochemical device layer to an existing porous metal or porous metal alloy layer.
Magnetization of planar four-fermion systems
Caldas, Heron; Ramos, Rudnei O.
2009-09-15
We consider a planar system of fermions, at finite temperature and density under a static magnetic field parallel to the two-dimensional plane. This magnetic field generates a Zeeman effect and then a spin polarization of the system. The critical properties are studied from the Landau's free energy. The possible observable consequences of the magnetization of planar systems such as polymer films and graphene are discussed.
Electrochromatography Methods: Planar Electrochromatography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chomicki, Adam; Dzido, Tadeusz H.; Płocharz, Paweł; Polak, Beata
Planar electrochromatography is a technique in which mixture components are separated in adsorbent layer of a chromatographic plate placed in electric field. In such separation system a mobile phase movement stems from electroosmosis phenomenon. Partition and electrophoresis mechanisms are involved in separation of mixture components with this technique. Two principal modes of planar electrochromatography are described: planar electrochromatography in an open system (PEC) and planar electrochromatography in a closed system (pressurized planar electrochromatography, PPEC). The development of both modes is presented beginning with the first paper on electrochromatography by Pretorius et al. in 1974 and finishing with the last papers by Dzido et al. in 2010. Constructional development of equipment to planar electrochromatography is provided and influence of operating variables on separation efficiency as well. The advantages and challenges of PPEC technique are especially discussed.
Pinning of flux lines by planar defects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petković, Aleksandra; Emig, Thorsten; Nattermann, Thomas
2009-06-01
The influence of randomly distributed point impurities and planar defects on order and transport in type-II superconductors and related systems is studied. It is shown that the Bragg glass phase is unstable with respect to planar defects. Even a single weak defect plane oriented parallel to the magnetic field as well as to one of the main axes of the Abrikosov flux-line lattice is a relevant perturbation in the Bragg glass. A defect that is aligned with the magnetic field restores the flux density oscillations, which decay algebraically with the distance from the defect. The theory exhibits striking similarities to the physics of a Luttinger liquid with a frozen impurity. The exponent for the flux-line creep in the direction perpendicular to a relevant defect is derived. We find that the flux-line lattice exhibits in the presence of many randomly distributed parallel planar defects aligned to the magnetic field a glassy phase which we call planar glass. The planar glass is characterized by diverging shear and tilt moduli, a transverse Meissner effect, and resistance against shear deformations. We also obtain sample-to-sample fluctuations of the longitudinal magnetic susceptibility and an exponential decay of translational long-range order in the direction perpendicular to the defects. The flux creep perpendicular to the defects leads to a nonlinear resistivity ρ(J→0)˜exp[-(JD/J)3/2] . Strong planar defects enforce arrays of dislocations that are located at the defects with a Burgers vector parallel to the defects in order to relax shear strain.
Johnson, Jason K; Chertkov, Michael; Netrapalli, Praneeth
2010-11-12
Inference and learning of graphical models are both well-studied problems in statistics and machine learning that have found many applications in science and engineering. However, exact inference is intractable in general graphical models, which suggests the problem of seeking the best approximation to a collection of random variables within some tractable family of graphical models. In this paper, we focus our attention on the class of planar Ising models, for which inference is tractable using techniques of statistical physics [Kac and Ward; Kasteleyn]. Based on these techniques and recent methods for planarity testing and planar embedding [Chrobak and Payne], we propose a simple greedy algorithm for learning the best planar Ising model to approximate an arbitrary collection of binary random variables (possibly from sample data). Given the set of all pairwise correlations among variables, we select a planar graph and optimal planar Ising model defined on this graph to best approximate that set of correlations. We present the results of numerical experiments evaluating the performance of our algorithm.
Recirculating planar magnetrons: simulations and experiment
Franzi, Matthew; Gilgenbach, Ronald; French, David; Lau, Y.Y.; Simon, David; Hoff, Brad; Luginsland, John W.
2011-07-01
The Recirculating Planar Magnetron (RPM) is a novel crossed-field device whose geometry is expected to reduce thermal load, enhance current yield as well as ease the geometric limitations in scaling to high RF frequencies as compared to the conventional cylindrical magnetrons. The RPM has two different adaptations: A. Axial B field and radial E field; B. Radial B field and axial E field. The preliminary configuration (A) to be used in experiments at the University of Michigan consists of two parallel planar sections which join on either end by cylindrical regions to form a concentric extruded ellipse. Similar to conventional magnetrons, a voltage across the AK gap in conjunction with an axial magnetic field provides the electrons with an ExB drift. The device is named RPM because the drifting electrons recirculate from one planar region to the other. The drifting electrons interact with the resonantly tuned slow wave structure on the anode causing spoke formation. These electron spokes drive a RF electric field in the cavities from which RF power may be extracted to Waveguides. The RPM may be designed in either a conventional configuration with the anode on the outside, for simplified extraction, or as an inverted magnetron with the anode at the inner conductor, for fast start-up. Currently, experiments at the Pulsed Power and Microwave Laboratory at the University of Michigan are in the setup and design phase. A conventional RPM with planar cavities is to be installed on the Michigan Electron Long Beam Accelerator (MELBA) and is anticipated to operate at -200kV, 0.2T with a beam current of 1-10 kA at 1GHz. The conventional RPM consists of 12 identical planar cavities, 6 on each planar side, with simulated quality factor of 20.
Enjoyment of Euclidean Planar Triangles
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Srinivasan, V. K.
2013-01-01
This article adopts the following classification for a Euclidean planar [triangle]ABC, purely based on angles alone. A Euclidean planar triangle is said to be acute angled if all the three angles of the Euclidean planar [triangle]ABC are acute angles. It is said to be right angled at a specific vertex, say B, if the angle ?ABC is a right angle…
Planar plasmonic chiral nanostructures.
Zu, Shuai; Bao, Yanjun; Fang, Zheyu
2016-02-21
A strong chiral optical response induced at a plasmonic Fano resonance in a planar Au heptamer nanostructure was experimentally and theoretically demonstrated. The scattering spectra show the characteristic narrow-band feature of Fano resonances for both left and right circular polarized lights, with a chiral response reaching 30% at the Fano resonance. Specifically, we systematically investigate the chiral response of planar heptamers with gradually changing the inter-particle rotation angles and separation distance. The chiral spectral characteristics clearly depend on the strength of Fano resonances and the associated near-field optical distributions. Finite element method simulations together with a multipole expansion method demonstrate that the enhanced chirality is caused by the excitation of magnetic quadrupolar and electric toroidal dipolar modes. Our work provides an effective method for the design of 2D nanostructures with a strong chiral response. PMID:26818746
Dielectric Covered Planar Antennas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Llombart Juan, Nuria (Inventor); Lee, Choonsup (Inventor); Chattopadhyay, Goutam (Inventor); Gill, John J. (Inventor); Skalare, Anders J. (Inventor); Siegel, Peter H. (Inventor)
2014-01-01
An antenna element suitable for integrated arrays at terahertz frequencies is disclosed. The antenna element comprises an extended spherical (e.g. hemispherical) semiconductor lens, e.g. silicon, antenna fed by a leaky wave waveguide feed. The extended spherical lens comprises a substantially spherical lens adjacent a substantially planar lens extension. A couple of TE/TM leaky wave modes are excited in a resonant cavity formed between a ground plane and the substantially planar lens extension by a waveguide block coupled to the ground plane. Due to these modes, the primary feed radiates inside the lens with a directive pattern that illuminates a small sector of the lens. The antenna structure is compatible with known semiconductor fabrication technology and enables production of large format imaging arrays.
Planar waveguide optical immunosensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choquette, Steven J.; Locascio-Brown, Laurie E.; Durst, Richard A.
1991-03-01
Monoclonal antibodies were covalently bonded to the surfaces of planar waveguides to confer immunoreacth''ity. Silver-ion diffused waveguides were used to measure theophylline concentrations in a fluorescence immunoassay and silicon nitride waveguides were used to detect theophylline in an absorbance-based immunoassay. Liposomes were employed in both assays as the optically detectable label in a competitive reaction to monitor antigen-antibody complexation. Regeneration of the active antibody site will be discussed.
Booth, R.
1994-10-25
A planar triode is mounted in a PC board orifice by means of a U-shaped capacitor housing and anode contact yoke removably attached to cathode leg extensions passing through and soldered to the cathode side of the PC board by means of a PC cathode pad. A pliant/flexible contact attached to the orifice make triode grid contact with a grid pad on the grid side of the PC board, permitting quick and easy replacement of bad triodes. 14 figs.
Booth, Rex
1994-01-01
A planar triode is mounted in a PC board orifice by means of a U-shaped capacitor housing and anode contact yoke removably attached to cathode leg extensions passing through and soldered to the cathode side of the PC board by means of a PC cathode pad. A pliant/flexible contact attached to the orifice make triode grid contact with a grid pad on the grid side of the PC board, permitting quick and easy replacement of bad triodes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crockett, Thomas W.
1995-01-01
This article provides a broad introduction to the subject of parallel rendering, encompassing both hardware and software systems. The focus is on the underlying concepts and the issues which arise in the design of parallel rendering algorithms and systems. We examine the different types of parallelism and how they can be applied in rendering applications. Concepts from parallel computing, such as data decomposition, task granularity, scalability, and load balancing, are considered in relation to the rendering problem. We also explore concepts from computer graphics, such as coherence and projection, which have a significant impact on the structure of parallel rendering algorithms. Our survey covers a number of practical considerations as well, including the choice of architectural platform, communication and memory requirements, and the problem of image assembly and display. We illustrate the discussion with numerous examples from the parallel rendering literature, representing most of the principal rendering methods currently used in computer graphics.
Broadband Planar 5:1 Impedence Transformer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ehsan, Negar; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Moseley, Samuel H.; Wollack, Edward J.
2015-01-01
This paper presents a broadband Guanella-type planar impedance transformer that transforms so 50 omega to 10 omega with a 10 dB bandwidth of 1-14GHz. The transformer is designed on a flexible 50 micrometer thick polyimide substrate in microstrip and parallel-plate transmission line topologies, and is Inspired by the traditional 4:1 Guanella transformer. Back-to-back transformers were designed and fabricated for characterization in a 50 omega system. Simulated and measured results are in excellent agreement.
Massively parallel visualization: Parallel rendering
Hansen, C.D.; Krogh, M.; White, W.
1995-12-01
This paper presents rendering algorithms, developed for massively parallel processors (MPPs), for polygonal, spheres, and volumetric data. The polygon algorithm uses a data parallel approach whereas the sphere and volume renderer use a MIMD approach. Implementations for these algorithms are presented for the Thinking Machines Corporation CM-5 MPP.
Parallel machines: Parallel machine languages
Iannucci, R.A. )
1990-01-01
This book presents a framework for understanding the tradeoffs between the conventional view and the dataflow view with the objective of discovering the critical hardware structures which must be present in any scalable, general-purpose parallel computer to effectively tolerate latency and synchronization costs. The author presents an approach to scalable general purpose parallel computation. Linguistic Concerns, Compiling Issues, Intermediate Language Issues, and hardware/technological constraints are presented as a combined approach to architectural Develoement. This book presents the notion of a parallel machine language.
Planar electroluminescent panel techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kerr, C.; Kell, R. E.
1973-01-01
Investigations of planar electroluminescent multipurpose displays with latch-in memory are described. An 18 x 24 in. flat, thin address panel with elements spacing of 0.100 in. was constructed which demonstrated essentially uniform luminosity of 3-5 foot lamberts for each of its 43200 EL cells. A working model of a 4-bit EL-PC (electroluminescent photoconductive) electrooptical decoder was made which demonstrated the feasibility of this concept. A single-diagram electroluminescent display device with photoconductive-electroluminescent latch-in memory was constructed which demonstrated the conceptual soundness of this principle. Attempts to combine these principles in a single PEL multipurpose display with latch-in memory were unsuccessful and were judged to exceed the state-of-the-art for close-packed (0.10 in. centers) photoconductor-electroluminescent cell assembly.
Mineev, Mark
2008-01-01
The planar elliptic extension of the Laplacian growth is, after a proper parametrization, given in a form of a solution to the equation for areapreserving diffeomorphisms. The infinite set of conservation laws associated with such elliptic growth is interpreted in terms of potential theory, and the relations between two major forms of the elliptic growth are analyzed. The constants of integration for closed form solutions are identified as the singularities of the Schwarz function, which are located both inside and outside the moving contour. Well-posedness of the recovery of the elliptic operator governing the process from the continuum of interfaces parametrized by time is addressed and two examples of exact solutions of elliptic growth are presented.
Joseph, D.D.; Bai, R.; Liao, T.Y.; Huang, A.; Hu, H.H.
1995-09-01
In this paper the authors introduce the idea of parallel pipelining for water lubricated transportation of oil (or other viscous material). A parallel system can have major advantages over a single pipe with respect to the cost of maintenance and continuous operation of the system, to the pressure gradients required to restart a stopped system and to the reduction and even elimination of the fouling of pipe walls in continuous operation. The authors show that the action of capillarity in small pipes is more favorable for restart than in large pipes. In a parallel pipeline system, they estimate the number of small pipes needed to deliver the same oil flux as in one larger pipe as N = (R/r){sup {alpha}}, where r and R are the radii of the small and large pipes, respectively, and {alpha} = 4 or 19/7 when the lubricating water flow is laminar or turbulent.
Gorda, B.C.
1992-09-01
Data locality is fundamental to performance on distributed memory parallel architectures. Application programmers know this well and go to great pains to arrange data for optimal performance. Data Parallelism, a model from the Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) architecture, is finding a new home on the Multiple Instruction Multiple Data (MIMD) architectures. This style of programming, distinguished by taking the computation to the data, is what programmers have been doing by hand for a long time. Recent work in this area holds the promise of making the programmer's task easier.
Gorda, B.C.
1992-09-01
Data locality is fundamental to performance on distributed memory parallel architectures. Application programmers know this well and go to great pains to arrange data for optimal performance. Data Parallelism, a model from the Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) architecture, is finding a new home on the Multiple Instruction Multiple Data (MIMD) architectures. This style of programming, distinguished by taking the computation to the data, is what programmers have been doing by hand for a long time. Recent work in this area holds the promise of making the programmer`s task easier.
Electrochemical planarization for microelectronic circuits
Contolini, R.J.; Mayer, S.T.; Bernhardt, A.F.
1993-03-25
The need for flatter and smoother surfaces (planarization) in microelectronic circuits increases as the number of metal levels in ultra large scale integrated (ULSI) circuits increases. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the authors have developed an electrochemical planarization process that fills vias and trenches with metal (without voids) and subsequently planarizes the surface. Use is made of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of SiO[sub 2] for the dielectric layers and electroplated copper for the metalization. This report describes the advantages of this process over existing techniques, possibilities for collaboration, and previous technology transfer.
Electrochemical planarization for microelectronic circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Contolini, R. J.; Mayer, S. T.; Bernhardt, A. F.
1993-03-01
The need for flatter and smoother surfaces (planarization) in microelectronic circuits increases as the number of metal levels in ultra large scale integrated (ULSI) circuits increases. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the authors have developed an electrochemical planarization process that fills vias and trenches with metal (without voids) and subsequently planarizes the surface. Use is made of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of SiO2 for the dielectric layers and electroplated copper for the metalization. This report describes the advantages of this process over existing techniques, possibilities for collaboration, and previous technology transfer.
Non-planar chemical preconcentrator
Manginell, Ronald P.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Sokolowski, Sara S.; Lewis, Patrick R.
2006-10-10
A non-planar chemical preconcentrator comprises a high-surface area, low mass, three-dimensional, flow-through sorption support structure that can be coated or packed with a sorptive material. The sorptive material can collect and concentrate a chemical analyte from a fluid stream and rapidly release it as a very narrow temporal plug for improved separations in a microanalytical system. The non-planar chemical preconcentrator retains most of the thermal and fabrication benefits of a planar preconcentrator, but has improved ruggedness and uptake, while reducing sorptive coating concerns and extending the range of collectible analytes.
Process for forming planarized films
Pang, Stella W.; Horn, Mark W.
1991-01-01
A planarization process and apparatus which employs plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) to form plarnarization films of dielectric or conductive carbonaceous material on step-like substrates.
Object Classification via Planar Abstraction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oesau, Sven; Lafarge, Florent; Alliez, Pierre
2016-06-01
We present a supervised machine learning approach for classification of objects from sampled point data. The main idea consists in first abstracting the input object into planar parts at several scales, then discriminate between the different classes of objects solely through features derived from these planar shapes. Abstracting into planar shapes provides a means to both reduce the computational complexity and improve robustness to defects inherent to the acquisition process. Measuring statistical properties and relationships between planar shapes offers invariance to scale and orientation. A random forest is then used for solving the multiclass classification problem. We demonstrate the potential of our approach on a set of indoor objects from the Princeton shape benchmark and on objects acquired from indoor scenes and compare the performance of our method with other point-based shape descriptors.
Flat panel planar optic display
Veligdan, J.T.
1994-11-01
A prototype 10 inch flat panel Planar Optic Display, (POD), screen has been constructed and tested. This display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optic class sheets bonded together with a cladding layer between each sheet where each glass sheet represents a vertical line of resolution. The display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately 1 inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.
Three sets of crystallographic sub-planar structures in quartz formed by tectonic deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Derez, Tine; Pennock, Gill; Drury, Martyn; Sintubin, Manuel
2016-05-01
In quartz, multiple sets of fine planar deformation microstructures that have specific crystallographic orientations parallel to planes with low Miller-Bravais indices are commonly considered as shock-induced planar deformation features (PDFs) diagnostic of shock metamorphism. Using polarized light microscopy, we demonstrate that up to three sets of tectonically induced sub-planar fine extinction bands (FEBs), sub-parallel to the basal, γ, ω, and π crystallographic planes, are common in vein quartz in low-grade tectonometamorphic settings. We conclude that the observation of multiple (2-3) sets of fine scale, closely spaced, crystallographically controlled, sub-planar microstructures is not sufficient to unambiguously distinguish PDFs from tectonic FEBs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mema, Ensela; Cummings, Linda J.; Kondic, Lou
We consider a mathematical model that consists of a NLC layer sandwiched between two parallel bounding plates, across which an external field is applied. We investigate its effect on the director orientation by considering the dielectric and flexoelectric contributions and varying parameters that represent the anchoring conditions and the electric field strength. In particular, we investigate possible director configurations that occur in weakly anchored and non-planar systems. We observe that non-planar anchoring angles destroy any hysteresis seen in a planar system by eliminating the fully vertical director configuration and the ''saturation threshold'' seen in weakly anchored planar Freedericksz cells. Supported by NSF Grant No. DMS-1211713.
Parallel Information Processing.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rasmussen, Edie M.
1992-01-01
Examines parallel computer architecture and the use of parallel processors for text. Topics discussed include parallel algorithms; performance evaluation; parallel information processing; parallel access methods for text; parallel and distributed information retrieval systems; parallel hardware for text; and network models for information…
Planar photovoltaic solar concentrator module
Chiang, Clement J.
1992-01-01
A planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor.
Planar photovoltaic solar concentrator module
Chiang, C.J.
1992-12-01
A planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor. 5 figs.
Planar immersion lens with metasurfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ho, John S.; Qiu, Brynan; Tanabe, Yuji; Yeh, Alexander J.; Fan, Shanhui; Poon, Ada S. Y.
2015-03-01
The solid immersion lens is a powerful optical tool that allows light entering material from air or a vacuum to focus to a spot much smaller than the free-space wavelength. Conventionally, however, the lenses rely on semispherical topographies and are nonplanar and bulky, which limits their integration in many applications. Recently, there has been considerable interest in using planar structures, referred to as metasurfaces, to construct flat optical components for manipulating light in unusual ways. Here, we propose and demonstrate the concept of a planar immersion lens based on metasurfaces. The resulting planar device, when placed near an interface between air and dielectric material, can focus electromagnetic radiation incident from air to a spot in the material smaller than the free-space wavelength. As an experimental demonstration, we fabricate an ultrathin and flexible microwave lens and further show that it achieves wireless energy transfer in material mimicking biological tissue.
Unsteady planar diffusion flames: Ignition, travel, burnout
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fendell, F.; Wu, F.
1995-01-01
In microgravity, a thin planar diffusion flame is created and thenceforth travels so that the flame is situated at all times at an interface at which the hydrogen and oxygen meet in stoichiometric proportion. If the initial amount of hydrogen is deficient relative to the initial amount of oxygen, then the planar flame will travel further and further into the half volume initially containing hydrogen, until the hydrogen is (virtually) fully depleted. Of course, when the amount of residual hydrogen becomes small, the diffusion flame is neither vigorous nor thin; in practice, the flame is extinguished before the hydrogen is fully depleted, owing to the finite rate of the actual chemical-kinetic mechanism. The rate of travel of the hydrogen-air diffusion flame is much slower than the rate of laminar flame propagation through a hydrogen-air mixture. This slow travel facilitates diagnostic detection of the flame position as a function of time, but the slow travel also means that the time to burnout (extinction) probably far exceeds the testing time (typically, a few seconds) available in earth-sited facilities for microgravity-environment experiments. We undertake an analysis to predict (1) the position and temperature of the diffusion flame as a function of time, (2) the time at which extinction of the diffusion flame occurs, and (3) the thickness of quench layers formed on side walls (i.e., on lateral boundaries, with normal vectors parallel to the diffusion-flame plane), and whether, prior to extinction, water vapor formed by burning will condense on these cold walls.
