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Sample records for planar optic display

  1. Flat panel planar optic display

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1994-11-01

    A prototype 10 inch flat panel Planar Optic Display, (POD), screen has been constructed and tested. This display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optic class sheets bonded together with a cladding layer between each sheet where each glass sheet represents a vertical line of resolution. The display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately 1 inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  2. Ten inch Planar Optic Display

    SciTech Connect

    Beiser, L.; Veligdan, J.

    1996-04-01

    A Planar Optic Display (POD) is being built and tested for suitability as a high brightness replacement for the cathode ray tube, (CRT). The POD display technology utilizes a laminated optical waveguide structure which allows a projection type of display to be constructed in a thin (I to 2 inch) housing. Inherent in the optical waveguide is a black cladding matrix which gives the display a black appearance leading to very high contrast. A Digital Micromirror Device, (DMD) from Texas Instruments is used to create video images in conjunction with a 100 milliwatt green solid state laser. An anamorphic optical system is used to inject light into the POD to form a stigmatic image. In addition to the design of the POD screen, we discuss: image formation, image projection, and optical design constraints.

  3. Flat panel planar optic display. Revision 4/95

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-05-01

    A prototype 10 inch flat panel Planar Optic display, (POD), screen has been constructed and tested. This display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optic glass sheets bonded together with a cladding layer between each sheet where each glass sheet represents a vertical line of resolution. The display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately 1 inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  4. Visor-display design based on planar holographic optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amitai, Y.; Reinhorn, S.; Friesem, A. A.

    1995-03-01

    A compact-mode holographic doublet visor display is designed and recorded. It provides excellent imaging and relatively low chromatic dispersion over a wide field of view. Application of these design and recording procedures to other fields like heads-up displays for aircrafts and cars are indicated.

  5. Thin display optical projector

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    1999-01-01

    An optical system (20) projects light into a planar optical display (10). The display includes laminated optical waveguides (12) defining an inlet face (14) at one end and an outlet screen (16) at an opposite end. A first mirror (26) collimates light from a light source (18) along a first axis, and distributes the light along a second axis. A second mirror (28) collimates the light from the first mirror along the second axis to illuminate the inlet face and produce an image on the screen.

  6. Planar waveguide optical immunosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choquette, Steven J.; Locascio-Brown, Laurie E.; Durst, Richard A.

    1991-03-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were covalently bonded to the surfaces of planar waveguides to confer immunoreacth''ity. Silver-ion diffused waveguides were used to measure theophylline concentrations in a fluorescence immunoassay and silicon nitride waveguides were used to detect theophylline in an absorbance-based immunoassay. Liposomes were employed in both assays as the optically detectable label in a competitive reaction to monitor antigen-antibody complexation. Regeneration of the active antibody site will be discussed.

  7. Thin optical display panel

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James Thomas

    1997-01-01

    An optical display includes a plurality of optical waveguides each including a cladding bound core for guiding internal display light between first and second opposite ends by total internal reflection. The waveguides are stacked together to define a collective display thickness. Each of the cores includes a heterogeneous portion defining a light scattering site disposed longitudinally between the first and second ends. Adjacent ones of the sites are longitudinally offset from each other for forming a longitudinal internal image display over the display thickness upon scattering of internal display light thereagainst for generating a display image. In a preferred embodiment, the waveguides and scattering sites are transparent for transmitting therethrough an external image in superposition with the display image formed by scattering the internal light off the scattering sites for defining a heads up display.

  8. Polyplanar optic display

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.; Biscardi, C.; Brewster, C.; DeSanto, L.; Beiser, L.

    1997-07-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. This display screen is 2 inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. The new display uses a 100 milliwatt green solid state laser (532 nm) as its optical source. In order to produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc. A variable astigmatic focusing system is used to produce a stigmatic image on the viewing face of the POD. In addition to the optical design, the authors discuss the electronic interfacing to the DLP{trademark} chip, the opto-mechanical design and viewing angle characteristics.

  9. Split image optical display

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2007-05-29

    A video image is displayed from an optical panel by splitting the image into a plurality of image components, and then projecting the image components through corresponding portions of the panel to collectively form the image. Depth of the display is correspondingly reduced.

  10. Split image optical display

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2005-05-31

    A video image is displayed from an optical panel by splitting the image into a plurality of image components, and then projecting the image components through corresponding portions of the panel to collectively form the image. Depth of the display is correspondingly reduced.

  11. Polyplanar optical display electronics

    SciTech Connect

    DeSanto, L.; Biscardi, C.

    1997-07-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. The prototype ten inch display is two inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. In order to achieve a long lifetime, the new display uses a 100 milliwatt green solid-state laser (10,000 hr. life) at 532 nm as its light source. To produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments. In order to use the solid-state laser as the light source and also fit within the constraints of the B-52 display, the Digital Micromirror Device (DMD{trademark}) circuit board is removed from the Texas Instruments DLP light engine assembly. Due to the compact architecture of the projection system within the display chassis, the DMD{trademark} chip is operated remotely from the Texas Instruments circuit board. The authors discuss the operation of the DMD{trademark} divorced from the light engine and the interfacing of the DMD{trademark} board with various video formats (CVBS, Y/C or S-video and RGB) including the format specific to the B-52 aircraft. A brief discussion of the electronics required to drive the laser is also presented.

  12. Black optic display

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    1997-01-01

    An optical display includes a plurality of stacked optical waveguides having first and second opposite ends collectively defining an image input face and an image screen, respectively, with the screen being oblique to the input face. Each of the waveguides includes a transparent core bound by a cladding layer having a lower index of refraction for effecting internal reflection of image light transmitted into the input face to project an image on the screen, with each of the cladding layers including a cladding cap integrally joined thereto at the waveguide second ends. Each of the cores is beveled at the waveguide second end so that the cladding cap is viewable through the transparent core. Each of the cladding caps is black for absorbing external ambient light incident upon the screen for improving contrast of the image projected internally on the screen.

  13. Planarized fiber-FHD optical composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, C.; Carpenter, L. G.; Gates, J. C.; Gawith, C. B. E.; Smith, P. G. R.

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of a mechanically robust planarised fibre-FHD optical composite. Fabrication is achieved through deposition and consolidation of optical grade silica soot on to both an optical fibre and planar substrate. The consolidated silica acts in joining the fibre and planar substrate both mechanically and optically. The concept lends itself to applications where long interaction lengths (order of tens of centimetres) and optical interaction via a planar waveguide are required, such as pump schemes, precision layup of fibre optics and hybrid fibre-planar devices. This paper considers the developments in fabrication process that enable component development.

  14. Planar optics with patterned chiral liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobashi, Junji; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Ozaki, Masanori

    2016-06-01

    Reflective metasurfaces based on metallic and dielectric nanoscatterers have attracted interest owing to their ability to control the phase of light. However, because such nanoscatterers require subwavelength features, the fabrication of elements that operate in the visible range is challenging. Here, we show that chiral liquid crystals with a self-organized helical structure enable metasurface-like, non-specular reflection in the visible region. The phase of light that is Bragg-reflected off the helical structure can be controlled over 0–2π depending on the spatial phase of the helical structure; thus planar elements with arbitrary reflected wavefronts can be created via orientation control. The circular polarization selectivity and external field tunability of Bragg reflection open a wide variety of potential applications for this family of functional devices, from optical isolators to wearable displays.

  15. Optimized planar micro-optic concentrator design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jui-Wen; Su, Yu-Chung; Lee, Sheng-Yi

    2016-06-01

    The structural parameters of a planar micro-optic concentrator are optimized. First, the direct-loss is minimized by altering the relationship between the f-number of the lenslet, the angle of the micro-structure and the ray paths in the planar micro-optic concentrator. Second, the size of the micro-structure is made equal to the mini-blur size of the lenslet in order to reduce the non-direct loss. Last, the f-number and the entrance pupil diameter of the lenslet are determined by the relationships among the f-number, the entrance pupil diameter, the optical efficiency, the acceptance angle and the thickness of the planar micro-optic concentrator from the optical simulation results. For an optimized planar micro-optic concentrator with a 300× concentration, the f-number of the lenslet, the EPD of the lenslet, the angle of the micro-structure and the thickness of the planar micro-optic concentrator are 2.6, 1.49 mm, 120 degrees and 5.97 mm, respectively. For micro-structures 28.95 μm, 51.24 μm and 88.29 μm in size, the half acceptance angles of the planar micro-optic concentrator are 0.115 degrees, 0.275 degrees and 0.55 degrees, respectively, and the optical efficiencies are 81.23%, 71.92% and 50.02%, respectively.

  16. Electron-optical systems for planar gyrotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuilov, V. N.; Zaslavsky, V. Yu.; Ginzburg, N. S.; Glyavin, M. Yu.; Kuftin, A. N.; Zotova, I. V.

    2014-02-01

    The methodology of designing an electron-optical system (EOS) that forms sheet helical electron beams (HEBs) for high-power gyrotrons is developed. As an example, we consider the EOS for a 140-GHz gyrotron operated at the first harmonic of the cyclotron frequency with an accelerating voltage of 50 kV, a beam current of 30 A, and a magnetic field compression of 36. A planar geometry of the magnetron-injection gun (MIG) is suggested. The adiabatic theory of MIGs modified for the planar geometry of EOS is used for preliminary estimations of MIG parameters. Numerical simulation of the HEB properties based on the CST STUDIO SUITE 3D code is performed to find the optimal configuration of a planar MIG. The accuracy of the calculated data is discussed. The main factors that affect the HEB quality are considered. It is shown that a sheet HEB with a pitch-factor of 1.3 and velocity spread not exceeding 25%-30% can be formed; this is quite acceptable for high-efficiency operation of modern gyrotrons. Calculation of the beam-wave interaction with the obtained HEB parameters proved that a high output power with a sufficiently good efficiency of about 20% can be reached. Simulations show the feasibility of the experimental implementation of a novel planar EOS and its use in short-wave planar gyrotrons. The developed technique can be used for the study and optimization of planar gyrotrons of different frequency bands and power levels.

  17. Electron-optical systems for planar gyrotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Manuilov, V. N.; Zaslavsky, V. Yu.; Ginzburg, N. S.; Glyavin, M. Yu.; Kuftin, A. N.; Zotova, I. V.

    2014-02-15

    The methodology of designing an electron-optical system (EOS) that forms sheet helical electron beams (HEBs) for high-power gyrotrons is developed. As an example, we consider the EOS for a 140-GHz gyrotron operated at the first harmonic of the cyclotron frequency with an accelerating voltage of 50 kV, a beam current of 30 A, and a magnetic field compression of 36. A planar geometry of the magnetron-injection gun (MIG) is suggested. The adiabatic theory of MIGs modified for the planar geometry of EOS is used for preliminary estimations of MIG parameters. Numerical simulation of the HEB properties based on the CST STUDIO SUITE 3D code is performed to find the optimal configuration of a planar MIG. The accuracy of the calculated data is discussed. The main factors that affect the HEB quality are considered. It is shown that a sheet HEB with a pitch-factor of 1.3 and velocity spread not exceeding 25%–30% can be formed; this is quite acceptable for high-efficiency operation of modern gyrotrons. Calculation of the beam-wave interaction with the obtained HEB parameters proved that a high output power with a sufficiently good efficiency of about 20% can be reached. Simulations show the feasibility of the experimental implementation of a novel planar EOS and its use in short-wave planar gyrotrons. The developed technique can be used for the study and optimization of planar gyrotrons of different frequency bands and power levels.

  18. Optical display for radar sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold; Hsu, Charles; Willey, Jefferson; Landa, Joseph; Hsieh, Minder; Larsen, Louis V.; Krzywicki, Alan T.; Tran, Binh Q.; Hoekstra, Philip; Dillard, John T.; Krapels, Keith A.; Wardlaw, Michael; Chu, Kai-Dee

    2015-05-01

    Boltzmann headstone S = kB Log W turns out to be the Rosette stone for Greek physics translation optical display of the microwave sensing hieroglyphics. The LHS is the molecular entropy S measuring the degree of uniformity scattering off the sensing cross sections. The RHS is the inverse relationship (equation) predicting the Planck radiation spectral distribution parameterized by the Kelvin temperature T. Use is made of the conservation energy law of the heat capacity of Reservoir (RV) change T Δ S = -ΔE equals to the internal energy change of black box (bb) subsystem. Moreover, an irreversible thermodynamics Δ S > 0 for collision mixing toward totally larger uniformity of heat death, asserted by Boltzmann, that derived the so-called Maxwell-Boltzmann canonical probability. Given the zero boundary condition black box, Planck solved a discrete standing wave eigenstates (equation). Together with the canonical partition function (equation) an average ensemble average of all possible internal energy yielded the celebrated Planck radiation spectral (equation) where the density of states (equation). In summary, given the multispectral sensing data (equation), we applied Lagrange Constraint Neural Network (LCNN) to solve the Blind Sources Separation (BSS) for a set of equivalent bb target temperatures. From the measurements of specific value, slopes and shapes we can fit a set of Kelvin temperatures T's for each bb targets. As a result, we could apply the analytical continuation for each entropy sources along the temperature-unique Planck spectral curves always toward the RGB color temperature display for any sensing probing frequency.

  19. Multiview three-dimensional display with continuous motion parallax through planar aligned OLED microdisplays.

    PubMed

    Teng, Dongdong; Xiong, Yi; Liu, Lilin; Wang, Biao

    2015-03-01

    Existing multiview three-dimensional (3D) display technologies encounter discontinuous motion parallax problem, due to a limited number of stereo-images which are presented to corresponding sub-viewing zones (SVZs). This paper proposes a novel multiview 3D display system to obtain continuous motion parallax by using a group of planar aligned OLED microdisplays. Through blocking partial light-rays by baffles inserted between adjacent OLED microdisplays, transitional stereo-image assembled by two spatially complementary segments from adjacent stereo-images is presented to a complementary fusing zone (CFZ) which locates between two adjacent SVZs. For a moving observation point, the spatial ratio of the two complementary segments evolves gradually, resulting in continuously changing transitional stereo-images and thus overcoming the problem of discontinuous motion parallax. The proposed display system employs projection-type architecture, taking the merit of full display resolution, but at the same time having a thin optical structure, offering great potentials for portable or mobile 3D display applications. Experimentally, a prototype display system is demonstrated by 9 OLED microdisplays. PMID:25836825

  20. A planar quasi-optical SIS receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stimson, Philip A.; Dengler, Robert J.; Leduc, Henry G.; Cypher, Scott R.; Siegel, Peter H.

    1993-01-01

    A planar, quasi-optical SIS receiver operating at 230 GHz is described. The receiver consists of a 2 x 5 array of half wave dipole antennas with ten niobium-aluminum oxide-niobium SIS junctions on a quartz dielectric-filled parabola. The 1.4 GHz intermediate frequency is coupled from the mixer via coplanar strip transmission lines and 4:1 balun transformers. The receiver is operated at 4.2 K in a liquid helium immersion cryostat. We report accurate measurements of the performance of single receiver elements. A mixer noise temperature of 89 K DSB, receiver noise temperature of 156 K DSB, and conversion loss of 3 dB into a matched load have been obtained.

  1. Polyplanar optic display for cockpit application

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.; Biscardi, C.; Brewster, C.; DeSanto, L.; Freibott, W.

    1998-04-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a high contrast display screen being developed for cockpit applications. This display screen is 2 inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. The new display uses a long lifetime, (10,000 hour), 200 mW green solid-state laser (532 nm) as its optical source. In order to produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc. A variable astigmatic focusing system is used to produce a stigmatic image on the viewing face of the POD. In addition to the optical design and speckle reduction, the authors discuss the electronic interfacing to the DLP{trademark} chip, the opto-mechanical design and viewing angle characteristics.

  2. Laser-driven polyplanar optic display

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.T.; Biscardi, C.; Brewster, C.; DeSanto, L.; Beiser, L.

    1998-01-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. This display screen is 2 inches thick and has a matte-black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. The new display uses a 200 milliwatt green solid-state laser (532 nm) as its optical source. In order to produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc. A variable astigmatic focusing system is used to produce a stigmatic image on the viewing face of the POD. In addition to the optical design, the authors discuss the DLP chip, the optomechanical design and viewing angle characteristics.

  3. Optical magnetism and optical activity in nonchiral planar plasmonic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Li, Guozhou; Li, Qiang; Yang, Lizhen; Wu, Lijun

    2016-07-01

    We investigate optical magnetism and optical activity in a simple planar metamolecule composed of double U-shaped metal split ring resonators (SRRs) twisted by 90° with respect to one another. Compared to a single SRR, the resonant energy levels are split and strong magnetic response can be observed due to inductive and conductive coupling. More interestingly, the nonchiral structures exhibit strong optical gyrotropy (1100°/λ) under oblique incidence, benefiting from the strong electromagnetic coupling. A chiral molecule model is proposed to shed light on the physical origin of optical activity. These artificial chiral metamaterials could be utilized to control the polarization of light and promise applications in enantiomer sensing-based medicine, biology, and drug development. PMID:27367063

  4. Integrated Optics for Planar imaging and Optical Signal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Qi

    Silicon photonics is a subject of growing interest with the potential of delivering planar electro-optical devices with chip scale integration. Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology has provided a marvelous platform for photonics industry because of its advantages in integration capability in CMOS circuit and countless nonlinearity applications in optical signal processing. This thesis is focused on the investigation of planar imaging techniques on SOI platform and potential applications in ultra-fast optical signal processing. In the first part, a general review and background introduction about integrated photonics circuit and planar imaging technique are provided. In chapter 2, planar imaging platform is realized by a silicon photodiode on SOI chip. Silicon photodiode on waveguide provides a high numerical aperture for an imaging transceiver pixel. An erbium doped Y2O3 particle is excited by 1550nm Laser and the fluorescent image is obtained with assistance of the scanning system. Fluorescence image is reconstructed by using image de-convolution technique. Under photovoltaic mode, we use an on-chip photodiode and an external PIN photodiode to realize similar resolution as 5μm. In chapter 3, a time stretching technique is developed to a spatial domain to realize a 2D imaging system as an ultrafast imaging tool. The system is evaluated based on theoretical calculation. The experimental results are shown for a verification of system capability to imaging a micron size particle or a finger print. Meanwhile, dynamic information for a moving object is also achieved by correlation algorithm. In chapter 4, the optical leaky wave antenna based on SOI waveguide has been utilized for imaging applications and extensive numerical studied has been conducted. and the theoretical explanation is supported by leaky wave theory. The highly directive radiation has been obtained from the broadside with 15.7 dB directivity and a 3dB beam width of ΔØ 3dB ≈ 1.65° in free space

  5. Evolution Of Map Display Optical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boot, Alan

    1983-06-01

    It is now over 20 years since Ferranti plc introduced optically projected map displays into operational aircraft navigation systems. Then, as now, it was the function of the display to present an image of a topographical map to a pilot or navigator with his present position clearly identified. Then, as now, the map image was projected from a reduced image stored on colour micro film. Then, as now, the fundamental design problems are the same.In the exposed environment of an aircraft cockpit where brightness levels may vary from those associated with direct sunlight on the one hand, to starlight on the other, how does one design an optical system with sufficient luminance, contrast and resolution where in the daytime sunlight may fall on the display or in the pilot's eyes, and at night time the display luminance must not detract from the pilot's ability to pick up external clues? This paper traces the development of Ferranti plc optically projected map displays from the early V Bomber and the ill-fated TSR2 displays to the Harrier and Concorde displays. It then goes on to the development of combined map and electronic displays (COMED), showing how an earlier design, as fitted to Tornado, has been developed into the current COMED design which is fitted to the F-18 and Jaguar aircraft. In each of the above display systems particular features of optical design interest are identified and their impact on the design as a whole are discussed. The use of prisms both for optical rotation and translation, techniques for the maximisation of luminance, the problems associated with contrast enhancement, particularly with polarising filters in the presence of optically active materials, the use of aerial image combining systems and the impact of the pilot interface on the system parameter are all included.Perhaps the most interesting result in considering the evolution of map displays has not been so much the designer's solutions in overcoming the various design problems but

  6. Multiple Optical Traps with a Single-Beam Optical Tweezer Utilizing Surface Micromachined Planar Curved Grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Ju-Nan; Chen, Kuan-Yu

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we present a single-beam optical tweezer integrated with a planar curved diffraction grating for microbead manipulation. Various curvatures of the surface micromachined planar curved grating are systematically investigated. The planar curved grating was fabricated using multiuser micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) processes (MUMPs). The angular separation and the number of diffracted orders were determined. Experimental results indicate that the diffraction patterns and curvature of the planar curved grating are closely related. As the curvature of the planar curved grating increases, the vertical diffraction angle increases, resulting in the strip patterns of the planar curved grating. A single-beam optical tweezer integrated with a planar curved diffraction grating was developed. We demonstrate a technique for creating multiple optical traps from a single laser beam using the developed planar curved grating. The strip patterns of the planar curved grating that resulted from diffraction were used to trap one row of polystyrene beads.

  7. Advanced rotorcraft helmet display sighting system optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raynal, Francois; Chen, Muh-Fa

    2002-08-01

    Kaiser Electronics' Advanced Rotorcraft Helmet Display Sighting System is a Biocular Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) for Rotary Wing Aviators. Advanced Rotorcraft HMDs requires low head supported weight, low center of mass offsets, low peripheral obstructions of the visual field, large exit pupils, large eye relief, wide field of view (FOV), high resolution, low luning, sun light readability with high contrast and low prismatic deviations. Compliance with these safety, user acceptance and optical performance requirements is challenging. The optical design presented in this paper provides an excellent balance of these different and conflicting requirements. The Advanced Rotorcraft HMD optical design is a pupil forming off axis catadioptric system that incorporates a transmissive SXGA Active Matrix liquid Crystal Display (AMLCD), an LED array backlight and a diopter adjustment mechanism.

  8. Mode structure of planar optical antennas on dielectric substrates.

    PubMed

    Word, Robert C; Könenkamp, Rolf

    2016-08-01

    We report a numerical study, supported by photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM), of sub-micron planar optical antennas on transparent substrate. We find these antennas generate intricate near-field spatial field distributions with odd and even numbers of nodes. We show that the field distributions are primarily superpositions of planar surface plasmon polariton modes confined to the metal/substrate interface. The mode structure provides opportunities for coherent switching and optical control in sub-micron volumes. PMID:27505835

  9. Nonreciprocal acousto-optical effect in planar waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Nanii, Oleg E

    2000-03-31

    The amplitude nonreciprocal effect in planar waveguides during the interaction of waveguide optical modes with a travelling surface acoustic wave was calculated. The possibility of constructing an optical isolator (circulator) by using collinear acousto-optical diffraction with conversion of the type of waveguide mode is demonstrated. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  10. Holographic optical element for visual display applications.

    PubMed

    McCauley, D G; Simpson, C E; Murbach, W J

    1973-02-01

    Off-axis and off-bisector reflection-type holographic visual display elements have been recorded in dichromated gelatin deposited on planar or spherical shell substrates of glass or Plexiglas. A procedure for bonding gelatin to Plexiglas is given. Holographic elements are recorded at the argon wavelength of 514.5 nm and reconstructed with spectral lines from a low pressure mercury arc lamp. Measured image characteristics for a flat substrate hologram agree with ray-tracing calculations. A swelling of the gelatin by approximately 6.6% after processing does not perceptibly affect the dispersion, astigmatism, or distortion in the image, that is, the grating equation depends on the spacing between the fringes on the surface of the gelatin and is not affected by the swelling or shrinking. However, the Bragg equation depends on the distance normal to the fringe planes and is affected by thickness changes of the gelatin. Therefore, this thickness change is taken as an independent parameter and used to adjust the wavelength for maximum diffraction efficiency, without affecting the image angle. Data reveal a near linear relationship between the dichromate concentration of 0.5-10% used to photosensitive the gelatin and the display wavelength of maximum diffraction efficiency. Lateral dispersion is 0.12 +/- 0.01 degrees / nanometer for both planar and spherical shell substrate elements recorded in quite similar geometry, but their astigmatisms are not alike. PMID:20125273

  11. Controllable optical Bloch oscillation in planar graded optical waveguide arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, M. J.; Xiao, J. J.; Yu, K. W.

    2010-03-15

    Optical Bloch oscillation is studied theoretically in planar graded optical waveguide arrays with nearest-neighbor couplings. The gradient in the propagation constants can be achieved with the eletro-optical effect. We identify a variety of normal modes (called gradons) in the waveguide arrays with the aid of a phase diagram. Moreover, the localization properties of the normal modes are characterized and the transitions among these modes are obtained from a picture of overlapping bands. The existence of Bloch oscillation and other oscillations are confirmed by using the field-evolution analysis with various input Gaussian beams. From the results, we obtain a correspondence between gradon localization and Bloch oscillation. This study can be extended to more general waveguide arrays in higher dimensions and with further neighbor couplings. The results offer great potential applications in controlling wave propagation by means of graded materials and graded systems, which can be used to explore the tunability of light manipulation and applied to design suitable optical devices.

  12. Optically rewritable 3D liquid crystal displays.

    PubMed

    Sun, J; Srivastava, A K; Zhang, W; Wang, L; Chigrinov, V G; Kwok, H S

    2014-11-01

    Optically rewritable liquid crystal display (ORWLCD) is a concept based on the optically addressed bi-stable display that does not need any power to hold the image after being uploaded. Recently, the demand for the 3D image display has increased enormously. Several attempts have been made to achieve 3D image on the ORWLCD, but all of them involve high complexity for image processing on both hardware and software levels. In this Letter, we disclose a concept for the 3D-ORWLCD by dividing the given image in three parts with different optic axis. A quarter-wave plate is placed on the top of the ORWLCD to modify the emerging light from different domains of the image in different manner. Thereafter, Polaroid glasses can be used to visualize the 3D image. The 3D image can be refreshed, on the 3D-ORWLCD, in one-step with proper ORWLCD printer and image processing, and therefore, with easy image refreshing and good image quality, such displays can be applied for many applications viz. 3D bi-stable display, security elements, etc. PMID:25361316

  13. Fiber optic engine for micro projection display.

    PubMed

    Arabi, Hesam Edin; An, Sohee; Oh, Kyunghwan

    2010-03-01

    A novel compact optical engine for a micro projector display is experimentally demonstrated, which is composed of RGB light sources, a tapered 3 x 1 Fiber Optic Color Synthesizer (FOCS) along with a fiberized ball-lens, and a two dimensional micro electromechanical scanning mirror. In the proposed optical engine, we successfully employed an all-fiber beam shaping technique combining optical fiber taper and fiberized ball lens that can render a narrow beam and enhance the resolution of the screened image in the far field. Optical performances of the proposed device assembly are investigated in terms of power loss, collimating strength of the collimator assembly, and color gamut of the output. PMID:20389477

  14. Optically responsive liquid crystal microfibers for display and nondisplay applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyuktanir, Ebru A.; West, John L.; Frey, Margaret W.

    2011-03-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication and characterization of optically-tunable and stimuli-responsive electrospun microfibers endowed with liquid crystal (LC) functionality. The highly flexible LC microfibers are electrospun from a solution of 4- pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (5CB) and polylactic acid (PLA) in chloroform/acetone solvent. In the electrospinning process, the low molecular weight 5CB phase-separates and self-assembles to form a planarly aligned nematic core within a PLA shell. Most importantly, the orientation of LC domains and, therefore, the optical properties of the 5CB/PLA fibers can be tuned by application of an external electric field. These properties of LC fibers may, in turn, be utilized to fabricate a variety of photonic textiles, and ultimately may introduce an entirely new manufacturing process where weaving will reach well beyond the roll-to-roll manufacturing envisioned for the currently emerging flexible displays printed on flexible plastic substrates.

  15. Planar Waveguiding Systems for Optical Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambeck, Paul V.; Hoekstra, Hugo J. W. M.

    Driving force of the research in Integrated Optics is the optical (tele-) communication, but in its slipstream a lot of research on Integrated Optical (IO-) sensors has been performed during last decade.

  16. Planar integrated optical sensors based on the mirage effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Pérez, C.; García-Valenzuela, A.

    2010-05-01

    The modulation of the deflection of a 2D guided optical beam in a planar waveguide is analyzed for sensing applications. The deflection is caused by a gradual change in the depth of the planar waveguide transversal to the direction of propagation. The beam deflection angle could be used for sensing the refractive index of the external medium among other variables. We present numerical results to evaluate the possibility of developing a glass-integrated structure for refractive index sensing.

  17. Integrated optical tamper sensor with planar waveguide

    DOEpatents

    Carson, Richard F.; Casalnuovo, Stephen A.

    1993-01-01

    A monolithic optical tamper sensor, comprising an optical emitter and detector, connected by an optical waveguide and placed into the critical entry plane of an enclosed sensitive region, the tamper sensor having a myriad of scraps of a material optically absorbent at the wavelength of interest, such that when the absorbent material is in place on the waveguide, an unique optical signature can be recorded, but when entry is attempted into the enclosed sensitive region, the scraps of absorbent material will be displaced and the optical/electrical signature of the tamper sensor will change and that change can be recorded.

  18. Integrated optical tamper sensor with planar waveguide

    DOEpatents

    Carson, R.F.; Casalnuovo, S.A.

    1993-01-05

    A monolithic optical tamper sensor, comprising an optical emitter and detector, connected by an optical waveguide and placed into the critical entry plane of an enclosed sensitive region, the tamper sensor having a myriad of scraps of a material optically absorbent at the wavelength of interest, such that when the absorbent material is in place on the waveguide, an unique optical signature can be recorded, but when entry is attempted into the enclosed sensitive region, the scraps of absorbent material will be displaced and the optical/electrical signature of the tamper sensor will change and that change can be recorded.

  19. Planar tetranuclear lanthanide clusters with the Dy4 analogue displaying slow magnetic relaxation.

    PubMed

    Langley, Stuart K; Chilton, Nicholas F; Gass, Ian A; Moubaraki, Boujemaa; Murray, Keith S

    2011-12-21

    Two isostructural tetranuclear lanthanide clusters of general formula [Ln(III)(4)(μ(3)-OH)(2)(o-van)(4)(O(2)CC(CH(3))(3))(4)(NO(3))(2)]·CH(2)Cl(2)·1.5H(2)O (Ln = Gd (1) and Dy (2)) (o-van = 3-methoxysalicylaldehydato anion) are reported. The metallic cores of both complexes display a planar 'butterfly' arrangement. Magnetic studies show that both are weakly coupled, with 2 displaying probable SMM behaviour. PMID:22031449

  20. Optical planar waveguide for cell counting

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, John; Mueller, Andrew J.; Prinz, Adrian; Butte, Manish J.