MCM Polarimetric Radiometers for Planar Arrays
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kangaslahti, Pekka; Dawson, Douglas; Gaier, Todd
2007-01-01
A polarimetric radiometer that operates at a frequency of 40 GHz has been designed and built as a prototype of multiple identical units that could be arranged in a planar array for scientific measurements. Such an array is planned for use in studying the cosmic microwave background (CMB). All of the subsystems and components of this polarimetric radiometer are integrated into a single multi-chip module (MCM) of substantially planar geometry. In comparison with traditional designs of polarimetric radiometers, the MCM design is expected to greatly reduce the cost per unit in an array of many such units. The design of the unit is dictated partly by a requirement, in the planned CMB application, to measure the Stokes parameters I, Q, and U of the CMB radiation with high sensitivity. (A complete definition of the Stokes parameters would exceed the scope of this article. In necessarily oversimplified terms, I is a measure of total intensity of radiation, while Q and U are measures of the relationships between the horizontally and vertically polarized components of radiation.) Because the sensitivity of a single polarimeter cannot be increased significantly, the only way to satisfy the high-sensitivity requirement is to make a large array of polarimeters that operate in parallel. The MCM includes contact pins that can be plugged into receptacles on a standard printed-circuit board (PCB). All of the required microwave functionality is implemented within the MCM; any required supporting non-microwave ("back-end") electronic functionality, including the provision of DC bias and control signals, can be implemented by standard PCB techniques. On the way from a microwave antenna to the MCM, the incoming microwave signal passes through an orthomode transducer (OMT), which splits the radiation into an h + i(nu) beam and an h - i(nu) beam (where, using complex-number notation, h denotes the horizontal component, nu denotes the vertical component, and +/-i denotes a +/-90deg phase
Planar scintigraphic imaging of the gastrointestinal tract in clinical practice.
Middleton, Michael L; Strober, Mark D
2012-01-01
In the last 30 years, nuclear medicine has paralleled other imaging fields with the development of 3-dimensional techniques, including single-photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography. However, conventional nuclear medicine planar scintigraphy remains a common procedure at most imaging centers. Gastrointestinal studies constitute a significant portion of these planar procedures. The most common gastrointestinal studies, including hepatobiliary, gastric emptying, and gastrointestinal bleeding evaluations, resemble their original protocol. However, serial improvements have optimized the diagnostic efficacy of these procedures. Conventional Technetium-99m sulfur colloid liver/spleen imaging and hepatic blood pool imaging with labeled red blood cells now mainly serve an adjunctive role in the evaluation of equivocal findings on computed tomography. Salivary gland imaging is a less commonly requested evaluation, but can be used to evaluate functional capacity in some disease entities. PMID:22117811
Planar Multilayer Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minev, Z. K.; Serniak, K.; Pop, I. M.; Leghtas, Z.; Sliwa, K.; Hatridge, M.; Frunzio, L.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Devoret, M. H.
2016-04-01
Experimental quantum information processing with superconducting circuits is rapidly advancing, driven by innovation in two classes of devices, one involving planar microfabricated (2D) resonators, and the other involving machined three-dimensional (3D) cavities. We demonstrate that circuit quantum electrodynamics can be implemented in a multilayer superconducting structure that combines 2D and 3D advantages. We employ standard microfabrication techniques to pattern each layer, and rely on a vacuum gap between the layers to store the electromagnetic energy. Planar qubits are lithographically defined as an aperture in a conducting boundary of the resonators. We demonstrate the aperture concept by implementing an integrated, two-cavity-mode, one-transmon-qubit system.
Manufacturing of planar ceramic interconnects
Armstrong, B.L.; Coffey, G.W.; Meinhardt, K.D.; Armstrong, T.R.
1996-12-31
The fabrication of ceramic interconnects for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and separator plates for electrochemical separation devices has been a perennial challenge facing developers. Electrochemical vapor deposition (EVD), plasma spraying, pressing, tape casting and tape calendering are processes that are typically utilized to fabricate separator plates or interconnects for the various SOFC designs and electrochemical separation devices. For sake of brevity and the selection of a planar fuel cell or gas separation device design, pressing will be the only fabrication technique discussed here. This paper reports on the effect of the characteristics of two doped lanthanum manganite powders used in the initial studies as a planar porous separator for a fuel cell cathode and as a dense interconnect for an oxygen generator.
Summing Planar Bosonic Open Strings
Bardakci, Korkut
2006-02-16
In earlier work, planar graphs of massless {phi}{sup 3} theory were summed with the help of the light cone world sheet picture and the mean field approximation. In the present article, the same methods are applied to the problem of summing planar bosonic open strings. They find that in the ground state of the system, string boundaries form a condensate on the world sheet, and a new string emerges from this summation. Its slope is always greater than the initial slope, and it remains non-zero even when the initial slope is set equal to zero. If they assume the initial string tends to a field a theory in the zero slope limit, this result provides evidence for string formation in field theory.
Window defect planar mapping technique
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Minton, F. R.; Minton, U. O. (Inventor)
1976-01-01
A method of planar mapping defects in a window having an edge surface and a planar surface. The method is comprised of steps for mounting the window on a support surface. Then a light sensitive paper is placed adjacent to the window surface. A light source is positioned adjacent to the window edge. The window is then illuminated with the source of light for a predetermined interval of time. Defects on the surface of the glass, as well as in the interior of the glass are detected by analyzing the developed light sensitive paper. The light source must be in the form of optical fibers or a light tube whose light transmitting ends are placed near the edge surface of the window.
Compact planar microwave blocking filters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
U-Yen, Kongpop (Inventor); Wollack, Edward J. (Inventor)
2012-01-01
A compact planar microwave blocking filter includes a dielectric substrate and a plurality of filter unit elements disposed on the substrate. The filter unit elements are interconnected in a symmetrical series cascade with filter unit elements being organized in the series based on physical size. In the filter, a first filter unit element of the plurality of filter unit elements includes a low impedance open-ended line configured to reduce the shunt capacitance of the filter.
PANEL CODE FOR PLANAR CASCADES
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcfarland, E. R.
1994-01-01
The Panel Code for Planar Cascades was developed as an aid for the designer of turbomachinery blade rows. The effective design of turbomachinery blade rows relies on the use of computer codes to model the flow on blade-to-blade surfaces. Most of the currently used codes model the flow as inviscid, irrotational, and compressible with solutions being obtained by finite difference or finite element numerical techniques. While these codes can yield very accurate solutions, they usually require an experienced user to manipulate input data and control parameters. Also, they often limit a designer in the types of blade geometries, cascade configurations, and flow conditions that can be considered. The Panel Code for Planar Cascades accelerates the design process and gives the designer more freedom in developing blade shapes by offering a simple blade-to-blade flow code. Panel, or integral equation, solution techniques have been used for several years by external aerodynamicists who have developed and refined them into a primary design tool of the aircraft industry. The Panel Code for Planar Cascades adapts these same techniques to provide a versatile, stable, and efficient calculation scheme for internal flow. The code calculates the compressible, inviscid, irrotational flow through a planar cascade of arbitrary blade shapes. Since the panel solution technique is for incompressible flow, a compressibility correction is introduced to account for compressible flow effects. The analysis is limited to flow conditions in the subsonic and shock-free transonic range. Input to the code consists of inlet flow conditions, blade geometry data, and simple control parameters. Output includes flow parameters at selected control points. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM 370 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 590K of 8 bit bytes. This program was developed in 1982.
Enjoyment of Euclidean planar triangles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Srinivasan, V. K.
2013-09-01
This article adopts the following classification for a Euclidean planar ?, purely based on angles alone. A Euclidean planar triangle is said to be acute angled if all the three angles of the Euclidean planar ? are acute angles. It is said to be right angled at a specific vertex, say B, if the angle ? is a right angle with the two remaining angles as acute angles. It is said to be obtuse angled at the vertex B if ? is an obtuse angle, with the two remaining angles as acute angles. In spite of the availability of numerous text books that contain our human knowledge of Euclidean plane geometry, softwares can offer newer insights about the characterizations of planar geometrical objects. The author's characterizations of triangles involve points like the centroid G, the orthocentre H of the ?, the circumcentre S of the ?, the centre N of the nine-point circle of the ?. Also the radical centre rc of three involved diameter circles of the sides BC, AC and AB of the ? provides a reformulation of the orthocentre, resulting in an interesting theorem, dubbed by the author as 'Three Circles Theorem'. This provides a special result for a right-angled ?, again dubbed by the author as 'The Four Circles Theorem'. Apart from providing various inter connections between the geometrical points, the relationships between shapes of the triangle and the behaviour of the points are reasonably explored in this article. Most of these results will be useful to students that take courses in Euclidean Geometry at the college level and the high school level. This article will be useful to teachers in mathematics at the high school level and the college level.
Planarization of metal films for multilevel interconnects
Tuckerman, D.B.
1989-03-21
In the fabrication of multilevel integrated circuits, each metal layer is planarized by heating to momentarily melt the layer. The layer is melted by sweeping laser pulses of suitable width, typically about 1 microsecond duration, over the layer in small increments. The planarization of each metal layer eliminates irregular and discontinuous conditions between successive layers. The planarization method is particularly applicable to circuits having ground or power planes and allows for multilevel interconnects. Dielectric layers can also be planarized to produce a fully planar multilevel interconnect structure. The method is useful for the fabrication of VLSI circuits, particularly for wafer-scale integration. 6 figs.
Planarization of metal films for multilevel interconnects
Tuckerman, D.B.
1985-08-23
In the fabrication of multilevel integrated circuits, each metal layer is planarized by heating to momentarily melt the layer. The layer is melted by sweeping laser pulses of suitable width, typically about 1 microsecond duration, over the layer in small increments. The planarization of each metal layer eliminates irregular and discontinuous conditions between successive layers. The planarization method is particularly applicable to circuits having ground or power planes and allows for multilevel interconnects. Dielectric layers can also be planarized to produce a fully planar multilevel interconnect structure. The method is useful for the fabrication of VLSI circuits, particularly for wafer-scale integration.
Planarization of metal films for multilevel interconnects
Tuckerman, D.B.
1985-06-24
In the fabrication of multilevel integrated circuits, each metal layer is planarized by heating to momentarily melt the layer. The layer is melted by sweeping lase pulses of suitable width, typically about 1 microsecond duration, over the layer in small increments. The planarization of each metal layer eliminates irregular and discontinuous conditions between successive layers. The planarization method is particularly applicable to circuits having ground or power planes and allows for multilevel interconnects. Dielectric layers can also be planarized to produce a fully planar multilevel interconnect structure. The method is useful for the fabrication of VLSI circuits, particularly for wafer-scale integration.
NMR planar microcoil for microanalysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sorli, B.; Chateaux, J. F.; Quiquerez, L.; Bouchet-Fakri, L.; Briguet, A.; Morin, P.
2006-11-01
This article deals with the analysis of small sample volume by using a planar microcoil and a micromachined cavity. This microcoil is used as a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) radio frequency detection coil in order to perform in vitro NMR analysis of the sample introduced into the microcavity. It is a real challenging task to develop microsystem for NMR spectrum extraction for smaller and smaller sample volume. Moreover, it is advantageous that these microsystems could be integrated in a Micro Total Analysing System (μ -TAS) as an analysing tool. In this paper, NMR theory, description, fabrication process and electrical characterization of planar microcoils receiver are described. Results obtained on NMR microspectroscopy experiments have been performed on water and ethanol, using a 1 mm diameter planar coil. This microcoil is tuned and matched at 85.13 MHz which is the Larmor frequency of proton in a 2 T magnetic field. This paper has been presented at “3e colloque interdisciplinaire en instrumentation (C2I 2004)”, École Normale Supérieure de Cachan, 29 30 janvier 2004.
Development of cofired type planar SOFC
Taira, Hiroaki; Sakamoto, Sadaaki; Zhou, Hua-Bing
1996-12-31
We have developed fabrication process for planar SOFC fabricated with cofired anode/electrolyte/cathode multilayers and interconnects. By cofiring technique for the multilayers, we expect to reduce the thickness of the electrolyte layers, resulting in decrease of innerimpedance, and achieve low production cost. On the other hand, the cofiring technique requires that the sintering temperature, the shrinkage profiles and the thermal expansion characteristics of all component materials should be compatible with the other. It is, therefore, difficult to cofire the multilayers with large area. Using the multilayers with surface area of 150cm{sup 2}, we fabricated the multiple cell stacks. The maximum power of 5x4 multiple cell stack (5 planes of cells in series, 4 cells in parallel in each planes 484cm{sup 2} effective electrode area of each cell planes) was 601W (0.25Wcm{sup -2}, Uf=40%). However, the terminal voltage of the multiple cell stack decreased by the cause of cell cracking, gas leakage and degradation of cofired multilayers. This paper presents the improvements of cofired multilayers, and the performance of multiple cell stacks with the improved multilayers.
Nonblocking optical planar switching matrices of short length
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giglmayr, Josef
2001-05-01
Planar switching matrices of parallel waveguides (WGs) have reduced loss due to the absence of tapering but require some confinement of wave propagation reported from Kerr nonlinearities (NL). Parallel switching matrices are fed by the multiple splitting of the input WGs, an appropriate network model is the parallel version of the Spanke-Benes (PSB) network and the reduction of the number of stages (NSs) below N (for N i/o) is analyzed. However, in the parallel case, regarding WGs and SB networks, the location of switches can no longer be fixed but must be a moving location (ML). From the several parallel paths through the PSB network the shortest path is chosen either at the end by path selection switches (PS-SWs) or at the beginning of the switching matrix, respectively. It turns out that the reduction of NS of the switching matrix and in turn the saving of the number of switches (NSWs) is compensated by the number of PS-SWs at the end or at the beginning of the matrix. The replacement of the PS-SWs by combiners at the output (i) restores the energy balance but (ii) causes phase mismatch (iii) provides redundant paths (iv) restricts the overall NS to the NS of the SB network for each copy but (v) improves the nonblocking (NB) characteristic. The routing of the switching matrices and their optical implementation is also briefly discussed.
Special parallel processing workshop
1994-12-01
This report contains viewgraphs from the Special Parallel Processing Workshop. These viewgraphs deal with topics such as parallel processing performance, message passing, queue structure, and other basic concept detailing with parallel processing.
[Optical Design of Miniature Infrared Gratings Spectrometer Based on Planar Waveguide].
Li, Yang-yu; Fang, Yong-hua; Li, Da-cheng; Liu, Yang
2015-03-01
In order to miniaturize an infrared spectrometer, we analyze the current optical design of miniature spectrometers and propose a method for designing a miniature infrared gratings spectrometer based on planar waveguide. Common miniature spectrometer uses miniature optical elements to reduce the size of system, which also shrinks the effective aperture. So the performance of spectrometer has dropped. Miniaturization principle of planar waveguide spectrometer is different from the principle of common miniature spectrometer. In planar waveguide spectrometer, the propagation of light is limited in a thin planar waveguide, which looks like the whole optical system is squashed flat. In the direction parallel to the planar waveguide, the light through the slit is collimated, dispersed and focused. And a spectral image is formed in the detector plane. This propagation of light is similar to the light in common miniature spectrometer. In the direction perpendicular to the planar waveguide, light is multiple reflected by the upper and lower surfaces of the planar waveguide and propagates in the waveguide. So the size of corresponding optical element could be very small in the vertical direction, which can reduce the size of the optical system. And the performance of the spectrometer is still good. The design method of the planar waveguide spectrometer can be separated into two parts, Czerny-Turner structure design and planar waveguide structure design. First, by using aberration theory an aberration-corrected (spherical aberration, coma, focal curve) Czerny-Turner structure is obtained. The operation wavelength range and spectral resolution are also fixed. Then, by using geometrical optics theory a planar waveguide structure is designed for reducing the system size and correcting the astigmatism. The planar waveguide structure includes a planar waveguide and two cylindrical lenses. Finally, they are modeled together in optical design software and are optimized as a whole. An
Pointed drawings of planar graphs☆
Aichholzer, Oswin; Rote, Günter; Schulz, André; Vogtenhuber, Birgit
2012-01-01
We study the problem how to draw a planar graph crossing-free such that every vertex is incident to an angle greater than π. In general a plane straight-line drawing cannot guarantee this property. We present algorithms which construct such drawings with either tangent-continuous biarcs or quadratic Bézier curves (parabolic arcs), even if the positions of the vertices are predefined by a given plane straight-line drawing of the graph. Moreover, the graph can be drawn with circular arcs if the vertices can be placed arbitrarily. The topic is related to non-crossing drawings of multigraphs and vertex labeling. PMID:23471372
Terahertz super thin planar lenses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yan; Ye, Jiasheng; Hu, Dan; Wang, Xinke; Feng, Shengfei; Sun, Wenfeng
2012-12-01
Terahertz (THz) radiation is an under developing range in the electromagnetic spectrum. It has attracted a lot of attentions due to its various potential applications. However, THz systems are difficult to be integrated into a smart size due to the limitation of its long wavelength. In this presentation, we propose a new approach to design planar lenses with a thickness of several hundred nanometers in the THz range. The fabricated lenses are characterized with a focal plane imaging system and it is found that they can focus the THz light and image an object well. It is expected that this new approach can pave a way for smart THz systems integration.
Three-dimensional planar-integrated optics: a comparative view with free-space optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, El-Hang; Song, Seok Ho
2000-04-01
This paper reports on the viability, effectiveness, versatility, and the utility of the concept of the planar integrated optical interconnection scheme with respect to the concept of the free-space interconnection scheme in realizing multiple integration of various micro/nano- photonic devices and components for applications in optical interconnection, optical circuits, optical switching, optical communication and information processing. Several planar optics schemes to detect parallel optical packet addresses in WDM switching networks, to perform a space- variant processing such as fractional correlation, and to construct multistage interconnection networks, have been successfully demonstrated in the 3D glass blocks. Using a gradient-index (GRIN) substrate as a signal propagation medium in the planar optics is a unique advantage, when compared to the free-space optics. We have demonstrated the GRIN-substrate concept by using six 1/4-pitch GRIN rod lenses and a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL). The GRIN planar optics can be further extended to the use of 2D array of VCSEL microlasers and modulators in making massively parallel interconnects. A critical comparison between the planar integrated optics scheme and the free- space integrated scheme is given in terms of physics, engineering and technological concept.
Parallel rendering techniques for massively parallel visualization
Hansen, C.; Krogh, M.; Painter, J.
1995-07-01
As the resolution of simulation models increases, scientific visualization algorithms which take advantage of the large memory. and parallelism of Massively Parallel Processors (MPPs) are becoming increasingly important. For large applications rendering on the MPP tends to be preferable to rendering on a graphics workstation due to the MPP`s abundant resources: memory, disk, and numerous processors. The challenge becomes developing algorithms that can exploit these resources while minimizing overhead, typically communication costs. This paper will describe recent efforts in parallel rendering for polygonal primitives as well as parallel volumetric techniques. This paper presents rendering algorithms, developed for massively parallel processors (MPPs), for polygonal, spheres, and volumetric data. The polygon algorithm uses a data parallel approach whereas the sphere and volume render use a MIMD approach. Implementations for these algorithms are presented for the Thinking Ma.chines Corporation CM-5 MPP.
Antillon, A.; Month, M.
1985-01-01
The basic dynamics of a planar accelerator is extended to the non-planar case. This is done using the geometrical concept of torsion and extending the Hamiltonian formalism. A generalized non-planar reference orbit is adopted which introduces torsion in appropriately chosen drift spaces. The parameters of the reference orbit are associated with uncoupled and coupled betatron parameters currently in use. 6 refs.
Liftings and stresses for planar periodic frameworks
Borcea, Ciprian; Streinu, Ileana
2015-01-01
We formulate and prove a periodic analog of Maxwell’s theorem relating stressed planar frameworks and their liftings to polyhedral surfaces with spherical topology. We use our lifting theorem to prove deformation and rigidity-theoretic properties for planar periodic pseudo-triangulations, generalizing features known for their finite counterparts. These properties are then applied to questions originating in mathematical crystallography and materials science, concerning planar periodic auxetic structures and ultrarigid periodic frameworks. PMID:26973370
Planar waveguide sensor of ammonia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rogoziński, Roman; Tyszkiewicz, Cuma; Karasiński, Paweł; Izydorczyk, Weronika
2015-12-01
The paper presents the concept of forming ammonia sensor based on a planar waveguide structure. It is an amplitude sensor produced on the basis of the multimode waveguide. The technological base for this kind of structure is the ion exchange method and the sol-gel method. The planar multimode waveguide of channel type is produced in glass substrate (soda-lime glass of Menzel-Glaser company) by the selective Ag+↔Na+ ion exchange. On the surface of the glass substrate a porous (~40%) silica layer is produced by the sol-gel method. This layer is sensitized to the presence of ammonia in the surrounding atmosphere by impregnation with Bromocresol Purple (BCP) dye. Therefore it constitutes a sensor layer. Spectrophotometric tests carried out showed about 50% reduction of cross-transmission changes of such sensor layer for a wave λ=593 nm caused by the presence of 25% ammonia water vapor in its ambience. The radiation source used in this type of sensor structure is a light emitting diode LED. The gradient channel waveguide is designed for frontal connection (optical glue) with a standard multimode telecommunications waveguide 62.5/125μm.
Scan registration using planar features
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Previtali, M.; Barazzetti, L.; Brumana, R.; Scaioni, M.
2014-06-01
Point cloud acquisition by using laser scanners provides an efficient way for 3D as-built modelling of indoor/outdoor urban environments. In the case of large structures, multiple scans may be required to cover the entire scene and registration is needed to merge them together. In general, the identification of corresponding geometric features among a series of scans can be used to compute the 3D rigid-body transformation useful for the registration of each scan into the reference system of the final point cloud. Different automatic or semi-automatic methods have been developed to this purpose. Several solutions based on artificial targets are available, which however may not be suitable in any situations. Methods based on surface matching (like ICP and LS3D) can be applied if the scans to align have a proper geometry and surface texture. In the case of urban and architectural scenes that present the prevalence of a few basic geometric shapes ("Legoland" scenes) the availability of many planar features is exploited here for registration. The presented technique does not require artificial targets to be added to the scanned scene. In addition, unlike other surface-based techniques (like ICP) the planar feature-based registration technique is not limited to work in a pairwise manner but it can handle the simultaneous alignment of multiple scans. Finally, some applications are presented and discussed to show how this technique can achieve accuracy comparable to a consolidated registration method.
Parallel algorithms and architectures
Albrecht, A.; Jung, H.; Mehlhorn, K.
1987-01-01
Contents of this book are the following: Preparata: Deterministic simulation of idealized parallel computers on more realistic ones; Convex hull of randomly chosen points from a polytope; Dataflow computing; Parallel in sequence; Towards the architecture of an elementary cortical processor; Parallel algorithms and static analysis of parallel programs; Parallel processing of combinatorial search; Communications; An O(nlogn) cost parallel algorithms for the single function coarsest partition problem; Systolic algorithms for computing the visibility polygon and triangulation of a polygonal region; and RELACS - A recursive layout computing system. Parallel linear conflict-free subtree access.
Miniaturized planar chromatography using office peripherals--office chromatography.
Morlock, Gertrud E
2015-02-20
Office chromatography (OC) harnesses the novel combination of miniaturized planar separation science and modern print & media technologies. Interdisciplinary knowledge is the essence: Printing of solutions on powerful miniaturized planar separation materials in combination with image capturing and evaluation tools enables an innovative analytical online system. Site-specific printing as lines or areas on defined sections of the layer comprises important steps like application of samples, feeding of the mobile phase as well as supply of the derivatization reagent. Also printing of bioassays can be combined for effect-directed detections and the homogeneous printing of the ultrathin layer itself, enabling tailor-made gradient-layer or multi-layer plates. OC exploits image-giving miniaturized chromatograms being captured and processed with a flatbed scanner or mini-camera. Thus, miniaturized separation materials are the core of OC. Monolithic, electrospun, nanostructured glancing angle deposition and carbon nanotube-templated microfabricated layers or even pillar arrays or polymer brush coated sub-μm silica particles were demonstrated, showing promising results. Layer thicknesses from 50 μm down to few micrometers were explored. A high-throughput capacity is given through the parallel development of as many as possible tiny-printed samples on the separation material. The migration time was reduced to a few minutes and the calculated analysis time per sample lasted few seconds. Considering a substantially reduced solvent consumption at short run times for parallel analysis of numerous samples at the same time, OC is an appropriate analytical technique for green chemistry. OC facilitates the whole planar separation process to be performed with no other equipment but a combined device of printer and flatbed scanner or mini-camera. At the same time, OC can be expected to become a widespread and economical technique with the user-friendliness of high-end office tools
Planar Hall effect bridge magnetic field sensors
Henriksen, A. D.; Dalslet, B. T.; Skieller, D. H.; Lee, K. H.; Okkels, F.; Hansen, M. F.
2010-07-05
Until now, the planar Hall effect has been studied in samples with cross-shaped Hall geometry. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the planar Hall effect can be observed for an exchange-biased ferromagnetic material in a Wheatstone bridge topology and that the sensor signal can be significantly enhanced by a geometric factor. For the samples in the present study, we demonstrate an enhancement of the sensor output by a factor of about 100 compared to cross-shaped sensors. The presented construction opens a new design and application area of the planar Hall effect, which we term planar Hall effect bridge sensors.
Planarized fiber-FHD optical composite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holmes, C.; Carpenter, L. G.; Gates, J. C.; Gawith, C. B. E.; Smith, P. G. R.
2015-03-01
We demonstrate the fabrication of a mechanically robust planarised fibre-FHD optical composite. Fabrication is achieved through deposition and consolidation of optical grade silica soot on to both an optical fibre and planar substrate. The consolidated silica acts in joining the fibre and planar substrate both mechanically and optically. The concept lends itself to applications where long interaction lengths (order of tens of centimetres) and optical interaction via a planar waveguide are required, such as pump schemes, precision layup of fibre optics and hybrid fibre-planar devices. This paper considers the developments in fabrication process that enable component development.
Planarization of metal films for multilevel interconnects
Tuckerman, David B.
1987-01-01
In the fabrication of multilevel integrated circuits, each metal layer is anarized by heating to momentarily melt the layer. The layer is melted by sweeping laser pulses of suitable width, typically about 1 microsecond duration, over the layer in small increments. The planarization of each metal layer eliminates irregular and discontinuous conditions between successive layers. The planarization method is particularly applicable to circuits having ground or power planes and allows for multilevel interconnects. Dielectric layers can also be planarized to produce a fully planar multilevel interconnect structure. The method is useful for the fabrication of VLSI circuits, particularly for wafer-scale integration.
Planarization of metal films for multilevel interconnects
Tuckerman, David B.
1989-01-01
In the fabrication of multilevel integrated circuits, each metal layer is anarized by heating to momentarily melt the layer. The layer is melted by sweeping laser pulses of suitable width, typically about 1 microsecond duration, over the layer in small increments. The planarization of each metal layer eliminates irregular and discontinuous conditions between successive layers. The planarization method is particularly applicable to circuits having ground or power planes and allows for multilevel interconnects. Dielectric layers can also be planarized to produce a fully planar multilevel interconnect structure. The method is useful for the fabrication of VLSI circuits, particularly for wafer-scale integration.
Helical axis stellarator with noninterlocking planar coils
Reiman, Allan; Boozer, Allen H.
1987-01-01
A helical axis stellarator using only noninterlocking planar, non-circular coils, generates magnetic fields having a magnetic well and large rotational transform with resultant large equilibrium beta.
Beiser, L.; Veligdan, J.
1996-04-01
A Planar Optic Display (POD) is being built and tested for suitability as a high brightness replacement for the cathode ray tube, (CRT). The POD display technology utilizes a laminated optical waveguide structure which allows a projection type of display to be constructed in a thin (I to 2 inch) housing. Inherent in the optical waveguide is a black cladding matrix which gives the display a black appearance leading to very high contrast. A Digital Micromirror Device, (DMD) from Texas Instruments is used to create video images in conjunction with a 100 milliwatt green solid state laser. An anamorphic optical system is used to inject light into the POD to form a stigmatic image. In addition to the design of the POD screen, we discuss: image formation, image projection, and optical design constraints.
A bioinspired planar superhydrophobic microboat
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yong, Jiale; Yang, Qing; Chen, Feng; Zhang, Dongshi; Du, Guangqing; Si, Jinhai; Yun, Feng; Hou, Xun
2014-03-01
In nature, a frog can easily rest on a lotus leaf even though the frog's weight is several times the weight of the lotus leaf. Inspired by the lotus leaf, we fabricated a planar superhydrophobic microboat (SMB) with a superhydrophobic upper surface on a PDMS sheet which was irradiated by a focused femtosecond laser. The SMB can not only float effortlessly over the water surface but can also hold up some heavy objects, exhibiting an excellent loading capacity. The water surface is curved near the edge of the upper surface and the SMB's upper edge is below the water level, greatly enhancing the displacement. Experimental results and theoretical analysis demonstrate that the superhydrophobicity on the edge of the upper surface is responsible for the SMB's large loading capacity. Here, we call it the ‘superhydrophobic edge effect’.
Planar microresonators for EPR experiments.
Narkowicz, R; Suter, D; Stonies, R
2005-08-01
EPR resonators on the basis of standing-wave cavities are optimised for large samples. For small samples it is possible to design different resonators that have much better power handling properties and higher sensitivity. Other parameters being equal, the sensitivity of the resonator can be increased by minimising its size and thus increasing the filling factor. Like in NMR, it is possible to use lumped elements; coils can confine the microwave field to volumes that are much smaller than the wavelength. We discuss the design and evaluation of EPR resonators on the basis of planar microcoils. Our test resonators, which operate at a frequency of 14 GHz, have excellent microwave efficiency factors, achieving 24 ns pi/2 EPR pulses with an input power of 17 mW. The sensitivity tests with DPPH samples resulted in the sensitivity value 2.3 x 10(9) spins.G(-1) Hz(-1/2) at 300 K. PMID:15939642
Planar microresonators for EPR experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narkowicz, R.; Suter, D.; Stonies, R.
2005-08-01
EPR resonators on the basis of standing-wave cavities are optimised for large samples. For small samples it is possible to design different resonators that have much better power handling properties and higher sensitivity. Other parameters being equal, the sensitivity of the resonator can be increased by minimising its size and thus increasing the filling factor. Like in NMR, it is possible to use lumped elements; coils can confine the microwave field to volumes that are much smaller than the wavelength. We discuss the design and evaluation of EPR resonators on the basis of planar microcoils. Our test resonators, which operate at a frequency of 14 GHz, have excellent microwave efficiency factors, achieving 24 ns π/2 EPR pulses with an input power of 17 mW. The sensitivity tests with DPPH samples resulted in the sensitivity value 2.3 × 10 9 spins · G -1Hz -1/2 at 300 K.
The simplicity of planar networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viana, Matheus P.; Strano, Emanuele; Bordin, Patricia; Barthelemy, Marc
2013-12-01
Shortest paths are not always simple. In planar networks, they can be very different from those with the smallest number of turns - the simplest paths. The statistical comparison of the lengths of the shortest and simplest paths provides a non trivial and non local information about the spatial organization of these graphs. We define the simplicity index as the average ratio of these lengths and the simplicity profile characterizes the simplicity at different scales. We measure these metrics on artificial (roads, highways, railways) and natural networks (leaves, slime mould, insect wings) and show that there are fundamental differences in the organization of urban and biological systems, related to their function, navigation or distribution: straight lines are organized hierarchically in biological cases, and have random lengths and locations in urban systems. In the case of time evolving networks, the simplicity is able to reveal important structural changes during their evolution.
Positron Emission Mammotomography with Dual Planar Detectors
Mark Smith; Raymond Raylman; Stanislaw Majewski
2003-06-29
Positron emission mammography (PEM) is usually performed with two stationary planar detectors above and below a compressed breast. There is image blurring normal to the detectors due to the limited angular range of the lines of response. Positron emission mammotomography (PEM-T) with dual planar detectors rotating about the breast can obtain complete angular sampling and has the potential to improve activity estimation.
Improved double planar probe data analysis technique
Ghim, Young-chul; Hershkowitz, Noah
2009-03-15
Plasma electron number density and ion number density in a dc multidipole weakly collisional Ar plasma are measured with a single planar Langmuir probe and a double planar probe, respectively. A factor of two discrepancy between the two density measurements is resolved by applying Sheridan's empirical formula [T. E. Sheridan, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3084 (2000)] for sheath expansion to the double probe data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dorband, John E.
1987-01-01
Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) Parallel FORTH is a derivative of FORTH-83 and Unified Software Systems' Uni-FORTH. The extension of FORTH into the realm of parallel processing on the MPP is described. With few exceptions, Parallel FORTH was made to follow the description of Uni-FORTH as closely as possible. Likewise, the parallel FORTH extensions were designed as philosophically similar to serial FORTH as possible. The MPP hardware characteristics, as viewed by the FORTH programmer, is discussed. Then a description is presented of how parallel FORTH is implemented on the MPP.
Parallel flow diffusion battery
Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Cheng, Yung-Sung
1984-08-07
A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.
Parallel flow diffusion battery
Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.
1984-01-01
A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.
Photon detection with parallel asynchronous processing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coon, D. D.; Perera, A. G. U.
1990-01-01
An approach to photon detection with a parallel asynchronous signal processor is described. The visible or IR photon-detection capability of the silicon p(+)-n-n(+) detectors and the parallel asynchronous processing are addressed separately. This approach would permit an independent analog processing channel to be dedicated to every pixel. A laminar architecture consisting of a stack of planar arrays of the devices would form a 2D array processor with a 2D array of inputs located directly behind a focal-plane detector array. A 2D image data stream would propagate in neuronlike asynchronous pulse-coded form through the laminar processor. Such systems can integrate image acquisition and image processing. Acquisition and processing would be performed concurrently as in natural vision systems. The possibility of multispectral image processing is addressed.
Nonlinear transport current flow in superconductors with planar obstacles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gurevich, Alex; Friesen, Mark
2000-08-01
We present a detailed description of a hodograph method, which enables us to calculate analytically the two-dimensional distributions of the electric field E(r) and transport current density J(r) in superconductors, taking into account their highly nonlinear E-J characteristics. The method gives a unique solution E(r) of nonlinear steady-state Maxwell's equations for given boundary conditions, showing applicability limits of the critical state model and pointing out where it breaks down. The nonlinear problem of calculation of J(r) by the hodograph method reduces to solving a linear equation for the electric potential φ(E), or the current stream function ψ(E) as a function of E. For the power-law characteristics E=Ec(J/Jc)n, calculation of E(r) and J(r) can be mapped onto solutions of the London equation with the inverse screening length β=(n-1)/2n in the hodograph space (ExEy). We give general methods of solving the hodograph equations and obtain closed-form analytical solutions for particular current flows. The method is applied to calculate distributions of E(r) and dissipation in superconductors with macroscopic planar defects, such as high-angle grain boundaries, microcracks, etc. Current patterns around planar obstacles are shown to break up into domains of different orientations of J, separated by current domain walls. We calculate the structure of the current domain walls, whose width depends both on the geometry of current flow and the exponent n. These domain walls differ from the current discontinuity lines of the Bean model even in the limit n-->∞. We obtained a solution for current flow past a planar defect of length 2a in an infinite superconductor and showed that the defect causes strong local electric-field enhancement and long-range disturbances of E(r) on length scales L⊥~an>>a and L||~an>>a perpendicular and parallel to the mean current flow, respectively. This solution also exhibits large stagnation regions of magnetic flux near planar
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nicol, David; Fujimoto, Richard
1992-01-01
This paper surveys topics that presently define the state of the art in parallel simulation. Included in the tutorial are discussions on new protocols, mathematical performance analysis, time parallelism, hardware support for parallel simulation, load balancing algorithms, and dynamic memory management for optimistic synchronization.
Eclipse Parallel Tools Platform
Watson, Gregory; DeBardeleben, Nathan; Rasmussen, Craig
2005-02-18
Designing and developing parallel programs is an inherently complex task. Developers must choose from the many parallel architectures and programming paradigms that are available, and face a plethora of tools that are required to execute, debug, and analyze parallel programs i these environments. Few, if any, of these tools provide any degree of integration, or indeed any commonality in their user interfaces at all. This further complicates the parallel developer's task, hampering software engineering practices, and ultimately reducing productivity. One consequence of this complexity is that best practice in parallel application development has not advanced to the same degree as more traditional programming methodologies. The result is that there is currently no open-source, industry-strength platform that provides a highly integrated environment specifically designed for parallel application development. Eclipse is a universal tool-hosting platform that is designed to providing a robust, full-featured, commercial-quality, industry platform for the development of highly integrated tools. It provides a wide range of core services for tool integration that allow tool producers to concentrate on their tool technology rather than on platform specific issues. The Eclipse Integrated Development Environment is an open-source project that is supported by over 70 organizations, including IBM, Intel and HP. The Eclipse Parallel Tools Platform (PTP) plug-in extends the Eclipse framwork by providing support for a rich set of parallel programming languages and paradigms, and a core infrastructure for the integration of a wide variety of parallel tools. The first version of the PTP is a prototype that only provides minimal functionality for parallel tool integration of a wide variety of parallel tools. The first version of the PTP is a prototype that only provides minimal functionality for parallel tool integration, support for a small number of parallel architectures, and basis
Planar doped barrier subharmonic mixers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, T. H.; East, J. R.; Haddad, G. I.
1992-01-01
The Planar Doped Barrier (PDB) diode is a device consisting of a p(+) doping spike between two intrinsic layers and n(+) ohmic contacts. This device has the advantages of controllable barrier height, diode capacitance and forward to reverse current ratio. A symmetrically designed PDB has an anti-symmetric current vs. voltage characteristic and is ideal for use as millimeter wave subharmonic mixers. We have fabricated such devices with barrier heights of 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 volts from GaAs and InGaAs using a multijunction honeycomb structure with junction diameters between one and ten microns. Initial RF measurements are encouraging. The 0.7 volt barrier height 4 micron GaAs devices were tested as subharmonic mixers at 202 GHz with an IF frequency of 1 GHz and had 18 dB of conversion loss. The estimated mismatch loss was 7 dB and was due to higher diode capacitance. The LO frequency was 100.5 GHz and the pump power was 8 mW.
Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Bao; Meng, Kang-Kang; Yang, Mei-Yin; Edmonds, K. W.; Zhang, Hao; Cai, Kai-Ming; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Nan; Ji, Yang; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zheng, Hou-Zhi; Wang, Kai-You
2016-06-01
The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the piezo voltage controlled Co2FeAl planar Hall effect devices without the external magnetic field. Our demonstration may lead to the realization of both information storage and processing using ferromagnetic materials.
Parallel Atomistic Simulations
HEFFELFINGER,GRANT S.
2000-01-18
Algorithms developed to enable the use of atomistic molecular simulation methods with parallel computers are reviewed. Methods appropriate for bonded as well as non-bonded (and charged) interactions are included. While strategies for obtaining parallel molecular simulations have been developed for the full variety of atomistic simulation methods, molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo have received the most attention. Three main types of parallel molecular dynamics simulations have been developed, the replicated data decomposition, the spatial decomposition, and the force decomposition. For Monte Carlo simulations, parallel algorithms have been developed which can be divided into two categories, those which require a modified Markov chain and those which do not. Parallel algorithms developed for other simulation methods such as Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo, grand canonical molecular dynamics, and Monte Carlo methods for protein structure determination are also reviewed and issues such as how to measure parallel efficiency, especially in the case of parallel Monte Carlo algorithms with modified Markov chains are discussed.
Fast and precise positioning of single cells on planar electrode substrates.
Thielecke, H; Stieglitz, T; Beutel, H; Matthies, T; Ruf, H H; Meyer, J U
1999-01-01
For cell biosensors and for studying neural networks using planar electrode substrates, a suitable technique for positioning single cells on electrodes was needed. We reported a new method for fast and efficient positioning of single cells on ring electrodes by controlled suction through holes. We described the microfabrication of electrode substrates with microholes and the cell positioning procedure. L929 cells and Neuro 2A cells could be positioned in parallel without cell damage. PMID:10576072
Suspended Planar-Array Chips for Molecular Multiplexing at the Microscale.
Torras, Núria; Agusil, Juan Pablo; Vázquez, Patricia; Duch, Marta; Hernández-Pinto, Alberto M; Samitier, Josep; de la Rosa, Enrique J; Esteve, Jaume; Suárez, Teresa; Pérez-García, Lluïsa; Plaza, José A
2016-02-17
A novel suspended planar-array chips technology is described, which effectively allows molecular multiplexing using a single suspended chip to analyze extraordinarily small volumes. The suspended chips are fabricated by combining silicon-based technology and polymer-pen lithography, obtaining increased molecular pattern flexibility, and improving miniaturization and parallel production. The chip miniaturization is so dramatic that it permits the intracellular analysis of living cells. PMID:26649987
Nondestructive determination of the depth of planar p-n junctions by scanning electron microscopy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chi, J.-Y.; Gatos, H. C.
1977-01-01
A method was developed for measuring nondestructively the depth of planar p-n junctions in simple devices as well as in integrated-circuit structures with the electron-beam induced current (EBIC) by scanning parallel to the junction in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results were found to be in good agreement with those obtained by the commonly used destructive method of lapping at an angle to the junction and staining to reveal the junction.
Functional MRI Using Regularized Parallel Imaging Acquisition
Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Huang, Teng-Yi; Chen, Nan-Kuei; Wang, Fu-Nien; Stufflebeam, Steven M.; Belliveau, John W.; Wald, Lawrence L.; Kwong, Kenneth K.
2013-01-01
Parallel MRI techniques reconstruct full-FOV images from undersampled k-space data by using the uncorrelated information from RF array coil elements. One disadvantage of parallel MRI is that the image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is degraded because of the reduced data samples and the spatially correlated nature of multiple RF receivers. Regularization has been proposed to mitigate the SNR loss originating due to the latter reason. Since it is necessary to utilize static prior to regularization, the dynamic contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in parallel MRI will be affected. In this paper we investigate the CNR of regularized sensitivity encoding (SENSE) acquisitions. We propose to implement regularized parallel MRI acquisitions in functional MRI (fMRI) experiments by incorporating the prior from combined segmented echo-planar imaging (EPI) acquisition into SENSE reconstructions. We investigated the impact of regularization on the CNR by performing parametric simulations at various BOLD contrasts, acceleration rates, and sizes of the active brain areas. As quantified by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the simulations suggest that the detection power of SENSE fMRI can be improved by regularized reconstructions, compared to unregularized reconstructions. Human motor and visual fMRI data acquired at different field strengths and array coils also demonstrate that regularized SENSE improves the detection of functionally active brain regions. PMID:16032694
Evanescent planar waveguide detection of biological warfare simulants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sipe, David M.; Schoonmaker, Kenneth P.; Herron, James N.; Mostert, Michael J.
2000-04-01
An evanescent planar waveguide Mark 1.5 instrument was used to detect simulants of biological warfare agents; ovalbumin (OV), MS2 bacteriophage, BG, and Erwinia herbicola (EH). Polyclonal tracer antibodies were labeled with the fluorescent dye, Cy5. Discrete bands of polyclonal capture antibodies were immobilized to a polystyrene planar waveguide with molded integral lenses. An ST-6 CCD camera was used for detection. OV. MS2 and BG were detected in a simultaneous 3 by 3 array; with a total of nine measurements within 6 minutes. EH was analyzed in a separate array. Results were evaluate dat the US Army Joint Field Trials V, at the Dugway Proving Grounds. Over a 10 day period, 32 unknown samples were analyzed daily for each simulant. Detection limits: OV 10 ng/ml, MS2 107 pfu/ml, BG 105 cfu/ml. EH was detectable at 5 X 105 cfu/ml. Overall false positives were 3.0 percent. Therefore, the Mark 1.5 instrument, with a parallel array of detectors, evanescent flourescent excitation, and CCD imaging provides for rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of biological warfare agent simulants.