    2012-01-01

    Low cost counting of cells has medical applications in screening, military medicine, disaster medicine, and rural healthcare. In this report, we present a shallow, buried, planar waveguide fabricated by potassium ion exchange in glass that enables low-cost and rapid counting of metal-tagged objects that lie in the evanescent field of the waveguide. Laser light transmitted through the waveguide was attenuated proportionately to the presence of metal-coated microstructures fabricated from photoresist. This technology enables the low-cost enumeration of cells from blood, urine, or other biofluids. PMID:22331960

  1. Planar Rowland spectrometer for fiber-optic wavelength demultiplexing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, H. W.; Friedrich, H. R.; Morrison, R. J.; Tangonan, G. L.

    1981-01-01

    A planar Rowland spectrometer was fabricated and characterized as a wavelength demultiplexer for multimode fiber-optic applications. The spectrometer consisted of a planar multimode glass waveguide with two curved end faces and a cylindrical concave attached to one of the end faces. Semiconductor lasers with wavelengths between 0.825 and 0.845 micron were used for the measurements. Cross-talk isolation between two adjacent fibers with center-to-center separation of 175 microns (100 A in wavelength difference) was measured to be 18 dB. The device's performance was limited by grating diffraction efficiency, optical aberration, waveguide dispersion, and waveguide losses.

  2. Planar optical waveguides for optical panel having gradient refractive index core

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2004-08-24

    An optical panel is disclosed. A plurality of stacked planar optical waveguides are used to guide light from an inlet face to an outlet face of an optical panel. Each of the optical waveguides comprises a planar sheet of core material having a central plane. The core material has an index of refraction which decreases as the distance from the central plane increases. The decrease in the index of refraction occurs gradually and continuously.

  3. Planar optical waveguides for optical panel having gradient refractive index core

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2001-01-01

    An optical panel is disclosed. A plurality of stacked planar optical waveguides are used to guide light from an inlet face to an outlet face of an optical panel. Each of the optical waveguides comprises a planar sheet of core material having a central plane. The core material has an index of refraction which decreases as the distance from the central plane increases. The decrease in the index of refraction occurs gradually and continuously.

  4. Spatial and planar optical circuit for flexible ROADM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikama, Kota; Ikuma, Yuichiro; Suzuki, Kenya; Takahashi, Tetsuo

    2016-02-01

    A high port count wavelength selective switch (HPC-WSS) is a key component when constructing colorless, directionless, and contentionless ROADM because it provides increased flexibility and scalability. We have been developing HPC-WSSs by combining a waveguide-based optical frontend and free-space optics, which we call a spatial and planar optical circuit (SPOC) platform. In this paper, we present an HPC-WSS and a low-loss transponder aggregator based on a SPOC platform, and we also describe the reliability of the frontend, which is a key enabler for the SPOC platform.

  5. Improved spatiotemporal-multiplexing super-multiview display based on planar aligned OLED microdisplays.

    PubMed

    Teng, Dongdong; Pang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yueli; Wu, Dong; Wang, Jiahui; Liu, Lilin; Wang, Biao

    2015-08-24

    Through gating spectrum plane of multiple planar aligned OLED microdisplays by a timely sequential manner, a super-multiview (SMV) three-dimensional (3D) display based on spatiotemporal-multiplexing was developed in our previous paper. But an upper limit of the allowable sub-viewing-zones (SVZs) for an OLED microdisplay did exist in the previous system, even if microdisplays with very high frame rates could be commercially available. In this manuscript, an improved spatiotemporal-multiplexing SMV displays system is developed, which removes the above limitation through controllable fusing of light beams from adjacent OLED microdisplays. The employment of a liquid-crystal panel as the gating-aperture array allows the improved system to accommodate multiple rows of OLED microdisplays for denser SVZs. Experimentally, a prototype system is demonstrated by 24 OLED microdisplays, resulting in 120 SVZs with an interval small to 1.07mm. PMID:26368135

  6. Three-dimensional planar-integrated optics: a comparative view with free-space optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, El-Hang; Song, Seok Ho

    2000-04-01

    This paper reports on the viability, effectiveness, versatility, and the utility of the concept of the planar integrated optical interconnection scheme with respect to the concept of the free-space interconnection scheme in realizing multiple integration of various micro/nano- photonic devices and components for applications in optical interconnection, optical circuits, optical switching, optical communication and information processing. Several planar optics schemes to detect parallel optical packet addresses in WDM switching networks, to perform a space- variant processing such as fractional correlation, and to construct multistage interconnection networks, have been successfully demonstrated in the 3D glass blocks. Using a gradient-index (GRIN) substrate as a signal propagation medium in the planar optics is a unique advantage, when compared to the free-space optics. We have demonstrated the GRIN-substrate concept by using six 1/4-pitch GRIN rod lenses and a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL). The GRIN planar optics can be further extended to the use of 2D array of VCSEL microlasers and modulators in making massively parallel interconnects. A critical comparison between the planar integrated optics scheme and the free- space integrated scheme is given in terms of physics, engineering and technological concept.

  7. Micro biochemical sensor based on SOI planar optical waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yang; Dong, Ying

    2014-02-01

    A novel biochemical sensor based on planar optical waveguide is presented in this paper. The features of the sensor are as follows, the planar optical waveguide is made of SOI (Silicon-On-Insulator) material, a Mach Zehnder (M-Z) Interferometer structure is adopted as the sensing part, the sensor chip is fabricated using CMOS compatible technology and the size of the sensor chip is on the micron scale. Compared with the traditional biochemical sensors, this new type of sensor has such notable advantages as miniaturization, integration, high sensitivity and strong anti-interference capability, which provide the sensor with potential applications where traditional biochemical sensors cannot be used. At first, the benefits of SOI material comparing to other optical waveguide materials were analyzed in this paper. Then, according to the optical waveguide mode theory, M-Z interferometer waveguide was designed for the single mode behavior. By theoretical analysis of the radiation loss in the Y-junction of the planar waveguide interferometer, the relationship between the branch angle and the radiation loss was obtained. The power transfer function and the parametric equation of sensitivity of the M-Z interferometer were obtained through analysis of the waveguide structure. At last, the resolution of the effective refractive index and the characteristics of sensitivity of the sensor based on SOI M-Z Interferometer waveguide were simulated and analyzed by utilizing MATLAB software. As a result, the sensitivity of SOI M-Z Interferometer sensor can reach the order of 10-7 magnitude.

  8. Integrating optical glucose sensing into a planar waveguide sensor structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Aradhana; Deka, Bidyut; Sahu, Partha P.

    2013-06-01

    A device for glucose monitoring in people with diabetes is a clinical and research priority in the recent years for its accurate self management. An extensive theoretical design and development of an optical sensor is carried out incorporating planar waveguide structure in an endeavor to measure slight changes of glucose concentration. The sensor is simple and highly sensitive and has the potential to be used for online monitoring of blood glucose levels for the diabetic patients in the near future.

  9. Embedded planar glass waveguide optical interconnect for data centre applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitwon, Richard; Schröder, Henning; Brusberg, Lars; Graham-Jones, Jasper; Wang, Kai

    2013-02-01

    Electro-optical printed circuit boards (EOCB) based on planar multimode polymer channels are limited by dispersion in the step-index waveguide structures and increased optical absorption at the longer telecom wavelengths [1]. We present a promising technology for large panel EOCB based on holohedrally integrated glass foils. The planar multimode glass waveguides patterned into these glass foils have a graded-index structure, thereby giving rise to a larger bandwidthlength product compared to their polymer waveguide counterparts and lower absorbtion at the longer telecom wavelengths. This will allow glass waveguide based EOCBs to support the future bandwidth requirements inherent to large scale data centre and high performance computer subsystems while not incurring the same dispersion driven penalties on interconnect length or loss dependence on wavelength. To this end glass foil structuring technologies have been developed that are compatible with industrial PCB manufacturing processes. Established processes as well as new approaches were analysed for their eligibility and have been applied to the EOCB process. In addition a connector system has been designed, which would allow optical pluggability to glass waveguide EOCBs.

  10. Periodically multilayered planar optical concentrator for photovoltaic solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Solano, Manuel E.; Monk, Peter B.; Faryad, Muhammad; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Mallouk, Thomas E.

    2013-11-04

    A planar optical concentrator comprising a periodic multilayered isotropic dielectric material backed by a metallic surface-relief grating was theoretically examined for silicon photovoltaics. The concentrator was optimized using a differential evolution algorithm for solar-spectrum-integrated power-flux density. Further optimization was carried out for tolerance to variations in the incidence angle, spatial dimensions, and dielectric properties. The average electron-hole pair density in a silicon solar cell can be doubled, and the material costs substantially diminished by this concentrator, whose efficacy is due to the excitation of waveguide modes and multiple surface-plasmon-polariton waves in a broad spectral regime.

  11. Periodically multilayered planar optical concentrator for photovoltaic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano, Manuel E.; Faryad, Muhammad; Monk, Peter B.; Mallouk, Thomas E.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2013-11-01

    A planar optical concentrator comprising a periodic multilayered isotropic dielectric material backed by a metallic surface-relief grating was theoretically examined for silicon photovoltaics. The concentrator was optimized using a differential evolution algorithm for solar-spectrum-integrated power-flux density. Further optimization was carried out for tolerance to variations in the incidence angle, spatial dimensions, and dielectric properties. The average electron-hole pair density in a silicon solar cell can be doubled, and the material costs substantially diminished by this concentrator, whose efficacy is due to the excitation of waveguide modes and multiple surface-plasmon-polariton waves in a broad spectral regime.

  12. A planar ion trapping microdevice with integrated planar waveguide for optical detection

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Ms. Linan; Whitten, William B; Pau, Dr. Stanley

    2011-01-01

    A planar ion trap with an integrated waveguide was fabricated and characterized. The microdevice, consisting of a 1 mm-diameter one-hole ring trap and multi-mode optical waveguides, was made on a glass wafer using microfabrication techniques. The experimental results demonstrate that the microdevice can trap 1.5 m-150 m diameter charged particles in air under an alternating electric field with the amplitude and frequency varying from 100V-750V, and 100Hz-700Hz, respectively. The on-chip waveguide is capable of detecting the presence of a particle in the trap, and the particle secular motion frequency was found to depend on the input alternating signal amplitude and frequency.

  13. Interactive display system having a matrix optical detector

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.; DeSanto, Leonard

    2007-01-23

    A display system includes a waveguide optical panel having an inlet face and an opposite outlet face. An image beam is projected across the inlet face laterally and transversely for display on the outlet face. An optical detector including a matrix of detector elements is optically aligned with the inlet face for detecting a corresponding lateral and transverse position of an inbound light spot on the outlet face.

  14. Three-dimensional display utilizing a diffractive optical element and an active matrix liquid crystal display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, Gregory P.; Jones, Michael W.; Kulick, Jeffrey H.; Lindquist, Robert G.; Kowel, Stephen T.

    1996-12-01

    We describe the design, construction, and performance of the first real-time autostereoscopic 3D display based on the partial pixel 3D display architecture. The primary optical components of the 3D display are an active-matrix liquid crystal display and a diffractive optical element (DOE). The display operates at video frame rates and is driven with a conventional VGA signal. 3D animations with horizontal motion parallax are readily viewable as sets of stereo images. Formation of the virtual viewing slits by diffraction from the partial pixel apertures is experimentally verified. The measured contrast and perceived brightness of the display are excellent, but there are minor flaws in image quality due to secondary images. The source of these images and how they may be eliminated is discussed. The effects of manufacturing-related systematic errors in the DOE are also analyzed.

  15. Optical activity in planar chiral metamaterials: Theoretical study

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Benfeng; Svirko, Yuri; Turunen, Jari; Vallius, Tuomas

    2007-08-15

    A thorough theoretical study of the optical activity in planar chiral metamaterial (PCM) structures, made of both dielectric and metallic media, is conducted by the analysis of gammadion-shaped nanoparticle arrays. The general polarization properties are first analyzed from an effective-medium perspective, by analogy with natural optical activity, and then verified by rigorous numerical simulation, some of which are corroborated by previous experimental results. The numerical analysis suggests that giant polarization rotation (tens of degrees) may be achieved in the PCM structures with a thickness of only hundreds of nanometers. The artificial optical activity arises from circular birefringence induced by the structural chirality and is enhanced by the guided-mode or surface-plasmon resonances taking place in the structures. There are two polarization conversion types in the dielectric PCMs, whereas only one type in the metallic ones. Many intriguing features of the polarization property of PCMs are also revealed and explained: the polarization effect is reciprocal and vanishes in the symmetrically layered structures; the effect occurs only in the transmitted field, but not in the reflected field; and the polarization spectra of two enantiomeric PCM structures are mirror symmetric to each other. These remarkable properties pave the way for the PCMs to be used as polarization elements in new-generation integrated optical systems.

  16. Optical characterization of OLED displays with touch screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cropper, A. D.; Feldman, Rodney D.; Siwinski, Michael; Kilmer, Kathleen

    2002-02-01

    Brightness and color resolution, wider viewing angles, lower power consumption, and a thin aspect ratio are all well understood physical characteristics of organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays, an up-and-coming flat panel displays. Increasing numbers of applications of flat panel displays are being commercialized with touch screens. This paper will describe the optical characteristics of mating a touch screen with a full-color active matrix OLED display. We will quantify the OLED optical properties with respect to touch screens with matte finishes and anti-reflective topcoats, and with and without the use of a polarizer on the OLEDs top glass.

  17. A planar quasi-optical SIS receiver for array applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stimson, Philip A.; Dengler, Robert J.; Siegel, Peter H.; Leduc, Henry G.

    1992-01-01

    A planar, quasi-optical SIS receiver operating at 230 GHz is described. The receiver consists of a 2 x 5 array of half wave dipole antennas with ten niobium-aluminum oxide-niobium SIS junctions on a quartz dielectric-filled parabola. The 1.4 GHz intermediate frequency is coupled from the mixer via coplanar strip transmission lines and 4:1 balun transformers. The receiver is operated at 4.2 K in a liquid helium immersion cryostat. We report accurate measurements of the performance of single receiver elements. A mixer noise temperature of 89 K DSB, receiver noise temperature of 156 K DSB, and conversion loss of 3 dB into a matched load have been obtained.

  18. Holographic optical assembly and photopolymerized joining of planar microspheres

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Shaw, L. A.; Chizari, S.; Panas, R. M.; Shusteff, M.; Spadaccini, C. M.; Hopkins, J. B.

    2016-07-27

    The aim of this research is to demonstrate a holographically driven photopolymerization process for joining colloidal particles to create planar microstructures fixed to a substrate, which can be monitored with real-time measurement. Holographic optical tweezers (HOT) have been used to arrange arrays of microparticles prior to this work; here we introduce a new photopolymerization process for rapidly joining simultaneously handled microspheres in a plane. Additionally, we demonstrate a new process control technique for efficiently identifying when particles have been successfully joined by measuring a sufficient reduction in the particles’ Brownian motion. Furthermore, this technique and our demonstrated joining approach enablemore » HOT technology to take critical steps toward automated additive fabrication of microstructures.« less

  19. Holographic optical assembly and photopolymerized joining of planar microspheres.

    PubMed

    Shaw, L A; Chizari, S; Panas, R M; Shusteff, M; Spadaccini, C M; Hopkins, J B

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this research is to demonstrate a holographically driven photopolymerization process for joining colloidal particles to create planar microstructures fixed to a substrate, which can be monitored with real-time measurement. Holographic optical tweezers (HOT) have been used to arrange arrays of microparticles prior to this work; here we introduce a new photopolymerization process for rapidly joining simultaneously handled microspheres in a plane. Additionally, we demonstrate a new process control technique for efficiently identifying when particles have been successfully joined by measuring a sufficient reduction in the particles' Brownian motion. This technique and our demonstrated joining approach enable HOT technology to take critical steps toward automated additive fabrication of microstructures. PMID:27472621

  20. Photorefractive materials for optical storage and display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, R. R.; Kim, D. M.; Rabson, T. A.; Tittel, F. K.

    1976-01-01

    Real-time data storage and processing using optical techniques have been considered in recent years. Of particular interest are photosensitive electro-optic crystals which permit volume storage in the form of phase holograms, by means of a charge transfer process. A survey of the state of the art of such holographic memories is presented. The physical mechanism responsible for the formation of phase holograms in such crystals is discussed. Attention is focused on various aspects of materials characterization, development and utilization. Experimental reversible holographic read-write memory systems with fast random access and high storage capacity employing this new class of photosensitive materials have already been demonstrated.

  1. Planar integrated polymer-based optical strain sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelb, Christian; Reithmeier, Eduard; Roth, Bernhard

    2014-03-01

    In this work we present a new type of optical strain sensor that can be manufactured by MEMS typical processes such as photolithography or by hot embossing. Such sensors can be of interest for a range of new applications in structural health monitoring for buildings and aircraft, process control and life science. The approach aims at high sensitivity and dynamic range for 1D and 2D sensing of mechanical strain and can also be extended to quantities such as pressure, force, and humidity. The sensor consists of an array of planar polymer-based multimode waveguides whose output light is guided through a measurement area and focused onto a second array of smaller detection waveguides by using micro-optical elements. Strain induced in the measurement area varies the distance between the two waveguide arrays, thus, changing the coupling efficiency. This, in turn, leads to a variation in output intensity or wavelength which is monitored. We performed extensive optical simulations in order to identify the optimal sensor layout with regard to either resolution or measurement range or both. Since the initial approach relies on manufacturing polymer waveguides with cross sections between 20×20 μm2 and 100×100 μm2 the simulations were carried out using raytracing models. For the readout of the sensor a simple fitting algorithm is proposed.

  2. Design methodology of focusing elements for multilevel planar optical systems in optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Hafiz, Md. Abdullah; MacKenzie, Mark R.; Kwok, Chee-Yee

    2009-12-01

    We present a simple technique to determine the design parameters of an optical interconnect system that uses integral planar lenses. The technique is based on the ABCD transformation matrix method. This analysis technique is significantly simpler and more efficient than the previously published methods for finding the design parameters and predicting the coupling efficiency of the system. The proposed method is applied to compute the coupling efficiency of single- and two-level optical systems.

  3. Fabrication of hollow optical waveguides on planar substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, John P.

    This dissertation presents the fabrication of hollow optical waveguides integrated on planar substrates. Similar in principle to Bragg waveguides and other photonic crystal waveguides, the antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide (ARROW) is used to guide light in hollow cores filled with liquids or gases. Waveguides with liquid or gas cores are an important new building block for integrated optical sensors. The fabrication method developed for hollow ARROW waveguides makes use of standard microfabrication processes and materials. Dielectric layers are deposited on a silicon wafer using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) to form the bottom layers of the ARROW waveguide. A sacrificial core material is then deposited and patterned. Core materials used include aluminum, SU-8 and reflowed photoresist, each resulting in a different core geometry. Additional dielectric layers are then deposited, forming the top and sides of the waveguide. The sacrificial core is then removed in an acid solution, resulting in a hollow ARROW waveguide. Experiments investigating the mechanical strength of the hollow waveguides and the etching characteristics of the sacrificial core suggest design rules for the different core types. Integration of solid-core waveguides is accomplished by etching a ridge into the top dielectric layer of the ARROW structure. Improved optical performance can be obtained by forming the waveguides on top of a raised pedestal on the silicon substrate. Loss measurements on hollow ARROW waveguides fabricated in this manner gave loss coefficients of 0.26 cm-1 for liquid-core waveguides and 2.6 cm-1 for air-core waveguides. Fluorescence measurements in liquid-core ARROW waveguides have achieved single-molecule detection sensitivity. Integrated optical filters based on ARROW waveguides were fabricated, and preliminary results of a capillary electrophoresis separation device using a hollow ARROW indicate the feasibility of such devices for future

  4. Ultrafast Optical Beam Deflection in a Planar Waveguide for High Dynamic Range Recording at Picosecond Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Sarantos, C H; Heebner, J E

    2008-07-02

    We report the latest performance of an ultrafast, all-optical beam deflector based on a prism array imprinted in a planar waveguide. The deflector enables single-shot, high dynamic range optical recording with picosecond resolution.

  5. Planarization of amorphous silicon thin film transistors for high-aperture-ratio and large-area active-matrix liquid crystal displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Je-Hsiung

    The reduction of the backlight power consumption and the improvement of the display image uniformity for future large-area and high-resolution active-matrix liquid- crystal displays (AM-LCDs) are very important. One possible method to achieve the former goal is to increase the pixel electrode aperture-ratio. This can be realized by overlapping the pixel electrode with both gate/data buslines. While for the latter, reduction of the RC-delay by using a low resistance gate metal line is the key. Both of these approaches can be realized by using planarization technology. In this dissertation, the planarization technology based on low dielectric constant organic polymer, benzocyclobutene (BCB), is demonstrated, and this technology has been successfully applied to hydrogenated amorphous-silicon (a-Si:H) thin-film transistor (TFT) arrays and thick metal gate buslines/electrodes. Through the planarization technology, a high-aperture-ratio (HAR) pixel electrode structure has been fabricated. The parasitic capacitance and crosstalk issues in the HAR pixel electrode have been studied through interconnect analysis and circuit simulation. The impact of the parasitic capacitance on display performances, such as feedthrough voltage, vertical crosstalk, pixel electrode aperture-ratio, pixel charging behavior, and gate busline RC-delay issues, has been thoroughly discussed. Some key issues during the process integration of the HAR pixel electrode structure have been addressed. These include the BCB contact via formation, the patterning of the ITO pixel electrodes on BCB layer, the selection of Ar plasma treatment conditions for BCB surface, and the optical transmittance evaluation of the ITO/BCB double-layer structure. In addition, the BCB passivation effects on back-channel etched type a-Si:H TFTs have been investigated. It is found that there is no degradation in the TFT electrical performance and reliability after the BCB passivation. Finally, the planarization technology is

  6. Electronic displays using optically pumped luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Shimon; Schlamp, Michael C.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2011-09-27

    A multicolor electronic display is based on an array of luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals. Nanocrystals which emit light of different colors are grouped into pixels. The nanocrystals are optically pumped to produce a multicolor display. Different sized nanocrystals are used to produce the different colors. A variety of pixel addressing systems can be used.

  7. Electronic displays using optically pumped luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Shimon; Schlamp, Michael C.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2005-03-08

    A multicolor electronic display is based on an array of luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals. Nanocrystals which emit light of different colors are grouped into pixels. The nanocrystals are optically pumped to produce a multicolor display. Different sized nanocrystals are used to produce the different colors. A variety of pixel addressing systems can be used.

  8. Electronic displays using optically pumped luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Shimon; Schlamp, Michael C.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2015-06-23

    A multicolor electronic display is based on an array of luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals. Nanocrystals which emit light of different colors are grouped into pixels. The nanocrystals are optically pumped to produce a multicolor display. Different sized nanocrystals are used to produce the different colors. A variety of pixel addressing systems can be used.

  9. Electronic displays using optically pumped luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Shimon; Schlamp, Michael C; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2014-02-11

    A multicolor electronic display is based on an array of luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals. Nanocrystals which emit light of different colors are grouped into pixels. The nanocrystals are optically pumped to produce a multicolor display. Different sized nanocrystals are used to produce the different colors. A variety of pixel addressing systems can be used.

  10. Electronic displays using optically pumped luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Shimon; Schlam, Michael C; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2014-03-25

    A multicolor electronic display is based on an array of luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals. Nanocrystals which emit tight of different colors are grouped into pixels. The nanocrystals are optically pumped to produce a multicolor display. Different sized nanocrystals are used to produce the different colors. A variety of pixel addressing systems can be used.

  11. Electronic displays using optically pumped luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Shimon; Schlamp, Michael C.; Alivisatos, Paul A.

    2015-11-10

    A multicolor electronic display is based on an array of luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals. Nanocrystals which emit tight of different colors are grouped into pixels. The nanocrystals are optically pumped to produce a multicolor display. Different sized nanocrystals are used to produce the different colors. A variety of pixel addressing systems can be used.

  12. Electronic displays using optically pumped luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Shimon; Schlamp, Michael C.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2010-04-13

    A multicolor electronic display is based on an array of luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals. Nanocrystals which emit light of different colors are grouped into pixels. The nanocrystals are optically pumped to produce a multicolor display. Different sized nanocrystals are used to produce the different colors. A variety of pixel addressing systems can be used.

  13. Organic transistors in optical displays and microelectronic applications.

    PubMed

    Gelinck, Gerwin; Heremans, Paul; Nomoto, Kazumasa; Anthopoulos, Thomas D

    2010-09-01

    Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) offer unprecedented opportunities for implementation in a broad range of technological applications spanning from large-volume microelectronics and optical displays to chemical and biological sensors. In this Progress Report, we review the application of organic transistors in the fields of flexible optical displays and microelectronics. The advantages associated with the use of OTFT technology are discussed with primary emphasis on the latest developments in the area of active-matrix electrophoretic and organic light-emitting diode displays based on OTFT backplanes and on the application of organic transistors in microelectronics including digital and analog circuits. PMID:20533415

  14. Flat or curved thin optical display panel

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-01-10

    An optical panel includes a plurality of waveguides stacked together, with each waveguide having a first end and an opposite second end. The first ends collectively define a first face, and the second ends collectively define a second face of the panel. The second face is disposed at an acute face angle relative to the waveguides to provide a panel which is relatively thin compared to the height of the second face. In an exemplary embodiment for use in a projection TV, the first face is substantially smaller in height than the second face and receives a TV image, with the second face defining a screen for viewing the image enlarged. 7 figures.

  15. Optical properties of planar nematic liquid crystals samples which are parallel oriented by nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusuf, Yusril; Kusumasari, Ervanggis Minggar; Ula, Nur Mufidatul; Jahidah, Khannah; Triyana, Kuwat; Sosiati, Harini; Harsojo

    2016-04-01

    Optical properties of two nematic liquid crystals, i.e., 4-methoxybenzylidene-4-butylaniline (MBBA) and 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5 CB) which are parallel oriented by nanofibers has been successfully performed. Planar samples of liquid crystals were made using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofiber from electrospinning process. Electrospinning method was modified using copper (Cu) as gap collector. These planar samples area are 15 mm x 25 mm. Optical characteristic of these samples were studied by using optical polarizing microscope. The optical intensity changes by a rotationof crossed polarizers is observed. The sinusoidal intensity change was observedin these samples as such as in the planar sample prepared by the rubbing method.

  16. Flat or curved thin optical display panel

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    1995-01-10

    An optical panel 10 includes a plurality of waveguides 12 stacked together, with each waveguide 12 having a first end 12a and an opposite second end 12b. The first ends 12a collectively define a first face 16, and the second ends 12b collectively define a second face 18 of the panel 10. The second face 18 is disposed at an acute face angle relative to the waveguides 12 to provide a panel 10 which is relatively thin compared to the height of the second face. In an exemplary embodiment for use in a projection TV, the first face 16 is substantially smaller in height than the second face 18 and receives a TV image, with the second face 18 defining a screen for viewing the image enlarged.

  17. Midlatitude cirrus cloud climatology from the Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing. IV. Optical displays.

    PubMed

    Sassen, Kenneth; Zhu, Jiang; Benson, Sally

    2003-01-20

    In this fourth of a series of papers that describe long-term cloud research at the Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing at Salt Lake City, Utah, an approximately 10-year record of polarization lidar and photographic observations is analyzed to characterize the occurrence of optical displays in our local varieties of midlatitude cirrus clouds. The frequencies of occurrence of various types of halo, arc, and corona displays are evaluated according to their appearance and longevity over nominal 1-h observation periods and to the meteorological source of the cirrus. We find that complex halo-arc displays are rare at our locale and that even the so-called common 22 degree halo occurs infrequently as a complete long-lived ring. For example, only approximately 6% of the 1561-h daytime cirrus periods have bright and prolonged 22 degree halos, although a total of 37.3% have some indications of this halo, even if they are brief and fragmentary. Other fairly frequent features are the 22 degree upper tangent arc (8.6%), 22 degree parhelia (8.5%), and solar corona (7.2%). Of the optical displays observed, 83.6% are refraction based, only 1.9% are due to reflection phenomena, and a surprising 15.4% are caused by diffraction. Complex halo-arc displays are disproportionally associated with cirrus formed in tropical or subtropical airflow and also contain more horizontally oriented planar ice crystals. Lidar linear depolarization ratios from a subset of vivid displays show significant differences between halo- and the corona-producing cirrus, reflecting the effects of particle shape. Halos are associated with relatively warm cirrus that contain randomly and horizontally oriented planar ice crystals, whereas the colder corona cirrus produce much stronger depolarization from crystals too small to be uniformly oriented. Comparisons are made with available information from other locales, and we attempt to explain the geographical differences in terms of basic cirrus cloud processes

  18. Nonblocking optical planar switching matrices of short length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giglmayr, Josef

    2001-05-01

    Planar switching matrices of parallel waveguides (WGs) have reduced loss due to the absence of tapering but require some confinement of wave propagation reported from Kerr nonlinearities (NL). Parallel switching matrices are fed by the multiple splitting of the input WGs, an appropriate network model is the parallel version of the Spanke-Benes (PSB) network and the reduction of the number of stages (NSs) below N (for N i/o) is analyzed. However, in the parallel case, regarding WGs and SB networks, the location of switches can no longer be fixed but must be a moving location (ML). From the several parallel paths through the PSB network the shortest path is chosen either at the end by path selection switches (PS-SWs) or at the beginning of the switching matrix, respectively. It turns out that the reduction of NS of the switching matrix and in turn the saving of the number of switches (NSWs) is compensated by the number of PS-SWs at the end or at the beginning of the matrix. The replacement of the PS-SWs by combiners at the output (i) restores the energy balance but (ii) causes phase mismatch (iii) provides redundant paths (iv) restricts the overall NS to the NS of the SB network for each copy but (v) improves the nonblocking (NB) characteristic. The routing of the switching matrices and their optical implementation is also briefly discussed.