Santa Clara County Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Demonstration Project
Fred Mitlitsky; Sara Mulhauser; David Chien; Deepak Shukla; David Weingaertner
2009-11-14
The Santa Clara County Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (PSOFC) project demonstrated the technical viability of pre-commercial PSOFC technology at the County 911 Communications headquarters, as well as the input fuel flexibility of the PSOFC. PSOFC operation was demonstrated on natural gas and denatured ethanol. The Santa Clara County Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (PSOFC) project goals were to acquire, site, and demonstrate the technical viability of a pre-commercial PSOFC technology at the County 911 Communications headquarters. Additional goals included educating local permit approval authorities, and other governmental entities about PSOFC technology, existing fuel cell standards and specific code requirements. The project demonstrated the Bloom Energy (BE) PSOFC technology in grid parallel mode, delivering a minimum 15 kW over 8760 operational hours. The PSOFC system demonstrated greater than 81% electricity availability and 41% electrical efficiency (LHV net AC), providing reliable, stable power to a critical, sensitive 911 communications system that serves geographical boundaries of the entire Santa Clara County. The project also demonstrated input fuel flexibility. BE developed and demonstrated the capability to run its prototype PSOFC system on ethanol. BE designed the hardware necessary to deliver ethanol into its existing PSOFC system. Operational parameters were determined for running the system on ethanol, natural gas (NG), and a combination of both. Required modeling was performed to determine viable operational regimes and regimes where coking could occur.
Radiation from mixed multi-planar wire arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Esaulov, A. A.; Chuvatin, A. S.; Weller, M. E.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Shrestha, I.; Keim, S. F.; Stafford, A.; Coverdale, C. A.; Apruzese, J. P.; Ouart, N. D.; Giuliani, J. L.
2014-03-01
The study of radiation from different wire materials in wire array Z-pinch plasma is a very challenging topic because it is almost impossible to separate different plasmas at the stagnation. A new approach is suggested based on planar wire array (PWA) loads to assess this problem. Multi-planar wire arrays are implemented that consist of few planes, each with the same number of wires and masses but from different wire materials, arranged in parallel rows. In particular, the experimental results obtained with triple PWAs (TPWAs) on the UNR Zebra generator are analyzed with Wire Ablation Dynamics Model, non-local thermodynamic equilibrium kinetic model, and 2D radiation magneto-hydrodynamic to illustrate this new approach. In TPWAs, two wire planes were from mid-atomic-number wire material and another plane was from alloyed Al, placed either in the middle or at the edge of the TPWA. Spatial and temporal properties of K-shell Al and L-shell Cu radiations were analyzed and compared from these two configurations of TPWAs. Advantages of the new approach are demonstrated and future work is discussed.
Radiation from mixed multi-planar wire arrays
Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Esaulov, A. A.; Weller, M. E.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Shrestha, I.; Keim, S. F.; Stafford, A.; Chuvatin, A. S.; Coverdale, C. A.; Apruzese, J. P.; Ouart, N. D.; Giuliani, J. L.
2014-03-15
The study of radiation from different wire materials in wire array Z-pinch plasma is a very challenging topic because it is almost impossible to separate different plasmas at the stagnation. A new approach is suggested based on planar wire array (PWA) loads to assess this problem. Multi-planar wire arrays are implemented that consist of few planes, each with the same number of wires and masses but from different wire materials, arranged in parallel rows. In particular, the experimental results obtained with triple PWAs (TPWAs) on the UNR Zebra generator are analyzed with Wire Ablation Dynamics Model, non-local thermodynamic equilibrium kinetic model, and 2D radiation magneto-hydrodynamic to illustrate this new approach. In TPWAs, two wire planes were from mid-atomic-number wire material and another plane was from alloyed Al, placed either in the middle or at the edge of the TPWA. Spatial and temporal properties of K-shell Al and L-shell Cu radiations were analyzed and compared from these two configurations of TPWAs. Advantages of the new approach are demonstrated and future work is discussed.
3D Building Adjustment Using Planar Half-Space Regularities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wichmann, A.; Kada, M.
2014-08-01
The automatic reconstruction of 3D building models with complex roof shapes is still an active area of research. In this paper we present a novel approach for local and global regularization rules that integrate building knowledge to improve both the shape of the reconstructed building models and their accuracy. These rules are defined for the planar half-space representation of our models and emphasize the presence of symmetries, co-planarity, parallelism, and orthogonality. By not adjusting building features separately (e.g. ridges, eaves, etc.) we are able to handle more than one feature at a time without considering dependencies between different features. Additionally, we present a new method for reconstructing buildings with concave outlines using half-spaces that avoids the need to partition the models into smaller convex parts. We present both extensions in the context of a fully automatic feature-driven 3D building reconstruction approach where the whole process is suited for processing large urban areas with complex building roofs.
Planar Quasiparticle Tunneling Spectroscopy of Bi2212 Single Crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aubin, H.; Pugel, D. E.; Greene, L. H.; Jian, S.; Hinks, D.
2000-03-01
Using techniques of quasi-particle planar tunneling spectroscopy, the in-plane density of states of the high-Tc superconductor Bi2212 is investigated. The 0.3 mm thick single crystals used allow tunneling into crystal faces of various crystallographic orientations, and a newly-developed technique allows for exposing these crystal faces with little damage. The planar tunnel junction is fabricated with the insulating dielectric CaF2 as the tunnel barrier and a noble metal counter-electrode. The tunneling conductance measured with the current injected perpendicular to the copper-oxide planes differs substantially from that measured with the current injected parallel to the planes. The in-plane tunneling density of states exhibits a zero-bias conductance peak which is attributed to the formation of an Andreev bound state, as predicted to occur at the ab-plane oriented surface of a d-wave superconductor. Tunneling spectra as a function of temperature, magnetic field and crystallographic orientation will be presented. These results will be discussed and compared with those obtained previously on YBCO-based tunnel junctions. This research was supported by the NSF-STCS (NSF-DMR 91-20000). DGH acknowledges support by the US DOE (W-31-109-ENG-38).
On linear area embedding of planar graphs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dolev, D.; Trickey, H.
1981-09-01
Planar embedding with minimal area of graphs on an integer grid is one of the major issues in VLSI. Valiant (V) gave an algorithm to construct a planar embedding for trees in linear area; he also proved that there are planar graphs that require quadratic area. An algorithm to embed outerplanar graphs in linear area is given. This algorithm is extended to work for every planar graph that has the following property: for every vertex there exists a path of length less than K to the exterior face, where K is a constant. Finally, finding a minimal embedding area is shown to be NP-complete for forests, and hence more general types of graphs.
Non-planar microfabricated gas chromatography column
Lewis, Patrick R.; Wheeler, David R.
2007-09-25
A non-planar microfabricated gas chromatography column comprises a planar substrate having a plurality of through holes, a top lid and a bottom lid bonded to opposite surfaces of the planar substrate, and inlet and outlet ports for injection of a sample gas and elution of separated analytes. A plurality of such planar substrates can be aligned and stacked to provide a longer column length having a small footprint. Furthermore, two or more separate channels can enable multi-channel or multi-dimensional gas chromatography. The through holes preferably have a circular cross section and can be coated with a stationary phase material or packed with a porous packing material. Importantly, uniform stationary phase coatings can be obtained and band broadening can be minimized with the circular channels. A heating or cooling element can be disposed on at least one of the lids to enable temperature programming of the column.
Novel Planar and Integrated Microwave Antennas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saed, Mohammad A.
2000-01-01
This project dealt with design, analysis, and testing of new types of planar and integrated antennas operating in the microwave frequency range. The following was accomplished during this project period:
Uncertainty analysis of planar laser-induced fluorescence measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tavoularis, Stavros; Vanderwel, Christina
2014-11-01
We present a thorough analysis of the uncertainty of the planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) method. We consider the measurement of concentration maps in cross-sections parallel to and normal to the axis of a slender plume containing Rhodamine 6G as a passive scalar tracer and transported by a turbulent shear flow. In particular, we identify two previously unexplored sources of error contributed by non-uniformity of the concentration across the laser sheet and by secondary fluorescence. We propose new methods to evaluate and correct for these sources of error and demonstrate that the corrected concentration measurements accurately determined the injected dye mass flow rate of the plume in the far field. Supported by NSERC.
IC-compatible microspectrometer using a planar imaging diffraction grating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grabarnik, S.; Emadi, A.; Wu, H.; De Graaf, G.; Vdovin, G.; Wolffenbuttel, R. F.
2008-04-01
The design and performance of a highly miniaturized spectrometer fabricated using MEMS technologies are reported in this paper. Operation is based on an imaging diffraction grating. Minimizing fabrication complexity and assembly of the micromachined optical and electronic parts of the microspectrometer implies a planar design. It consists of two parallel glass plates, which contain all spectrograph components, including slit and diffraction grating, and can be fabricated on a single glass wafer with standard lithography. A simple analytical model for determining spectral resolution from device dimensions was developed and used for finding the optimal parameters of a miniaturized spectrometer as a compromise between size and spectral resolution. The fabricated spectrometer is very compact (11 × 1.5 × 3 mm 3), which allowed mounting directly on top of an image sensor. The realized spectrometer features a 6 nm spectral resolution over a 100 nm operating range from 600 nm to 700 nm, which was tested using a Ne light source.
Vlasov treatment of coherent synchrotron radiation from arbitrary planar orbits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Warnock, R.; Bassi, G.; Ellison, J. A.
2006-03-01
We study the influence of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) on particle bunches traveling on arbitrary planar orbits between parallel conducting plates which represent the vacuum chamber. Our goal is to follow the time evolution of the phase space distribution by solving the Vlasov-Maxwell equations in the time domain. This should provide simulations with lower numerical noise than the macro-particle method, and allow one to study such issues as emittance degradation and microbunching due to CSR in bunch compressors. The fields excited by the bunch are computed in the laboratory frame from a new formula that leads to much simpler computations than usual methods. The nonlinear Vlasov equation, formulated in the interaction picture, is integrated in the beam frame by approximating the Perron-Frobenius operator. For application to a chicane bunch compressor we take steps to deal with energy chirp.
Multipoint observations of planar interplanetary magnetic field structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Farrugia, C. J.; Lepping, R. P.; Dunlop, M. W.; Elliott, S.; Balogh, A.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Freeman, M. P.; Sibeck, D. G.
1991-01-01
IMF data made on November 1, 1984, by three spatially well-separated spacecraft in the solar wind are presented. The IMF measured by each of the spacecraft is found to consist of a multiplicity of structures within which the magnetic field varies in parallel planes. The orientations of these planes at the three spacecraft locations are similar. The planes are inclined at a large angle to the ecliptic, and they lie almost perpendicular to the nominal Parker spiral direction in the ecliptic. Intercomparisons of the measurements at the various spacecraft show that the IMF features at one spacecraft are clearly reproduced at another, with time delays required for signal propagation. From these time delays and the mutual separations of the spacecraft, it is inferred that the structures are convecting with the ambient flow. Simultaneous observations made downstream of the bow shock in the magnetosheath reveal that the magnetosheath magnetic field, too, is planar.
The Planar Gauge in a New Formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leibbrandt, George; Nyeo, Su-Long
The main feature of the planar gauge, apart from the decoupling of ghosts, is the nontransversality of the Yang-Mills self-energy with the resulting appearance of a pincer diagram in the Ward identity. We employ the general prescription for axial-type gauges, recently developed by one of the authors, to check this Ward identity and derive BRS-invariant counterterms in the planar gauge.
The planar gauge in a new formalism
Leibbrandt, G.; Nyeo, S.L.
1988-09-01
The main feature of the planar gauge, apart from the decoupling of ghosts, is the nontransversatility of the Yang-Mills self-energy with the resulting appearance of a pincer diagram in the Ward identity. The authors employ the general prescription for axial-type gauges, recently developed by one of the authors, to check this Ward identity and derive BRS-invariant counterterms in the planar gauge.
Improved double planar probe data analysis technique.
Ghim Kim, Young-Chul; Hershkowitz, Noah
2009-03-01
Plasma electron number density and ion number density in a dc multidipole weakly collisional Ar plasma are measured with a single planar Langmuir probe and a double planar probe, respectively. A factor of two discrepancy between the two density measurements is resolved by applying Sheridan's empirical formula [T. E. Sheridan, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3084 (2000)] for sheath expansion to the double probe data. PMID:19334917
Optimized planar micro-optic concentrator design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Jui-Wen; Su, Yu-Chung; Lee, Sheng-Yi
2016-06-01
The structural parameters of a planar micro-optic concentrator are optimized. First, the direct-loss is minimized by altering the relationship between the f-number of the lenslet, the angle of the micro-structure and the ray paths in the planar micro-optic concentrator. Second, the size of the micro-structure is made equal to the mini-blur size of the lenslet in order to reduce the non-direct loss. Last, the f-number and the entrance pupil diameter of the lenslet are determined by the relationships among the f-number, the entrance pupil diameter, the optical efficiency, the acceptance angle and the thickness of the planar micro-optic concentrator from the optical simulation results. For an optimized planar micro-optic concentrator with a 300× concentration, the f-number of the lenslet, the EPD of the lenslet, the angle of the micro-structure and the thickness of the planar micro-optic concentrator are 2.6, 1.49 mm, 120 degrees and 5.97 mm, respectively. For micro-structures 28.95 μm, 51.24 μm and 88.29 μm in size, the half acceptance angles of the planar micro-optic concentrator are 0.115 degrees, 0.275 degrees and 0.55 degrees, respectively, and the optical efficiencies are 81.23%, 71.92% and 50.02%, respectively.
Electron-optical systems for planar gyrotrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manuilov, V. N.; Zaslavsky, V. Yu.; Ginzburg, N. S.; Glyavin, M. Yu.; Kuftin, A. N.; Zotova, I. V.
2014-02-01
The methodology of designing an electron-optical system (EOS) that forms sheet helical electron beams (HEBs) for high-power gyrotrons is developed. As an example, we consider the EOS for a 140-GHz gyrotron operated at the first harmonic of the cyclotron frequency with an accelerating voltage of 50 kV, a beam current of 30 A, and a magnetic field compression of 36. A planar geometry of the magnetron-injection gun (MIG) is suggested. The adiabatic theory of MIGs modified for the planar geometry of EOS is used for preliminary estimations of MIG parameters. Numerical simulation of the HEB properties based on the CST STUDIO SUITE 3D code is performed to find the optimal configuration of a planar MIG. The accuracy of the calculated data is discussed. The main factors that affect the HEB quality are considered. It is shown that a sheet HEB with a pitch-factor of 1.3 and velocity spread not exceeding 25%-30% can be formed; this is quite acceptable for high-efficiency operation of modern gyrotrons. Calculation of the beam-wave interaction with the obtained HEB parameters proved that a high output power with a sufficiently good efficiency of about 20% can be reached. Simulations show the feasibility of the experimental implementation of a novel planar EOS and its use in short-wave planar gyrotrons. The developed technique can be used for the study and optimization of planar gyrotrons of different frequency bands and power levels.
Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.
Liebrock, Lorie M.; Duggan, David Patrick
2009-10-01
This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hall, Lawrence O.; Bennett, Bonnie H.; Tello, Ivan
1994-01-01
A parallel version of CLIPS 5.1 has been developed to run on Intel Hypercubes. The user interface is the same as that for CLIPS with some added commands to allow for parallel calls. A complete version of CLIPS runs on each node of the hypercube. The system has been instrumented to display the time spent in the match, recognize, and act cycles on each node. Only rule-level parallelism is supported. Parallel commands enable the assertion and retraction of facts to/from remote nodes working memory. Parallel CLIPS was used to implement a knowledge-based command, control, communications, and intelligence (C(sup 3)I) system to demonstrate the fusion of high-level, disparate sources. We discuss the nature of the information fusion problem, our approach, and implementation. Parallel CLIPS has also be used to run several benchmark parallel knowledge bases such as one to set up a cafeteria. Results show from running Parallel CLIPS with parallel knowledge base partitions indicate that significant speed increases, including superlinear in some cases, are possible.
Deshmane, Anagha; Gulani, Vikas; Griswold, Mark A.; Seiberlich, Nicole
2015-01-01
Parallel imaging is a robust method for accelerating the acquisition of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, and has made possible many new applications of MR imaging. Parallel imaging works by acquiring a reduced amount of k-space data with an array of receiver coils. These undersampled data can be acquired more quickly, but the undersampling leads to aliased images. One of several parallel imaging algorithms can then be used to reconstruct artifact-free images from either the aliased images (SENSE-type reconstruction) or from the under-sampled data (GRAPPA-type reconstruction). The advantages of parallel imaging in a clinical setting include faster image acquisition, which can be used, for instance, to shorten breath-hold times resulting in fewer motion-corrupted examinations. In this article the basic concepts behind parallel imaging are introduced. The relationship between undersampling and aliasing is discussed and two commonly used parallel imaging methods, SENSE and GRAPPA, are explained in detail. Examples of artifacts arising from parallel imaging are shown and ways to detect and mitigate these artifacts are described. Finally, several current applications of parallel imaging are presented and recent advancements and promising research in parallel imaging are briefly reviewed. PMID:22696125
Eclipse Parallel Tools Platform
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2005-02-18
Designing and developing parallel programs is an inherently complex task. Developers must choose from the many parallel architectures and programming paradigms that are available, and face a plethora of tools that are required to execute, debug, and analyze parallel programs i these environments. Few, if any, of these tools provide any degree of integration, or indeed any commonality in their user interfaces at all. This further complicates the parallel developer's task, hampering software engineering practices,more » and ultimately reducing productivity. One consequence of this complexity is that best practice in parallel application development has not advanced to the same degree as more traditional programming methodologies. The result is that there is currently no open-source, industry-strength platform that provides a highly integrated environment specifically designed for parallel application development. Eclipse is a universal tool-hosting platform that is designed to providing a robust, full-featured, commercial-quality, industry platform for the development of highly integrated tools. It provides a wide range of core services for tool integration that allow tool producers to concentrate on their tool technology rather than on platform specific issues. The Eclipse Integrated Development Environment is an open-source project that is supported by over 70 organizations, including IBM, Intel and HP. The Eclipse Parallel Tools Platform (PTP) plug-in extends the Eclipse framwork by providing support for a rich set of parallel programming languages and paradigms, and a core infrastructure for the integration of a wide variety of parallel tools. The first version of the PTP is a prototype that only provides minimal functionality for parallel tool integration of a wide variety of parallel tools. The first version of the PTP is a prototype that only provides minimal functionality for parallel tool integration, support for a small number of parallel architectures
Parallel scheduling algorithms
Dekel, E.; Sahni, S.
1983-01-01
Parallel algorithms are given for scheduling problems such as scheduling to minimize the number of tardy jobs, job sequencing with deadlines, scheduling to minimize earliness and tardiness penalties, channel assignment, and minimizing the mean finish time. The shared memory model of parallel computers is used to obtain fast algorithms. 26 references.
Integration of planar transformer and/or planar inductor with power switches in power converter
Chen, Kanghua; Ahmed, Sayeed; Zhu, Lizhi
2007-10-30
A power converter integrates at least one planar transformer comprising a multi-layer transformer substrate and/or at least one planar inductor comprising a multi-layer inductor substrate with a number of power semiconductor switches physically and thermally coupled to a heat sink via one or more multi-layer switch substrates.
Massively parallel mathematical sieves
Montry, G.R.
1989-01-01
The Sieve of Eratosthenes is a well-known algorithm for finding all prime numbers in a given subset of integers. A parallel version of the Sieve is described that produces computational speedups over 800 on a hypercube with 1,024 processing elements for problems of fixed size. Computational speedups as high as 980 are achieved when the problem size per processor is fixed. The method of parallelization generalizes to other sieves and will be efficient on any ensemble architecture. We investigate two highly parallel sieves using scattered decomposition and compare their performance on a hypercube multiprocessor. A comparison of different parallelization techniques for the sieve illustrates the trade-offs necessary in the design and implementation of massively parallel algorithms for large ensemble computers.
Not Available
1991-10-23
An account of the Caltech Concurrent Computation Program (C{sup 3}P), a five year project that focused on answering the question: Can parallel computers be used to do large-scale scientific computations '' As the title indicates, the question is answered in the affirmative, by implementing numerous scientific applications on real parallel computers and doing computations that produced new scientific results. In the process of doing so, C{sup 3}P helped design and build several new computers, designed and implemented basic system software, developed algorithms for frequently used mathematical computations on massively parallel machines, devised performance models and measured the performance of many computers, and created a high performance computing facility based exclusively on parallel computers. While the initial focus of C{sup 3}P was the hypercube architecture developed by C. Seitz, many of the methods developed and lessons learned have been applied successfully on other massively parallel architectures.
A parametric study of heat transfer within a planar thermosyphon
Clarksean, R.; Phillips, G.
1993-08-01
The results of a parametric study for a planar thermosyphon are presented. The thermosyphon consists of a ``U-shaped`` geometry, with the center portion of the ``U`` being a solid. The outer legs of the ``U`` are the flow channels. One of the outer surfaces of a channel was held at a constant temperature. The remaining outer surfaces were considered adiabatic. The configuration described is characteristic of passive systems for radioactive waste storage and reactor safety systems. Parameters which were varied included the channel geometry, the thermal conductivity of the solid, and the Ra number. The average Nu number for the constant temperature surface decreased as the inlet channel width decreased, and as the thermal conductivity of the solid increased. A modified Ra number, defined as the Ra number divided by the length to gap ratio for the outer channel, is used in the paper. At low values of the modified Ra number, there is over an order of magnitude decrease in the average Vu number for a change in the inlet channel width from 1.0 to 0.25. But as the value of the modified Ra number increases for any inlet channel width, the average Vu number results approached those of vertical parallel plates, independent of the inlet channel width and the thermal conductivity of the solid. The vertical parallel plate data is approached because the boundary layer flow near the heated plate is unaffected by the surface of the intervening solid.
Characteristics of electrohydrodynamic roll structures in laminar planar Couette flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kourmatzis, Agisilaos; Shrimpton, John S.