  19. Design of an ultra-thin near-eye display with geometrical waveguide and freeform optics.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dewen; Wang, Yongtian; Xu, Chen; Song, Weitao; Jin, Guofan

    2014-08-25

    Small thickness and light weight are two important requirements for a see-through near-eye display which are achieved in this paper by using two advanced technologies: geometrical waveguide and freeform optics. A major problem associated with the geometrical waveguide is the stray light which can severely degrade the display quality. The causes and solutions to this problem are thoroughly studied. A mathematical model of the waveguide is established and a non-sequential ray tracing algorithm is developed, which enable us to carefully examine the stray light of the planar waveguide and explore a global searching method to find an optimum design with the least amount of stray light. A projection optics using freeform surfaces on a wedge shaped prism is also designed. The near-eye display integrating the projection optics and the waveguide has a field of view of 28°, an exit pupil diameter of 9.6mm and an exit pupil distance of 20mm. In our final design, the proportion of the stray light energy over the image output energy of the waveguide is reduced to 2%, the modulation transfer function values across the entire field of the eyepiece are above 0.5 at 30 line pairs/mm (lps/mm). A proof-of-concept prototype of the proposed geometrical waveguide near-eye display is developed and demonstrated. PMID:25321274

  20. Electro-optical switching and memory display device

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, Terje A.; O'Grady, William E.; Linkous, Clovis A.

    1986-01-01

    An electro-optical display device having a housing with wall means including one transparent wall and at least one other wall. Counter electrodes are positioned on the transparent wall and display electrodes are positioned on the other wall with both electrodes in electrically conductive relationship with an electrolyte. Circuit means are connected to the display and counter electrodes to apply different predetermined control potentials between them. The display electrodes are covered with a thin electrically conductive polymer film that is characterized according to the invention by having embedded in it pigment molecules as counter ions. The display device is operable to be switched to a plurality of different visual color states at an exceptionally rapid switching rate while each of the color states is characterized by possessing good color intensity and definition.

  1. Electro-optical switching and memory display device

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, T.A.; O'Grady, W.E.; Linkous, C.A.

    1983-12-29

    An electro-optical display device having a housing with wall means including one transparent wall and at least one other wall. Counter electrodes are positioned on the transparent wall and display electrodes are positioned on the other wall with both electrodes in electrically conductive relationship with an electrolyte. Circuits means are connected to the display and counter electrodes to apply different predetermined control potentials between them. The display electrodes are covered with a thin electrically conductive polymer film that is characterized according to the invention by having embedded in it pigment molecules as counter ions. The display device is operable to be switched to a plurality of different visual color states at an exceptionally rapid switching rate while each of the color states is characterized by possessing good color intensity and definition.

  2. Optimization of the polyplanar optical display electronics for a monochrome B-52 display

    SciTech Connect

    DeSanto, L.

    1998-04-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. The prototype ten-inch display is two inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. In order to achieve a long lifetime, the new display uses a new 200 mW green solid-state laser (10,000 hr. life) at 532 nm as its light source. To produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments (TI). In order to use the solid-state laser as the light source and also fit within the constraints of the B-52 display, the Digital Micromirror Device (DMD{trademark}) chip is operated remotely from the Texas Instruments circuit board. In order to achieve increased brightness a monochrome digitizing interface was investigated. The operation of the DMD{trademark} divorced from the light engine and the interfacing of the DMD{trademark} board with the RS-170 video format specific to the B-52 aircraft will be discussed, including the increased brightness of the monochrome digitizing interface. A brief description of the electronics required to drive the new 200 mW laser is also presented.

  3. Diffractive optics for compact flat panel displays. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, D.; DeLong, K.

    1997-04-29

    Three years ago LLNL developed a practical method to dramatically reduce the chromatic aberration in single element diffractive imaging lenses. High efficiency, achromatic imaging lenses have been fabricated for human vision correction. This LDRD supported research in applying our new methods to develop a unique, diffraction-based optical interface with solid state, microelectronic imaging devices. Advances in microelectronics have led to smaller, more efficient components for optical systems. There have, however, been no equivalent advances in the imaging optics associated with these devices. The goal of this project was to replace the bulky, refractive optics in typical head-mounted displays with micro-thin diffractive optics to directly image flat-panel displays into the eye. To visualize the system think of the lenses of someone`s eyeglasses becoming flat-panel displays. To realize this embodiment, we needed to solve the problems of large chromatic aberrations and low efficiency that are associated with diffraction. We have developed a graceful tradeoff between chromatic aberrations and the diffractive optic thickness. It turns out that by doubling the thickness of a micro-thin diffractive lens we obtain nearly a two-times improvement in chromatic performance. Since the human eye will tolerate one diopter of chromatic aberration, we are able to achieve an achromatic image with a diffractive lens that is only 20 microns thick, versus 3 mm thickness for the comparable refractive lens. Molds for the diffractive lenses are diamond turned with sub-micron accuracy; the final lenses are cast from these molds using various polymers. We thus retain both the micro- thin nature of the diffractive optics and the achromatic image quality of refractive optics. During the first year of funding we successfully extended our earlier technology from 1 cm diameter optics required for vision applications up to the 5 cm diameter optics required for this application. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  4. [Optical Design of Miniature Infrared Gratings Spectrometer Based on Planar Waveguide].

    PubMed

    Li, Yang-yu; Fang, Yong-hua; Li, Da-cheng; Liu, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In order to miniaturize an infrared spectrometer, we analyze the current optical design of miniature spectrometers and propose a method for designing a miniature infrared gratings spectrometer based on planar waveguide. Common miniature spectrometer uses miniature optical elements to reduce the size of system, which also shrinks the effective aperture. So the performance of spectrometer has dropped. Miniaturization principle of planar waveguide spectrometer is different from the principle of common miniature spectrometer. In planar waveguide spectrometer, the propagation of light is limited in a thin planar waveguide, which looks like the whole optical system is squashed flat. In the direction parallel to the planar waveguide, the light through the slit is collimated, dispersed and focused. And a spectral image is formed in the detector plane. This propagation of light is similar to the light in common miniature spectrometer. In the direction perpendicular to the planar waveguide, light is multiple reflected by the upper and lower surfaces of the planar waveguide and propagates in the waveguide. So the size of corresponding optical element could be very small in the vertical direction, which can reduce the size of the optical system. And the performance of the spectrometer is still good. The design method of the planar waveguide spectrometer can be separated into two parts, Czerny-Turner structure design and planar waveguide structure design. First, by using aberration theory an aberration-corrected (spherical aberration, coma, focal curve) Czerny-Turner structure is obtained. The operation wavelength range and spectral resolution are also fixed. Then, by using geometrical optics theory a planar waveguide structure is designed for reducing the system size and correcting the astigmatism. The planar waveguide structure includes a planar waveguide and two cylindrical lenses. Finally, they are modeled together in optical design software and are optimized as a whole. An

  5. Planar Waveguides Formed by Ag Na Ion Exchange in Nonlinear Optical Glasses: Diffusion and Optical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Marc; Videau, Jean J.; Canioni, Lionel; Adamietz, Frédéric; Sarger, Laurent; Le Flem, Gilles

    2000-01-01

    All-optical communication systems are the subject of intense research related to the integration of nonlinear optical materials. In sodiocalcic borophosphate glasses that contain niobium oxide and exhibit high nonlinear optical indices, planar waveguides have been formed by a Ag Na ion-exchange technique. WKB analysis has been used to characterize the diffusion profiles of silver ions exchanged in glass substrate samples chemically by an electron microprobe technique and optically by an M -line technique. These methods permit the Ag penetration depth and diffusion profile shape and index profiles to be determined. The results are analyzed and discussed in relation to Ca 2 concentration and exchange conditions in glasses. The Ag diffusion in these glasses can be almost entirely controlled for index-profile engineering.

  6. Integrated Optics for Astronomical Interferometry. III. Optical Validation of a Planar Optics Two-Telescope Beam Combiner.

    PubMed

    Haguenauer, P; Berger, J P; Rousselet-Perraut, K; Kern, P; Malbet, F; Schanen-Duport, I; Benech, P

    2000-05-01

    The optical characterization of a fiber-connected planar optics beam combiner dedicated to astronomical interferometry for two telescopes is presented. The beam combiner, fully integrated on a single 5 mm x 40 mm glass chip, is tested as the central part of an astronomical instrument. The single-mode waveguides are made by silver-ion-exchange technology upon glass substrates and provide spatial filtering, which improves the visibility measurement accuracy by selecting only the fundamental mode of the beams at the telescope focal plane. A global optical throughput of 43% is measured, and the sources of losses are identified and examined in detail. Solutions for improving this throughput are proposed. High and stable contrasts are obtained with a 1.55-mum laser diode (?96%) and with a white-light source (~92%) in the astronomical H filter (1.43 mum; 1.77 mum). The need for accurate control of differential instrumental polarization is demonstrated. In this context the intrinsic polarization-maintaining property of the planar optics component is characterized. This validation of the important potential uses of integrated planar optics should be valuable for future design of optical telescope arrays. PMID:18345117

  7. Planarization coating for polyimide substrates used in roll-to-roll fabrication of active matrix backplanes for flexible displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almanza-Workman, A. Marcia; Jeans, Albert; Braymen, Steve; Elder, Richard E.; Garcia, Robert A.; de la Fuente Vornbrock, Alejandro; Hauschildt, Jason; Holland, Edward; Jackson, Warren; Jam, Mehrban; Jeffrey, Frank; Junge, Kelly; Kim, Han-Jun; Kwon, Ohseung; Larson, Don; Luo, Hao; Maltabes, John; Mei, Ping; Perlov, Craig; Smith, Mark; Stieler, Dan; Taussig, Carl P.; Trovinger, Steve; Zhao, Lihua

    2012-03-01

    Good surface quality of plastic substrates is essential to reduce pixel defects during roll-to-roll fabrication of flexible display active matrix backplanes. Standard polyimide substrates have a high density of "bumps" from fillers and belt marks and other defects from dust and surface scratching. Some of these defects could be the source of shunts in dielectrics. The gate dielectric must prevent shorts between the source/drain and the gate in the transistors, resist shorts in the hold capacitor and stop shorts in the data/gate line crossovers in active matrix backplanes fabricated by self-aligned imprint lithography (SAIL) roll-to-roll processes. Otherwise data and gate lines will become shorted creating line or pixel defects. In this paper, we discuss the development of a proprietary UV curable planarization material that can be coated by roll-to-roll processes. This material was engineered to have low shrinkage, excellent adhesion to polyimide, high dry etch resistance, and great chemical and thermal stability. Results from PECVD deposition of an amorphous silicon stack on the planarized polyimide and compatibility with roll-to-roll processes to fabricate active matrix backplanes are also discussed. The effect of the planarization on defects in the stack, shunts in the dielectric and curvature of finished arrays will also be described.

  8. Optical characterization and measurements of autostereoscopic 3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmimaa, Marja; Järvenpää, Toni

    2008-04-01

    3D or autostereoscopic display technologies offer attractive solutions for enriching the multimedia experience. However, both characterization and comparison of 3D displays have been challenging when the definitions for the consistent measurement methods have been lacking and displays with similar specifications may appear quite different. Earlier we have investigated how the optical properties of autostereoscopic (3D) displays can be objectively measured and what are the main characteristics defining the perceived image quality. In this paper the discussion is extended to cover the viewing freedom (VF) and the definition for the optimum viewing distance (OVD) is elaborated. VF is the volume inside which the eyes have to be to see an acceptable 3D image. Characteristics limiting the VF space are proposed to be 3D crosstalk, luminance difference and color difference. Since the 3D crosstalk can be presumed to be dominating the quality of the end user experience and in our approach is forming the basis for the calculations of the other optical parameters, the reliability of the 3D crosstalk measurements is investigated. Furthermore the effect on the derived VF definition is evaluated. We have performed comparison 3D crosstalk measurements with different measurement device apertures and the effect of different measurement geometry on the results on actual 3D displays is reported.

  9. Planar super-oscillatory lens for sub-diffraction optical needles at violet wavelengths

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Guanghui; Rogers, Edward T. F.; Roy, Tapashree; Adamo, Giorgio; Shen, Zexiang; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2014-01-01

    Planar optical lenses are fundamental elements of miniaturized photonic devices. However, conventional planar optical lenses are constrained by the diffraction limit in the optical far-field due to the band-limited wavevectors supported by free-space and loss of high-spatial-frequency evanescent components. As inspired by Einstein's radiation ‘needle stick', electromagnetic energy can be delivered into an arbitrarily small solid angle. Such sub-diffraction optical needles have been numerically investigated using diffractive optical elements (DOEs) together with specially polarized optical beams, but experimental demonstration is extremely difficult due to the bulky size of DOEs and the required alignment precision. Planar super-oscillatory lenses (SOLs) were proposed to overcome these constraints and demonstrated that sub-diffraction focal spots can actually be formed without any evanescent waves, making far-field, label-free super-resolution imaging possible. Here we extend the super-oscillation concept into the vectorial-field regime to work with circularly polarized light, and experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, a circularly polarized optical needle with sub-diffraction transverse spot size (0.45λ) and axial long depth of focus (DOF) of 15λ using a planar SOL at a violet wavelength of 405 nm. This sub-diffraction circularly polarized optical needle has potential applications in circular dichroism spectroscopy, super-resolution imaging, high-density optical storage, heat-assisted magnetic recording, nano-manufacturing and nano-metrology. PMID:25208611

  10. Fourier holographic display for augmented reality using holographic optical element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Lee, Dukho; Jeong, Youngmo; Lee, Byoungho

    2016-03-01

    A method for realizing a three-dimensional see-through augmented reality in Fourier holographic display is proposed. A holographic optical element (HOE) with the function of Fourier lens is adopted in the system. The Fourier hologram configuration causes the real scene located behind the lens to be distorted. In the proposed method, since the HOE is transparent and it functions as the lens just for Bragg matched condition, there is not any distortion when people observe the real scene through the lens HOE (LHOE). Furthermore, two optical characteristics of the recording material are measured for confirming the feasibility of using LHOE in the proposed see-through augmented reality holographic display. The results are verified experimentally.

  11. Displaying optic flow to simulate locomotion: Comparing heading and steering

    PubMed Central

    Kountouriotis, Georgios K.; Wilkie, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Optic flow can be used by humans to determine their direction of heading as well as controlling steering. Dot-flow displays have been widely used to investigate these abilities but it is unclear whether photorealistic textures would provide better information for controlling high-speed steering. Here, we examine the accuracy of heading judgements from dot-flow displays of different densities and luminance and then compare to a scene containing a textured ground. We then examine steering behaviour using these same displays to determine whether accurate heading conditions necessarily equate to successful steering. Our findings suggest that the bright dense dot-flow displays led to equivalent performance as the ground texture when judging heading, and this was also true when steering. The intermediate dot-flow conditions (with fewer and faded dots) revealed that some conditions that led to accurate heading judgements were insufficient for accurate steering. It seems, therefore, that heading perception should not be considered synonymous with successful steering control, and displays that support one ability will not necessarily support the other. PMID:24349692

  12. Trigonal Planar [HgSe3](4-) Unit: A New Kind of Basic Functional Group in IR Nonlinear Optical Materials with Large Susceptibility and Physicochemical Stability.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Yin, Wenlong; Gong, Pifu; Li, Xiaoshuang; Zhou, Molin; Mar, Arthur; Lin, Zheshuai; Yao, Jiyong; Wu, Yicheng; Chen, Chuangtian

    2016-05-18

    A new mercury selenide BaHgSe2 was synthesized. This air-stable compound displays a large nonlinear optical (NLO) response and melts congruently. The structure contains chains of corner-sharing [HgSe3](4-) anions in the form of trigonal planar units, which may serve as a new kind of basic functional group in IR NLO materials to confer large NLO susceptibilities and physicochemical stability. Such trigonal planar units may inspire a path to finding new classes of IR NLO materials of practical utility that are totally different from traditional chalcopyrite materials. PMID:27140482

  13. Aero-optics: Simultaneous MHz Rate Planar Flow Visualization and Optical Wavefront Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurow, Brian; Samimy, Mo; Lempert, Walter; Harris, Scott; Widiker, Jeff; Duncan, Bradley

    2002-11-01

    In response to a need for more detailed understanding of aero-optic effects in realistic flows (high-speed and compressible), we apply very recently developed MHz rate planar diagnostic techniques to simultaneously perform flow visualization and wavefront measurement on a Mach 1.3 rectangular jet. A custom-built pulse burst laser is used to produce 17 pulses (10 nsec duration) with inter-pulse timing of 4 microseconds (250 kHz). The pulses were formed into a laser sheet and illuminated the mixing layer in a streamwise plane of a Mach 1.3 rectangular, aspect ratio 3 jet. Images were captured using a Dalsa 64K1M camera that can record 17 images at framing rates as high as 1 MHz. Optical wavefronts were measured at rates up to 1 MHz using a newly designed Shack-Hartmann (SH) wavefront sensor. A 10 mW HeNe laser beam was spatially filtered and expanded to a 2.5 cm diameter and passed through the center of the rectangular jet 8 nozzle exit heights downstream of the nozzle exit. A lenslet array (1.024 mm pitch, 260 mm f. l.) and a -1000 mm f. l. lens are used to form a grid pattern of dots onto a PSI-IV camera capable of capturing 28 frames at 1 MHz framing rates. The camera was operated at 500 kHz and imaged a 6 x 6 pattern of dots. The displacement of each dot corresponds to the local wavefront tilt induced by the jet as the initially planar wavefront passes through the flow. Results are being analyzed to obtain a correlation between turbulence structures contained in the mixing layer of the jet and the optical distortion produced by these structures.

  14. Time multiplexed optical shutter (TMOS) display technology for avionics platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selbrede, M.; Yost, B.

    2006-05-01

    Time Multiplexed Optical Shutter (TMOS) is a new approach to flat panel light valve display technology that addresses display requirements in avionics applications, particularly head-down cockpit deployments. TMOS modulates the local transmission of light from a waveguide coextensive with the screen. The architecture requires fewer, larger on-screen features (e.g., TFTs) than prevailing technologies because it exploits field sequential color techniques. Methods to mitigate color break up are presented. TMOS exhibits lower power consumption, lower weight, a simplified architecture, and better visual quality than incumbent display technologies while overcoming their limitations (e.g., poor light efficiency, and size/weight constraints due to yield and backlighting). TMOS should meet avionics needs without additional ruggedization enhancements, offers high immunity to EMP, and can be constructed from transparent materials (allowing z-axis redundancy to improve cockpit ergonomics). Respecting the avionics market, TMOS has advantages over incumbent display technologies, including lower sensitivity to temperature variation, greater immunity to vibration, higher system efficacy (power in to light out), and larger dimming ratios. The status of TMOS development and its fit within avionics applications is addressed.

  15. Repetitive formation of optically-observable planar lipid bilayers by rotating chambers on a microaperture.

    PubMed

    Tomoike, Fumiaki; Tonooka, Taishi; Osaki, Toshihisa; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2016-07-01

    Optical observation of a planar lipid bilayer is an effective method of lipid bilayer characterization. However, previous methods for optically observable lipid bilayer formation are unsuitable for repetitive formation of lipid bilayers. In this paper, we propose a system that facilitates repetitive formation of horizontal lipid bilayers via mechanical rotation of the rotating part. We show that multiple bilayers can be observed within a short period, and that the electrical and optical characteristics of a bilayer can be analyzed simultaneously. PMID:27256329

  16. Micro-Optic Color Separation Technology for Efficient Projection Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunning, W. J.; Boehmer, E.

    1997-01-01

    Phase 1 of this project focused on development of an overall optical concept which incorporated a single liquid crystal spatial light modulator. The system achieved full color by utilizing an echelon grating, which diffracted the incident light into three orders with different color spectra, in combination with a microlens array, which spatially separated RGB bands and directed the light of the appropriate wavelength to the appropriate color dot. Preliminary echelon grating designs were provided by MIT/LL and reviewed by Rockwell. Additional Rockwell activities included the Identification of microlens designs, light sources (ILC), and projection optics to fulfill the overall design requirements. An Internal subcontract was established with Rockwell's Collins Avionics and Communications Division (CACD) which specified the liquid crystal SLM (Sharp Model No. LQ 46EO2) and built the projection display baseline projector. Full Color projected video images were produced and shown at the 1995 HDS meeting in Washington. Analysis of the luminance performance of the projector and detailed parameter trade studies helped define the dependence of overall display efficiency on lamp collimation, and indicated that a lamp with very small arc dimension is required for the optical concept to be viable.

  17. Display system employing acousto-optic tunable filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, James L. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) is employed to generate a display by driving the AOTF with a RF electrical signal comprising modulated red, green, and blue video scan line signals and scanning the AOTF with a linearly polarized, pulsed light beam, resulting in encoding of color video columns (scan lines) of an input video image into vertical columns of the AOTF output beam. The AOTF is illuminated periodically as each acoustically-encoded scan line fills the cell aperture of the AOTF. A polarizing beam splitter removes the unused first order beam component of the AOTF output and, if desired, overlays a real world scene on the output plane. Resolutions as high as 30,000 lines are possible, providing holographic display capability.

  18. Display system employing acousto-optic tunable filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, James L. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) is employed to generate a display by driving the AOTF with a RF electrical signal comprising modulated red, green, and blue video scan line signals and scanning the AOTF with a linearly polarized, pulsed light beam, resulting in encoding of color video columns (scan lines) of an input video image into vertical columns of the AOTF output beam. The AOTF is illuminated periodically as each acoustically-encoded scan line fills the cell aperture of the AOTF. A polarizing beam splitter removes the unused first order beam component of the AOTF output and, if desired, overlays a real world scene on the output plane. Resolutions as high as 30,000 lines are possible, providing holographic display capability.

  19. Planar optical waveguides fabricated by Ag+/K+-Na+ ion exchange in soda lime glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzuki, Ahmad; Gregorius, Seran Daton; Widhianingsih, Ika; Lestari, Siti; Suryawan, Joko

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the optical properties of the optical planar waveguides in a soda lime glass fabricated by ion exchange. Planar waveguide fabrication was carried out by immersing the soda lime glass in molten 100 % AgNO3 bath for different duration (ranging from 15 minutes to 735 minutes) and at temperature of 280°C. The results show that the surface refractive index values of the ion exchanged glasses are independent of both the ion exchange duration and temperature. The number of modes and the effective diffusion depth, however, increase with increasing the duration of ion exchange process.

  20. The hybrid photonic planar integrated receiver with a polymer optical waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busek, Karel; Jerábek, Vitezslav; Armas Arciniega, Julio; Prajzler, Václav

    2008-11-01

    This article describes design of the photonic receiver composed of the system polymer planar waveguides, InGaAs p-i-n photodiode and integrated HBT amplifier on a low loss composite substrate. The photonic receiver was the main part of the hybrid integrated microwave optoelectronic transceiver TRx (transciever TRx) for the optical networks PON (passive optical networks) with FTTH (fiber-to-the-home) topology. In this article are presented the research results of threedimensional field between output facet of a optical waveguide and p-i-n photodiode. In terms of our research, there was optimized the optical coupling among the facet waveguide and pi-n photodiode and the electrical coupling among p-i-n photodiode and input of HBT amplifier. The hybrid planar lightwave circuit (PLC) of the transceiver TRx will be composed from a two parts - polymer optical waveguide including VHGT filter section and a optoelectronic microwave section.

  1. Design methodology for micro-discrete planar optics with minimum illumination loss for an extended source.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jongmyeong; Park, Changsu; Lee, Jinhyung; Kang, Shinill

    2016-08-01

    Recently, studies have examined techniques for modeling the light distribution of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for various applications owing to their low power consumption, longevity, and light weight. The energy mapping technique, a design method that matches the energy distributions of an LED light source and target area, has been the focus of active research because of its design efficiency and accuracy. However, these studies have not considered the effects of the emitting area of the LED source. Therefore, there are limitations to the design accuracy for small, high-power applications with a short distance between the light source and optical system. A design method for compensating for the light distribution of an extended source after the initial optics design based on a point source was proposed to overcome such limits, but its time-consuming process and limited design accuracy with multiple iterations raised the need for a new design method that considers an extended source in the initial design stage. This study proposed a method for designing discrete planar optics that controls the light distribution and minimizes the optical loss with an extended source and verified the proposed method experimentally. First, the extended source was modeled theoretically, and a design method for discrete planar optics with the optimum groove angle through energy mapping was proposed. To verify the design method, design for the discrete planar optics was achieved for applications in illumination for LED flash. In addition, discrete planar optics for LED illuminance were designed and fabricated to create a uniform illuminance distribution. Optical characterization of these structures showed that the design was optimal; i.e., we plotted the optical losses as a function of the groove angle, and found a clear minimum. Simulations and measurements showed that an efficient optical design was achieved for an extended source. PMID:27505823

  2. Optical nanotransmission lines: synthesis of planar left-handed metamaterials in the infrared and visible regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alù, Andrea; Engheta, Nader

    2006-03-01

    Following our recent theoretical development of the concepts of nanoinductors, nanocapacitors, and nanoresistors at optical frequencies and the possibility of synthesizing more complex nanoscale circuits, we theoretically investigate in detail the problem of optical nanotransmission lines (NTLs) that can be envisioned by properly joining together arrays of these basic nanoscale circuit elements. We show how, in the limit in which these basic circuit elements are closely packed together, NTLs can be regarded as stacks of plasmonic and nonplasmonic planar slabs, which may be designed to effectively exhibit the properties of planar metamaterials with forward (right-handed) or backward (left-handed) operation. With the proper design, negative refraction and left-handed propagation are shown to be possible in these planar plasmonic guided-wave structures, providing possibilities for subwavelength focusing and imaging in planar optics and laterally confined waveguiding at IR and visible frequencies. The effective material parameters for such NTLs are derived, and the connection and analogy between these optical NTLs and the double-negative and double-positive metamaterials are also explored. Physical insights and justification for the results are also presented.

  3. Liquid crystals for optical non-display applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrentovich, Oleg D.

    2012-10-01

    Liquid crystals (LCs) demonstrate a number of unusual physical properties and effects that so far has been explored mainly for LC display (LCD) applications. This presentation discusses aspects of LCs that lead to the new opportunities in non-LCD applications, such as biosensors, micro- and opto-fluidics, switchable metamaterials. A LC is a unique medium for colloidal particles as it responds to the presence of inclusions by altering the orientation of LC molecules and thus the optic axis. The effect can be used in real-time sensing of microbes, as the molecular reorientation is easily detectable by optical means. Symmetry breaking associated with director distortions around inclusions in LCs enables a new mechanism of nonlinear electrophoresis. In the liquid-crystal enabled electrophoresis (LCEEP), the velocity of particle grows with the square of the applied field. The feature allows one to use an AC driving, to create steady flows and to move uncharged particle. The trajectory of particle is not necessarily parallel to the electric field and can be controlled by the director configuration. A gradient electric field can be used to align metallic nanorods into ordered LC-like birefringent structures with spatially varying refractive index; the latter represents a switchable medium for transformation optics.

  4. Planar dielectric waveguides in rotation are optical fibers: comparison with the classical model.

    PubMed

    Peña García, Antonio; Pérez-Ocón, Francisco; Jiménez, José Ramón

    2008-01-21

    A novel and simpler method to calculate the main parameters in fiber optics is presented. This method is based in a planar dielectric waveguide in rotation and, as an example, it is applied to calculate the turning points and the inner caustic in an optical fiber with a parabolic refractive index. It is shown that the solution found using this method agrees with the standard (and more complex) method, whose solutions for these points are also summarized in this paper. PMID:18542167

  5. A novel planar ion funnel design for miniature ion optics.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, A; van Amerom, Friso H W; Short, R T

    2014-10-01

    The novel planar ion funnel (PIF) design presented in this article emphasizes simple fabrication, assembly, and operation, making it amenable to extreme miniaturization. Simulations performed in SIMION 8.0 indicate that ion focusing can be achieved by using a gradient of electrostatic potentials on concentric metal rings in a plane. A prototype was fabricated on a 35 × 35 mm custom-designed printed circuit board (PCB) with a center hole for ions to pass through and a series of concentric circular metal rings of increasing diameter on the front side of the PCB. Metal vias on the PCB electrically connected each metal ring to a resistive potential divider that was soldered on the back of the PCB. The PIF was tested at 5.5 × 10(-6) Torr in a vacuum test setup that was equipped with a broad-beam ion source on the front and a micro channel plate (MCP) ion detector on the back of the PIF. The ion current recorded on the MCP anode during testing indicated a 23× increase in the ion transmission through the PIF when electric potentials were applied to the rings. These preliminary results demonstrate the functionality of a 2D ion funnel design with a much smaller footprint and simpler driving electronics than conventional 3D ion funnels. Future directions to improve the design and a possible micromachining approach to fabrication are discussed in the conclusions. PMID:25362450

  6. A novel planar ion funnel design for miniature ion optics

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhary, A.; Amerom, Friso H. W. van; Short, R. T.

    2014-10-01

    The novel planar ion funnel (PIF) design presented in this article emphasizes simple fabrication, assembly, and operation, making it amenable to extreme miniaturization. Simulations performed in SIMION 8.0 indicate that ion focusing can be achieved by using a gradient of electrostatic potentials on concentric metal rings in a plane. A prototype was fabricated on a 35 × 35 mm custom-designed printed circuit board (PCB) with a center hole for ions to pass through and a series of concentric circular metal rings of increasing diameter on the front side of the PCB. Metal vias on the PCB electrically connected each metal ring to a resistive potential divider that was soldered on the back of the PCB. The PIF was tested at 5.5 × 10⁻⁶ Torr in a vacuum test setup that was equipped with a broad-beam ion source on the front and a micro channel plate (MCP) ion detector on the back of the PIF. The ion current recorded on the MCP anode during testing indicated a 23× increase in the ion transmission through the PIF when electric potentials were applied to the rings. These preliminary results demonstrate the functionality of a 2D ion funnel design with a much smaller footprint and simpler driving electronics than conventional 3D ion funnels. Future directions to improve the design and a possible micromachining approach to fabrication are discussed in the conclusions.

  7. A novel planar ion funnel design for miniature ion optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhary, A.; van Amerom, Friso H. W.; Short, R. T.

    2014-10-01

    The novel planar ion funnel (PIF) design presented in this article emphasizes simple fabrication, assembly, and operation, making it amenable to extreme miniaturization. Simulations performed in SIMION 8.0 indicate that ion focusing can be achieved by using a gradient of electrostatic potentials on concentric metal rings in a plane. A prototype was fabricated on a 35 × 35 mm custom-designed printed circuit board (PCB) with a center hole for ions to pass through and a series of concentric circular metal rings of increasing diameter on the front side of the PCB. Metal vias on the PCB electrically connected each metal ring to a resistive potential divider that was soldered on the back of the PCB. The PIF was tested at 5.5 × 10-6 Torr in a vacuum test setup that was equipped with a broad-beam ion source on the front and a micro channel plate (MCP) ion detector on the back of the PIF. The ion current recorded on the MCP anode during testing indicated a 23× increase in the ion transmission through the PIF when electric potentials were applied to the rings. These preliminary results demonstrate the functionality of a 2D ion funnel design with a much smaller footprint and simpler driving electronics than conventional 3D ion funnels. Future directions to improve the design and a possible micromachining approach to fabrication are discussed in the conclusions.

  8. Implementation of the Simplex algorithm for reconstruction of optical parameters of double-layer planar optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubica, Jacek M.

    2000-10-01

    The use of the downhill Simplex algorithm in reconstruction of optical parameters of planar silica waveguides is described. The original Nelder-Mead approach has been modified to include physical constraints of the waveguide system. Numerical results are provided to illustrate the behavior of the modified algorithm.

  9. Optical coupling of bare optoelectronic components and flexographically printed polymer waveguides in planar optronic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yixiao; Wolfer, Tim; Lange, Alex; Overmeyer, Ludger

    2016-05-01

    Large scale, planar optronic systems allowing spatially distributed functionalities can be well used in diverse sensor networks, such as for monitoring the environment by measuring various physical quantities in medicine or aeronautics. In these systems, mechanically flexible and optically transparent polymeric foils, e.g. polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET), are employed as carrier materials. A benefit of using these materials is their low cost. The optical interconnections from light sources to light transmission structures in planar optronic systems occupy a pivotal position for the sensing functions. As light sources, we employ the optoelectronic components, such as edgeemitting laser diodes, in form of bare chips, since their extremely small structures facilitate a high integration compactness and ensure sufficient system flexibility. Flexographically printed polymer optical waveguides are deployed as light guiding structures for short-distance communication in planar optronic systems. Printing processes are utilized for this generation of waveguides to achieve a cost-efficient large scale and high-throughput production. In order to attain a high-functional optronic system for sensing applications, one of the most essential prerequisites is the high coupling efficiency between the light sources and the waveguides. Therefore, in this work, we focus on the multimode polymer waveguide with a parabolic cross-section and investigate its optical coupling with the bare laser diode. We establish the geometrical model of the alignment based on the previous works on the optodic bonding of bare laser diodes and the fabrication process of polymer waveguides with consideration of various parameters, such as the beam profile of the laser diode, the employed polymer properties of the waveguides as well as the carrier substrates etc. Accordingly, the optical coupling of the bare laser diodes and the polymer waveguides was simulated

  10. Design and investigation of properties of nanocrystalline diamond optical planar waveguides.

    PubMed

    Prajzler, Vaclav; Varga, Marian; Nekvindova, Pavla; Remes, Zdenek; Kromka, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    Diamond thin films have remarkable properties comparable with natural diamond. Because of these properties it is a very promising material for many various applications (sensors, heat sink, optical mirrors, chemical and radiation wear, cold cathodes, tissue engineering, etc.) In this paper we report about design, deposition and measurement of properties of optical planar waveguides fabricated from nanocrystalline diamond thin films. The nanocrystalline diamond planar waveguide was deposited by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and the structure of the deposited film was studied by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The design of the presented planar waveguides was realized on the bases of modified dispersion equation and was schemed for 632.8 nm, 964 nm, 1 310 nm and 1 550 nm wavelengths. Waveguiding properties were examined by prism coupling technique and it was found that the diamond based planar optical element guided one fundamental mode for all measured wavelengths. Values of the refractive indices of our NCD thin film measured at various wavelengths were almost the same as those of natural diamond. PMID:23571931

  11. A planar chiral meta-surface for optical vortex generation and focusing.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoliang; Pu, Mingbo; Li, Xiong; Huang, Cheng; Wang, Yanqin; Pan, Wenbo; Zhao, Bo; Cui, Jianhua; Wang, Changtao; Zhao, ZeYu; Luo, Xiangang

    2015-01-01

    Data capacity is rapidly reaching its limit in modern optical communications. Optical vortex has been explored to enhance the data capacity for its extra degree of freedom of angular momentum. In traditional means, optical vortices are generated using space light modulators or spiral phase plates, which would sharply decrease the integration of optical communication systems. Here we experimentally demonstrate a planar chiral antenna array to produce optical vortex from a circularly polarized light. Furthermore, the antenna array has the ability to focus the incident light into point, which greatly increases the power intensity of the generated optical vortex. This chiral antenna array may have potential application in highly integrated optical communication systems. PMID:25988213

  12. A planar chiral meta-surface for optical vortex generation and focusing

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaoliang; Pu, Mingbo; Li, Xiong; Huang, Cheng; Wang, Yanqin; Pan, Wenbo; Zhao, Bo; Cui, Jianhua; Wang, Changtao; Zhao, ZeYu; Luo, Xiangang

    2015-01-01

    Data capacity is rapidly reaching its limit in modern optical communications. Optical vortex has been explored to enhance the data capacity for its extra degree of freedom of angular momentum. In traditional means, optical vortices are generated using space light modulators or spiral phase plates, which would sharply decrease the integration of optical communication systems. Here we experimentally demonstrate a planar chiral antenna array to produce optical vortex from a circularly polarized light. Furthermore, the antenna array has the ability to focus the incident light into point, which greatly increases the power intensity of the generated optical vortex. This chiral antenna array may have potential application in highly integrated optical communication systems. PMID:25988213

  13. Optical properties of planar polymer waveguides doped with organo-lanthanide complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moynihan, S.; Van Deun, R.; Binnemans, K.; Redmond, G.

    2007-08-01

    Lanthanide complexes, Eu(dbm)3(Phen), [Et4N][Eu(nta)4] and Er(dbm)3(Phen), are employed as luminescent dopants within planar waveguides based on a UV-processable fluorinated polymer material. Thin films doped with each of the complexes are fabricated and their spectroscopic properties investigated in detail. The films act as low loss multi-mode planar waveguides capable of guiding visible and near infrared light emitted following optical excitation of the lanthanide dopants. Judd-Ofelt parameters are calculated for the europium complex dopants and effects of the polymer host environment on the photophysical properties of the chelates are identified. The radiative properties of the europium complexes are also determined viz. their potential for use in optical amplification applications.

  14. Analysis of optical properties of planar metamaterials by calculating multipole moments of their constituent meta-atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlov, A A; Klimov, Vasilii V; Vladimorova, Yu V; Zadkov, Viktor N

    2013-05-31

    On the basis of calculations of multipole moments of meta-atoms forming a planar metamaterial, a new method is proposed for the quantitative determination of its optical and polarisation properties. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated by the example of a planar metamaterial consisting of H-shaped nanoparticles. (metamaterials)

  15. High-quality-factor planar optical cavities with laterally stopped, slowed, or reversed light.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Steven J; Khorasaninejad, Mohammadreza; Capasso, Federico

    2016-08-01

    In a planar optical cavity, the resonance frequencies increase as a function of in-plane wavevector according to a standard textbook formula. This has well-known consequences in many different areas of optics, from the shifts of etalon peaks at non-normal angles, to the properties of transverse modes in laser diodes, to the effective mass of microcavity photons, and so on. However, this standard formula is valid only when the reflection phase of each cavity mirror is approximately independent of angle. There is a certain type of mirror-a subwavelength dielectric grating near a guided mode resonance-with not only a strongly angle-dependent reflection phase, but also very high reflectance and low losses. Simulations show that by using such mirrors, high-quality-factor planar cavities can be designed that break all these textbook rules, leading to resonant modes that are slow, stopped or even backward-propagating in the in-plane direction. In particular, we demonstrate experimentally high-Q planar cavities whose resonance frequency is independent of in-plane wavevector-i.e., the resonant modes have zero in-plane group velocity, for one polarization but both in-plane directions. We discuss potential applications in various fields including lasers, quantum optics, and exciton-polariton condensation. PMID:27505803

  16. Optical planar waveguide in magnesium aluminate spinel crystal using oxygen ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hong-Lian; Yu, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Lian; Wang, Tie-Jun; Qiao, Mei; Liu, Peng; Zhao, Jin-Hua; Wang, Xue-Lin

    2015-07-01

    A planar optical waveguide in MgAl2O4 crystal sample was fabricated using 6.0 MeV oxygen ion implantation at a fluence of 1.5 × 1015 ions/cm2 at room temperature. The optical modes were measured at a wavelength of 633 nm using a model 2010 prism coupler. The near-field intensity files in the visible band were measured and simulated with end-face coupling and FD-BPM methods, respectively. The absorption spectra show that the implantation process has almost no effect on the visible and near-infrared band absorption.

  17. Generation of three-dimensional optical structures by dynamic holograms displayed on a twisted nematic liquid crystal display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Baiheng; Yao, Baoli; Li, Ze; Lei, Ming; Yan, Shaohui; Gao, Peng; Dan, Dan; Ye, Tong

    2013-03-01

    Reconstruction of computer generated holograms (CGHs) addressed on a spatial light modulator (SLM) is an effective way to dynamically generate designed light field distributions. Based on the classic Gerchberg-Saxton (GS) algorithm, we proposed a technique, which can greatly reduce the computation cost to about 60 % in calculating CGHs for three-dimensional (3D) structures but with little degradation of reconstructed light field compared with the classic GS algorithm. The CGHs calculated by our method were displayed on a twisted nematic liquid crystal display, working as a phase-only-modulation SLM, and 3D structures of optical fields, e.g., 3D array of optical traps and vortices, were reconstructed with high efficiency and high quality. Besides, the possibility for 3D holographic display or projection was also demonstrated with this algorithm by reconstruction several images simultaneously in distinct axial planes.

  18. Integrated optical interconnection for polymeric planar lightwave circuit device using roll-to-roll ultraviolet imprint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sang Uk; Kang, Ho Ju; Chang, Sunghwan; Choi, Doo-sun; Kim, Chang-Seok; Jeong, Myung Yung

    2014-08-01

    We propose an integrated structure that combines chip and fiber array blocks for optical interconnection with a polymeric planar lightwave circuit (PLC) device using the roll-to-roll imprint process. The fiber array blocks and PLC chip of the integrated structure are fabricated on the same substrate, and the alignments in the three spatial directions were established with the insertion of an optical fiber. The characteristics of the integrated structure were evaluated by fabricating a 1×2 optical splitter device. The structure had an insertion loss of 3.9 dB, and the optical uniformity of the channel was 0.1 dB, indicating that the same performance for an active alignment can be expected.

  19. Multichip module with planar-integrated free-space optical vector-matrix-type interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Matthias

    2004-01-01

    Even in the semiconductor industry, free-space optical technology is nowadays seen as a prime option for solving the continually aggravating problem with VLSI chips, namely, that the interconnect technology has failed to keep pace with the increase in communication volume. To make free-space optics compatible with established lithography-based design and fabrication techniques the concept of planar integration was proposed approximately a decade ago. Here its evolution into a photonic microsystems engineering concept is described. For demonstration, a multichip module with planar-integrated free-space optical vector-matrix-type interconnects was designed and built. It contains flip-chip-bonded vertical-cavity surface emitting laser arrays and a hybrid chip with an array of multiple-quantum-well p-i-n diodes on top of a standard complementary metal-oxide semiconductor circuit as key optoelectronic hardware components. The optical system is integrated into a handy fused-silica substrate and fabricated with surface-relief diffractive phase elements. It has been optimized for the given geometrical and technological constraints and provides a good interconnection performance, as was verified in computer simulations on the basis of ray tracing and in practical experiments.

  20. Optical design and optimization of planar curved LED end-lit light bar.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jyh-Cheng; Chen, Zhi-Yao; Kao, Bang-De

    2014-10-10

    This study investigates the optical design of planar curved LED end-lit light bars using v cuts as light-diverting structures. The application of LEDs in automotive lighting has become popular, especially in signal lamps and daytime running lamps. Most designs adopt a direct back light using arrays of LEDs with diffusive coupling optics, which often causes problems such as low uniformity, glaring, and excessive LEDs. Edge-lit LED light guides in automotive applications share a similar principle with the light-guide plates in back-light models of LCD but with much more complicated geometry. However, related literature on the optical design of nonrectangular light-guide plates is very limited. This study addresses the design of planar curved LED end-lit light bars and the optimization scheme for illuminance uniformity. V cuts are used as the optical coupling features, and the lead angles of the v cuts are varied to achieve optimum axial luminous intensity. This study presents a solution to reduce the illuminance difference between the inner and the outer portions of curved light bars by introducing gradual taper v cuts across the curved section. A line graph with preselected anchor points is proposed to define the size distribution of evenly spaced v cuts along the light bar. A fuzzy optimization scheme is then applied to iterate the anchor size to achieve illuminance uniformity. The designs of a planar curve light bar with a rectangular cross section and a light-guide ring with a circular cross section are presented to illustrate the design scheme. PMID:25322433

  1. Towards do-it-yourself planar optical components using plasmon-assisted etching

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hao; Bhuiya, Abdul M.; Ding, Qing; Johnson, Harley T.; Toussaint Jr, Kimani C.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the push to foster increased technological innovation and basic scientific and engineering interest from the broadest sectors of society has helped to accelerate the development of do-it-yourself (DIY) components, particularly those related to low-cost microcontroller boards. The attraction with DIY kits is the simplification of the intervening steps going from basic design to fabrication, albeit typically at the expense of quality. We present herein plasmon-assisted etching as an approach to extend the DIY theme to optics, specifically the table-top fabrication of planar optical components. By operating in the design space between metasurfaces and traditional flat optical components, we employ arrays of Au pillar-supported bowtie nanoantennas as a template structure. To demonstrate, we fabricate a Fresnel zone plate, diffraction grating and holographic mode converter—all using the same template. Applications to nanotweezers and fabricating heterogeneous nanoantennas are also shown. PMID:26814026

  2. The planar optics phase sensor: a study for the VLTI 2nd generation fringe tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blind, Nicolas; Le Bouquin, Jean-Baptiste; Absil, Olivier; Alamir, Mazen; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Defrère, Denis; Feautrier, Philippe; Hénault, François; Jocou, Laurent; Kern, Pierre; Laurent, Thomas; Malbet, Fabien; Mourard, Denis; Rousselet-Perraut, Karine; Sarlette, Alain; Surdej, Jean; Tarmoul, Nassima; Tatulli, Eric; Vincent, Lionel

    2010-07-01

    In a few years, the second generation instruments of the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) will routinely provide observations with 4 to 6 telescopes simultaneously. To reach their ultimate performance, they will need a fringe sensor capable to measure in real time the randomly varying optical paths differences. A collaboration between LAOG (PI institute), IAGL, OCA and GIPSA-Lab has proposed the Planar Optics Phase Sensor concept to ESO for the 2nd Generation Fringe Tracker. This concept is based on the integrated optics technologies, enabling the conception of extremely compact interferometric instruments naturally providing single-mode spatial filtering. It allows operations with 4 and 6 telescopes by measuring the fringes position thanks to a spectrally dispersed ABCD method. We present here the main analysis which led to the current concept as well as the expected on-sky performance and the proposed design.

  3. Focusing far-field nanoscale optical needles by planar nanostructured metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao; Wang, Tong; Yang, Shuming; Jiang, Zhuangde

    2016-08-01

    Far-field nanoscale optical needles are obtained using water-immersed planar nanostructured metasurfaces illuminated with a 193 nm deep ultra-violet laser. The method is based on the vectorial angular spectrum theory and an established nonlinear optimization model. For a 50 μm-diameter metasurface with a linearly polarized beam (x-polarized), an optical needle with 12.4λ0 length has been produced at a mid-focal distance of 14.5 μm. The transverse beam sizes are as small as 129 nm and 59.4 nm in the x and y directions, respectively. The design results are agreed well with the rigorous electromagnetic calculations using three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method with a suggested 25 nm-thick aluminum coating film for the metasurface. These far-field nanoscale optical needles are potentially applied in the fields of nanolithography, nanoprinting, and nanoscopy.

  4. Towards do-it-yourself planar optical components using plasmon-assisted etching.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Bhuiya, Abdul M; Ding, Qing; Johnson, Harley T; Toussaint, Kimani C

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the push to foster increased technological innovation and basic scientific and engineering interest from the broadest sectors of society has helped to accelerate the development of do-it-yourself (DIY) components, particularly those related to low-cost microcontroller boards. The attraction with DIY kits is the simplification of the intervening steps going from basic design to fabrication, albeit typically at the expense of quality. We present herein plasmon-assisted etching as an approach to extend the DIY theme to optics, specifically the table-top fabrication of planar optical components. By operating in the design space between metasurfaces and traditional flat optical components, we employ arrays of Au pillar-supported bowtie nanoantennas as a template structure. To demonstrate, we fabricate a Fresnel zone plate, diffraction grating and holographic mode converter--all using the same template. Applications to nanotweezers and fabricating heterogeneous nanoantennas are also shown. PMID:26814026

  5. Towards do-it-yourself planar optical components using plasmon-assisted etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao; Bhuiya, Abdul M.; Ding, Qing; Johnson, Harley T.; Toussaint, Kimani C., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the push to foster increased technological innovation and basic scientific and engineering interest from the broadest sectors of society has helped to accelerate the development of do-it-yourself (DIY) components, particularly those related to low-cost microcontroller boards. The attraction with DIY kits is the simplification of the intervening steps going from basic design to fabrication, albeit typically at the expense of quality. We present herein plasmon-assisted etching as an approach to extend the DIY theme to optics, specifically the table-top fabrication of planar optical components. By operating in the design space between metasurfaces and traditional flat optical components, we employ arrays of Au pillar-supported bowtie nanoantennas as a template structure. To demonstrate, we fabricate a Fresnel zone plate, diffraction grating and holographic mode converter--all using the same template. Applications to nanotweezers and fabricating heterogeneous nanoantennas are also shown.

  6. Controllable design of super-oscillatory planar lenses for sub-diffraction-limit optical needles.

    PubMed

    Diao, Jinshuai; Yuan, Weizheng; Yu, Yiting; Zhu, Yechuan; Wu, Yan

    2016-02-01

    Sub-diffraction-limit optical needle can be created by a binary amplitude mask through tailoring the interference of diffraction beams. In this paper, a controllable design of super-oscillatory planar lenses to create sub-diffraction-limit optical needles with the tunable focal length and depth of focus (DOF) is presented. As a high-quality optical needle is influenced by various factors, we first propose a multi-objective and multi-constraint optimization model compromising all the main factors to achieve a needle with the prescribed characteristics. The optimizing procedure is self-designed using the Matlab programming language based on the genetic algorithm (GA) and fast Hankel transform algorithm. Numerical simulations show that the optical needles' properties can be controlled accurately. The optimized results are further validated by the theoretical calculation with the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld integral. The sub-diffraction-limit optical needles can be used in wide fields such as optical nanofabrication, super-resolution imaging, particle acceleration and high-density optical data storage. PMID:26906769

  7. Optical MEMS platform for low-cost on-chip integration of planar light circuits and optical switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, Kristine A.; Kubby, Joel; Chen, Jingkuang; Diehl, James; Feinberg, Kathleen; Gulvin, Peter; Herko, Larry; Jia, Nancy; Lin, Pinyen; Liu, Xueyuan; Ma, Jun; Meyers, John; Nystrom, Peter; Wang, Yao Rong

    2004-07-01

    Xerox Corporation has developed a technology platform for on-chip integration of latching MEMS optical waveguide switches and Planar Light Circuit (PLC) components using a Silicon On Insulator (SOI) based process. To illustrate the current state of this new technology platform, working prototypes of a Reconfigurable Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer (ROADM) and a l-router will be presented along with details of the integrated latching MEMS optical switches. On-chip integration of optical switches and PLCs can greatly reduce the size, manufacturing cost and operating cost of multi-component optical equipment. It is anticipated that low-cost, low-overhead optical network products will accelerate the migration of functions and services from high-cost long-haul markets to price sensitive markets, including networks for metropolitan areas and fiber to the home. Compared to the more common silica-on-silicon PLC technology, the high index of refraction of silicon waveguides created in the SOI device layer enables miniaturization of optical components, thereby increasing yield and decreasing cost projections. The latching SOI MEMS switches feature moving waveguides, and are advantaged across multiple attributes relative to alternative switching technologies, such as thermal optical switches and polymer switches. The SOI process employed was jointly developed under the auspice of the NIST APT program in partnership with Coventor, Corning IntelliSense Corp., and MicroScan Systems to enable fabrication of a broad range of free space and guided wave MicroOptoElectroMechanical Systems (MOEMS).

  8. Laser illuminated flat panel display

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    A 10 inch laser illuminated flat panel Planar Optic Display (POD) screen has been constructed and tested. This POD screen technology is an entirely new concept in display technology. Although the initial display is flat and made of glass, this technology lends itself to applications where a plastic display might be wrapped around the viewer. The display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optical waveguides where each glass waveguide represents a vertical line of resolution. A black cladding layer, having a lower index of refraction, is placed between each waveguide layer. Since the cladding makes the screen surface black, the contrast is high. The prototype display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately I inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  9. Optical sensors based on sol-gel derived, laminate planar waveguide structures

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Lin; Armstrong, N.R.; Dunphy, D.R.; Saavedra, S.S.

    1995-12-31

    A new optical sensing platform based on a combination of planar and sol-gel processing technologies is described. The sensing element is a planar integrated optical waveguide (IOW) composed of two, submicron thick glass layers coated on glass substrate; both layers are fabricated via the sol-gel method. The lower layer is a densified titania-silica composite. The upper layer is an undensified silica doped with an optical indicator that is physically entrapped yet sterically accessible to dissolved analytes that can diffuse into the pore network. Formation of an analyte-indicator complex is detected via attenuated total reflection (ATR) of light guided in the IOW. The sensor response is both sensitive and rapid, features that are difficult to achieve simultaneously in monolithic sol-gel glass sensors. In the IOW-ATR geometry, these features are realized simultaneously because the primary axes of light propagation and analyte diffusion are orthogonal. The overall approach is technically simple, inexpensive, and applicable to a wide variety of indicator chemistries.

  10. A geometrical optics approximation for refraction at a planar interface between arbitrarily lossy media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loane, J.; Lee, S. W.

    A general geometrical optics formulation is derived for refraction at a planar interface between artibrarily lossy media. Using a Fourier transform technique, the exact field in one medium is determined due to a point source in another. A high-frequency asymptotic solution is found involving complex ray angles and a complex refraction point on the interface. This solution and two other ray formations used by other researchers for the same problem are compared against a numerical evaluation of the exact field expression. The solution with the complex refraction point gives the most generally useful results.

  11. Wide Angle, Color, Holographic Infinity Optics Display. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magarinos, Jose R.; Coleman, Daniel J.

    The project described demonstrated not only the feasibility of producing a holographic compound spherical beamspliter mirror with full color response, but the performance and color capabilities of such a beamsplitter when incorporated into a Pancake Window Display system as a replacement for the classical glass spherical beamsplitter. This…

  12. Optical characterization of display screens by speckle-contrast measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozo, Antonio M.; Castro, José J.; Rubiño, Manuel

    2012-10-01

    In recent years, the flat-panel display (FPD) technology has undergone great development. Currently, FPDs are present in many devices. A significant element in FPD manufacturing is the display front surface. Manufacturers sell FPDs with different types of front surface which can be matte (also called anti-glare) or glossy screens. Users who prefer glossy screens consider images shown in these types of displays to have more vivid colours compared with matte-screen displays. However, external light sources may cause unpleasant reflections on the glossy screens. These reflections can be reduced by a matte treatment in the front surface of FPDs. In this work, we present a method to characterize the front surface of FPDs using laser speckle patterns. We characterized three FPDs: a Samsung XL2370 LCD monitor of 23" with matte screen, a Toshiba Satellite A100 laptop of 15.4" with glossy screen, and a Papyre electronic book reader. The results show great differences in speckle contrast values for the three screens characterized and, therefore, this work shows the feasibility of this method for characterizing and comparing FPDs which have different types of front surfaces.

  13. Optical characterization of display screens by speckle patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozo, Antonio M.; Castro, José J.; Rubiño, Manuel

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, flat-panel display (FPD) technology has undergone great development, and now FPDs appear in many devices. A significant element in FPD manufacturing is the display front surface. Manufacturers sell FPDs with different types of front surfaces, which can be matte (also called anti-glare) or glossy screens. Users who prefer glossy screens consider these displays to show more vivid colors compared with matte-screen displays. However, on the glossy screens, external light sources may cause unpleasant reflections that can be reduced by a matte treatment in the front surface. In this work, we present a method to characterize FPD screens using laser-speckle patterns. We characterize three FPDs: a Samsung XL2370 LCD monitor of 23 in. with matte screen, a Toshiba Satellite A100 LCD laptop of 15.4 in. with glossy screen, and a Grammata Papyre 6.1 electronic book reader of 6 in. with ePaper screen (E-ink technology). The results show great differences in speckle-contrast values for the three screens characterized and, therefore, this work shows the feasibility of this method for characterizing and comparing FPDs that have different types of front surfaces.

  14. High-reflectance composite metal coatings for planar-integrated free-space optics.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Matthias; Seiler, Thomas; Wei, An-Chi

    2006-02-01

    For planar-integrated free-space optical (PIFSO) systems high-reflectance thin-film coatings are crucial. Evaporated metal films are preferred for their relative technological simplicity. We propose a three-layer Al-Ag-Al coating composition that combines the high reflectance of Ag with the chemical passivity of Al and its good adherence to glass. Two special measures are taken to prevent delamination: one is an anchoring of the edges of the coating in narrow ditches that are etched into the substrate and the other is the use of an adhesive Al underlayer; to reduce absorption this underlayer is implemented only in sparsely distributed discrete areas. The optical properties of such composite coatings are investigated theoretically. The fabrication complexity is only slightly increased compared to PIFSO systems with one-layer Al reflectors. In experimental tests we verified a reflectance of approximately 98% and an adherence comparable to that of simple Al coatings. PMID:16485677

  15. Optically pumped planar waveguide lasers: Part II: Gain media, laser systems, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grivas, Christos

    2016-01-01

    The field of optically pumped planar waveguide lasers has seen a rapid development over the last two decades driven by the requirements of a range of applications. This sustained research effort has led to the demonstration of a large variety of miniature highly efficient laser sources by combining different gain media and resonator geometries. One of the most attractive features of waveguide lasers is the broad range of regimes that they can operate, spanning from continuous wave and single frequency through to the generation of femtosecond pulses. Furthermore, their technology has experienced considerable advances to provide increased output power levels, deriving benefits from the relative immunity from the heat generated in the gain medium during laser operation and the use of cladding-pumped architectures. This second part of the review on optically pumped planar waveguide lasers provides a snapshot of the state-of-the-art research in this field in terms of gain materials, laser system designs, and as well as a perspective on the status of their application as real devices in various research areas.

  16. New Insight into the Angle Insensitivity of Ultrathin Planar Optical Absorbers for Broadband Solar Energy Harvesting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Yu, Haitong; Duan, Yuanyuan; Li, Qiang; Xuan, Yimin

    2016-01-01

    Two challenging problems still remain for optical absorbers consisting of an ultrathin planar semiconductor film on top of an opaque metallic substrate. One is the angle-insensitive mechanism and the other is the system design needed for broadband solar energy harvesting. Here, first we theoretically demonstrates that the high refractive index, instead of the ultrathin feature as reported in previous studies, is the physical origin of the angle insensitivity for ultrathin planar optical absorbers. They exhibit omnidirectional resonance for TE polarization due to the high complex refractive index difference between the semiconductor and the air, while for TM polarization the angle insensitivity persists up to an incident angle related to the semiconductor refractive index. These findings were validated by fabricating and characterizing an 18 nm Ge/Ag absorber sample (representative of small band gap semiconductors for photovoltaic applications) and a 22 nm hematite/Ag sample (representative of large band gap semiconductors for photoelectrochemical applications). Then, we took advantage of angle insensitivity and designed a spectrum splitting configuration for broadband solar energy harvesting. The cascaded solar cell and unassisted solar water splitting systems have photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical cells that are also spectrum splitters, so an external spectrum splitting element is not needed. PMID:27582317

  17. New Insight into the Angle Insensitivity of Ultrathin Planar Optical Absorbers for Broadband Solar Energy Harvesting

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dong; Yu, Haitong; Duan, Yuanyuan; Li, Qiang; Xuan, Yimin

    2016-01-01

    Two challenging problems still remain for optical absorbers consisting of an ultrathin planar semiconductor film on top of an opaque metallic substrate. One is the angle-insensitive mechanism and the other is the system design needed for broadband solar energy harvesting. Here, first we theoretically demonstrates that the high refractive index, instead of the ultrathin feature as reported in previous studies, is the physical origin of the angle insensitivity for ultrathin planar optical absorbers. They exhibit omnidirectional resonance for TE polarization due to the high complex refractive index difference between the semiconductor and the air, while for TM polarization the angle insensitivity persists up to an incident angle related to the semiconductor refractive index. These findings were validated by fabricating and characterizing an 18 nm Ge/Ag absorber sample (representative of small band gap semiconductors for photovoltaic applications) and a 22 nm hematite/Ag sample (representative of large band gap semiconductors for photoelectrochemical applications). Then, we took advantage of angle insensitivity and designed a spectrum splitting configuration for broadband solar energy harvesting. The cascaded solar cell and unassisted solar water splitting systems have photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical cells that are also spectrum splitters, so an external spectrum splitting element is not needed. PMID:27582317

  18. Two all reflective, freeform, optical see-through head-worn displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Aaron; Rolland, Jannick P.

    2014-12-01

    Head-worn displays have begun to infiltrate the commercial electronics scene as mobile computing power has decreased in price and increased in availability. When designing informative displays that are head-worn, freeform optical surfaces allow additional enabling degrees of freedom. We present two freeform, all-reflective, two element designs suitable for sunglass mounting.

  19. Towards optical optimization of planar monolithic perovskite/silicon-heterojunction tandem solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Steve; Saliba, Michael; Correa-Baena, Juan-Pablo; Jäger, Klaus; Korte, Lars; Hagfeldt, Anders; Grätzel, Michael; Rech, Bernd

    2016-06-01

    Combining inorganic–organic perovskites and crystalline silicon into a monolithic tandem solar cell has recently attracted increased attention due to the high efficiency potential of this cell architecture. Promising results with published efficiencies above 21% have been reported so far. To further increase the device performance, optical optimizations enabling device related guidelines are highly necessary. Here we experimentally show the optical influence of the ITO thickness in the interconnecting layer and fabricate an efficient monolithic tandem cell with a reduced ITO layer thickness that shows slightly improved absorption within the silicon sub-cell and a stabilized power output of 17%. Furthermore we present detailed optical simulations on experimentally relevant planar tandem stacks to give practical guidelines to reach efficiencies above 25%. By optimizing the thickness of all functional and the perovskite absorber layers, together with the optimization of the perovskite band-gap, we present a tandem stack that can yield ca 17.5 mA cm‑ 2 current in both sub-cells at a perovskite band-gap of 1.73 eV including losses from reflection and parasitic absorption. Assuming that the higher band-gap of the perovskite absorber directly translates into a higher open circuit voltage, the perovskite sub-cell should be able to reach a value of 1.3 V. With that, realistic efficiencies above 28% are within reach for planar monolithic tandem cells in which the thickness of the perovskite top-cell and the perovskite band-gap are highly optimized. When applying light trapping schemes such as textured surfaces and by reducing the parasitic absorption of the functional layers, for example in spiro-OMeTAD, this monolithic tandem can overcome 30% power conversion efficiency.