2016-02-01
The behaviour of an incompressible dielectric liquid subjected to a laminar planar Couette flow with unipolar charge injection is investigated numerically in two dimensions. The computations show new morphological characteristics of roll structures that arise in this forced electro-convection problem. The charge and velocity magnitude distributions between the two parallel electrodes are discussed as a function of the top wall velocity and the EHD Rayleigh number, T for the case of strong charge injection. A wide enough parametric space is investigated such that the observed EHD roll structures progress through three regimes. These regimes are defined by the presence of a single or double-roll free convective structure as observed elsewhere (Vazquez et al 2008 J. Phys. D 41 175303), a sheared or stretched roll structure, and finally by a regime where the perpendicular velocity gradient is sufficient to prevent the generation of a roll. These three regimes have been delineated as a function of the wall to ionic drift velocity {{U}\\text{W}}/κ E , and the T number. In the stretched regime, an increase in {{U}\\text{W}}/κ E can reduce charge and momentum fluctuations whilst in parallel de-stratify charge in the region between the two electrodes. The stretched roll regime is also characterised by a substantial influence of {{U}\\text{W}}/κ E on the steady development time, however in the traditional non-stretched roll structure regime, no influence of {{U}\\text{W}}/κ E on the development time is noted.
Parallel nearest neighbor calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trease, Harold
We are just starting to parallelize the nearest neighbor portion of our free-Lagrange code. Our implementation of the nearest neighbor reconnection algorithm has not been parallelizable (i.e., we just flip one connection at a time). In this paper we consider what sort of nearest neighbor algorithms lend themselves to being parallelized. For example, the construction of the Voronoi mesh can be parallelized, but the construction of the Delaunay mesh (dual to the Voronoi mesh) cannot because of degenerate connections. We will show our most recent attempt to tessellate space with triangles or tetrahedrons with a new nearest neighbor construction algorithm called DAM (Dial-A-Mesh). This method has the characteristics of a parallel algorithm and produces a better tessellation of space than the Delaunay mesh. Parallel processing is becoming an everyday reality for us at Los Alamos. Our current production machines are Cray YMPs with 8 processors that can run independently or combined to work on one job. We are also exploring massive parallelism through the use of two 64K processor Connection Machines (CM2), where all the processors run in lock step mode. The effective application of 3-D computer models requires the use of parallel processing to achieve reasonable "turn around" times for our calculations.
Bilingual parallel programming
Foster, I.; Overbeek, R.
1990-01-01
Numerous experiments have demonstrated that computationally intensive algorithms support adequate parallelism to exploit the potential of large parallel machines. Yet successful parallel implementations of serious applications are rare. The limiting factor is clearly programming technology. None of the approaches to parallel programming that have been proposed to date -- whether parallelizing compilers, language extensions, or new concurrent languages -- seem to adequately address the central problems of portability, expressiveness, efficiency, and compatibility with existing software. In this paper, we advocate an alternative approach to parallel programming based on what we call bilingual programming. We present evidence that this approach provides and effective solution to parallel programming problems. The key idea in bilingual programming is to construct the upper levels of applications in a high-level language while coding selected low-level components in low-level languages. This approach permits the advantages of a high-level notation (expressiveness, elegance, conciseness) to be obtained without the cost in performance normally associated with high-level approaches. In addition, it provides a natural framework for reusing existing code.
A catastrophe theory model of planar orientation
Wright, M.W.; Deacon, G.E.
2000-06-01
The manipulation of planar objects using linear fences is of interest in robotics and parts feeding applications. The global behavior of such systems can be characterized graphically using Brost's push stability diagram (PSD). Previously, the authors have shown specifically under what conditions this representation undergoes qualitative, topological transitions corresponding to globally distinct behavioral regimes. In this paper, they show that these insights form a united whole when viewed from the perspective of catastrophe theory. The key result is that a planar object being pushed by a fence under the assumption of Coulomb friction is functionally equivalent to a gravitational catastrophe machine. Qualitative changes in global behavior are thus explained as catastrophes as singularities are encountered on a discriminant surface due to smooth changes in parameters. Catastrophe theory thus forms part of a computational theory of planar orientation, the aim of which is to understand such systems and make predictions about their behavior.
Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices.
Zhang, Bao; Meng, Kang-Kang; Yang, Mei-Yin; Edmonds, K W; Zhang, Hao; Cai, Kai-Ming; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Nan; Ji, Yang; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zheng, Hou-Zhi; Wang, Kai-You
2016-01-01
The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the piezo voltage controlled Co2FeAl planar Hall effect devices without the external magnetic field. Our demonstration may lead to the realization of both information storage and processing using ferromagnetic materials. PMID:27329068
Planar quantum squeezing and atom interferometry
He, Q. Y.; Drummond, P. D.; Reid, M. D.; Peng Shiguo
2011-08-15
We obtain a lower bound on the sum of two orthogonal spin component variances in a plane. This gives a planar uncertainty relation which holds even when the Heisenberg relation is not useful. We investigate the asymptotic, large-J limit and derive the properties of the planar quantum squeezed states that saturate this uncertainty relation. These states extend the concept of spin squeezing to any two conjugate spin directions. We show that planar quantum squeezing can be achieved experimentally as the ground state of a Bose-Einstein condensate in two coupled potential wells with a critical attractive interaction. These states reduce interferometric phase noise at all phase angles simultaneously. This is useful for one-shot interferometric phase measurements where the measured phase is completely unknown. Our results can also be used to derive entanglement criteria for multiple spins J at separated sites, with applications in quantum information.
The Feynman Identity for Planar Graphs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
da Costa, G. A. T. F.
2016-08-01
The Feynman identity (FI) of a planar graph relates the Euler polynomial of the graph to an infinite product over the equivalence classes of closed nonperiodic signed cycles in the graph. The main objectives of this paper are to compute the number of equivalence classes of nonperiodic cycles of given length and sign in a planar graph and to interpret the data encoded by the FI in the context of free Lie superalgebras. This solves in the case of planar graphs a problem first raised by Sherman and sets the FI as the denominator identity of a free Lie superalgebra generated from a graph. Other results are obtained. For instance, in connection with zeta functions of graphs.
Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices
Zhang, Bao; Meng, Kang-Kang; Yang, Mei-Yin; Edmonds, K. W.; Zhang, Hao; Cai, Kai-Ming; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Nan; Ji, Yang; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zheng, Hou-Zhi; Wang, Kai-You
2016-01-01
The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the piezo voltage controlled Co2FeAl planar Hall effect devices without the external magnetic field. Our demonstration may lead to the realization of both information storage and processing using ferromagnetic materials. PMID:27329068
Electron-optical systems for planar gyrotrons
Manuilov, V. N.; Zaslavsky, V. Yu.; Ginzburg, N. S.; Glyavin, M. Yu.; Kuftin, A. N.; Zotova, I. V.
2014-02-15
The methodology of designing an electron-optical system (EOS) that forms sheet helical electron beams (HEBs) for high-power gyrotrons is developed. As an example, we consider the EOS for a 140-GHz gyrotron operated at the first harmonic of the cyclotron frequency with an accelerating voltage of 50 kV, a beam current of 30 A, and a magnetic field compression of 36. A planar geometry of the magnetron-injection gun (MIG) is suggested. The adiabatic theory of MIGs modified for the planar geometry of EOS is used for preliminary estimations of MIG parameters. Numerical simulation of the HEB properties based on the CST STUDIO SUITE 3D code is performed to find the optimal configuration of a planar MIG. The accuracy of the calculated data is discussed. The main factors that affect the HEB quality are considered. It is shown that a sheet HEB with a pitch-factor of 1.3 and velocity spread not exceeding 25%–30% can be formed; this is quite acceptable for high-efficiency operation of modern gyrotrons. Calculation of the beam-wave interaction with the obtained HEB parameters proved that a high output power with a sufficiently good efficiency of about 20% can be reached. Simulations show the feasibility of the experimental implementation of a novel planar EOS and its use in short-wave planar gyrotrons. The developed technique can be used for the study and optimization of planar gyrotrons of different frequency bands and power levels.
Tai, H.M.; Saeks, R.
1984-03-01
A relaxation algorithm for solving large-scale system simulation problems in parallel is proposed. The algorithm, which is composed of both a time-step parallel algorithm and a component-wise parallel algorithm, is described. The interconnected nature of the system, which is characterized by the component connection model, is fully exploited by this approach. A technique for finding an optimal number of the time steps is also described. Finally, this algorithm is illustrated via several examples in which the possible trade-offs between the speed-up ratio, efficiency, and waiting time are analyzed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bailey, David (Editor); Barton, John (Editor); Lasinski, Thomas (Editor); Simon, Horst (Editor)
1993-01-01
A new set of benchmarks was developed for the performance evaluation of highly parallel supercomputers. These benchmarks consist of a set of kernels, the 'Parallel Kernels,' and a simulated application benchmark. Together they mimic the computation and data movement characteristics of large scale computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications. The principal distinguishing feature of these benchmarks is their 'pencil and paper' specification - all details of these benchmarks are specified only algorithmically. In this way many of the difficulties associated with conventional benchmarking approaches on highly parallel systems are avoided.
Large-scale planar lightwave circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bidnyk, Serge; Zhang, Hua; Pearson, Matt; Balakrishnan, Ashok
2011-01-01
By leveraging advanced wafer processing and flip-chip bonding techniques, we have succeeded in hybrid integrating a myriad of active optical components, including photodetectors and laser diodes, with our planar lightwave circuit (PLC) platform. We have combined hybrid integration of active components with monolithic integration of other critical functions, such as diffraction gratings, on-chip mirrors, mode-converters, and thermo-optic elements. Further process development has led to the integration of polarization controlling functionality. Most recently, all these technological advancements have been combined to create large-scale planar lightwave circuits that comprise hundreds of optical elements integrated on chips less than a square inch in size.
Laser direct write of planar alkaline microbatteries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arnold, C. B.; Kim, H.; Piqué, A.
We are developing a laser engineering approach to fabricate and optimize alkaline microbatteries in planar geometries. The laser direct-write technique enables multicapability for adding, removing and processing material and provides the ability to pattern complicated structures needed for fabricating complete microbattery assemblies. In this paper, we demonstrate the production of planar zinc-silver oxide alkaline cells under ambient conditions. The microbattery cells exhibit 1.55-V open-circuit potentials, as expected for the battery chemistry, and show a flat discharge behavior under constant-current loads. High capacities of over 450 μAhcm-2 are obtained for 5-mm2 microbatteries.
Planar Inlet Design and Analysis Process (PINDAP)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Slater, John W.; Gruber, Christopher R.
2005-01-01
The Planar Inlet Design and Analysis Process (PINDAP) is a collection of software tools that allow the efficient aerodynamic design and analysis of planar (two-dimensional and axisymmetric) inlets. The aerodynamic analysis is performed using the Wind-US computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program. A major element in PINDAP is a Fortran 90 code named PINDAP that can establish the parametric design of the inlet and efficiently model the geometry and generate the grid for CFD analysis with design changes to those parameters. The use of PINDAP is demonstrated for subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic inlets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2014-10-01
Adam Nelson and Stuart Warriner, from the University of Leeds, talk with Nature Chemistry about their work to develop viable synthetic strategies for preparing new chemical structures in parallel with the identification of desirable biological activity.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rogers, Pat
1972-01-01
Criteria for a reasonable axiomatic system are discussed. A discussion of the historical attempts to prove the independence of Euclids parallel postulate introduces non-Euclidean geometries. Poincare's model for a non-Euclidean geometry is defined and analyzed. (LS)
Foster, I.; Tuecke, S.
1991-12-01
PCN is a system for developing and executing parallel programs. It comprises a high-level programming language, tools for developing and debugging programs in this language, and interfaces to Fortran and C that allow the reuse of existing code in multilingual parallel programs. Programs developed using PCN are portable across many different workstations, networks, and parallel computers. This document provides all the information required to develop parallel programs with the PCN programming system. In includes both tutorial and reference material. It also presents the basic concepts that underly PCN, particularly where these are likely to be unfamiliar to the reader, and provides pointers to other documentation on the PCN language, programming techniques, and tools. PCN is in the public domain. The latest version of both the software and this manual can be obtained by anonymous FTP from Argonne National Laboratory in the directory pub/pcn at info.mcs.anl.gov (c.f. Appendix A).
Partitioning and parallel radiosity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merzouk, S.; Winkler, C.; Paul, J. C.
1996-03-01
This paper proposes a theoretical framework, based on domain subdivision for parallel radiosity. Moreover, three various implementation approaches, taking advantage of partitioning algorithms and global shared memory architecture, are presented.
Simplified Parallel Domain Traversal
Erickson III, David J
2011-01-01
Many data-intensive scientific analysis techniques require global domain traversal, which over the years has been a bottleneck for efficient parallelization across distributed-memory architectures. Inspired by MapReduce and other simplified parallel programming approaches, we have designed DStep, a flexible system that greatly simplifies efficient parallelization of domain traversal techniques at scale. In order to deliver both simplicity to users as well as scalability on HPC platforms, we introduce a novel two-tiered communication architecture for managing and exploiting asynchronous communication loads. We also integrate our design with advanced parallel I/O techniques that operate directly on native simulation output. We demonstrate DStep by performing teleconnection analysis across ensemble runs of terascale atmospheric CO{sub 2} and climate data, and we show scalability results on up to 65,536 IBM BlueGene/P cores.
Scalable parallel communications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maly, K.; Khanna, S.; Overstreet, C. M.; Mukkamala, R.; Zubair, M.; Sekhar, Y. S.; Foudriat, E. C.
1992-01-01
Coarse-grain parallelism in networking (that is, the use of multiple protocol processors running replicated software sending over several physical channels) can be used to provide gigabit communications for a single application. Since parallel network performance is highly dependent on real issues such as hardware properties (e.g., memory speeds and cache hit rates), operating system overhead (e.g., interrupt handling), and protocol performance (e.g., effect of timeouts), we have performed detailed simulations studies of both a bus-based multiprocessor workstation node (based on the Sun Galaxy MP multiprocessor) and a distributed-memory parallel computer node (based on the Touchstone DELTA) to evaluate the behavior of coarse-grain parallelism. Our results indicate: (1) coarse-grain parallelism can deliver multiple 100 Mbps with currently available hardware platforms and existing networking protocols (such as Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and parallel Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) rings); (2) scale-up is near linear in n, the number of protocol processors, and channels (for small n and up to a few hundred Mbps); and (3) since these results are based on existing hardware without specialized devices (except perhaps for some simple modifications of the FDDI boards), this is a low cost solution to providing multiple 100 Mbps on current machines. In addition, from both the performance analysis and the properties of these architectures, we conclude: (1) multiple processors providing identical services and the use of space division multiplexing for the physical channels can provide better reliability than monolithic approaches (it also provides graceful degradation and low-cost load balancing); (2) coarse-grain parallelism supports running several transport protocols in parallel to provide different types of service (for example, one TCP handles small messages for many users, other TCP's running in parallel provide high bandwidth
Performance of a planar virtual sound barrier at the baffled opening of a rectangular cavity.
Wang, Shuping; Tao, Jiancheng; Qiu, Xiaojun
2015-11-01
This paper proposes to reduce the radiation of a sound source inside a cavity through the baffled opening by using an array of loudspeakers and microphones. The system is called a planar virtual sound barrier because it acts like a concrete sound barrier to block the transmission of sound but does not affect light and air circulation. An analytical model for the planar virtual sound barrier is developed based on the modal superposition method to calculate the sound field in and outside a rectangular cavity with a baffled opening. After the model is verified with numerical simulations, a performance study of the planar virtual sound barrier is carried out based on the proposed analytical model, and then the results are confirmed by experiments. The mechanisms of the planar virtual sound barrier are investigated and it is found that three mechanisms work together in the system, including changing the impedance of the primary source, modal control, and modal rearrangement. It is also found that there exist some frequencies where the sound cannot be controlled if all the secondary sources are on the same plane parallel to the opening, and the reasons behind the phenomenon are explained. PMID:26627760
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reif, John H.
1987-01-01
A parallel compression algorithm for the 16,384 processor MPP machine was developed. The serial version of the algorithm can be viewed as a combination of on-line dynamic lossless test compression techniques (which employ simple learning strategies) and vector quantization. These concepts are described. How these concepts are combined to form a new strategy for performing dynamic on-line lossy compression is discussed. Finally, the implementation of this algorithm in a massively parallel fashion on the MPP is discussed.
Continuous parallel coordinates.
Heinrich, Julian; Weiskopf, Daniel
2009-01-01
Typical scientific data is represented on a grid with appropriate interpolation or approximation schemes,defined on a continuous domain. The visualization of such data in parallel coordinates may reveal patterns latently contained in the data and thus can improve the understanding of multidimensional relations. In this paper, we adopt the concept of continuous scatterplots for the visualization of spatially continuous input data to derive a density model for parallel coordinates. Based on the point-line duality between scatterplots and parallel coordinates, we propose a mathematical model that maps density from a continuous scatterplot to parallel coordinates and present different algorithms for both numerical and analytical computation of the resulting density field. In addition, we show how the 2-D model can be used to successively construct continuous parallel coordinates with an arbitrary number of dimensions. Since continuous parallel coordinates interpolate data values within grid cells, a scalable and dense visualization is achieved, which will be demonstrated for typical multi-variate scientific data. PMID:19834230
COMPUTER ANALYSIS OF PLANAR GAMMA CAMERA IMAGES
COMPUTER ANALYSIS OF PLANAR GAMMA CAMERA IMAGES
T Martonen1 and J Schroeter2
1Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 USA and 2Curriculum in Toxicology, Unive...
Experimental investigation of planar ion traps
Pearson, C. E.; Leibrandt, D. R.; Bakr, W. S.; Mallard, W. J.; Brown, K. R.; Chuang, I. L.
2006-03-15
Chiaverini et al. [Quantum Inf. Comput. 5, 419 (2005)] recently suggested a linear Paul trap geometry for ion-trap quantum computation that places all of the electrodes in a plane. Such planar ion traps are compatible with modern semiconductor fabrication techniques and can be scaled to make compact, many-zone traps. In this paper we present an experimental realization of planar ion traps using electrodes on a printed circuit board to trap linear chains of tens of charged particles of 0.44 {mu}m diameter in a vacuum of 15 Pa (10{sup -1} torr). With these traps we address concerns about the low trap depth of planar ion traps and develop control electrode layouts for moving ions between trap zones without facing some of the technical difficulties involved in an atomic ion-trap experiment. Specifically, we use a trap with 36 zones (77 electrodes) arranged in a cross to demonstrate loading from a traditional four-rod linear Paul trap, linear ion movement, splitting and joining of ion chains, and movement of ions through intersections. We further propose an additional dc-biased electrode above the trap which increases the trap depth dramatically, and a planar ion-trap geometry that generates a two-dimensional lattice of point Paul traps.
Duality analysis on random planar lattices.
Ohzeki, Masayuki; Fujii, Keisuke
2012-11-01
The conventional duality analysis is employed to identify a location of a critical point on a uniform lattice without any disorder in its structure. In the present study, we deal with the random planar lattice, which consists of the randomized structure based on the square lattice. We introduce the uniformly random modification by the bond dilution and contraction on a part of the unit square. The random planar lattice includes the triangular and hexagonal lattices in extreme cases of a parameter to control the structure. A modern duality analysis fashion with real-space renormalization is found to be available for estimating the location of the critical points with a wide range of the randomness parameter. As a simple test bed, we demonstrate that our method indeed gives several critical points for the cases of the Ising and Potts models and the bond-percolation thresholds on the random planar lattice. Our method leads to not only such an extension of the duality analyses on the classical statistical mechanics but also a fascinating result associated with optimal error thresholds for a class of quantum error correction code, the surface code on the random planar lattice, which is known as a skillful technique to protect the quantum state. PMID:23214752
A Planar Calculus for Infinite Index Subfactors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Penneys, David
2013-05-01
We develop an analog of Jones' planar calculus for II 1-factor bimodules with arbitrary left and right von Neumann dimension. We generalize to bimodules Burns' results on rotations and extremality for infinite index subfactors. These results are obtained without Jones' basic construction and the resulting Jones projections.
Duality analysis on random planar lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohzeki, Masayuki; Fujii, Keisuke
2012-11-01
The conventional duality analysis is employed to identify a location of a critical point on a uniform lattice without any disorder in its structure. In the present study, we deal with the random planar lattice, which consists of the randomized structure based on the square lattice. We introduce the uniformly random modification by the bond dilution and contraction on a part of the unit square. The random planar lattice includes the triangular and hexagonal lattices in extreme cases of a parameter to control the structure. A modern duality analysis fashion with real-space renormalization is found to be available for estimating the location of the critical points with a wide range of the randomness parameter. As a simple test bed, we demonstrate that our method indeed gives several critical points for the cases of the Ising and Potts models and the bond-percolation thresholds on the random planar lattice. Our method leads to not only such an extension of the duality analyses on the classical statistical mechanics but also a fascinating result associated with optimal error thresholds for a class of quantum error correction code, the surface code on the random planar lattice, which is known as a skillful technique to protect the quantum state.
Piecewise-Planar Parabolic Reflectarray Antenna
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hodges, Richard; Zawadzki, Mark
2009-01-01
The figure shows a dual-beam, dualpolarization Ku-band antenna, the reflector of which comprises an assembly of small reflectarrays arranged in a piecewise- planar approximation of a parabolic reflector surface. The specific antenna design is intended to satisfy requirements for a wide-swath spaceborne radar altimeter, but the general principle of piecewise-planar reflectarray approximation of a parabolic reflector also offers advantages for other applications in which there are requirements for wideswath antennas that can be stowed compactly and that perform equally in both horizontal and vertical polarizations. The main advantages of using flat (e.g., reflectarray) antenna surfaces instead of paraboloidal or parabolic surfaces is that the flat ones can be fabricated at lower cost and can be stowed and deployed more easily. Heretofore, reflectarray antennas have typically been designed to reside on single planar surfaces and to emulate the focusing properties of, variously, paraboloidal (dish) or parabolic antennas. In the present case, one approximates the nominal parabolic shape by concatenating several flat pieces, while still exploiting the principles of the planar reflectarray for each piece. Prior to the conception of the present design, the use of a single large reflectarray was considered, but then abandoned when it was found that the directional and gain properties of the antenna would be noticeably different for the horizontal and vertical polarizations.
Helical axis stellarator with noninterlocking planar coils
Reiman, A.; Boozer, A.H.
1984-03-06
The present invention generates stellarator fields having favorable properties (magnetic well and large rotational transform) by a simple coil system consisting only of unlinked planar non-circular coils. At large rotational transform toroidal effects on magnetic well and rotational transform are small and can be ignored. We do so herein, specializing in straight helical systems.
"Finite part" electric and magnetic stored energies for planar antennas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cockrell, C. R.
1981-01-01
A pair of formulas representing the time-average "finite part" electric and magnetic stored energies for planar antennas are derived. It is also shown that the asymptotic reciprocal relationship between quality factor and relative bandwidth exists for planar antennas.
Parallel time integration software
2014-07-01
This package implements an optimal-scaling multigrid solver for the (non) linear systems that arise from the discretization of problems with evolutionary behavior. Typically, solution algorithms for evolution equations are based on a time-marching approach, solving sequentially for one time step after the other. Parallelism in these traditional time-integrarion techniques is limited to spatial parallelism. However, current trends in computer architectures are leading twards system with more, but not faster. processors. Therefore, faster compute speeds must come from greater parallelism. One approach to achieve parallelism in time is with multigrid, but extending classical multigrid methods for elliptic poerators to this setting is a significant achievement. In this software, we implement a non-intrusive, optimal-scaling time-parallel method based on multigrid reduction techniques. The examples in the package demonstrate optimality of our multigrid-reduction-in-time algorithm (MGRIT) for solving a variety of parabolic equations in two and three sparial dimensions. These examples can also be used to show that MGRIT can achieve significant speedup in comparison to sequential time marching on modern architectures.
Parallel time integration software
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2014-07-01
This package implements an optimal-scaling multigrid solver for the (non) linear systems that arise from the discretization of problems with evolutionary behavior. Typically, solution algorithms for evolution equations are based on a time-marching approach, solving sequentially for one time step after the other. Parallelism in these traditional time-integrarion techniques is limited to spatial parallelism. However, current trends in computer architectures are leading twards system with more, but not faster. processors. Therefore, faster compute speeds mustmore » come from greater parallelism. One approach to achieve parallelism in time is with multigrid, but extending classical multigrid methods for elliptic poerators to this setting is a significant achievement. In this software, we implement a non-intrusive, optimal-scaling time-parallel method based on multigrid reduction techniques. The examples in the package demonstrate optimality of our multigrid-reduction-in-time algorithm (MGRIT) for solving a variety of parabolic equations in two and three sparial dimensions. These examples can also be used to show that MGRIT can achieve significant speedup in comparison to sequential time marching on modern architectures.« less
Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Skogen, Erik J; Vawter, Gregory A
2014-05-20
An optical sampler includes a first and second 1.times.n optical beam splitters splitting an input optical sampling signal and an optical analog input signal into n parallel channels, respectively, a plurality of optical delay elements providing n parallel delayed input optical sampling signals, n photodiodes converting the n parallel optical analog input signals into n respective electrical output signals, and n optical modulators modulating the input optical sampling signal or the optical analog input signal by the respective electrical output signals, and providing n successive optical samples of the optical analog input signal. A plurality of output photodiodes and eADCs convert the n successive optical samples to n successive digital samples. The optical modulator may be a photodiode interconnected Mach-Zehnder Modulator. A method of sampling the optical analog input signal is disclosed.
Coarrars for Parallel Processing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Snyder, W. Van
2011-01-01
The design of the Coarray feature of Fortran 2008 was guided by answering the question "What is the smallest change required to convert Fortran to a robust and efficient parallel language." Two fundamental issues that any parallel programming model must address are work distribution and data distribution. In order to coordinate work distribution and data distribution, methods for communication and synchronization must be provided. Although originally designed for Fortran, the Coarray paradigm has stimulated development in other languages. X10, Chapel, UPC, Titanium, and class libraries being developed for C++ have the same conceptual framework.
Speeding up parallel processing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Denning, Peter J.
1988-01-01
In 1967 Amdahl expressed doubts about the ultimate utility of multiprocessors. The formulation, now called Amdahl's law, became part of the computing folklore and has inspired much skepticism about the ability of the current generation of massively parallel processors to efficiently deliver all their computing power to programs. The widely publicized recent results of a group at Sandia National Laboratory, which showed speedup on a 1024 node hypercube of over 500 for three fixed size problems and over 1000 for three scalable problems, have convincingly challenged this bit of folklore and have given new impetus to parallel scientific computing.
Programming parallel vision algorithms
Shapiro, L.G.
1988-01-01
Computer vision requires the processing of large volumes of data and requires parallel architectures and algorithms to be useful in real-time, industrial applications. The INSIGHT dataflow language was designed to allow encoding of vision algorithms at all levels of the computer vision paradigm. INSIGHT programs, which are relational in nature, can be translated into a graph structure that represents an architecture for solving a particular vision problem or a configuration of a reconfigurable computational network. The authors consider here INSIGHT programs that produce a parallel net architecture for solving low-, mid-, and high-level vision tasks.
Bailey, David H.
2009-11-15
The NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) are a suite of parallel computer performance benchmarks. They were originally developed at the NASA Ames Research Center in 1991 to assess high-end parallel supercomputers. Although they are no longer used as widely as they once were for comparing high-end system performance, they continue to be studied and analyzed a great deal in the high-performance computing community. The acronym 'NAS' originally stood for the Numerical Aeronautical Simulation Program at NASA Ames. The name of this organization was subsequently changed to the Numerical Aerospace Simulation Program, and more recently to the NASA Advanced Supercomputing Center, although the acronym remains 'NAS.' The developers of the original NPB suite were David H. Bailey, Eric Barszcz, John Barton, David Browning, Russell Carter, LeoDagum, Rod Fatoohi, Samuel Fineberg, Paul Frederickson, Thomas Lasinski, Rob Schreiber, Horst Simon, V. Venkatakrishnan and Sisira Weeratunga. The original NAS Parallel Benchmarks consisted of eight individual benchmark problems, each of which focused on some aspect of scientific computing. The principal focus was in computational aerophysics, although most of these benchmarks have much broader relevance, since in a much larger sense they are typical of many real-world scientific computing applications. The NPB suite grew out of the need for a more rational procedure to select new supercomputers for acquisition by NASA. The emergence of commercially available highly parallel computer systems in the late 1980s offered an attractive alternative to parallel vector supercomputers that had been the mainstay of high-end scientific computing. However, the introduction of highly parallel systems was accompanied by a regrettable level of hype, not only on the part of the commercial vendors but even, in some cases, by scientists using the systems. As a result, it was difficult to discern whether the new systems offered any fundamental performance advantage
Adaptive parallel logic networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martinez, Tony R.; Vidal, Jacques J.
1988-01-01
Adaptive, self-organizing concurrent systems (ASOCS) that combine self-organization with massive parallelism for such applications as adaptive logic devices, robotics, process control, and system malfunction management, are presently discussed. In ASOCS, an adaptive network composed of many simple computing elements operating in combinational and asynchronous fashion is used and problems are specified by presenting if-then rules to the system in the form of Boolean conjunctions. During data processing, which is a different operational phase from adaptation, the network acts as a parallel hardware circuit.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Denning, Peter J.; Tichy, Walter F.
1990-01-01
Among the highly parallel computing architectures required for advanced scientific computation, those designated 'MIMD' and 'SIMD' have yielded the best results to date. The present development status evaluation of such architectures shown neither to have attained a decisive advantage in most near-homogeneous problems' treatment; in the cases of problems involving numerous dissimilar parts, however, such currently speculative architectures as 'neural networks' or 'data flow' machines may be entailed. Data flow computers are the most practical form of MIMD fine-grained parallel computers yet conceived; they automatically solve the problem of assigning virtual processors to the real processors in the machine.
Constant field gradient planar cavity structure
Kang, Yoon W.; Kustom, R.L.
1997-12-01
A cavity structure is described having at least two opposing planar housing members spaced apart to accommodate the passage of a particle beam through the structure between the members. Each of the housing members have a plurality of serially aligned hollows defined therein, and also passages, formed in the members, which interconnect serially adjacent hollows to provide communication between the hollows. The opposing planar housing members are spaced and aligned such that the hollows in one member cooperate with corresponding hollows in the other member to form a plurality of resonant cavities aligned along the particle beam within the cavity structure. To facilitate the obtaining of a constant field gradient within the cavity structure, the passages are configured so as to be incrementally narrower in the direction of travel of the particle beam. In addition, the spacing distance between the opposing housing members is configured to be incrementally smaller in the direction of travel of the beam.
Constant field gradient planar coupled cavity structure
Kang, Yoon W.; Kustom, Robert L.
1999-01-01
A cavity structure having at least two opposing planar housing members spaced apart to accommodate the passage of a particle beam through the structure between the members. Each of the housing members have a plurality of serially aligned hollows defined therein, and also passages, formed in the members, which interconnect serially adjacent hollows to provide communication between the hollows. The opposing planar housing members are spaced and aligned such that the hollows in one member cooperate with corresponding hollows in the other member to form a plurality of resonant cavities aligned along the particle beam within the cavity structure. To facilitate the obtaining of a constant field gradient within the cavity structure, the passages are configured so as to be incrementally narrower in the direction of travel of the particle beam. In addition, the spacing distance between the opposing housing members is configured to be incrementally smaller in the direction of travel of the beam.
Regular shock refraction in planar ideal MHD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delmont, P.; Keppens, R.
2010-03-01
We study the classical problem of planar shock refraction at an oblique density discontinuity, separating two gases at rest, in planar ideal (magneto)hydrodynamics. In the hydrodynamical case, 3 signals arise and the interface becomes Richtmyer-Meshkov unstable due to vorticity deposition on the shocked contact. In the magnetohydrodynamical case, on the other hand, when the normal component of the magnetic field does not vanish, 5 signals will arise. The interface then typically remains stable, since the Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions in ideal MHD do not allow for vorticity deposition on a contact discontinuity. We present an exact Riemann solver based solution strategy to describe the initial self similar refraction phase. Using grid-adaptive MHD simulations, we show that after reflection from the top wall, the interface remains stable.
Stable planar mesoscopic photonic crystal cavities.
Magno, G; Monmayrant, A; Grande, M; Lozes-Dupuy, F; Gauthier-Lafaye, O; Calò, G; Petruzzelli, V
2014-07-15
Mesoscopic self-collimation (MSC) in mesoscopic photonic crystals with high reflectivity is exploited to realize a novel high Q-factor cavity by means of mesoscopic PhC planar mirrors. These mirrors efficiently confine a mode inside a planar Fabry-Perot-like cavity, that results from a beam focusing effect that stabilizes the cavity even for small beam sizes, resembling the focusing behavior of curved mirrors. Moreover, they show an improved reflectivity with respect to their standard distributed Bragg reflector counterparts that allows higher compactness. A Q-factor higher than 10⁴ has been achieved for an optimized 5-period-long mirror cavity. The optimization of the Q-factor and the performances in terms of energy storage, field enhancement, and confinement are detailed. PMID:25121692
Constant field gradient planar coupled cavity structure
Kang, Y.W.; Kustom, R.L.
1999-07-27
A cavity structure is disclosed having at least two opposing planar housing members spaced apart to accommodate the passage of a particle beam through the structure between the members. Each of the housing members have a plurality of serially aligned hollows defined therein, and also passages, formed in the members, which interconnect serially adjacent hollows to provide communication between the hollows. The opposing planar housing members are spaced and aligned such that the hollows in one member cooperate with corresponding hollows in the other member to form a plurality of resonant cavities aligned along the particle beam within the cavity structure. To facilitate the obtaining of a constant field gradient within the cavity structure, the passages are configured so as to be incrementally narrower in the direction of travel of the particle beam. In addition, the spacing distance between the opposing housing members is configured to be incrementally smaller in the direction of travel of the beam. 16 figs.
Sampath, Rahul S; Sundar, Hari; Veerapaneni, Shravan
2010-01-01
We present fast adaptive parallel algorithms to compute the sum of N Gaussians at N points. Direct sequential computation of this sum would take O(N{sup 2}) time. The parallel time complexity estimates for our algorithms are O(N/n{sub p}) for uniform point distributions and O( (N/n{sub p}) log (N/n{sub p}) + n{sub p}log n{sub p}) for non-uniform distributions using n{sub p} CPUs. We incorporate a plane-wave representation of the Gaussian kernel which permits 'diagonal translation'. We use parallel octrees and a new scheme for translating the plane-waves to efficiently handle non-uniform distributions. Computing the transform to six-digit accuracy at 120 billion points took approximately 140 seconds using 4096 cores on the Jaguar supercomputer. Our implementation is 'kernel-independent' and can handle other 'Gaussian-type' kernels even when explicit analytic expression for the kernel is not known. These algorithms form a new class of core computational machinery for solving parabolic PDEs on massively parallel architectures.
Foster, I.; Tuecke, S.
1993-01-01
PCN is a system for developing and executing parallel programs. It comprises a high-level programming language, tools for developing and debugging programs in this language, and interfaces to Fortran and Cthat allow the reuse of existing code in multilingual parallel programs. Programs developed using PCN are portable across many different workstations, networks, and parallel computers. This document provides all the information required to develop parallel programs with the PCN programming system. It includes both tutorial and reference material. It also presents the basic concepts that underlie PCN, particularly where these are likely to be unfamiliar to the reader, and provides pointers to other documentation on the PCN language, programming techniques, and tools. PCN is in the public domain. The latest version of both the software and this manual can be obtained by anonymous ftp from Argonne National Laboratory in the directory pub/pcn at info.mcs. ani.gov (cf. Appendix A). This version of this document describes PCN version 2.0, a major revision of the PCN programming system. It supersedes earlier versions of this report.
Parallel Multigrid Equation Solver
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2001-09-07
Prometheus is a fully parallel multigrid equation solver for matrices that arise in unstructured grid finite element applications. It includes a geometric and an algebraic multigrid method and has solved problems of up to 76 mullion degrees of feedom, problems in linear elasticity on the ASCI blue pacific and ASCI red machines.
Parallel Dislocation Simulator
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2006-10-30
ParaDiS is software capable of simulating the motion, evolution, and interaction of dislocation networks in single crystals using massively parallel computer architectures. The software is capable of outputting the stress-strain response of a single crystal whose plastic deformation is controlled by the dislocation processes.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2004-10-21
This is a total energy electronic structure code using Local Density Approximation (LDA) of the density funtional theory. It uses the plane wave as the wave function basis set. It can sue both the norm conserving pseudopotentials and the ultra soft pseudopotentials. It can relax the atomic positions according to the total energy. It is a parallel code using MP1.
NAS Parallel Benchmarks Results
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Subhash, Saini; Bailey, David H.; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
The NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) were developed in 1991 at NASA Ames Research Center to study the performance of parallel supercomputers. The eight benchmark problems are specified in a pencil and paper fashion i.e. the complete details of the problem to be solved are given in a technical document, and except for a few restrictions, benchmarkers are free to select the language constructs and implementation techniques best suited for a particular system. In this paper, we present new NPB performance results for the following systems: (a) Parallel-Vector Processors: Cray C90, Cray T'90 and Fujitsu VPP500; (b) Highly Parallel Processors: Cray T3D, IBM SP2 and IBM SP-TN2 (Thin Nodes 2); (c) Symmetric Multiprocessing Processors: Convex Exemplar SPP1000, Cray J90, DEC Alpha Server 8400 5/300, and SGI Power Challenge XL. We also present sustained performance per dollar for Class B LU, SP and BT benchmarks. We also mention NAS future plans of NPB.
High performance parallel architectures
Anderson, R.E. )
1989-09-01
In this paper the author describes current high performance parallel computer architectures. A taxonomy is presented to show computer architecture from the user programmer's point-of-view. The effects of the taxonomy upon the programming model are described. Some current architectures are described with respect to the taxonomy. Finally, some predictions about future systems are presented. 5 refs., 1 fig.
Parallel hierarchical global illumination
Snell, Q.O.
1997-10-08
Solving the global illumination problem is equivalent to determining the intensity of every wavelength of light in all directions at every point in a given scene. The complexity of the problem has led researchers to use approximation methods for solving the problem on serial computers. Rather than using an approximation method, such as backward ray tracing or radiosity, the authors have chosen to solve the Rendering Equation by direct simulation of light transport from the light sources. This paper presents an algorithm that solves the Rendering Equation to any desired accuracy, and can be run in parallel on distributed memory or shared memory computer systems with excellent scaling properties. It appears superior in both speed and physical correctness to recent published methods involving bidirectional ray tracing or hybrid treatments of diffuse and specular surfaces. Like progressive radiosity methods, it dynamically refines the geometry decomposition where required, but does so without the excessive storage requirements for ray histories. The algorithm, called Photon, produces a scene which converges to the global illumination solution. This amounts to a huge task for a 1997-vintage serial computer, but using the power of a parallel supercomputer significantly reduces the time required to generate a solution. Currently, Photon can be run on most parallel environments from a shared memory multiprocessor to a parallel supercomputer, as well as on clusters of heterogeneous workstations.
Optical parallel selectionist systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caulfield, H. John
1993-01-01
There are at least two major classes of computers in nature and technology: connectionist and selectionist. A subset of connectionist systems (Turing Machines) dominates modern computing, although another subset (Neural Networks) is growing rapidly. Selectionist machines have unique capabilities which should allow them to do truly creative operations. It is possible to make a parallel optical selectionist system using methods describes in this paper.
Parallel hierarchical radiosity rendering
Carter, M.
1993-07-01
In this dissertation, the step-by-step development of a scalable parallel hierarchical radiosity renderer is documented. First, a new look is taken at the traditional radiosity equation, and a new form is presented in which the matrix of linear system coefficients is transformed into a symmetric matrix, thereby simplifying the problem and enabling a new solution technique to be applied. Next, the state-of-the-art hierarchical radiosity methods are examined for their suitability to parallel implementation, and scalability. Significant enhancements are also discovered which both improve their theoretical foundations and improve the images they generate. The resultant hierarchical radiosity algorithm is then examined for sources of parallelism, and for an architectural mapping. Several architectural mappings are discussed. A few key algorithmic changes are suggested during the process of making the algorithm parallel. Next, the performance, efficiency, and scalability of the algorithm are analyzed. The dissertation closes with a discussion of several ideas which have the potential to further enhance the hierarchical radiosity method, or provide an entirely new forum for the application of hierarchical methods.
Planar graphical models which are easy
Chertkov, Michael; Chernyak, Vladimir
2009-01-01
We describe a rich family of binary variables statistical mechanics models on planar graphs which are equivalent to Gaussian Grassmann Graphical models (free fermions). Calculation of partition function (weighted counting) in the models is easy (of polynomial complexity) as reduced to evaluation of determinants of matrixes linear in the number of variables. In particular, this family of models covers Holographic Algorithms of Valiant and extends on the Gauge Transformations discussed in our previous works.
Circular dichroism of planar chiral magnetic metamaterials.
Decker, M; Klein, M W; Wegener, M; Linden, S
2007-04-01
We propose, fabricate, and study a double-layer chiral planar metamaterial that exhibits pronounced circular dichroism at near-infrared wavelengths. The antisymmetric oscillation modes of the two coupled layers allow local magnetic-dipole moments and enhanced polarization effects compared with similar single-layer systems where only electric-dipole moments occur. Experiment and rigorous theoretical calculations are in good agreement. PMID:17339960
Planar Poincare Charts For Polarization Calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tedjojuwono, Ken K.; Hunter, William W.; Ocheltree, Stewart L.
1993-01-01
New type of stereographic projection of Poincare sphere makes flat charts for use in graphical analyses of polarization-transformation characteristics of optical components or systems. Charts used to predict polarization state at output of birefringent material for any arbitrary input polarization state. Analyses of some polarization-dependent optical components or systems reduced to simple graphical procedures. Planar charts more practical to use and store.
Experiments in Planar Multipole Ion Traps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clark, Rob; Burke, Timothy; Green, Dylan
2016-05-01
We present the design and demonstration of multipole ion traps based on concentric rings. We have developed both surface-electrode and layered planar trap designs which enable one to null the quadratic term in the electric potential to a high degree. Experiments demonstrating frequency upconversion of an applied signal demonstrate the nonlinear dynamics present in the trap. Applications include quantum chaos, ultracold chemistry, and, potentially, mass spectrometry. We acknowledge support from the Research Corporation for Science Advancement and from The Citadel Foundation.
Planar Tunneling Spectroscopy of Graphene Nanodevices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Joel I.-Jan; Bretheau, Landry; Pisoni, Riccardo; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo
2-D Van-der-Waals mesoscopic physics have seen a rapid development in the last 10 years, with new materials each year added to the toolbox. Stacking them like Lego enables the combination of their individual electronic properties. In particular, hexagonal boron nitride, which is an insulator, gives the possibility to perform planar (2-D to 2-D) tunneling spectroscopy within this type of heterostructures. Unlike standard transport measurements, tunneling spectroscopy enables to probe the electronic properties in the energy domain. Moreover, since planar tunneling probes a large area of the system, global quantum features such as quantum Hall effect, superconducting proximity effect or quantum confinement can be investigated. In this talk, we will present implementation of heterostructures consisting of graphene, hexagonal boron nitride, and graphite, fabricated for planar tunneling spectroscopy. In order to reveal the intrinsic properties of materials, the fabrication scheme aims at preserving the pristine nature of the 2-DEGS as well as minimizing the doping introduced by external probes. As a demonstration, measurements of these devices in normal states, high magnetic field environment, and induced superconducting state will be presented.