  20. Planar lens integrated capillary action microfluidic immunoassay device for the optical detection of troponin I

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Mazher-Iqbal; Desmulliez, Marc P. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Optical based analysis in microfluidic and lab-on-a-chip systems are currently considered the gold standard methodology for the determination of end point reactions for various chemical and biological reaction processes. Typically, assays are performed using bulky ancillary apparatus such as microscopes and complex optical excitation and detection systems. Such instrumentation negates many of the advantages offered by device miniaturisation, particularly with respect to overall portability. In this article, we present a CO2 laser ablation technique for rapidly prototyping on-chip planar lenses, in conjunction with capillary action based autonomous microfluidics, to create a miniaturised and fully integrated optical biosensing platform. The presented self-aligned on-chip optical components offer an efficient means to direct excitation light within microfluidics and to directly couple light from a LED source. The device has been used in conjunction with a miniaturised and bespoke fluorescence detection platform to create a complete, palm sized system (≈60 × 80 × 60 mm) capable of performing fluoro-immunoassays. The system has been applied to the detection of cardiac Troponin I, one of the gold standard biomarkers for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, achieving a lower detection limit of 0.08 ng/ml, which is at the threshold of clinically applicable concentrations. The portable nature of the complete system and the biomarker detection capabilities demonstrate the potential of the devised instrumentation for use as a medical diagnostics device at the point of care. PMID:24396546

  1. Acousto-optic laser projection systems for displaying TV information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyaev, Yu V.; Kazaryan, M. A.; Mokrushin, Yu M.; Shakin, O. V.

    2015-04-01

    This review addresses various approaches to television projection imaging on large screens using lasers. Results are presented of theoretical and experimental studies of an acousto-optic projection system operating on the principle of projecting an image of an entire amplitude-modulated television line in a single laser pulse. We consider characteristic features of image formation in such a system and the requirements for its individual components. Particular attention is paid to nonlinear distortions of the image signal, which show up most severely at low modulation signal frequencies. We discuss the feasibility of improving the process efficiency and image quality using acousto-optic modulators and pulsed lasers. Real-time projectors with pulsed line imaging can be used for controlling high-intensity laser radiation.

  2. Analytical one-dimensional model for laser-induced ultrasound in planar optically absorbing layer.

    PubMed

    Svanström, Erika; Linder, Tomas; Löfqvist, Torbjörn

    2014-03-01

    Ultrasound generated by means of laser-based photoacoustic principles are in common use today and applications can be found both in biomedical diagnostics, non-destructive testing and materials characterisation. For certain measurement applications it could be beneficial to shape the generated ultrasound regarding spectral properties and temporal profile. To address this, we studied the generation and propagation of laser-induced ultrasound in a planar, layered structure. We derived an analytical expression for the induced pressure wave, including different physical and optical properties of each layer. A Laplace transform approach was employed in analytically solving the resulting set of photoacoustic wave equations. The results correspond to simulations and were compared to experimental results. To enable the comparison between recorded voltage from the experiments and the calculated pressure we employed a system identification procedure based on physical properties of the ultrasonic transducer to convert the calculated acoustic pressure to voltages. We found reasonable agreement between experimentally obtained voltages and the voltages determined from the calculated acoustic pressure, for the samples studied. The system identification procedure was found to be unstable, however, possibly from violations of material isotropy assumptions by film adhesives and coatings in the experiment. The presented analytical model can serve as a basis when addressing the inverse problem of shaping an acoustic pulse from absorption of a laser pulse in a planar layered structure of elastic materials. PMID:24262676

  3. Display system optics II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Mar. 30, 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Assenheim, H.M.

    1989-01-01

    Papers on display system optics are presented covering topics such as human factors and night vision systems flight, a peripheral vision display, cockpit vertical situation displays, a prototype near-IR projection system, the effect of a helmet-mounted display on the operator, radial parallax binocular three-dimensional imaging, telepresence systems, and the cockpit man-machine interface. Additional topics include eye-centered interferometric laser projection, laser filters, thin film technologies in active matrix addressing systems of LCDs, supertwisted nematic LCD geometry with improved response times and characteristics, a full color active-matrix LCD in the cockpit environment, polysilicon active-matrix LCDs for cockpit applications, and a dynamic color model for a liquid crystal shutter display. Other topics include a flat fluorescent lamp for LCD back-lighting, holographic combiner design to obtain uniform symbol brightness at a head-up display video camera, vision restriction devices, passive binarization methods for image display and computer-generated holograms, a prismatic combiner for head-up displays, holographic optical elements, multifunction displays optimized for viewability, and technologies for brighter color CRT displays.

  4. Mechanically and optically reliable folding structure with a hyperelastic material for seamless foldable displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyuk-Jun; Shim, HongShik; Kim, Sunkook; Choi, Woong; Chun, Youngtea; Kee, InSeo; Lee, SangYoon

    2011-04-01

    We report a mechanically and optically robust folding structure to realize a foldable active matrix organic-light-emitting-diode (AMOLED) display without a visible crease at the junction. A nonlinear stress analysis, based on a finite element method, provided an optimized design. The folding-unfolding test on the structure exhibited negligible deterioration of the relative brightness at the junction of the individual panels up to 105 cycles at a folding radius of 1 mm, indicating highly reliable mechanical and optical tolerances. These results demonstrate the feasibility of seamless foldable AMOLED displays, with potentially important technical implications on fabricating large size flexible displays.

  5. Buffer layer between a planar optical concentrator and a solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano, Manuel E.; Barber, Greg D.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Faryad, Muhammad; Monk, Peter B.; Mallouk, Thomas E.

    2015-09-01

    The effect of inserting a buffer layer between a periodically multilayered isotropic dielectric (PMLID) material acting as a planar optical concentrator and a photovoltaic solar cell was theoretically investigated. The substitution of the photovoltaic material by a cheaper dielectric material in a large area of the structure could reduce the fabrication costs without significantly reducing the efficiency of the solar cell. Both crystalline silicon (c-Si) and gallium arsenide (GaAs) were considered as the photovoltaic material. We found that the buffer layer can act as an antireflection coating at the interface of the PMLID and the photovoltaic materials, and the structure increases the spectrally averaged electron-hole pair density by 36% for c-Si and 38% for GaAs compared to the structure without buffer layer. Numerical evidence indicates that the optimal structure is robust with respect to small changes in the grating profile.

  6. Prism coupling characterization of planar optical waveguides made by silver ion exchange in glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, O.; Berencén, Y.; Rodríguez, J.

    2005-08-01

    A modified dark-lines method of prism-coupling technique is utilized for the experimental determination of the effective index of propagating modes in a glass planar waveguide. We use to make the waveguides a silver-sodium ion exchange in a nitrate solution and sodalime glass as substrate (microscope slides). The measurements were accomplished by direct HeNe laser beam incidence and sensing the reflected light by a Thorlabs Dec110 optical detector linked to a Protek500 digital multimeter. A LabView virtual instrument was implemented for the automation of the measurement process. The effective indexes measured have been used to calculate the refractive index profile by IWKB method. A comparison with other results shows that our experimental setup is suitable for slab waveguide modes characterization.

  7. Buffer layer between a planar optical concentrator and a solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Solano, Manuel E.; Barber, Greg D.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Faryad, Muhammad; Monk, Peter B.; Mallouk, Thomas E.

    2015-09-15

    The effect of inserting a buffer layer between a periodically multilayered isotropic dielectric (PMLID) material acting as a planar optical concentrator and a photovoltaic solar cell was theoretically investigated. The substitution of the photovoltaic material by a cheaper dielectric material in a large area of the structure could reduce the fabrication costs without significantly reducing the efficiency of the solar cell. Both crystalline silicon (c-Si) and gallium arsenide (GaAs) were considered as the photovoltaic material. We found that the buffer layer can act as an antireflection coating at the interface of the PMLID and the photovoltaic materials, and the structure increases the spectrally averaged electron-hole pair density by 36% for c-Si and 38% for GaAs compared to the structure without buffer layer. Numerical evidence indicates that the optimal structure is robust with respect to small changes in the grating profile.

  8. Silver halide planar waveguides and grating couplers for middle infrared integrated optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekel, B.; Katzir, A.

    2010-12-01

    We fabricated silver bromide (AgBr) planar waveguides with a thickness of ≈20 μm and designed reflective grating couplers for coupling the radiation of a tunable CO2 laser into these waveguides. We found that the attenuation was 6-9 dB/cm. The waveguides were used as attenuated total reflection elements for the sensing of hazardous pesticides in water in concentrations higher than 25 ppm. This work will pave the way for developing integrated optical elements and circuits which are based on silver halides and which operate in a broad spectral range in the mid-IR. These will be useful as chemical sensors and as spatial elements in nulling interferometry.

  9. 3D holographic head mounted display using holographic optical elements with astigmatism aberration compensation.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Han-Ju; Kim, Hee-Jae; Kim, Seong-Bok; Zhang, HuiJun; Li, BoNi; Ji, Yeong-Min; Kim, Sang-Hoo; Park, Jae-Hyeung

    2015-12-14

    We propose a bar-type three-dimensional holographic head mounted display using two holographic optical elements. Conventional stereoscopic head mounted displays may suffer from eye fatigue because the images presented to each eye are two-dimensional ones, which causes mismatch between the accommodation and vergence responses of the eye. The proposed holographic head mounted display delivers three-dimensional holographic images to each eye, removing the eye fatigue problem. In this paper, we discuss the configuration of the bar-type waveguide head mounted displays and analyze the aberration caused by the non-symmetric diffraction angle of the holographic optical elements which are used as input and output couplers. Pre-distortion of the hologram is also proposed in the paper to compensate the aberration. The experimental results show that proposed head mounted display can present three-dimensional see-through holographic images to each eye with correct focus cues. PMID:26698993

  10. Holographic video display based on guided-wave acousto-optic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smalley, Daniel E.; Smithwick, Quinn Y. J.; Bove, V. Michael, Jr.

    2007-02-01

    We introduce a new holo-video display architecture ("Mark III") developed at the MIT Media Laboratory. The goal of the Mark III project is to reduce the cost and size of a holo-video display, making it into an inexpensive peripheral to a standard desktop PC or game machine which can be driven by standard graphics chips. Our new system is based on lithium niobate guided-wave acousto-optic devices, which give twenty or more times the bandwidth of the tellurium dioxide bulk-wave acousto-optic modulators of our previous displays. The novel display architecture is particularly designed to eliminate the high-speed horizontal scanning mechanism that has traditionally limited the scalability of Scophony- style video displays. We describe the system architecture and the guided-wave device, explain how it is driven by a graphics chip, and present some early results.

  11. Viewing angle enhancement of an integral imaging display using Bragg mismatched reconstruction of holographic optical elements.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungjae; Jang, Changwon; Cho, Jaebum; Yeom, Jiwoon; Jeong, Jinsoo; Lee, Byoungho

    2016-01-20

    Holographic-optical-element (HOE)-based integral imaging display can be applied to augmented reality. However, a narrow viewing angle is a bottleneck for commercialization. Here, we propose a method to enhance the viewing angle of the integral imaging display using Bragg mismatched reconstruction of HOEs. The viewing angle of the integral imaging display can be enlarged with two probe waves, which form two different viewing zones. The effect of Bragg mismatched reconstruction is analyzed with simulation and experiment. In order to show feasibility of the proposed method, a display experiment is demonstrated. PMID:26835963

  12. Optical planar waveguide in sodium-doped calcium barium niobate crystals by carbon ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jin-Hua; Qin, Xi-Feng; Wang, Feng-Xiang; Fu, Gang; Wang, Hui-Lin; Wang, Xue-Lin

    2013-07-01

    There is great interest in niobate crystals which belong to the tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) families owing to their intriguing properties. As one representative of such crystals, CBN (calcium barium niobate) has attracted rapidly growing attention. Because it has a higher Curie temperature than SBN (strontium barium niobate), possesses outstanding ferroelectric and it possesses optical properties. In addition, doped with sodium, CBN will show a higher Curie temperature than pure CBN. We report on the fabrication and characterization of optical planar waveguide in x-cut sodium-doped calcium barium niobate crystal by using C ion implantation. The guided-mode properties at the wavelength of 633 and 1539 nm are investigated through prism-coupling measurements, respectively. By applying direct end-face coupling arrangement, the near-field optical intensity distribution of waveguide modes is measured at 633 nm. For comparison, the modal profile of the same guided mode is also numerically calculated by the finite difference beam-propagation method via computer software BeamPROP. The transmission spectra of the waveguide before and after ion implantation treatments were investigated also. Our experiment results reveal that the waveguide could propagate light with transverse magnetic polarized direction only and it is assumed that the polarization selectivity of CBN crystal may responsible for this phenomenon.

  13. Single-mode array optoelectronic packaging based on actively aligned planar optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalman, Robert F.; Silva, Edward R.; Knapp, Daniel F.

    1996-03-01

    Packaging of integrated optoelectronic devices (e.g., laser diode arrays and OEICs) is motivated by potential cost savings and the increased functionality of more highly integrated devices. To date, attempts to package integrated optoelectronic devices with arrays of single- mode fibers have tended to exhibit high optical losses. We have developed a single-mode array packaging process based on the use of an intermediate silica-on-silicon planar optical waveguides (POWs) assembly to which optical fibers are attached using V-grooves. By lensing the POWs, we have achieved coupling efficiencies of greater than 50%. The photolithographic registration of the POWs allows a large (greater than or equal to 8) array of POWs with attached fibers to be aligned to an array of optoelectronic devices in a single active alignment procedure. This single active alignment step is well-suited to automation, and our approach is thus well-suited to achieving low cost in a manufacturing environment. We also discuss our positioning and mounting techniques, which provide high-stability coupling in adverse temperature and vibration environments and are compatible with hermetic packaging.

  14. Optical simulation of quantum algorithms using programmable liquid-crystal displays

    SciTech Connect

    Puentes, Graciana; La Mela, Cecilia; Ledesma, Silvia; Iemmi, Claudio; Paz, Juan Pablo; Saraceno, Marcos

    2004-04-01

    We present a scheme to perform an all optical simulation of quantum algorithms and maps. The main components are lenses to efficiently implement the Fourier transform and programmable liquid-crystal displays to introduce space dependent phase changes on a classical optical beam. We show how to simulate Deutsch-Jozsa and Grover's quantum algorithms using essentially the same optical array programmed in two different ways.

  15. The use of optical waveguides in head up display (HUD) applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homan, Malcolm

    2013-06-01

    The application of optical waveguides to Head Up Displays (HUD) is an enabling technology which solves the critical issues of volume reduction (including cockpit intrusion) and mass reduction in an affordable product which retains the high performance optical capabilities associated with today's generation of digital display based HUDs. Improved operability and pilot comfort is achieved regardless of the installation by virtue of the intrinsic properties of optical waveguides and this has enabled BAE Systems Electronic Systems to develop two distinct product streams for glareshield and overhead HUD installations respectively. This paper addresses the design drivers behind the development of the next generation of Head Up Displays and their compatibility with evolving cockpit architectures and structures. The implementation of large scale optical waveguide combiners capable of matching and exceeding the display performances normally only associated with current digital display sourced HUDs has enabled BAE Systems Electronic Systems to solve the volume and installation challenges of the latest military and civil cockpits with it's LiteHUD® technology. Glareshield mounted waveguide based HUDs are compatible with the trend towards the addition of Large Area Displays (LAD) in place of the traditional multiple Head Down Displays (HDD) within military fast jet cockpits. They use an "indirect view" variant of the display which allows the amalgamation of high resolution digital display devices with the inherently small volume and low mass of the waveguide optics. This is then viewed using the more traditional technology of a conventional HUD combiner. This successful combination of technologies has resulted in the LPHUD product which is specifically designed by BAE Systems Electronic Systems to provide an ultra-low profile HUD which can be installed behind a LAD; still providing the level of performance that is at least equivalent to that of a conventional large volume

  16. Optical layout of autostereoscopic display that simultaneously reproduces two views each with full-screen resolution.

    PubMed

    Ezhov, Vasily

    2014-12-20

    Traditional 60 Hz autostereoscopic displays with static amplitude parallax barriers have a half of full-screen resolution in each of the two displayed views of a 3D scene. The known 120 Hz autostereoscopic displays with dynamic amplitude parallax barriers have full-screen resolution but are characterized by essential light intensity losses and crosstalk in each of displayed views. The recently proposed autostereoscopic displays with simultaneous reproducing two image elements in each display pixel and with a polarization parallax barrier have full-screen resolution. However, the existing optical layout of these displays does not provide optimum operating conditions for the polarization parallax barrier creating a tendency to degrade the contrast and color characteristics. This paper presents a new optical layout characterized by the rearrangement of optical components of the previous layout. In this approach, the highlighted problems are addressed without any trade-offs. Through informal subjective visual tests, this proposal is found to provide good contrast and good color balance in the output image. PMID:25608193

  17. New optical probe approach using mixing effect in planar photodiode for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Tânia; Vaz, Pedro; Oliveira, Tatiana; Santos, Inês; Leal, Adriana; Almeida, Vânia; Pereira, Helena; Correia, Carlos; Cardoso, João.

    2013-05-01

    The laser diode self-mixing technique is a well-known and powerful interferometric technique that has been used in biomedical applications, namely for the extraction of cardiovascular parameters. However, to construct an optical probe using the self-mixing principle which is able to acquire signals in the human carotid artery, some problems are expected. The laser diode has a small aperture area, which means that, for physiological sensing purposes, it can be considered as a point-like detector. This feature imparts difficulties to quality recording of physiological signals since the number of photons collected and mixed in the cavity of the photodiode is very small. In order to overcome this problem, a new mixing geometry based on an external large area planar photodiode (PD) is used in the probe, enabling a much larger number of photons to be collected, hence improving the quality of the signal. In this work, the possibility to obtain the mixing effect outside the laser cavity using an external photodetector, such as a planar photodiode, is demonstrated. Two test benches were designed, both with of two reflectors. The first one, which reflects the light beam with the same frequency of the original one is fixed, and the second one, is movable, reflecting the Doppler shifted light to the photodetector. The first test bench has a fixed mirror in front of the movable mirror, creating an umbra and penumbra shadow above the movable mirror. To avoid this problem, another test bench was constructed using a wedged beam splitter (WSB) instead of a fixed mirror. This new assembly ensures the separation of a single input beam into multiple copies that undergo successive reflections and refractions. Some light waves are reflected by the planar surface of WSB, while other light beams are transmitted through the WSB, reaching the movable mirror. Also in this case, the movable mirror reflects the light with a Doppler frequency shift, and the PD receives both beams. The two test

  18. An overview of micro-optical components and system technology: bulk, planar, and thin-film for laser initiated devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd

    2010-08-01

    There are a number of attractive micro optical elements or combinations of elements that are currently used or could be employed in optically initiated ordnance systems. When taking a broad-spectrum examination of optically initiated devices, the required key parameters become obviously straightforward for micro optics. Plainly stated, micro optics need to be simple, inexpensive, reliable, robust and compatible within their operational environment. This presentation focuses on the variety of optical elements and components available in the market place today that could be used to realize micro-optical beam shaping and delivery systems for optically initiated devices. A number of micro optical elements will be presented with specific bulk, planar optical and thin film optical devices, such as diffractive optics, micro prisms, axicons, waveguides, micro lenses, beam splitters and gratings. Further descriptions will be presented on the subject of coupling light from a laser beam into a multimode optical fiber. The use of micro optics for collimation of the laser source and conditioning of the laser beam to achieve the highest efficiency and matching the optical fiber NA will be explained. An emphasis on making these optical assemblies compact and rugged will be highlighted.

  19. 360-degree three-dimensional flat panel display using holographic optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabu, Hirofumi; Takeuchi, Yusuke; Yoshimoto, Kayo; Takahashi, Hideya; Yamada, Kenji

    2015-03-01

    We proposed the 360-degree 3D display system which is composed of a flat panel display, a light control film, and holographic optical element (HOE). The HOE is a diffraction grating which is made by holography technique. HOE lens can be produced on the thin polygonal glass plate. The light control film and HOE lenses are used to control the direction of light from the flat panel display in our system. The size of proposed system depends on the size of the flat panel display is because other parts of proposed system are thin and placed on the screen of the flat panel display. HOE lenses and a light control film are used to control lights from multiple pixels of a flat panel display to multiple viewpoints. To display large 3D images and to increase viewpoints, we divided parallax images into striped images and distributed them on the display for multiple viewpoints. Therefore, observers can see the large 3D image around the system. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed system, we made the experimental system. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed system, we constructed the part of the proposed system. The experimental system is composed of the liquid crystal display (LCD), prototype HOE lenses, and light control films. We confirmed that experimental system can display two images to different viewpoints. This paper describes the configuration of the proposed system, and also describes the experimental result.

  20. High-beamforming power-code-multiplexed optical scanner for three-dimensional displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arain, Muzammil A.; Riza, Nabeel A.

    2003-11-01

    Three dimensional (3-D) displays play an important role in the field of entertainment. Today, research is being conducted to produce 3-D displays to meet the complex needs of high-functionality full motion 3D displays at reasonable cost, but without glasses, complicated viewing arrangements or restricted fields of view. Other applications for 3-D displays include but are not limited to CAD/Design simulation, advanced data representation, displaying complex 3-D information for automotive design, medical imaging, advanced navigation displays, scientific visualization, and advertising. The key element in all these applications is an optical beam scanner that can display 3-D images for large viewing angles. Our proposed Code Multiplexed Optical Scanner (C-MOS) can fulfill all these requirements with its high beamforming power capabilities. Our proposed experiment demonstrates three dimensional (3-D) beam scanning with large angles (e.g., > 160°), large centimeter size aperture, and scanning speed of <300 μsec. The robust construction and simple operation of the C-MOS makes it very useful and attractive for deployment in the field of entertainment, defense and medical imaging. Here we report the application of the C-MOS for three dimensional (3-D) displays.

  1. Large area planar fiber optic accelerometers for measurement of acoustic velocity

    SciTech Connect

    Bucaro, J.A.; Lagakos, N.; Houston, B.H.; Kraus, L.

    1996-04-01

    Large area, flexible planar fiber optic accelerometers have been developed for use as acoustic velocity sensors in underwater applications. The devices use a specially designed optical fiber with specific jackets which suppress the fiber sensor{close_quote}s response to acoustic pressure. The sensor has been subjected to a variety of tests including direct acceleration response, direct pressure response, and response to flexural wave excitation when mounted to a {open_quote}{open_quote}hull simulator{close_quote}{close_quote} backing structure. A thorough analysis has been carried out to understand the dynamic responses and limitations of these sensor types. This work is motivated by the desire to measure spatially averaged acoustic velocity while suppressing higher wavenumber mechanical excitations. In conjunction with existing large area pressure sensors (or with suitable structural models), these devices would provide a powerful capability for the measurement and detection of acoustic fields near structures having general impedance properties. This would allow, for example, the decomposition of the acoustic field into backward and forward propagating waves near such a boundary, the determination of acoustic intensity, the detection of the acoustic field with high signal-to-noise ratios even near a soft, pressure release boundary, and determination of the impedance of the structure itself. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Optical Wave Propagation in Epitaxial Nd:Y2O3 Planar Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Webster, Scott; Kumaran, Raveen; Penson, Shawn; Tiedje, T.

    2010-03-01

    Optical wave propagation in neodymium doped yttrium oxide (Nd:Y2O3) films grown on R-plane sapphire substrates by molecular beam epitaxy has been studied by the prism coupler method. The measurements yield propagation loss data, precise values for the refractive index and the dispersion relation. The refractive index of the Nd:Y2O3 at 632.8nm is found to be 1.909, which is close to the available data for bulk Y2O3 crystal (1.923 at 645nm from Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II). The lowest propagation loss measured is 0.9±0.2 cm-1 at 1046 nm with a spin-on polymethyl-methacrylate top cladding layer on a film with 6 nm RMS surface roughness. The loss measurements suggest the majority loss of this planar waveguide sample is due to scattering from surface roughness. The loss measurements are in good agreement with the model of Payne and Lacey (Opt. and Quantum Electron 26 (1994) 977-986) in which we use the experimental value for the surface autocorrelation obtained from AFM measurements.

  3. Optical and spectroscopic characterization of Er/Yb-activated planar waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelli, Stefano; Brenci, Massimo; Fossi, Matteo; Righini, Giancarlo C.; Duverger, Claire; Montagna, Maurizio; Rolli, Raffaella; Ferrari, Maurizio

    2000-04-01

    Soda-lime silicate glasses doped with different percentages of Er- and Yb-oxides were produced by melting, and both planar and channel waveguides were fabricated by diluted silver ion exchange. Their optical and spectroscopic properties have been investigated, and some results are reported here. The optical parameters such as refractive index, diffusion depth and number of modes were measured by m-line technique. Absorption and fluorescence spectra were also measured; particular attention was focused on upconversion phenomena. The upconversion luminescence spectra of an Er/Yb-activated waveguide were obtained by continuous-wave excitation at 514.5 nm, as a function of the excitation power. The weak upconversion bands are assigned to the 2H9/2 yields 4I15/2 and 4G11/2 yields 4I15/2 transitions of the Er3+ ion. The upconversion mechanism is found to be a two-photon process. Preliminary results of gain measurements in channel waveguides showed signal enhancement at 1.5 micrometers , for high input signal intensities, upon pumping at 0.98 micrometers .

  4. Recording of dynamic gratings in the nonlinear optical coating of a planar waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhevnikov, N. M.; Korolev, A. E.; Koklyushkin, A. V.; Lipovskaya, M. Yu.; Nazarov, V. N.

    2003-04-01

    The possibility of controlled energy exchange between interfering waveguide modes in a singlemode planar waveguide with a nonlinear optical coating is analyzed. As the coating, a suspension of bacteriorhodopsin D96N was used, which makes it possible to realize two spectrally separated mechanisms of recording and controlling dynamic gratings, i.e., the spatial modulation of the trans-cis excitation rate and the spatial modulation of the cis-trans relaxation rate. The method of phase-modulated beams was used to implement the energy exchange. The dynamic gratings in the coating were recorded by using both radiation with a wavelength within the absorption band of the trans state (630 nm) and radiation with a wavelength within the absorption band of the cis state (440 nm). Efficient control of the energy exchange between the waveguide modes by means of uniform exposure of their interference region to radiation with another wavelength was observed. A completely integral geometrical layout for optically controlled energy exchange was realized. The results obtained are compared with known data on energy exchange between beams in the bulk of a similar nonlinear medium.

  5. Lateral translation micro-tracking of planar micro-optic solar concentrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallas, Justin M.; Karp, Jason H.; Tremblay, Eric J.; Ford, Joseph E.

    2010-08-01

    High-concentration photo-voltaic systems focus incident sunlight by hundreds of times by combining focusing lenses with accurate, dual-axis solar tracking. Conventional systems mount large optical arrays on expensive tracking pedestals to maintain normal incidence throughout the day. A recently proposed micro-optic solar concentrator utilizes a twodimensional lens array focusing into a planar slab waveguide. Localized mirrors fabricated on the waveguide surface reflect focused sunlight into guided modes which propagate towards an edge-mounted photovoltaic cell. This geometry enables a new method of solar tracking by laterally translating the waveguide with respect to the lens array to capture off-axis illumination. Using short focal length lenses, translations on the order of millimeters can efficiently collect 70° full-angle incident fields. This allows for either one or two-axis tracking systems where the small physical motion is contained within the physical footprint of a fixed solar panel. Here, we experimentally demonstrate lateral micro tracking for off-axis light collection using table-mounted components. We also present a novel tracking frame based on de-centered cams and describe a lens configuration optimized for off-axis coupling.

  6. Optical waveguide technology and its application in head-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Alex

    2012-06-01

    Applying optical waveguide technology to head mounted display (HMD) solutions has the key goal of providing the user with improved tactical situational awareness by providing information and imagery in an easy to use form which also maintains compatibility with current night vision devices and also enables the integration of future night vision devices. The benefits of waveguide technology in HMDs have seen a number of alternative waveguide display technologies and configurations emerge for Head mounted Display applications. BAE System's presented one such technology in 2009 [1] and this is now in production for a range of Helmet Mounted Display products. This paper outlines the key design drivers for aviators Helmet Mounted Displays, provides an update of holographic Optical Waveguide Technology and its maturation into compact, lightweight Helmet Mounted Displays products for aviation and non-aviation applications. Waveguide displays have proved too be a radical enabling technology which allows higher performance display devices solutions to be created in a revolutionary way. It has also provided the user with see through daylight readable displays, offering the combination of very large eye box and excellent real world transmission in a compact format. Holographic Optical Waveguide is an optical technology which reduces size and mass whilst liberating the designer from many of the constraints inherent in conventional optical solutions. This technology is basically a way of moving light without the need for a complex arrangement of conventional lenses. BAE Systems has exploited this technology in the Q-SightTM family of scalable Helmet Mounted Displays; allowing the addition of capability as it is required in a flexible, low-cost way The basic monocular Q-SightTM architecture has been extended to offer wide field of view, monochrome and full colour HMD solution for rotary wing, fast jet and solider system applications. In its basic form Q-SightTM now offers plug

  7. Holographic display for see-through augmented reality using mirror-lens holographic optical element.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Lee, Dukho; Jeong, Youngmo; Cho, Jaebum; Lee, Byoungho

    2016-06-01

    A holographic display system for realizing a three-dimensional optical see-through augmented reality (AR) is proposed. A multi-functional holographic optical element (HOE), which simultaneously performs the optical functions of a mirror and a lens, is adopted in the system. In the proposed method, a mirror that is used to guide the light source into a reflection type spatial light modulator (SLM) and a lens that functions as Fourier transforming optics are recorded on a single holographic recording material by utilizing an angular multiplexing technique of volume hologram. The HOE is transparent and performs the optical functions just for Bragg matched condition. Therefore, the real-world scenes that are usually distorted by a Fourier lens or an SLM in the conventional holographic display can be observed without visual disturbance by using the proposed mirror-lens HOE (MLHOE). Furthermore, to achieve an optimized optical recording condition of the MLHOE, the optical characteristics of the holographic material are measured. The proposed holographic AR display system is verified experimentally. PMID:27244395

  8. Image Quality Analysis and Optical Performance Requirement for Micromirror-Based Lissajous Scanning Displays

    PubMed Central

    Du, Weiqi; Zhang, Gaofei; Ye, Liangchen

    2016-01-01

    Micromirror-based scanning displays have been the focus of a variety of applications. Lissajous scanning displays have advantages in terms of power consumption; however, the image quality is not good enough. The main reason for this is the varying size and the contrast ratio of pixels at different positions of the image. In this paper, the Lissajous scanning trajectory is analyzed and a new method based on the diamond pixel is introduced to Lissajous displays. The optical performance of micromirrors is discussed. A display system demonstrator is built, and tests of resolution and contrast ratio are conducted. The test results show that the new Lissajous scanning method can be used in displays by using diamond pixels and image quality remains stable at different positions. PMID:27187390

  9. Computed tomographic angiography of the superficial cerebral venous anastomosis based on volume rendering, multi-planar reconstruction, and integral imaging display.

    PubMed

    Fang, Qiong; Chen, Feng; Jiang, Anhong; Huang, Yanping; Deng, Xuefei

    2015-12-01

    As damage to the superficial cerebral venous anastomosis may create catastrophic complications even after successful surgery, it is important to visualize and determine the normal features of the venous anastomosis with computed tomographic angiography. A total of 90 patients underwent a 64-detector row helical CT scan of head. The superficial cerebral venous anastomosis was reconstructed by volume rendering, multi-planar reconstruction, and integral display algorithm. In particular, we examined the vein of Trolard, the vein of Labbe, and the vein of Sylvian, in order to analyze the venous anastomosis. The superficial cerebral venous anastomosis varied across different individuals, and in this study, six types of anastomosis were found. In 28 % of patients, no venous anastomosis was found in the unilateral cerebral hemisphere. The display rate of the vein of Trolard, the vein of Labbe, and the vein of Sylvian in contributing to venous anastomosis was 70, 80, and 91 %, respectively. The number of vein of Trolard and vein of Labbe on the left side was greater than that of those on the right side. We implemented the 64-detector row helical CT as a rapid and noninvasive method to investigate the superficial cerebral venous anastomosis in our group of patients. We performed substantial image processing for the visualization of the superficial cerebral venous anastomosis; this would not only enable the early diagnosis of cerebral venous disease, but also protect the cerebral vein during neurosurgical intervention. PMID:26577709

  10. Reduce blurring and distortion in a projection type virtual image display using integrated small optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Tatsuya; Yendo, Tomohiro

    2015-03-01

    Head Up Display (HUD) is being applied to automobile. HUD displays information as far virtual image on the windshield. Existing HUD usually displays planar information. If the image corresponding to scenery on the road like Augmented Reality (AR) is displayed on the HUD, driver can efficiently get the information. To actualize this, HUD covering large viewing field is needed. However existing HUD cannot cover large viewing field. Therefore we have proposed system consisting of projector and many small diameter convex lenses. However observed virtual image has blurring and distortion . In this paper, we propose two methods to reduce blurring and distortion of images. First, to reduce blurring of images, distance between each of screen and lens comprised in lens array is adjusted. We inferred from the more distant the lens from center of the array is more blurred that the cause of blurring is curvature of field of lens in the array. Second, to avoid distortion of images, each lens in the array is curved spherically. We inferred from the more distant the lens from center of the array is more distorted that the cause of distortion is incident angle of ray. We confirmed effectiveness of both methods.

  11. A compact eyetracked optical see-through head-mounted display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Hong; Gao, Chunyu

    2012-03-01

    An eye-tracked head-mounted display (ET-HMD) system is able to display virtual images as a classical HMD does, while additionally tracking the gaze direction of the user. There is ample evidence that a fully-integrated ETHMD system offers multi-fold benefits, not only to fundamental scientific research but also to emerging applications of such technology. For instance eyetracking capability in HMDs adds a very valuable tool and objective metric for scientists to quantitatively assess user interaction with 3D environments and investigate the effectiveness of various 3D visualization technologies for various specific tasks including training, education, and augmented cognition tasks. In this paper, we present an innovative optical approach to the design of an optical see-through ET-HMD system based on freeform optical technology and an innovative optical scheme that uniquely combines the display optics with the eye imaging optics. A preliminary design of the described ET-HMD system will be presented.

  12. Structural and optical properties of yttrium oxide thin films for planar waveguiding applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, Stuart J.; Parker, Greg J.; Charlton, Martin D. B.; Wilkinson, James S.

    2010-11-15

    Thin films of yttrium oxide, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, were deposited by reactive sputtering and reactive evaporation to determine their suitability as a host for a rare earth doped planar waveguide upconversion laser. The optical properties, structure, and crystalline phase of the films were found to be dependent on the deposition method and process parameters. X-ray diffraction analysis on the ''as-deposited'' thin films revealed that the films vary from amorphous to highly crystalline with a small broad peak at 29 deg. corresponding to the <222> reflections of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The samples with the polycrystalline structure had a stoichiometry close to bulk cubic Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed a regular column structure confirming their crystalline nature. The thin film layers which allowed guiding in both visible and infrared regions had lower refractive indices, higher oxygen content, and a more amorphous structure. Higher oxygen pressures during the deposition lead to a more amorphous layer.

  13. Novel all-optical planar and compact minimum-stage switches of size >= 4x4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giglmayr, Josef

    1997-01-01

    Throughout the paper, novel all-optical planar 1-stage k multiplied by k-switches and compact minimum-stage k multiplied by k-switches in double-layer and multi-layer technique, are presented and analyzed. In the first case, the number of k(k - 1)/2 switches of size 2 multiplied by 2 (equivalent minimum of the Spanke-Benes network) are arranged in parallel instead of the number of k (equivalent maximum) cascaded 2 multiplied by 2-switches of the Spanke- Benes network. In the second case, the number of 2 multiplied by 2-switches depends on the geometry of the 'pipes' of the switches formed by the layers and waveguides [for a square it is 3k/2(k/2 - 1) for rearrangeable nonblocking and 3(k - 1)k/2(k/2 - 1) for circuit switching networks]. The number of stages (NS) (horizontal cascaded) of the proposed compact switches for the nonblocking interconnection is NS equals n - 1 if the waveguides form an n-gon (n greater than or equal to 3) for any size of the k multiplied by k-switch. In this way, the attenuation of optical signals passing through a photonic network may be minimized. In particular, for any size of a k multiplied by k-switch, dependent on the n-gon, the minimum NS is n-1 equals 2 (triangle) or n - 1 equals 3 (square) etc. Thus the proposed switch concept is of complexity O(1), i.e. the NS is independent of the number of inputs/outputs. Additionally, the proposed switches are capable to operate in the circuit switching mode if and only if (iff) the parallelism increases by the factor k-1.

  14. Toward photostable multiplex analyte detection on a single mode planar optical waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Mukundan, Harshini; Xei, Hongshi; Anderson, Aaron S; Grace, Wynne K; Martinez, Jennifer S; Swanson, Basil

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a waveguide-based optical biosensor for the sensitive and specific detection of biomarkers associated with disease. Our technology combines the superior optical properties of single-mode planar waveguides, the robust nature of functionalized self-assembled monolayer sensing films and the specificity of fluorescence sandwich immunoassays to detect biomarkers in complex biological samples such as serum, urine and sputum. We have previously reported the adaptation of our technology to the detection of biomarkers associated with breast cancer and anthrax. However, these approaches primarily used phospholipid bilayers as the functional film and organic dyes (ex: AlexaFluors) as the fluorescence reporter. Organic dyes are easily photodegraded and are not amenable to multiplexing because of their narrow Stokes' shift. Here we have developed strategies for conjugation of the detector antibodies with quantum dots for use in a multiplex detection platform. We have previously evaluated dihydroxylipoic acid quantum dots for the detection of a breast cancer biomarker. In this manuscript, we investigate the detection of the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen using antibodies conjugated with polymer-coated quantum dots. Kinetics of binding on the waveguide-based biosensor is reported. We compare the sensitivity of quantum dot labeled antibodies to those labeled with AlexaFluor and demonstrate the photostability of the former in our assay platform. In addition, we compare sulfydryl labeling of the antibody in the hinge region to that of nonspecific amine labeling. This is but the first step in developing a multiplex assay for such biomarkers on our waveguide platform.

  15. Toward photostable multiplex analyte detection on a single mode planar optical waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukundan, Harshini; Xie, Hongzhi; Anderson, Aaron; Grace, W. Kevin; Martinez, Jennifer S.; Swanson, Basil

    2009-02-01

    We have developed a waveguide-based optical biosensor for the sensitive and specific detection of biomarkers associated with disease. Our technology combines the superior optical properties of single-mode planar waveguides, the robust nature of functionalized self-assembled monolayer sensing films and the specificity of fluorescence sandwich immunoassays to detect biomarkers in complex biological samples such as serum, urine and sputum. We have previously reported the adaptation of our technology to the detection of biomarkers associated with breast cancer and anthrax. However, these approaches primarily used phospholipid bilayers as the functional film and organic dyes (ex: AlexaFluors) as the fluorescence reporter. Organic dyes are easily photodegraded and are not amenable to multiplexing because of their narrow Stokes' shift. Here we have developed strategies for conjugation of the detector antibodies with quantum dots for use in a multiplex detection platform. We have previously evaluated dihydroxylipoic acid quantum dots for the detection of a breast cancer biomarker. In this manuscript, we investigate the detection of the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen using antibodies conjugated with polymer-coated quantum dots. Kinetics of binding on the waveguide-based biosensor is reported. We compare the sensitivity of quantum dot labeled antibodies to those labeled with AlexaFluor and demonstrate the photostability of the former in our assay platform. In addition, we compare sulfydryl labeling of the antibody in the hinge region to that of nonspecific amine labeling. This is but the first step in developing a multiplex assay for such biomarkers on our waveguide platform.

  16. Fort Meade demonstration test LEDS in freezer rooms, fiber optics in display cases

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Steven; Parker, Graham B.

    2008-10-25

    Demonstration projects at Fort George G. Meade, MD, substituted LED lighting for incandescent bulbs in commisary wal-in freezers and fiber optic lighting in reach-in display cases. The goal was to reduce energy consumption and the results were positive. Journal article published in Public Works Digest

  17. Modified Method of Increasing of Reconstruction Quality of Diffractive Optical Elements Displayed with LC SLM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnov, V. V.; Cheremkhin, P. A.; Erkin, I. Yu.; Evtikhiev, N. N.; Starikov, R. S.; Starikov, S. N.

    Modified method of increasing of reconstruction quality of diffractive optical elements (DOE) displayed with liquid crystal (LC) spatial light modulators (SLM) is presented. Method is based on optimization of DOE synthesized with conventional method by application of direct search with random trajectory method while taking into account LC SLM phase fluctuations. Reduction of synthesis error up to 88% is achieved.

  18. Psychophysical Research in Development of a Fiber-optic Helmet Mounted Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruk, R. V.; Longridge, T. M.

    1984-01-01

    The Fiber Optic Helmet Mounted Display (FOHMD) was conceived as an innovative solution to existing flight simulator display deficiencies. An initial (breadboard) version of the system was fabricated to permit experimentation which would help define design requirements for a more refined engineering prototype. A series of visual/human factors studies are being conducted at the USAF Human Resources Laboratory (AFHRL) Operations Training Division, Williams AFB, Arizona to determine the optimum fit of human observer operating characteristics and fiber optic helmet mounted display technology. Pilot performance within a variety of high resolution insert/binocular overlap combinations is being assessed in two classes of environment. The first two of four studies planned incorporate an air-to-air combat environment, whereas the second two studies will use a low level environment with air to ground weapons delivery.

  19. Low-loss optical planar waveguides in Li2B4O7 crystal formed by He+ implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudrioua, A.; Bakhouya, Ch.; Loulergue, J. C.; Moretti, P.; Polgár, K.

    2001-06-01

    Formation of planar waveguide in lithium tetraborate (Li2B4O7) crystal by 2 MeV helium (He+) implantation is reported. Investigation of the induced defects is performed by using a modified m-lines setup. Results indicate that the optical properties of the guiding core are not affected by the implantation process. Moreover the produced defects are shown to be isotropic and localized at the optical barrier position without any extension towards the surface. Optical losses measured by using a new approach are found to be less than 2 dB cm-1. Finally the influence of postannealing procedure applied to the sample showed a stability of the optical properties of the guide with 10% improvement of optical losses.

  20. Automatic calibration of an optical see-through head-mounted display for augmented reality applications in computer-assisted interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figl, Michael; Ede, Christopher; Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Hummel, Johann; Seemann, Rudolf; Bergmann, Helmar

    2004-05-01

    We are developing an optical see through head mounted display in which preoperative planning data provided by a computer aided surgery system is overlaid to the optical image of the patient. In order to cope with head movements of the surgeon the device has to be calibrated for a wide zoom and focus range. For such a calibration accurate and robust localization of a huge amount of calibration points is of utmost importance. Because of the negligible radial distortion of the optics in our device, we were able to use projective invariants for stable detection of the calibration fiducials on a planar grid. The pattern at the planar grid was designed using a different cross ratio for four consecutive points in x respectively y direction. For automated image processing we put a CCD camera behind the eye piece of the device. The resulting image was thresholded and segmented, after deleting the artefacts a Sobel edge detector was applied and the image was Hough transformed to detect the x and y axes. Then the world coordinates of fiducial points on the grid could be detected. A series of six camera calibrations with two zoom settings was done. The mean values of the errors for the two calibrations were 0.08 mm respectively 0.3 mm.

  1. Novel microscope-integrated stereoscopic heads-up display for intrasurgical optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Liangbo; Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar; Keller, Brenton; Viehland, Christian; Waterman, Gar; Hahn, Paul S.; Kuo, Anthony N.; Toth, Cynthia A.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    Intra-operative optical coherence tomography (OCT) requires a display technology which allows surgeons to visualize OCT data without disrupting surgery. Previous research and commercial intrasurgical OCT systems have integrated heads-up display (HUD) systems into surgical microscopes to provide monoscopic viewing of OCT data through one microscope ocular. To take full advantage of our previously reported real-time volumetric microscope-integrated OCT (4D MIOCT) system, we describe a stereoscopic HUD which projects a stereo pair of OCT volume renderings into both oculars simultaneously. The stereoscopic HUD uses a novel optical design employing spatial multiplexing to project dual OCT volume renderings utilizing a single micro-display. The optical performance of the surgical microscope with the HUD was quantitatively characterized and the addition of the HUD was found not to substantially effect the resolution, field of view, or pincushion distortion of the operating microscope. In a pilot depth perception subject study, five ophthalmic surgeons completed a pre-set dexterity task with 50.0% (SD = 37.3%) higher success rate and in 35.0% (SD = 24.8%) less time on average with stereoscopic OCT vision compared to monoscopic OCT vision. Preliminary experience using the HUD in 40 vitreo-retinal human surgeries by five ophthalmic surgeons is reported, in which all surgeons reported that the HUD did not alter their normal view of surgery and that live surgical maneuvers were readily visible in displayed stereoscopic OCT volumes. PMID:27231616

  2. Novel microscope-integrated stereoscopic heads-up display for intrasurgical optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Shen, Liangbo; Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar; Keller, Brenton; Viehland, Christian; Waterman, Gar; Hahn, Paul S; Kuo, Anthony N; Toth, Cynthia A; Izatt, Joseph A

    2016-05-01

    Intra-operative optical coherence tomography (OCT) requires a display technology which allows surgeons to visualize OCT data without disrupting surgery. Previous research and commercial intrasurgical OCT systems have integrated heads-up display (HUD) systems into surgical microscopes to provide monoscopic viewing of OCT data through one microscope ocular. To take full advantage of our previously reported real-time volumetric microscope-integrated OCT (4D MIOCT) system, we describe a stereoscopic HUD which projects a stereo pair of OCT volume renderings into both oculars simultaneously. The stereoscopic HUD uses a novel optical design employing spatial multiplexing to project dual OCT volume renderings utilizing a single micro-display. The optical performance of the surgical microscope with the HUD was quantitatively characterized and the addition of the HUD was found not to substantially effect the resolution, field of view, or pincushion distortion of the operating microscope. In a pilot depth perception subject study, five ophthalmic surgeons completed a pre-set dexterity task with 50.0% (SD = 37.3%) higher success rate and in 35.0% (SD = 24.8%) less time on average with stereoscopic OCT vision compared to monoscopic OCT vision. Preliminary experience using the HUD in 40 vitreo-retinal human surgeries by five ophthalmic surgeons is reported, in which all surgeons reported that the HUD did not alter their normal view of surgery and that live surgical maneuvers were readily visible in displayed stereoscopic OCT volumes. PMID:27231616

  3. Spatial optical modulator (SOM): high-density diffractive laser projection display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, SangKyeong; Song, JongHyeong; Yeo, InJae; Choi, YoonJoon; Yurlov, Victor; An, SeungDo; Park, HeungWoo; Yang, HaengSeok; Lee, YeongGyu; Han, KyuBum; Shyshkin, Ihar; Lapchuk, Anatoliy; Oh, KwanYoung; Ryu, SeungWon; Jang, JaeWook; Park, ChangSu; Kim, ChunGi; Kim, SunKi; Kim, EungJu; Woo, KiSuk; Yang, JeongSuong; Kim, EuiJoong; Kim, JooHong; Byun, SungHo; Lee, SeungWoo; Lim, OhkKun; Cheong, JongPil; Hwang, YoungNam; Byun, GiYoung; Kyoung, JeHong; Yoon, SangKee; Lee, JaeKwang; Lee, TaeWon; Hong, SeokKee; Hong, YoonShik; Park, DongHyun; Kang, JungChul; Shin, WooChul; Lee, SungIl; Oh, SungKyung; Song, ByungKi; Kim, HeeYeoun; Koh, ChongMann; Ryu, YungHo; Lee, HyunKee; Baek, YoungKi

    2007-02-01

    A new type of diffractive spatial optical modulators, named SOM, has been developed by Samsung Electro-Mechanics for laser projection display. It exhibit inherent advantages of fast response time and high-performance light modulation, suitable for high quality embedded laser projection displays. The calculated efficiency and contrast ratio are 75 % and 800:1 respectively in case of 0 th order, 67 % and 1000:1 respectively in case of +/-1st order. The response time is as fast as 0.7 μs. Also we get the displacement of 400 nm enough to display full color with single panel in VGA format, as being 10 V driven. Optical module with VGA was successfully demonstrated for its potential applications in mobile laser projection display such as cellular phone, digital still camera and note PC product. Electrical power consumption is less than 2 W, volume is less than 13 cc. Brightness is enough to watch TV and movie in the open air, being variable up to 6 lm. Even if it's optimal diagonal image size is 10 inch, image quality does not deteriorate in the range of 5 to 50 inch because of the merit of focus-free. Due to 100 % fill factor, the image is seamless so as to be unpleasant to see the every pixel's partition. High speed of response time can make full color display with 24-bit gray scale and cause no scan line artifact, better than any other devices.

  4. Analysis of optical characteristics of photopolymer-based VHOE for multiview autostereoscopic 3D display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Byung-Chul; Gu, Jung-Sik; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2002-06-01

    Generally, an autostereoscopic display presents a 3D image to a viewer without the need for glasses or other encumbering viewing aids. In this paper, we propose a new autostereoscopic 3D video display system which allows viewers to observe 3D images in the same range of viewing angle. In this system, a photopolymer-based VHOE is made from volume holographic recording materials and it is used for projecting a multiview images to the spatially different directions sequentially in time. Since this technique is based on the VHOE made from the photorefractive photopolymer instead of the conventional parallax barrier or lenticular sheet, the resolution and parallax number of the proposed VHOE-based 3D display system are limited by the photopolymer's physical and optical properties. To make the photopolymer to be applicable for a multiview autostereoscopic 3D display system, the photopolymer must be capable of achieving some properties such as a low distortion of the diffracted light beam, high diffraction efficiency, and uniform intensities of the reconstructed diffracted lights from the fully recorded diffraction gratings. In this paper, the optical and physical characteristics of the DuPont HRF photopolymer-based VHOE such as a distortion of displayed image, uniformity of the diffracted light intensity, photosensitivity and diffraction efficiency are measured and discussed.

  5. Novel microscope-integrated stereoscopic display for intrasurgical optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Liangbo; Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar; Keller, Brenton; Viehland, Christian; Waterman, Gar; Desouza, Philip; Hahn, Paul; Kuo, Anthony; Toth, Cynthia A.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2015-03-01

    The first generation of intrasurgical optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems displayed OCT data onto a separate computer monitor, requiring surgeons to look away from the surgical microscope. In order to provide real-time OCT feedback without requiring surgeons to look away during surgeries, recent prototype research and commercial intrasurgical OCT systems have integrated heads-up display (HUD) systems into the surgical microscopes to allow the surgeons to access the OCT data and the surgical field through the oculars concurrently. However, all current intrasurgical OCT systems with a HUD are only capable of imaging through one ocular limiting the surgeon's depth perception of OCT volumes. Stereoscopy is an effective technology to dramatically increase depth perception by presenting an image from slightly different angles to each eye. Conventional stereoscopic HUD use a pair of micro displays which require bulky optics. Several new approaches for HUDs are reported to use only one micro display at the expense of image brightness or increased footprint. Therefore, these techniques for HUD are not suitable to be integrated into microscopes. We have developed a novel stereoscopic HUD which uses spatial multiplexing to project stereo views into both oculars simultaneously with only one micro-display and three optical elements for our microscope-integrated OCT system. Simultaneous stereoscopic views of OCT volumes are computed in real time by GPU-enabled OCT system software. We present, to our knowledge, the first microscope integrated stereoscopic HUD used for intrasurgical OCT with a novel optical design for stereoscopic viewing devices and report on its preliminary use in human vitreoretinal surgeries.

  6. Nonlinear photoinduced anisotropy and modifiable optical image display in a bacteriorhodopsin/polymer composite film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Lai; Luo, Jia; Zhu, Jiang; Lu, Ming; Zhao, You-yuan; Ma, De-wang; Ding, Jian-dong

    2007-04-01

    The nonlinear photoinduced anisotropy with large birefringence in a bacteriorhodopsin/polymer composite (bR/PC) film was observed. The contrast ratio, a ratio of the maximum to the minimum intensity of transmitted probe light through the bR/PC film within the linear gray scale range could reach ˜350:1. An all-optical image display in different colors was performed. The intensity of the transmitted signal could be modulated by adjusting the multibeam polarization states and intensities. Therefore, the positive image, negative image, and image erasure in display were demonstrated.

  7. Optical see-through head-mounted display with occlusion capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Chunyu; Lin, Yuxiang; Hua, Hong

    2013-05-01

    Lack of mutual occlusion capability between computer-rendered and real objects is one of fundamental problems for most existing optical see-through head-mounted displays (OST-HMD). Without the proper occlusion management, the virtual view through an OST-HMD appears "ghost-like", floating in the real world. To address this challenge, we have developed an innovative optical scheme that uniquely combines the eyepiece and see-through relay optics to achieve an occlusion-capable OST-HMD system with a very compelling form factor and high optical performances. The proposed display system was based on emerging freeform optical design technologies and was designed for highly efficient liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) type spatial light modulator (SLM) and bright Organic LED (OLED) microdisplay. The proposed display technology was capable of working in both indoor and outdoor environments. Our current design offered a 1280x1024 color resolution based on 0.8" microdisplay and SLM. The MTF values for the majority of the fields at the cutoff frequency of 40lps/mm, which is determined by the pixel size of the microdisplay, are better than 15%. The design achieved a diagonal FOV of 40 degrees, 31.7 degrees horizontally and 25.6 degrees vertically, an exit pupil diameter of 8mm (non-vignetted), and an eye clearance of 18mm. The optics weights about 20 grams per eye. Our proposed occlusion capable OST-HMD system can easily find myriads of applications in various military and commercial sectors such as military training, gaming and entertainment.

  8. Comparison of optical and video see-through, head-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolland, Jannick P.; Holloway, Richard L.; Fuchs, Henry

    1995-12-01

    One of the most promising and challenging future uses of head-mounted displays (HMDs) is in applications where virtual environments enhance rather than replace real environments. To obtain an enhanced view of the real environment, the user wears a see-through HMD to see 3D computer-generated objects superimposed on his/her real-world view. This see-through capability can be accomplished using either an optical or a video see-through HMD. We discuss the tradeoffs between optical and video see-through HMDs with respect to technological, perceptual, and human factors issues, and discuss our experience designing, building, using, and testing these HMDs.

  9. Restocking the optical designers' toolbox for next-generation wearable displays (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Bernard C.

    2015-09-01

    Three years ago, industry and consumers learned that there was more to Head Mounted Displays (HMDs) than the long-lasting but steady market for defense or the market for gadget video player headsets: the first versions of Smart Glasses were introduced to the public. Since then, most major consumer electronics companies unveiled their own versions of Connected Glasses, Smart Glasses or Smart Eyewear, AR (Augmented Reality) and VR (Virtual Reality) headsets. This rush resulted in the build-up of a formidable zoo of optical technologies, each claiming to be best suited for the task on hand. Today, the question is not so much anymore "will the Smart Glass market happen?" but rather "which optical technologies will be best fitted for the various declinations of the existing wearable display market," one of the main declination being the Smart Glasses market.

  10. Design and experiments of combined diffractive optical element for virtual displays and indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odinokov, Sergey B.; Ruchkina, Maria A.; Sagatelyan, Gaik R.; Solomashenko, Artem B.; Zherdev, Alexander Y.

    2015-05-01

    Combined diffractive optical elements, which perform the functions of deflection, focusing or transformation of wave fronts and together with the spectral-angular selection of the incident polychromatic radiation, obtained on a single substrate, the method of their design and fabrication are described. The combination of four-level diffraction grating with plasmon meander diffraction grating as a spectral filter that have a bandwidth that varies with the angle of incidence are investigated for use in virtual displays and indicators.

  11. Visual space assessment of two all-reflective, freeform, optical see-through head-worn displays.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Aaron; Rolland, Jannick P

    2014-06-01

    Head-worn displays have begun to infiltrate the commercial electronics scene as mobile computing power has decreased in price and increased in availability. A prototypical head-worn display is both lightweight and compact, while achieving high quality optical performance. In off-axis geometries, freeform optical surfaces allow an optical designer additional degrees of freedom necessary to create a device that meets these conditions. In this paper, we show two optical see-through head-worn display designs, both comprising two freeform elements with an emphasis on visual space assessment and parameters. PMID:24921511

  12. Eyetracked optical see-through head-mounted display as an AAC device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Hong; Hu, Xinda; Gao, Chunyu; Qin, Xiao

    2014-06-01

    An eye-tracked head-mounted display (ET-HMD) system is able to display virtual images as a classical headmounted display (HMD) does, while additionally tracking the gaze direction of the user. An HMD with fullyintegrated eyetracking capability offers multi-fold benefits, not only to fundamental scientific research but also to emerging applications of such technology. A key limitation of the state-of-the-art ET-HMD technology is the lack of compactness and portability. In this paper, we present an innovative design of a high resolution optical see-through ET-HMD system based on freeform optical technology. A prototype system is demonstrated, which offers a goggle-like compact form factor, non-obstructive see-through field of view, true high-definition image resolution for the virtual display, and better than 0.5 arc minute of angular resolution for the see-through view. We will demonstrate the application of the technology as an assistive and augmentative communication (AAC) device.

  13. Technique for determining the angular orientation of molecules bound to the surface of an arbitrary planar optical waveguide.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Sergio B; Bradshaw, John Thomas; Saavedra, S Scott

    2004-01-01

    A technique to determine the angular orientation of a molecular assembly bound to the surface of a planar optical waveguide of arbitrary structure is described. The approach is based on measuring the absorption dichroic ratio by using the waveguide evanescent fields with orthogonal polarizations (TE, TM) and the same mode order to probe two molecular assemblies, (i) a reference sample composed of an isotropic orientation distribution of dipoles and (ii) a sample of interest. The isotropic sample is used to characterize the waveguide structure, which then allows the orientation parameters of a molecular assembly under investigation to be determined from a measured dichroic ratio. The method developed here is particularly important for applications in gradient-index and multilayer planar waveguide platforms because in those cases the extension of previously reported approaches would require a full experimental characterization of the guiding structure, which would be problematic and may yield inaccurate results. PMID:14714646

  14. Optical coatings and thin films for display technologies using closed-field magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Desmond R.; Brinkley, Ian; Walls, J. M.

    2004-11-01

    "Closed field" magnetron (CFM) sputtering offers high throughput, flexible deposition process for optical coatings and thin films required in display technologies. CFM sputtering uses two or more different metal targets to deposit multilayers comprising a wide range of dielectrics, metals and conductive oxides. CFM provides a room temperature deposition process with high ion current density, low bias voltage and reactive oxidation in the entire volume around the rotating substrate drum carrier, depositing films over a large surface area at a high rate with excellent and reproducible properties. Machines based on CFM are scaleable to meet a range of batch and in-line size requirements. Thin film thickness control to <+/-1% is accomplished using time, although quartz crystal or optical monitoring are used for more demanding applications. Fine layer thickness control and deposition of graded index layers is also assisted with a special rotating shutter mechanism. This paper presents data on optical properties for CFM deposited coatings relevant to displays, including anti-reflection, IR blocker and color and thermal control filters, graded coatings, barrier coatings as well as conductive transparent oxides such as indium tin oxide. Benefits of the CFM process for a range of display technologies; OLED, EL and projection are described.