Spontaneous Planar Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hadidjojo, Jeremy; Lubensky, David
Recent progress in animal development has highlighted the central role played by planar cell polarity (PCP) in epithelial tissue morphogenesis. Through PCP, cells have the ability to collectively polarize in the plane of the epithelium by localizing morphogenetic proteins along a certain axis. This allows direction-dependent modulation of tissue mechanical properties that can translate into the formation of complex, non-rotationally invariant shapes. Recent experimental observations[1] show that cells, in addition to being planar-polarized, can also spontaneously develop planar chirality, perhaps in the effort of making yet more complex shapes that are reflection non-invariant. In this talk we will present our work in characterizing general mechanisms that can lead to spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in cells. We decompose interfacial concentration of polarity proteins in a hexagonal cell packing into irreducible representations. We find that in the case of polar concentration distributions, a chiral state can only be reached from a secondary instability after the cells are polarized. However in the case of nematic distributions, we show that a finite-amplitude (subcritical, or ``first-order'') nematic transition can send the system from disorder directly to a chiral state. In addition, we find that perturbing the system by stretching the hexagonal packing enables direct (supercritical, or ``second-order'') chiral transition in the nematic case. Finally, we do a Landau expansion to study competition between stretch-induced chirality and the tendency towards a non-chiral state in packings that have retained the full 6-fold symmetry.
Recirculating Planar Magnetron Modeling and Experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franzi, Matthew; Gilgenbach, Ronald; Hoff, Brad; French, Dave; Lau, Y. Y.
2011-10-01
We present simulations and initial experimental results of a new class of crossed field device: Recirculating Planar Magnetrons (RPM). Two geometries of RPM are being explored: 1) Dual planar-magnetrons connected by a recirculating section with axial magnetic field and transverse electric field, and 2) Planar cathode and anode-cavity rings with radial magnetic field and axial electric field. These RPMs have numerous advantages for high power microwave generation by virtue of larger area cathodes and anodes. The axial B-field RPM can be configured in either the conventional or inverted (faster startup) configuration. Two and three-dimensional EM PIC simulations show rapid electron spoke formation and microwave oscillation in pi-mode. Smoothbore prototype axial-B RPM experiments are underway using the MELBA accelerator at parameters of -300 kV, 1-20 kA and pulselengths of 0.5-1 microsecond. Implementation and operation of the first RPM slow wave structure, operating at 1GHz, will be discussed. Research supported by AFOSR, AFRL, L-3 Communications, and Northrop Grumman. Done...processed 1830 records...17:52:57 Beginning APS data extraction...17:52:57
Planar geometry inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knapp, Daniel R.
2015-03-01
In the classic gridded inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion reactor, ion bombardment of the grid leads to heating, thermionic electron emission, significant power loss, and ultimately melting of the grid. Gridless IEC devices have sought to overcome these limitations. Klein reported a gridless device in which ions are circulated as a linear beam in an electrostatic analogue of an optical resonator. To overcome limits of stored ions due to space charge effects at the turning regions, the device employed multiple overlapping traps. The work reported here seeks to further increase the turning region space in a gridless trap by employing a planar geometry. Ion trapping in the planar device was examined by simulating trajectories of 2H+ ions with SIMION 8.1 software. Simulations were carried out using multiple potentials as in Klein's device and for a single potential trap as a planar analogue of the anharmonic ion trap. Scattering by background gas was simulated using a hard sphere collision model, and the results suggested the device will require operation at low pressure with a separate ion source.
Fast planar segmentation of depth images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Javan Hemmat, Hani; Pourtaherian, Arash; Bondarev, Egor; de With, Peter H. N.
2015-03-01
One of the major challenges for applications dealing with the 3D concept is the real-time execution of the algorithms. Besides this, for the indoor environments, perceiving the geometry of surrounding structures plays a prominent role in terms of application performance. Since indoor structures mainly consist of planar surfaces, fast and accurate detection of such features has a crucial impact on quality and functionality of the 3D applications, e.g. decreasing model size (decimation), enhancing localization, mapping, and semantic reconstruction. The available planar-segmentation algorithms are mostly developed using surface normals and/or curvatures. Therefore, they are computationally expensive and challenging for real-time performance. In this paper, we introduce a fast planar-segmentation method for depth images avoiding surface normal calculations. Firstly, the proposed method searches for 3D edges in a depth image and finds the lines between identified edges. Secondly, it merges all the points on each pair of intersecting lines into a plane. Finally, various enhancements (e.g. filtering) are applied to improve the segmentation quality. The proposed algorithm is capable of handling VGA-resolution depth images at a 6 FPS frame-rate with a single-thread implementation. Furthermore, due to the multi-threaded design of the algorithm, we achieve a factor of 10 speedup by deploying a GPU implementation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franco, Sebastián; Galloni, Daniele; Penante, Brenda; Wen, Congkao
2015-06-01
We initiate a systematic study of non-planar on-shell diagrams in SYM and develop powerful technology for doing so. We introduce canonical variables generalizing face variables, which make the d log form of the on-shell form explicit. We make significant progress towards a general classification of arbitrary on-shell diagrams by means of two classes of combinatorial objects: generalized matching and matroid polytopes. We propose a boundary measurement that connects general on-shell diagrams to the Grassmannian. Our proposal exhibits two important and non-trivial properties: positivity in the planar case and it matches the combinatorial description of the diagrams in terms of generalized matroid polytopes. Interestingly, non-planar diagrams exhibit novel phenomena, such as the emergence of constraints on Plücker coordinates beyond Plücker relations when deleting edges, which are neatly captured by the generalized matching and matroid polytopes. This behavior is tied to the existence of a new type of poles in the on-shell form at which combinations of Plücker coordinates vanish. Finally, we introduce a prescription, applicable beyond the MHV case, for writing the on-shell form as a function of minors directly from the graph.
Osborne, Glenn C.; Esaulov, Andrey A.; Apruzese, John P.; Shrestha, I.; Kantsyrev, Victor Leonidovich; Shlyaptseva, V.; Coverdale, Christine Anne; Rudakov, Leonid I.; Williamson, K. M.; Deeney, Christopher; Ouart, Nicholas D.; Weller, M. E.; Safronova, Alla S.
2010-07-01
The planar wire array research on Zebra at UNR that started in 2005 continues experiments with new types of planar loads with results for consideration and comprehensive analysis [see, for example, Kantsyrev et al, HEDP 5, 115 (2009)]. The detailed studies of radiative properties of such loads are important and spectroscopy and imaging constitute a very valuable and informative diagnostic tool. The set of theoretical codes is implemented which provides non-LTE kinetics, wire ablation dynamic, and MHD modeling. This talk is based on the results of new recent experiments with planar wire arrays on Zebra at UNR. We start with results on radiative properties of a uniform single planar wire array (SPWA) from alloyed Al wires and move to combined triple planar wire arrays (TPWA) made from two materials, Cu and Al. Such combined TPWA includes three planar wire rows that are parallel to each other and made of either Cu or Al alloyed wires. Three different configurations (Al/Cu/Al, Cu/Al/Cu, and Cu/Cu/Al) are considered and compared with each other, and with the results from SPWA of the same materials. X-ray time-gated and time integrated pinhole images and spectra are analyzed together with bolometer, PCD, and XRD measurements, and optical images. Emphasis is made on the radiative properties and temporal and spatial evolution of plasma parameters of such two-component plasmas. The opacity effects are considered and the important question of what causes K-shell Al lines to be optically thin in combined TPWAs is addressed. In conclusion, the new findings from studying multi-planar wire array implosions are summarized and their input to Z-pinch radiation physics is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mor, Shahar; Torres-Costa, Vicente; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.; Abdulhalim, I.
2010-09-01
The ability of liquid crystals (LCs) to flow and fill nanopores assists in using them for infiltration into porous nanophotonic structures such as nanostructured porous silicon (nanoPS). The reflectivity spectra at normal incidence from periodic nanostructured nanoPS filters infiltrated with nematic LC is found to exhibit polarization dependence. This is experimental evidence that the LC molecules in the nanoPS matrix are aligned such that an effective anisotropy exists parallel to the substrate plane. From the theoretical fit the preferred configuration was found to be the planar-polar geometry which is shown to be biaxial.
Mohan, Priyanka; Goldbart, Paul M; Narayanan, Rajesh; Toner, John; Vojta, Thomas
2010-08-20
We show that layered quenched randomness in planar magnets leads to an unusual intermediate phase between the conventional ferromagnetic low-temperature and paramagnetic high-temperature phases. In this intermediate phase, which is part of the Griffiths region, the spin-wave stiffness perpendicular to the random layers displays anomalous scaling behavior, with a continuously variable anomalous exponent, while the magnetization and the stiffness parallel to the layers both remain finite. Analogous results hold for superfluids and superconductors. We study the two phase transitions into the anomalous elastic phase, and we discuss the universality of these results, and implications of finite sample size as well as possible experiments. PMID:20868107
Spin-on-dielectrics: Planarity modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smythe, John A.
2009-12-01
The idea of replacing chemical vapor deposition (CVD), plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), and sputter oxide materials, among others, with a spin-on approach has been of interest in the Semiconductor industry for the last two decades. The technique draws from the planarizing nature of a liquid when applied to surface topography. The method, initially known as Spin-On-Glass (SOG), has more recently taken on the more general term Spin-On-Dielectric (SOD). Prior works have addressed issues including, crack resistance, etch rate, resistance to photo resist stripping conditions, film stress, defectivity and planarity. Planarity characteristics have not been addressed with the rigor needed to predict the interaction between variable topography in terms of the degree of local and global planarization. In this work, experimental results for film thickness as a function of viscosity and spin speed are presented. Experimental results for percent trench fill are presented for different trench depth, width and coating thickness. Models have been developed using level-set two-phase flow and Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) interface tracking methods as implemented in COMSOL(TM) to describe the movement of an initial interface in time. Droplet spreading and capillary rise cases were used to validate the level-set two-phase flow application mode treatment of variable viscosity, surface tension and contact angle. This work presents model results for film thinning on 200 mm wafer and local planarization characteristics at the nanometer scale of present day semiconductor device features. The film thinning model is based on a set of equations derived to represent flow, evaporation and diffusion for variable rotational velocity, solvent concentration and initial profile. Model results for full wafer thinning include the effects of variable evaporation with radius on final film height profile given differing initial profiles. A simple and a complex evaporation
Little, J.J.; Poggio, T.; Gamble, E.B. Jr.
1988-01-01
Computer algorithms have been developed for early vision processes that give separate cues to the distance from the viewer of three-dimensional surfaces, their shape, and their material properties. The MIT Vision Machine is a computer system that integrates several early vision modules to achieve high-performance recognition and navigation in unstructured environments. It is also an experimental environment for theoretical progress in early vision algorithms, their parallel implementation, and their integration. The Vision Machine consists of a movable, two-camera Eye-Head input device and an 8K Connection Machine. The authors have developed and implemented several parallel early vision algorithms that compute edge detection, stereopsis, motion, texture, and surface color in close to real time. The integration stage, based on coupled Markov random field models, leads to a cartoon-like map of the discontinuities in the scene, with partial labeling of the brightness edges in terms of their physical origin.
Parallel Subconvolution Filtering Architectures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gray, Andrew A.
2003-01-01
These architectures are based on methods of vector processing and the discrete-Fourier-transform/inverse-discrete- Fourier-transform (DFT-IDFT) overlap-and-save method, combined with time-block separation of digital filters into frequency-domain subfilters implemented by use of sub-convolutions. The parallel-processing method implemented in these architectures enables the use of relatively small DFT-IDFT pairs, while filter tap lengths are theoretically unlimited. The size of a DFT-IDFT pair is determined by the desired reduction in processing rate, rather than on the order of the filter that one seeks to implement. The emphasis in this report is on those aspects of the underlying theory and design rules that promote computational efficiency, parallel processing at reduced data rates, and simplification of the designs of very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits needed to implement high-order filters and correlators.
Parallel Anisotropic Tetrahedral Adaptation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Park, Michael A.; Darmofal, David L.
2008-01-01
An adaptive method that robustly produces high aspect ratio tetrahedra to a general 3D metric specification without introducing hybrid semi-structured regions is presented. The elemental operators and higher-level logic is described with their respective domain-decomposed parallelizations. An anisotropic tetrahedral grid adaptation scheme is demonstrated for 1000-1 stretching for a simple cube geometry. This form of adaptation is applicable to more complex domain boundaries via a cut-cell approach as demonstrated by a parallel 3D supersonic simulation of a complex fighter aircraft. To avoid the assumptions and approximations required to form a metric to specify adaptation, an approach is introduced that directly evaluates interpolation error. The grid is adapted to reduce and equidistribute this interpolation error calculation without the use of an intervening anisotropic metric. Direct interpolation error adaptation is illustrated for 1D and 3D domains.
Homology, convergence and parallelism.
Ghiselin, Michael T
2016-01-01
Homology is a relation of correspondence between parts of parts of larger wholes. It is used when tracking objects of interest through space and time and in the context of explanatory historical narratives. Homologues can be traced through a genealogical nexus back to a common ancestral precursor. Homology being a transitive relation, homologues remain homologous however much they may come to differ. Analogy is a relationship of correspondence between parts of members of classes having no relationship of common ancestry. Although homology is often treated as an alternative to convergence, the latter is not a kind of correspondence: rather, it is one of a class of processes that also includes divergence and parallelism. These often give rise to misleading appearances (homoplasies). Parallelism can be particularly hard to detect, especially when not accompanied by divergences in some parts of the body. PMID:26598721
Wald, Ingo; Ize, Santiago
2015-07-28
Parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. One example embodiment is a method for parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. The method includes a first act of dividing a grid into n distinct grid portions, where n is the number of processors available for populating the grid. The method also includes acts of dividing a plurality of objects into n distinct sets of objects, assigning a distinct set of objects to each processor such that each processor determines by which distinct grid portion(s) each object in its distinct set of objects is at least partially bounded, and assigning a distinct grid portion to each processor such that each processor populates its distinct grid portion with any objects that were previously determined to be at least partially bounded by its distinct grid portion.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gryphon, Coranth D.; Miller, Mark D.
1991-01-01
PCLIPS (Parallel CLIPS) is a set of extensions to the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) expert system language. PCLIPS is intended to provide an environment for the development of more complex, extensive expert systems. Multiple CLIPS expert systems are now capable of running simultaneously on separate processors, or separate machines, thus dramatically increasing the scope of solvable tasks within the expert systems. As a tool for parallel processing, PCLIPS allows for an expert system to add to its fact-base information generated by other expert systems, thus allowing systems to assist each other in solving a complex problem. This allows individual expert systems to be more compact and efficient, and thus run faster or on smaller machines.
Ultrascalable petaflop parallel supercomputer
Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Chiu, George; Cipolla, Thomas M.; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Hall, Shawn; Haring, Rudolf A.; Heidelberger, Philip; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Ohmacht, Martin; Salapura, Valentina; Sugavanam, Krishnan; Takken, Todd
2010-07-20
A massively parallel supercomputer of petaOPS-scale includes node architectures based upon System-On-a-Chip technology, where each processing node comprises a single Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) having up to four processing elements. The ASIC nodes are interconnected by multiple independent networks that optimally maximize the throughput of packet communications between nodes with minimal latency. The multiple networks may include three high-speed networks for parallel algorithm message passing including a Torus, collective network, and a Global Asynchronous network that provides global barrier and notification functions. These multiple independent networks may be collaboratively or independently utilized according to the needs or phases of an algorithm for optimizing algorithm processing performance. The use of a DMA engine is provided to facilitate message passing among the nodes without the expenditure of processing resources at the node.
Parallel multilevel preconditioners
Bramble, J.H.; Pasciak, J.E.; Xu, Jinchao.
1989-01-01
In this paper, we shall report on some techniques for the development of preconditioners for the discrete systems which arise in the approximation of solutions to elliptic boundary value problems. Here we shall only state the resulting theorems. It has been demonstrated that preconditioned iteration techniques often lead to the most computationally effective algorithms for the solution of the large algebraic systems corresponding to boundary value problems in two and three dimensional Euclidean space. The use of preconditioned iteration will become even more important on computers with parallel architecture. This paper discusses an approach for developing completely parallel multilevel preconditioners. In order to illustrate the resulting algorithms, we shall describe the simplest application of the technique to a model elliptic problem.
Krogh, M.; Painter, J.; Hansen, C.
1996-10-01
Sphere rendering is an important method for visualizing molecular dynamics data. This paper presents a parallel algorithm that is almost 90 times faster than current graphics workstations. To render extremely large data sets and large images, the algorithm uses the MIMD features of the supercomputers to divide up the data, render independent partial images, and then finally composite the multiple partial images using an optimal method. The algorithm and performance results are presented for the CM-5 and the M.
Xyce parallel electronic simulator.
Keiter, Eric Richard; Mei, Ting; Russo, Thomas V.; Rankin, Eric Lamont; Schiek, Richard Louis; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Fixel, Deborah A.; Coffey, Todd Stirling; Pawlowski, Roger Patrick; Santarelli, Keith R.
2010-05-01
This document is a reference guide to the Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator, and is a companion document to the Xyce Users' Guide. The focus of this document is (to the extent possible) exhaustively list device parameters, solver options, parser options, and other usage details of Xyce. This document is not intended to be a tutorial. Users who are new to circuit simulation are better served by the Xyce Users' Guide.
Groh, E.F.; Lennox, D.H.
1963-04-23
This invention is concerned with a rigid assembly of parallel plates in which keyways are stamped out along the edges of the plates and a self-retaining key is inserted into aligned keyways. Spacers having similar keyways are included between adjacent plates. The entire assembly is locked into a rigid structure by fastening only the outermost plates to the ends of the keys. (AEC)
Adaptive parallel logic networks
Martinez, T.R.; Vidal, J.J.
1988-02-01
This paper presents a novel class of special purpose processors referred to as ASOCS (adaptive self-organizing concurrent systems). Intended applications include adaptive logic devices, robotics, process control, system malfunction management, and in general, applications of logic reasoning. ASOCS combines massive parallelism with self-organization to attain a distributed mechanism for adaptation. The ASOCS approach is based on an adaptive network composed of many simple computing elements (nodes) which operate in a combinational and asynchronous fashion. Problem specification (programming) is obtained by presenting to the system if-then rules expressed as Boolean conjunctions. New rules are added incrementally. In the current model, when conflicts occur, precedence is given to the most recent inputs. With each rule, desired network response is simply presented to the system, following which the network adjusts itself to maintain consistency and parsimony of representation. Data processing and adaptation form two separate phases of operation. During processing, the network acts as a parallel hardware circuit. Control of the adaptive process is distributed among the network nodes and efficiently exploits parallelism.
Linear quadratic optimal controller for cable-driven parallel robots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdolshah, Saeed; Shojaei Barjuei, Erfan
2015-12-01
In recent years, various cable-driven parallel robots have been investigated for their advantages, such as low structural weight, high acceleration, and large work-space, over serial and conventional parallel systems. However, the use of cables lowers the stiffness of these robots, which in turn may decrease motion accuracy. A linear quadratic (LQ) optimal controller can provide all the states of a system for the feedback, such as position and velocity. Thus, the application of such an optimal controller in cable-driven parallel robots can result in more efficient and accurate motion compared to the performance of classical controllers such as the proportional- integral-derivative controller. This paper presents an approach to apply the LQ optimal controller on cable-driven parallel robots. To employ the optimal control theory, the static and dynamic modeling of a 3-DOF planar cable-driven parallel robot (Feriba-3) is developed. The synthesis of the LQ optimal control is described, and the significant experimental results are presented and discussed.
PTK7 regulates myosin II activity to orient planar polarity in the mammalian auditory epithelium
Lee, Jianyi; Andreeva, Anna; Sipe, Conor W.; Liu, Lixia; Cheng, Amy; Lu, Xiaowei
2012-01-01
Summary Background Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) signaling is a key regulator of epithelial morphogenesis, including neural tube closure and the orientation of inner ear sensory hair cells, and is mediated by a conserved noncanonical Wnt pathway. Ptk7 is a novel vertebrate-specific regulator of PCP, yet the mechanisms by which Ptk7 regulates mammalian epithelial PCP remain poorly understood. Results Here we show that, in the mammalian auditory epithelium, Ptk7 is not required for membrane recruitment of Dishevelled 2; Ptk7 and Frizzled3/Frizzled6 receptors act in parallel and have opposing effects on hair cell PCP. Mosaic analysis identified a requirement of Ptk7 in neighboring supporting cells for hair cell PCP. Ptk7 and the noncanonical Wnt pathway differentially regulate a contractile myosin II network near the apical surface of supporting cells. We provide evidence that this apical myosin II network exerts polarized contractile tension on hair cells to align their PCP, as revealed by asymmetric junctional recruitment of vinculin, a tension-sensitive actin binding protein. In Ptk7 mutants, compromised myosin II activity resulted in loss of planar asymmetry and reduced junctional localization of vinculin. By contrast, vinculin planar asymmetry and stereociliary bundle orientation were restored in Fz3−/−; Ptk7−/− double mutants. Conclusions These findings suggest that PTK7 acts in conjunction with the noncanonical Wnt pathway to orient epithelial PCP through modulation of myosin-II based contractile tension between supporting cells and hair cells. PMID:22560610
Trajectory optimization using parallel shooting method on parallel computer
Wirthman, D.J.; Park, S.Y.; Vadali, S.R.
1995-03-01
The efficiency of a parallel shooting method on a parallel computer for solving a variety of optimal control guidance problems is studied. Several examples are considered to demonstrate that a speedup of nearly 7 to 1 is achieved with the use of 16 processors. It is suggested that further improvements in performance can be achieved by parallelizing in the state domain. 10 refs.