  15. Optical singularities and power flux in the near-field region of planar evanescent-field superlenses.

    PubMed

    Perez-Molina, Manuel; Carretero, L; Acebal, P; Blaya, S

    2008-11-01

    We rigorously analyze the optical singularities and power flux in the near-field region of the novel superlenses reported in [Science317, 927 (2007)] For this purpose, we derive near-field expressions and a general criterion to classify the optical singularities in the vacuum, which are valid when the (s- or p-polarized) electromagnetic fields are generated by any planar field distribution with Cartesian or azimuthal symmetry. Such general results are particularized to the superlenses [Science317, 927 (2007)], for which we identify a sequence of optical vortices and saddles that arise from evanescent-field interference. While the saddles are always located around the focal region, the vortex locations depend on the source field. The features of the topological connection between vortices and saddles are also discussed. PMID:18978868

  16. Virtual touch 3D interactive system for autostereoscopic display with embedded optical sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yi-Pai; Wang, Guo-Zhen; Ma, Ming-Ching; Tung, Shang-Yu; Huang, Shu-Yi; Tseng, Hung-Wei; Kuo, Chung-Hong; Li, Chun-Huai

    2011-06-01

    The traidational 3D interactive sysetm which uses CCD camera to capture image is difficult to operate on near range for mobile applications.Therefore, 3D interactive display with embedded optical sensor was proposed. Based on optical sensor based system, we proposed four different methods to support differenct functions. T mark algorithm can obtain 5- axis information (x, y, z,θ, and φ)of LED no matter where LED was vertical or inclined to panel and whatever it rotated. Sequential mark algorithm and color filter based algorithm can support mulit-user. Finally, bare finger touch system with sequential illuminator can achieve to interact with auto-stereoscopic images by bare finger. Furthermore, the proposed methods were verified on a 4-inch panel with embedded optical sensors.

  17. Image formation of holographic three-dimensional display based on spatial light modulator in paraxial optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junchang; Lin, Yu-Chih; Tu, Han-Yen; Gui, Jinbin; Li, Chongguang; Lou, Yuli; Cheng, Chau-Jern

    2015-10-01

    This work describes the image formation and properties of holographic three-dimensional (3-D) display based on spatial light modulators (SLMs) combined with optical imaging systems. Existing pixelated SLMs with periodic mesh structures affect the holographic reconstruction and display properties. According to a holographic 3-D display architecture based on SLM in paraxial optical systems, this study applied the ray matrix optics and scalar diffraction theory to regard the light wave emitting from the holographic plane to the image plane as an optical system composed of four matrix elements. The image quality and depth of field (DOF) of the holographic 3-D display system are investigated, and the relationship between the impulse response and the matrix elements of the holographic imaging system is derived. In addition, the imaging properties and DOF are explored and verified through optical experimentation.

  18. Two-dimensional complex source point solutions: application to propagationally invariant beams, optical fiber modes, planar waveguides, and plasmonic devices.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Colin J R; Kou, Shan S; Lin, Jiao

    2014-12-01

    Highly convergent beam modes in two dimensions are considered based on rigorous solutions of the scalar wave (Helmholtz) equation, using the complex source point formalism. The modes are applicable to planar waveguide or surface plasmonic structures and nearly concentric microcavity resonator modes in two dimensions. A novel solution is that of a vortex beam, where the direction of propagation is in the plane of the vortex. The modes also can be used as a basis for the cross section of propagationally invariant beams in three dimensions and bow-tie-shaped optical fiber modes. PMID:25606756

  19. SOLITONS: Dark spatial optical solitons in planar gradient waveguides in the Z-cut of the 3m symmetry crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolova, M. N.; Borodin, M. V.; Shandarov, S. M.; Shandarov, V. M.; Larionov, Yu M.

    2003-11-01

    The propagation of light beams is studied in a planar photorefractive waveguide fabricated by high-temperature diffusion of metal ions in the Z-cut substrate of the 3m symmetry crystal. The wave equations are obtained for single-mode light beams with TE and TM polarisations in planar diffusion waveguides, which take into account the two-dimensional distribution of the optical field. Expressions are found for a nonlinear change in the refractive index when the photovoltaic mechanism makes a dominant contribution to the photorefractive effect. The propagation of single-mode light beams is analysed numerically for a Ti:Fe:LiNbO3 waveguide fabricated by the successive diffusion of titanium and iron into lithium niobate. It is shown that single-mode light beams with a smooth amplitude envelope can propagate without significant changes in the region of a dip in the intensity modelling a dark soliton. The relations between the amplitude and width of a dark spatial soliton are obtained for the TM modes of a photorefractive planar waveguide.

  20. Ultra-fast displaying Spectral Domain Optical Doppler Tomography system using a Graphics Processing Unit.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyosang; Cho, Nam Hyun; Jung, Unsang; Lee, Changho; Kim, Jeong-Yeon; Kim, Jeehyun

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate an ultrafast displaying Spectral Domain Optical Doppler Tomography system using Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) computing. The calculation of FFT and the Doppler frequency shift is accelerated by the GPU. Our system can display processed OCT and ODT images simultaneously in real time at 120 fps for 1,024 pixels × 512 lateral A-scans. The computing time for the Doppler information was dependent on the size of the moving average window, but with a window size of 32 pixels the ODT computation time is only 8.3 ms, which is comparable to the data acquisition time. Also the phase noise decreases significantly with the window size. Since the performance of a real-time display for OCT/ODT is very important for clinical applications that need immediate diagnosis for screening or biopsy. Intraoperative surgery can take much benefit from the real-time display flow rate information from the technology. Moreover, the GPU is an attractive tool for clinical and commercial systems for functional OCT features as well. PMID:22969328

  1. Hologram encoding strategies for non-Bayesian noise suppression in digital holography reconstructions and optical display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, V.; Memmolo, P.; Finizio, A.; Paturzo, M.; Ferraro, P.

    2016-03-01

    Here we first propose a fast, one-shot, non-Bayesian method which performs a numerical synthesis of a moving aperture in order to reduce the noise in Digital Holography without prior information on its statistics. Starting from one single hologram capture, multiple uncorrelated reconstructions are provided by random sparse resampling masks, which can be incoherently averaged. Thus, the problem of the setup complexity introduced by multiple recordings gets solved. Besides, at the scope of performing DH display using a SLM, it is highly required to operate directly on the hologram, in order to obtain its denoised version without losing the coherence between amplitude and phase information. We then move a step forward, showing a novel encoding formula allowing us to directly synthesize denoised holograms to be optically displayed by SLMs.

  2. Low voltage vertical flaps arrays as optical modulating elements for reflective display and switchable gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jutzi, F.; Noell, W.; de Rooij, N. F.

    2012-03-01

    A novel technology is presented for arrays of vertical flaps as optically modulating elements which are actuated electrostatically to horizontal position at low voltages of 30-50V. One application is a reflective display exhibiting a contrast ratio of 1:95. We will also show a) shutters for transmissive devices in an array configuration and b) switchable gratings. A large variety of flap geometries are fabricated such as flat reflective, grating, lens or grid shape. Poly-Si refill of thin high aspect-ratio trenches followed of dry etching of the surrounding material is used to fabricate the flaps suspended by torsion beams.

  3. Giant Nonlinear Optical Activity of Achiral Origin in Planar Metasurfaces with Quadratic and Cubic Nonlinearities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shumei; Zeuner, Franziska; Weismann, Martin; Reineke, Bernhard; Li, Guixin; Valev, Ventsislav Kolev; Cheah, Kok Wai; Panoiu, Nicolae Coriolan; Zentgraf, Thomas; Zhang, Shuang

    2016-04-01

    3D chirality is shown to be unnecessary for introducing strong circular dichroism for harmonic generations. Specifically, near-unity circular dichroism for both second-harmonic generation and third-harmonic generations is demonstrated on suitably designed ultrathin plasmonic metasurfaces with only 2D planar chirality. The study opens up new routes for designing chip-type biosensing platform, which may allow for highly sensitive detection of bio- and chemical molecules with weak chirality. PMID:26914148

  4. Real-time display on Fourier domain optical coherence tomography system using a graphics processing unit.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yuuki; Itagaki, Toshiki

    2009-01-01

    Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) requires resampling of spectrally resolved depth information from wavelength to wave number, and the subsequent application of the inverse Fourier transform. The display rates of OCT images are much slower than the image acquisition rates due to processing speed limitations on most computers. We demonstrate a real-time display of processed OCT images using a linear-in-wave-number (linear-k) spectrometer and a graphics processing unit (GPU). We use the linear-k spectrometer with the combination of a diffractive grating with 1200 lines/mm and a F2 equilateral prism in the 840-nm spectral region to avoid calculating the resampling process. The calculations of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) are accelerated by the GPU with many stream processors, which realizes highly parallel processing. A display rate of 27.9 frames/sec for processed images (2048 FFT size x 1000 lateral A-scans) is achieved in our OCT system using a line scan CCD camera operated at 27.9 kHz. PMID:20059237

  5. Real-time display on Fourier domain optical coherence tomography system using a graphics processing unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yuuki; Itagaki, Toshiki

    2009-11-01

    Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) requires resampling of spectrally resolved depth information from wavelength to wave number, and the subsequent application of the inverse Fourier transform. The display rates of OCT images are much slower than the image acquisition rates due to processing speed limitations on most computers. We demonstrate a real-time display of processed OCT images using a linear-in-wave-number (linear-k) spectrometer and a graphics processing unit (GPU). We use the linear-k spectrometer with the combination of a diffractive grating with 1200 lines/mm and a F2 equilateral prism in the 840-nm spectral region to avoid calculating the resampling process. The calculations of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) are accelerated by the GPU with many stream processors, which realizes highly parallel processing. A display rate of 27.9 frames/sec for processed images (2048 FFT size×1000 lateral A-scans) is achieved in our OCT system using a line scan CCD camera operated at 27.9 kHz.

  6. Crucial role of molecular planarity on the second order nonlinear optical property of pyridine based chalcone single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, Anthoni Praveen; Jayarama, A.; Ng, Seik Weng

    2015-05-01

    An efficient nonlinear optical material 2E-3-(4-bromophenyl)-1-(pyridin-3-yl) prop-2-en-1-one (BPP) was synthesized and single crystals were grown using slow evaporation solution growth technique at room temperature. Grown crystal had prismatic morphology and its structure was confirmed by various spectroscopic studies, elemental analysis, and single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The single crystal XRD of the crystal showed that BPP crystallizes in monoclinic system with noncentrosymmetric space group P21 and the cell parameters are a = 5.6428(7) Å, b = 3.8637(6) Å, c = 26.411(2) Å, β = 97.568(11) deg and v = 575.82(12) Å3. The UV-Visible spectrum reveals that the crystal is optically transparent and has high optical energy band gap of 3.1 eV. The powder second harmonic generation efficiency (SHG) of BPP is 6.8 times that of KDP. From thermal analysis it is found that the crystal melts at 139 °C and decomposes at 264 °C. High optical transparency down to blue region, higher powder SHG efficiency and better thermal stability than that of urea makes this chalcone derivative a promising candidate for SHG applications. Furthermore, effect of molecular planarity on SHG efficiency and role of pyridine ring adjacent to carbonyl group in forming noncentrosymmetric crystal systems of chalcone family is also discussed.

  7. A novel method for correction of temporally- and spatially-variant optical distortion in planar particle image velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, Kan; Busch, Stephen; Park, Cheolwoong; Miles, Paul C.

    2016-08-01

    In-cylinder flow measurements are necessary to gain a fundamental understanding of swirl-supported, light-duty Diesel engine processes for high thermal efficiency and low emissions. Planar particle image velocimetry (PIV) can be used for non-intrusive, in situ measurement of swirl-plane velocity fields through a transparent piston. In order to keep the flow unchanged from all-metal engine operation, the geometry of the transparent piston must adapt the production-intent metal piston geometry. As a result, a temporally- and spatially-variant optical distortion is introduced to the particle images. To ensure reliable measurement of particle displacements, this work documents a systematic exploration of optical distortion quantification and a hybrid back-projection procedure that combines ray-tracing-based geometric and in situ manual back-projection approaches. The proposed hybrid back-projection method for the first time provides a time-efficient and robust way to process planar PIV measurements conducted in an optical research engine with temporally- and spatially-varying optical distortion. This method is based upon geometric ray tracing and serves as a universal tool for the correction of optical distortion with an arbitrary but axisymmetric piston crown window geometry. Analytical analysis demonstrates that the ignorance of optical distortion change during the PIV laser temporal interval may induce a significant error in instantaneous velocity measurements. With the proposed digital dewarping method, this piston-motion-induced error can be eliminated. Uncertainty analysis with simulated particle images provides guidance on whether to back-project particle images or back-project velocity fields in order to minimize dewarping-induced uncertainties. The optimal implementation is piston-geometry-dependent. For regions with significant change in nominal magnification factor, it is recommended to apply the proposed back-projection approach to particle images prior to

  8. Advanced optical diagnostics of multiphase combustion flow field using OH planar laser-induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Kevin Young-jin

    High-repetition-rate (5 kHz, 10 kHz) OH planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) was used to investigate the combustion of liquid, gelled, and solid propellants. For the liquid monomethyl hydrazine (MMH) droplet combustion experiment in N2O/N2 using 5 kHz OH PLIF and visible imaging system, the OH profile and the droplet diameter were measured. The N2O partial pressure was varied by 20% and 40%, and the total pressure was varied by 103, 172, 276, 414, 552 kPa. The OH location indicated that the oxidation flame front is between the visible dual flame fronts. The results showed thicker flame sheet and higher burning rate for increased N2O concentration for a given pressure. The burning rate increased with increased pressure at 20% partial pressure N2O, and the burning rate decreased with increased pressure at 40% partial pressure N2O. This work provides experimental data for validating chemical kinetics models. For the gelled droplet combustion experiment using a 5 kHz OH PLIF system, speeds and locations of fuel jets emanating from the burning gelled droplets were quantified for the first time. MMH was gelled with organic gellant HPC at 3 wt.% and 6 wt.%, and burned in air at 35, 103, 172, 276, and 414 kPa. Different types of interaction of vapor jets and flame front were distinguished for the first time. For high jet speed, local extinction of the flame was observed. By analyzing the jet speed statistics, it was concluded that pressure and jet speed had an inverse relationship and gellant concentration and jet speed had a direct relationship. This work provides more fundamental insight into the physics of gelled fuel droplet combustion. A 3D OH PLIF system was assembled and demonstrated using a 10 kHz OH PLIF system and a galvanometric scanning mirror. This is the first time that a reacting flow field was imaged with a 3D optical technique using OH PLIF. A 3D scan time of 1 ms was achieved, with ten slices generated per sweep with 1000 Hz scan rate. Alternatively

  9. Photonic crystal planar waveguide devices exploiting the thermo-optic effect (Keynote Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De La Rue, Richard M.; Chong, Harold; Camargo, Edilson; Ciminelli, Caterina; Armenise, Mario

    2005-07-01

    Photonic crystal devices are now being produced for a variety of functions-and the need to provide thermal control of the behaviour suggests the use of thermo-optic effects. It has emerged that thermo-optic effects can provide useful modulation, switching and tuning capability. Future trends indicate fast, low-power, thermo-optically operated photonic crystal and photonic wire devices-and the possibility of simultaneous athermal characteristics.

  10. All-optical atom surface traps implemented with one-dimensional planar diffractive microstructures.

    PubMed

    Alloschery, O; Mathevet, R; Weiner, J; Lezec, H J

    2006-12-25

    We characterize the loading, containment and optical properties of all-optical atom traps implemented by diffractive focusing with one-dimensional (1D) microstructures milled on gold films. These on-chip Fresnel lenses with focal lengths of the order of a few hundred microns produce optical-gradient-dipole traps. Cold atoms are loaded from a mirror magneto-optical trap (MMOT) centered a few hundred microns above the gold mirror surface. Details of loading optimization are reported and perspectives for future development of these structures are discussed. PMID:19532148

  11. Comparative Analysis of Time and Spatially Multiplexed Diffractive Optical Elements in a Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Antonio; Moreno, Ignacio; Sánchez-López, María M.

    2008-03-01

    We present a very simple method of generating time-multiplexed optical diffractive elements. We use a commercially available ferroelectric liquid crystal device originally designed to visualize colour images by sequentially displaying the three red, green, and blue (RGB) colour channels. We substitute the original light emitting diode (LED) light source by monochromatic illumination. Then we generate a three time-multiplexed diffractive element simply by addressing a colour RGB image where each colour component corresponds to a different diffractive screen. We carry out computer simulations in order to compare this simple time multiplexing technique with various spatial multiplexing techniques proposed in the literature. We numerically evaluate the different methods in terms of light efficiency, noise level and the quality of the hologram reconstruction. We provide experimental results that verify the simulations and show the advantage of using the time multiplexing technique.

  12. Optical gesture sensing and depth mapping technologies for head-mounted displays: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Bernard; Lee, Johnny

    2013-05-01

    Head Mounted Displays (HMDs), and especially see-through HMDs have gained renewed interest in recent time, and for the first time outside the traditional military and defense realm, due to several high profile consumer electronics companies presenting their products to hit market. Consumer electronics HMDs have quite different requirements and constrains as their military counterparts. Voice comments are the de-facto interface for such devices, but when the voice recognition does not work (not connection to the cloud for example), trackpad and gesture sensing technologies have to be used to communicate information to the device. We review in this paper the various technologies developed today integrating optical gesture sensing in a small footprint, as well as the various related 3d depth mapping sensors.

  13. Backup Alignment Devices on Shuttle: Heads-Up Display or Crew Optical Alignment Sight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavez, Melissa A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA s Space Shuttle was built to withstand multiple failures while still keeping the crew and vehicle safe. Although the design of the Space Shuttle had a great deal of redundancy built into each system, there were often additional ways to keep systems in the best configuration if a failure were to occur. One such method was to use select pieces of hardware in a way for which they were not primarily intended. The primary function of the Heads-Up Display (HUD) was to provide the crew with a display of flight critical information during the entry phase. The primary function of the Crew Optical Alignment Sight (COAS) was to provide the crew an optical alignment capability for rendezvous and docking phases. An alignment device was required to keep the Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) well aligned for a safe Entry; nominally this alignment device would be the two on-board Star Trackers. However, in the event of a Star Tracker failure, the HUD or COAS could also be used as a backup alignment device, but only if the device had been calibrated beforehand. Once the HUD or COAS was calibrated and verified then it was considered an adequate backup to the Star Trackers for entry IMU alignment. There were procedures in place and the astronauts were trained on how to accurately calibrate the HUD or COAS and how to use them as an alignment device. The calibration procedure for the HUD and COAS had been performed on many Shuttle missions. Many of the first calibrations performed were for data gathering purposes to determine which device was more accurate as a backup alignment device, HUD or COAS. Once this was determined, the following missions would frequently calibrate the HUD in order to be one step closer to having the device ready in case it was needed as a backup alignment device.

  14. Optic design of head-up displays with freeform surfaces specified by NURBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Peter

    2008-09-01

    The imaging system of a head-up display of production-vehicles in automobile industry includes the windshield which is different for each automobile type. Thus, the the imaging system has to be matched to it. This requires an effcient optic design procedure in order to minimize the development costs. One challenge is the layout of the freeform surfaces of the imaging reflectors because there is a lack of procedures comparable to classical imaging systems like first order design or aberration theory. Additionally, reference systems are not published. Onother big issue is consistent data management. It is usual practice in automotive industriy that the surface data of the imaging surfaces will be imported in CAD systems. Often, from these systems manufacturing code is automaticall generated. Importing surface date is delicate, because the surface describtion in CAD systems is done by NURBS (non-uniform rational B-Splines) which are not or insufficently implemented in commercial optic design software. Thus, a conversion of the surface is performed by the software tools. This conversion is normally not much documented and problems with e.g. accuracy, surface continuity often arrise. In this contribution some methods for the design of an imaging reflector for a head-up display and some resulting designs are presented. Additionally it is shown that already in the design phase the freeform surface can be described by NURBS without any lack of performance. This kind of describtion can then easily be transfered to CAD systems by standardized formats like IGES or STEP without any error-prone conversion.

  15. Corneal-Imaging Calibration for Optical See-Through Head-Mounted Displays.

    PubMed

    Plopski, Alexander; Itoh, Yuta; Nitschke, Christian; Kiyokawa, Kiyoshi; Klinker, Gudrun; Takemura, Haruo

    2015-04-01

    In recent years optical see-through head-mounted displays (OST-HMDs) have moved from conceptual research to a market of mass-produced devices with new models and applications being released continuously. It remains challenging to deploy augmented reality (AR) applications that require consistent spatial visualization. Examples include maintenance, training and medical tasks, as the view of the attached scene camera is shifted from the user's view. A calibration step can compute the relationship between the HMD-screen and the user's eye to align the digital content. However, this alignment is only viable as long as the display does not move, an assumption that rarely holds for an extended period of time. As a consequence, continuous recalibration is necessary. Manual calibration methods are tedious and rarely support practical applications. Existing automated methods do not account for user-specific parameters and are error prone. We propose the combination of a pre-calibrated display with a per-frame estimation of the user's cornea position to estimate the individual eye center and continuously recalibrate the system. With this, we also obtain the gaze direction, which allows for instantaneous uncalibrated eye gaze tracking, without the need for additional hardware and complex illumination. Contrary to existing methods, we use simple image processing and do not rely on iris tracking, which is typically noisy and can be ambiguous. Evaluation with simulated and real data shows that our approach achieves a more accurate and stable eye pose estimation, which results in an improved and practical calibration with a largely improved distribution of projection error. PMID:26357098

  16. Micro optical fiber display switch based on the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Kun; Heng, Khee-Hang

    2001-09-01

    This paper reports on a research effort to design, microfabricate and test an optical fiber display switch based on magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) principal. The switch is driven by the Lorentz force and can be used to turn on/off the light. The SU-8 photoresist and UV light source were used for prototype fabrication in order to lower the cost. With a magnetic field supplied by an external permanent magnet, and a plus electrical current supplied across the two inert sidewall electrodes, the distributed body force generated will produce a pressure difference on the fluid mercury in the switch chamber. By change the direction of current flow, the mercury can turn on or cut off the light pass in less than 10 ms. The major advantages of a MHD-based micro-switch are that it does not contain any solid moving parts and power consumption is much smaller comparing to the relay type switches. This switch can be manufactured by molding gin batch production and may have potential applications in extremely bright traffic control,, high intensity advertising display, and communication.

  17. Increasing reconstruction quality of diffractive optical elements displayed with LC SLM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheremkhin, Pavel A.; Evtikhiev, Nikolay N.; Krasnov, Vitaly V.; Rodin, Vladislav G.; Starikov, Sergey N.

    2015-03-01

    Phase liquid crystal (LC) spatial light modulators (SLM) are actively used in various applications. However, majority of scientific applications require stable phase modulation which might be hard to achieve with commercially available SLM due to its consumer origin. The use of digital voltage addressing scheme leads to phase temporal fluctuations, which results in lower diffraction efficiency and reconstruction quality of displayed diffractive optical elements (DOE). Due to high periodicity of fluctuations it should be possible to use knowledge of these fluctuations during DOE synthesis to minimize negative effect. We synthesized DOE using accurately measured phase fluctuations of phase LC SLM "HoloEye PLUTO VIS" to minimize its negative impact on displayed DOE reconstruction. Synthesis was conducted with versatile direct search with random trajectory (DSRT) method in the following way. Before DOE synthesis begun, two-dimensional dependency of SLM phase shift on addressed signal level and time from frame start was obtained. Then synthesis begins. First, initial phase distribution is created. Second, random trajectory of consecutive processing of all DOE elements is generated. Then iterative process begins. Each DOE element sequentially has its value changed to one that provides better value of objective criterion, e.g. lower deviation of reconstructed image from original one. If current element value provides best objective criterion value then it left unchanged. After all elements are processed, iteration repeats until stagnation is reached. It is demonstrated that application of SLM phase fluctuations knowledge in DOE synthesis with DSRT method leads to noticeable increase of DOE reconstruction quality.

  18. Soft mold-based hot embossing process for precision imprinting of optical components on non-planar surfaces.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianwei; Gu, Chenglin; Lin, Hui; Chen, Shih-Chi

    2015-08-10

    Patterning micro- and nano-scale optical elements on nonplanar substrates has been technically challenging and prohibitively expensive via conventional processes. A low-cost, high-precision fabrication process is thus highly desired and can have significant impact on manufacturing that leads to wider applications. In this paper, we present a new hot embossing process that enables high-resolution patterning of micro- and nano-structures on non-planar substrates. In this process, a flexible elastomer stamp, i.e., PDMS, was used as a mold to perform hot-embossing on substrates of arbitrary curvatures. The new process was optimized through the development of an automated vacuum thermal imprinting system that allows non-clean room operation as well as precise control of all process parameters, e.g., pressure, temperature and time. Surface profiles and optical properties of the fabricated components, including micro-lens array and optical gratings, were characterized quantitatively, e.g., RMS ~λ/30 for a micro-lens, and proved to be comparable with high cost conventional precision processes such as laser lithographic fabrication. PMID:26367950

  19. Response Characterization of a Fiber Optic Sensor Array with Dye-Coated Planar Waveguide for Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Sung; Yoon, Na-Rae; Kang, Byoung-Ho; Lee, Sang-Won; Gopalan, Sai-Anand; Jeong, Hyun-Min; Lee, Seung-Ha; Kwon, Dae-Hyuk; Kang, Shin-Won

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a multi-array side-polished optical-fiber gas sensor for the detection of volatile organic compound (VOC) gases. The side-polished optical-fiber coupled with a polymer planar waveguide (PWG) provides high sensitivity to alterations in refractive index. The PWG was fabricated by coating a solvatochromic dye with poly(vinylpyrrolidone). To confirm the effectiveness of the sensor, five different sensing membranes were fabricated by coating the side-polished optical-fiber using the solvatochromic dyes Reinhardt's dye, Nile red, 4-aminophthalimide, 4-amino-N-methylphthalimide, and 4-(dimethylamino)cinnamaldehyde, which have different polarities that cause changes in the effective refractive index of the sensing membrane owing to evanescent field coupling. The fabricated gas detection system was tested with five types of VOC gases, namely acetic acid, benzene, dimethylamine, ethanol, and toluene at concentrations of 1, 2,…,10 ppb. Second-regression and principal component analyses showed that the response properties of the proposed VOC gas sensor were linearly shifted bathochromically, and each gas showed different response characteristics. PMID:24988381

  20. Design optimization of integrated BiDi triplexer optical filter based on planar lightwave circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chenglin; Hong, Xiaobin; Huang, Wei-Ping

    2006-05-01

    Design optimization of a novel integrated bi-directional (BiDi) triplexer filter based on planar lightwave circuit (PLC) for fiber-to-the premise (FTTP) applications is described. A multi-mode interference (MMI) device is used to filter the up-stream 1310nm signal from the down-stream 1490nm and 1555nm signals. An array waveguide grating (AWG) device performs the dense WDM function by further separating the two down-stream signals. The MMI and AWG are built on the same substrate with monolithic integration. The design is validated by simulation, which shows excellent performance in terms of filter spectral characteristics (e.g., bandwidth, cross-talk, etc.) as well as insertion loss.

  1. Design optimization of integrated BiDi triplexer optical filter based on planar lightwave circuit.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chenglin; Hong, Xiaobin; Huang, Wei-Ping

    2006-05-29

    Design optimization of a novel integrated bi-directional (BiDi) triplexer filter based on planar lightwave circuit (PLC) for fiber-to-the premise (FTTP) applications is described. A multi-mode interference (MMI) device is used to filter the up-stream 1310nm signal from the down-stream 1490nm and 1555nm signals. An array waveguide grating (AWG) device performs the dense WDM function by further separating the two down-stream signals. The MMI and AWG are built on the same substrate with monolithic integration. The design is validated by simulation, which shows excellent performance in terms of filter spectral characteristics (e.g., bandwidth, cross-talk, etc.) as well as insertion loss. PMID:19516623

  2. Display glass for low-loss and high-density optical interconnects in electro-optical circuit boards with eight optical layers.

    PubMed

    Brusberg, Lars; Whalley, Simon; Herbst, Christian; Schröder, Henning

    2015-12-14

    Parallel optical interconnects on-board level requires low propagation loss in wavelength range between 850 and 1550 nm to be compatible with datacom and telecom optical engines. For highest integration density tight waveguide bends and a scalable number of optical layers should be manufacturable for 2D interfaces to optical fiber array connectors and photonic assembly I/O's. We developed a glass waveguide panel process for double-sided processing of commercial available display glass by applying a two-step thermal ion-exchange process for low-loss multi-mode graded-index waveguides. Multiple glass waveguide panels can be embedded between electrical layers. The generic concept enables fabrication of high-density integration (HDI) electro-optical circuit boards (EOCB) with high number of optical and electrical layers. Waveguides with high NA of 0.3 for low bend losses could be achieved in glass with propagation loss of 0.05 dB/cm for all key wavelengths. Four of those glass waveguide panels were embedded in an EOCB demonstrator with size of 280 x 233 mm² providing eight optical layers with 96 channels in an area of 2.8 x 1.5 mm². To the best of our knowledge it's the highest number of layers that has ever been demonstrated for an EOCB. PMID:26699042

  3. Localized planarization of optical damage using laser-based chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Manyalibo J.; Elhadj, Selim; Guss, Gabe M.; Sridharan, Arun; Nielsen, Norman D.; Yoo, Jae-Hyuck; Lee, Daeho; Grigoropoulos, Costas

    2013-11-01

    We present a method to repair damaged optics using laser-based chemical vapor deposition (L-CVD). A CO2 laser is used to heat damaged silica regions and polymerize a gas precursor to form SiO2. Measured deposition rates and morphologies agree well with finite element modeling of a two-phase reaction. Along with optimizing deposition rates and morphology, we also show that the deposited silica is structurally identical to high-grade silica substrate and possesses high UV laser damage thresholds. Successful application of such a method could reduce processing costs, extend optic lifetime, and lead to more damage resistant laser optics used in high power applications.

  4. Method and apparatus for an optical function generator for seamless tiled displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Michael (Inventor); Chen, Chung-Jen (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Producing seamless tiled images from multiple displays includes measuring a luminance profile of each of the displays, computing a desired luminance profile for each of the displays, and determining a spatial gradient profile of each of the displays based on the measured luminance profile and the computed desired luminance profile. The determined spatial gradient profile is applied to a spatial filter to be inserted into each of the displays to produce the seamless tiled display image.