Conceptual Design for Superconducting Planar Helical Undulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sasaki, Shigemi
2004-05-01
A preliminary consideration was made on a short-period superconducting planar helical undulator (SCHU) for circularly polarized radiation. The SCHU consists of coils and iron poles/yokes. There is no magnetic structure in the horizontal plane of the electron orbit. The SCHU would provide the large horizontal aperture needed to allow injection into the storage ring. The expected field strength is at least 30% larger than that by an APPLE-type permanent-magnet device with the same gap and the same period.
High voltage planar multijunction solar cell
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Evans, J. C., Jr.; Chai, A. T.; Goradia, C. P. (Inventor)
1982-01-01
A high voltage multijunction solar cell is provided wherein a plurality of discrete voltage generating regions or unit cells are formed in a single generally planar semiconductor body. The unit cells are comprised of doped regions of opposite conductivity type separated by a gap or undiffused region. Metal contacts connect adjacent cells together in series so that the output voltages of the individual cells are additive. In some embodiments, doped field regions separated by a overlie the unit cells but the cells may be formed in both faces of the wafer.
Planar graphical models which are easy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chernyak, Vladimir Y.; Chertkov, Michael
2010-11-01
We describe a rich family of binary variables statistical mechanics models on a given planar graph which are equivalent to Gaussian Grassmann graphical models (free fermions) defined on the same graph. Calculation of the partition function (weighted counting) for such a model is easy (of polynomial complexity) as it is reducible to evaluation of a Pfaffian of a matrix of size equal to twice the number of edges in the graph. In particular, this approach touches upon holographic algorithms of Valiant and utilizes the gauge transformations discussed in our previous works.
The cell biology of planar cell polarity
2014-01-01
Planar cell polarity (PCP) refers to the coordinated alignment of cell polarity across the tissue plane. Key to the establishment of PCP is asymmetric partitioning of cortical PCP components and intercellular communication to coordinate polarity between neighboring cells. Recent progress has been made toward understanding how protein transport, endocytosis, and intercellular interactions contribute to asymmetric PCP protein localization. Additionally, the functions of gradients and mechanical forces as global cues that bias PCP orientation are beginning to be elucidated. Together, these findings are shedding light on how global cues integrate with local cell interactions to organize cellular polarity at the tissue level. PMID:25349257
Theoretical analysis of planar pulse microwiggler
Qing-Xiang Liu |; Yong Xu
1995-12-31
The Magnetic field distributions of a planar pulse microwiggler are studied analytically and numerically. Exact solutions of two-dimensional magnetic fields are derived, which show that along the electron axis the fields have a variation close enough to a sine wave. We also investigate wiggler field errors due to machining tolerance and effects of the field errors on trajectories of electron with the help numerical simulations. The results are critical for successful operation of CAEP compact free-electron laser experiment under preparation.
Optical planar waveguide for cell counting
LeBlanc, John; Mueller, Andrew J.; Prinz, Adrian; Butte, Manish J.
2012-01-01
Low cost counting of cells has medical applications in screening, military medicine, disaster medicine, and rural healthcare. In this report, we present a shallow, buried, planar waveguide fabricated by potassium ion exchange in glass that enables low-cost and rapid counting of metal-tagged objects that lie in the evanescent field of the waveguide. Laser light transmitted through the waveguide was attenuated proportionately to the presence of metal-coated microstructures fabricated from photoresist. This technology enables the low-cost enumeration of cells from blood, urine, or other biofluids. PMID:22331960
Vortex gyroscope imaging of planar superfluids.
Powis, A T; Sammut, S J; Simula, T P
2014-10-17
We propose a robust imaging technique that makes it possible to distinguish vortices from antivortices in quasi-two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates from a single image of the density of the atoms. Tilting the planar condensate prior to standard absorption imaging excites a generalized gyroscopic mode of the condensate, revealing the sign and location of each vortex. This technique is anticipated to enable experimental measurement of the incompressible kinetic energy spectrum of the condensate and the observation of a negative-temperature phase transition of the vortex gas, driven by two-dimensional superfluid turbulence. PMID:25361263
Walls and chains of planar Skyrmions
Harland, Derek; Ward, R. S.
2008-02-15
In planar (baby) Skyrme systems, there may be extended linear structures which resemble either domain walls or chains of skyrmions, depending on the choice of potential and boundary conditions. We show that systems with a single vacuum, for example, with potential V=1-{phi}{sub 3}, admit chain solutions, whereas walls are ruled out by the uniqueness of the vacuum. On the other hand, in double-vacuum systems such as V=(1/2)(1-{phi}{sub 3}{sup 2}), one has stable wall solutions, but there are no stable chains; the walls may be viewed as the primary objects in such systems, with skyrmions being made out of them.
The Galley Parallel File System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nieuwejaar, Nils; Kotz, David
1996-01-01
As the I/O needs of parallel scientific applications increase, file systems for multiprocessors are being designed to provide applications with parallel access to multiple disks. Many parallel file systems present applications with a conventional Unix-like interface that allows the application to access multiple disks transparently. The interface conceals the parallelism within the file system, which increases the ease of programmability, but makes it difficult or impossible for sophisticated programmers and libraries to use knowledge about their I/O needs to exploit that parallelism. Furthermore, most current parallel file systems are optimized for a different workload than they are being asked to support. We introduce Galley, a new parallel file system that is intended to efficiently support realistic parallel workloads. We discuss Galley's file structure and application interface, as well as an application that has been implemented using that interface.
Resistor Combinations for Parallel Circuits.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McTernan, James P.
1978-01-01
To help simplify both teaching and learning of parallel circuits, a high school electricity/electronics teacher presents and illustrates the use of tables of values for parallel resistive circuits in which total resistances are whole numbers. (MF)
Analysis and design of planar and non-planar wings for induced drag minimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mortara, Karl W.; Straussfogel, Dennis M.; Maughmer, Mark D.
1992-01-01
The goal of the work reported herein is to develop and validate computational tools to be used for the design of planar and non-planar wing geometries for minimum induced drag. Because of the iterative nature of the design problem, it is important that, in addition to being sufficiently accurate for the problem at hand, these tools need to be reasonably fast and computationally efficient. Toward this end, a method of predicting induced drag in the presence of a free wake has been coupled with a panel method. The induced drag prediction technique is based on the application of the Kutta-Joukowski law at the trailing edge. Until now, the use of this method has not been fully explored and pressure integration and Trefftz-plane calculations favored. As is shown in this report, however, the Kutta-Joukowski method is able to give better results for a given amount of effort than the more commonly used techniques, particularly when relaxed wakes and non-planar wing geometries are considered. Using these methods, it is demonstrated that a reduction in induced drag can be achieved through non-planar wing geometries. It remains to determine what overall drag reductions are possible when the induced drag reduction is traded-off against increased wetted area. With the design methodology that is described herein, such trade studies can be performed in which the non-linear effects of the free wake are taken into account.
Parallel Pascal - An extended Pascal for parallel computers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reeves, A. P.
1984-01-01
Parallel Pascal is an extended version of the conventional serial Pascal programming language which includes a convenient syntax for specifying array operations. It is upward compatible with standard Pascal and involves only a small number of carefully chosen new features. Parallel Pascal was developed to reduce the semantic gap between standard Pascal and a large range of highly parallel computers. Two important design goals of Parallel Pascal were efficiency and portability. Portability is particularly difficult to achieve since different parallel computers frequently have very different capabilities.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Denning, Peter J.; Tichy, Walter F.
1990-01-01
Highly parallel computing architectures are the only means to achieve the computation rates demanded by advanced scientific problems. A decade of research has demonstrated the feasibility of such machines and current research focuses on which architectures designated as multiple instruction multiple datastream (MIMD) and single instruction multiple datastream (SIMD) have produced the best results to date; neither shows a decisive advantage for most near-homogeneous scientific problems. For scientific problems with many dissimilar parts, more speculative architectures such as neural networks or data flow may be needed.
Parallel Eclipse Project Checkout
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crockett, Thomas M.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Shams, Khawaja S.; Powell, Mark W.; Bachmann, Andrew G.
2011-01-01
Parallel Eclipse Project Checkout (PEPC) is a program written to leverage parallelism and to automate the checkout process of plug-ins created in Eclipse RCP (Rich Client Platform). Eclipse plug-ins can be aggregated in a feature project. This innovation digests a feature description (xml file) and automatically checks out all of the plug-ins listed in the feature. This resolves the issue of manually checking out each plug-in required to work on the project. To minimize the amount of time necessary to checkout the plug-ins, this program makes the plug-in checkouts parallel. After parsing the feature, a request to checkout for each plug-in in the feature has been inserted. These requests are handled by a thread pool with a configurable number of threads. By checking out the plug-ins in parallel, the checkout process is streamlined before getting started on the project. For instance, projects that took 30 minutes to checkout now take less than 5 minutes. The effect is especially clear on a Mac, which has a network monitor displaying the bandwidth use. When running the client from a developer s home, the checkout process now saturates the bandwidth in order to get all the plug-ins checked out as fast as possible. For comparison, a checkout process that ranged from 8-200 Kbps from a developer s home is now able to saturate a pipe of 1.3 Mbps, resulting in significantly faster checkouts. Eclipse IDE (integrated development environment) tries to build a project as soon as it is downloaded. As part of another optimization, this innovation programmatically tells Eclipse to stop building while checkouts are happening, which dramatically reduces lock contention and enables plug-ins to continue downloading until all of them finish. Furthermore, the software re-enables automatic building, and forces Eclipse to do a clean build once it finishes checking out all of the plug-ins. This software is fully generic and does not contain any NASA-specific code. It can be applied to any
Krogh, M.; Hansen, C.; Painter, J.; de Verdiere, G.C.
1995-05-01
Sphere rendering is an important method for visualizing molecular dynamics data. This paper presents a parallel divide-and-conquer algorithm that is almost 90 times faster than current graphics workstations. To render extremely large data sets and large images, the algorithm uses the MIMD features of the supercomputers to divide up the data, render independent partial images, and then finally composite the multiple partial images using an optimal method. The algorithm and performance results are presented for the CM-5 and the T3D.
Fastpath Speculative Parallelization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spear, Michael F.; Kelsey, Kirk; Bai, Tongxin; Dalessandro, Luke; Scott, Michael L.; Ding, Chen; Wu, Peng
We describe Fastpath, a system for speculative parallelization of sequential programs on conventional multicore processors. Our system distinguishes between the lead thread, which executes at almost-native speed, and speculative threads, which execute somewhat slower. This allows us to achieve nontrivial speedup, even on two-core machines. We present a mathematical model of potential speedup, parameterized by application characteristics and implementation constants. We also present preliminary results gleaned from two different Fastpath implementations, each derived from an implementation of software transactional memory.
Synchronous Parallel Kinetic Monte Carlo
Mart?nez, E; Marian, J; Kalos, M H
2006-12-14
A novel parallel kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) algorithm formulated on the basis of perfect time synchronicity is presented. The algorithm provides an exact generalization of any standard serial kMC model and is trivially implemented in parallel architectures. We demonstrate the mathematical validity and parallel performance of the method by solving several well-understood problems in diffusion.
CSM parallel structural methods research
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Storaasli, Olaf O.
1989-01-01
Parallel structural methods, research team activities, advanced architecture computers for parallel computational structural mechanics (CSM) research, the FLEX/32 multicomputer, a parallel structural analyses testbed, blade-stiffened aluminum panel with a circular cutout and the dynamic characteristics of a 60 meter, 54-bay, 3-longeron deployable truss beam are among the topics discussed.
Roo: A parallel theorem prover
Lusk, E.L.; McCune, W.W.; Slaney, J.K.
1991-11-01
We describe a parallel theorem prover based on the Argonne theorem-proving system OTTER. The parallel system, called Roo, runs on shared-memory multiprocessors such as the Sequent Symmetry. We explain the parallel algorithm used and give performance results that demonstrate near-linear speedups on large problems.
Parallelized direct execution simulation of message-passing parallel programs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dickens, Phillip M.; Heidelberger, Philip; Nicol, David M.
1994-01-01
As massively parallel computers proliferate, there is growing interest in findings ways by which performance of massively parallel codes can be efficiently predicted. This problem arises in diverse contexts such as parallelizing computers, parallel performance monitoring, and parallel algorithm development. In this paper we describe one solution where one directly executes the application code, but uses a discrete-event simulator to model details of the presumed parallel machine such as operating system and communication network behavior. Because this approach is computationally expensive, we are interested in its own parallelization specifically the parallelization of the discrete-event simulator. We describe methods suitable for parallelized direct execution simulation of message-passing parallel programs, and report on the performance of such a system, Large Application Parallel Simulation Environment (LAPSE), we have built on the Intel Paragon. On all codes measured to date, LAPSE predicts performance well typically within 10 percent relative error. Depending on the nature of the application code, we have observed low slowdowns (relative to natively executing code) and high relative speedups using up to 64 processors.
General lossless planar coupler design algorithms.
Vance, Rod
2015-08-01
This paper reviews and extends two classes of algorithms for the design of planar couplers with any unitary transfer matrix as design goals. Such couplers find use in optical sensing for fading free interferometry, coherent optical network demodulation, and also for quantum state preparation in quantum optical experiments and technology. The two classes are (1) "atomic coupler algorithms" decomposing a unitary transfer matrix into a planar network of 2×2 couplers, and (2) "Lie theoretic algorithms" concatenating unit cell devices with variable phase delay sets that form canonical coordinates for neighborhoods in the Lie group U(N), so that the concatenations realize any transfer matrix in U(N). As well as review, this paper gives (1) a Lie theoretic proof existence proof showing that both classes of algorithms work and (2) direct proofs of the efficacy of the "atomic coupler" algorithms. The Lie theoretic proof strengthens former results. 5×5 couplers designed by both methods are compared by Monte Carlo analysis, which would seem to imply atomic rather than Lie theoretic methods yield designs more resilient to manufacturing imperfections. PMID:26367295
Planar magnetic structures in coronal mass ejection-driven sheath regions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palmerio, Erika; Kilpua, Emilia; Savani, Neel
2016-04-01
Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) often travel in the interplanetary space faster than the ambient solar wind. When their relative velocities exceed the local magnetosonic speed, a shock wave forms. The region between the shock front and the leading edge is known as sheath region. Sheaths are compressed regions characterized by turbulent magnetic field and plasma properties and they can cause significant space weather disturbances. Moreover, sheaths often exhibit a complex internal structure, which makes understanding their formation and predicting their geoeffectivity particularly difficult. Planar magnetic structures (PMSs) are frequently reported in CME-driven sheath regions. The magnetic field vectors in a PMS are characterized by abrupt changes in direction and magnitude, but they all remain for a time interval of several hours nearly parallel to a single plane that includes the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) spiral direction but is inclined to the ecliptic plane. We present the study of PMSs in the sheath region of CMEs for a sample of 95 events observed in situ by the ACE and Wind spacecraft in the period 1997-2015. The presence of planar structures is detected with an automated method and evaluated through the minimum variance analysis (MVA), needed for determining the normal vector to the PMS-plane. We relate the occurrence and location of the PMSs to various shock, sheath and CME properties. We show in addition the dependence of the angle between the IP shock and PMS plane normals with respect to the PMS location within the sheath. Finally, we study the amount of strongly southward magnetic fields in planar and non-planar parts of the sheath, aiming at determining whether either feature is more likely to drive magnetospheric activity.
Seybold, Anna; Salvenmoser, Willi; Hobmayer, Bert
2016-04-01
Apical-basal and planar cell polarities are hallmarks of metazoan epithelia required to separate internal and external environments and to regulate trans- and intracellular transport, cytoskeletal organization, and morphogenesis. Mechanisms of cell polarization have been intensively studied in bilaterian model organisms, particularly in early embryos and cultured cells, while cell polarity in pre-bilaterian tissues is poorly understood. Here, we have studied apical-basal and planar polarization in regenerating (aggregating) clusters of epitheliomuscular cells of Hydra, a simple representative of the ancestral, pre-bilaterian phylum Cnidaria. Immediately after dissociation, single epitheliomuscular cells do not exhibit cellular polarity, but they polarize de novo during aggregation. Reestablishment of the Hydra-specific epithelial bilayer is a result of short-range cell sorting. In the early phase of aggregation, apical-basal polarization starts with an enlargement of the epithelial apical-basal diameter and by the development of belt-like apical septate junctions. Specification of the basal pole of epithelial cells occurs shortly later and is linked to synthesis of mesoglea, development of hemidesmosome-like junctions, and formation of desmosome-like junctions connecting the basal myonemes of neighbouring cells. Planar polarization starts, while apical-basal polarization is already ongoing. It is executed gradually starting with cell-autonomous formation, parallelization, and condensation of myonemes at the basal end of each epithelial cell and continuing with a final planar alignment of epitheliomuscular cells at the tissue level. Our findings reveal that epithelial polarization in Hydra aggregates occurs in defined steps well accessible by histological and ultrastructural techniques and they will provide a basis for future molecular studies. PMID:26921448
Planar Particle Imaging Doppler Velocimetry Developed
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wernet, Mark P.
2000-01-01
Two current techniques exist for the measurement of planar, three-component velocity fields. Both techniques require multiple views of the illumination plane in order to extract all three velocity components. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a high-resolution, high accuracy, planar velocimetry technique that provides valuable instantaneous velocity information in aeropropulsion test facilities. PIV can provide three-component flow-field measurements using a two-camera, stereo viewing configuration. Doppler global velocimetry (DGV) is another planar velocimetry technique that can provide three component flow-field measurements; however, it requires three detector systems that must be located at oblique angles from the measurement plane. The three-dimensional configurations of either technique require multiple (DGV) or at least large (stereo PIV) optical access ports in the facility in which the measurements are being conducted. Optical access is extremely limited in aeropropulsion test facilities. In many cases, only one optical access port is available. A hybrid measurement technique has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center, planar particle image and Doppler velocimetry (PPIDV), which combines elements from both the PIV and DGV techniques into a single detection system that can measure all three components of velocity across a planar region of a flow field through a single optical access port. In the standard PIV technique, a pulsed laser is used to illuminate the flow field at two closely spaced instances in time, which are recorded on a "frame-straddling" camera, yielding a pair of single-exposure image frames. The PIV camera is oriented perpendicular to the light sheet, and the processed PIV data yield the two-component velocity field in the plane of the light sheet. In the standard DGV technique, an injection-seeded Nd:YAG pulsed laser light sheet illuminates the seeded flow field, and three receiver systems are used to measure three components
Research on planar antennas and arrays - 'Structures Rayonnantes'
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daniel, J. P.; Dubost, G.; Terret, C.; Citerne, J.; Drissi, M.
1993-02-01
Radiating antenna structures related to flat and wire antennas developed by the laboratory 'Structures Rayonnantes' of the University of Rennes I (France) are discussed with emphasis on flat antennas and arrays studied during the last three years and on their typical applications. Particular attention is given to basic planar radiating sources including patches with coaxial or microstrip feed, printed slots, slot-fed patches, slot-loaded patches, and electromagnetic coupled dipoles and patches; planar arrays including planar phased and planar passive arrays and dual-beam printed antennas; and arrays of microstrip dipoles.
Planarization of topography with spin-on carbon hard mask
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noya, Go; Hama, Yusuke; Ishii, Maki; Nakasugi, Shigemasa; Kudo, Takanori; Padmanaban, Munirathna
2016-03-01
Spin-on-carbon hard mask (SOC HM) has been used in semiconductor manufacturing since 45nm node as an alternative carbon hard mask process to chemical vapor deposition (CVD). As advancement of semiconductor to 2X nm nodes and beyond, multiple patterning technology is used and planarization of topography become more important and challenging ever before. In order to develop next generation SOC, one of focuses is planarization of topography. SOC with different concepts for improved planarization and the influence of thermal flow temperature, crosslink, film shrinkage, baking conditions on planarization and filling performance are described in this paper.
Baskin, Tobias I.; Gu, Ying
2012-01-01
The extracellular matrix is constructed beyond the plasma membrane, challenging mechanisms for its control by the cell. In plants, the cell wall is highly ordered, with cellulose microfibrils aligned coherently over a scale spanning hundreds of cells. To a considerable extent, deploying aligned microfibrils determines mechanical properties of the cell wall, including strength and compliance. Cellulose microfibrils have long been seen to be aligned in parallel with an array of microtubules in the cell cortex. How do these cortical microtubules affect the cellulose synthase complex? This question has stood for as many years as the parallelism between the elements has been observed, but now an answer is emerging. Here, we review recent work establishing that the link between microtubules and microfibrils is mediated by a protein named cellulose synthase-interacting protein 1 (CSI1). The protein binds both microtubules and components of the cellulose synthase complex. In the absence of CSI1, microfibrils are synthesized but their alignment becomes uncoupled from the microtubules, an effect that is phenocopied in the wild type by depolymerizing the microtubules. The characterization of CSI1 significantly enhances knowledge of how cellulose is aligned, a process that serves as a paradigmatic example of how cells dictate the construction of their extracellular environment. PMID:22902763
Applied Parallel Metadata Indexing
Jacobi, Michael R
2012-08-01
The GPFS Archive is parallel archive is a parallel archive used by hundreds of users in the Turquoise collaboration network. It houses 4+ petabytes of data in more than 170 million files. Currently, users must navigate the file system to retrieve their data, requiring them to remember file paths and names. A better solution might allow users to tag data with meaningful labels and searach the archive using standard and user-defined metadata, while maintaining security. last summer, I developed the backend to a tool that adheres to these design goals. The backend works by importing GPFS metadata into a MongoDB cluster, which is then indexed on each attribute. This summer, the author implemented security and developed the user interfae for the search tool. To meet security requirements, each database table is associated with a single user, which only stores records that the user may read, and requires a set of credentials to access. The interface to the search tool is implemented using FUSE (Filesystem in USErspace). FUSE is an intermediate layer that intercepts file system calls and allows the developer to redefine how those calls behave. In the case of this tool, FUSE interfaces with MongoDB to issue queries and populate output. A FUSE implementation is desirable because it allows users to interact with the search tool using commands they are already familiar with. These security and interface additions are essential for a usable product.