  5. Design and tolerance of a free-form optical system for an optical see-through multi-focal-plane display.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xinda; Hua, Hong

    2015-11-20

    By elegantly combining recent advancements of free-form optical technology and multi-focal-plane (MFP) display technology, we developed a high-performance true 3D augmented reality (AR) display that is capable of rendering a large volume of 3D scenes with accurate focus cues; this display overcomes the accommodation-convergence discrepancy problem in conventional AR display. In this paper, we concentrate on various aspects of engineering challenges in the design and integration of a free-form optical see-through eyepiece with MFP technology for our AR display prototype. We present the design and optimization strategy in coupling free-form optics with a rotational-symmetric lens system to achieve high image quality. A comprehensive tolerance analysis of this complicated optical system is also presented, including an effective tolerance method for random surface figure errors on aspheric and free-form surfaces. Finally, the image quality of the virtual display is evaluated, which shows the as-built performance matches very well with the optical design results and tolerance analysis. PMID:26836568

  6. New raster-based laser display with fast electro-optical deflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vohsbeck-Petermann, Ralf; Hinkov, Vladimir

    1997-02-01

    The market of television displays is an area of outstanding economical importance due to its annual production volume of more than 100 million TV tubes. Fifteen million TV sets were produced in Western Europe in 1993 alone. On the other hand the materials used in the tubes and the energy consumption for production and during operation are issues of great ecological importance. It is therefore of social and political interest to achieve simpler and ecologically compatible solutions through new technologies and innovative technical concepts. Displays with a diagonal of one meter or more for TV and computer monitor applications operating in accordance with HDTV or higher formats require technology that is either not available or too costly. Conventional television tubes would not only have to be very large, the high internal pressure would entail an extraordinary mechanical stability of the tube, resulting in a notable increase in weight. Flat LC-displays present another alternative. Today as in the near future, only high performance color LCDs with relatively small physical dimensions are produced due to the complex technology involved. Furthermore, there are technical inadequacies when it comes to brightness and contrast in daylight or under oblique viewing angles. There are no solutions in the offing for these problems. A third possibility is the enlarged projection of pictures produced either by LCDs or similar techniques. In this case daylight projection can also pose problems due to the lack in definition and brightness. The most promising technique for a high brightness, high definition and large area displays are based on the direct projection with laser beams. Presently unsatisfying solutions are available for 2 basic parts of this technique: the low-cost laser sources needed for a color TV projection and the simple deflection system delivering the required number of pixels. There is a world-wide effort concerning the development of suitable light sources. We

  7. Scanning pupil approach to aspheric surface slope error tolerancing in head-up display optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivokon, V. P.

    2015-09-01

    We present a novel approach to tolerancing slope errors of aspheric surfaces in relay optics of typical avionics head-up displays (HUD). In these systems, a beamlet entering the pilot eye occupies only a tiny fraction of HUD entrance pupil/eyebox with a typical diameter of 125mm. Consequently the beam footprint on any HUD optical surface is a small fraction of its clear aperture. This presents challenges to HUD tolerancing which is typically based on parallax (angular difference in line of sight between left and right eyes) analysis. Aspheric surfaces manufactured by sub-aperture grinding/polishing techniques add another source of error - surface slope error. This type of error not only degrades image quality of observed HUD symbology but also leads to its "waviness" and "floating" especially noticeable when a pilot moves his head within the HUD eyebox. The suggested approach allows aspheric surface slope error tolerancing that ensures an acceptable level of symbology "waviness". A narrow beamlet is traced from a pilot eye position backwards through the HUD optics until it hits the light source. Due to the small beamlet size, slope error of the aspheric surface acts primarily as an overall tilt/wedge that deviates the beam and causes it to shift. The slope error is acceptable when this shift is not resolved by a pilot eye. The beamlet is scanned over entire eyebox and field of view and the slope error tolerance is established for several zones in the aspheric surface clear aperture. The procedure is then repeated for each aspheric surface.

  8. Electro-Optic Modulator Based on Organic Planar Waveguide Integrated with Prism Coupler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkisov, Sergey S.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of the project, as they were formulated in the proposal, are the following: (1) Design and development of novel electro-optic modulator using single crystalline film of highly efficient electro-optic organic material integrated with prism coupler; (2) Experimental characterization of the figures-of-merit of the modulator. It is expected to perform with an extinction ratio of 10 dB at a driving signal of 5 V; (3) Conclusions on feasibility of the modulator as an element of data communication systems of future generations. The accomplishments of the project are the following: (1) The design of the electro-optic modulator based on a single crystalline film of organic material NPP has been explored; (2) The evaluation of the figures-of-merit of the electro-optic modulator has been performed; (3) Based on the results of characterization of the figures-of-merit, the conclusion was made that the modulator based on a thin film of NPP is feasible and has a great potential of being used in optic communication with a modulation bandwidth of up to 100 GHz and a driving voltage of the order of 3 to 5 V.

  9. Optical near field phenomena in planar and structured organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niggemann, M.; Ziegler, T.; Glatthaar, M.; Riede, M.; Zimmermann, B.; Gombert, A.

    2006-04-01

    One key problem in optimizing organic solar cells is to maximize the absorption of incident light and to keep the charge carrier transport paths as short as possible in order to minimize transport losses. The large versatility of organic semiconductors and compositions requires specific optimization of each system. We investigate two model systems, the MDMO-PPV:PCBM blend and the P3HT:PCBM blend. Due to the small thickness of the functional layers in the order of several ten nanometers, coherent optics has to be considered and therefore interference effects play a dominant role. The influence of the thickness of the photoactive layer on the light absorption is investigated and compared with experimental data. The potential of an optical spacer which is introduced between the aluminium electrode and the photoactive layer to enhance the light harvesting is evaluated by optical modelling. Optical modelling becomes more complex for novel solar cell architectures based on nanostructured substrates. Exemplary optical simulations are presented for a nanoelectrode solar cell architecture.

  10. Wavefront analysis and optimization from conventional liquid crystal displays for low-cost holographic optical tweezers and digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Andreas; Ortega Clavero, Valentin; Schröder, Werner

    2011-05-01

    In different study fields the manipulation and imaging of micro-sized particles is essential. The use of holographic optical tweezers (HOT) and digital holographic microscopy (DHM) facilitates this task in a non-mechanical way by providing the proper computer generated hologram and the required amount of light. Electrically addressed spatial light modulators (EASLM) found in holographic optical tweezers are typically of the reflective liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) type which can achieve a phase shift of more than 2π but they are expensive. Similar components like transmissive twisted nematic liquid crystal displays (TN-LCD) are produced in large quantities, their optical characteristics improve rapidly and they are inexpensive. Under certain circumstances these devices can be used instead of expensive spatial light modulators. Consumer grade objectives are not always well corrected for spherical aberration. In that case conventional liquid crystal displays can also compensate these undesired optical effects. For this purpose software-corrected computer generated holograms are calculated. Procedures to analyze and compensate different parameters of a conventional low-cost liquid crystal display, e.g. phase shift evaluation and aberration correction of objectives by Zernike polynomials approximation are explained. The applied software compensation of the computer generated hologram has shown significant improvement of the focus quality. An important price reduction of holographic devices could be achieved by replacing special optical elements if correction algorithms for conventional liquid crystal displays are provided.

  11. Improvement of quality of optical reconstruction of digital Fourier holograms displayed on phase-only SLM by its digital preprocessing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheremkhin, Pavel A.; Evtikhiev, Nikolay N.; Krasnov, Vitaly V.; Porshneva, Liudmila A.; Rodin, Vladislav G.; Starikov, Sergey N.

    2014-10-01

    Digital holography is popular tool for research and practical applications in various fields of science and technology. Most widespread method of optical reconstruction implements digital hologram display on spatial light modulators (SLM). Optical reconstruction of digital holograms is used for remote display of static and dynamic 2D and 3D scenes, in optical information processing, metrology, interferometry, microscopy, etc. Holograms recorded with digital cameras are amplitude type. Therefore quality of its optical reconstruction with phase SLM is worse compared to amplitude SLM. However application of phase SLM can provide higher diffraction efficiency. To improve quality of optical reconstruction with phase SLM, method of SLM phase modulation depth reduction at digital hologram display is proposed. To our knowledge, this method was applied only in analog holography. Also two other methods of quality improvement are considered: hologram to kinoform conversion and holograms multiplexing. Numerical experiments on modelling of digital Fourier holograms recording and their optical reconstruction by phase SLM were performed. Method of SLM phase modulation depth reduction at digital holograms display was proposed and tested. SLM phase modulation depth ranged from 0 to 2π. Quantity of hologram phase levels equal to 256 corresponds to 2π phase modulation depth. To keep SLM settings while changing phase modulation depth hologram phase distribution was renormalized instead. Dependencies of reconstruction quality on hologram phase modulation depth were obtained. Best quality is achieved at 0.27π÷0.31π phase modulation depth. To reduce speckle noise, hologram multiplexing can be applied. Modeling of multiplex holograms optical reconstruction was conducted. Speckle noise reduction was achieved. For improvement of digital hologram optical reconstruction quality and diffraction efficiency hologram to kinoform conversion can be used. Firstly numerically reconstructed image

  12. Optical phase conjugation by an As(2)S(3) glass planar waveguide for dispersion-free transmission of WDM-DPSK signals over fiber.

    PubMed

    Pelusi, M D; Luan, F; Choi, D-Y; Madden, S J; Bulla, D A P; Luther-Davies, B; Eggleton, B J

    2010-12-01

    We report the first demonstration of optical phase conjugation (OPC) transmission of phase encoded and wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) signals by the Kerr effect in a planar structured waveguide. The phase conjugated electric field of the signal is produced by four wave mixing pumped by a CW laser during co-propagating with the signal in a highly nonlinear waveguide fabricated in As(2)S(3) glass. Experiments demonstrate the capability of the device to perform dispersion-free transmission through up to 225 km of standard single mode fiber for a 3 × 40 Gb/s WDM signal, with its channels encoded as return-to-zero differential phase shift keying and spaced either 100 or 200 GHz apart. This work represents an important milestone towards demonstrating advanced signal processing of high-speed and broadband optical signals in compact planar waveguides, with the potential for monolithic optical integration. PMID:21165019

  13. Optical amplification of the cutoff mode in planar asymmetric polymer waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauchard, M.; Vehse, M.; Swensen, J.; Moses, D.; Heeger, A. J.; Perzon, E.; Andersson, M. R.

    2003-12-01

    Modes with low threshold for optical gain were observed at wavelengths close to the cutoff in experiments probing the amplified spontaneous emission of light-emitting polymer thin films. The polymer was the semiconductor layer in a multilayer semiconductor-insulator-metal structure that simulates the one-dimensional waveguide characteristics in the channel of a field-effect transistor. The "cutoff" mode propagates at the polymer/gate-insulator interface, has an optical gain threshold of approximately 10 kW/cm2, and is not influenced by absorption of the gate electrode. The wavelength of the amplified emission tracks the cutoff wavelength of the asymmetric double-waveguide structure and the cutoff mode is, therefore, tunable in wavelength. Our results suggest that the light-emitting field-effect transistor architecture is a promising route for the construction of an injection laser.

  14. Biosensor application of resonance coupling to thin film planar waveguides on side-polished optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ecke, Wolfgang; Andreev, Andrey; Csaki, Andrea; Kirsch, Konstantin; Schroeder, Kerstin; Wieduwilt, Torsten; Willsch, Reinhardt

    2011-05-01

    Optical resonance coupling between a side-polished fiber and thin film waveguides has been investigated in the presence of biochemical adsorbates. The shift of the resonance wavelengths was found to be highly sensitive to the capture of target DNA recognition elements with Au nanoparticle markers, allowing for a sensitivity limit of 10 particles on the side-polished fiber core area (2000 μm²) during on-line measurements using a polychromator spectrometer.

  15. Tailored spectroscopic and optical properties in rare earth-activated glass-ceramics planar waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristic, Davor; Van Tran, Thi Thanh; Dieudonné, Belto; Cristina, Armellini; Berneschi, Simone; Chiappini, Andrea; Chiasera, Alessandro; Varas, Stefano; Carpentiero, Alessandro; Mazzola, Maurizio; Nunzi Conti, Gualtiero; Pelli, Stefano; Speranza, Giorgio; Feron, Patrice; Duverger Arfuso, Claire; Cibiel, Gilles; Turrell, Sylvia; Tran Ngoc, Khiem; Boulard, Brigitte; Righini, Giancarlo C.; Ferrari, Maurizio

    2013-03-01

    Glass ceramic activated by rare earth ions are nanocomposite systems that exhibit specific morphologic, structural and spectroscopic properties allowing to develop interesting new physical concepts, for instance the mechanism related to the transparency, as well as novel photonic devices based on the enhancement of the luminescence. At the state of art the fabrication techniques based on bottom-up and top-down approaches appear to be viable although a specific effort is required to achieve the necessary reliability and reproducibility of the preparation protocols. In particular, the dependence of the final product on the specific parent glass and on the employed synthesis still remain an important task of the research in material science. Glass-ceramic waveguides overcome some of the efficiency problems experienced with conventional waveguides. These two-phase materials are composed of nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous matrix. The respective volume fractions of the crystalline and amorphous phases determine the properties of the glass ceramic. They also represent a valid alternative to widely used glass hosts such as silica as an effective optical medium for light propagation and luminescence enhancement. Looking to application, the enhanced spectroscopic properties typical of glass ceramic in respect to those of the amorphous structures constitute an important point for the development of integrated optics devices, including optical amplifiers, monolithic waveguide laser, novel sensors, coating of spherical microresonators, and up and down converters for solar energy exploitation.

  16. Effects of Configuration of Optical Combiner on Near-Field Depth Perception in Optical See-Through Head-Mounted Displays.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangyoon; Hua, Hong

    2016-04-01

    The ray-shift phenomenon means the apparent distance shift in the display image plane between virtual and physical objects. It is caused by the difference in the refraction of virtual display and see-through optical paths derived from optical combiners that are necessary to provide a see-through capability in optical see-through head-mounted displays. In this work, through a human-subject experiment, we investigated the effects of ray-shift phenomenon induced by the optical combiner on depth perception for near-field distances (40 cm-100 cm). In our experiment, we considered three different configurations of optical combiner: horizontal-tilt and vertical-tilt configurations (using plate beamsplitters horizontally and vertically tilted by 45°, respectively), and non-tilt configuration (using rectangular solid waveguides). Participants' depth perception errors in these configurations were compared with those in an ordinary condition (i.e., the condition where physical objects are directly shown without the displays) and theoretically estimated ones. According to the experimental results, the measured percentage depth perception errors were similar to the theoretically estimated ones, where the amount of estimated percentage depth errors was greater than 0.3%. Furthermore, the participants showed significantly larger depth perception errors in the horizontal-tilt configuration than in an ordinary condition, while no large errors were found in the vertical-tilt configuration. In the non-tilt configuration, the results were dependent on the thickness of optical combiner and target distance. PMID:26780807

  17. Planar germanium photodetectors on silicon substrates for silicon/germanium-based optical receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jungwoo

    Operation of photodetectors at a wavelength of 1.3 mum has extensive application in the rapidly growing field of optical transmission systems. As optical networks spread deeper into the consumer market, it will become important to have low-cost, manufacturable optical components that can be integrated on a chip with other electrical components. Enhanced performance of many of these systems can be achieved by monolithically integrating the discrete optical devices in existing Si integrated circuits (ICs). The use of Ge is advantageous in terms of lower cost of fabrication and compatibility with Si integrated circuit technology. The high electron mobility and high optical absorption coefficient at 1.3 mum make Ge attractive for some telecommunication applications. In addition, Ge is promising for other applications such as microwave and millimeterwave photonic systems that require high photocurrent and high linearity. To this end, interdigitated Ge PIN photodetectors were fabricated on Si substrate using 10-mum-thick graded SiGe buffer layers. Their operation at 1.3 mum was successfully demonstrated. A 3-dB bandwidth of 3.8 GHz was obtained at low bias of -5 V and the external quantum efficiency at 1.3 mum was 49% without external bias. The SiGe buffer layers effectively relieved strain and resulted in high quality Ge epitaxial layers with a low threading dislocation density of ˜105 cm -2 and smooth surface morphology. A more practical approach was to directly deposit thin epitaxial layers of Ge on Si substrate. The challenge to this approach was to accommodate the lattice mismatch of 4% without significant degradation in the material quality. Our approach to overcome island formation was to grow the Ge layers at low temperature. Metal-Ge-metal photodetectors were fabricated on a Ge epitaxial layer directly grown on Si (100) substrate. Amorphous Ge was used to increase the Schottky barrier height, which resulted in a reduction of the dark current by more than two

  18. Integration of Kinetic Control and Lattice Mismatch To Synthesize Pd@AuCu Core-Shell Planar Tetrapods with Size-Dependent Optical Properties.

    PubMed

    Meng, Min; Fang, Zhicheng; Zhang, Chao; Su, Hongyang; He, Rong; Zhang, Renpeng; Li, Hongliang; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Wu, Xiaojun; Ma, Chao; Zeng, Jie

    2016-05-11

    Planar nanocrystals with multiple branches exhibit unique localized surface plasmon resonance properties and great promise in optical applications. Here, we report an aqueous synthesis of Pd@AuCu core-shell planar tetrapods through preferential overgrowth on Pd cubic seeds. The large lattice mismatch between the Pd core and the AuCu shell is the key to induce the formation of branches under sluggish reduction kinetics. Meanwhile, the capping effect of cetyltrimethylammonium chloride on the {100} facets of Pd cubes with an aspect ratio of 1.2 can determine the growth direction of AuCu branches to form a planar structure. Through simply varying the amounts of Pd cubic seeds, the sizes of products can be well-controlled in the range from 33 to 70 nm. With the manipulation of sizes, the peak position of in-plane dipole resonance can be adjusted from visible to near-infrared region. Due to the presence of tips and edges in the branches, planar tetrapods exhibited excellent surface-enhanced Raman scattering performance with an enhancement factor up to 9.0 × 10(3) for 70 nm Pd@AuCu planar tetrapods. PMID:27074129

  19. Electrochemical planarization

    DOEpatents

    Bernhardt, A.F.; Contolini, R.J.

    1993-10-26

    In a process for fabricating planarized thin film metal interconnects for integrated circuit structures, a planarized metal layer is etched back to the underlying dielectric layer by electropolishing, ion milling or other procedure. Electropolishing reduces processing time from hours to minutes and allows batch processing of multiple wafers. The etched back planarized thin film interconnect is flush with the dielectric layer. 12 figures.

  20. Electrochemical planarization

    DOEpatents

    Bernhardt, Anthony F.; Contolini, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    In a process for fabricating planarized thin film metal interconnects for integrated circuit structures, a planarized metal layer is etched back to the underlying dielectric layer by electropolishing, ion milling or other procedure. Electropolishing reduces processing time from hours to minutes and allows batch processing of multiple wafers. The etched back planarized thin film interconnect is flush with the dielectric layer.

  1. Optically tunable microcavity in a planar photonic crystal silicon waveguide buried in oxide.

    PubMed

    Märki, Iwan; Salt, Martin; Herzig, Hans Peter; Stanley, Ross; El Melhaoui, L; Lyan, P; Fedeli, J M

    2006-02-15

    We present all-optical tuning and switching of a microcavity inside a two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide. The photonic crystal structure is fabricated in silicon-on-insulator using complementary metal-oxide semiconductor processing techniques based on deep ultraviolet lithography and is completely buried in a silicon dioxide cladding that provides protection from the environment. By focusing a laser onto the microcavity region, both a thermal and a plasma dispersion effect are generated, allowing tuning and fast modulation of the in-plane transmission. By means of the temporal characteristics of the in-plane transmission, we experimentally identify a slower thermal and a fast plasma dispersion effect with modulation bandwidths of the order of several 100 kHz and up to the gigahertz level, respectively. PMID:16496904

  2. Optical Properties of Planar Nanostructures Based on Semiconductor Quantum Dots and Plasmonic Metal Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakanov, A. G.; Toropov, N. A.; Vartanyan, T. A.

    2016-03-01

    The optical properties of a composite material consisting of a thin polymer film, which is activated by semiconductor CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) and silver nanoparticles, on a transparent dielectric substrate have been investigated. It is revealed that the presence of silver nanoparticles leads to an increase in the QD absorption (by a factor of 4) and in the fluorescence intensity (by a factor of 10), whereas the fluorescence time drops by a factor of about 10. Excitation of the composite medium by a pulsed laser is found to result in narrowing of the fluorescence band and a sublinear dependence of its intensity on the pulse energy. In the absence of silver nanoparticles, the fluorescence spectrum of QDs is independent of the excitation-pulse energy density, and the fluorescence intensity depends linearly on the pulse energy in the entire range of energy densities, up to 75 mJ/cm2.

  3. Fiber-optic detector for real time dosimetry of a micro-planar x-ray beam

    PubMed Central

    Belley, Matthew D.; Stanton, Ian N.; Hadsell, Mike; Ger, Rachel; Langloss, Brian W.; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto; Chang, Sha X.; Therien, Michael J.; Yoshizumi, Terry T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Here, the authors describe a dosimetry measurement technique for microbeam radiation therapy using a nanoparticle-terminated fiber-optic dosimeter (nano-FOD). Methods: The nano-FOD was placed in the center of a 2 cm diameter mouse phantom to measure the deep tissue dose and lateral beam profile of a planar x-ray microbeam. Results: The continuous dose rate at the x-ray microbeam peak measured with the nano-FOD was 1.91 ± 0.06 cGy s−1, a value 2.7% higher than that determined via radiochromic film measurements (1.86 ± 0.15 cGy s−1). The nano-FOD-determined lateral beam full-width half max value of 420 μm exceeded that measured using radiochromic film (320 μm). Due to the 8° angle of the collimated microbeam and resulting volumetric effects within the scintillator, the profile measurements reported here are estimated to achieve a resolution of ∼0.1 mm; however, for a beam angle of 0°, the theoretical resolution would approach the thickness of the scintillator (∼0.01 mm). Conclusions: This work provides proof-of-concept data and demonstrates that the novel nano-FOD device can be used to perform real-time dosimetry in microbeam radiation therapy to measure the continuous dose rate at the x-ray microbeam peak as well as the lateral beam shape. PMID:25832087

  4. Planar optical waveguide based sandwich assay sensors and processes for the detection of biological targets including early detection of cancers

    DOEpatents

    Martinez, Jennifer S.; Swanson, Basil I.; Shively, John E.; Li, Lin

    2009-06-02

    An assay element is described including recognition ligands adapted for binding to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) bound to a film on a single mode planar optical waveguide, the film from the group of a membrane, a polymerized bilayer membrane, and a self-assembled monolayer containing polyethylene glycol or polypropylene glycol groups therein and an assay process for detecting the presence of CEA is described including injecting a possible CEA-containing sample into a sensor cell including the assay element, maintaining the sample within the sensor cell for time sufficient for binding to occur between CEA present within the sample and the recognition ligands, injecting a solution including a reporter ligand into the sensor cell; and, interrogating the sample within the sensor cell with excitation light from the waveguide, the excitation light provided by an evanescent field of the single mode penetrating into the biological target-containing sample to a distance of less than about 200 nanometers from the waveguide thereby exciting any bound reporter ligand within a distance of less than about 200 nanometers from the waveguide and resulting in a detectable signal.

  5. Study on compactness of planar waveguide based integrated optic couplers using tooth shaped grating assisted geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deka, Bidyut; Dutta, Aradhana; Sahu, Partha P.

    2013-11-01

    The introduction of Photonic Integrated Devices (PID) for applications in high speed optical networks providing multiple services to more number of users is indispensable as this requires large scale integration (LSI) and the miniaturization of PID device components to microscale platform has attracted immense attention from the researchers and entrepreneurs. In this paper, we present a comparative study on compactness of basic PID components using tooth shaped grating assisted (TSGA) geometry. The basic PID components such as Directional Coupler (DC), two mode interference (TMI) coupler and multimode interference (MMI) coupler have been designed using TSGA geometry in the coupling region and the coupling characteristics for the same have been estimated using a mathematical model based on sinusoidal mode simple effective index method (SM-SEIM). The dependence of modal power in the coupling region on the waveguide separation gap and coupling gap refractive index has been studied. From the estimated dependences of beat length and access waveguide length on waveguide separation gap with permissible propagation loss ~0.15 dB/cm, it has been found that the grating assisted TMI coupler (GA-TMI) is ~0.5 times lower than that of grating assisted DC (GA-DC) and ~0.44 times lower than grating assisted MMI (GA-MMI) coupler. Further, it is seen that the device length including access waveguide length of GA-MMI coupler is less than that of GA-TMI coupler and GA-DC. The SM-SEIM based numerical results are then compared with beam propagation method (BPM) results obtained by using commercially available optiBPM software.

  6. The application of holographic optical waveguide technology to the Q-Sight family of helmet-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Alex

    2009-05-01

    Traditionally head up displays and helmet mounted displays use a conventional arrangement of complex lenses to generate a display for the pilot from an image source such as a Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) or Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). These systems tend to be complex, comprising many components and they also add mass and adversely modify the centre of the gravity of the helmet. This has resulted in the development of the Holographic Optical Waveguide, a revolutionary new optical technology which dramatically reduces size and mass whilst liberating the designer from many of the constraints inherent in conventional optical solutions. This technology is basically a way of moving light without the need for a complex arrangement of conventional lenses. This is made possible by embedding within the substrate a specially designed hologram which has carefully tailored set of optical properties. The image (or light waves) is constrained to follow a path through the substrate. As these waves pass through the substrate the hologram is programmed to allow some energy to escape in a carefully controlled manner reforming the image that was injected into the substrate. At the same time the hologram design modifies the image geometry such that the user views it as a full size conformal image precisely overlaid on his outside world view. Furthermore this image is maintained over a very large exit-pupil giving the user great flexibility in the installation of the display onto a helmet. The image is formed conventionally from a reflective LCD illuminated with a high brightness LED. The Q-SightTM Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) which exploits this concept is part of a modular-family of Helmet Mounted Displays; allowing the addition of capability as required in a flexible, low-cost way. The basic monocular QSightTM architecture offers plug-and-play solutions into any cockpit with either Analog (stroke) or Digital Video Interface (DVI) connections. This offers a significant upgrade opportunity

  7. Planar integrated optical waveguide used as a transducer to yield chemical information: detection of the activity of proteolytic enzymes e.g. serine-proteases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhylyak, Gleb; Ramoz-Perez, Victor; Linnhoff, Michael; Hug, Thomas; Citterio, Daniel; Spichiger-Keller, Ursula E.

    2005-03-01

    The paper shows the very first results of a feasibility study where the activity of proteolytic enzymes towards dye-labelled artificial substrates immobilized on the surface of planar optical Ta2O5 waveguide was investigated. Within this project, a chromophore label was developed, synthesized and attached to the carboxy-terminus of specific tripeptides. The goal was to develop a highly sensitive optical assay in order to monitor the activity of serine-proteases by cleavage of the amide bond between peptide and chromophore. On the one hand, a strategy was developed to immobilize the labeled tripeptide unto integrated planar waveguides. On the other hand, an instrument, the so-called "chip-reader" was developed to detect the biological process on the surface of the integrated planar optical waveguide. Surface characteristics were analyzed by XPS, TOF-SIMS and contact angle measurements. A comparison between the effectivity of ATR-photometry on chip using TE0 mode and photometry in transmission mode is discussed.

  8. Development of Polymer Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Flake Technology for Electro-Optic Devices and Particle Displays

    SciTech Connect

    Kosc, T.Z.; Marshall, K.L.; Trajkovska-Petkoska, A.; Coon, C.J.; Hasman, K.; Babcock, G.V.; Howe, R.; Leitch, M.; Jacobs, S.J.

    2007-04-05

    Liquid crystals have had a large presence in the display industry for several decades, and they continue to remain at the forefront of development as the industry delves into flexible displays and electronic paper. Among the emerging technologies trying to answer this call are polymer cholesteric liquid crystal (PCLC) flakes.

  9. Yb{sup 3+},Er{sup 3+} codoped silica-based glasses for planar optical waveguide amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Hehlen, M.P.; Gosnell, T.R.; Cockroft, N.J.; Bruce, A.J.; Grodkiewicz, W.H.; Nykolak, G.; Shmulovich, J.; Gosh, R.; Barros, M.R.X.

    1996-04-01

    Spectroscopic properties of Er{sup 3+}-doped and Yb{sup 3+},Er{sup 3+}-codoped sodium- and alumino-silicate glasses, potential planar optical waveguide amplifier materials for 1.55 {mu}m, are investigated. With the exception of {sup 4}I{sub 1 3/2}, multiphonon relaxation is dominant for all Er{sup 3+} excited-state multiplets, allowing efficient population of the emitting {sup 4}I{sub 1 3/2} state by {sup 4}I{sub 1 1/2} excitation around 980 nm. In both glasses, multiphonon relaxation from {sup 4}I{sub 1 3/2} is negligible up to 678 K, and the respective 300 K absolute quantum yields are {similar_to}0.9 for 0.05 mol% Er{sup 3+}-doped samples under low- power {sup 4}I{sub 1 1/2} excitation. OH{sup {minus}} impurities are able to efficiently quench {sup 4}I{sub 1 3/2} excitation. Absolute {sup 4}I{sub 1 3/2} quantum yields are used to predict an optimum Yb{sup 3+},Er{sup 3+} concentration range for sensitization. Yb{sup 3+} codotation strongly enhances pump-light absorption and increases {sup 4}I{sub 1 3/2} population by almost two orders of magnitude in some samples. Relative {sup 2}H{sub 1 1/2}/{sup 4}S{sub 3/2} upconversion luminescence intensities are shown to be a sensitive measure for the substantial internal sample heating observed in Yb{sup 3+} codoped glasses.

  10. Fiber-optic detector for real time dosimetry of a micro-planar x-ray beam

    SciTech Connect

    Belley, Matthew D.; Stanton, Ian N.; Langloss, Brian W.; Therien, Michael J.; Hadsell, Mike; Ger, Rachel; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto; Chang, Sha X.; Yoshizumi, Terry T.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Here, the authors describe a dosimetry measurement technique for microbeam radiation therapy using a nanoparticle-terminated fiber-optic dosimeter (nano-FOD). Methods: The nano-FOD was placed in the center of a 2 cm diameter mouse phantom to measure the deep tissue dose and lateral beam profile of a planar x-ray microbeam. Results: The continuous dose rate at the x-ray microbeam peak measured with the nano-FOD was 1.91 ± 0.06 cGy s{sup −1}, a value 2.7% higher than that determined via radiochromic film measurements (1.86 ± 0.15 cGy s{sup −1}). The nano-FOD-determined lateral beam full-width half max value of 420 μm exceeded that measured using radiochromic film (320 μm). Due to the 8° angle of the collimated microbeam and resulting volumetric effects within the scintillator, the profile measurements reported here are estimated to achieve a resolution of ∼0.1 mm; however, for a beam angle of 0°, the theoretical resolution would approach the thickness of the scintillator (∼0.01 mm). Conclusions: This work provides proof-of-concept data and demonstrates that the novel nano-FOD device can be used to perform real-time dosimetry in microbeam radiation therapy to measure the continuous dose rate at the x-ray microbeam peak as well as the lateral beam shape.